WorldWideScience

Sample records for annulus closure technology

  1. An annulus fibrosus closure device based on a biodegradable shape-memory polymer network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; van Kooten, Theo G.; Kranenburg, Hendrik-Jan C.; Meij, Bjorn P.; Behl, Marc; Lendlein, Andreas; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    Injuries to the intervertebral disc caused by degeneration or trauma often lead to tearing of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and extrusion of the nucleus pulposus (NP). This can compress nerves and cause lower back pain. In this study, the characteristics of poly(D,L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate)

  2. Primary limited lumbar discectomy with an annulus closure device: one-year clinical and radiographic results from a prospective, multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Michiel B; Barth, Martin; Thomė, Claudius; Bouma, Gerrit J

    2012-12-01

    Discectomy as a treatment for herniated lumbar discs results in outcomes after surgery that are not uniformly positive. Surgeons face the dilemma between limited nucleus removal which is associated with a higher risk of recurrence, or more aggressive nucleus removal which may lead to disc height loss and persistent back-pain. annulus closure devices may allow for the benefits of limited nucleus removal without the increased risk of recurrence. This is an interim report of an ongoing 24-month post-marketing study of the Barricaid® annulus closure device, consisting of a flexible polymer mesh that blocks the defect, held in place by a titanium bone anchor. We prospectively enrolled 45 patients at four hospitals, and implanted the Barricaid® after a limited discectomy. annulus defect size and volume of removed nucleus were recorded. Reherniations were reported, pain and function were monitored and imaging was performed at regular intervals during 24 months of follow-up. At 12 months postsurgery, pain and function were significantly improved, comparing favorably to reported results from limited discectomy. Disc height has been well maintained. One reherniation has occurred (2.4%), which was associated with a misplaced device. No device fracture, subsidence or migration has been observed. The use of an annulus closure device may provide a reduction in reherniation rate for lumbar discectomy patients with large annulus defects who are at the greatest risk of recurrence. Using such a device should provide the surgeon increased confidence in minimizing nucleus removal, which, in turn, may preserve disc height and biomechanics, reducing degeneration and associated poor clinical outcomes in the long-term. A randomized multicenter study evaluating limited discectomy with and without the Barricaid® is currently underway, and will provide a higher level of evidence.

  3. SRS tank closure. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure

  4. A combined biomaterial and cellular approach for annulus fibrosus rupture repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirvu, T.; Blanquer, Sebastien; Benneker, L.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Richards, R.; Alini, M.; Eglin, D.; Grad, S.; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation and degenerative disc disease have been identified as the most important factors contributing to persistent pain and disability after surgical discectomy. An annulus fibrosus (AF) closure device that provides immediate closure of the AF rupture,

  5. A combined biomaterial and cellular approach for annulus fibrosus rupture repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirvu, Tatiana; Blanquer, Sebastien B. G.; Benneker, Lorin M.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Richards, Robert G.; Alini, Mauro; Eglin, David; Grad, Sibylle; Li, Zhen

    Recurrent intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation and degenerative disc disease have been identified as the most important factors contributing to persistent pain and disability after surgical discectomy. An annulus fibrosus (AF) closure device that provides immediate closure of the AF rupture,

  6. Steady natural convection heat transfer experiments in a horizontal annulus for the United States Spent Fuel Shipping Cask Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.D.

    1981-04-01

    This experimental study deals with the measurement of the heat transfer across a horizontal annulus which is formed by an inner hexagonal cylinder and an outer concentric circular cylinder. The geometry simulates, in two dimensions, a liquid metal fast breeder reactor radioactive fuel subassembly inside a shipping container. This geometry is also similar to a radioactive fuel pin inside a horizontal reactor subassembly. The objective of the experiments is to measure the local and mean heat transfer at the surface of the inner hexagonal cylinder

  7. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  8. Bumpy torus annulus startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, J.L.; Hamasaki, S.; Krall, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    In order that a stable bumpy torus plasma configuration can be attained, it is first necessary to irradiate the plasma with sufficient external power to cause annulus formation. To estimate the power required to initiate annuli, it is assumed that quasilinear electron-cyclotron heating by microwaves is the dominant electron heating mechanism. A scaling law for required microwave power is derived which shows that annulus formation is assisted by smaller cross-section areas, lower density, lower microwave frequency, and higher C-mode temperature. The scaling law is quantitatively evaluated for NBT, EBT-1, EBT-S, EBT-P, and EBT-R parameters. The resulting power estimates are consistent with the available microwave power in previous and present experiments. In larger projected bumpy tori, like EBT-P and EBT-R, it may be necessary to initiate annulus formation at densities which are lower than in the stable T-mode so that the necessary microwave power can be reduced to reasonably modest levels. It is suggested that instabilities as well as rf heating can aid the formation of bumpy torus electron annuli. Rf experiments on NBT and EBT-S would be beneficial in determining the capability of rf power to assist annulus startup

  9. Functional myelographic differentiation of lumbar bulging annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Ki; Kim, Hong Kil; Park, Sang Gyu; Lee, Young Jung; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Herniated disk and bulging annulus are the major causes of lower back pain. It is necessary to differentiate bulging annulus from herniated disk because of their different methods of treatment. Myelography is one of the useful diagnostic methods for disk diseases even though advanced diagnostic modalities such as CT and MRI are more accurate. Functional myelography is not a new technology expect for two additional views, flexion and extension, are obtained with conventional myelography. Differentiation between bulging annulus and herniated disk by conventional myelography is based on the extent and multiplicity of extradural deformity of the contrast filled dural sac and neural sleeve as well as the changes of nerve root. There is no previous report about differential points between bulging annulus and herniated disk according to functional myelography. It is the purpose of this study to find any additional differential points on functional myelography between bulging annulus and herniated disk over convectional myelography. Authors analysed functional myelographic findings of 152 cases from July 1986 to July 1987. Among them, 22 cases who had been suffered from cervical abnormality or vague lower back pain were diagnosed as normal by myelography, and 30 cases of L4-5 herniated disk and 21 cases of L4-5 bulging annulus which had been finally diagnosed by operation were studied. The results were as follows. 1. In normal group, anterior epidural space was gradually widened from the upper lumbar vertebra downward. And anterior epidural space was more sidened at the disk level in extension view than in flexion except for L5-S1 lever. 2. In bulging annulus group, the shape of anterior epidural space in flexion state was as similar as normal. Anoterior epidural space in extension state was more sidened at the buldging annulus than normal, but lesser than herniated disk. 3. In herniated disk group, widening of anterior epidural space at the herniated disk level was

  10. Installation Restoration General Environmental Technology Development. Task 3. Guidelines for In-Place Closure of Dry Lagoons. Volume 2. Evaluation of In-Place Closure Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    USLE ) may provide useful intormation for comparing different cover soils during 1, the design of a cap system (Lutten et al., 1979). The USLE as...lnstallatloh commander through the evaluation of the applicability of In-place closure., Technologies evaluated include soil cap systems, geotextile fabrics...18 2.2.2.3 Surface infiltration considerations 18 . 2.2.2.4 Subsurface soil characteristics 19 2.2.2.5 Hydrogeoloqical coaditions 19 2. 22.6

  11. Closure head for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A closure head for a nuclear reactor includes a stationary outer ring integral with the reactor vessel with a first rotatable plug disposed within the stationary outer ring and supported from the stationary outer ring by a bearing assembly. A sealing system is associated with the bearing assembly to seal the annulus defined between the first rotatable plug and the stationary outer ring. The sealing system comprises tubular seal elements disposed in the annulus with load springs contacting the tubular seal elements so as to force the tubular seal elements against the annulus in a manner to seal the annulus. The sealing system also comprises a sealing fluid which is pumped through the annulus and over the tubular seal elements causing the load springs to compress thereby reducing the friction between the tubular seal elements and the rotatable components while maintaining a gas-tight seal therebetween

  12. THE NEED FOR A NEW JOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CLOSURE WELDING OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS CONTAINERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANNELL GR; HILL BE; GRANT GJ

    2008-01-01

    One of the activities associated with cleanup throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex is packaging radioactive materials into storage containers. Much of this work will be performed in high-radiation environments requiring fully remote operations, for which existing, proven systems do not currently exist. These conditions demand a process that is capable of producing acceptable (defect-free) welds on a consistent basis; the need to perform weld repair, under fully-remote operations, can be extremely costly and time consuming. Current closure welding technology (fusion welding) is not well suited for this application and will present risk to cleanup cost and schedule. To address this risk, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are proposing that a new and emerging joining technology, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), be considered for this work. FSW technology has been demonstrated in other industries (aerospace and marine) to produce near flaw-free welds on a consistent basis. FSW is judged capable of providing the needed performance for fully-remote closure welding of containers for radioactive materials for the following reasons: FSW is a solid-state process; material is not melted. As such, FSW does not produce the type of defects associated with fusion welding, e.g., solidification-induced porosity, cracking, distortion due to weld shrinkage, and residual stress. In addition, because FSW is a low-heat input process, material properties (mechanical, corrosion and environmental) are preserved and not degraded as can occur with 'high-heat' fusion welding processes. When compared to fusion processes, FSW produces extremely high weld quality. FSW is performed using machine-tool technology. The equipment is simple and robust and well-suited for high radiation, fully-remote operations compared to the relatively complex equipment associated with the fusion-welding processes. Additionally, for standard wall thicknesses of radioactive materials

  13. Status of Closure Welding Technology of Canister for Transportation and Storage of High Level Radioactive Material and Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. J.; Bang, K. S.; Seo, K. S.; Seo, C. S.

    2010-10-01

    Closure seal welding is one of the key technologies in fabricating and handling the canister which is used for transportation and storage of high radioactive material and waste. Simple industrial fabrication processes are used before filling the radioactive waste into the canister. But, automatic and remote processes should be used after filling the radioactive material because the thickness of canister is not sufficient to shield the high radiation from filled material or waste. In order to simplify the welding process the closure structure of canister and the sealing method are investigated and developed properly. Two types of radioactive materials such as vitrified waste and compacted solid waste are produced in nuclear industry. Because the filling method of two types of waste is different, the shapes of closure and opening of canister and welding method is also different. The canister shape and sealing method should be standardized to standardize the handling facilities and inspection process such as leak test after closure welding. In order to improve the productivity of disposal and compatibility of the canister, the structure and shape of canister should be standardized considering the type of waste. Two kind of welding process such as arc welding and resistance welding are reported and used in the field. In the arc welding process GTAW and PAW are considered proper processes for closure welding. The closure seal welding process can be selected by considering material of canister, thickness of body, productivity, and applicable codes and rules. Because the storage time of nuclear waste in canister is very long, at least 20 years, the long-time corrosion at the weld should be estimated including mechanical integrity. Recently, the mitigation of residual stress around weld region, which causes stress corrosion cracking, is also interesting research issue

  14. Challenges and strategies in the repair of ruptured annulus fibrosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Guterl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar discectomy is the surgical procedure most frequently performed for patients suffering from low back pain and sciatica. Disc herniation as a consequence of degenerative or traumatic processes is commonly encountered as the underlying cause for the painful condition. While discectomy provides favourable outcome in a majority of cases, there are conditions where unmet requirements exist in terms of treatment, such as large disc protrusions with minimal disc degeneration; in these cases, the high rate of recurrent disc herniation after discectomy is a prevalent problem. An effective biological annular repair could improve the surgical outcome in patients with contained disc herniations but otherwise minor degenerative changes. An attractive approach is a tissue-engineered implant that will enable/stimulate the repair of the ruptured annulus. The strategy is to develop three-dimensional scaffolds and activate them by seeding cells or by incorporating molecular signals that enable new matrix synthesis at the defect site, while the biomaterial provides immediate closure of the defect and maintains the mechanical properties of the disc. This review is structured into (1 introduction, (2 clinical problems, current treatment options and needs, (3 biomechanical demands, (4 cellular and extracellular components, (5 biomaterials for delivery, scaffolding and support, (6 pre-clinical models for evaluation of newly developed cell- and material-based therapies, and (7 conclusions. This article highlights that an interdisciplinary approach is necessary for successful development of new clinical methods for annulus fibrosus repair. This will benefit from a close collaboration between research groups with expertise in all areas addressed in this review.

  15. Time Deployment Study for Annulus Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive wastes from processing irradiated uranium fuels have been stored as alkaline slurries in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. Single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) of various sizes were used for waste storage. Of the total 177 tanks, there are 28 DSTs. DSTs are located in AN, AP, AW, AY, AZ, and SY tank farms in the 200 East (200E) and 200-West (200W) Areas. The storage capacities of the DSTs vary from 980,000 to 1,140,000 gal. DSTs are designed and constructed as an integral steel structure, i.e., an inner shell within an outer shell, so that any leak from the inner shell is confined within the annulus without impacting the environment. The inner shell provides primary containment for the wastes and the outer shell provides secondary containment in the form of an annulus. The annulus of a DST is equipped with a pump pit, leak detection probes, and other accessories. The existing annulus pumps in the DSTs need to be revamped with a new system to reduce operating costs and reduce the time to deploy a pumping system. The new pumping system will minimize the likelihood of a release of waste into the environment; improve capability of waste removal to the maximum extent possible to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640 and Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 CFR 265.193. This study addresses the time required to deploy an annulus pumping system designed to fit any DST after detection of a leak in the inner shell of the DST

  16. Laguna Verde annulus pressurization loads evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, M. A.; Cruz, M. A.; Cardenas, J. B.; Vargas, A.; Cruz, H. J.; Mercado, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    Annulus pressurization, jet impingement, pipe whip restraint and jet thrust are phenomena related to postulated pipe ruptures. A postulated pipe rupture at the weld between recirculation, or feedwater piping and a reactor nozzle safe end, will lead to a high flow rate of flashing water/steam mixture into the annulus between the reactor pressure vessel and the biological shield wall. The total effect of the vessel and pipe inventory blowdown from the break being postulated must be accounted for in the evaluation. A recirculation line break will give rise to an angular dependent short term pressure differential around the vessel, followed by a longer term pressure buildup in the annulus. A recirculation line postulated rupture may not produce worst case conditions and reference to time intervals for only the recirculation break should be treated superficially. A postulated rupture of the feedwater piping may produce the extreme case for determining: 1) the shield wall and reactor vessel to pedestal interactions, 2) loading on the reactor vessel internals, or 3) responses for the balance of piping attached to the vessel. Recently it was identified a potential issue regarding the criteria used to determine which cases were evaluated for Annulus Pressurization (A P) loads for new loads plants. The original A P loads methodology in the late 1970 and early 1980 years separated the mass/energy release calculation from the structural response calculation based on the implicit assumption that the maximum overall mass/energy release will result in maximizing the structural response and corresponding stresses on the reactor pressure vessel, internals, and containment structures. This process did not consider the dynamic response in the primary and secondary safety related structures, components and equipment. Consequently, the A P loads used as input for design adequacy evaluations of Nuclear Steam Supply System safety related components for new loads plants might have

  17. Left Atrial Appendage Closure Device With Delivery System: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevis, Immaculate; Falk, Lindsey; Wells, David; Higgins, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia, and 15% to 20% of those who have experienced stroke have atrial fibrillation. Treatment options to prevent stroke in people with atrial fibrillation include pharmacological agents such as novel oral anticoagulants or nonpharmacological devices such as the left atrial appendage closure device with delivery system (LAAC device). The objectives of this health technology assessment were to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the LAAC device versus novel oral anticoagulants in patients without contraindications to oral anticoagulants and versus antiplatelet agents in patients with contraindications to oral anticoagulants. Methods We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis. We also conducted an economic literature review, economic evaluation, and budget impact analysis to assess the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of the LAAC device compared with novel oral anticoagulants and oral antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin). We also spoke with patients to better understand their preferences, perspectives, and values. Results Seven randomized controlled studies met the inclusion criteria for indirect comparison. Five studies assessed the effectiveness of novel oral anticoagulants versus warfarin, and two studies compared the LAAC device with warfarin. No studies were identified that compared the LAAC device with aspirin in patients in whom oral anticoagulants were contraindicated. Using the random effects model, we found that the LAAC device was comparable to novel oral anticoagulants in reducing stroke (odds ratio [OR] 0.85; credible interval [Cr.I] 0.63–1.05). Similarly, the reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality was comparable between the LAAC device and novel oral anticoagulants (OR 0.71; Cr.I 0.49–1.22). The LAAC device was found to be superior to novel oral anticoagulants in preventing hemorrhagic stroke (OR 0.45; Cr.I 0.29–0.79), whereas novel oral

  18. Road Closures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This is an up to date map of current road closures in Montgomery County.This dataset is updated every few minutes from the Department of Transportation road closure...

  19. Radiation and viscous dissipation effect on square porous annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-06-08

    The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of radiation and viscous dissipation in a square porous annulus subjected to outside hot T{sub h} and inside cold T{sub c} temperature. The square annulus has a hollow section of dimension D×D at the interior of annulus. The flow is assumed to obey Darcy law. The governing equations are non-dimensionalised and solved with the help of finite element method. Results are discussed with respect to viscous dissipation parameter, radiation parameter and size of the hollow section of annulus.

  20. Radiation and viscous dissipation effect on square porous annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Quadir, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of radiation and viscous dissipation in a square porous annulus subjected to outside hot T h and inside cold T c temperature. The square annulus has a hollow section of dimension D×D at the interior of annulus. The flow is assumed to obey Darcy law. The governing equations are non-dimensionalised and solved with the help of finite element method. Results are discussed with respect to viscous dissipation parameter, radiation parameter and size of the hollow section of annulus.

  1. Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernlund, John W.; Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-12-01

    Most methods for modeling mantle convection in a two-dimensional (2D) circular annular domain suffer from innate shortcomings in their ability to capture several characteristics of the spherical shell geometry of planetary mantles. While methods such as rescaling the inner and outer radius to reduce anomalous effects in a 2D polar cylindrical coordinate system have been introduced and widely implemented, such fixes may have other drawbacks that adversely affect the outcome of some kinds of mantle convection studies. Here we propose a new approach that we term the "spherical annulus," which is a 2D slice that bisects the spherical shell and is quantitatively formulated at the equator of a spherical polar coordinate system after neglecting terms in the governing equations related to variations in latitude. Spherical scaling is retained in this approximation since the Jacobian function remains proportional to the square of the radius. We present example calculations to show that the behavior of convection in the spherical annulus compares favorably against calculations performed in other 2D annular domains when measured relative to those in a fully three-dimensional (3D) spherical shell.

  2. Development and assessment of closure technology for liquid-waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Relyea, J.F.; Seitz, R.R.; Cammann, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Discharge of low-level liquid wastes into soils was practiced previously at the Hanford Site. Technologies for long-term confinement of subsurface contaminants are needed. Additionally, methods are needed to assess the effectiveness of confinement technologies in remediating potentially diverse environmental conditions. Recently developed site remediation systems and assessment methods for in situ stabilization and isolation of radioactive and other contaminants within and below low-level liquid-waste disposal structures are summarized

  3. Environmental Assessment For Cleanup and Closure of the Energy Technology Engineering Center. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-01

    DOE analyzed two cleanup and closure alternatives and the No Action Alternative, in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR Part 1021). Under Alternative 1, DOE is proposing to clean up the remaining ETEC facilities using the existing site specific cleanup standard of 15 mrem/yr. (plus DOE's As Low As Reasonably Achievable--ALARA-principle) for decontamination of radiological facilities and surrounding soils (Alternative 1). An annual 15-millirem additional radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual (assumed to be an individual living in a residential setting on Area IV) from all exposure pathways (air, soil, groundwater) equates to an additional theoretical lifetime cancer risk of no more than 3 x 10-4 (3 in 10,000). For perspective, it is estimated that the average individual in the United States receives a dose of about 300 millirem each year from natural sources of radiation. However, actual exposures generally will be much lower as a result of the application of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle. Based on post-remediation verification sampling previous cleanups have generally resulted in a 2 x 10-6 level of residual risk. DOE would decontaminate, decommission, and demolish the remaining radiological facilities. DOE would also decommission and demolish the one remaining sodium facility and all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. The ongoing RCRA corrective action program, including groundwater treatment (interim measures), would continue. Other environmental impacts would include 2.5 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of LLW shipments and 6.0 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of emission exhaust from all shipments. DOE would also decommission and demolish the remaining sodium facility and decommission and

  4. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  5. A Waving Horn on the Big Mitral Annulus Calcification: Caseous Calcification of the Mitral Annulus with Abscess Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tan Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA is a rare variant of mitral annular calcification. It comprises a combination of calcium, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and is characterized by heterogeneity in echocardiographic images, with peripheral areas of calcification surrounding a central area of echolucency, resembling a periannular mass. Here, we describe a case of CCMA combined with a mitral annulus abscess, manifesting as a waving, horn-like structure. Although the image characteristics of the posterior mitral annulus suggested CCMA, additional findings warranted further work-up and studies.

  6. Development and validation of a predictive technology for creep closure of underground rooms in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; DeVries, K.L.

    1991-07-01

    Because of the concern for public health and safety, when compared to normal engineering practice, radioactive waste repositories have quite unusual requirements governing performance assessment. In part, performance assessment requires prediction of time-dependent or creep response of the repository hundreds to thousands of years into the future. In salt, one specific need is to predict, with confidence, the time at which the repository rooms creep closed sufficiently to encapsulate the waste and seal the repository. Thus, a major task of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program is to develop and validate this predictive technology to calculate creep of repository rooms in the bedded salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico. 19 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Flow instability and critical heat flux in a ribbed annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.W.; Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Kokolis, S.; Reddy, G.D.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Coutts, A.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to determine the onset of flow instability point in a heated annulus which is divided into four sub channels by non-conducting ribs. The onset of flow instability is identified by the minimum point in the pressure drop-velocity curve. Comparison with a ribless annulus show that the presence of ribs increases the minimum point velocity. In addition, data are presented which show that under certain conditions premature CHF can be induced by the ribs

  8. 'Mini'-Roadmapping - Ensuring Timely Sites' Cleanup/Closure by Resolving Science and Technology Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, D.E.; Dixon, B.W.; Murphy, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Roadmapping is a powerful tool to manage technical risks and opportunities associated with complex problems. Roadmapping identifies technical capabilities required for both project- and program-level efforts and provides the basis for plans that ensure the necessary enabling activities will be done when needed. Roadmapping reveals where to focus further development of the path forward by evaluating uncertainties for levels of complexity, impacts, and/or the potential for large payback. Roadmaps can be customized to the application, a ''graded approach'' if you will. Some roadmaps are less detailed. We have called these less detailed, top-level roadmaps ''mini-roadmaps''. These mini roadmaps are created to tie the needed enablers (e.g., technologies, decisions, etc.) to the functions. If it is found during the mini-roadmapping that areas of significant risk exist, then those can be roadmapped further to a lower level of detail. Otherwise, the mini-roadmap may be sufficient to manage the project/program risk. Applying a graded approach to the roadmapping can help keep the costs down. Experience has indicated that it is best to do mini-roadmapping first and then evaluate the risky areas to determine whether to further evaluate those areas. Roadmapping can be especially useful for programs/projects that have participants from multiple sites, programs, or other entities which are involved. Increased synergy, better communications, and increased cooperation are the results from roadmapping a program/project with these conditions

  9. The classical theory of the bumpy torus relativistic annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, S.; Krall, N.A.; Sperling, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The relativistic electron annulus is a critical component of the bumpy torus magnetic fusion concept. An analysis of the annulus is presented in which the ring steady state is determined by the explicit balance of quasi-linear heating and classical losses, i.e. collisions and synchrotron radiation. Both anisotropy and loss-cone effects are included in the formalism. It is demonstrated that a large number of electron cyclotron harmonics, not just the first and second, contribute in an appreciable way to annulus steady state and power balance. Without a loss cone, the analysis reproduces the relativistic passing electron population observed in bumpy tori on confined drift surfaces near the centre of the bumpy torus cross-section. Loss-cone effects permit an annulus population with large perpendicular pressure to exist. It is shown that the balance between quasi-linear heating and the classical losses cannot account for the experimental scaling of bumpy torus annulus temperature; therefore, processes not included in the classical ring power balance model must contribute in a non-trivial way to observed annulus properties. (author)

  10. 'Mini'-Roadmapping - Ensuring Timely Sites' Cleanup/Closure by Resolving Science and Technology Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale Luke; James Murphy

    2003-01-01

    Roadmapping is a powerful tool to manage technical risks and opportunities associated with complex problems. Roadmapping identifies technical capabilities required for both project- and program-level efforts and provides the basis for plans that ensure the necessary enabling activities will be done when needed. Roadmapping reveals where to focus further development of the path forward by evaluating uncertainties for levels of complexity, impacts, and/or the potential for large payback. Roadmaps can be customized to the application, a ''graded approach'' if you will. Some roadmaps are less detailed. We have called these less detailed, top-level roadmaps ''mini-roadmaps''. These miniroadmaps are created to tie the needed enablers (e.g., technologies, decisions, etc.) to the functions. If it is found during the mini-roadmapping that areas of significant risk exist, then those can be road mapped further to a lower level of detail. Otherwise, the mini-roadmap may be sufficient to manage the project/program risk. Applying a graded approach to the roadmapping can help keep the costs down. Experience has indicated that it is best to do mini-roadmapping first and then evaluate the risky areas to determine whether to further evaluate those areas. Roadmapping can be especially useful for programs/projects that have participants from multiple sites, programs, or other entities which are involved. Increased synergy, better communications, and increased cooperation are the results from roadmapping a program/project with these conditions. And, as with any trip, the earlier you use a roadmap, the more confidence you will have that you will arrive at your destination with few, if any, problems. The longer the trip or complicated the route, the sooner the map is needed. This analogy holds true for using roadmapping for laying out program/project baselines and any alternative (contingency) plans. The mini-roadmapping process has been applied to past projects like the hydrogen gas

  11. Terrestrial Planet Formation from an Annulus -- Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J.; Kretke, Katherine A.; Levison, Harold F.

    2018-04-01

    Numerous recent theories of terrestrial planet formation suggest that, in order to reproduce the observed large Earth to Mars mass ratio, planets formed from an annulus of material within 1 au. The success of these models typically rely on a Mars sized embryo being scattered outside 1 au (to ~1.5 au) and starving, while those remaining inside 1 au continue growing, forming Earth and Venus. In some models the scattering is instigated by the migration of giant planets, while in others an embryo-instability naturally occurs due to the dissipation of the gaseous solar nebula. While these models can typically succeed in reproducing the overall mass ratio among the planets, the final angular momentum deficit (AMD) of the present terrestrial planets in our Solar System, and their radial mass concentration (RMC), namely the position where Mars end up in the simulations, are not always well reproduced. Assuming that the gas nebula may not be entirely dissipated when such an embryo-instability happens, here, we study the effects that the time of such an instability can have on the final AMD and RMC. In addition, we also included energy dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions by assuming a given coefficient of restitution for collisions. Our results show that: i) dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions do not play any important role in the final terrestrial planetary system; ii) the final AMD decreases only when the number of final planets formed increases; iii) the RMC tends to always be lower than the present value no matter the number of final planets; and iv) depending on the time that the embryo-instability happen, if too early, with too much gas still present, a second instability will generally happen after the dissipation of the gas nebula.

  12. Characteristics of steam jet impingement on annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang H.; Kim, Won J.; Suh, Kune Y.; Song, Chul H.

    2004-01-01

    The steam jet impingement occurs when the steam through the cold leg from the steam generator strikes the inner reactor barrel during the reflood phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), which is a characteristic behavior for the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). In the cold leg break LOCA, the steam and water flows in the downcomer are truly multidimensional. The azimuthal velocity distribution of the steam flow has an important bearing on the thermal hydraulic phenomena such as the emergency coolant water direct bypass, sweepout, steam condensation, and so forth. The investigation of jet flow is required to determine the steam path and momentum reduction rate after the impingement. For the observation of the steam behavior near the break, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis has been carried out using CFX5.6. The flow visualization and analysis demonstrate the velocity profiles of the steam flow in the annulus region for the same boundary conditions. Pursuant to the CFD results, the micro-Pitot tubes were positioned at varying angles, and corrected for their sensitivity. The experiments were carried out to directly measure the pressure differential and to visualize the flow utilizing a smoke injection method. Results from this study are slated to be applied to MARS, which is a thermal hydraulic system code for the best-estimate analysis. The current one- or two-dimensional analysis in MARS was known to distort the local flow behavior. To enhance prediction capability of MARS, it is necessary to inspect the steam path in the break flow and mechanically simulate the momentum variation. The present experimental and analytical results can locally be applied to developing the engineering models of specific and essential phenomena. (author)

  13. TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION FROM AN ANNULUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Levison, Harold F., E-mail: kwalsh@boulder.swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St. Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that some aspects of the terrestrial planets can be explained, particularly the Earth/Mars mass ratio, when they form from a truncated disk with an outer edge near 1.0 au. This has been previously modeled starting from an intermediate stage of growth utilizing pre-formed planetary embryos. We present simulations that were designed to test this idea by following the growth process from km-sized objects located between 0.7 and 1.0 au up to terrestrial planets. The simulations explore initial conditions where the solids in the disk are planetesimals with radii initially between 3 and 300 km, alternately including effects from a dissipating gaseous solar nebula and collisional fragmentation. We use a new Lagrangian code known as LIPAD, which is a particle-based code that models the fragmentation, accretion, and dynamical evolution of a large number of planetesimals, and can model the entire growth process from km-sizes up to planets. A suite of large (∼ Mars mass) planetary embryos is complete in only ∼1 Myr, containing most of the system mass. A quiescent period then persists for 10–20 Myr characterized by slow diffusion of the orbits and continued accretion of the remaining planetesimals. This is interrupted by an instability that leads to embryos crossing orbits and embryo–embryo impacts that eventually produce the final set of planets. While this evolution is different than that found in other works exploring an annulus, the final planetary systems are similar, with roughly the correct number of planets and good Mars-analogs.

  14. Numerical Simulation and Optimization of the Melting Process of Phase Change Material inside Horizontal Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiwei Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat storage (LHS technologies adopting phase change materials (PCMs are increasingly being used to bridge the spatiotemporal mismatch between energy production and demand, especially in industries like solar power, where strong cyclic fluctuations exist. The shell-and-tube configuration is among the most prevalent ones in LHS and thus draws special attention from researchers. This paper presents numerical investigations on the melting of PCM, a paraffin blend RT27, inside a horizontal annulus. The volume of fluid model was adopted to permit density changes with the solidification/melting model wherein natural convection was taken into account. The eccentricity and diameter of the inner tube, sub-cooling degree of the PCM, and the heating-surface temperature were considered as variables for study. Through the evaluation of the melting time and exergy efficiency, the optimal parameters of the horizontal annulus were obtained. The results showed that the higher the heating boundary temperature, the earlier the convection appeared and the shorter the melting time. Also, the different eccentricity and diameters of the inner tube influenced the annulus tube interior temperature distribution, which in turn determined the strength and distribution of the resulting natural convection, resulting in varying melting rates.

  15. SMART MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR REGULATING ANNULUS BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE WHILE DRILLING OIL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vega

    Full Text Available Abstract Real time measurements and development of sensor technology are research issues associated with robustness and safety during oil well drilling operations, making feasible the diagnosis of problems and the development of a regulatory strategy. The major objective of this paper is to use an experimental plant and also field data, collected from a basin operation, offshore Brazil, for implementing smart monitoring and decision making, in order to assure drilling inside operational window, despite the commonly observed disturbances that produce fluctuations in the well annulus bottom hole pressure. Using real time measurements, the performance of a continuous automated drilling unit is analyzed under a scenario of varying levels of rate of penetration; aiming pressure set point tracking (inside the operational drilling window and also rejecting kick, a phenomenon that occurs when the annulus bottom hole pressure is inferior to the porous pressure, producing the migration of reservoir fluids into the annulus region. Finally, an empirical model was built, using real experimental data from offshore Brazil basins, enabling diagnosing and regulating a real drilling site by employing classic and advanced control strategies.

  16. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  17. Characterization of Tank 16H Annulus Samples Part II: Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; Reboul, S.

    2012-01-01

    The closure of Tank 16H will require removal of material from the annulus of the tank. Samples from Tank 16H annulus were characterized and tested to provide information to evaluate various alternatives for removing the annulus waste. The analysis found all four annulus samples to be composed mainly of Si, Na, and Al and lesser amounts of other elements. The XRD data indicate quartz (SiO 2 ) and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (Na 8 (Al 6 Si 6 O 24 )(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O) as the predominant crystalline mineral phases in the samples. The XRD data also indicate the presence of crystalline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ), sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), gibbsite (Al(OH) 3 ), hydrated sodium bicarbonate (Na 3 H(CO 3 ) 2 .2H 2 O), and muscovite (KAl 2 (AlSi 3 O 10 )(OH) 2 ). Based on the weight of solids remaining at the end of the test, the water leaching test results indicate 20-35% of the solids dissolved after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of water at 45 C. The chemical analysis of the leachates and the XRD results of the remaining solids indicate sodium salts of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and possibly carbonate/bicarbonate make up the majority of the dissolved material. The majority of these salts were dissolved in the first water contact and simply diluted with each subsequent water contact. The water leaching removed large amounts of the uranium in two of the samples and approximately 1/3 of the 99 Tc from all four samples. Most of the other radionuclides analyzed showed low solubility in the water leaching test. The oxalic acid leaching test result indicate approximately 34-47% of the solids in the four annulus samples will dissolve after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of acid to solids at 45 C. The same sodium salts found in the water leaching test comprise the majority of dissolved material in the oxalic acid leaching test. However, the oxalic acid was somewhat more effective in dissolving radionuclides than the water leach. In

  18. Thermal convection in dielectric liquids in a cylindrical annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Kang, Changwoo; Meyer, Antoine; Meier, Martin; Egbers, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    Thermal convection is investigated in a dielectric liquid of thermal expansion coefficient α, kinematic viscosity ν, thermal diffusivity κ and electric permittivity ɛ in a cylindrical annulus of inner radius a and outer radius bwith a radial temperature gradient and a high-frequency electric tension. The coupling between the electric field and the gradient of the permittivity yields the dielectrophoretic force. The control parameters are η = a/b, Pr = ν / κ, the classic Rayleigh number Ra = αΔ T gd3 / νκ , and the electric Rayleigh number L = αΔ T ged3 / νκ The electric gravity ge is the gradient of the electric energy in the condenser. Linear stability analysis shows that for infinite annulus, depending on values of η, Ra and L, critical modes are either hydrodynamic or thermal modes, helical electric modes or columnar vortices. Experiments in an annulus of aspect ratio Γ = 19.6 during parabolic flight campaigns indicate the existence of columns. Columnar vortices result from the competition between Archimedean buoyancy and dielectrophoretic force. Direct numerical simulations in the annulus of Γ = 20 show that the columnar vortices occupy the central part of the annulus, while near the end-zones the flow is laminar and dominated by an azimuthal vorticity. This work was supported by CNRS (LIA ISTROF), CNES and DLR.

  19. [New technology for prevention of embolic events in atrial fibrillation: a systematic review on percutaneous endovascular left atrial appendage closure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Paolo; Sagone, Antonio; Proietti, Riccardo; Arensi, Andrea; Viecca, Maurizio; Santangeli, Pasquale; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The mortality rate of patients with AF is doubled as compared to non-fibrillating controls. The most relevant complication of AF is a major increase in the risk of stroke. The gold standard in reducing cerebrovascular events in AF is warfarin therapy, which is not free from contraindications and limitations. The left atrial appendage (LAA) is the main source of emboli causing stroke in AF. LAA closure is a seducing approach to stroke risk reduction in AF without anticoagulation. Since 1949, heart surgeons have performed LAA closure or amputation in patients with AF. Percutaneous endovascular LAA closure is a new, less invasive, technique to reach the goal. Several devices have been used to perform this intervention, and the results of published trials are encouraging in terms of effectiveness and relative safety of this attractive technique. In this review we examine the published trials and data on percutaneous LAA closure, with particular attention to the risks and benefits of this procedure.

  20. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D 2 O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ''power tilt'' or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H 2 O rather than D 2 O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of data plots and summary files of temperature measurements

  1. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D 2 O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ''power tilt'' or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H 2 O rather than D 2 O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of a summary of temperature measurements to include recorded minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations

  2. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of a summary of temperature measurements to include recorded minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations.

  3. Restaurant closures

    CERN Document Server

    Novae Restauration

    2012-01-01

    Christmas Restaurant closures Please note that the Restaurant 1 and Restaurant 3 will be closed from Friday, 21 December at 5 p.m. to Sunday, 6 January, inclusive. They will reopen on Monday, 7 January 2013.   Restaurant 2 closure for renovation To meet greater demand and to modernize its infrastructure, Restaurant 2 will be closed from Monday, 17 December. On Monday, 14 January 2013, Sophie Vuetaz’s team will welcome you to a renovated self-service area on the 1st floor. The selections on the ground floor will also be expanded to include pasta and pizza, as well as snacks to eat in or take away. To ensure a continuity of service, we suggest you take your break at Restaurant 1 or Restaurant 3 (Prévessin).

  4. ANALYSIS OF FLOW IN A CONCENTRIC ANNULUS USING FINITE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents the computational modelling of the velocity distribution of an incompressible fluid flowing in a cylindrical annulus pipe, using the finite element method. The result shows that the velocity distribution increases from the boundaries until midway between the boundaries where it was maximum. Also, the ...

  5. Radius ratio effects on natural heat transfer in concentric annulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, M.; Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies natural convection heat transfer in vertical and electrically heated annulus. The metallic cylinders mounted concentrically in a parallel tube. Measurements are carried out for four input electric powers and three radius ratios with an apparatus immersed in stagnant air...

  6. Removal of 14C from nitrogen annulus gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A dry, ambient temperature process using Ca(OH) 2 as the sorbent to remove 14 CO 2 from moderator cover gas was further developed to remove 14 C from the extremely dry nitrogen annulus gas. Thermal gravimetric analysis was carried out to study the thermal stability of Ca(OH) 2 and the CO 2 -Ca(OH) 2 reaction at elevated temperatures under extremely low humidity conditions. Results shows that to achieve high utilization and avoid decomposition of Ca(OH) 2 , humidification of the annulus gas was necessary at high or low temperatures. Results of the bench scale (1-10 L/min) oxidizer study showed that, with 0.5% Pd or alumina as the catalyst, it was possible to achieve complete oxidation of CO and over 80% oxidation of CH 4 with 1% hydrogen in the nitrogen. The gas superficial velocity should be less than or equal to30 cm/s and the residence time greater than or equal to0.5 s. A pilot scale (up to 160 L/min) system including a catalytic oxidizer, a humidifier/demister, a Ca(OH) 2 reactor, a condenser/demister and regenerable molecular sieve dryers, was assembled and tested with simulated nitrogen annulus gas. Results showed that complete oxidation of the CO and 60-100% oxidation of the CH 4 with 0.5% H 2 in the simulated gas were achieved in the pilot plant. The CO 2 concentration was reduced from 30-60 μL/L at the inlet of the Ca(OH) 2 reactor to 1 μL/L or less at the outlet. After modifications of the dryer to overcome the problems encountered, the simulated annulus gas was dried to 0 C dew point before recirculation. Equipment specifications and operating conditions of a 14 C removal system for nitrogen annulus gas are summarized

  7. Numerical Investigation of Compressor Non-Synchronous Vibration with Full Annulus Rotor-Stator Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinal, Daniel

    The objective of this research is to investigate and confirm the periodicity of the Non-Synchronous Vibration (NSV) mechanism of a GE axial compressor with a full-annulus simulation. A second objective is to develop a high fidelity single-passage tool with time-accurate unsteady capabilities able to capture rotor-stator interactions and NSV excitation response. A high fidelity methodology for axial turbomachinery simulation is developed using the low diffusion shock-capturing Riemann solver with high order schemes, the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence closure model, the fully conservative unsteady sliding BC for rotor-stator interaction with extension to full-annulus and single-passage configurations, and the phase lag boundary conditions applied to rotor-stator interface and circumferential BC. A URANS solver is used and captures the NSV flow excitation frequency of 2439 Hz, which agrees reasonably well with the measured NSV frequency of 2600 Hz from strain gage test data. It is observed that the circumferentially traveling vortex formed in the vicinity of the rotor tip propagates at the speed of a non-engine order frequency and causes the NSV. The vortex travels along the suction surface of the blade and crosses the passage outlet near blade trailing edge. Such a vortex motion trajectory repeats in each blade passage and generates two low pressure regions due to the vortex core positions, one at the leading edge and one at the trailing edge, both are oscillating due to the vortex coming and leaving. These two low pressure regions create a pair of coupling forces that generates a torsion moment causing NSV. The full-annulus simulation shows that the circumferentially traveling vortex has fairly periodical behavior and is a full annulus structure. Also, frequencies below the NSV excitation frequency of 2439 Hz with large amplitudes in response to flow-separation related phenomena are present. This behavior is consistent with experimental measurements. For

  8. Treatment of the degenerated intervertebral disc; closure, repair and regeneration of the annulus fibrosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Bulstra, S.K.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, R.

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) and disc herniation are two causes of low back pain. The aetiology of these disorders is unknown, but tissue weakening, which primarily occurs due to inherited genetic factors, ageing, nutritional compromise and loading history, is the basic factor

  9. Nematic Equilibria on a Two-Dimensional Annulus

    KAUST Repository

    Lewis, A. H.; Aarts, D. G. A. L.; Howell, P. D.; Majumdar, A.

    2017-01-01

    We study planar nematic equilibria on a two-dimensional annulus with strong and weak tangent anchoring, in the Oseen–Frank theoretical framework. We analyze a radially invariant defect-free state and compute analytic stability criteria for this state in terms of the elastic anisotropy, annular aspect ratio, and anchoring strength. In the strong anchoring case, we define and characterize a new spiral-like equilibrium which emerges as the defect-free state loses stability. In the weak anchoring case, we compute stability diagrams that quantify the response of the defect-free state to radial and azimuthal perturbations. We study sector equilibria on sectors of an annulus, including the effects of weak anchoring and elastic anisotropy, giving novel insights into the correlation between preferred numbers of boundary defects and the geometry. We numerically demonstrate that these sector configurations can approximate experimentally observed equilibria with boundary defects.

  10. Nematic Equilibria on a Two-Dimensional Annulus

    KAUST Repository

    Lewis, A. H.

    2017-01-16

    We study planar nematic equilibria on a two-dimensional annulus with strong and weak tangent anchoring, in the Oseen–Frank theoretical framework. We analyze a radially invariant defect-free state and compute analytic stability criteria for this state in terms of the elastic anisotropy, annular aspect ratio, and anchoring strength. In the strong anchoring case, we define and characterize a new spiral-like equilibrium which emerges as the defect-free state loses stability. In the weak anchoring case, we compute stability diagrams that quantify the response of the defect-free state to radial and azimuthal perturbations. We study sector equilibria on sectors of an annulus, including the effects of weak anchoring and elastic anisotropy, giving novel insights into the correlation between preferred numbers of boundary defects and the geometry. We numerically demonstrate that these sector configurations can approximate experimentally observed equilibria with boundary defects.

  11. Flow of viscoplastic fluids in a rotating concentric annulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Bittleston, Simon H.

    1992-01-01

    pressure gradient is small compared to the yield stress of the fluid then the full solution predicts the existence of plugs attached to the outer wall of the annulus. The slot approximation fails to predict this feature. For larger pressure gradients the two solutions are in good agreement. The analytical...... calculation gives a simple expression for the critical rate at which the wall has to move to reduce the plug size to zero....

  12. Simple annulus power balance in EBT-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, S.K.; Uckan, N.A.; Jaeger, E.F.; Kammash, T.

    1979-09-01

    An essential feature of the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept is the presence of a relativistic electron annulus in each of the toroidal mirror sectors. These high beta annuli are formed and sustained by microwave heating and are of sufficient density and temperature that diamagnetic currents produce the necessary minimum in the magnetic field required for MHD stability of the toroidal core plasma. Because electron rings play an important role in confinement characteristics and performance of EBT, the trade-off between the quality of the confinement afforded by the rings and the power required to sustain the rings represents an important problem in a fusion reactor. Theoretical estimates of the microwave power required to sustain the annulus are found to be within a factor of 2 of the experimentally determined value. Scaling projections that are shown for both EBT-I and EBT-S enable one to examine the sensitivity of the annulus electron temperature as a function of core plasma density for various microwave power levels. The results are found to be sensitive to the details of the hot electron distribution function as well as geometric and scaling parameters. Improvements to the model are under way in order to increase its capability and accuracy in assessing the overall power balance

  13. Numerical analysis of laminar forced convection in a spherical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuft, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of steady laminar incompressible fluid-flow and heat transfer in a spherical annulus are presented. Steady pressures, temperatures, velocities, and heat transfer coefficients are calculated for an insulated outer sphere and a 0 0 C isothermal inner sphere with 50 0 C heated water flowing in the annulus. The inner sphere radius is 13.97 cm, the outer sphere radius is 16.83 cm and the radius ratio is 1.2. The transient axisymmetric equations of heat, mass, and momentum conservation are solved numerically in spherical coordinates. The transient solution is carried out in time until steady state is achieved. A variable mesh is used to improve resolution near the inner sphere where temperature and velocity gradients are steep. It is believed that this is the first fully two-dimensional analysis of forced flow in a spherical annulus. Local and bulk Nusselt numbers are presented for Reynolds numbers from 4.4 to 440. Computed bulk Nusselt numbers ranged from 2 to 50 and are compared to experimental results from the literature. Inlet flow jetting off the inner sphere and flow separation are predicted by the analysis. The location of wall jet separation was found to be a function of Reynolds number, indicating the location of separation depends upon the ratio of inertia to viscous forces. Wall jet separation has a pronounced effect on the distribution of local heat flux. The area between inlet and separation was found to be the most significant area for heat transfer. Radial distributions of azimuthal velocity and temperature are presented for various angles beginning at the inlet. Inner sphere pressure distribution is presented and the effect on flow separation is discussed

  14. Approximate furthest neighbor with application to annulus query

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco; Sivertsen, Johan von Tangen

    2016-01-01

    -dimensional Euclidean space. The method builds on the technique of Indyk (SODA 2003), storing random projections to provide sublinear query time for AFN. However, we introduce a different query algorithm, improving on Indyk׳s approximation factor and reducing the running time by a logarithmic factor. We also present......, the query-dependent approach is used for deriving a data structure for the approximate annulus query problem, which is defined as follows: given an input set S and two parameters r>0 and w≥1, construct a data structure that returns for each query point q a point p∈S such that the distance between p and q...

  15. Double-shell tank annulus pumping alternative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIESENWEBER, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This engineering evaluation compares five alternative schemes for maintaining emergency annulus pumping equipment in a reliable condition. The five schemes are: (1) continue status quo; (2) periodic pump removal and run-in; (3) periodic in-place limited maintenance; (4) uninstalled ready spares; and (5) expanded mission of Single-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Trailer. Each alternative is described, the pros and cons identified, and rough order of magnitude life-cycle costs computed. The alternatives are compared using weighted evaluation criteria. The evaluation concludes that staging adjustable length submersible pumps in the Single-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Trailer has the best cost-benefit characteristics

  16. Magnetorotational Instability in a Rotating Liquid Metal Annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman; Akira Kageyama

    2001-01-01

    Although the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been widely accepted as a powerful accretion mechanism in magnetized accretion disks, it has not been realized in the laboratory. The possibility of studying MRI in a rotating liquid-metal annulus (Couette flow) is explored by local and global stability analysis and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Stability diagrams are drawn in dimensionless parameters, and also in terms of the angular velocities at the inner and outer cylinders. It is shown that MRI can be triggered in a moderately rapidly rotating table-top apparatus, using easy-to-handle metals such as gallium. Practical issues of this proposed experiment are discussed

  17. Deployment Plan for Small Roving Annulus Inspection Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minichan, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Small Roving Annulus Inspection Vehicle (SRAIV) is a modified commercially available wall crawler designed to supplement the In-Service Inspection (ISI) of Savannah River Site (SRS) Waste tanks. The SRAIV provides an improved capability to achieve a more complete inspection of the tank walls than existing methods. The SRAIV will be deployed through annulus risers in the tank to gain access to tank walls requiring inspection. The SRAIV will be deployed using a manually operated deployment pole and will be coupled to the wall using permanent magnet wheels. Navigation will be performed from the remote console where pictorial views can be displayed from the on-board cameras. The unit will incorporate multiple UT transducers for traditional weld examination. In addition, a specially developed Tandem Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (TSAFT) UT scanning bridge can be attached to provide further investigation of the knuckle region while the vehicle remains on the vertical surface of the tank wall. In summary, the SRAIV will provide features that enhance and expand the capability of the SRS ISI program

  18. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D 2 O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. Nineteen test series and a total of 178 tests were performed. Testing addressed the effects of: Heat flux; pressure; helium gas; power tilt; ribs; asymmetric heat flux. This document consists solely of the plato file index from 11/87 to 11/90

  19. Braid group and anyons on an annulus and a torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsugai, Y.; Kohmoto, M.; Wu Yongshi

    1992-01-01

    We present an examination of anyons on a cylinder (or annulus) starting from a braid group analysis. The rule for putting anyons on a lattice has to be modified when the periodic boundary condition is imposed on one direction. In contrast to the annulus, one extra restriction is needed for the cylinder geometry to recover its symmetry. The mean-field (MF) treatment is found to be good until level crossing occurs, and to be better if one starts from the hard-core boson rather than fermion. We also present a construction of anyons on a torus starting from a braid group analysis. The rules of Wen, Dagotto and Fradkin for putting anyons on a torus are reproduced and supplemented. The representation of the braid group is characterized by the anyon statistics θ and the magnetic fluxes Φ x and Φ y threading through the holes. It is shown that the anyon system has a smaller period in Φ x and Φ y than the natural period 1. We perform numerical calculations to investigate the spectral flow and find interesting features in understanding the Fractional Quantum Hall (FQH) effect. (orig.)

  20. Thermal convection in a co-rotating cylindrical annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changwoo; Meyer, Antoine; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2017-11-01

    We investigate thermal convection in a fluid of thermal expansion coefficient α, kinematic viscosity ν, thermal diffusivity κ in a cylindrical annulus of inner radius a and outer radius bwith a solid body rotation of angular frequency Ω and an inward heating with a temperature difference ΔT. The control parameters are η = a/b, Pr = ν / κ and the Rayleigh number Ra = αΔ T gd3 / νκ where the centrifugal gravity gc =Ω2 (a +b)/2. We adopt the generalized Boussinesq approximation. Linear stability analysis shows that for infinite annulus, the threshold Rac decreases with η and tends to the value Rac = 1708 when η -> 1 and that critical modes are columnar vortices. Direct numerical simulations using periodic boundary conditions in the axial direction, show that the columnar vortices appear via a supercritical bifurcation. Higher modes of columnar vortices have been determined using the frequency spectra and the Nusselt number for Pr =1 and η = 0.5 : drifting vortices, vacillation modes and chaotic modes have been identified from Ra =1700 to Ra =107 The contribution of the centrifugal buoyancy to the variation of the kinetic energy in the flow is analysed. This work was supported by the project BIOENGINE (CPER-FEDER, Normandie) and CNES.

  1. Measurement of local void fraction in a ribbed annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The computer code FLOWTRAN-TF is used to analyze hypothetical hydraulic accidents for the nuclear reactor at the Savannah River Site. During a hypothetical Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), reactor assemblies would contain a two-phase mixture of air and water which flows downward. Reactor assemblies consist of nested, ribbed annuli. Longitudinal ribs divide each annulus into four subchannels. For accident conditions, air and water can flow past ribs from one subchannel to another. For FLOWTRAN-TF to compute the size of those flows, it is necessary to know the local void fraction in the region of the rib. Measurements have previously been made of length-average void fraction in a ribbed annulus. However, no direct measurements were available of local void fraction. Due to the lack of data, a test was designed to measure local void fraction at the rib. One question addressed by the test was whether void fraction at the rib is solely a function of azimuthal-average void fraction or a function of additional variables such as pressure boundary conditions. This report provides a discussion of this test

  2. Dufour and Soret Effects on Square Porous Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nik-Ghazali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on heat and mass transfer behaviour on porous medium embedded in a square annulus is conducted. The inner surface wall is considered to have a cool temperature Tc while the outer surface is exposed to a hot temperature Th. Finite element method (FEM is used to solve the governing partial differential equations. The results present the influences of the Dufour and Soret effects on the heat and mass transfer of a square annulus. The effects of various physical parameters on the temperature and concentration profiles together with the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented graphically. It is found that when Dufour parameter is increased, Nusselt number increases. Dufour effect has more influences on velocity profile, while it has no significant effect on the concentration and can be deemed negligible. It is observed that the local Nusselt number is highest at the bottom wall for low values of Dufour parameter; however, the top wall Nusselt number is highest for higher values of Dufour parameter. Soret effect tends to make more significant contribution to the concentration profile than Dufour effect.

  3. Full closure strategic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The full closure strategic analysis was conducted to create a decision process whereby full roadway : closures for construction and maintenance activities can be evaluated and approved or denied by CDOT : Traffic personnel. The study reviewed current...

  4. Sternal exploration or closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAC - vacuum-assisted closure - sternal wound; Sternal dehiscence; Sternal infection ... in the wound to look for signs of infection Remove dead or infected ... use a VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) dressing. It is a negative ...

  5. Chernobyl: closure by 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Discussions on the future of the Chernobyl nuclear plant between the Ukrainian government, the Group of Seven Industrial nations (GT) and the European Union (EU) are summarized. At the G7 meeting, a timetable for the closure of the entire station by 2000 was presented by Ukrainian officials. The timetable depends on financial commitments from Western governments. Without these, the project would take 10 to 15 years. Following this meeting, which took place on 16-17th May 1995. EU finance ministers authorized release of a ECU 85 million loan. On 23 May, the European Parliament's Committee on Research, Technology and Energy held a public hearing on the Chernobyl station. The primary topic was a feasibility study on the clean-up of Chernobyl 4 and plans for the sarcophagus. Other matters discussed included the effect of the delays and indecision in settling the plants's future. Safety improvements being made to other RBMKs were not being carried out at Chernobyl because of the expected closure. The replacement of the power now supplied to the Ukraine by the Chernobyl reactors is also an issue. The solution favoured by the Ukraine is to being on-line three VVER-1000s that are currently close to completion. Western governments find this solution difficult to accept, however. (UK)

  6. Online Work Force Analyzes Social Media to Identify Consequences of an Unplanned School Closure – Using Technology to Prepare for the Next Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Jeanette J.; Kenney, Jasmine; Wilburn, Ben; Putman, Ami; Zheteyeva, Yenlik; O’Sullivan, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background During an influenza pandemic, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) may recommend school closures. These closures could have unintended consequences for students and their families. Publicly available social media could be analyzed to identify the consequences of an unplanned school closure. Methods As a proxy for an unplanned, pandemic-related school closure, we used the district-wide school closure due to the September 10–18, 2012 teachers’ strike in Chicago, Illinois. We captured social media posts about the school closure using the Radian6 social media-monitoring platform. An online workforce from Amazon Mechanical Turk categorized each post into one of two groups. The first group included relevant posts that described the impact of the closure on students and their families. The second group included irrelevant posts that described the political aspects of the strike or topics unrelated to the school closure. All relevant posts were further categorized as expressing a positive, negative, or neutral sentiment. We analyzed patterns of relevant posts and sentiment over time and compared our findings to household surveys conducted after other unplanned school closures. Results We captured 4,546 social media posts about the district-wide school closure using our search criteria. Of these, 930 (20%) were categorized as relevant by the online workforce. Of the relevant posts, 619 (67%) expressed a negative sentiment, 51 (5%) expressed a positive sentiment, and 260 (28%) were neutral. The number of relevant posts, and especially those with a negative sentiment, peaked on day 1 of the strike. Negative sentiment expressed concerns about childcare, missed school lunches, and the lack of class time for students. This was consistent with findings from previously conducted household surveys. Conclusion Social media are publicly available and can readily provide information on the impact of an unplanned school closure on students

  7. Online Work Force Analyzes Social Media to Identify Consequences of an Unplanned School Closure - Using Technology to Prepare for the Next Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Jeanette J; Kenney, Jasmine; Wilburn, Ben; Putman, Ami; Zheteyeva, Yenlik; O'Sullivan, Megan

    During an influenza pandemic, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) may recommend school closures. These closures could have unintended consequences for students and their families. Publicly available social media could be analyzed to identify the consequences of an unplanned school closure. As a proxy for an unplanned, pandemic-related school closure, we used the district-wide school closure due to the September 10-18, 2012 teachers' strike in Chicago, Illinois. We captured social media posts about the school closure using the Radian6 social media-monitoring platform. An online workforce from Amazon Mechanical Turk categorized each post into one of two groups. The first group included relevant posts that described the impact of the closure on students and their families. The second group included irrelevant posts that described the political aspects of the strike or topics unrelated to the school closure. All relevant posts were further categorized as expressing a positive, negative, or neutral sentiment. We analyzed patterns of relevant posts and sentiment over time and compared our findings to household surveys conducted after other unplanned school closures. We captured 4,546 social media posts about the district-wide school closure using our search criteria. Of these, 930 (20%) were categorized as relevant by the online workforce. Of the relevant posts, 619 (67%) expressed a negative sentiment, 51 (5%) expressed a positive sentiment, and 260 (28%) were neutral. The number of relevant posts, and especially those with a negative sentiment, peaked on day 1 of the strike. Negative sentiment expressed concerns about childcare, missed school lunches, and the lack of class time for students. This was consistent with findings from previously conducted household surveys. Social media are publicly available and can readily provide information on the impact of an unplanned school closure on students and their families. Using social media to

  8. Vacuum decay container/closure integrity testing technology. Part 1. ASTM F2338-09 precision and bias studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Heinz; Stauffer, Tony; Chen, Shu-Chen Y; Lee, Yoojin; Forster, Ronald; Ludzinski, Miron; Kamat, Madhav; Godorov, Phillip; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2009-01-01

    ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method is applicable for leak-testing rigid and semi-rigid non-lidded trays; trays or cups sealed with porous barrier lidding materials; rigid, nonporous packages; and flexible, nonporous packages. Part 1 of this series describes the precision and bias studies performed in 2008 to expand this method's scope to include rigid, nonporous packages completely or partially filled with liquid. Round robin tests using three VeriPac 325/LV vacuum decay leak testers (Packaging Technologies & Inspection, LLC, Tuckahoe, NY) were performed at three test sites. Test packages were 1-mL glass syringes. Positive controls had laser-drilled holes in the barrel ranging from about 5 to 15 microm in nominal diameter. Two different leak tests methods were performed at each site: a "gas leak test" performed at 250 mbar (absolute) and a "liquid leak test" performed at about 1 mbar (absolute). The gas leak test was used to test empty, air-filled syringes. All defects with holes > or = 5.0 microm and all no-defect controls were correctly identified. The only false negative result was attributed to a single syringe with a ASTM F2338-09 test method and the precision and bias study report are available by contacting ASTM International in West Conshohocken, PA, USA (www.astm.org).

  9. Turbulent heat transfer studies in annulus with inner cylinder rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Scott, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental investigations of turbulent heat transfer are made in a large-gap annulus with both rotating and nonrotating inner cylinder. The vertical annular channel has an electrically heated outer wall; the inner wall i thermally and electrically insulated. The axial air flow is allowed to develop before rotation and heating are imparted. The resulting temperature fields are investigated using thermocouple probes located near the channel exit. The wall heat flux, wall axial temperature development, and radial temperature profiles are measured. For each axial Reynolds number, three heat flux rates are used. Excellent correlation is established between rotational and nonrotational Nusselt number. The proper correlation parameter is a physical quantity characterizing the flow helix. This parameter is the inverse of the ratio of axial travel of the flow helix in terms of hydraulic diameter, per half revolution of the spinning wall

  10. Opposing flow in square porous annulus: Influence of Dufour effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athani, Abdulgaphur; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Khaleed, H. M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in porous medium is very important area of research which is also termed as double diffusive convection or thermo-solutal convection. The buoyancy ratio which is the ratio of thermal to concentration buoyancy can have negative values thus leading to opposing flow. This article is aimed to study the influence of Dufour effect on the opposing flow in a square porous annulus. The partial differential equations that govern the heat and mass transfer behavior inside porous medium are solved using finite element method. A three node triangular element is used to divide the porous domain into smaller elements. Results are presented with respect to geometric and physical parameters such as duct diameter ratio, Rayleigh number, radiation parameter etc. It is found that the heat transfer increase with increase in Rayleigh number and radiation parameter. It is observed that Dufour coefficient has more influence on velocity profile.

  11. Opposing flow in square porous annulus: Influence of Dufour effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athani, Abdulgaphur, E-mail: abbu.bec@gmail.com [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Anjuman Institute of Technology & Management, Bhatkal (India); Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A., E-mail: aa.alrashed@paaet.edu.kw [Dept. of Automotive and Marine Engineering Technology, College of Technological Studies, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (Kuwait); Khaleed, H. M. T., E-mail: khalid-tan@yahoo.com [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic University, Madinah Munawwarra (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-21

    Heat and mass transfer in porous medium is very important area of research which is also termed as double diffusive convection or thermo-solutal convection. The buoyancy ratio which is the ratio of thermal to concentration buoyancy can have negative values thus leading to opposing flow. This article is aimed to study the influence of Dufour effect on the opposing flow in a square porous annulus. The partial differential equations that govern the heat and mass transfer behavior inside porous medium are solved using finite element method. A three node triangular element is used to divide the porous domain into smaller elements. Results are presented with respect to geometric and physical parameters such as duct diameter ratio, Rayleigh number, radiation parameter etc. It is found that the heat transfer increase with increase in Rayleigh number and radiation parameter. It is observed that Dufour coefficient has more influence on velocity profile.

  12. Bovine annulus fibrosus cell lines isolated from intervertebral discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kraus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult bovine (Bos taurus intervertebral disc is primarily comprised of two major tissue types: The outer annulus fibrosus (AF and the central nucleus pulposus (NP. We isolated several primary cell lineages of passage (P 0 cells from the AF tissue omitting typically used enzymatic tissue digestion protocols. The cells grow past p10 without signs of senescence in DMEM + 10% FCS on 0.1% gelatin coated/uncoated surfaces of standard cell culture plates and survive freeze-thawing. Preliminary analysis of the AF derived cells for expression of the two structural genes Col1a1 and Col2a1 was performed by PISH recapitulating the expression observed in vivo.

  13. Closure The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Bolin, Michael

    2010-01-01

    If you're ready to use Closure to build rich web applications with JavaScript, this hands-on guide has precisely what you need to learn this suite of tools in depth. Closure makes it easy for experienced JavaScript developers to write and maintain large and complex codebases -- as Google has demonstrated by using Closure with Gmail, Google Docs, and Google Maps. Author and Closure contributor Michael Bolin has included numerous code examples and best practices, as well as valuable information not available publicly until now. You'll learn all about Closure's Library, Compiler, Templates, tes

  14. Critical heat flux determination in an annulus section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes C, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The present report explains the phenomenon of Critical heat flux. The study of this physical phenomenon is carried out during the boiling of a liquid and is of supreme importance for the calculation and operation of a nuclear reactor even in the moderns generators of steam (thermoelectric and nucleoelectrics), industrial cooling and in all those industrial process that use a liquid subject to sources of heating and to conditions of work excessively high (temperatures and pressures) so that stay in operation in an appropriate manner and sure. Once well-known this value, the equipment used in these process works with a maximum heat that is smaller than the Critical Heat Flux. The study of the Critical Heat Flux has achieved important advances in the last years, mainly for the enormous obligation that in this moment involved the safety to world level, this has forced to researchers and designers of this type of equipment to center their attention in the obtaining of a correlation which of general way explains it. In this reports two correlations will be compared that they contribute to the evaluation of the Critical Heat Flux in annulus and that they try to be generals in this type of geometry, the Shah correlation's and the Katto correlation's. The same as most of the correlations, these have been calculated so that the fluid of work is water, although they have also been proven with others fluids. The results obtained in this report only will show the degree of advance which the investigation of this phenomenon has achieved in annulus and to low amounts of flow of liquid, like which they are in the Experimental Heat Transfer Circuit located in the Department of Physics of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. (Author)

  15. Saturated Pool Boiling in Vertical Annulus with Reduced Outflow Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied extensively to design efficient heat transfer devices or to assure the integrity of safety related systems. However, knowledge on pool boiling heat transfer in a confined space is still quite limited. The confined nucleate boiling is an effective technique to enhance heat transfer. Improved heat transfer might be attributed to an increase in the heat transfer coefficient due to vaporization from the thin liquid film on the heating surface or increased bubble activity. According to Cornwell and Houston, the bubbles sliding on the heated surface agitate environmental liquid. In a confined space a kind of pulsating flow due to the bubbles is created and, as a result very active liquid agitation is generated. The increase in the intensity of liquid agitation results in heat transfer enhancement. Sometimes a deterioration of heat transfer appears at high heat fluxes for confined boiling. The cause of the deterioration is suggested as active bubble coalescence. Recently, Kang published inflow effects on pool boiling heat transfer in a vertical annulus with closed bottoms. Kang regulated the gap size at the upper regions of the annulus and identified that effects of the reduced gaps on heat transfer become evident as the heat flux increases. This kind of geometry is found in an in-pile test section. Since more detailed analysis is necessary, effects of the outflow area on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer are investigated in this study. Up to the author's knowledge, no previous results concerning to this effect have been published yet

  16. Predictors of transient left ventricular dysfunction following transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus closure in pediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Hala Mounir; Hamza, Hala S; Kotby, Alyaa; Ganzoury, Mona E L; Soliman, Nanies

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the left ventricular function before and after transcatheter percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure, and to identify the predictors of myocardial dysfunction post-PDA closure if present. Transcatheter PDA closure; conventional, Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging; and speckle tracking echocardiography. To determine the feasibility and reliability of tissue Doppler and myocardial deformation imaging for evaluating myocardial function in children undergoing transcatheter PDA closure. Forty-two children diagnosed with hemodynamically significant PDA underwent percutaneous PDA closure. Conventional, Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging, and speckle-derived strain rate echocardiography were performed at preclosure and at 48 hours, 1 month, and 6 months postclosure. Tissue Doppler velocities of the lateral and septal mitral valve annuli were obtained. Global and regional longitudinal peak systolic strain values were determined using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. The median age of the patients was 2 years and body weight was 15 kg, with the mean PDA diameter of 3.11 ± 0.99 mm. M-mode measurements (left ventricular end diastolic diameter, left atrium diameter to aortic annulus ratio, ejection fraction, and shortening fraction) reduced significantly early after PDA closure ( p  closure causes a significant decrease in left ventricular performance early after PDA closure, which recovers completely within 1 month. Preclosure global longitudinal strain can be a predictor of postclosure myocardial dysfunction.

  17. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties

  18. Tank 16 Annulus Cleanout Analysis Doses at Seepline from Transport of Residual Tc-99 Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of residual Tc-99 in the Tank 16 annulus was conducted to assess the potential benefit from cleaning the annulus. One analysis was performed for the as-is case to determine seepline doses if no clean out occurs. Another analysis was performed assuming that ninety percent of existing contaminants are removed. Characterization data for samples retrieved from the annulus were used in the analysis. Only Tc-99 was analyzed because preliminary modeling identified it as the highest dose contributor. The effect of residual waste in piping was not analyzed

  19. analysis of flow in a concentric annulus using finite element method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. This work presents the computational modelling of the velocity distribution of an incompressible fluid flowing in a ... The flow of fluids is important for many engineering applications. ... on an annulus shaped channel. Annular flow ...

  20. The optimal project position for demonstrating tricuspid annulus in angiography: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yuan; Zong Gongjun; Wang Hongru; Qin Yongwen; Huang Xinmiao; Jiang Haibin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the optimal project position for demonstrating tricuspid annulus angiographically in experimental goats. Methods: Eight healthy goats underwent right atrial angiography by using 6 F pig tail catheters. Under fluoroscopic monitoring the contrast media (total 110 ml, flow rate 12 ml/ s, pressure 800 psi) was injected continuously while a serious exposures were performed from RAO position to LAO position (totally 180 degree rotation). The maximum diameter of the tricuspid annulus in every picture was measured and the results were compared with that obtained from sonography. Results: The procedure was successful in all 8 experimental goats. The optimal project position to display the tricuspid annulus was at 27 degree ± 3 degree in RAO position. Conclusion: In angiography, the tricuspid annulus can be best demonstrated at the project position of 27 degree ± 3 degree in RAO. (authors)

  1. The cyclicity of period annulus of a quadratic reversible Lotka–Volterra system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chengzhi; Llibre, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    We prove that by perturbing the periodic annulus of the quadratic polynomial reversible Lotka–Volterra differential system, inside the class of all quadratic polynomial differential systems we can obtain at most two limit cycles

  2. Identification of rabbit annulus fibrosus-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available Annulus fibrosus (AF injuries can lead to substantial deterioration of intervertebral disc (IVD which characterizes degenerative disc disease (DDD. However, treatments for AF repair/regeneration remain challenging due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of AF tissue at cellular, biochemical, and biomechanical levels. In this study, we isolated and characterized a sub-population of cells from rabbit AF tissue which formed colonies in vitro and could self-renew. These cells showed gene expression of typical surface antigen molecules characterizing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, including CD29, CD44, and CD166. Meanwhile, they did not express negative markers of MSCs such as CD4, CD8, and CD14. They also expressed Oct-4, nucleostemin, and SSEA-4 proteins. Upon induced differentiation they showed typical osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis potential. Together, these AF-derived colony-forming cells possessed clonogenicity, self-renewal, and multi-potential differentiation capability, the three criteria characterizing MSCs. Such AF-derived stem cells may potentially be an ideal candidate for DDD treatments using cell therapies or tissue engineering approaches.

  3. Tubular closure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a closure mechanism for closing openings such as the bore of a conduit and for releasably securing members within the bore. More particularly, this invention relates to a closure mechanism for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors

  4. Eyelid closure at death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A D Macleod

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To observe the incidence of full or partial eyelid closure at death. Materials and Methods: The presence of ptosis was recorded in 100 consecutive hospice patient deaths. Results: Majority (63% of the patients died with their eyes fully closed, however, 37% had bilateral ptosis at death, with incomplete eye closure. In this study, central nervous system tumor involvement and/or acute hepatic encephalopathy appeared to be pre-mortem risk factors of bilateral ptosis at death. Conclusion: Organicity and not psychogenicity is, therefore, the likely etiology of failure of full eyelid closure at death.

  5. Knockdown of asporin affects transforming growth factor-β1-induced matrix synthesis in human intervertebral annulus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our results have verified a functional feedback loop between TGF-β1 and asporin in human intervertebral annulus cells indicating that TGF-β1-induced annulus matrix biosynthesis can be significantly upregulated by knockdown of asporin. Therefore, asporin could be a potential new therapeutic target and inhibition of asporin could be adopted to enhance the anabolic effect of TGF-β1 in human intervertebral annulus cells in degenerative IVD diseases.

  6. RCRA corrective action and closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This information brief explains how RCRA corrective action and closure processes affect one another. It examines the similarities and differences between corrective action and closure, regulators' interests in RCRA facilities undergoing closure, and how the need to perform corrective action affects the closure of DOE's permitted facilities and interim status facilities

  7. Saturated flow boiling heat transfer in water-heated vertical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Licheng; Yan Changqi; Sun Zhonning

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the saturated flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of water at 1 atm and low velocities in water-heated vertical annuli with equivalent diameters of 10 mm and 6 mm. Test section is consisted of two concentric circular tubes outer of which is made of quartz, so the whole test courses can be visualized. There are three main flow patterns of bubble flow, churn flow and churn-annular flow in the annuli, most important of which is churn flow. Flooding is the mechanism of churn flow and churn can enhance the heat transport between steam and water; Among the three factors of mass flux, inlet subcooling and annulus width, the last one has great effect on heat transport, moderately decreasing the annulus width can enhance the heat transfer; Combined annular flow model with theory of flooding and turbulent Prandtl Number, the numerical value of heat flux is given, the shape of test boiling curve and that of calculated by model is very alike, but there is large discrepancy between test data and calculated results, the most possible reason is that some parameters given by fluid flooding model are based on experimental data of common circular tubes, but not of annuli. Doing more research on flooding in annulus, particularly narrow annulus, is necessary for calculating the saturated boiling in annulus. (authors)

  8. Scope and closures

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    No matter how much experience you have with JavaScript, odds are you don’t fully understand the language. This concise yet in-depth guide takes you inside scope and closures, two core concepts you need to know to become a more efficient and effective JavaScript programmer. You’ll learn how and why they work, and how an understanding of closures can be a powerful part of your development skillset.

  9. Digital signal processing of data from borehole creep closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Patrick, W.C.; Duplancic, N.

    1987-01-01

    Digital signal processing, a technique commonly used in the fields of electrical engineering and communication technology, has been successfully used to analyze creep closure data obtained from a 0.91 m diameter by 5.13 deep borehole in bedded salt. By filtering the ''noise'' component of the closure data from a test borehole, important data trends were made more evident and average creep closure rates were able to be calculated. This process provided accurate estimates of closure rates that are used in the design of lined boreholes in which heat-generating transuranic nuclear wastes are emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  10. Technical Information to Support Double Shell Tank (DST) Emergency Annulus Pumping [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2000-09-14

    This document provides the design calculations for the DST Annulus Emergency Pumping Project. This document also contains essential information relative to DST annulus emergency pumping that may not be found in other documents. This information consists of the following: Index drawing for annulus pumping; References to the Acceptance Test Report, DST Emergency Pumping Guide, Time Deployment study, etc.; Statements of work; and Reference CEIS and RMIS numbers. A Vendor Information document, VI-50121, is not included in this document, but a copy can be obtained by contacting Document Control Services. This document contains various information regarding the Hydrostar pumps, such as the air motor, cylinder size, pump installation and operation manual. It also contains information regarding the Flygt BS2060 submersible pump, such as parts list, pump handling, preventative maintenance, overhaul and repair. In addition, this document also has information on 3-way PM ball valves, electrical skid components and the alternate Gurman-Rupp stainless steel submersible pump.

  11. Experimental Study of Annulus Flow for Can Combustor with Vibration Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami. Y. Dahham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrate on studying the behavior of velocity profile under the influence of different frequency (34, 48, 65 and 80 Hz in each of the upper and lower annulus of Can Combustor.An experimental rig was designed to simulate the annulus flow inside a Can Combustor.The Can Combustor tested in this study is real part collected from Al-Khairat/Iraq gas turbine power station.The velocity profiles are investigated at three positions in the annular for upper and lower region.The axial velocity and turbulence intensity are calculating with different frequency for upper and lower annulus.The results were shown that the increase of frequency lead to increase the velocity profile and large recirculation zone will build in some points.Reynolds number increasing with raise of axial velocity. Also the increasing in vibration level cause non-uniform velocity profile which affect on distribution of cooling effectiveness.

  12. Design of modified annulus air sampling system for the detection of leakage in waste transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokar, U.V; Khot, A.R.; Mathew, P.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.; Srivastava, Srishti

    2018-01-01

    Various liquid waste streams are generated during the operation of reprocessing plant. The High Level (HL), Intermediate Level (IL) and Low Level (LL) liquid wastes generated, are transferred from reprocessing plant to Waste Management Facility. These respective waste streams are transferred through pipe-in-pipe lines along the shielded concrete trench. For detection of radioactive leakage from primary waste transfer line into secondary line, sampling of the annulus air between the two pipes is carried out. The currently installed pressurized annulus air sampling system did not have online leakage detection provision. Hence, there are chances of personal exposure and airborne activity in the working area. To overcome these design flaws, free air flow modified online annulus air sampling system with more safety features is designed

  13. Experimental study of the steady natural convection in a horizontal annulus with irregular boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The natural convective heat transfer across an annulus with irregular boundaries was studied using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The annulus was formed by an inner hexagonal cylinder and an outer concentric circular cylinder. This configuration models, in two dimensions, a liquid metal fast breeder reactor spent fuel subassembly inside a shipping container. During the test, the annulus was filled with a single gas, either neon, air, argon, krypton, or xenon, at a pressure of about 0.5 MPa. From temperature measurements, both local and mean Nusselt numbers (Nu/sub Δ/) at the surface of the inner cylinder were evaluated, with the mean Rayleigh number (anti Ra/sub Δ/) varying from 4.54 x 10 4 to 0.915 x 10 6 (Δ is the local gas width). The data correlation for the mean Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers is given by anti Nu/sub Δ/ = 0.183 anti Ra/sub Δ/ 0 310

  14. Regimes of Axisymmetric Flow and Scaling Laws in a Rotating Annulus with Local Convective Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Wright

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study of axisymmetric flow in a rotating annulus in which local thermal forcing, via a heated annular ring on the outside of the base and a cooled circular disk in the centre of the top surface, drives convection. This new configuration is a variant of the classical thermally-driven annulus, where uniform heating and cooling are applied through the outer and inner sidewalls respectively. The annulus provides an analogue to a planetary circulation and the new configuration, with its more relaxed vertical thermal boundary conditions, is expected to better emulate vigorous convection in the tropics and polar regions as well as baroclinic instability in the mid-latitude baroclinic zone. Using the Met Office/Oxford Rotating Annulus Laboratory (MORALS code, we have investigated a series of equilibrated, two dimensional axisymmetric flows across a large region of parameter space. These are characterized in terms of their velocity and temperature fields. When rotation is applied several distinct flow regimes may be identified for different rotation rates and strengths of differential heating. These regimes are defined as a function of the ratio of the horizontal Ekman layer thickness to the non-rotating thermal boundary layer thickness and are found to be similar to those identified in previous annulus experiments. Convection without rotation is also considered and the scaling of the heat transport with Rayleigh number is calculated. This is then compared with existing work on the classical annulus as well as horizontal and Rayleigh-Bénard convection. As with previous studies on both rotating and non-rotating convection the system’s behaviour is found to be aspect ratio dependent. This dependence is seen in the scaling of the non-rotating Nusselt number and in transitions between regimes in the rotating case although further investigation is required to fully explain these observations.

  15. Experimental investigation on subcooled boiling heat transfer in a vertical double-face heated narrow annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Mingyu; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan

    2005-01-01

    Experimental investigation on the subcooled boiling heat transfer was carried out in a vertical up-flow double narrow annulus with 1.5 mm gap. The working fluid is deionized water. The ranges of parameters as follows: pressure 0.84-6.09 MPa, mass flux 41.9-300.2 kg/(m 2 ·s), heat flux 2.61-114.41kW/m 2 . An empiric correlation used to predict the heat transfer of subcooled boiling in narrow annulus is induced from the experimental data. (author)

  16. Extraordinary acoustic transmission through annuluses in air and its applications in acoustic beam splitter and concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Yong; Liu, Shu-sen; Yuan, Shou-qi; Xia, Jian-ping; Guan, Yi-jun; Sun, Hong-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2016-01-01

    We report an extraordinary acoustic transmission through two layer annuluses made of metal cylinders in air both numerically and experimentally. The effect arises from the enhancement and reconstruction of the incident source induced by different Mie-resonance modes of the annuluses. The proposed system takes advantages of the consistency in the waveform between the input and output waves, the high amplitude amplification of output waves, and the easy adjustment of structure. More interestingly, we investigate the applications of the extraordinary acoustic transmission in the acoustic beam splitter and acoustic concentrator. Our finding should have an impact on ultrasonic applications.

  17. Waste Dump Closure and Cost Estimates at AngloGold Ashanti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... 2University of Mines and Technology, P.O. Box 237, Tarkwa, Ghana ... The mine has closure plans for the waste dumps and the closure activity ... incur additional cost, it was advised that the mine should execute the closure and reclamation plan without delay. .... Progressively rehabilitate the project area.

  18. Numerical investigation of heat transfer in annulus laminar flow of multi tubes-in-tube helical coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, S. A.; Elattar, H. F.; Fouda, A.; Refaey, H. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, a CFD analysis using ANSYS-FLUENT 14.5 CFD package is used to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer of laminar flow in annulus formed by multi tubes in tube helically coiled heat exchanger. The numerical results are validated by comparison with previous experimental data and fair agreements were existed. The influences of the design and operation parameters such as heat flux, Reynolds numbers and annulus geometry on the heat transfer characteristics are investigated. Different annulus of different numbers of inner tubes, specifically 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 tubes, are tested. The Results showed that for all the studied annulus, the heat flux has no effect on the Nusselt number and compactness parameter. The annulus formed by using five inner tubes showed the best heat transfer performance and compactness parameter. Correlation of predicting Nusselt number in terms of Reynolds number and number of inner tubes are presented.

  19. Tubular closure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a closure mechanism for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holder used in nuclear reactors. The closure mechanism is composed of a latching member which includes a generally circular chamber with a plurality of elongated latches depending therefrom. The latching member circumscribes part of an actuator member which is disposed within the latching member so as to be axially movable. The axial movement of the actuator actuates positioning of the latches between positions in which the latches are locked and secured within the actuator member. Means, capable of being remotely manipulated, are provided to move the actuator in order to position the latches and load the articles within the tube

  20. Aortic annulus and ascending aorta: Comparison of preoperative and periooperative measurement in patients with aortic stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smid, Michal; Ferda, Jiri; Baxa, Jan; Cech, Jakub; Hajek, Tomas; Kreuzberg, Boris; Rokyta, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background: Precise determination of the aortic annulus size constitutes an integral part of the preoperative evaluation prior to aortic valve replacement. It enables the estimation of the size of prosthesis to be implanted. Knowledge of the size of the ascending aorta is required in the preoperative analysis and monitoring of its dilation enables the precise timing of the operation. Our goal was to compare the precision of measurement of the aortic annulus and ascending aorta using magnetic resonance (MR), multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis. Methods and results: A total of 15 patients scheduled to have aortic valve replacement were enrolled into this prospective study. TTE was performed in all patients and was supplemented with TEE, CT and MR in the majority of patients. The values obtained were compared with perioperative measurements. For the measurement of aortic annulus, MR was found to be the most precise technique, followed by MDCT, TTE, and TEE. For the measurement of ascending aorta, MR again was found to be the most precise technique, followed by MDCT, TEE, and TTE. Conclusion: In our study, magnetic resonance was found to be the most precise technique for the measurement of aortic annulus and ascending aorta in patients with severe degenerative aortic stenosis.

  1. Calculation of laminar incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer during spherical annulus filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuft, D.B.

    1979-04-01

    A method of computing laminar incompressible fluid-flow and heat transfer during the filling of a spherical annulus is presented. Transient fluid temperatures and heat flux rates in the spherical annulus are calculated for an insulated outer sphere and a constant temperature inner sphere with heated water filling the annulus from the bottom. To achieve a solution, laminar axially symmetric flow is assumed and the Marker-and-Cell (MAC) free surface computational method is applied to this problem in spherical coordinates. Changes in the standard MAC treatment are incorporated and special methods for handling the free surface are introduced. A variable mesh is used to improve resolution near the inner sphere where temperature and velocity gradients are steep and the governing equations are derived for variable fluid properties to allow an eddy viscosity turbulence model to be applied later. Calculations of velocity, temperature, and inner sphere heat flux in a spherical annulus of 139.7 mm inner radius, and 168.3 mm outer radius within an inlet tube diameter of 38.1 mm are presented

  2. First bulk and surface results for the ATLAS ITk Strip stereo annulus sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; The ATLAS collaboration; Affolder, Tony; Bohm, Jan; Botte, James Michael; Ciungu, Bianca; Dette, Karola; Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Fadeyev, Vitaliy

    2018-01-01

    A novel microstrip sensor geometry, the stereo annulus, has been developed for use in the end-cap of the ATLAS experiment's strip tracker upgrade at the HL-LHC. Its first implementation is in the ATLAS12EC sensors a large-area, radiation-hard, single-sided, ac-coupled, \

  3. On the Linearized Darboux Equation Arising in Isometric Embedding of the Alexandrov Positive Annulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhe LI

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper,the solvability condition of the linearized Gauss-Codazzi system and the solutions to the homogenous system are given.In the meantime,the Solvability of a relevant linearized Darboux equation is given.The equations are arising in a geometric problem which is concerned with the realization of the Alexandrov's positive annulus in R3.

  4. In Shop Acceptance Test Report for the SY Farm Annulus Leak Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following test report was written for the SY tank farm annulus leak detectors. The test plan used was HNF-4546, Revision 1. The purpose of the test plan was to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation. The test plan set various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality

  5. Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus: unmasking a master of disguise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yale Tung-Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus is an underdiagnosed disease, which can be associated with aging and cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia or end-stage renal disease. This disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in order to avoid unnecessary tests or even surgery.

  6. Mechanical restoration and failure analyses of a hydrogel and scaffold composite strategy for annulus fibrosus repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, R.G.; Bürki, A.; Zysset, P.; Eglin, D.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Blanquer, Sebastien; Hecht, A.C.; Iatridis, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Unrepaired defects in the annulus fibrosus of intervertebral disks are associated with degeneration and persistent back pain. A clinical need exists for a disk repair strategy that can seal annular defects, be easily delivered during surgical procedures, and restore biomechanics with low risk of

  7. Development of poly(trimethylene carbonate) network implants for annulus fibrosus tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanquer, Sebastien; Sharifi, Shahriar; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Intervertebral disk degeneration is the main cause of chronic back pain. Disk degeneration often leads to tearing of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and extrusion of the nucleus pulposus (NP), which compresses the nerves. Current treatment involves removing the herniated NP and suturing the

  8. Structural analysis and evaluation of the 241SY101 tank annulus heat-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the structural analysis (static and thermal loads) of the 241SY101 tank to determine the maximum allowable temperature and rate of heating that could be applied to tank 241SY101 through annulus air heating without detrimental effects to the structural integrity of the concrete and steel liner of the tank

  9. Numerical analysis of thermal behavior of a heat exchanger made of double-finned annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz Junior, M.; Colle, S.

    1986-01-01

    The present paper reports a boundary integral solution analysis of a countercurrent heat exchanger made of a double-finned annulus. The enhancement of the heat transfer surface is obtained by longitudinal straight finns which are placed on the intermediate surface. The Nusselt number is compared with data obtained from analytical solution available for limiting-cases. (author) [pt

  10. Saturation of SERCA's lipid annulus may protect against its thermal inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; Trojanowski, Natalie; Castelli, Laura M.; Miotto, Paula M.; Amoye, Foyinsola; Ward, Wendy E.; Tupling, A. Russell; LeBlanc, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA) pumps are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the active transport of Ca 2+ into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thereby eliciting muscle relaxation. SERCA pumps are highly susceptible to oxidative damage, and cytoprotection of SERCA dampens thermal inactivation and is a viable therapeutic strategy in combating diseases where SERCA activity is impaired, such as muscular dystrophy. Here, we sought to determine whether increasing the percent of saturated fatty acids (SFA) within SERCA's lipid annulus through diet could protect SERCA pumps from thermal inactivation. Female Wistar rats were fed either a semi-purified control diet (AIN93G, 7% soybean oil by weight) or a modified AIN93G diet containing high SFA (20% lard by weight) for 17 weeks. Soleus muscles were extracted and SERCA lipid annulus and activity under thermal stress were analyzed. Our results show that SERCA's lipid annulus is abundant with short-chain (12–14 carbon) fatty acids, which corresponds well with SERCA's predicted bilayer thickness of 21 Å. Under control-fed conditions, SERCA's lipid annulus was already highly saturated (79%), and high-fat feeding did not increase this any further. High-fat feeding did not mitigate the reductions in SERCA activity seen with thermal stress; however, correlational analyses revealed significant and strong associations between % SFA and thermal stability of SERCA activity with greater %SFA being associated with lower thermal inactivation and greater % polyunsaturation and unsaturation index being associated with increased thermal inactivation. Altogether, these findings show that SERCA's lipid annulus may influence its susceptibility to oxidative damage, which could have implications in muscular dystrophy and age-related muscle wasting. - Highlights: • SERCA's lipid annulus in rat soleus was measured after immunoconcentration. • Short fatty acid chains surround SERCA and

  11. Professional Closure Beyond State Authorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Sommer Harrits

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the Weberian approach to the study of professions has been strong, emphasizing state authorization and market monopolies as constituting what is considered a profession. Originally, however, the Weberian conception of closure, or the ways in which a profession is constituted and made separate, was broader. This article suggests a revision of the closure concept, integrating insights from Pierre Bourdieu, and conceptualizing professional closure as the intersection of social, symbolic and legal closure. Based on this revision, this article demonstrates how to apply such a concept in empirical studies. This is done by exploring social, symbolic and legal closure across sixteen professional degree programs. The analyses show a tendency for some overlap between different forms of closure, with a somewhat divergent pattern for legal closure. Results support the argument that we need to study these processes as an intersection of different sources of closure, including capital, lifestyles and discourse

  12. Tools for Closure Project and Contract Management: Development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, C. M.; Sheppard, F. R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper details the development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline - an innovative project management effort undertaken to ensure proactive management of the Rocky Flats Closure Contract in support of the Department's goal for achieving the safe closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in December 2006. The accelerated closure of RFETS is one of the most prominent projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management program. As the first major former weapons plant to be remediated and closed, it is a first-of-kind effort requiring the resolution of multiple complex technical and institutional challenges. Most significantly, the closure of RFETS is dependent upon the shipment of all special nuclear material and wastes to other DOE sites. The Department is actively working to strengthen project management across programs, and there is increasing external interest in this progress. The development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline represents a groundbreaking and cooperative effort to formalize the management of such a complex project across multiple sites and organizations. It is original in both scope and process, however it provides a useful precedent for the other ongoing project management efforts within the Environmental Management program

  13. A study on closure performance in geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (H14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Kawakami, Susumu; Yui, Mikazu; Makino, Hitoshi; Sawada, Atsushi; Kurihara, Yuji; Mihara, Morihiro

    2003-04-01

    Regarding closure technology of underground facilities in geological disposal of the HLW in H12 report, the fundamental concept that closure technology has no impact against the engineered barrier system (EBS) was described. Performance Assessment (PA) has been performed without considering of the barrier function of closure elements. Following H12 report, the various in-situ data of the closure elements (ex. plug, backfill) have been obtained. Therefore, we considered that the PA of the EBS considering the expecting performance of the closure elements from the view points of both the engineering technology and the PA should be examined. First, the characteristics of rock mass and the function of the closure elements were summarized. Then, the closure scenario was developed preliminarily based on hydrological analysis between a hydraulic fracture and a disposal panel, the fault tree analysis, and so on. (author)

  14. MNC Subsidiary Closures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Torres Preto, Miguel; de Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of MNC subsidiary closures for employees who lose their jobs. In particular, we examine the extent to which the human capital that these employees acquired while employed by the MNC influences the wages they receive in their new jobs. We propose an employee...

  15. Friction or Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundahl, Mikela

    2014-01-01

    Heritage is a discourse that aims at closure. It fixates the narrative of the past through the celebration of specific material (or sometimes immaterial non-) ob-jects. It organizes temporality and construct events and freezes time. How does this unfold in the case of the UNESCO World Heritage si...

  16. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  17. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Supurna, E-mail: supurna@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sebanti [Doon University, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2017-03-18

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers. - Highlights: • Ring closure of biopolymers. • Worm like chain model. • Predictions for experiments.

  18. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. The CIRSE registry of closure devices

  19. Crack closure, a literature study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, M.

    1993-08-01

    In this report crack closure is treated. The state of the art is reviewed. Different empirical formulas for determining the crack closure are compared with each other, and their benefits are discussed. Experimental techniques for determining the crack closure stress are discussed, and some results from fatigue tests are also reported. Experimental data from the literature are reported.

  20. Making up your mind about a complex technology : an investigation into factors that help or hinder the achievement of cognitive closure about CCS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Many of the technological innovations introduced into modern society have a clear impact on people’s daily lives. As a consequence, public opinion is often a decisive factor for the successful implementation of a complex technology. The research in this dissertation examines psychological factors

  1. Most recent developments for monitoring and controlling the annulus conditions of Marlim-Sul flexible risers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Alexandre S.; Motta, Antonio; Romero, Antonio; Nunes, Joao P.; Zaganelli Junior, Jose L.; Brack, Marcelo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the recent developments for monitoring and controlling the annulus conditions of flexible risers. PETROBRAS has been monitoring the pressure of permeated gas in the annulus region of some risers in order to infer the eventual occurrence of non-conformities as damage on the riser external sheath, for example. Such occurrence would affect the permeated gas flow pattern, the gas pressurization period and the relief valve opening frequencies. Furthermore, the mentioned occurrence would increase the susceptibility of the steel armors to experience the potential failure mechanism of corrosion. In PETROBRAS, the current monitoring method is characterized by visual and periodic manometer readings from a manometer set installed near each riser end-fitting. The data is recorded in a daily report and analyzed by personnel onshore, who are in charge of comparing data and requesting relief valve's actuation, whenever necessary. The paper illustrates Marlim-Sul Asset experience on monitoring and data processing to control the annulus conditions of flexible risers during operation. It presents the in-house developed methodology to data management and processing. This methodology is based on a daily analysis of the permeated gas data worksheet. Some examples are given to illustrate it. The paper also summarizes current developments, in progress, in order to improve riser integrity management. The first development is being done to implement, in the future, automatic data acquisition and control systems. The purpose of automating this process is to improve methods and techniques for data acquisition, transmission and processing. The second development focuses on applications in which riser top end-fittings are submerged. In this particular scenario, a special system - with a quick connection sub sea device - is under development to allow the connection, by divers, after the riser pull-in, of the riser annulus to the platform gas

  2. Summer season | Cafeteria closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note the following cafeteria closures over the summer season: Bldg. 54 closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 13: closed from 13/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Restaurant No. 2, table service (brasserie and restaurant): closed from 01/08/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 864: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 865: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013.

  3. RELAP-7 Closure Correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Berry, R. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, R. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andrs, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansel, J. E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sharpe, J. P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johns, Russell C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL’s modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5’s and TRACE’s capabilities and extends their analysis capabilities for all reactor system simulation scenarios. The RELAP-7 code utilizes the well-posed 7-equation two-phase flow model for compressible two-phase flow. Closure models used in the TRACE code has been reviewed and selected to reflect the progress made during the past decades and provide a basis for the colure correlations implemented in the RELAP-7 code. This document provides a summary on the closure correlations that are currently implemented in the RELAP-7 code. The closure correlations include sub-grid models that describe interactions between the fluids and the flow channel, and interactions between the two phases.

  4. Urethrovaginal fistula closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Marisa M; Goldman, Howard B

    2017-01-01

    In the developed world, urethrovaginal fistulas are most the likely the result of iatrogenic injury. These fistulas are quite rare. Proper surgical repair requires careful dissection and tension-free closure. The objective of this video is to demonstrate the identification and surgical correction of an urethrovaginal fistula. The case presented is of a 59-year-old woman with a history of pelvic organ prolapse and symptomatic stress urinary incontinence who underwent vaginal hysterectomy, anterior colporrhaphy, posterior colporrhaphy, and synthetic sling placement. Postoperatively, she developed a mesh extrusion and underwent sling excision. After removal of her synthetic sling, she began to experience continuous urinary incontinence. Physical examination and cystourethroscopy demonstrated an urethrovaginal fistula at the midurethra. Options were discussed and the patient wished to undergo transvaginal fistula repair. The urethrovaginal fistula was intubated with a Foley catheter. The fistula tract was isolated and removed. The urethra was then closed with multiple tension-free layers. This video demonstrates several techniques for identifying and subsequently repairing an urethrovaginal fistula. Additionally, it demonstrates the importance of tension-free closure. Urethrovaginal fistulas are rare. They should be repaired with careful dissection and tension-free closure.

  5. Dual reciprocity boundary element analysis for the laminar forced heat convection problem in concentric annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Yong

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method (DRBEM) for the laminar heat convection problem in a concentric annulus with constant heat flux boundary condition. DRBEM is one of the most successful technique used to transform the domain integrals arising from the nonhomogeneous term of the poisson equation into equivalent boundary only integrals. This recently developed and highly efficient numerical method is tested for the solution accuracy of the fluid flow and heat transfer study in a concentric annulus. Since their exact solutions are available, DRBEM solutions are verified with different number of boundary element discretization and internal points. The results obtained in this study are discussed with the relative error percentage of velocity and temperature solutions, and potential applicability of the method for the more complicated heat convection problems with arbitrary duct geometries

  6. Cues used by the black fly, Simulium annulus, for attraction to the common loon (Gavia immer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinandt, Meggin L; Meyer, Michael; Strand, Mac; Lindsay, Alec R

    2012-12-01

    The parasitic relationship between a black fly, Simulium annulus, and the common loon (Gavia immer) has been considered one of the most exclusive relationships between any host species and a black fly species. To test the host specificity of this blood-feeding insect, we made a series of bird decoy presentations to black flies on loon-inhabited lakes in northern Wisconsin, U.S.A. To examine the importance of chemical and visual cues for black fly detection of and attraction to hosts, we made decoy presentations with and without chemical cues. Flies attracted to the decoys were collected, identified to species, and quantified. Results showed that S. annulus had a strong preference for common loon visual and chemical cues, although visual cues from Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrynchos) did attract some flies in significantly smaller numbers. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Project Turnover Deliverables for the SY Farm Enraf Annulus Leak Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document identifies the deliverables that ensure the end user of the SY Farm Enraf Annulus Leak Detectors (ALD) has all the documentation and training required for operating and maintaining the new system. All deliverable items checked on the Acceptance For Beneficial Use (ABU) form have been completed and are available to the end user. This document was written as required by HNF-IP-0842, Volume IV section 3.12 Acceptance of Structures, Systems, and Components for Beneficial Use. This document applies to the deliverable documentation required to operate and maintain the SY Farm Enraf ALD System. Appendix A provides a copy of the ABU form as listed in the appendix of TWR-4092, Engineering Task Plan for the New SY Farm Annulus Leak Detectors. This document attests that all required deliverable items checked on the ABU have been completed and are available to the end user

  8. Long-axis fractional shortening and mitral annulus motion in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Gonçalves Sousa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular systolic dynamics involves the contraction of transverse and longitudinal myocardial fibers. Unfortunately, only the activity of the transverse myocardial fibers is foreseen by the standard systolic echocardiographic parameters. Although strain and strain rate have been used to assess the radial, circumferential and longitudinal planes of cardiac contraction, such analysis requires advanced equipment which is not always available in veterinary medicine. On the contrary, some unusual parameters may be recorded via standard methodology, allowing for the specific evaluation of left ventricular longitudinal contractility. In this study, the longitudinal contractile activity was evaluated using the long-axis fractional shortening and the mitral annulus motion, which were compared with several standard echocardiographic parameters in 14 beagles, including seven with asymptomatic mitral valve disease. The long-axis fractional shortening was positively correlated with both the mitral annulus motion and the end-diastolic left-ventricular diameter. Also, a significant correlation was found to exist between the mitral annulus motion and the left-ventricular end-diastolic diameter, which is likely supportive of its preload dependency. Even though no difference was documented in either mitral annulus motion or long-axis fractional shortening between healthy dogs and dogs with mitral valve disease, the latter only included animals with minimal cardiac remodeling, with no overt compromise of systolic function. Since it is possible to obtain these two parameters with any echocardiographic equipment, their inclusion in the routine exam would probably add information regarding the activity of the longitudinal myocardial fibers, whose functional deterioration supposedly occurs prior to the impairment of transverse fibers.

  9. Localized strain measurements of the intervertebral disc annulus during biaxial tensile testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    Both inter-lamellar and intra-lamellar failures of the annulus have been described as potential modes of disc herniation. Attempts to characterize initial lamellar failure of the annulus have involved tensile testing of small tissue samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method of measuring local surface strains through image analysis of a tensile test conducted on an isolated sample of annular tissue in order to enhance future studies of intervertebral disc failure. An annulus tissue sample was biaxial strained to 10%. High-resolution images captured the tissue surface throughout testing. Three test conditions were evaluated: submerged, non-submerged and marker. Surface strains were calculated for the two non-marker conditions based on motion of virtual tracking points. Tracking algorithm parameters (grid resolution and template size) were varied to determine the effect on estimated strains. Accuracy of point tracking was assessed through a comparison of the non-marker conditions to a condition involving markers placed on tissue surface. Grid resolution had a larger effect on local strain than template size. Average local strain error ranged from 3% to 9.25% and 0.1% to 2.0%, for the non-submerged and submerged conditions, respectively. Local strain estimation has a relatively high potential for error. Submerging the tissue provided superior strain estimates.

  10. The dew point response of the annulus gas system of Bruce NGS A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchington, J.; Ellis, P.J.; Meranda, D.

    1983-01-01

    The dew point response of the Annulus Gas System in Bruce A, Units 1 and 2 has been modelled in order to alert the operator of the presence of heavy water and to estimate the leak rate into the annulus. The computer model can be easily adapted to determine the Annulus Gas System dew point response in any station. It models the complex arrangement of the system and the transportation of moisture through the annuli by a combination of plug flow and mixing of CO 2 and D 2 O vapor. It predicts the response of the dew point monitor for a range of specified leak rates and positions of a leaking channel in a string of channels. This model has been used to calculate the variation of dew point and rate of change of dew point with respect to time (t). It shows that there is a maximum in the rate of dew point change (dT/dt) with respect to the corresponding dew point (T). This maximum is unique for a given leak rate and channel position. It is independent of the starting time for the leak. The computer programme has been verified by an analytical solution for the model

  11. Intercellular communication via gap junctions affected by mechanical load in the bovine annulus fibrosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Jane; Duncan, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    Cells in the intervertebral disc, as in other connective tissues including tendon, ligament and bone, form interconnected cellular networks that are linked via functional gap junctions. These cellular networks may be necessary to affect a coordinated response to mechanical and environmental stimuli. Using confocal microscopy with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching methods, we explored the in situ strain environment of the outer annulus of an intact bovine disc and the effect of high-level flexion on gap junction signalling. The in situ strain environment in the extracellular matrix of the outer annulus under high flexion load was observed to be non-uniform with the extensive cellular processes remaining crimped sometimes at flexion angles greater than 25°. A significant transient disruption of intercellular communication via functional gap junctions was measured after 10 and 20 min under high flexion load. This study illustrates that in healthy annulus fibrosus tissue, high mechanical loads can impede the functioning of the gap junctions. Future studies will explore more complex loading conditions to determine whether losses in intercellular communication can be permanent and whether gap junctions in aged and degenerated tissues become more susceptible to load. The current research suggests that cellular structures such as gap junctions and intercellular networks, as well as other cell-cell and cell-matrix interconnections, need to be considered in computational models in order to fully understand how macroscale mechanical signals are transmitted across scales to the microscale and ultimately into a cellular biosynthetic response in collagenous tissues.

  12. Passive heat transfer augmentation in a cylindrical annulus utilizing multiple perturbations on the inner and outer cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, S.V.; Vafai, K.

    1999-01-01

    The study of natural convection flow and heat transfer within a cylindrical annulus has received considerable attention because of its numerous applications, such as in nuclear reactor design, electronic component cooling, thermal storage systems, energy conservation, energy storage, and energy transmission. Here, the effects of multiple geometric perturbations on the inner and outer cylinders of an annulus with impermeable end walls are investigated in this work. A three-dimensional study was done using a numerical scheme based on a Galerkin method of finite element formulation. The nature of the buoyancy-induced flow field has been analyzed in detail. The flow fields for the cases considered were found to be qualitatively similar, and the introduction of each additional perturbation altered the flow field in a regular and recurring manner. The introduction of each perturbation on the outer cylinder causes clockwise and counterclock-wise rotating patterns on either side of the perturbation in the upper circumferential regions of the annulus. The motion of the fluid entrained by these circulatory patterns constitutes the key features of the flow pattern observed in the annulus. It is observed that the presence of multiple perturbations on the inner and outer cylinders substantially increases the overall heat transfer rate as compared to the regular annulus without any perturbation. Key qualitative and quantitative effects of the introduction of perturbations on both the inner and outer cylinders of the annulus are discussed

  13. Nevada Test Site closure program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use

  14. MNC Subsidiary Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Faria, Pedro; Sofka, Wolfgang; Torres Preto, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of MNC subsidiary closures for employees who lose their jobs. We ask to what degree the foreign knowledge that they were exposed to is valued in their new job. We argue theoretically that this foreign knowledge is both valuable and not readily available in the host...... country but is also distant and therefore difficult to absorb. We predict an inverse u-shaped relationship between the exposure to foreign knowledge and the salary in the new job. We empirically support our predictions for a sample of almost 140,000 affected employees in Portugal from 2002 to 2009....

  15. Interobserver variability of CT angiography for evaluation of aortic annulus dimensions prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidkonz, C., E-mail: christian.schmidkonz@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen, Ulmenweg 18, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Marwan, M.; Klinghammer, L.; Mitschke, M.; Schuhbaeck, A.; Arnold, M. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen, Ulmenweg 18, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lell, M. [Radiological Institute, University of Erlangen, Maximiliansplatz 1, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Achenbach, S.; Pflederer, T. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen, Ulmenweg 18, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cardiac CT provides highly reproducible measurements of aortic annulus and root dimensions prior to TAVI. • The perimeter-derived aortic annulus diameter shows the lowest interobserver variability. • If all three CT sizing methods are considered and stated as a “consensus result”, mismatches in prosthesis size selection can be further reduced. - Abstract: Objective: Assessment of aortic annulus dimensions prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is crucial for accurate prosthesis sizing in order to avoid prosthesis–annulus-mismatch possibly resulting in complications like valve dislodgement, paravalvular regurgitation or annulus rupture. Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography allows 3-dimensional assessment of aortic annulus dimensions. Only limited data exist about its interobserver variability. Methods: In 100 consecutive patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (51 male, BMI 27 ± 5 kg/m{sup 2}, age 81 ± 7 years, heart rate 72 ± 15 bpm, Logistic Euroscore 31 ± 14%, STS-Score 7 ± 4%), pre-interventional aortic annulus assessment was performed by dual source computed tomography (collimation 2 × 128 × 0.6 mm, high pitch spiral data acquisition mode, 40–60 ml contrast agents, radiation dose 3.5 ± 0.9 mSv). The following aortic annulus characteristics were determined by three independent observers: aortic annulus maximum, minimum and mean diameters (D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}), eccentricity index (EI), effective aortic annulus diameter according to its circumference (D{sub circ}), effective aortic annulus diameter according to its area (D{sub area}), distance from the aortic annulus plane to the left (LCA) and right coronary artery (RCA) ostia, maximum (D{sub max}AR) and minimum aortic root diameter (D{sub min}AR), maximum (D{sub max}STJ) and minimum diameter of the sinotubular junction (D{sub min}STJ). Subsequently, interobserver variabilities were assessed. Results: Correlation between

  16. Tight closure and vanishing theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Tight closure has become a thriving branch of commutative algebra since it was first introduced by Mel Hochster and Craig Huneke in 1986. Over the past few years, it has become increasingly clear that tight closure has deep connections with complex algebraic geometry as well, especially with those areas of algebraic geometry where vanishing theorems play a starring role. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce tight closure and to explain some of these connections with algebraic geometry. Tight closure is basically a technique for harnessing the power of the Frobenius map. The use of the Frobenius map to prove theorems about complex algebraic varieties is a familiar technique in algebraic geometry, so it should perhaps come as no surprise that tight closure is applicable to algebraic geometry. On the other hand, it seems that so far we are only seeing the tip of a large and very beautiful iceberg in terms of tight closure's interpretation and applications to algebraic geometry. Interestingly, although tight closure is a 'characteristic p' tool, many of the problems where tight closure has proved useful have also yielded to analytic (L2) techniques. Despite some striking parallels, there had been no specific result directly linking tight closure and L∼ techniques. Recently, however, the equivalence of an ideal central to the theory of tight closure was shown to be equivalent to a certain 'multiplier ideal' first defined using L2 methods. Presumably, deeper connections will continue to emerge. There are two main types of problems for which tight closure has been helpful: in identifying nice structure and in establishing uniform behavior. The original algebraic applications of tight closure include, for example, a quick proof of the Hochster-Roberts theorem on the Cohen-Macaulayness of rings of invariants, and also a refined version of the Brianqon-Skoda theorem on the uniform behaviour of integral closures of powers of ideals. More recent, geometric

  17. Improving environmental performance through mine closure planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, W.; McKenna, G.

    1998-01-01

    Syncrude has been investigating landscape redevelopment concepts since 1995 after a two-year tailings technology selection study resulted in a major shift in their long-term tailings disposal strategy. The change from fluid disposal to solid disposal of tailings leads to a different landscape, incorporating a new water material type, new landforms and a new schedule of reclamation activity. A multidisciplinary approach was needed to assess, design and develop the final landscape. Planning approach in progress at Syncrude Canada was described, and the basic concepts and tools of closure planning discovered to date were outlined. The economic impacts of closure planning on mining and tailings operations in general, were discussed. 14 refs

  18. Multipass mining sequence room closures: In situ data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Jones, R.L.; Northrop-Salazar, C.L.; Woerner, S.J.

    1992-12-01

    During the construction of the Thermal/Structural In Situ Test Rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility, measurements of the salt displacements were obtained at very early times, essentially concurrent with the mining activity. This was accomplished by emplacing manually read closure gage stations directly at the mining face, actually between the face and the mining machine, immediately upon mining of the intended gage location. Typically, these mining sequence closure measurements were taken within one hour of mining of the location and within one meter of the mining face. Readings were taken at these gage stations as the multipass mining continued, with the gage station reestablished as each successive mining pass destroyed the earlier gage points. Data reduction yields the displacement history during the mining operation. These early mining sequence closure data, when combined with the later data of the permanently emplaced closure gages, gives the total time-dependent closure displacements of the test rooms. This complete closure history is an essential part of assuring that the in situ test databases will provide an adequate basis for validation of the predictive technology of salt creep behavior, as required by the WIPP technology development program for disposal of radioactive waste in bedded salt

  19. Tubular closure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for closing the bore of a tube and releasably securing articles within the tube under longitudinal load. A latching member has a cylindrical section and several circumferentially-spaced elongated latches hanging down from one end of the cylinder. An elongated actuator has integral cam and spline and is partly located within the latch with the cam radially contacting the latches and the spline projecting into the circumferential spaces between the latches. The actuator is axially movable between a position in which the latches are locked to the tube walls and a position in which the latches are secured from contact with the tube walls. Means are provided for axially moving the actuator such that the cam positions the latches; and means are also provided for engaging the articles within the tube. The closure is particularly applicable to tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in reactors

  20. Airport Movement Area Closure Planner, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR research develops an automation tool improving temporary and permanent runway closure management. The Movement Area Closure Planner (MACP) provides airport...

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of heat transfer from a narrow annulus to supercritical pressure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Han; Bi, Qincheng; Yang, Zhendong; Wang, Linchuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfer of supercritical water in a narrow annulus is investigated. • Effects of system parameters and flow direction on heat transfer are studied. • Deteriorated heat transfer is analyzed both experimentally and numerically. - Abstract: Heat transfer characteristics of supercritical pressure water in a narrow annulus with vertically upward and downward flows were investigated experimentally and numerically. The outer diameter of the inner heated rod is 8 mm with an effective heated length of 620 mm. Experimental parameters covered the pressure of 23–28 MPa, mass flux of 400–1000 kg/m 2 s and heat flux on the outer surface of the heated rod from 200 to 1000 kW/m 2 . The general heat transfer behaviors were discussed with respect to various mass fluxes and pressures. According to the experimental data, it was found that the effect of flow direction on heat transfer depends on the heat-flux to mass-flux ratio (q/G). Heat transfer is much improved in the downward flow compared to that of upward flow at high q/G ratios. At the pressure of 25 MPa, low-mass-flux deteriorated heat transfer occurred in the upward flow but not in the downward flow. At the same test parameters, however, heat transfer deterioration was observed at both of the two flow directions when the pressure was lowered to 23 MPa. The experimental results indicate that buoyancy plays an important role for this type of deterioration, but is not the only mechanism that leads to the heat transfer deterioration. Three turbulence models were assessed against the annulus test data, it was found that the SST k-ω model gives a satisfying prediction of heat transfer deterioration especially for the case of downward flow. The mechanisms for the low-mass-flow heat transfer deterioration were investigated from the viewpoints of buoyancy and property variations of the supercritical water

  2. Effects of Mitral Annulus Remodeling Following MitraClip Procedure on Reduction of Functional Mitral Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Francisco; Mesa, Dolores; Ruiz, Martín; Delgado, Mónica; Rodríguez, Sara; Pardo, Laura; Pan, Manuel; López, Amador; Romero, Miguel A; Suárez de Lezo, José

    2016-11-01

    The percutaneous mitral valve repair procedure (MitraClip) appears to reduce mitral annulus diameter in patients with functional mitral regurgitation, but the relationship between this and regurgitation severity has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of mitral annulus remodeling on the reduction of mitral regurgitation in patients with functional etiology. The study included all patients with functional mitral regurgitation treated with MitraClip at our hospital until January 2015. Echocardiogram (iE33 model, Philips) was performed in all patients immediately after device positioning. Changes in the mitral annulus correlated with mitral regurgitation severity, as assessed using the effective regurgitant orifice area. The study included 23 patients (age, 65±14 years; 74% men; left ventricular ejection fraction, 31%±13%; systolic pulmonary artery pressure, 47±10 mmHg). After the procedure, the regurgitant orifice area decreased by 0.30 cm 2 ±0.04 cm 2 (P<.0005), from a baseline of 0.49 cm 2 ±0.09 cm 2 . Anteroposterior diameter decreased by 3.14 mm±1.01 mm (P<.0005) from a baseline of 28.27 mm±4.9 mm, with no changes in the intercommissural diameter (0.50 mm±0.91 mm vs 40.68 mm±4.7 mm; P=.26). A significant association was seen between anteroposterior diameter reduction and regurgitant orifice area reduction (r=.49; P=.020). In patients with functional mitral regurgitation, the MitraClip device produces an immediate reduction in the anteroposterior diameter. This remodeling may be related to the reduction in mitral regurgitation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Asymptotic behavior of positive solutions of a semilinear Dirichlet problem in the annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Dridi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish existence and asymptotic behavior of a positive classical solution to the following semilinear boundary value problem: \\[-\\Delta u=q(xu^{\\sigma }\\;\\text{in}\\;\\Omega,\\quad u_{|\\partial\\Omega}=0.\\] Here \\(\\Omega\\ is an annulus in \\(\\mathbb{R}^{n}\\, \\(n\\geq 3\\, \\(\\sigma \\lt 1\\ and \\(q\\ is a positive function in \\(\\mathcal{C}_{loc}^{\\gamma }(\\Omega \\, \\(0\\lt\\gamma \\lt 1\\, satisfying some appropriate assumptions related to Karamata regular variation theory. Our arguments combine a method of sub- and supersolutions with Karamata regular variation theory.

  4. Radio frequency sputtering equipment: design considerations for the disc and annulus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.M.; Cox, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The basic equations important in the design of rf sputtering equipment are presented. Attention is restricted to the 'disc and annulus' system and simple techniques in lead-through fabrication and electrode shielding are described. Also rf power oscillator theory is used to derive the important parameters of power generation. Load coupling and power matching techniques are discussed. Problems of the magnetic field coil design are analysed and a value for the thermal conductivity of coils wound from polyurethane coated wire is given, namely k = 0.64 W m -1 / 0 C -1 , permitting the steady state temperature distribution inside such coils to be predicted. (author)

  5. Flow of Giesekus viscoelastic fluid in a concentric annulus with inner cylinder rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravanchi, Maryam Takht; Mirzazadeh, Mahmoud; Rashidi, Fariborz

    2007-01-01

    An approximate analytical solution is derived for the steady state, purely tangential flow of a viscoelastic fluid obeying the Giesekus constitutive equation in a concentric annulus with inner cylinder rotation. An approximation is used for the estimation of radial normal stress. The effect of Weissenberg number (We), radius ratio (κ) and mobility factor (α) on velocity distribution and fRe are investigated. The results show that the velocity gradient near the inner cylinder increases as the fluid elasticity increases. The results also show that fRe decreases with increasing fluid elasticity

  6. Analytical solutions to time-fractional partial differential equations in a two-dimensional multilayer annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanzhen; Jiang, Xiaoyun

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, analytical solutions to time-fractional partial differential equations in a multi-layer annulus are presented. The final solutions are obtained in terms of Mittag-Leffler function by using the finite integral transform technique and Laplace transform technique. In addition, the classical diffusion equation (α=1), the Helmholtz equation (α→0) and the wave equation (α=2) are discussed as special cases. Finally, an illustrative example problem for the three-layer semi-circular annular region is solved and numerical results are presented graphically for various kind of order of fractional derivative.

  7. Steady and transient analyses of natural convection in a horizontal porous annulus with Galerkin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Y.F.; Fukuda, K.; Hasegawa, S.

    1986-01-01

    Steady and transient analytical investigation with the Galerkin method has been performed on natural convection in a horizontal porous annulus heated from the inner surface. Three families of convergent solutions, appearing one after another with increasing RaDa numbers, were obtained corresponding to different initial conditions. Despite the fact that the flow structures of two branching solutions are quite different, there exists a critical RaDa number at which their overall heat transfer rates have the same value. The bifurcation point was determined numerically, which coincided very well with that from experimental observation. The solutions in which higher wavenumber modes are dominant agree better with experimental data of overall heat transfer

  8. Single-shell tank closure work plan. Revision A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    In January 1994, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Conset Order (Tri-Party Agreement) was amended to reflect a revised strategy for remediation of radioactive waste in underground storage tanks. These amendments include milestones for closure of the single-shell tank (SST) operable units, to be initiated by March 2012 and completed by September 2024. This SST-CWP has been prepared to address the principal topical areas identified in Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-45-06 (i.e., regulatory pathway, operable unit characterization, waste retrieval, technology development, and a strategy for achieving closure). Chapter 2.0 of this SST-CWP provides a brief description of the environmental setting, SST System, the origin and characteristics of SST waste, and ancillary equipment that will be remediated as part of SST operable unit closure. Appendix 2A provides a description of the hydrogeology of the Hanford Site, including information on the unsaturated sediments (vadose zone) beneath the 200 Areas Plateau. Chapter 3.0 provides a discussion of the laws and regulations applicable to closure of the SST farm operable units. Chapter 4.0 provides a summary description of the ongoing characterization activities that best align with the proposed regulatory pathway for closure. Chapter 5.0 describes aspects of the SST waste retrieval program, including retrieval strategy, technology, and sequence, potential tank leakage during retrieval, and considerations of deployment of subsurface barriers. Chapter 6.0 outlines a proposed strategy for closure. Chapter 7.0 provides a summary of the programs underway or planned to develop technologies to support closure. Ca. 325 refs

  9. Single-shell tank closure work plan. Revision A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In January 1994, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Conset Order (Tri-Party Agreement) was amended to reflect a revised strategy for remediation of radioactive waste in underground storage tanks. These amendments include milestones for closure of the single-shell tank (SST) operable units, to be initiated by March 2012 and completed by September 2024. This SST-CWP has been prepared to address the principal topical areas identified in Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-45-06 (i.e., regulatory pathway, operable unit characterization, waste retrieval, technology development, and a strategy for achieving closure). Chapter 2.0 of this SST-CWP provides a brief description of the environmental setting, SST System, the origin and characteristics of SST waste, and ancillary equipment that will be remediated as part of SST operable unit closure. Appendix 2A provides a description of the hydrogeology of the Hanford Site, including information on the unsaturated sediments (vadose zone) beneath the 200 Areas Plateau. Chapter 3.0 provides a discussion of the laws and regulations applicable to closure of the SST farm operable units. Chapter 4.0 provides a summary description of the ongoing characterization activities that best align with the proposed regulatory pathway for closure. Chapter 5.0 describes aspects of the SST waste retrieval program, including retrieval strategy, technology, and sequence, potential tank leakage during retrieval, and considerations of deployment of subsurface barriers. Chapter 6.0 outlines a proposed strategy for closure. Chapter 7.0 provides a summary of the programs underway or planned to develop technologies to support closure. Ca. 325 refs.

  10. Closure report for N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule

  11. Closure report for N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule.

  12. Interferometric Imaging Directly with Closure Phases and Closure Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chael, Andrew A.; Johnson, Michael D.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Narayan, Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    Interferometric imaging now achieves angular resolutions as fine as ∼10 μas, probing scales that are inaccessible to single telescopes. Traditional synthesis imaging methods require calibrated visibilities; however, interferometric calibration is challenging, especially at high frequencies. Nevertheless, most studies present only a single image of their data after a process of “self-calibration,” an iterative procedure where the initial image and calibration assumptions can significantly influence the final image. We present a method for efficient interferometric imaging directly using only closure amplitudes and closure phases, which are immune to station-based calibration errors. Closure-only imaging provides results that are as noncommittal as possible and allows for reconstructing an image independently from separate amplitude and phase self-calibration. While closure-only imaging eliminates some image information (e.g., the total image flux density and the image centroid), this information can be recovered through a small number of additional constraints. We demonstrate that closure-only imaging can produce high-fidelity results, even for sparse arrays such as the Event Horizon Telescope, and that the resulting images are independent of the level of systematic amplitude error. We apply closure imaging to VLBA and ALMA data and show that it is capable of matching or exceeding the performance of traditional self-calibration and CLEAN for these data sets.

  13. Numerical study of evaporation in a vertical annulus heated at the inner wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Radhia, R.; Ben Jabrallah, S.; Ben Jabrallah, S.; Corriou, J.P.; Harmand, S.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed convection during evaporation of a water falling film in a vertical concentric annulus was studied numerically. The water thin film falls on the inner tube and is subjected to a constant heat flux density, whereas the outer cylinder is assumed to be insulated and dry. An imposed air flow circulates within the gap between the two concentric tubes. The objective of this work is to understand the evaporation phenomenon in order to improve the average evaporated mass flux density and heat and mass transfer. Conservative equations governing the gas phase are solved numerically using the finite volume method. In the liquid phase, a method based on local heat and mass balances on each level is used. Thus, the following liquid film parameters, feed water mass flow, feed temperature and heat flux density, are taken into account. The obtained results are analyzed to emphasize and evaluate the influence of the previous operating parameters and the annulus curvature on the effective evaporation surface and on the mass flux density of evaporated water. (authors)

  14. Melting of a phase change material in a horizontal annulus with discrete heat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei Hooshyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials have found many industrial applications such as cooling of electronic devices and thermal energy storage. This paper investigates numerically the melting process of a phase change material in a two-dimensional horizontal annulus with different arrangements of two discrete heat sources. The sources are positioned on the inner cylinder of the annulus and assumed as constant-temperature boundary conditions. The remaining portion of the inner cylinder wall as well as the outer cylinder wall is considered to be insulated. The emphasis is mainly on the effects of the arrangement of the heat source pair on the fluid flow and heat transfer features. The governing equations are solved on a non-uniform O type mesh using a pressure-based finite volume method with an enthalpy porosity technique to trace the solid and liquid interface. The results are obtained at Ra=104 and presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms, melting phase front, liquid fraction and dimensionless heat flux. It is observed that, depending on the arrangement of heat sources, the liquid fraction increases both linearly and non-linearly with time but will slow down at the end of the melting process. It can also be concluded that proper arrangement of discrete heat sources has the great potential in improving the energy storage system. For instance, the arrangement C3 where the heat sources are located on the bottom part of the inner cylinder wall can expedite the melting process as compared to the other arrangements.

  15. Electrical and electronic subsystems of a nuclear waste tank annulus inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, R.J.

    1981-06-01

    The nuclear waste tank annulus inspection system is designed specifically for use at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Fuel Services Facility at West Valley, New York. This system sends a television and photographic camera into the space between the walls of a double-shell nuclear waste tank to obtain images of the inner and outer walls at precisely known locations. The system is capable of inspecting a wall section 14 ft wide by 27 ft high. Due to the high temperature and radiation of the annulus environment, the operating life for the inspection device is uncertain, but is expected to be at least 100 h, with 1000 R/h at 82 0 C. The film camera is shielded with 1/2 in. of lead to minimize radiation fogging of the film during a 25-min picture taking excursion. The operation of the inspection system is semiautomated with remote manual prepositioning of the camera, followed by a computer controlled wall scan. This apparatus is currently set up to take an array of contiguous pictures, but is adaptable to other modes of operation

  16. First bulk and surface results for the ATLAS ITk stereo annulus sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Abidi, Syed Haider; The ATLAS collaboration; Bohm, Jan; Botte, James Michael; Ciungu, Bianca; Dette, Karola; Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez-Tejero, Xavi; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Gillberg, Dag; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub

    2018-01-01

    A novel microstrip sensor geometry, the “stereo annulus”, has been developed for use in the end-cap of the ATLAS experiment’s strip tracker upgrade at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL- LHC). The radiation-hard, single-sided, ac-coupled, n + -in-p microstrip sensors are designed by the ITk Strip Sensor Collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. The stereo annulus design has the potential to revolutionize the layout of end-cap microstrip trackers promising better tracking performance and more complete coverage than the contemporary configurations. These advantages are achieved by the union of equal length, radially oriented strips with a small stereo angle implemented directly into the sensor surface. The first-ever results for the stereo annulus geometry have been collected across several sites world- wide and are presented here. A number of full-size, unirradiated sensors were evaluated for their mechanical, bulk, and surface properties. The new device, the ATLAS12EC, is compared ag...

  17. Local interfacial structure of subcooled boiling flow in a heated annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Seong-O; Yun, Byong-Jo; Park, Goon-Cherl; Hibiki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Local measurements of flow parameters were performed for vertical upward subcooled boiling flows in an internally heated annulus. The annulus channel consisted of an inner heater rod with a diameter of 19.0 mm and an outer round tube with an inner diameter of 37.5 mm, and the hydraulic equivalent diameter was 18.5 mm. The double-sensor conductivity probe method was used for measuring the local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble Sauter mean diameter and gas velocity, whereas the miniature Pitot tube was used for measuring the local liquid velocity. A total of 32 data sets were acquired consisting of various combinations of heat flux, 88.1-350.9 kW/m 2 , mass flux, 469.7-1061.4kg(m 2 s) and inlet liquid temperature, 83.8-100.5degC. Six existing drift-flux models, six exiting correlations of the interfacial area concentration and bubble layer thickness model were evaluated using the data obtained in the experiment. (author)

  18. Postpneumonectomy Compression of the Mitral Annulus: Rare Vascular Complication in Sportive Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeaumont, David; Bota, Susana; Baste, Jean-Marc; Bellefleur, Marie; Stepowski, Dimitri; Vincent, Florence; Bonnevie, Tristan; Gravier, Francis-Edouard; Netchitailo, Marie; Tardif, Catherine; Boutry, Alain; Muir, Jean-François; Coquart, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    Numerous postpneumonectomy complications exist. We present a rare clinical case of postpneumonectomy exertional dyspnea revealing compression of the mitral annulus by the descending aorta. The patient was 42-year-old former smoker with pulmonary emphysema. He has been operated on, in 2012 (i.e., right pneumonectomy). Before the surgery, the patient was a recreational runner. However, after some months, it was difficult for the patient to resume running. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing indicated moderate exercise intolerance with important oxygen desaturation. More interestingly, a decrease of low oxygen pulse was noticed from the first ventilatory threshold with no electrical modification on the electrocardiogram. This decrease was indicative of a decline in stroke volume. The thoracic scan revealed a right pneumonectomy pocket with a liquid abnormal content. Moreover, the mediastinum had shifted toward the pneumonectomy space and the left lung was distended and emphysematous. Echocardiography revealed a major change in the mediastinal anatomy. The mitral annulus was observed to be compressed by the rear wall of the descending aorta. The diagnosis of postpneumonectomy syndrome or platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome was ruled out in this patient. Mitral annular compression by the descending aorta is rare complication, which must be researched in patients with postpneumonectomy exertional dyspnea.

  19. Postpneumonectomy Compression of the Mitral Annulus: Rare Vascular Complication in Sportive Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Debeaumont

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous postpneumonectomy complications exist. We present a rare clinical case of postpneumonectomy exertional dyspnea revealing compression of the mitral annulus by the descending aorta. The patient was 42-year-old former smoker with pulmonary emphysema. He has been operated on, in 2012 (i.e., right pneumonectomy. Before the surgery, the patient was a recreational runner. However, after some months, it was difficult for the patient to resume running. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing indicated moderate exercise intolerance with important oxygen desaturation. More interestingly, a decrease of low oxygen pulse was noticed from the first ventilatory threshold with no electrical modification on the electrocardiogram. This decrease was indicative of a decline in stroke volume. The thoracic scan revealed a right pneumonectomy pocket with a liquid abnormal content. Moreover, the mediastinum had shifted toward the pneumonectomy space and the left lung was distended and emphysematous. Echocardiography revealed a major change in the mediastinal anatomy. The mitral annulus was observed to be compressed by the rear wall of the descending aorta. The diagnosis of postpneumonectomy syndrome or platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome was ruled out in this patient. Mitral annular compression by the descending aorta is rare complication, which must be researched in patients with postpneumonectomy exertional dyspnea.

  20. Creeping gaseous flows through elastic tube and annulus micro-configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Shai; Jacob, Hila; Gat, Amir

    2016-11-01

    Gaseous flows in elastic micro-configurations is relevant to biological systems (e.g. alveolar ducts in the lungs) as well as to applications such as gas actuated soft micro-robots. We here examine the effect of low-Mach-number compressibility on creeping gaseous axial flows through linearly elastic tube and annulus micro-configurations. For steady flows, the leading-order effects of elasticity on the pressure distribution and mass-flux are obtained. For transient flow in a tube with small deformations, elastic effects are shown to be negligible in leading order due to compressibility. We then examine transient flows in annular configurations where the deformation is significant compared with the gap between the inner and outer cylinders defining the annulus. Both compressibility and elasticity are obtained as dominant terms interacting with viscosity. For a sudden flux impulse, the governing non-linear leading order diffusion equation is initially approximated by a porous-medium-equation of order 2.5 for the pressure square. However, as the fluid expand and the pressure decreases, the governing equation degenerates to a porous-medium-equation of order 2 for the pressure.

  1. Bubble boundary estimation in an annulus two-phase flow using electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Seong

    2008-02-01

    For the visualization of the phase boundary in an annulus two-phase flows, the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) technique is introduced. In EIT, a set of predetermined electrical currents is injected trough the electrodes placed on the boundary of the flow passage and the induced electrical potentials are measured on the electrode. With the relationship between the injected currents and the induced voltages, the electrical conductivity distribution across the flow domain is estimated through the image reconstruction algorithm. In this, the conductivity distribution corresponds to the phase distribution. In the application of EIT to two-phase flows where there are only two conductivity values, the conductivity distribution estimation problem can be transformed into the boundary estimation problem. This paper considers a bubble boundary estimation with EIT in an annulus two-phase flows. And in many industrial cases there are a priori known internal structures inside the vessels which could be used as internal electrodes in tomographical imaging. In this paper internal electrodes were considered in electrical impedance tomography. As the image reconstruction algorithm, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is adopted since from the control theory it is reported that the UKF shows better performance than the extended Kalman filter (EKF) that has been commonly used. The UKF algorithm was formulated to be incorporate into the image reconstruction algorithm for the present problem. Also, phantom experiments have been conducted to evaluate the improvement by UKF

  2. Die berekening van vloeiing in ’n roterende annulus deur die metode van kunsmatige saamdrukbaarheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Grobler

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Die vloeiing van ’n onsaamdrukbare, viskeuse vloeier word ondersoek aan die hand van die numeriese oplossing van die gediskretiseerde Navier-Stokes- en kontinuiteitsbeheervergelykings. In die besonder word vloeiing in ’n annulus bestaande uit twee koaksiale silinders wat elk ten opsigte van die ander kan roteer, en met ’n voorgeskrewe drukval oor die lengte van die silinder, beskou. Die oplossings word bereken deur die toepassing van Chorin se metode van kunsmatige saamdrukbaarheid, waarin die tydonafhanklike beheervergelykings getransformeer word na tydafhanklike hulpvergelykings deur die invoering van ’n kunsmatige toestandsvergelyking. Die oplossing van die hulpvergelykings konvergeer na ’n stasionêre oplossing, wat ooreenstem met die oplossing van die oorspronklike tydonafhanklike beheervergelykings. Die gedrag van die vloeier, wanneer ten voile ontwikkelde laminêre vloeiing bereik word, is met sukses bereken. ’n Eenvoudige model vir die bepaling van ontwikkeling van vloeiing langs die annulus vir enige gegewe invloeisnelheidsprofiel word voorgestel. Die berekende resultate stem ooreen met die resultate wat uit die fisika van die probleem verwag word.

  3. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  4. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  5. Site Closure Strategy Model for Creosote Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, F.R.; Gray, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with RCRA site corrective action at an active wood preserving facility, a risk-based site closure strategy was developed and incorporated the performance of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source recovery remedy, a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) remedy for dissolved phase groundwater, and institutional controls. Innovative creosote DNAPL source recovery has been undertaken at the Site since 1998. Pooled creosote DNAPL is present 90 feet below ground within a transmissive sand and gravel aquifer with a saturated thickness of approximately 80 feet. The creosote DNAPL source is situated on the property boundary of the site and has generated a 1/2 mile off-site dissolved phase plume, creating significant NAPL management and remedial technology verification issues. To date, over 120,000 gallons of creosote DNAPL have been recovered from the subsurface utilizing a modified circulation well technology. A mass discharge flux protocol was developed to serve as a major performance metrics for the continuation of source removal efforts and to support the application of monitored natural attenuation as an associated remedial technology for groundwater. The mass removal success has supported the MNA remedy for dissolved phase groundwater and the associated development of institutional controls. The enacted site management strategy outlines the current and future risk management activities for the Site and represents an appropriate site closure strategy for the Site. (authors)

  6. Manufacturing and properties of closure head forging integrated with flange for PWR reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoharu Sasaki; Iku Kurihara; Etsuo Murai; Yasuhiko Tanaka; Koumei Suzuki

    2003-01-01

    Closure head forging (SA508, Gr.3 Cl.1) integrated with flange for PWR reactor pressure vessel has been developed. This is intended to enhance structural integrity of closure head resulted in elimination of ISI, by eliminating weld joint between closure head and flange in the conventional design. Manufacturing procedures have been established so that homogeneity and isotropy of the material properties can be assured in the closure head forging integrated with flange. Acceptance tensile and impact test specimens are taken and tested regarding the closure head forging integrated with flange as very thick and complex forgings. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies and material properties of the closure head forging integrated with flange. (orig.)

  7. Flow regime mapping of vertical two-phase downflow in a ribbed annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Two-phase flow regimes have been mapped for vertical, cocurrent downflow in a narrow annulus which is partially segmented by the presence of longitudinal ribs. This geometry and flow condition has application to the analysis of a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the production K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ribbed annular geometry, particularly the presence of non-sealing ribs, gives rise to some unique phenomenological features. The flow behavior is influenced by the partial segmentation of the annulus into four quadrants or subchannels. A random element is induced by the natural bowing of the slender tubes; the width of the azimuthal flow path between two subchannels at a given axial location is indeterminate, and can take on any value between zero and the maximum clearance of 7.6 x l0 -4 m. When the rib gap is zero at a given location, it is at a maximum 180P away at the same axial location. The range of rib gaps is spanned in a single test section, as it would be also in a reactor assembly. As a result of these effects, flow regime maps obtained by other researchers for downflow in annuli are not accurate for defining flow regimes in a ribbed annulus. Flow regime transitions similar to those noted by, e.g., Bamea, were observed; the locations of these transitions were displaced with respect to the transition equations derived by Bamea. Experimental bubble rise velocity measurements were also obtained in the same test section. The bubble rise velocities were much higher than expected from the theory developed for slug bubbles in tubes, unribbed annuli, and rectangular channels. An elliptical-cap bubble rises faster than a slug bubble of the same area. Large, slug-shaped bubbles injected into the test section were observed to reduce in size as they rose, due to interaction with a longitudinal rib. They thereby adopted a shape more like an elliptical-cap bubble, hence rising faster than the original slug bubble

  8. Burn-out, Circumferential Film Flow Distribution and Pressure Drop for an Eccentric Annulus with Heated Rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P. S.; Jensen, A.; Mannov, G.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of (1) burn-out, (2) circumferential film flow distribution, and (3) pressure drop in a 17 × 27.2 × 3500 mm concentric and eccentric annulus geometry are presented. The eccentric displacement was varied between 0 and 3 mm. The working fluid was water. Burn-out curves at 70 bar...... flow variation on burn-out is discussed....

  9. Analysis of optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes using modified Bessel-like function and trapezoid annulus modulation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Wei, Zhongchao; Liu, Yuebo; Huang, Aili

    2015-02-01

    Two amplitude modulation methods, including modified Bessel-like function modulation structure and trapezoid annulus structure, for suppressing sidelobes of optical vortices are studied. In the former approach, we propose that the order of the Bessel-like function can be an additional parameter to modulate diffraction patterns of optical vortices motivated by the idea of conventional annulus structures. Furthermore, new Bessel-like modulation functions are introduced to solve the problem of low diffraction efficiency of the original one. Trapezoid annulus structure is proposed as a compromise structure between the modified Bessel-like modulation structure and the conventional annulus one, and has advantages of both. It is demonstrated that these two approaches can achieve high-quality optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes effectively, and the relative structures behave as more flexible and applicable structures for producing optical vortices with large coverage of topological charges, which suggests great potential in simplifying the structure designing procedure. These reliable and generalized structures for generating high-quality optical vortices will help to promote the development of future optical communication and optical manipulation significantly.

  10. In vitro and biomechanical screening of polyethylene glycol and poly(trimethylene carbonate) block copolymers for annulus fibrosus repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, R.G.; Rotman, Stijn Gerard; Hom, H.W.; Assael, D.J.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Latridis, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Herniated intervertebral discs are a common cause of back and neck pain. There is an unmet clinical need to seal annulus fibrosus (AF) defects, since discectomy surgeries address acute pain but are complicated by reherniation and recurrent pain. Copolymers of polyethylene glycol with trimethylene

  11. Assessment of tricuspid valve annulus size, shape and function using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Anwar (Ashraf); M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); F.J. ten Cate (Folkert); F.J. Meijboom (Folkert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractTricuspid annulus (TA) evaluation continues to be a major problem in the surgical decision-making process. Obviously, 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D TTE) is limited in TA visualization due to its complex 3D shape. The study aimed to determine TA morphology, size and

  12. CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, F.R. [CTS-NA, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO{sub 2} gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.

  13. Unsteady three-dimensional behavior of natural convection in horizontal annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Toshizo; Miki, Yasutomi; Morita, Kouji; Fukuda, Kenji; Hasegawa, Shu

    1988-01-01

    An numerical analysis has been performed on unsteady three-dimensional natural convection in a concentric horizontal annulus filled with air. The explicit leap-frog scheme is used for integrating three-dimensional time-dependent equations and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) for solving the Poisson equations for pressure. An oscillatory flow is found to occur at high Rayleigh numbers, which agree qualitatively with the experimental observation made by Bishop et al. An experiment is also conducted to measure temperature fluctuations; a comparison between periods of fluctuations obtained numerically and experimentally shows a good agreement. Numerical calculations yield various statistical parameters of turbulence at higher Rayleigh numbers, which wait experimental verificaions, however. (author)

  14. Design of improved detection instrumentation for the annulus gas system for wolsong 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seog Nam; Koo, Jun Mo; Chang, Ik Ho; Jung, Ho Chang; Han, Sang Joon

    1996-01-01

    The improved and advanced Annulus Gas System (AGS) has been developed for Wolsong 2 to satisfy the requirements of the regulatory body. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required a shorter detection time following a small leak from a pressure tube and/or calandria tube. This paper describes licensing requirements, functional requirements and detail design description for the AGS. The Wolsong unit No. 1 AGS was designed to operate as a stagnant system normally requiring only pressure regulation and having provisions for purging. The improved AGS involves the adoption of gas recirculation in AGS, duplication of dew point indicators with additional instrumentation and sampling provisions to prompt operator action. The improved system operates in the recirculation mode with continuous dew point measurement for leak detection. An AGS with improved detection instrumentation is provided. 8 refs., 3 figs. (author)

  15. CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greening, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO_2 gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.

  16. Limits on Annulus Air Outages in Types 1, 2, and 3 Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.; Sindelar, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation was performed on the impact of abnormal air flow conditions on the structural integrity of Types 1, 2, and 3 waste tanks. Warm, dry air in the annular space is necessary to preclude low temperature embrittlement and corrosive conditions for the carbon steel materials. For Type 1 and 2 tanks the annulus air system should be repaired within a month to minimize the potential for low temperature embrittlement and corrosive conditions, for Tanks 29-34, which are Type 3 tanks, it is recommended that the system be repaired within two months to minimize the potential for low temperature embrittlement. For all other Type 3 tanks repair of the system within six months is adequate to minimize general corrosion

  17. Unsteady flow of fractional Oldroyd-B fluids through rotating annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Madeeha; Naeem, Muhammad Nawaz; Javaid, Maria; Younas, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Sadiq, Naeem; Safdar, Rabia

    2018-04-01

    In this paper exact solutions corresponding to the rotational flow of a fractional Oldroyd-B fluid, in an annulus, are determined by applying integral transforms. The fluid starts moving after t = 0+ when pipes start rotating about their axis. The final solutions are presented in the form of usual Bessel and hypergeometric functions, true for initial and boundary conditions. The limiting cases for the solutions for ordinary Oldroyd-B, fractional Maxwell and Maxwell and Newtonian fluids are obtained. Moreover, the solution is obtained for the fluid when one pipe is rotating and the other one is at rest. At the end of this paper some characteristics of fluid motion, the effect of the physical parameters on the flow and a correlation between different fluid models are discussed. Finally, graphical representations confirm the above affirmation.

  18. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow in the inlet region of an eccentric annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartz, U.

    1983-08-01

    In a fully eccentric annulus with a radius-ratio of Rsub(i)/Rsub(a)=0.86 the mean flow components anti U, anti V, anti W and the 6 components of the Reynolds stress tensor have been measured. These measurements have been made with hot-wire-probes. Besides this the static pressure and the total pressure have been determined by means of static pressure probes and Pitot-tubes. Beginning with X/Dsub(H)=14 (Dsub(H)=14 mm) wallshearstress-measurements have been conducted also using a Pitot-tube with Preston's method. Additionally computations have been made with the codes VELASCO and BODYFIT. The 11 axial plains reached from X/Dsub(H)=0.05 from the entrance to X/Dsub(H)=357 with logarithmic scale. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Critical heat-flux experiments under low-flow conditions in a vertical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Ishii, M.

    1982-03-01

    An experimental study was performed on critical heat flux (CHF) at low flow conditions for low pressure steam-water upward flow in an annulus. The test section was transparent, therefore, visual observations of dryout as well as various instrumentations were made. The data indicated that a premature CHF occurred due to flow regime transition from churn-turbulent to annular flow. It is shown that the critical heat flux observed in the experiment is essentially similar to a flooding-limited burnout and the critical heat flux can be well reproduced by a nondimensional correlation derived from the previously obtained criterion for flow regime transition. The observed CHF values are much smaller than the standard high quality CHF criteria at low flow, corresponding to the annular flow film dryout. This result is very significant, because the coolability of a heater surface at low flow rates can be drastically reduced by the occurrence of this mode of CHF

  20. Experimental study on natural-convection boiling burnout in an annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Ishii, M.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study was performed on burnout heat flux at low flow rates for low-pressure steam-water upward flow in an annulus. The data indicated that a premature burnout occurred due to flow-regime transition from churn-turbulent to annular flow. It is shown that the burnout observed in the experiment is essentially a flooding-limited burnout and the burnout heat flux can be well reproduced by a nondimensional correlation derived from the previously obtained criterion for flow-regime transition. It is also shown that the conventional correlations for burnout heat flux at low mass velocities agree well with the data on circulation and entrainment-limited burnout

  1. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air-water mixtures in an isoflux vertical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.; El-Sallak, M.; Morcos, S.M.; Salama, A.

    1996-01-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop in flows of air-water mixtures have been investigated experimentally in an isoflux vertical annulus. The superficial liquid Reynolds number, as a reference parameter, varied from 4500 to 30 000, at different values of gas-to-liquid superficial velocity ratios up to 20 and surface heat fluxes from 50 to 240 kW/m 2 . Enhancement of the two-phase heat transfer coefficient is pronounced particularly at low liquid superficial velocities. The results are correlated and compared with some models of two-phase, two-component flows for air-water mixtures within their range of validity. Satisfactory agreement is obtained from the trend of the experimental data. (orig.) [de

  2. Geometric effects of spacer grid in an annulus flow channel during reflooding period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.; Chun, S. Y.; Kim, B. D.; Park, J. K.; Yun, Y. J.; Baek, W. P.

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies on the reflooding phase were actively carried out from the early 70's due to its importance for the safety of the nuclear reactor. (Martini et al., 1973; Henry, 1974; Chung, 1978;) However, few studies have presented the spacer grid effect during the reflooding period. Since the grid is an obstruction in the flow passage, it causes an increased pressure drop due to form and skin friction losses. On the other hand, the spacer grid tends to increase the local wall heat transfer. The present work has been performed in a vertical annulus flow channel with various flow conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of a swirl-vane spacer grid on the rewetting phenomena during the reflooding phase

  3. Interfacial area transport of subcooled boiling flow in a vertical annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Caleb S.; Ozar, Basar; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru, E-mail: ishii@purdue.edu

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Discussion of boiling and wall nucleation dataset obtained in a vertical annulus. • Overview of the interfacial area transport equation modeling in boiling flow. • Comparison of bubble departure diameter and frequency with existing models. • Evaluation of the interfacial area transport equation prediction in boiling flow. - Abstract: In an effort to improve the prediction of void fraction and heat transfer characteristics in two-phase systems, the two-group interfacial area transport equation has been developed for use with the two-group two-fluid model. The two-group approach treats spherical/distorted bubbles as Group-1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group-2. Therefore, the interfacial area transport of steam-water two-phase flow in a vertical annulus has been investigated experimentally, including bulk flow parameters and wall nucleation characteristics. The theoretical modeling of interfacial area transport equation with phase change terms is introduced and discussed along with the experimental results. Benchmark of the interfacial area transport equation is performed considering the effects of bubble interaction mechanisms such as bubble break-up and coalescence, as well as, effects of phase change mechanisms such as wall nucleation and condensation for subcooled boiling. From the benchmark, sensitivity in the constitutive relations for Group-1 phase change mechanisms, such as wall nucleation and condensation is clear. The Group-2 interfacial area transport is shown to be dominated by the interfacial heat transfer mechanism causing expansion of Group-1 bubbles into Group-2 bubbles in the boiling flow.

  4. Assessment of leak detection capability of Candu 6 annulus gas system using moisture injection tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Ki Man; Kim, Wang Bae

    1998-01-01

    The Candu 6 reactor assembly consists of an array of 380 pressure tubes, which are installed horizontally in a large cylindrical vessel, the Calandria, containing the low pressure heavy water moderator. The pressure tube is located inside calandria tube and the annulus between these tubes, which forms a closed loop with CO 2 gas recirculating, is called the Annulus Gas System (AGS). It is designed to give an alarm to the operator even for a small pressure tube leak by a very sensitive dew point meter so that he can take a preventive action for the pressure tbe rupture incident. To judge whether the operator action time is enough or not in the design of Wolsung 2, 3, and 4, the Leak Before Break (LBB) assessment is required for the analysis of the pressure tube failure accident. In order to provide the required data for the LBB assessment of Wolsung Units 2, 3, 4, a series of leak detection capability tests was performed by injecting controlled rates of heavy water vapour. The data of increased dew point and rates of rise were measured to determine the alarm set point for dew point rate of rise of Wolsung Unit 2. It was found that the response of the dew point depends on the moisture injection rate, CO 2 gas flow rate and the leak location. The test showed that Candu 6 AGS can detect the very small leaks less than few g/hr and dew point rate of rise alarm can be the most reliable alarm signal to warn the operator. Considering the present results, the first response time of dew point to the AGS CO 2 flow rate is approximated. (author)

  5. Association of mitral annulus calcification, aortic valve calcification with carotid intima media thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scuteri Angelo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitral annular calcification (MAC and aortic annular calcification (AVC may represent a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis in the elederly. Alterations in vascular structure, as indexed by the intima media thickness (IMT, are also recognized as independent predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Aim To examine the relationship between the degree of calcification at mitral and/or aortic valve annulus and large artery structure (thickness. Methods We evaluated 102 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and carotid artery echoDoppler for various indications; variables measured were: systemic blood pressure (BP, pulse pressure (PP=SBP-DBP, body mass index (BMI, fasting glucose, total, HDL, LDL chlolesterol, triglycerides, cIMT. The patients were divided according to a grading of valvular/annular lesions independent scores based on acoustic densitometry: 1 = annular/valvular sclerosis/calcification absence; 2 = annular/valvular sclerosis; 3 = annular calcification; 4 = annular-valvular calcification; 5 = valvular calcification with no recognition of the leaflets. Results Patient score was the highest observed for either valvular/annulus. Mean cIMT increased linearly with increasing valvular calcification score, ranging from 3.9 ± 0.48 mm in controls to 12.9 ± 1.8 mm in those subjects scored 5 (p 0.0001. Conclusion MAC and AVC score can identify subgroups of patients with different cIMT values which indicate different incidence and prevalence of systemic artery diseases. This data may confirm MAC-AVC as a useful important diagnostic parameter of systemic atherosclerotic disease.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of collagen and elastin in annulus fibrosus of the physiologic and scoliotic intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobielarz, Magdalena; Szotek, Sylwia; Głowacki, Maciej; Dawidowicz, Joanna; Pezowicz, Celina

    2016-09-01

    The biophysical properties of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc are determined by collagen and elastin fibres. The progression of scoliosis is accompanied by a number of pathological changes concerning these structural proteins. This is a major cause of dysfunction of the intervertebral disc. The object of the study were annulus fibrosus samples excised from intervertebral discs of healthy subjects and patients treated surgically for scoliosis in the thoracolumbar or lumbar spine. The research material was subjected to structural analysis by light microscopy and quantitative analysis of the content of collagen types I, II, III and IV as well as elastin by immunoenzymatic test (ELISA). A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the impact of the sampling site (Mann-Whitney test, α=0.05) and scoliosis (Wilcoxon matched pairs test, α=0.05) on the obtained results. The microscopic studies conducted on scoliotic annulus fibrosus showed a significant architectural distortion of collagen and elastin fibres. Quantitative biochemical assays demonstrated region-dependent distribution of only collagen types I and II in the case of healthy intervertebral discs whereas in the case of scoliotic discs region-dependent distribution concerned all examined proteins of the extracellular matrix. Comparison of scoliotic and healthy annulus fibrosus revealed a significant decrease in the content of collagen type I and elastin as well as a slight increase in the proportion of collagen types III and IV. The content of collagen type II did not differ significantly between both groups. The observed anomalies are a manifestation of degenerative changes affecting annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc in patients suffering from scoliosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fuel channel closure and adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashen, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a mechanical closure/actuating ram combination particularly suited for use in sealing the ends of the pressure tubes when a CANDU-type reactor is refueled. It provides a cluster that may be inserted into a fuel channel end fitting to provide at least partial closing off of a pressure tube while permitting the disengagement of the fueling machine and its withdrawal from the closure for other purposes. The invention also provides a ram/closure combination wherein the application of loading force to a deformable sealing disk is regulated by a massive load bar component forming part of the fueling machine and being therefore accessible for maintenance or replacement

  8. INTEC CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System Closure: Process Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmitt, Raymond Rodney; Faultersack, Wendell Gale; Foster, Jonathan Kay; Berry, Stephen Michael

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the engineering activities that have been completed in support of the closure plan for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System. This effort includes detailed assessments of methods and equipment for performing work in four areas: 1. A cold (nonradioactive) mockup system for testing equipment and procedures for vessel cleanout and vessel demolition. 2. Cleanout of process vessels to meet standards identified in the closure plan. 3. Dismantlement and removal of vessels, should it not be possible to clean them to required standards in the closure plan. 4. Cleanout or removal of pipelines and pumps associated with the CPP-603 basin water treatment system. Cleanout standards for the pipes will be the same as those used for the process vessels.

  9. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells

  10. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

  11. The Office of Site Closure: Progress in the Face of Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, J. J.; Murphie, W. E.; Meador, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    The Office of Site Closure (OSC) was formed in November 1999 when the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) reorganized to focus specifically on site cleanup and closure. OSC's objective is to achieve safe and cost-effective cleanups and closures that are protective of our workers, the public, and the environment, now and in the future. Since its inception, OSC has focused on implementing a culture of safe closure, with emphasis in three primary areas: complete our responsibility for the Closure Sites Rocky Flats, Mound, Fernald, Ashtabula, and Weldon Spring; complete our responsibility for cleanup at sites where the DOE mission has been completed (examples include Battelle King Avenue and Battelle West Jefferson in Columbus, and General Atomics) or where other Departmental organizations have an ongoing mission (examples include the Brookhaven, Livermore, or Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the Nevada Test Site); and create a framework a nd develop specific business closure tools that will help sites close, such as guidance for and decisions on post-contract benefit liabilities, records retention, and Federal employee incentives for site closure. This paper discusses OSC's 2001 progress in achieving site cleanups, moving towards site closure, and developing specific business closure tools to support site closure. It describes the tools used to achieve progress towards cleanup and closure, such as the application of new technologies, changes in contracting approaches, and the development of agreements between sites and with host states. The paper also identifies upcoming challenges and explores options for how Headquarters and the sites can work together to address these challenges. Finally, it articulates OSC's new focus on oversight of Field Offices to ensure they have the systems in place to oversee contractor activities resulting in site cleanups and closures

  12. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... and post-closure care objectives of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) Type and amount of hazardous..., including amount, frequency, and pH of precipitation; (5) Geological and soil profiles and surface and...

  13. 50 CFR 648.161 - Closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Bluefish Fishery § 648.161 Closures. (a) EEZ closure. NMFS shall close the EEZ to fishing for bluefish by... dealer permit holders that no commercial quota is available for landing bluefish in that state. ...

  14. Moment Closure for the Stochastic Logistic Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Abhyudai; Hespanha, Joao P

    2006-01-01

    ..., which we refer to as the moment closure function. In this paper, a systematic procedure for constructing moment closure functions of arbitrary order is presented for the stochastic logistic model...

  15. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  16. 304 Concretion facility closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium Zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy, and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets in the 304 Concretion Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLRMW) with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Concretion Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of materials and wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Concretion Facility (304 Facility). Clean closure of the 304 Facility is the proposed method for closure of the facility. Justification for this proposal is presented. 15 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Telephone switchboard closure | 19 December

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Exceptionally, the telephone switchboard will close at 4 p.m. on Friday, 19 December, instead of the usual time of 6 p.m., to allow time for closing all systems properly before the annual closure. Therefore, switchboard operator assistance to transfer calls from/to external lines will stop. All other phone services will run as usual.

  18. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters. PMID:20981425

  19. 75 FR 29322 - Base Closure and Realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Base Closure and Realignment AGENCY: Office of...)(ii) of the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990. It provides a partial list of military installations closing or realigning pursuant to the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment (BRAC) Report. It also...

  20. Biaxial testing of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under changing salt concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques M. Huyghe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo mechanics of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is one of biaxial rather than uniaxial loading. The material properties of the annulus are intimately linked to the osmolarity in the tissue. This paper presents biaxial relaxation experiments of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under stepwise changes of external salt concentration. The force tracings show that stresses are strongly dependent on time, salt concentration and orientation. The force tracing signature of are sponse to a change instrain, is one of a jumpin stress that relaxes partly as the new strain is maintained. The force tracing signature of a stepwise change in salt concentration is a progressive monotonous change in stress towards a new equilibrium value. Although the number of samples does not allow any definitive quantitative conclusions, the trends may shed light on the complex interaction among the directionality of forces, strains and fiber orientation on one hand, and on the other hand, the osmolarity of the tissue. The dual response to a change in strain is understood as an immediate response before fluid flows in or out of the tissue, followed by a progressive readjustment of the fluid content in time because of the gradient in fluid chemical potential between the tissue and the surrounding solution.A mecânica in vivo do anel fibroso do disco intervertebral é baseada em carregamento biaxial ao invés de uniaxial. As propriedades materiais do anel estão intimamente ligadas à osmolaridade no tecido. O artigo apresenta experimentos de relaxação biaxiais do anel fibroso de um tecido canino sob mudanças abruptas na concentração externa de sal. A assinatura da força devido à mudança brusca de salinidade resulta em uma progressiva e monótona mudança na tensão em direção a um novo valor de equilíbrio. Embora o número de amostras não permita nenhuma conclusão quantitativa, as tendências podem abrir uma luz no entendimento das intera

  1. Propagation of Local Bubble Parameters of Subcooled Boiling Flow in a Pressurized Vertical Annulus Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In-Cheol; Lee, Seung Jun; Youn, Young Jung; Park, Jong Kuk; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong Jin

    2015-01-01

    CMFD (Computation Multi-Fluid Dynamics) tools have been being developed to simulate two-phase flow safety problems in nuclear reactor, including the precise prediction of local bubble parameters in subcooled boiling flow. However, a lot of complicated phenomena are encountered in the subcooled boiling flow such as bubble nucleation and departure, interfacial drag of bubbles, lateral migration of bubbles, bubble coalescence and break-up, and condensation of bubbles, and the constitutive models for these phenomena are not yet complete. As a result, it is a difficult task to predict the radial profile of bubble parameters and its propagation along the flow direction. Several experiments were performed to measure the local bubble parameters for the validation of the CMFD code analysis and improvement of the constitutive models of the subcooled boiling flow, and to enhance the fundamental understanding on the subcooled boiling flow. The information on the propagation of the local flow parameters along the flow direction was not provided because the measurements were conducted at the fixed elevation. In SUBO experiments, the radial profiles of local bubble parameters, liquid velocity and temperature were obtained for steam-water subcooled boiling flow in a vertical annulus. The local flow parameters were measured at six elevations along the flow direction. The pressure was in the range of 0.15 to 0.2 MPa. We have launched an experimental program to investigate quantify the local subcooled boiling flow structure under elevated pressure condition in order to provide high precision experimental data for thorough validation of up-to-date CMFD codes. In the present study, the first set of experimental data on the propagation of the radial profile of the bubble parameters was obtained for the subcooled boiling flow of R-134a in a pressurized vertical annulus channel. An experimental program was launched for an in-depth investigation of a subcooled boiling flow in an elevated

  2. Analytical solution for pulsatile viscous flow in a straight elliptic annulus and application to the motion of the cerebrospinal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumeet; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2008-09-01

    We present here the analytical solution of transient, laminar, viscous flow of an incompressible, Newtonian fluid driven by a harmonically oscillating pressure gradient in a straight elliptic annulus. The analytical formulation is based on the exact solution of the governing fluid flow equations known as Navier-Stokes equations. We validate the analytical solution using a finite-volume computational fluid dynamics approach. As the analytical solution includes Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions, we also present a stepwise procedure for their evaluation for large complex arguments typically associated with viscous flows. We further outline the procedure for evaluating the associated Fourier coefficients and their eigenvalues. We finally apply the analytical solution to investigate the cerebrospinal fluid flow in the human spinal cavity, which features a shape similar to an elliptic annulus.

  3. Technical modification enabling pulmonary valve-sparing repair of a severely hypoplastic pulmonary annulus in patients with tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroki; Ota, Noritaka; Murata, Masaya; Tosaka, Yuko; Ide, Yujiro; Tachi, Maiko; Sugimoto, Ai; Sakamoto, Kisaburo

    2013-06-01

    Although pulmonary valve-sparing repair is preferable for patients with tetralogy of Fallot, the repair of very small pulmonary valves is challenging. The present study evaluates our modification for preserving severely hypoplastic pulmonary valves in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Sixty-eight consecutive patients who underwent complete repair of a tetralogy of Fallot between 2005 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with pulmonary atresia, absence of a pulmonary valve, atrioventricular septal defect and/or subarterial ventricular septal defect were excluded. There were 19 (28%) patients with a severely hypoplastic pulmonary annulus determined by preoperative echocardiography (z-score -4 group. In the z tetralogy of Fallot could not be applied in all patients, this strategy enabled acceptable growth of the valve annulus, with only mild stenosis during the early to mid-term follow-up. This modification seems to be an option, even for a very small pulmonary valve.

  4. Two-phase magnetoconvection flow of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in a horizontal composite porous annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Zaheer; Hasnain, Jafar

    A numerical study is performed to examine the two-phase magnetoconvection and heat transfer phenomena of Fe3O4 -kerosene nanofluid flow in a horizontal composite porous annulus with an external magnetic field. The annulus is filled with immiscible fluids flowing between two concentric cylinders. The governing equations of the flow problem are obtained using Darcy-Brinkman model. Heat transfer is analyzed in the presence of viscous and Darcian dissipation terms. The shooting method is used as a tool to solve the obtained non-linear ordinary differential equations for the velocity and temperature profiles. The velocity and temperature distributions are analyzed and discussed under the influence of involved flow parameters with the aid of graphs. It is found that both velocity and temperature of fluid are decreased with ferroparticle volume fraction. In addition to that, it is also presented that the existence of magnetic field decreases the benefit of ferrofluids in heat transfer progression.

  5. Study on heat transfer and hydraulic model of spiral-fin fuel rods based on equivalent annulus method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dan; Liu Changwen; Lu Jianchao

    2011-01-01

    Tight lattice fuel assembly usually adopts spiral-fin fuel elements. Compared with the traditional PWR fuel rods, the closely packed and spiral fin spacers make the heat transfer and hydraulic phenomena in sub-channels very complicated, and: there was no suitable model and correlation to study it. This paper studied the effect of spiral spacers on the channel geometry in the equivalent annulus and physical performance based on the Rehme equivalent annulus methods, and the heat transfer of the spiral fin fuel rods and hydraulic model were obtained. The new model was verified with the traditional one, and the verification showed that two new models agreed well, which could provide certain theoretical explanation to the effect of the spiral spacer on the thermal hydraulics. (authors)

  6. Intervertebral Disc Degeneration : The Role of the Mitochondrial Pathway in Annulus Fibrosus Cell Apoptosis Induced by Overload

    OpenAIRE

    Rannou, François; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Zhou, Rui-Hai; Chin, Jennie; Lotz, Jeffrey C.; Mayoux-Benhamou, Marie-Anne; Barbet, Jacques Patrick; Chevrot, Alain; Shyy, John Y.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disk (IVD) is a major pathological process implicated in low back pain and is a prerequisite to disk herniation. Although mechanical stress is an important modulator of the degeneration, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. The association of human IVD degeneration, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, with annulus fibrosus cell apoptosis and anti-cytochrome c staining revealed that the activation of the mitochondria-dependent apoptosome wa...

  7. Heat Transfer Characteristics for an Upward Flowing Supercritical Pressure CO2 in a Vertical Annulus Passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Deog Ji; Kim, Sin; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Bae, Yoon Yeong

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer experiments at a vertical annulus passage were carried out in the SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt Generation) to investigate the heat transfer behaviors of supercritical CO 2 . The collected test data are to be used for the reactor core design of the SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor). The mass flux was in the range of 400 ∼1200 kg/m 2 s and the heat flux was chosen up to 150 kW/m 2 . The selected pressures were 7.75 and 8.12 MPa. The heat transfer data were analyzed and compared with the previous tube test data. The test results showed that the heat transfer characteristics were similar to those of the tube in case of a normal heat transfer mode and degree of heat transfer deterioration became smaller than that in the tube. Comparison of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted ones by the existing correlations showed that there was not a distinct difference between the correlations

  8. Estimates of the Hyperbolic Radius Gradient and Schwarz–Pick Inequalities for the Eccentric Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Kh. Giniyatova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Let Ω and Π be hyperbolic domains in the complex plane C. By A(Ω, Π we shall designate the class of functions f which are holomorphic or meromorphic in Ω and such that f(Ω ϲ Π. Estimates of the higher derivatives |f(n(z| of the analytic functions from the class A(Ω, Π with the punishing factor Cn(Ω, Π is one of the main problems of geometric theory of functions. These estimates are commonly referred to as Schwarz–Pick inequalities. Many results concerning this problem have been obtained for simply connected domains. Therefore, the research interest in such problems for finitely connected domains is natural. As known, the constant C2(Ω, Π for any pairs of hyperbolic domains depends only on the hyperbolic radius gradient of the corresponding domains. The main result of this paper is estimates of the hyperbolic radius gradient and the punishing factor in the Schwarz–Pick inequality for the eccentric annulus. We also consider the extreme case – the randomly punctured circle.

  9. Chaotic micromixer utilizing electro-osmosis and induced charge electro-osmosis in eccentric annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Huicheng; Wong, Teck Neng; Marcos; Che, Zhizhao

    2016-01-01

    Efficient mixing is of significant importance in numerous chemical and biomedical applications but difficult to realize rapidly in microgeometries due to the lack of turbulence. We propose to enhance mixing by introducing Lagrangian chaos through electro-osmosis (EO) or induced charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) in an eccentric annulus. The analysis reveals that the created Lagrangian chaos can achieve a homogeneous mixing much more rapidly than either the pure EO or the pure ICEO. Our systematic investigations on the key parameters, ranging from the eccentricity, the alternating time period, the number of flow patterns in one time period, to the specific flow patterns utilized for the Lagrangian chaos creation, present that the Lagrangian chaos is considerably robust. The system can obtain a good mixing effect with wide ranges of eccentricity, alternating time period, and specific flow patterns utilized for the Lagrangian chaos creation as long as the number of flow patterns in one time period is two. As the electric field increases, the time consumption for homogenous mixing is reduced more remarkably for the Lagrangian chaos of the ICEO than that of the EO.

  10. Chaotic micromixer utilizing electro-osmosis and induced charge electro-osmosis in eccentric annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Huicheng; Wong, Teck Neng, E-mail: mtnwong@ntu.edu.sg; Marcos [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Che, Zhizhao [State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Efficient mixing is of significant importance in numerous chemical and biomedical applications but difficult to realize rapidly in microgeometries due to the lack of turbulence. We propose to enhance mixing by introducing Lagrangian chaos through electro-osmosis (EO) or induced charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) in an eccentric annulus. The analysis reveals that the created Lagrangian chaos can achieve a homogeneous mixing much more rapidly than either the pure EO or the pure ICEO. Our systematic investigations on the key parameters, ranging from the eccentricity, the alternating time period, the number of flow patterns in one time period, to the specific flow patterns utilized for the Lagrangian chaos creation, present that the Lagrangian chaos is considerably robust. The system can obtain a good mixing effect with wide ranges of eccentricity, alternating time period, and specific flow patterns utilized for the Lagrangian chaos creation as long as the number of flow patterns in one time period is two. As the electric field increases, the time consumption for homogenous mixing is reduced more remarkably for the Lagrangian chaos of the ICEO than that of the EO.

  11. Mechanics of oriented electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for annulus fibrosus tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Nandan L; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

    2007-08-01

    Engineering a functional replacement for the annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disc is contingent upon recapitulation of AF structure, composition, and mechanical properties. In this study, we propose a new paradigm for AF tissue engineering that focuses on the reconstitution of anatomic fiber architecture and uses constitutive modeling to evaluate construct function. A modified electrospinning technique was utilized to generate aligned nanofibrous polymer scaffolds for engineering the basic functional unit of the AF, a single lamella. Scaffolds were tested in uniaxial tension at multiple fiber orientations, demonstrating a nonlinear dependence of modulus on fiber angle that mimicked the nonlinearity and anisotropy of native AF. A homogenization model previously applied to native AF successfully described scaffold mechanical response, and parametric studies demonstrated that nonfibrillar matrix, along with fiber connectivity, are key contributors to tensile mechanics for engineered AF. We demonstrated that AF cells orient themselves along the aligned scaffolds and deposit matrix that contributes to construct mechanics under loading conditions relevant to the in vivo environment. The homogenization model was applied to cell-seeded constructs and provided quantitative measures for the evolution of matrix and interfibrillar interactions. Finally, the model demonstrated that at fiber angles of the AF (28 degrees -44 degrees ), engineered material behaved much like native tissue, suggesting that engineered constructs replicate the physiologic behavior of the single AF lamella. Constitutive modeling provides a powerful tool for analysis of engineered AF neo-tissue and native AF tissue alike, highlighting key mechanical design criteria for functional AF tissue engineering.

  12. CFD Calculation of Internal Natural Convection in the Annulus between Horizontal Concentric Cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, N.D. Jr.; Itamura, M.T.; Webb, S.W.; James, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this heat transfer and fluid flow study is to assess the ability of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to reproduce the experimental results, numerical simulation results, and heat transfer correlation equations developed in the literature for natural convection heat transfer within the annulus of horizontal concentric cylinders. In the literature, a variety of heat transfer expressions have been developed to compute average equivalent thermal conductivities. However, the expressions have been primarily developed for very small inner and outer cylinder radii and gap-widths. In this comparative study, interest is primarily focused on large gap widths (on the order of half meter or greater) and large radius ratios. From the steady-state CFD analysis it is found that the concentric cylinder models for the larger geometries compare favorably to the results of the Kuehn and Goldstein correlations in the Rayleigh number range of about 10 5 to 10 8 (a range that encompasses the laminar to turbulent transition). For Rayleigh numbers greater than 10 8 , both numerical simulations and experimental data (from the literature) are consistent and result in slightly lower equivalent thermal conductivities than those obtained from the Kuehn and Goldstein correlations

  13. A numerical study on the non-Boussinesq effect in the natural convection in horizontal annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Cao, Yuhui

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, the non-Boussinesq effect in the thermal convection in an air-filled horizontal concentric annulus is studied numerically by using the variable property-based lattice Boltzmann flux solver (VPLBFS), with the radial temperature difference ratio of 1.0, the radius ratio of 2.0, and the Rayleigh number in the range 104 ≤ Ra ≤ 106. Several solutions are obtained by using the standard form or simplified versions of the VPLBFS, including the real solution with the total variation in fluid properties considered, named as the variable property solution (VPS), the constant property solution (CPS) based on the Boussinesq approximation, the solution with variable dynamic viscosity (VVS), the solution based on the partial Boussinesq approximation (PBAS), the solution with variable thermal conductivity (VCS) and the solution with variable fluid density (VDS). The discrepancy between these solutions is analyzed to illuminate the influence of the non-Boussinesq effects induced by partial or total variation in fluid properties on flow instability behaviors and heat transfer characteristics. The present study reveals the complicated flow instability behavior under non-Boussinesq conditions and its tight association with heat transfer characteristics. Also, it demonstrates the necessity of considering the integral effect of the total variation in fluid properties and highlights the essential role of the fluid density variation.

  14. Numerical Study of Mixed Convection of Nanofluid in a Concentric Annulus with Rotating Inner Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Sheikhzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the steady and laminar mixed convection of nanofluid in horizontal concentric annulus withrotating inner cylinder is investigated numerically. The inner and outer cylinders are kept at constanttemperature Ti and To respectively, where Ti>To. The annular space is filled with Alumina-water nanofluid.The governing equations with the corresponded boundary conditions in the polar coordinate are discretizedusing the finite volume method where pressure-velocity coupling is done by the SIMPLER algorithm.Numerical results have been obtained for Rayleigh number ranging from 102 to 105, Reynolds number from 1 to 300 and nanoparticles volume fraction from 0.01 to 0.06. The effects of the Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers, average diameter of nanoparticles and the volume fraction of the nanoparticles on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside the annuli are investigated. According to the results, the average Nusselt number decreases with increasing the Reynolds number. However, the average Nusselt number increases by increasing the Rayleigh number. Moreover, the maximum average Nusselt number occurs for an optimal nanoparticle volume fraction except situations that heat conduction predominates over the heat convection. In these conditions the average Nusselt number is close to unity.

  15. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer of ethanol aqueous solutions in vertical annulus space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafraz M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subcooled flow boiling heat-transfer characteristics of water and ethanol solutions in a vertical annulus have been investigated up to heat flux 132kW/m2. The variations in the effects of heat flux and fluid velocity, and concentration of ethanol on the observed heat-transfer coefficients over a range of ethanol concentrations implied an enhanced contribution of nucleate boiling heat transfer in flow boiling, where both forced convection and nucleate boiling heat transfer occurred. Increasing the ethanol concentration led to a significant deterioration in the observed heat-transfer coefficient because of a mixture effect, that resulted in a local rise in the saturation temperature of ethanol/water solution at the vapor-liquid interface. The reduction in the heat-transfer coefficient with increasing ethanol concentration is also attributed to changes in the fluid properties (for example, viscosity and heat capacity of tested solutions with different ethanol content. The experimental data were compared with some well-established existing correlations. Results of comparisons indicate existing correlations are unable to obtain the acceptable values. Therefore a modified correlation based on Gnielinski correlation has been proposed that predicts the heat transfer coefficient for ethanol/water solution with uncertainty about 8% that is the least in comparison to other well-known existing correlations.

  16. Radiation effects on bifurcation and dual solutions in transient natural convection in a horizontal annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Kang; Yi, Hong-Liang, E-mail: yihongliang@hit.edu.cn; Tan, He-Ping, E-mail: tanheping@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-05-15

    Transitions and bifurcations of transient natural convection in a horizontal annulus with radiatively participating medium are numerically investigated using the coupled lattice Boltzmann and direct collocation meshless (LB-DCM) method. As a hybrid approach based on a common multi-scale Boltzmann-type model, the LB-DCM scheme is easy to implement and has an excellent flexibility in dealing with the irregular geometries. Separate particle distribution functions in the LBM are used to calculate the density field, the velocity field and the thermal field. In the radiatively participating medium, the contribution of thermal radiation to natural convection must be taken into account, and it is considered as a radiative term in the energy equation that is solved by the meshless method with moving least-squares (MLS) approximation. The occurrence of various instabilities and bifurcative phenomena is analyzed for different Rayleigh number Ra and Prandtl number Pr with and without radiation. Then, bifurcation diagrams and dual solutions are presented for relevant radiative parameters, such as convection-radiation parameter Rc and optical thickness τ. Numerical results show that the presence of volumetric radiation changes the static temperature gradient of the fluid, and generally results in an increase in the flow critical value. Besides, the existence and development of dual solutions of transient convection in the presence of radiation are greatly affected by radiative parameters. Finally, the advantage of LB-DCM combination is discussed, and the potential benefits of applying the LB-DCM method to multi-field coupling problems are demonstrated.

  17. Steady flow instability in an annulus with deflectors at rotational vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, Nikolai V [Lab. Vibrational Hydromechanics, Perm State-Humanitarian Pedagogical University 24 Sibirskaya av., 614990 Perm (Russian Federation); Pareau, Dominique; Stambouli, Moncef [Lab. Chemical Engineering, CentraleSupélec-Université Paris Saclay, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Ivantsov, Andrey, E-mail: kozlov.n@icmm.ru [Lab. Computational Hydrodynamics Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics UB RAS1 Acad. Korolev st., 614013 Perm (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Experimental study and direct numerical simulation of the dynamics of an isothermal low-viscosity fluid are done in a coaxial gap of a cylindrical container making rotational vibrations relative to its axis. On the inner surface of the outer wall of the container, semicircular deflectors are regularly situated, playing the role of flow activators. As a result of vibrations, the activators oscillate tangentially. In the simulation, a 2D configuration is considered, excluding the end-wall effects. In the experiment, a container with a large aspect ratio is used. Steady streaming is generated in the viscous boundary layers on the activators. On each of the latter, beyond the viscous domain, a symmetric vortices pair is formed. The steady streaming in the annulus has an azimuthal periodicity. With an increase in the vibration intensity, a competition between the vortices occurs, as a result of which one of the vortices (let us call it even) approaches the activator and the other one (odd) rolls away and couples with the vortices from the neighbouring pairs. Streamlines of the odd vortices close on each other, forming a cog-wheel shaped flow that encircles the inner wall. Comparison of the experiment and the simulation reveals an agreement at moderate vibration intensity. (paper)

  18. Experimental study on two-phase flow parameters of subcooled boiling in inclined annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Moon Oh; Park, Goon Cherl

    1999-01-01

    Local two-phase flow parameters of subcooled flow boiling in inclined annulus were measured to investigate the effect of inclination on the internal flow structure. Two-conductivity probe technique was applied to measured local gas phasic parameters, including void by fraction, vapor bubble frequency, chord length, vapor bubble velocity and interfacial area concentration. Local liquid velocity was measured by Pitot tube. Experiments were conducted for three angles of inclination: 0 o (vertical), 30 o , 60 o . The system pressure was maintained at atmospheric pressure. The range of average void fraction was up to 10 percent and the average liquid superficial velocities were less than 1.3 m/sec. The results of experiments showed that the distributions of two-phase flow parameters were influenced by the angle of channel inclination. Especially, the void fraction and chord length distributions were strongly affected by the increase of inclination angle, and flow pattern transition to slug flow was observed depending on the flow conditions. The profiles of vapor velocity, liquid velocity and interfacial area concentration were found to be affected by the non-symmetric bubble size distribution in inclined channel. Using the measured distributions of local phasic parameters, an analysis for predicting average void fraction was performed based on the drift flux model and flowing volumetric concentration. And it was demonstrated that the average void fraction can be more appropriately presented in terms of flowing volumetric concentration. (Author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  19. Experimental evaluation of local bubble parameters of subcooled boiling flow in a pressurized vertical annulus channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, In-Cheol, E-mail: chuic@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Seung-Jun; Youn, Young Jung; Park, Jong Kuk; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong-Jin; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2017-02-15

    Experiments were performed to quantify the local bubble parameters such as void fraction, bubble velocity, interfacial area concentration, and Sauter mean diameter for the subcooled boiling flow of a refrigerant R-134a in a pressurized vertical annulus channel. Optical fiber void probe and double pressure boundary visualization windows were installed at four measurement stations with different elevations, thus enabling the quantification of local bubble parameters and observation of global boiling structure. Using high-resolution traverse systems for the optical fiber void probes and the heating tube, the radial profiles of the bubble parameters and their axial propagation can be evaluated at any elevation of the whole heating region. At this first phase of the experiments, three tests were conducted by varying the pressure, heat flux, mass flux, and local liquid subcooling. The radial profiles of the bubble parameters were obtained at seven elevations. The pressure condition of the present experiments covered the normal operating pressure of PWRs according to the similarity criteria. The present experimental data will be useful for thorough validation and improvement of the CMFD (Computation Multi-Fluid Dynamics) codes and constitutive relations.

  20. Ultrastructure of inclusion bodies in annulus cells in the degenerating human intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, H E; Hanley, E N

    2009-06-01

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) of the cell has an architectural editing function that checks whether protein structure and three-dimensional assembly have occurred properly prior to export of newly synthesized material out of the cell. If these have been faulty, the material is retained within the rER as an inclusion body. Inclusion bodies have been identified previously in chondrocytes and osteoblasts in chondrodysplasias and osteogenesis imperfecta. Inclusion bodies in intervertebral disc cells, however, have only recently been recognized. Our objectives were to use transmission electron microscopy to analyze more fully inclusion bodies in the annulus pulposus and to study the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding cells containing inclusion bodies. ECM frequently encapsulated cells with inclusion bodies, and commonly contained prominent banded aggregates of Type VI collagen. Inclusion body material had several morphologies, including relatively smooth, homogeneous material, or a rougher, less homogeneous feature. Such findings expand our knowledge of the fine structure of the human disc cell and ECM during disc degeneration, and indicate the potential utility of ultrastructural identification of discs with intracellular inclusion bodies as a screening method for molecular studies directed toward identification of defective gene products in degenerating discs.

  1. A numerical study of Taylor vortex flow in a finite length tapered annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noui-Mehidi, M N; Ohmura, N; Wu, J

    2005-01-01

    The transient evolution and steady state analysis of Taylor vortex flow in a tapered annulus was conducted by numerical experiments in the case where the inner cylinder was rotated and the outer one fixed. The gap between the cylinders was linearly tapered from a supercritical value at the upper base to the critical value at the lower base. The wavelength adjustment depended on the variation of Reynolds number in the spatially ramped gap. The axisymmetric conservative governing equations were solved by the use of an simplified marker and cell (SMAC) algorithm. A coordinate transformation function allowed us to numerically solve the problem in a rectangular computational domain. The results have shown that Taylor vortices growth was sensitive to the spatial ramp of the gap even with tapering angle values less than one degree. The interaction between the inflow and outflow boundaries could be clearly seen as the taper angle was increased. The investigation of the transient dynamics related to the flow system also revealed a characteristic dependence on the taper angle

  2. Oil flow in the oil well tube annulus of vertical bearing assemblies (leakage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Yinghu

    1997-01-01

    A numerical simulation and experimental flow visualization study was conducted to better understand oil well leakage, particularly in the annular clearance space surrounding the oil well tube. A test rig was developed to simulate the bearing's oil well tube annulus. A major feature of this rig was to allow visual access to the annular clearance space and to the region beneath the rotating runner where strong secondary flow effects are known to exist. The main method for tracing the secondary flow pathlines was a light sheet visualization technique using micro air bubbles as the tracer. The effect of runner speed on the pathlines was studied. The velocity of the oil flow was measured experimentally and the results were compared with numerical data. A numerical technique was developed to trace the micro air bubbles in the oil flow field using a three dimensional CFD code for laminar, axisymmetric flow with a free surface. The buoyancy effects of gravitational and centrifugal forces were considered when determining the pathline of air bubbles. Bubble size, oil viscosity and runner speed were some of the parameters that affect the path of the air bubbles

  3. Relationship between high quality CHF and boiling length in annulus geometry with uniformly heated rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, S. Y.; Mun, S. K.; Park, J. K.; Yang, S. K.; Jung, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between the boiling length and the CHF in annulus geometry with uniformly heated rod has been studied. In this study the CHF data under pressure of 0.57∼15.01 MPa, flow rate of 200∼650 kg/m 2 s, inlet subcooling of 85∼353 kJ/kg and exit quality of 0.106∼0.536 have been applied. As a result of examining the flow pattern over the heated section, all of the CHF data were the dryout type CHF in annular flow and the locations of the churn to annular flow transition moved down stream of the heated section with increasing the pressure. The effect of pressure on the boiling length under the CHF conditions showed the trends similar to the effect of pressure on the CHF. The relationship between the non-dimensional CHF, q CHF and mass flux taking into account of the boiling length, G ( L h / L B ) indicated the linear relationship without scatter and regardless of pressure and inlet subcooling. The CHF calculated by using the relationship between the non-dimensionless CHF, q CHF and mass flux, G ( L h / L B ) predicted very well the experimental CHF data with the pressure dependence

  4. Molecular Imaging Agents Specific for the Annulus Fibrosus of the Intervertebral Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer L. Gibbs-Strauss

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain is a prevalent medical condition that is difficult to diagnose and treat. Current imaging methods are unable to correlate pain reliably with spinal structures, and surgical removal of painful damaged or degenerating disks is technically challenging. A contrast agent specific for the intervertebral disk could assist in the detection, diagnosis, and surgical treatment of low back pain. The styryl pyridinium (FM fluorophores were characterized and structure-activity relationships between chemical structure and in vivo uptake were established. Two novel FM fluorophores with improved optical properties for imaging the intervertebral disks were synthesized and evaluated in mice, rats, and pigs. After a single systemic injection, eight of eight FM fluorophores provided high-contrast imaging of the trigeminal ganglia, whereas six of eight provided high-contrast imaging of the dorsal root ganglia. Unexpectedly, three of eight FM fluorophores provided high-contrast imaging of annulus fibrosus tissue of the intervertebral disks, confirmed histologically. We present the first known contrast agent specific for the intervertebral disks and identify the chemical structural motif that mediates uptake. FM fluorophores could be used for image-guided surgery to assist in the removal of intervertebral disk and lay the foundation for derivatives for magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography.

  5. The Development of a Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Sensor Applicable to CBM Wellbore Annulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Wen, Guojun; Han, Lei; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-11-18

    The measurement of wellbore annulus gas-liquid two-phase flow in CBM (coalbed methane) wells is of great significance for reasonably developing gas drainage and extraction processes, estimating CBM output, judging the operating conditions of CBM wells and analyzing stratum conditions. Hence, a specially designed sensor is urgently needed for real-time measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow in CBM wellbore annulus. Existing flow sensors fail to meet the requirements of the operating conditions of CBM wellbore annulus due to such factors as an inapplicable measurement principle, larger size, poor sealability, high installation accuracy, and higher requirements for fluid media. Therefore, based on the principle of a target flowmeter, this paper designs a new two-phase flow sensor that can identify and automatically calibrate different flow patterns of two-phase flows. Upon the successful development of the new flow sensor, lab and field tests were carried out, and the results show that the newly designed sensor, with a measurement accuracy of ±2.5%, can adapt to the operating conditions of CBM wells and is reliable for long-term work.

  6. The Development of a Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Flow Sensor Applicable to CBM Wellbore Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of wellbore annulus gas–liquid two-phase flow in CBM (coalbed methane wells is of great significance for reasonably developing gas drainage and extraction processes, estimating CBM output, judging the operating conditions of CBM wells and analyzing stratum conditions. Hence, a specially designed sensor is urgently needed for real-time measurement of gas–liquid two-phase flow in CBM wellbore annulus. Existing flow sensors fail to meet the requirements of the operating conditions of CBM wellbore annulus due to such factors as an inapplicable measurement principle, larger size, poor sealability, high installation accuracy, and higher requirements for fluid media. Therefore, based on the principle of a target flowmeter, this paper designs a new two-phase flow sensor that can identify and automatically calibrate different flow patterns of two-phase flows. Upon the successful development of the new flow sensor, lab and field tests were carried out, and the results show that the newly designed sensor, with a measurement accuracy of ±2.5%, can adapt to the operating conditions of CBM wells and is reliable for long-term work.

  7. The Development of a Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Flow Sensor Applicable to CBM Wellbore Annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Wen, Guojun; Han, Lei; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of wellbore annulus gas–liquid two-phase flow in CBM (coalbed methane) wells is of great significance for reasonably developing gas drainage and extraction processes, estimating CBM output, judging the operating conditions of CBM wells and analyzing stratum conditions. Hence, a specially designed sensor is urgently needed for real-time measurement of gas–liquid two-phase flow in CBM wellbore annulus. Existing flow sensors fail to meet the requirements of the operating conditions of CBM wellbore annulus due to such factors as an inapplicable measurement principle, larger size, poor sealability, high installation accuracy, and higher requirements for fluid media. Therefore, based on the principle of a target flowmeter, this paper designs a new two-phase flow sensor that can identify and automatically calibrate different flow patterns of two-phase flows. Upon the successful development of the new flow sensor, lab and field tests were carried out, and the results show that the newly designed sensor, with a measurement accuracy of ±2.5%, can adapt to the operating conditions of CBM wells and is reliable for long-term work. PMID:27869708

  8. Annulus Fibrosus Can Strip Hyaline Cartilage End Plate from Subchondral Bone: A Study of the Intervertebral Disk in Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkovec, Christian; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-10-01

    Study Design Biomechanical study on cadaveric spines. Objective Spinal bending causes the annulus to pull vertically (axially) on the end plate, but failure mechanisms in response to this type of loading are poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the weak point of the intervertebral disk in tension. Methods Cadaveric motion segments (aged 79 to 88 years) were dissected to create midsagittal blocks of tissue, with ∼10 mm of bone superior and inferior to the disk. From these blocks, 14 bone-disk-bone slices (average 4.8 mm thick) were cut in the frontal plane. Each slice was gripped by its bony ends and stretched to failure at 1 mm/s. Mode of failure was recorded using a digital camera. Results Of the 14 slices, 10 failed by the hyaline cartilage being peeled off the subchondral bone, with the failure starting opposite the lateral annulus and proceeding medially. Two slices failed by rupturing of the trabecular bone, and a further two failed in the annulus. Conclusions The hyaline cartilage-bone junction is the disk's weak link in tension. These findings provide a plausible mechanism for the appearance of bone and cartilage fragments in herniated material. Stripping cartilage from the bony end plate would result in the herniated mass containing relatively stiff cartilage that does not easily resorb.

  9. Revisiting the Landau fluid closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced fluid models that are much closer to the full kinetic description than the usual magnetohydrodynamic description are a very useful tool for studying astrophysical plasmas and for interpreting solar wind observational data. The development of advanced fluid models that contain certain kinetic effects is complicated and has attracted much attention over the past years. Here we focus on fluid models that incorporate the simplest possible forms of Landau damping, derived from linear kinetic theory expanded about a leading-order (gyrotropic) bi-Maxwellian distribution function f_0, under the approximation that the perturbed distribution function f_1 is gyrotropic as well. Specifically, we focus on various Pade approximants to the usual plasma response function (and to the plasma dispersion function) and examine possibilities that lead to a closure of the linear kinetic hierarchy of fluid moments. We present re-examination of the simplest Landau fluid closures.

  10. Observations on early and delayed colostomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tade, A O; Salami, B A; Ayoade, B A

    2011-06-01

    Traditional treatment of a variety of colorectal pathologies had included a diverting colostomy that was closed eight or more weeks later during a readmission. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of early colostomy closure and delayed colostomy closure in patients with temporary colostomies following traumatic and non-traumatic colorectal pathologies. In this study early colostomy closure was the closure of a colostomy within three weeks of its construction, while delayed colostomy closure referred to closure after 3 weeks. Complete records of the 37 adult patients who had temporary colostomy constructed and closed between Jan. 1997 December 2003 for various colorectal pathologies were studied. Fourteen patients had early colostomy closure while 23 had delayed closure. In the early colostomy closure group there were 10 men and 4 women. The mean age of the patients was 28yr with a range of 18-65yr. Colostomies were closed 9-18 days after initial colostomy construction. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate 28.6% (4 out of 14). There were two faecal fistulas (14.3%). Twenty-three patients had delayed colostomy closure 8 weeks to 18 months after initial colostomy construction. These were patients unfit for early surgery after initial colostomy construction because of carcinoma, significant weight loss, or sepsis. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate was 26.1%. There were 3 faecal fistulas (13.2%). Outcomes following early colostomy closure and delayed closure were comparable. Patients fit for surgery should have early closure whilst patients who may have compromised health should have delayed closure.

  11. 304 Concretion Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium with Zircaloy-2 and copper silicon allo , uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy, and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gal containers) in the 304 Concretion Facility (304 Facility), located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLRMW) with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Concretion Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040 (Ecology 1991). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of materials and wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Facility. The strategy for closure of the 304 Facility is presented in Section 6.0

  12. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  13. Current perspectives in percutaneous atrial septal defect closure devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissessor N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available N Bissessor1–4 1Department of Cardiology, The Epworth Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Division of Interventional Cardiology, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Science, Charles Sturt University Albury Campus, NSW, Australia; 4Heart Foundation, Griffith University, QLD, Australia Abstract: In the last decade, percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD closure has become the treatment of choice in most clinical presentations of ASD. Percutaneous ASD closure has established procedural safety through operator experience and improved device structure and deliverability. There have also been advances in diagnostic capabilities. Devices have evolved from large bulky meshes to repositionable, minimal residual mesh content that easily endothelializes and conforms well to surrounding structures. Biodegradable technology has been introduced and will be closely watched as a future option. The evolution of ASD closure device usage in the last four decades incorporates development that minimizes a wide range of serious side effects that have been reported over the years. Complications reported in the literature include thrombus formation, air embolization, device embolization, erosions, residual shunts, and nickel hypersensitivity. Modern devices have intermediate to long term data with outcomes that have been favorable. Devices are available in multiple sizes with improved delivery mechanisms to recapture, reposition, and safely close simple and complex ASDs amenable to percutaneous closure. In this review, commonly used devices and deployment procedures are discussed together with a look at devices that show promise for the future. Keywords: ASD, congenital, Amplatzer, Gore Helex, Biostar, Figulla

  14. MCO closure welding process parameter development and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the key elements in the SNF process is final closure of the MCO by welding. Fuel is loaded into the MCO (approximately 2 ft. in diameter and 13 ft. long) and a heavy shield plug is inserted into the top, creating a mechanical seal. The plug contains several process ports for various operations, including vacuum drying and inert-gas backfilling of the packaged fuel. When fully processed, the Canister Cover Assembly (CCA) is placed over the shield plug and final closure made by welding. The following reports the effort between the Amer Industrial Technology (AIT) and Fluor Hanford (FH) to develop and qualify the welding process for making the final closure--with primary emphasis on developing a set of robust parameters for deposition of the root pass. Work was carried out in three phases: (1) Initial welding process and equipment selection with subsequent field demonstration testing; (2) Development and qualification of a specific process technique and parameters; and (3) Validation of the process and parameters at the CSB under mock production conditions. This work establishes the process technique and parameters that provide a high level of confidence that acceptable MCO closure welds will be made on a consistent and repeatable basis

  15. The Synthesis of Force Closure Grasps in the Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    TASK U Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A WORK UN IT "NMUIERS ~( 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 SI. CONTROLLING OFICE NAME ANO... ARTIFICIAL INThLLIX’ ENCE LABORATORY A. 1. Memo 861 September, 1985 The Synthesis of Force-Closure Grasps In the Plane DTIC ’VeL% ,#ECTE 1 VnDcNguyenU Abstract... Artificial In- telligenmcc Liabomatory of thle Massachuset Is hInsttute of Teclhnolog3 . Support for the Lahoratot * s Artificial Intelligence research is

  16. The safe removal of frozen air from the annulus of an LH2 storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, A.; Starr, S.; Youngquist, R.; Nurge, M.; Sass, J.; Fesmire, J.; Cariker, C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-12-01

    Large Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA. Eventually, air may leak into the evacuated and perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Although the vacuum level is monitored in this region, the extremely cold temperature causes all but the helium and neon constituents of air to freeze. A small, often unnoticeable pressure rise is the result. As the leak persists, the quantity of frozen air increases, as does the thermal conductivity of the insulation system. Consequently, a notable increase in commodity boil-off is often the first indicator of an air leak. Severe damage can result from normal draining of the tank. The warming air will sublimate which will cause a pressure rise in the annulus. When the pressure increases above the triple point, the frozen air will begin to melt and migrate downward. Collection of liquid air on the carbon steel outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. In order to avoid a structural failure, as described above, a method for the safe removal of frozen air is needed. A thermal model of the storage tank has been created using SINDA/FLUINT modelling software. Experimental work is progressing in an attempt to characterize the thermal conductivity of a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture. A statistical mechanics model is being developed in parallel for comparison to experimental work. The thermal model will be updated using the experimental/statistical mechanical data, and used to simulate potential removal scenarios. This paper will address methodologies and analysis techniques for evaluation of two proposed air removal methods.

  17. ISSLS prize winner: integrating theoretical and experimental methods for functional tissue engineering of the annulus fibrosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Nandan L; Mauck, Robert L; Elliott, Dawn M

    2008-12-01

    Integrating theoretical and experimental approaches for annulus fibrosus (AF) functional tissue engineering. Apply a hyperelastic constitutive model to characterize the evolution of engineered AF via scalar model parameters. Validate the model and predict the response of engineered constructs to physiologic loading scenarios. There is need for a tissue engineered replacement for degenerate AF. When evaluating engineered replacements for load-bearing tissues, it is necessary to evaluate mechanical function with respect to the native tissue, including nonlinearity and anisotropy. Aligned nanofibrous poly-epsilon-caprolactone scaffolds with prescribed fiber angles were seeded with bovine AF cells and analyzed over 8 weeks, using experimental (mechanical testing, biochemistry, histology) and theoretical methods (a hyperelastic fiber-reinforced constitutive model). The linear region modulus for phi = 0 degrees constructs increased by approximately 25 MPa, and for phi = 90 degrees by approximately 2 MPa from 1 day to 8 weeks in culture. Infiltration and proliferation of AF cells into the scaffold and abundant deposition of s-GAG and aligned collagen was observed. The constitutive model had excellent fits to experimental data to yield matrix and fiber parameters that increased with time in culture. Correlations were observed between biochemical measures and model parameters. The model was successfully validated and used to simulate time-varying responses of engineered AF under shear and biaxial loading. AF cells seeded on nanofibrous scaffolds elaborated an organized, anisotropic AF-like extracellular matrix, resulting in improved mechanical properties. A hyperelastic fiber-reinforced constitutive model characterized the functional evolution of engineered AF constructs, and was used to simulate physiologically relevant loading configurations. Model predictions demonstrated that fibers resist shear even when the shearing direction does not coincide with the fiber direction

  18. Atmospheric-like rotating annulus experiment: gravity wave emission from baroclinic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Costanza; Borcia, Ion; Harlander, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale balanced flows can spontaneously radiate meso-scale inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) and are thus in fact unbalanced. While flow-dependent parameterizations for the radiation of IGWs from orographic and convective sources do exist, the situation is less developed for spontaneously emitted IGWs. Observations identify increased IGW activity in the vicinity of jet exit regions. A direct interpretation of those based on geostrophic adjustment might be tempting. However, directly applying this concept to the parameterization of spontaneous imbalance is difficult since the dynamics itself is continuously re-establishing an unbalanced flow which then sheds imbalances by GW radiation. Examining spontaneous IGW emission in the atmosphere and validating parameterization schemes confronts the scientist with particular challenges. Due to its extreme complexity, GW emission will always be embedded in the interaction of a multitude of interdependent processes, many of which are hardly detectable from analysis or campaign data. The benefits of repeated and more detailed measurements, while representing the only source of information about the real atmosphere, are limited by the non-repeatability of an atmospheric situation. The same event never occurs twice. This argues for complementary laboratory experiments, which can provide a more focused dialogue between experiment and theory. Indeed, life cycles are also examined in rotating- annulus laboratory experiments. Thus, these experiments might form a useful empirical benchmark for theoretical and modelling work that is also independent of any sort of subgrid model. In addition, the more direct correspondence between experimental and model data and the data reproducibility makes lab experiments a powerful testbed for parameterizations. Joint laboratory experiment and numerical simulation have been conducted. The comparison between the data obtained from the experiment and the numerical simulations shows a very good

  19. LES of turbulent flow in a concentric annulus with rotating outer wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadžiabdić, M.; Hanjalić, K.; Mullyadzhanov, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High rotation up to N = 2 dampens progressively the turbulence near the rotating outer wall. • At 2 2.8, while tending to laminarize, the flow exhibits distinct Taylor-Couette vortical rolls. -- Abstract: Fully-developed turbulent flow in a concentric annulus, r 1 /r 2 = 0.5, Re h = 12,500, with the outer wall rotating at a range of rotation rates N = U θ,wall /U b from 0.5 up to 4 is studied by large-eddy simulations. The focus is on the effects of moderate to very high rotation rates on the mean flow, turbulence statistics and eddy structure. For N up to ∼2, an increase in the rotation rate dampens progressively the turbulence near the rotating outer wall, while affecting only mildly the inner-wall region. At higher rotation rates this trend is reversed: for N = 2.8 close to the inner wall turbulence is dramatically reduced while the outer wall region remains turbulent with discernible helical vortices as the dominant turbulent structure. The turbulence parameters and eddy structures differ significantly for N = 2 and 2.8. This switch is attributed to the centrifuged turbulence (generated near the inner wall) prevailing over the axial inertial force as well as over the counteracting laminarizing effects of the rotating outer wall. At still higher rotation, N = 4, the flow gets laminarized but with distinct spiralling vortices akin to the Taylor–Couette rolls found between the two counter-rotating cylinders without axial flow, which is the limiting case when N approaches to infinity. The ratio of the centrifugal to axial inertial forces, Ta/Re 2 ∝ N 2 (where Ta is the Taylor number) is considered as a possible criterion for defining the conditions for the above regime change

  20. Critical heat flux in a vertical annulus under low upward flow and near atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoesse, T.; Aritomi, Masanori; Lee, Sang-Ryoul; Kataoka, Yoshiaki; Yoshioka, Yuzuru; Chung, Moon-Ki.

    1997-01-01

    As future boiling water reactors (BWR), concepts of evolutional ABWR (ABWR-IER) and natural circulation BWR (JSBWR) have been investigated in order to reduce their construction cost and simplify their maintenance and inspection procedures. One of the promised features of the design of the evolutional ABWR is to reduce the number of internal pumps and to remove the Motor Generation (MG) sets. These design changes may induce boiling transition in the fuel rods of reactor core during a pump trip transient due to the more rapid flow coastdown characteristics than these of the present design. In addition, the understanding of critical heat flux (CHF) is one important subject to grasp safety margin during the start-up for the natural circulation BWR and to establish the rational start-up procedure in which thermo-hydraulic instabilities can be suppressed. The present study is to clarify CHF characteristics under low velocity conditions. CHF measurements were conducted in a vertical upward annulus channel composed of an inner heated rod and an outer tube made of glass. CHF data were obtained repeatedly under the condition of stable inlet flow to examine statistically their reproducibility. The flow regime was investigated from flow observation and measurement of differential pressure fluctuation. The CHF data are correlated with the flow regime transition. It was clear from the obtained flow pattern and the CHF data that the CHF behavior could be classified into specified regions by the mass flux and inlet subcooling conditions. A CHF correlation was developed and agreed with other researchers' data within acceptable error. (author)

  1. Extra-fibrillar matrix mechanics of annulus fibrosus in tension and compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Daniel H; Elliott, Dawn M

    2012-07-01

    The annulus fibrosus (AF) of the disk is a highly nonlinear and anisotropic material that undergoes a complex combination of loads in multiple orientations. The tensile mechanical behavior of AF in the lamellar plane is dominated by collagen fibers and has been accurately modeled using exponential functions. On the other hand, AF mechanics perpendicular to the lamella, in the radial direction, depend on the properties of the ground matrix with little to no fiber contribution. The ground matrix is mainly composed of proteoglycans (PG), which are negatively charged macromolecules that maintain the tissue hydration via osmotic pressure. The mechanical response of the ground matrix can be divided in the contribution of osmotic pressure and an elastic solid part known as extra-fibrillar matrix (EFM). Mechanical properties of the ground matrix have been measured using tensile and confined compression tests. However, EFM mechanics have not been measured directly. The objective of this study was to measure AF nonlinear mechanics of the EFM in tension and compression. To accomplish this, a combination of osmotic swelling and confined compression in disk radial direction, perpendicular to the lamella, was used. For this type of analysis, it was necessary to define a stress-free reference configuration. Thus, a brief analysis on residual stress in the disk and a procedure to estimate the reference configuration are presented. The proposed method was able to predict similar swelling deformations when using different loading protocols and models for the EFM, demonstrating its robustness. The stress-stretch curve of the EFM was linear in the range 0.9 disk and can be applied to differentiate between functional degeneration effects such as PG loss and stiffening due to cross-linking.

  2. Calcification of the mitral valve and annulus: systematic evaluation of effects on valve anatomy and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Rajesh; Murthy, Kinnari; Romero-Corral, Abel; Seetha Rammohan, Harish Raj; Fumo, Peter; Pressman, Gregg S

    2013-10-01

    Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is common in chronic kidney disease. It is associated with cardiovascular events and can cause valvular dysfunction, but it has not been systematically characterized. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of MAC, its effects on leaflet motion, and its association with mitral stenosis and mitral regurgitation (MR) in a hemodialysis population. Echocardiograms were obtained in 75 consecutive hemodialysis outpatients. MAC extent and distribution were graded semiquantitatively using two-dimensional and three-dimensional echocardiography. Associations with the presence and severity of mitral stenosis and MR were explored. The mean age was 60 ± 14 years; 60% were men, and 87% were African American. MAC was present in 64% (moderate to severe in 48%). Calcium extended more than halfway onto the leaflet in 37% and beyond the annulus in 40%. Leaflet motion was restricted in 37%. Mitral stenosis was present in 28%, and the extent of calcification was associated with mean mitral valve gradient (P < .0001). MR was prevalent (present in 81%) but was severe in none. The severity of MAC was greater in patients with moderate MR than in those with no or mild MR (P = .04). Three-dimensional analysis suggested an uneven distribution of annular calcium; the middle and lateral anterior segments were less often calcified than the anterior-medial or posterior segments. Calcification in any annular segment was highly associated with restricted motion of the attached leaflet segment. MAC is common and often extensive in hemodialysis patients. Calcium may be unevenly distributed among the annular segments. When present, annular calcification reduces the angle of leaflet opening and can cause valvular dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Storage shaft definitive closure plug and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardaine, M.

    1992-01-01

    A definitive closure plug system for radioactive waste storage at any deepness, is presented. The inherent weight of the closure materials is used to set in the plug: these materials display an inclined sliding surface in such a way that when the closure material rests on a stable surface of the shaft storage materials, the relative sliding of the different materials tends to spread them towards the shaft internal wall so as to completely occlude the shaft

  4. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure

  5. Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers

  6. Closure for spent-fuel transport and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahner, S.; Knackstedt, H.G.; Srostlik, P.

    1980-01-01

    The container has a transport closure and a shielding closure. This shielding closure consists of two pieces (double closure system), which can be fartened to one another like a bayonet fixing. A central motion of rotation is enough to open the closure. It can be done remote-controlled as well as manually. (DG) [de

  7. Corporate strategy and viable future land use: Planning for closure from the outset of mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warhurst, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the environmental impact of mining on viable future land use and underlines the imperative of improved environmental management and closure planning. It argues that pollution prevention, through planning for closure, can lead to cost-effective strategies for sustainable minerals development and viable future land use. This seems to be most true for greenfield sites since, generally, the earlier closure planning and pollution prevention is built into a project, the more cost-effective and environmentally benign closure will be. Further, for greenfield sites, pollution prevention techniques can be employed from the outset, at the stages of exploration and mine development, and then monitored and improved through the operation stage to closure, and can be kept in place to manage future land use. The paper discusses how global changes in the industry, following the liberalisation of investment regimes, and mergers and strategic alliances between key firms, has, by virtue of the diffusion of new technology, led to further opportunities to prevent pollution and optimise future land use through planning for closure from the outset. The objectives and components of closure plans are also reviewed as the paper draws on case studies to highlight some of the possible constraints and challenges to pollution prevention that may be faced at the level of both public policy and corporate strategy. The article concludes by suggesting a forward-looking approach to integrated environmental management and viable future land-use planning based on a dynamic model for environmental management. (author)

  8. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, G. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Pai, H. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, India and Present Address: Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  9. Criticality assessment of LLRWDF closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrack, A.G.; Weber, J.H.; Woody, N.D.

    1992-01-01

    During the operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF), large amounts (greater than 100 kg) of enriched uranium (EU) were buried. This EU came primarily from the closing and decontamination of the Naval Fuels Facility in the time period from 1987--1989. Waste Management Operations (WMO) procedures were used to keep the EU boxes separated to prevent possible criticality during normal operation. Closure of the LLRWDF is currently being planned, and waste stabilization by Dynamic Compaction (DC) is proposed. Dynamic compaction will crush the containers in the LLRWDF and result in changes in their geometry. Research of the LLRWDF operations and record keeping practices have shown that the EU contents of trenches are known, but details of the arrangement of the contents cannot be proven. Reviews of the trench contents, combined with analysis of potential critical configurations, revealed that some portions of the LLRWDF can be expected to be free of criticality concerns while other sections have credible probabilities for the assembly of a critical mass, even in the uncompacted configuration. This will have an impact on the closure options and which trenches can be compacted

  10. Aortic annulus eccentricity before and after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Comparison of balloon-expandable and self-expanding prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Weingartner, Christina; Arnold, Martin; Schmid, Jasmin; Pflederer, Tobias; Marwan, Mohamed; Rixe, Johannes; Nef, Holger; Schneider, Christian; Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan; Feyrer, Richard; Weyand, Michael; Achenbach, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses is influenced by aortic valve calcification. • Balloon-expandable prostheses are more circular as compared to self-expanding prostheses. • The impact of post-implant geometry on valve function needs to be investigated. - Abstract: Introduction: The geometry of the aortic annulus and implanted transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis might influence valve function. We investigated the influence of valve type and aortic valve calcification on post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses. Methods: Eighty consecutive patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (mean age 82 ± 6 years) underwent computed tomography before and after TAVI. Aortic annulus diameters were determined. Influence of prosthesis type and degree of aortic valve calcification on post-implant eccentricity were analysed. Results: Aortic annulus eccentricity was reduced in patients after TAVI (0.21 ± 0.06 vs. 0.08 ± 0.06, p < 0.0001). Post-TAVI eccentricity was significantly lower in 65 patients following implantation of a balloon-expandable prosthesis as compared to 15 patients who received a self-expanding prosthesis (0.06 ± 0.05 vs. 0.15 ± 0.07, p < 0.0001), even though the extent of aortic valve calcification was not different. After TAVI, patients with a higher calcium amount retained a significantly higher eccentricity compared to patients with lower amounts of calcium. Conclusions: Patients undergoing TAVI with a balloon-expandable prosthesis show a more circular shape of the implanted prosthesis as compared to patients with a self-expanding prosthesis. Eccentricity of the deployed prosthesis is affected by the extent of aortic valve calcification

  11. Integrating scientific results for a post-closure safety demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.C.; Ramspott, L.D.; Sinnock, S.; Sprecher, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a nuclear waste management system that will accept high-level radioactive waste, transport it, store it, and ultimately emplace it in a deep geologic repository. The key activity now is determining whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada is suitable as a site for the repository. If so, the crucial technological advance will be the demonstration that disposal of nuclear waste will be safe for thousands of years after closure. Recent regulatory, legal, and scientific developments imply that the safety demonstration must be simple. The scientific developments taken together support a simple set of hypotheses that constitute a post-closure safety argument for a repository at Yucca Mountain. If the understanding of Yucca Mountain hydrology presented in the Site Characterization Plan proves correct, then these hypotheses might be confirmed by combining results of Surface-Based Testing with early testing results in the Exploratory Studies Facility

  12. Safety evaluation for the inner canister closure station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Inner Canister Closure Station (ICCS), built by Remote Technology Corporation, will be operability tested. The ICCS is used to remotely leak test Inner Canister Closures (ICC's) and replace ICC's that are not water tight. After operability testing, the ICCS will be inspected and sent to the 717-F mock-up shop for remotability demonstration and dimensional checks, then installed in the Vitrification Building, 221-S. An analysis of potential safety hazards, equipment safety features, and procedural controls indicates that the ICCS can be operated without undue hazard to employees or to the public. A safety inspection and a new equipment inspection will be held before operation to verify that the ICCS meets Savannah River Site safety requirements. 4 refs., 6 figs

  13. Hospital closure: Phoenix, Hydra or Titanic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, T; Davis, S

    1996-01-01

    Very little has been published about the effects of hospital closure in terms of the service, financial or management issues of the process. Attempts through a case-study format to redress the balance and as such represents the reflections of practitioners who have recently undergone the experience of hospital closure and the often neglected issues arising both during and after the process.

  14. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  15. 40 CFR 264.178 - Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.178 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed...

  16. Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    From 1975 to 1991 the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites (HPADS) were used for demolition events. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for spent or abandoned chemical waste. Because the HPADS will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the sites will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 CFR 270.1. Closure also will satisfy closure requirements of WAC 173-303-680 and for the thermal treatment closure requirements of 40 CFR 265.381. This closure plan presents a description of the HPADS, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the HPADS. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of WAC 173-303 or of this closure plan. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge where appropriate. Only dangerous constituents derived from HPADS operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i). The HPADS are actually two distinct soil closure areas within the Hanford Patrol Academy training area

  17. Some Recent Developments in Turbulence Closure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Turbulence closure models are central to a good deal of applied computational fluid dynamical analysis. Closure modeling endures as a productive area of research. This review covers recent developments in elliptic relaxation and elliptic blending models, unified rotation and curvature corrections, transition prediction, hybrid simulation, and data-driven methods. The focus is on closure models in which transport equations are solved for scalar variables, such as the turbulent kinetic energy, a timescale, or a measure of anisotropy. Algebraic constitutive representations are reviewed for their role in relating scalar closures to the Reynolds stress tensor. Seamless and nonzonal methods, which invoke a single closure model, are reviewed, especially detached eddy simulation (DES) and adaptive DES. Other topics surveyed include data-driven modeling and intermittency and laminar fluctuation models for transition prediction. The review concludes with an outlook.

  18. Pit closures - effects and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, A G

    1987-02-01

    During the last decade, British Coal has closed around 100 mines. This article illustrates the effect of pit closures on the colliery's workforce, and the local community and its economy. Working conditions at Newmarket Colliery and the Selby coalfield are compared within the context of British Coal's national transfer market. British Coal's transfer benefits include resettlement payments and mortgage subsidies. The job creation venture of British Coal Enterprise Ltd. has helped to create over 3700 new jobs in 264 projects, involving a total investment of 38 M pounds sterling. The article also discusses deputies' qualifications and prospects for recently qualified management staff, and gives a comparison of losses suffered by the different mining unions.

  19. Closure for milliliter scale bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, David L.; Laidlaw, Robert D.; Andronaco, Gregory; Boyer, Stephen G.

    2010-12-14

    A closure for a microreactor includes a cap that is configured to be inserted into a well of the microreactor. The cap, or at least a portion of the cap, is compliant so as to form a seal with the well when the cap is inserted. The cap includes an aperture that provides an airway between the inside of the well to the external environment when the cap is inserted into the well. A porous plug is inserted in the aperture, e.g., either directly or in tube that extends through the aperture. The porous plug permits gas within the well to pass through the aperture while preventing liquids from passing through to reduce evaporation and preventing microbes from passing through to provide a sterile environment. A one-way valve may also be used to help control the environment in the well.

  20. Closure of Microcosm for refurbishment

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Since 1994, the Microcosm exhibition has given the opportunity to visitors of all ages and backgrounds to have a first glimpse into the secrets of physics.   To ensure that Microcosm can continue fulfilling its educational aims at the same level of quality for many years to come, it is closing for renovation work on 8 December 2014 and is expected to reopen during Summer 2015. During the closure, the “Fun with Physics” workshop will not take place, but the Universe of Particles exhibition in the Globe and the Passport to the Big Bang circuit will remain accessible to the public, free of charge and with no need to book in advance.  Guided tours of CERN are also available (advance booking required via this page).

  1. Influence of the Quantity of Aortic Valve Calcium on the Agreement Between Automated 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography and Multidetector Row Computed Tomography for Aortic Annulus Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnikar, Tomaz; Prihadi, Edgard A; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Vollema, E Mara; van der Kley, Frank; de Weger, Arend; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Naji, Franjo; Fras, Zlatko; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Accurate aortic annulus sizing is key for selection of appropriate transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) prosthesis size. The present study compared novel automated 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) software and multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) for aortic annulus sizing and investigated the influence of the quantity of aortic valve calcium (AVC) on the selection of TAVI prosthesis size. A total of 83 patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI were evaluated. Maximal and minimal aortic annulus diameter, perimeter, and area were measured. AVC was assessed with computed tomography. The low and high AVC burden groups were defined according to the median AVC score. Overall, 3D TEE measurements slightly underestimated the aortic annulus dimensions as compared with MDCT (mean differences between maximum, minimum diameter, perimeter, and area: -1.7 mm, 0.5 mm, -2.7 mm, and -13 mm 2 , respectively). The agreement between 3D TEE and MDCT on aortic annulus dimensions was superior among patients with low AVC burden (AVC burden (≥3,025 arbitrary units). The interobserver variability was excellent for both methods. 3D TEE and MDCT led to the same prosthesis size selection in 88%, 95%, and 81% of patients in the total population, the low, and the high AVC burden group, respectively. In conclusion, the novel automated 3D TEE imaging software allows accurate and highly reproducible measurements of the aortic annulus dimensions and shows excellent agreement with MDCT to determine the TAVI prosthesis size, particularly in patients with low AVC burden. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Information collection regarding geoscientific monitoring techniques during closure of underground facility in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Shinichi; Yamashita, Tadashi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Ishibashi, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of geological disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment in the crystalline host rock (granite) at Mizunami City in Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. On the occasion of the reform of the entire JAEA organization in 2014, JAEA identified the critical issues on the geoscientific research program: “Development of modelling technologies for mass transport”, “Development of drift backfilling technologies” and “Development of technologies for reducing groundwater inflow”, based on the latest results of the synthesizing R and D. The purposes of the “Development of drift backfilling technologies” are to develop closure methodology and technology, and long-term monitoring technology, and to evaluate resilience of geological environment. In order to achieve the purposes, previous information from the case example of underground facility constructed in crystalline rock in Europe has been collected in this study. In particular, the boundary conditions for the closure, geological characteristics, technical specifications, and method of monitoring have been focused. The information on the international project regarding drift closure test and development of monitoring technologies has also been collected. In addition, interviews were conducted to Finnish and Swedish specialists who have experiences involving planning, construction management, monitoring, and safety assessment for the closure to obtain the technical knowledge. Based on the collected information, concept and point of attention, which are regarding drift closure testing, and planning, execution management and monitoring on the closure of MIU, have been specified. (author)

  3. A mitral annulus tracking approach for navigation of off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng P; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a real-time mitral valve annulus (MVA) tracking approach based on biplane transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) data and magnetic tracking systems (MTS) to be used in minimally invasive off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair (MVR). The authors' guidance system consists of three major components: TEE, magnetic tracking system, and an image guidance software platform. TEE provides real-time intraoperative images to show the cardiac motion and intracardiac surgical tools. The magnetic tracking system tracks the TEE probe and the surgical tools. The software platform integrates the TEE image planes and the virtual model of the tools and the MVA model on the screen. The authors' MVA tracking approach, which aims to update the MVA model in near real-time, comprises of three steps: image based gating, predictive reinitialization, and registration based MVA tracking. The image based gating step uses a small patch centered at each MVA point in the TEE images to identify images at optimal cardiac phases for updating the position of the MVA. The predictive reinitialization step uses the position and orientation of the TEE probe provided by the magnetic tracking system to predict the position of the MVA points in the TEE images and uses them for the initialization of the registration component. The registration based MVA tracking step aims to locate the MVA points in the images selected by the image based gating component by performing image based registration. The validation of the MVA tracking approach was performed in a phantom study and a retrospective study on porcine data. In the phantom study, controlled translations were applied to the phantom and the tracked MVA was compared to its "true" position estimated based on a magnetic sensor attached to the phantom. The MVA tracking accuracy was 1.29 ± 0.58 mm when the translation distance is about 1 cm, and increased to 2.85 ± 1.19 mm when the translation distance is about 3 cm. In the study on

  4. Social and macro economic impact of closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, D.

    1999-01-01

    The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

  5. Contemporary Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Primary Angle-Closure Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghinejad, M Reza; Myers, Jonathan S

    2018-05-16

    Primary angle closure disease spectrum varies from a narrow angle to advanced glaucoma. A variety of imaging technologies may assist the clinician in determining the pathophysiology and diagnosis of primary angle closure, but gonioscopy remains a mainstay of clinical evaluation. Laser iridotomy effectively eliminates the pupillary block component of angle closure; however, studies show that in many patients the iridocorneal angle remains narrow from underlying anatomic issues, and increasing lens size often leads to further narrowing over time. Recent studies have further characterized the role of the lens in angle closure disease, and cataract or clear lens extraction is increasingly used earlier in its management. As a first surgical step in angle closure glaucoma, lens extraction alone often effectively controls the pressure with less risk of complications than concurrent or stand alone glaucoma surgery, but may not be sufficient in more advanced or severe disease. We provide a comprehensive review on the primary angle-closure disease nomenclature, imaging, and current laser and surgical management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of pain-, nerve- and neurotrophin -related gene expression in the degenerating human annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In spite of its high clinical relevance, the relationship between disc degeneration and low back pain is still not well understood. Recent studies have shown that genome-wide gene expression studies utilizing ontology searches provide an efficient and valuable methodology for identification of clinically relevant genes. Here we use this approach in analysis of pain-, nerve-, and neurotrophin-related gene expression patterns in specimens of human disc tissue. Control, non-herniated clinical, and herniated clinical specimens of human annulus tissue were studied following Institutional Review Board approval. Results Analyses were performed on more generated (Thompson grade IV and V) discs vs. less degenerated discs (grades I-III), on surgically operated discs vs. control discs, and on herniated vs. control discs. Analyses of more degenerated vs. less degenerated discs identified significant upregulation of well-recognized pain-related genes (bradykinin receptor B1, calcitonin gene-related peptide and catechol-0-methyltransferase). Nerve growth factor was significantly upregulated in surgical vs. control and in herniated vs. control discs. All three analyses also found significant changes in numerous proinflammatory cytokine- and chemokine-related genes. Nerve, neurotrophin and pain-ontology searches identified many matrix, signaling and functional genes which have known importance in the disc. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to confirm the presence of calcitonin gene-related peptide, catechol-0-methyltransferase and bradykinin receptor B1 at the protein level in the human annulus. Conclusions Findings point to the utility of microarray analyses in identification of pain-, neurotrophin and nerve-related genes in the disc, and point to the importance of future work exploring functional interactions between nerve and disc cells in vitro and in vivo. Nerve, pain and neurotrophin ontology searches identified numerous changes in proinflammatory cytokines and

  7. 2101-M pond closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment

  8. Cyanoacrylate for Intraoral Wound Closure: A Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Sagar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound closure is a part of any surgical procedure and the objective of laceration repair or incision closure is to approximate the edges of a wound so that natural healing process may occur. Over the years new biomaterials have been discovered as an alternate to conventional suture materials. Cyanoacrylate bioadhesives are one among them. They carry the advantages of rapid application, patient comfort, resistance to infection, hemostatic properties, and no suture removal anxiety. Hence this study was undertaken to study the effect of long chain cyanoacrylate as an adhesive for intraoral wound closure and also to explore its hemostatic and antibacterial effects. Isoamyl-2-cyanoacrylate (AMCRYLATE was used as the adhesive in the study. In conclusion isoamyl cyanoacrylate can be used for intraoral wound closure, as an alternative to sutures for gluing the mucoperiosteum to bone, for example, after impaction removal, periapical surgeries, and cleft repair. Its hemostatic and antibacterial activity has to be further evaluated.

  9. 32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Base closure and realignment. 989.25 Section 989... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special requirements for environmental analysis. The permanent base closure...

  10. Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect with Occlutech Duct Occluder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik-Ugan, Sezen; Saltik, Irfan Levent

    2018-04-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus occluders are used for transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects, as well as for closure of patent ductus arteriosus. The Occlutech Duct Occluder is a newly introduced device for transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Here, we present a case in which the Occlutech Duct Occluder was successfully used on a patient for the closure of a perimembraneous ventricular septal defect.

  11. Occupancy estimation and the closure assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    1. Recent advances in occupancy estimation that adjust for imperfect detection have provided substantial improvements over traditional approaches and are receiving considerable use in applied ecology. To estimate and adjust for detectability, occupancy modelling requires multiple surveys at a site and requires the assumption of 'closure' between surveys, i.e. no changes in occupancy between surveys. Violations of this assumption could bias parameter estimates; however, little work has assessed model sensitivity to violations of this assumption or how commonly such violations occur in nature. 2. We apply a modelling procedure that can test for closure to two avian point-count data sets in Montana and New Hampshire, USA, that exemplify time-scales at which closure is often assumed. These data sets illustrate different sampling designs that allow testing for closure but are currently rarely employed in field investigations. Using a simulation study, we then evaluate the sensitivity of parameter estimates to changes in site occupancy and evaluate a power analysis developed for sampling designs that is aimed at limiting the likelihood of closure. 3. Application of our approach to point-count data indicates that habitats may frequently be open to changes in site occupancy at time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, with 71% and 100% of species investigated in Montana and New Hampshire respectively, showing violation of closure across time periods of 3 weeks and 8 days respectively. 4. Simulations suggest that models assuming closure are sensitive to changes in occupancy. Power analyses further suggest that the modelling procedure we apply can effectively test for closure. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our demonstration that sites may be open to changes in site occupancy over time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, combined with the sensitivity of models to violations of the closure assumption, highlights the importance of properly addressing

  12. Special closures for steel drum shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Otts, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop special lid closures for typical, steel drum, radioactive material shipping containers. Previous experience and testing had shown that the existing container was adequate to withstand the required environmental tests for certification, but that the lid and closure were just marginally effective. Specifically, the lid closure failed to consistently maintain a tight seal between the container and the lid after drop tests, thus causing the package contents to be vulnerable in the subsequent fire test. Recognizing the deficiency, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration requested the development of new closure(s) which would: (1) be as strong and resistant to a drop as the bottom of the container; (2) have minimal economic impact on the overall container cost; (3) maximize the use of existing container designs; (4) consider crush loads; and (5) result in less dependence on personnel and loading procedures. Several techniques were evaluated and found to be more effective than the standard closure mechanism. Of these, three new closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to provide containment when a 454-kg drum was drop tested from 9.14-m onto an unyielding surface. The three designs were: (1) a 152-mm long lid extension or skirt welded to the standard drum lid, (2) a separate inner lid, with 152-mm long skirt and (3) C-clamps used at the container-lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the lid extension is the recommended special closure

  13. Factors affecting closure of a temporary stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Claire; Varma, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine time to reversal of a temporary ostomy, reasons for delayed closure, and patient satisfaction with the scheduling of their closure and related hospital care. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The target population comprised patients who underwent creation of a temporary ostomy and reversal surgery within one National Health System Hospital Trust in the United Kingdom. The population served by this Trust are ethnically and socioeconomically diverse, predominantly living in urban areas around Greater London. Sixty-one persons who met inclusion criteria were identified. A two-step analytical process was undertaken. First, a literature review examining incidence and causes of delayed stoma closure was undertaken. Second, a postal survey of all patients who had had their stoma closed in 2009 was conducted. Respondents were allowed 2 weeks to complete and return the questionnaire. The survey instrument was developed locally and subjected to content validation using ostomy patients, surgical and nursing colleagues. It consisted of 9 questions querying time from original surgery to closure, reasons for delaying closure surgery beyond 12 weeks, and satisfaction with care. Twenty-seven patients returned their questionnaires, indicating they consented to participate; a response rate of 44%. Half of the respondents (n = 14 [52%]) underwent closure surgery within 6 months of stoma formation; the remaining 48% waited more than 6 months (median: 6.5 months, range: 1.5-26 months). Thirteen patients (48%) reported a delay in receiving their stoma closure; the main reason cited was the need for a course of adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy. Three quarters of respondents (22 [74%]) were satisfied with the overall care they received. Findings from this study suggest that stoma closure may be associated with fewest complications if performed before 12 weeks.

  14. Exceptional closure of UNIQA office at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The UNIQA office at CERN will be closed from Wednesday 18 February to Friday 20 February due to painting work. During this closure, the Headquarters of UNIQA in Geneva will remain at the disposal of the members. See details https://cern.ch/chis/UNIQA_Offices.asp The CERN office will re-open on Monday 23 February according to the normal schedule. We apologise for any inconvenience caused by this closure.

  15. ASD Closure in Structural Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Dominik M; Carroll, John D

    2018-04-17

    While the safety and efficacy of percutaneous ASD closure has been established, new data have recently emerged regarding the negative impact of residual iatrogenic ASD (iASD) following left heart structural interventions. Additionally, new devices with potential advantages have recently been studied. We will review here the potential indications for closure of iASD along with new generation closure devices and potential late complications requiring long-term follow-up. With the expansion of left-heart structural interventions and large-bore transseptal access, there has been growing experience gained with management of residual iASD. Some recently published reports have implicated residual iASD after these procedures as a potential source of diminished clinical outcomes and mortality. Additionally, recent trials investigating new generation closure devices as well as expanding knowledge regarding late complications of percutaneous ASD closure have been published. While percutaneous ASD closure is no longer a novel approach to managing septal defects, there are several contemporary issues related to residual iASD following large-bore transseptal access and new generation devices which serve as an impetus for this review. Ongoing attention to potential late complications and decreasing their incidence with ongoing study is clearly needed.

  16. Percutaneous Transcatheter PDA Device Closure in Infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M.; Sultan, M.; Akhtar, K.; Sadiq, N.; Akbar, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results and complications associated with transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in infants. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Cardiology Department of Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology / National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC/NIHD), Rawalpindi, from December 2010 to June 2012. Methodology: Infants undergoing transcatheter device closure of PDA were included. All patients were evaluated by experienced Paediatric Cardiologists with 2-D echocardiography and Doppler before the procedure. Success of closure and complications were recorded. Results: The age of patients varied from 05 - 12 months and 31 (56.4%) were females. Out of the 55 infants, 3 (5.4%) were not offered device closure after aortogram (two large tubular type ducts and one tiny duct, considered unsuitable for device closure); while in 50 (96.1%) patients out of remaining 52, the duct was successfully closed with transcatheter PDA device or coil. In one infant, device deployment resulted in acquired coarctation, necessitating device retrieval by Snare followed by surgical duct interruption and another patient had non-fatal cardiac arrest during device deployment leading to abandonment of procedure and subsequent successful surgical interruption. Local vascular complications occurred in 12 (21.8%) of cases and all were satisfactorily treated. Conclusion: Transcatheter device closure of PDA in infants was an effective procedure in the majority of cases; however, here were considerable number of local access site vascular complications. (author)

  17. Correlating heat and mass transfer coefficients for thermosolutal convection within a porous annulus of a circular shape: case of internal pollutants spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragui, Karim; Boutra, Abdelkader; Bennacer, Rachid; Labsi, Nabila; Benkahla, Youb Khaled

    2018-02-01

    The main purpose of our investigation is to show the impact of pertinent parameters; such Lewis and porous thermal Rayleigh numbers as well as the buoyancy and the aspect ratios; on the double-diffusive convection phenomena which occur within a porous annulus; found between a cold (and less concentric) outer circular cylinder and a hot (and concentric) inner one, to come out with global correlations which predict the mean transfer rates in such annulus. To do so, the physical model for the momentum conservation equation is made using the Brinkman extension of the classical Darcy equation. The set of coupled equations is solved using the finite volume method and the SIMPLER algorithm. Summarizing the numerical predictions, global correlations of overall transfer within the porous annulus as a function of the governing studied parameters are set forth which predict within ±2% the numerical results. These correlations may count as a complement to previous researches done in the case a Newtonian-fluid annulus. It is to note that the validity of the computing code used was ascertained by comparing our results with the experimental data and numerical ones already available in the literature.

  18. The Characteristics of natural convection heat transfer of Al_2O_3–water nano fluid flow in a vertical annulus pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinaldy Nazar

    2016-01-01

    Results of several researches have shown that nano fluids have better thermal characteristics than conventional fluid (water). In this regard, ideas for using nano fluids as an alternative heat transfer fluid in the reactor coolant system have been well developed. Meanwhile the natural convection in a vertical annulus pipe is one of the important mechanisms of heat transfer and is found at the TRIGA research reactor, the new generation nuclear power plants and other energy conversion devices. On the other hand, the heat transfer characteristics of nano fluids in a vertical annulus pipe has not been known. Therefore, it is important to do research continuously to analyze the heat transfer nano fluids in a vertical annulus pipe. This study has carried out numerical analysis by using computer code of CFD (computational of fluids dynamic) on natural convection heat transfer characteristics of nano fluids flow of Al_2O_3-water 2 % volume in the vertical annulus pipe. The results showed an increase in heat transfer performance (Nusselt numbers - NU) by 20.5 % - 35 %. In natural convection mode with Rayleigh numbers 2.471 e"+"0"9 ≤ Ra ≤ 1.955 e"+"1"3 obtained empirical correlations for water is N_U = 1.065 (R_a(D_H/x))"0"."1"7"9 and empirical correlations for Al_2O_3-water nano fluids is N_U = 14.869 (R_a(D_H/x))"0"."1"1"5.(author)

  19. Multi-dimensional Mixing Behavior of Steam-Water Flow in a Downcomer Annulus during LBLOCA Reflood Phase with a DVI Injection Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, T.S.; Yun, B.J.; Euh, D.J.; Chu, I.C.; Song, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in the downcomer annulus of a pressurized water reactor vessel with a Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) mode is presented based on the experimental observation in the MIDAS (Multi-dimensional Investigation in Downcomer Annulus Simulation) steam-water test facility. From the steady-state test results to simulate the late reflood phase of a Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accidents(LBLOCA), isothermal lines show the multidimensional phenomena of a phasic interaction between steam and water in the downcomer annulus very well. MIDAS is a steam-water separate effect test facility, which is 1/4.93 linearly scaled-down of 1400 MWe PWR type of a nuclear reactor, focused on understanding multi-dimensional thermalhydraulic phenomena in downcomer annulus with various types of safety injection during the refill or reflood phase of a LBLOCA. The initial and the boundary conditions are scaled from the pre-test analysis based on the preliminary calculation using the TRAC code. The superheated steam with a superheating degree of 80 K at a given downcomer pressure of 180 kPa is injected equally through three intact cold legs into the downcomer. (authors)

  20. Flow visualization study of two-phase flow in the horizontal annulus of the fuel-channel outlet end-fitting of a CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supa-Amornkul, S.; Steward, F.R.; Lister, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    In CANDU-6 reactors, the pressurized hightemperature coolant flows through 380 fuel channels passing horizontally through the core. In 1996, higher than expected rates of wall thinning of the outlet feeders were ascribed to flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC). Such corrosion is strongly influenced by the hydrodynamics of the coolant. Results of preliminary flow visualization and modelling studies have suggested that flow conditions in the end-fitting annulus upstream of the outlet feeder may influence the pattern of FAC. For a full-scale flow visualization, an acrylic test section was built to simulate the cylindrical end-fitting with its annulus flow path. The tests were performed with water and air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The phase distribution along the length of the annulus was recorded with a digital video recorder. Size, concentration and velocity of the air bubbles at particular locations were studied with a high-speed digital still camera and a high-speed digital video camera. Phase distributions and variations in bubble size with velocity were determined. Significant effects on the flow patterns of spacer buttons in the annulus were observed. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code-Fluent 6.1-was used to model the results. (authors)

  1. 3D echocardiographic analysis of aortic annulus for transcatheter aortic valve replacement using novel aortic valve quantification software: Comparison with computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediratta, Anuj; Addetia, Karima; Medvedofsky, Diego; Schneider, Robert J; Kruse, Eric; Shah, Atman P; Nathan, Sandeep; Paul, Jonathan D; Blair, John E; Ota, Takeyoshi; Balkhy, Husam H; Patel, Amit R; Mor-Avi, Victor; Lang, Roberto M

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS), computed tomography (CT) remains the standard for annulus sizing. However, 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been an alternative in patients with contraindications to CT. We sought to (1) test the feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of prototype 3DTEE analysis software (Philips) for aortic annular measurements and (2) compare the new approach to the existing echocardiographic techniques. We prospectively studied 52 patients who underwent gated contrast CT, procedural 3DTEE, and TAVR. 3DTEE images were analyzed using novel semi-automated software designed for 3D measurements of the aortic root, which uses multiplanar reconstruction, similar to CT analysis. Aortic annulus measurements included area, perimeter, and diameter calculations from these measurements. The results were compared to CT-derived values. Additionally, 3D echocardiographic measurements (3D planimetry and mitral valve analysis software adapted for the aortic valve) were also compared to the CT reference values. 3DTEE image quality was sufficient in 90% of patients for aortic annulus measurements using the new software, which were in good agreement with CT (r-values: .89-.91) and small (software can accurately measure aortic annulus in patients with severe AS undergoing TAVR, in better agreement with CT than the existing methodology. Accordingly, intra-procedural TEE could potentially replace CT in patients where CT carries significant risk. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. VALIDATION OF MITRAL VALVE ANNULUS DIMENSIONS MEASURED BY 2D TRANS-THORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY WITH GOLD STANDARD DIRECT INTRA-OPERATIVE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen; Yadav; Ankur; Saket; Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Precise estimation of Mitral valve annulus dimensions preoperatively through Echocardiography is of paramount importance in replacement/repair surgeries. However a frequent disagreement was experienced between anticipated size of prosthetic valve based on echocardiography and actual valve size. This fact encouraged the authors to validate the measurements through echocardiography with gold-standard direct intra operative measurement. AIM: To compare the mitral val...

  3. An examination of the influence of spacers on burnout in an annulus cooled by the upflow of Freon-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, V.

    1975-04-01

    To evaluate the spacer influence on burnout, tests were carried out in Freon-12 at 1.04 MPa (abs.) test section inlet pressure with an internally heated annulus 2743 mm long by 14.4 mm heater diameter, the outer tube (shroud) having a bore of 22.1 mm. The inner rod (heater) was located centrally to the shroud by spacers and their configuration was changed for each test. Comparison of the results with those obtained with a test section having no spacers indicated that spacers can increase burnout power up to 75 per cent, decrease it, or show no effect at all, depending on the combination of the inlet temperature and mass velocity. If the spacers were streamlined, removed from the upstream portion of the heater or relocated farther upstream from the downstream end of the heater, there was a considerably reduced effect on the test section performance. (author)

  4. Recognition and measurement gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical concentric annulus at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Sun, Baojiang; Guo, Yanli; Gao, Yonghai; Zhao, Xinxin

    2018-02-01

    The air-water flow characteristics under pressure in the range of 1-6 MPa in a vertical annulus were evaluated in this report. Time-resolved bubble rising velocity and void fraction were also measured using an electrical void fraction meter. The results showed that the pressure has remarkable effect on the density, bubble size and rise velocity of the gas. Four flow patterns (bubble, cap-bubble, cap-slug, and churn) were also observed instead of Taylor bubble at high pressure. Additionally, the transition process from bubble to cap-bubble was investigated at atmospheric and high pressures, respectively. The results revealed that the flow regime transition criteria for atmospheric pressure do not work at high pressure, hence a new flow regime transition model for annular flow channel geometry was developed to predict the flow regime transition, which thereafter exhibited high accuracy at high pressure condition.

  5. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Winterholler

    2007-01-01

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under the Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Action Plan for Tank System TRA-009. The tank system to be closed is identified as VCO-SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-009. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards

  6. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure activities evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The closure activities discussed include: the closure activities for the structures, equipment, soil, and gravel scrubber; decontamination methods; materials made available for recycling or reuse; and waste management. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements and closure plan requirements. The report concludes that the areas identified in the closure plan can be clean closed

  7. Three-dimensional development of tensile pre-strained annulus fibrosus cells for tissue regeneration: An in-vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuah, Yon Jin [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Lee, Wu Chean [University Hospital Conventry & Warwickshire NHS Trust, Clifford Bridge Road, West Midlands CV2, 2DX (United Kingdom); Wong, Hee Kit [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, National University Health System, NUHS Tower Block Level 11, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Kang, Yuejun, E-mail: yuejun.kang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Hee, Hwan Tak, E-mail: HTHee@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Pinnacle Spine & Scoliosis Centre, 3 Mount Elizabeth, Mount Elizabeth Medical Centre, #04-07, Singapore 228510 (Singapore); School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637459 (Singapore)

    2015-02-01

    Prior research has investigated the immediate response after application of tensile strain on annulus fibrosus (AF) cells for the past decade. Although mechanical strain can produce either catabolic or anabolic consequences to the cell monolayer, little is known on how to translate these findings into further tissue engineering applications. Till to date, the application and effect of tensile pre-strained cells to construct a three-dimensional (3D) AF tissue remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the effect of tensile pre-strained exposure of 1 to 24 h on the development of AF pellet culture for 3 weeks. Equibiaxial cyclic tensile strain was applied on AF monolayer cells over a period of 24 h, which was subsequently developed into a cell pellet. Investigation on cellular proliferation, phenotypic gene expression, and histological changes revealed that tensile pre-strain for 24 h had significant and lasting effect on the AF tissue development, with enhanced cell proliferation, and up-regulation of collagen type I, II, and aggrecan expression. Our results demonstrated the regenerative ability of AF cell pellets subjected to 24 h tensile pre-straining. Knowledge on the effects of tensile pre-strain exposure is necessary to optimize AF development for tissue reconstruction. Moreover, the tensile pre-strained cells may further be utilized in either cell therapy to treat mild disc degeneration disease, or the development of a disc construct for total disc replacement. - Highlights: • Establishment of tensile pre-strained cell line population for annulus development. • Tensile strain limits collagen gene expression declination in monolayer culture. • Tensile pre-strained cells up-regulate their matrix protein in 3D pellet culture.

  8. Critical heat flux determination in an annulus section; Determinacion del flujo critico de calor en una seccion anular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes C, C A

    1997-04-01

    The present report explains the phenomenon of Critical heat flux. The study of this physical phenomenon is carried out during the boiling of a liquid and is of supreme importance for the calculation and operation of a nuclear reactor even in the moderns generators of steam (thermoelectric and nucleoelectrics), industrial cooling and in all those industrial process that use a liquid subject to sources of heating and to conditions of work excessively high (temperatures and pressures) so that stay in operation in an appropriate manner and sure. Once well-known this value, the equipment used in these process works with a maximum heat that is smaller than the Critical Heat Flux. The study of the Critical Heat Flux has achieved important advances in the last years, mainly for the enormous obligation that in this moment involved the safety to world level, this has forced to researchers and designers of this type of equipment to center their attention in the obtaining of a correlation which of general way explains it. In this reports two correlations will be compared that they contribute to the evaluation of the Critical Heat Flux in annulus and that they try to be generals in this type of geometry, the Shah correlation`s and the Katto correlation`s. The same as most of the correlations, these have been calculated so that the fluid of work is water, although they have also been proven with others fluids. The results obtained in this report only will show the degree of advance which the investigation of this phenomenon has achieved in annulus and to low amounts of flow of liquid, like which they are in the Experimental Heat Transfer Circuit located in the Department of Physics of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. (Author).

  9. Early diastolic mitral annular velocity at the interventricular septal annulus correctly reflects left ventricular longitudinal myocardial relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazunori; Mikami, Taisei; Kaga, Sanae; Onozuka, Hisao; Inoue, Mamiko; Yokoyama, Shinobu; Nishino, Hisao; Nishida, Mutsumi; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Iwano, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Early diastolic mitral annular velocity (e') obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is widely used to evaluate left ventricular (LV) diastolic function based on the assumption that it reflects myocardial relaxation in the long-axis direction. In this study, we aimed to determine whether or not e' truly reflects early diastolic longitudinal myocardial relaxation, and which is the most useful for evaluating LV diastolic function among e' measured at the interventricular-septal annulus (IS-e'), that measured at the lateral annulus (LW-e') or their mean value (M-e'). IS-e', LW-e', and M-e' were measured using colour TDI in 15 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 13 patients with hypertension, and 19 control subjects. Using two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging, early diastolic myocardial strain rates (SR(E)) were measured for the IS (IS-SR(E)), LW (LW-SR(E)), and entire LV myocardium (G-SR(E)). IS-e' was excellently correlated with IS-SR(E) (r = 0.90, P < 0.001); the correlation was better than that between LW-e' and LW-SR(E) (r = 0.75, P < 0.001). IS-e' and M-e' were well correlated with G-SR(E) (r = 0.88, P < 0.001 and r = 0.86, P< 0.001, respectively) and with LV early diastolic flow propagation velocity (FPV) (r = 0.77, P < 0.001 and r = 0.78, P < 0.001, respectively). The correlations of LW-e' to G-SR(E) (r = 0.80, P < 0.001) and FPV (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) did not reach this level. IS-e' well reflected LV longitudinal myocardial relaxation and LV diastolic function, and was found to be more useful in evaluating LV diastolic function than LW-e'.

  10. Primary closure in colon trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Aragón, Luis Enrique; Guevara-Torres, Lorenzo; Vaca-Pérez, Enrique; Belmares-Taboada, Jaime Arístides; Ortiz-Castillo, Fátima de Guadalupe; Sánchez-Aguilar, Martín

    2009-01-01

    Primary repair of colon injuries is an accepted therapeutic option; however, controversy persists regarding its safety. Our objective was to report the evolution and presence of complications in patients with colon injury who underwent primary closure and to determine if the time interval (>6 h), degree of injury, contamination, anatomic site injured, PATI (Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index) >25, and the presence of other injuries in colon trauma are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This was a prospective, observational, longitudinal and descriptive study conducted at the Central Hospital "Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto," San Luis Potosí, Mexico, from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007. We included patients with abdominal trauma with colon injury subjected to surgical treatment. chi(2) was used for basic statistical analysis. There were 481 patients with abdominal trauma who underwent surgery; 77(16.1%) had colon injury. Ninety percent (n = 69) were treated in the first 6 h; 91% (n = 70) were due to penetrating injuries, and gunshot wound accounted for 48% (n = 37). Transverse colon was the most frequently injured (38%) (n = 29). Grade I and II injuries accounted for 75.3% (n = 58). Procedures included primary repair (76.66 %) (n = 46); resection with anastomosis (8.3%) (n = 5); and colostomy (15%) (n = 9). Associated injuries were present in 76.6% (n = 59). There was some degree of contamination in 85.7% (n = 66); 82.8% (58) had PATI colon injury. Primary repair is a safe procedure for treatment of colon injuries. Patients with primary repair had lower morbidity (p <0.009). Surgery during the first 6 h (p <0.006) and in hemodynamically stable patients (p <0.014) had a lower risk of complications.

  11. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management's (EM's) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE's 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM's accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document

  12. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.; Christy, C.E.; Heath, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B ampersand W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE's Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used to measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ at depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes, measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics. This paper presents a description and the results of the field tests. The results were used to characterize the lower detection limits, precision and bias of the system, which allowed the DOE to judge the monitoring system's ability to meet its long-term post-closure radiation monitoring needs. Based on the test results, the monitoring system has been redesigned for fabrication and testing in a potential Phase III of this program. If the DOE feels that this system can meet its needs and chooses to continue into Phase III of this program, this redesigned full scale prototype system will be built and tested for a period of approximately a year. Such a system can be used at a variety of radioactively contaminated sites

  13. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... remaining wastes to a bearing capacity sufficient to support final cover; and (iii) Cover the surface....112 must include both a plan for complying with paragraph (a)(1) of this section and a contingent plan... practicably removed at closure; and (ii) The owner or operator must prepare a contingent post-closure plan...

  14. Post-operative analgesic requirement in non-closure and closure of peritoneum during open appendectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.W.; Maqsood, R.; Saleem, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the mean post-operative analgesic requirement in non-closure and closure of peritoneum during open appendectomy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of General Surgery Combined Military Hospital Quetta, from 1st August 2014 to 30th April 2015. Material and Methods: A total of 60 patients were included in this study and were divided into two groups of 30 each. Patients in group A underwent open appendectomy with closure of peritoneum while patients in group B had non-closure of peritoneum during the same procedure. Post-operatively, pain severity was assessed on visual analogue scale (VAS) numeric pain distress scale. On presence of VAS numeric pain distress scale between 5 to 7, intramuscular (IM) diclofenac sodium was given and on score >7, intravascular (IV) tramadol was given. The final outcome was measured at day 0 and day 1. Results: Pain score and analgesic requirements were significantly less in non-closure group than closure group on day 0 and day 1, showing statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Mean post-operative analgesic requirement is significantly less in non-closure group as compared to closure group during open appendectomy. (author)

  15. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mountain Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment

  16. The Closure Principle for Signification. (An Outline of a Dynamic Version)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanke, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2017), s. 59-84 ISSN 1214-8407 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Thomas Bradwardine * Stephen Read * semantic paradoxes * closure principle for signification * dynamic semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  17. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mtn. Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  18. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mountain Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2003-09-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  19. Scalp Wound Closure with K wires: An alternative easier method to scalp wound closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S; Ajik, S

    2012-12-01

    Scalp defects and lacerations present a reconstructive challenge to plastic surgeons. Many methods have been described from the use of skin grafting to rotation flaps. Here we present a method of closure of a contaminated scalp wound with the use of Kirschner wires. In our case, closure of scalp laceration was made possible with the use of 1.4 Kirschner wires and cable tie/ zip tie fasteners. The duration to closure of wound was 10 days. In reconstructing the scalp defect, this method was found to adhere to principles of scalp reconstruction. There were no post operative complications found from the procedure. On initial application on the edge of the wound, tension applied caused the K wires to cut through the wound edge. On replacement of K wires 1cm away from wound edge the procedure was not plagued by any further complication. In conclusion we find scalp closure with Kirschner wires are a simple and effective method for scalp wound closure.

  20. Stomal Closure: Strategies to Prevent Incisional Hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Rhiannon L.; Torkington, Jared

    2018-01-01

    Incisional hernias following ostomy reversal occur frequently. Incisional hernias at the site of a previous stoma closure can cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life, lead to life-threatening hernia incarceration or strangulation and result in a significant financial burden on health care systems Despite this, the evidence base on the subject is limited. Many recognised risk factors for the development of incisional hernia following ostomy reversal are related to patient factors such as age, malignancy, diabetes, COPD, hypertension and obesity, and are not easily correctable. There is a limited amount of evidence to suggest that prophylactic mesh reinforcement may be of benefit to reduce the post stoma closure incisional hernia rate but a further large scale randomised controlled trial is due to report in the near future. There appears to be weak evidence to suggest that surgeons should favour circular, or “purse-string” closure of the skin following stoma closure in order to reduce the risk of SSI, which in turn may reduce incisional hernia formation. There remains the need for further evidence in relation to suture technique, skin closure techniques, mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotic prescription focusing on incisional hernia development as an outcome measure. Within this review, we discuss in detail the evidence base for the risk factors for the development of, and the strategies to prevent ostomy reversal site incisional hernias. PMID:29670882

  1. Angle closure glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace M. Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Congenital ectropion uvea is a rare anomaly, which is associated with open, but dysplastic iridocorneal angles that cause childhood glaucoma. Herein, we present 3 cases of angle-closure glaucoma in children with congenital ectropion uvea. Observations: Three children were initially diagnosed with unilateral glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uvea at 7, 8 and 13 years of age. The three cases showed 360° of ectropion uvea and iris stromal atrophy in the affected eye. In one case, we have photographic documentation of progression to complete angle closure, which necessitated placement of a glaucoma drainage device 3 years after combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy. The 2 other cases, which presented as complete angle closure, also underwent glaucoma drainage device implantation. All three cases had early glaucoma drainage device encapsulation (within 4 months and required additional surgery (cycloablation or trabeculectomy. Conclusions and importance: Congenital ectropion uvea can be associated with angle-closure glaucoma, and placement of glaucoma drainage devices in all 3 of our cases showed early failure due to plate encapsulation. Glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea requires attention to angle configuration and often requires multiple surgeries to obtain intraocular pressure control. Keywords: Congenital ectropion uvea, Juvenile glaucoma, Angle-closure glaucoma, Glaucoma drainage device

  2. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  3. Stomal Closure: Strategies to Prevent Incisional Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon L. Harries

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Incisional hernias following ostomy reversal occur frequently. Incisional hernias at the site of a previous stoma closure can cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life, lead to life-threatening hernia incarceration or strangulation and result in a significant financial burden on health care systems Despite this, the evidence base on the subject is limited. Many recognised risk factors for the development of incisional hernia following ostomy reversal are related to patient factors such as age, malignancy, diabetes, COPD, hypertension and obesity, and are not easily correctable. There is a limited amount of evidence to suggest that prophylactic mesh reinforcement may be of benefit to reduce the post stoma closure incisional hernia rate but a further large scale randomised controlled trial is due to report in the near future. There appears to be weak evidence to suggest that surgeons should favour circular, or “purse-string” closure of the skin following stoma closure in order to reduce the risk of SSI, which in turn may reduce incisional hernia formation. There remains the need for further evidence in relation to suture technique, skin closure techniques, mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotic prescription focusing on incisional hernia development as an outcome measure. Within this review, we discuss in detail the evidence base for the risk factors for the development of, and the strategies to prevent ostomy reversal site incisional hernias.

  4. Strategic Planning for Hot Cell Closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANGSTAFF, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor were remediating a large hot cell complex to mitigate the radiological hazard. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure unit was determined to be located within the complex. The regulator established a challenge to develop an acceptable closure plan on a short schedule (four months). The scope of the plan was to remove all excess equipment and mixed waste from the closure unit, establish the requirements of the legally binding Closure Plan and develop an acceptable schedule. The complex has several highly radioactive tanks, tank vaults, piping, and large hot cells containing complex chemical processing equipment. Driven by a strong need to develop an effective strategy to meet cleanup commitments, three principles were followed to develop an acceptable plan: (1) Use a team approach, (2) Establish a buffer zone to support closure, and (3) Use good practice when planning the work sequence. The team was composed of DOE, contractor, and Washington State Department of Ecology (Regulator) staff. The team approach utilized member expertise and fostered member involvement and communication. The buffer zone established an area between the unregulated parts of the building and the areas that were allegedly not in compliance with environmental standards. Introduction of the buffer zone provided simplicity, clarity, and flexibility into the process. Using good practice means using the DOE Integrated Safety Management Core Functions for planning and implementing work safely. Paying adequate attention to detail when the situation required contributed to the process credibility and a successful plan

  5. Detection of primary angle closure using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Winifred P; See, Jovina L; Chew, Paul T K; Friedman, David S; Smith, Scott D; Radhakrishnan, Sunita; Zheng, Ce; Foster, Paul J; Aung, Tin

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate noncontact anterior segment optical coherence technology (AS-OCT) as a qualitative method of imaging the anterior chamber angle and to determine its ability to detect primary angle closure when compared with gonioscopy in Asian subjects. Prospective observational case series. Two hundred three subjects were recruited from glaucoma clinics in Singapore with diagnoses of primary angle closure, primary open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, or cataract. Both eyes (if eligible) of each patient were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were pseudophakia or previous glaucoma surgery. Images of the nasal, temporal, and inferior angles were obtained with AS-OCT in dark and then light conditions. Gonioscopic angle width was graded using the Spaeth classification for each quadrant in low lighting conditions. Angle closure was defined by AS-OCT as contact between the peripheral iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur and by gonioscopy as a Spaeth grade of 0 degree (posterior trabecular meshwork not visible). Comparison of the 2 methods in detecting angle closure was done by eye and by individual. Sensitivities and specificities of AS-OCT were calculated using gonioscopy as the reference standard. Complete data were available for 342 eyes of 200 patients. Of the patients, 70.9% had a clinical diagnosis of treated or untreated primary angle closure. Angle closure in > or =1 quadrants was detected by AS-OCT in 142 (71%) patients (228 [66.7%] eyes) and by gonioscopy in 99 (49.5%) patients (152 [44.4%] eyes). The inferior angle was closed more frequently than the nasal or temporal quadrants using both AS-OCT and gonioscopy. When performed under dark conditions, AS-OCT identified 98% of those subjects found to have angle closure on gonioscopy (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.2-99.6) and led to the characterization of 44.6% of those found to have open angles on gonioscopy to have angle closure as well. With gonioscopy as the reference standard

  6. Sub-arc narrow gap welding of Atucha 2 RPV closure head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantsch, H.; Million, K.; Zimmermann, H.

    1982-01-01

    Narrow gap technology was used for reasons of design and fabrication when welding the closure-head dome to its flange. Preliminary tests had yielded the necessary improvements of the well-proven sub-arc practice. New facilities had to be developed for welding proper and for the accompanying machining work (finishing in the narrow gap). Special measures were adopted for monitoring the welding process and for recording the welding parameters. The new method was tried out on several large test coupons before welding of the final product was started. No difficulties were encountered during the welding job. Fabrication of the closure head is shown in a short film sequence. (orig.)

  7. Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the strategy for closure of part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The Area 5 RWMS is in the northern part of Frenchman Flat, approximately 14 miles north of Mercury. The Area 5 RWMS encompasses 732 acres subdivided into quadrants, and is bounded by a 1,000-foot (ft)-wide buffer zone. The northwest and southwest quadrants have not been developed. The northeast and southeast quadrants have been used for disposal of unclassified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and indefinite storage of classified materials. This paper focuses on closure of the 38 waste disposal and classified material storage units within the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 RWMS, called the ''92-Acre Area''. The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently planning to close the 92-Acre Area by 2011. Closure planning for this site must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. For ease of discussion, the 92-Acre Area has been subdivided into six closure units defined by waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements. Each of the closure units contains one or more waste disposal units; waste disposal units are also called waste disposal cells. The paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues for the 92-Acre Area, recommends actions to address the issues, and provides the National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), schedule for closure.

  8. Biological constraints do not entail cognitive closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlerick, Michael

    2014-12-01

    From the premise that our biology imposes cognitive constraints on our epistemic activities, a series of prominent authors--most notably Fodor, Chomsky and McGinn--have argued that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects and properties of the world. Cognitive constraints, they argue, entail cognitive closure. I argue that this is not the case. More precisely, I detect two unwarranted conflations at the core of arguments deriving closure from constraints. The first is a conflation of what I will refer to as 'representation' and 'object of representation'. The second confuses the cognitive scope of the assisted mind for that of the unassisted mind. Cognitive closure, I conclude, cannot be established from pointing out the (uncontroversial) existence of cognitive constraints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hanford Patrol Academy demolition sites closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    The Hanford Site is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites, the unit addressed in this paper. This document consists of a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application, Form 3 (Revision 4), and a closure plan for the site. An explanation of the Part A Form 3 submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. This Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of December 15, 1994.

  10. Development of an arid site closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Barnes, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the development of a prototype plan for the effective closure and stabilization of an arid low-level waste disposal site. This plan will provide demonstrated closure techniques for a trench in a disposal site at Los Alamos. The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed. A specific example is presented showing how the field-validated hydrologic models can be used to develop a final prototype closure plan. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, C.; Karlsson, L.; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2016-01-01

    incision between January 1995 and June 2012 were reviewed. Horses with a laryngotomy incision closed in three layers for primary healing were included. Descriptive data on healing characteristics and complications of laryngotomy wounds were collected from the medical records and via follow......The objective was to report healing characteristics and complications after primary closure of equine laryngotomies and analyse factors potentially associated with complications. This retrospective case series of the medical records of horses (n = 180) undergoing laryngoplasty and laryngotomy...... after primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions are infrequent and considered of minimal severity and can be performed safely when paying careful attention to the closure of the cricothyroid membrane....

  12. Barriers and post-closure monitoring (AL121125)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, K.V.; Janecky, D.

    1995-01-01

    This project focuses on the rapid implementation of near-surface barriers, biotreatment, and post-closure monitoring technology. It uses water-permeable and biologic barriers that chemically capture and/or degrade contaminants without significantly altering the natural water flow regime. Barrier approaches are being tested for two different applications. The first is the use of barriers for confinement of chemical contaminants for in-trench treatments with leach systems or an in-place bioreactor. The second is an enhancement of the current practice of emplacing grout or clay slurry walls into direct horizontal surface and subsurface water flows around a contaminated area by integrating permeable reactive barriers and petroleum reservoir gel/foam/polymer technology

  13. Hamiltonian closures in fluid models for plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Emanuele

    2017-11-01

    This article reviews recent activity on the Hamiltonian formulation of fluid models for plasmas in the non-dissipative limit, with emphasis on the relations between the fluid closures adopted for the different models and the Hamiltonian structures. The review focuses on results obtained during the last decade, but a few classical results are also described, in order to illustrate connections with the most recent developments. With the hope of making the review accessible not only to specialists in the field, an introduction to the mathematical tools applied in the Hamiltonian formalism for continuum models is provided. Subsequently, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of models based on the magnetohydrodynamics description, including those based on the adiabatic and double adiabatic closure. It is shown how Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems can be applied to impose the incompressibility closure on a magnetohydrodynamic model and how an extended version of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics, accounting for two-fluid effects, is amenable to a Hamiltonian formulation. Hamiltonian reduced fluid models, valid in the presence of a strong magnetic field, are also reviewed. In particular, reduced magnetohydrodynamics and models assuming cold ions and different closures for the electron fluid are discussed. Hamiltonian models relaxing the cold-ion assumption are then introduced. These include models where finite Larmor radius effects are added by means of the gyromap technique, and gyrofluid models. Numerical simulations of Hamiltonian reduced fluid models investigating the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection are illustrated. The last part of the review concerns recent results based on the derivation of closures preserving a Hamiltonian structure, based on the Hamiltonian structure of parent kinetic models. Identification of such closures for fluid models derived from kinetic systems based on the Vlasov and drift-kinetic equations are presented, and

  14. A kinematic view of loop closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsias, Evangelos A; Seok, Chaok; Jacobson, Matthew P; Dill, Ken A

    2004-03-01

    We consider the problem of loop closure, i.e., of finding the ensemble of possible backbone structures of a chain segment of a protein molecule that is geometrically consistent with preceding and following parts of the chain whose structures are given. We reduce this problem of determining the loop conformations of six torsions to finding the real roots of a 16th degree polynomial in one variable, based on the robotics literature on the kinematics of the equivalent rotator linkage in the most general case of oblique rotators. We provide a simple intuitive view and derivation of the polynomial for the case in which each of the three pair of torsional axes has a common point. Our method generalizes previous work on analytical loop closure in that the torsion angles need not be consecutive, and any rigid intervening segments are allowed between the free torsions. Our approach also allows for a small degree of flexibility in the bond angles and the peptide torsion angles; this substantially enlarges the space of solvable configurations as is demonstrated by an application of the method to the modeling of cyclic pentapeptides. We give further applications to two important problems. First, we show that this analytical loop closure algorithm can be efficiently combined with an existing loop-construction algorithm to sample loops longer than three residues. Second, we show that Monte Carlo minimization is made severalfold more efficient by employing the local moves generated by the loop closure algorithm, when applied to the global minimization of an eight-residue loop. Our loop closure algorithm is freely available at http://dillgroup. ucsf.edu/loop_closure/. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 25: 510-528, 2004

  15. Overview of the closure approach for the Hanford Site single-shell tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.H.

    1991-09-01

    The disposal of chemical and radioactive waste stored within the single-shell tanks (SST) represents one of the most significant waste management problems at the Hanford Site. A comprehensive program has been established to obtain analytical data regarding the chemical and radiological constituents within these tanks. This information will be used to support the development of a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) and ultimately to aid in the selection of a final disposal option. This paper discusses some of the technical options and major regulatory issues associated with SST waste retrieval and in situ waste treatment and disposal. Certain closure options and treatment technologies will require further development before they can be implemented or accepted as being useful. In addition, continued negotiations with the regulatory authorities will be required to determine the preferred closure option and the regulatory pathway to accommodate such closure

  16. The merits of non-tradable quotas as a domestic policy instrument to prevent firm closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagem, Cathrine

    2001-05-01

    There is a concern in many countries that a domestic tradable quota system for greenhouse gases, where all emitters must pay for their quotas, may lead to closures of emissions-intensive industrial companies. Allocating quotas free of charge to companies operating in competitive markets has been suggested as a means to reduce the likelihood of closures. Two different designs of quota systems are studied within a two-period model: one where the quotas given free of charge are tradable, and one where the quotas are non-tradable. The two quota systems are compared with respect to their ability both to induce the firms to implement investment in abatement technology and to prevent or postpone closures. (author)

  17. Reactor vessel closure head replacements in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Framatome-Jeumont Industrie consortium have completed in 1997 28 reactor vessel (RV) closure head replacements, including five on 1300 MWe class PWR units. Framatome manages the operations and handles removal and reinstallation of equipment (not including the control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM)) and the requalification tests, while JI, which manufactures the CRDMs, is involved in the CRDM cutting, re-machining and welding operations, using tools of original design, in order to optimize the RV closure head operation in terms of costs, schedule and dosage

  18. Closure properties of Watson-Crick grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.

  19. Straight line closure of congenital macrostomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Richard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of patients operated on by Nepal Cleft Lip and Palate Association (NECLAPA surgeons for congenital macrostomia were prospectively studied between January 2000 and December 2002. There were four males and three females with a median age of 10 years. Three had an associated branchial arch syndrome. In all patients an overlapping repair of orbicularis oris was done. Six patients had a straight line closure with excellent cosmetic results and one a Z-plasty with a more obvious scar. All had a normal appearing commissure. Overlapping orbicularis repair with straight line skin closure for this rare congenital anomaly is recommended.

  20. Environmental considerations in mine closure planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, G.

    1997-01-01

    Mine closure planning considers the best ways to plan and manage the environmental changes and socio-economic effects associated with the closing of mines. While the criteria for judging successful closures may vary, it is particularly important for physical, chemical and biological stability to be achieved and for final land use to be appropriate. Trust funds are increasingly favoured as a practical means of fulfilling the requirement for a financial surety and of ensuring that financial provision is available at the end of the mine's life. (author)

  1. Uncertainty Quantification of Multi-Phase Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-10-27

    In the ensemble-averaged dispersed phase formulation used for CFD of multiphase ows in nuclear reactor thermohydraulics, closures of interphase transfer of mass, momentum, and energy constitute, by far, the biggest source of error and uncertainty. Reliable estimators of this source of error and uncertainty are currently non-existent. Here, we report on how modern Validation and Uncertainty Quanti cation (VUQ) techniques can be leveraged to not only quantify such errors and uncertainties, but also to uncover (unintended) interactions between closures of di erent phenomena. As such this approach serves as a valuable aide in the research and development of multiphase closures. The joint modeling of lift, drag, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion|forces that lead to tranfer of momentum between the liquid and gas phases|is examined in the frame- work of validation of the adiabatic but turbulent experiments of Liu and Banko , 1993. An extensive calibration study is undertaken with a popular combination of closure relations and the popular k-ϵ turbulence model in a Bayesian framework. When a wide range of super cial liquid and gas velocities and void fractions is considered, it is found that this set of closures can be validated against the experimental data only by allowing large variations in the coe cients associated with the closures. We argue that such an extent of variation is a measure of uncertainty induced by the chosen set of closures. We also nd that while mean uid velocity and void fraction pro les are properly t, uctuating uid velocity may or may not be properly t. This aspect needs to be investigated further. The popular set of closures considered contains ad-hoc components and are undesirable from a predictive modeling point of view. Consequently, we next consider improvements that are being developed by the MIT group under CASL and which remove the ad-hoc elements. We use non-intrusive methodologies for sensitivity analysis and calibration (using

  2. Laser peripheral iridoplasty for angle-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Siene; Ang, Ghee Soon; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2012-02-15

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Treatment is aimed at opening the anterior chamber angle and lowering the IOP with medical and/or surgical treatment (e.g. trabeculectomy, lens extraction). Laser iridotomy works by eliminating pupillary block and widens the anterior chamber angle in the majority of patients. When laser iridotomy fails to open the anterior chamber angle, laser iridoplasty may be recommended as one of the options in current standard treatment for angle-closure. Laser peripheral iridoplasty works by shrinking and pulling the peripheral iris tissue away from the trabecular meshwork. Laser peripheral iridoplasty can be used for crisis of acute angle-closure and also in non-acute situations.   To assess the effectiveness of laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of narrow angles (i.e. primary angle-closure suspect), primary angle-closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in non-acute situations when compared with any other intervention. In this review, angle-closure will refer to patients with narrow angles (PACs), PAC and PACG. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 5 January 2012. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this review. Patients with narrow angles, PAC or PACG were eligible. We excluded studies that included only patients with acute presentations

  3. Special closure for radioactive shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otts, J.V.

    1976-03-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a special lid closure for radioactive material shipping containers, typically steel drums. Three closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to protect 1000 lb when dropped 30 ft. The three designs were (1) a 6-in. lid extension (skirt), (2) a 6-in. inner lid, and (3) c-clamps used at the container/lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the 6-in. lid extension is recommended

  4. Benchmarking in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment: Multiple equilibria in the light of laboratory experiments and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Miklos; Harlander, Uwe; Borchert, Sebastian; Achatz, Ulrich; Baumann, Martin; Egbers, Christoph; Fröhlich, Jochen; Hertel, Claudia; Heuveline, Vincent; Hickel, Stefan; von Larcher, Thomas; Remmler, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the German Science Foundation's (DFG) priority program 'MetStröm' various laboratory experiments have been carried out in a differentially heated rotating annulus configuration in order to test, validate and tune numerical methods to be used for modeling large-scale atmospheric processes. This classic experimental set-up is well known since the late 1940s and is a widely studied minimal model of the general mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. The two most relevant factors of cyclogenesis, namely rotation and meridional temperature gradient are quite well captured in this simple arrangement. The tabletop-size rotating tank is divided into three sections by coaxial cylindrical sidewalls. The innermost section is cooled whereas the outermost annular cavity is heated, therefore the working fluid (de-ionized water) in the middle annular section experiences differential heat flow, which imposes thermal (density) stratification on the fluid. At high enough rotation rates the isothermal surfaces tilt, leading to baroclinic instability. The extra potential energy stored in this unstable configuration is then converted into kinetic energy, exciting drifting wave patterns of temperature and momentum anomalies. The signatures of these baroclinic waves at the free water surface have been analysed via infrared thermography in a wide range of rotation rates (keeping the radial temperature difference constant) and under different initial conditions (namely, initial spin-up and "spin-down"). Paralelly to the laboratory simulations of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, five other groups from the MetStröm collaboration have conducted simulations in the same parameter regime using different numerical approaches and solvers, and applying different initial conditions and perturbations for stability analysis. The obtained baroclinic wave patterns have been evaluated via determining and comparing their Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs), drift rates and dominant wave

  5. Investigation of conditions inside the reactor building annulus of a PWR plant of KONVOI type in case of severe accidents with increased containment leakages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Ivan [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Sonnenkalb, Martin [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Improvements of the implemented severe accident management (SAM) concepts have been done in all operating German NPPs after the Fukushima Daiichi accidents following recommendations of the German Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) and as a result of the stress test being performed. The efficiency of newly developed severe accident management guidelines (SAMG) for a PWR KONVOI reference plant related to the mitigation of challenging conditions inside the reactor building (RB) annulus due to increased containment leakages during severe accidents have been assessed. Based on two representative severe accident scenarios the releases of both hydrogen and radionuclides into the RB annulus have been predicted with different boundary conditions. The accident scenarios have been analysed without and with the impact of several SAM measures (already planned or proposed in addition), which turned out to be efficient to mitigate the consequences. The work was done within the frame of a research project financially supported by the Federal Ministry BMUB.

  6. Investigation of conditions inside the reactor building annulus of a PWR plant of KONVOI type in case of severe accidents with increased containment leakages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalov, Ivan; Sonnenkalb, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Improvements of the implemented severe accident management (SAM) concepts have been done in all operating German NPPs after the Fukushima Daiichi accidents following recommendations of the German Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) and as a result of the stress test being performed. The efficiency of newly developed severe accident management guidelines (SAMG) for a PWR KONVOI reference plant related to the mitigation of challenging conditions inside the reactor building (RB) annulus due to increased containment leakages during severe accidents have been assessed. Based on two representative severe accident scenarios the releases of both hydrogen and radionuclides into the RB annulus have been predicted with different boundary conditions. The accident scenarios have been analysed without and with the impact of several SAM measures (already planned or proposed in addition), which turned out to be efficient to mitigate the consequences. The work was done within the frame of a research project financially supported by the Federal Ministry BMUB.

  7. Expression of the vitamin D metabolizing enzyme CYP24A1 at the annulus of human spermatozoa may serve as a novel marker of semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J E

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) is important for male reproduction in mammals and the VD receptor (VDR) and VD-metabolizing enzymes are expressed in human spermatozoa. The VD-inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 titrates the cellular responsiveness to VD, is transcriptionally regulated by VD, and has a distinct expression...... at the sperm annulus. Here, we investigated if CYP24A1 expression serves as a marker for VD metabolism in spermatozoa, and whether CYP24A1 expression was associated with semen quality. We included 130 men (53 healthy young volunteers and 77 subfertile men) for semen analysis and immunocytochemical (ICC.......3%. Functional studies revealed that 1,25(OH)(2) D(3) increased [Ca(2+) ](i) and sperm motility in young healthy men, while 1,25(OH)(2) D(3) was unable to increase motility in subfertile patients. In conclusion, we suggest that CYP24A1 expression at the annulus may serve as a novel marker of semen quality...

  8. Parents' Attitudes to the Closure of Small Rural Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, A.; Nisbet, J.

    1977-01-01

    Attitudes of 134 parents of children from 10 rural schools threatened with closure, and 56 parents of children from seven schools recently closed, were assessed by interview. Most parents opposed closure, and most gave educational reasons for their attitudes. (Author)

  9. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  10. 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 300 Area Process Trenches, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. For the purposes of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Westinghouse Hanford Company is identified as ''co-operator.'' The 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan (Revision 0) consists of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Form 3 and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application, Form 3 submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and six appendices. The 300 Area Process Trenches received dangerous waste discharges from research and development laboratories in the 300 Area and from fuels fabrication processes. This waste consisted of state-only toxic (WT02), corrosive (D002), chromium (D007), spent halogenated solvents (F001, F002, and F003), and spent nonhalogented solvent (F005). Accurate records are unavailable concerning the amount of dangerous waste discharged to the trenches. The estimated annual quantity of waste (item IV.B) reflects the total quantity of both regulated and nonregulated waste water that was discharged to the unit

  11. Downstreamness: A concept to analyse basin closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    In many places in the world, increasing water demands have led to the development of infrastructure for freshwater storage and irrigation. Especially in water-scarce regions, this development has led to a growing number of concerns about basin closure. These concerns ask for a structured approach

  12. Scale separation closure and Alfven wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1985-04-01

    Based on the concept of scale separation between coherent response function and incoherent source for renormalized turbulence theories, a closure scheme is proposed. A model problem dealing with shear-Alfven wave turbulence is numerically solved; the solution explicitly shows expected turbulence features such as frequency shift from linear modes, band-broadening, and a power law dependence for the turbulence spectrum

  13. VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE IN DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Moganakannan; `Prema; Arun Sundara Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Comparision of vacuum assisted closure vs conventional dressing in management of diabetic foot patients. 30 patients were taken in that 15 underwent vacuum therapy and remaining 15 underwent conventional dressing.They were analysed by the development of granulation tissue and wound healing.The study showed Vac therapy is the best modality for management of diabetic foot patients.

  14. Opening up closure. Semiotics across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic emergence of new levels of organization in complex systems is related to the semiotic reorganization of discrete/continuous variety at the level below as continuous/discrete meaning for the level above. In this view both the semiotic and the dynamic closure of system levels is reopened to allow the development and evolution of greater complexity.

  15. Individual Consequences of Plant Closures and Cutbacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steen

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the segment of unemployment which has its origin in major closures and cutbacks. The argument for this is to make it possible to describe and to analyse a flow into and a flow out of a population of unemployed. Given a major dismissal the following questions are to be answer...

  16. Hexone Storage and Treatment Facility closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The HSTF is a storage and treatment unit subject to the requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous waste. Closure is being conducted under interim status and will be completed pursuant to the requirements of Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and WAC 173-303-640. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of WAC 173-303 or of this closure plan. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge where appropriate. The known hazardous/dangerous waste remaining at the site before commencing other closure activities consists of the still vessels, a tarry sludge in the storage tanks, and residual contamination in equipment, piping, filters, etc. The treatment and removal of waste at the HSTF are closure activities as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and WAC 173-303

  17. Synthesis of azaphenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette Møller; Lysén, M.; Begtrup, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new and convergent synthesis of azaphenanthridines via an anionic ring closure is reported. Ortho-lithiation/in situ borylation of cyanopyridines produces the corresponding cyanopyridylboronic esters, which undergo a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling to give the key intermediates. Addition of lithium...

  18. Spontaneous closure of traumatic CSF otorrhoea following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a 40 year-old male who sustained a head injury with left cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea following a road traffic accident. Plain radiograph revealed a defect in the temporal bone extending in to the tympanomastoid area. Patient was managed conservatively with closure of the fistula and resolution of the leakage ...

  19. A Quick Guide to Paravalvular Leak Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Sameer; Franke, Jennifer; Bertog, Stefan; Lam, Simon; Vaskelyte, Laura; Hofmann, Ilona; Matic, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Paravalvular leak (PVL) is a seldomly covered aspect of structural heart disease. However, this is a condition that frequently presents after valvular replacement. This article will cover the diagnosising and treating PVL (i.e. imaging, access, and device selection). In addition, specific aspects of aortic and mitral PVL closure will be covered in this review. PMID:29588686

  20. Flower opening and closure: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Meeteren, van U.

    2003-01-01

    Flower opening and closure are traits of a reproductive syndrome, as it allows pollen removal and/or pollination. Various types of opening can be distinguished such as nocturnal and diurnal and single or repetitive. Opening is generally due to cell expansion. Osmotic solute levels increase by the

  1. Angle closure glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace M; Thuente, Daniel; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2018-06-01

    Congenital ectropion uvea is a rare anomaly, which is associated with open, but dysplastic iridocorneal angles that cause childhood glaucoma. Herein, we present 3 cases of angle-closure glaucoma in children with congenital ectropion uvea. Three children were initially diagnosed with unilateral glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uvea at 7, 8 and 13 years of age. The three cases showed 360° of ectropion uvea and iris stromal atrophy in the affected eye. In one case, we have photographic documentation of progression to complete angle closure, which necessitated placement of a glaucoma drainage device 3 years after combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy. The 2 other cases, which presented as complete angle closure, also underwent glaucoma drainage device implantation. All three cases had early glaucoma drainage device encapsulation (within 4 months) and required additional surgery (cycloablation or trabeculectomy). Congenital ectropion uvea can be associated with angle-closure glaucoma, and placement of glaucoma drainage devices in all 3 of our cases showed early failure due to plate encapsulation. Glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea requires attention to angle configuration and often requires multiple surgeries to obtain intraocular pressure control.

  2. Automatically closing swing gate closure assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Chih; Schuck, William J.; Gilmore, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    A swing gate closure assembly for nuclear reactor tipoff assembly wherein the swing gate is cammed open by a fuel element or spacer but is reliably closed at a desired closing rate primarily by hydraulic forces in the absence of a fuel charge.

  3. Transcatheter Device Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, M.; Ullah, M.; Sadiq, N.; Akhtar, K.; Akbar, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy, safety and immediate complications encountered during percutaneous device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatric Cardiology, AFIC/NIHD, Rawalpindi, from January 2005 to December 2010. Methodology: Consecutive 500 patients who underwent attempted transcatheter PDA device closure were included in the study. Device type position, success of closure and complications were described as frequency percentage. Results: In 491 cases (98.2%), PDA was successfully occluded including 4 cases (0.8%) where devices were dislodged but retrieved and redeployed in Cath laboratory. PDA occluder devices used in 448 cases (91%) while coils (single or multiple) were used in 42 cases (8.5%) and in one case (0.2%) ASD occluder device was used to occlude the PDA. There were 09 (1.8%) unsuccessful cases, 06 (1.2%) were abandoned as ducts were considered unsuitable for device closure, 02 (0.4%) devices dislodged and needed surgical retrieval and one case (0.2%) was abandoned due to faulty equipment. The narrowest PDA diameter ranged from 0.5 - 14 mm with mean of 4.5 +- 2.4 mm. There was a single (0.2%) mortality. Conclusion: Transcatheter occlusion of PDA by coil or occluder device is an effective therapeutic option with high success rate. Complication rate is low in the hands of skilled operators yet paediatric cardiac surgical back-up cover is mandatory. (author)

  4. Descriptions and diagrams of the primary and annulus ventilation systems of the double-shell tank farms as of January 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, A.E.; Waters, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a compilation of information describing the ventilation systems of the Double-Shell Tank farms (214-AN, -AP, -AW, -AW, -AY, -AZ, and -SY). A general description of the primary tank and annulus ventilation systems is given along with specific information on the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, condensers, preheaters, exhaust fans, and piping. This information is considered to be current as of January 1988. 38 refs, 20 figs, 30 tabs

  5. CT-angiography-based evaluation of the aortic annulus for prosthesis sizing in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI-predictive value and optimal thresholds for major anatomic parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schwarz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the predictive value of CT-derived measurements of the aortic annulus for prosthesis sizing in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI and to calculate optimal cutoff values for the selection of various prosthesis sizes. METHODS: The local IRB waived approval for this single-center retrospective analysis. Of 441 consecutive TAVI-patients, 90 were excluded (death within 30 days: 13; more than mild aortic regurgitation: 10; other reasons: 67. In the remaining 351 patients, the CoreValve (Medtronic and the Edwards Sapien XT valve (Edwards Lifesciences were implanted in 235 and 116 patients. Optimal prosthesis size was determined during TAVI by inflation of a balloon catheter at the aortic annulus. All patients had undergone CT-angiography of the heart or body trunk prior to TAVI. Using these datasets, the diameter of the long and short axis as well as the circumference and the area of the aortic annulus were measured. Multi-Class Receiver-Operator-Curve analyses were used to determine the predictive value of all variables and to define optimal cutoff-values. RESULTS: Differences between patients who underwent implantation of the small, medium or large prosthesis were significant for all except the large vs. medium CoreValve (all p's<0.05. Furthermore, mean diameter, annulus area and circumference had equally high predictive value for prosthesis size for both manufacturers (multi-class AUC's: 0.80, 0.88, 0.91, 0.88, 0.88, 0.89. Using the calculated optimal cutoff-values, prosthesis size is predicted correctly in 85% of cases. CONCLUSION: CT-based aortic root measurements permit excellent prediction of the prosthesis size considered optimal during TAVI.

  6. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  7. Heat Transfer Characteristics for an Upward Flowing Supercritical Pressure CO{sub 2} in a Vertical Annulus Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Deog Ji; Kim, Sin [Cheju National Univ., Cheju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan Yeol; Bae, Yoon Yeong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Heat transfer experiments at a vertical annulus passage were carried out in the SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt Generation) to investigate the heat transfer behaviors of supercritical CO{sub 2}. The collected test data are to be used for the reactor core design of the SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor). The mass flux was in the range of 400 {approx}1200 kg/m{sup 2}s and the heat flux was chosen up to 150 kW/m{sup 2}. The selected pressures were 7.75 and 8.12 MPa. The heat transfer data were analyzed and compared with the previous tube test data. The test results showed that the heat transfer characteristics were similar to those of the tube in case of a normal heat transfer mode and degree of heat transfer deterioration became smaller than that in the tube. Comparison of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted ones by the existing correlations showed that there was not a distinct difference between the correlations.

  8. Experimental investigations on heat transfer to CO{sub 2} flowing upward in a narrow annulus at supercritical pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwan Yeol; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kang, Deog Ji; Song, Jin Ho; Bae, Yoon Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Heat transfer experiments in an annulus passage were performed using SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), which was constructed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), to investigate the heat transfer behaviors of supercritical CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} was selected as the working fluid to utilize its low critical pressure and temperature when compared with water. The mass flux was in the range of 400 to 1200 kg/m{sup 2} s and the heat flux was chosen at rates up to 150 kW/m{sup 2}. The selected pressures were 7.75 and 8.12 MPa. At lower mass fluxes, heat transfer deterioration occurs if the heat flux increases beyond a certain value. Comparison with the tube test results showed that the degree of heat transfer deterioration in the heat flux was smaller than that in the tube. In addition, the Nusselt number correlation for a normal heat transfer mode is presented.

  9. Transient critical heat flux under flow coast-down in vertical annulus with non-uniform heat flux distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.K.; Chun, S.Y.; Choi, K.Y.; Yang, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study on transient critical heat flux (CHF) under flow coast-down has been performed for water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical annulus under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the effect of the flow transient on the CHF and to compare the transient CHF with steady state CHF. The transient CHF experiments have been performed for three kinds of flow transient modes based on the coast-down data of the Kori 3/4 nuclear power plant reactor coolant pump. Most of the CHFs occurred in the annular-mist flow regime. Thus, it means that the possible CHF mechanism might be the liquid film dryout in the annular-mist flow regime. For flow transient mode with the smallest flow reduction rate, the time-to-CHF is the largest. At the same inlet subcooling, system pressure and heat flux, the effect of the initial mass flux on the critical mass flux can be negligible. However, the effect of the initial mass flux on the time-to-CHF becomes large as the heat flux decreases. Usually, the critical mass flux is large for slow flow reduction. There is a pressure effect on the ratio of the transient CHF data to steady state CHF data. Some conventional correlations show relatively better CHF prediction results for high system pressure, high quality and slow transient modes than for low system pressure, low quality and fast transient modes. (author)

  10. Boiling burnout in the inner annulus of the MK-IV fuel configuration containing ''W'' spring supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Thorne, W.L.; Fitzsimmons, D.E.; Anderson, J.K.

    1978-09-01

    The establishment of reactor power limits for the NPR is based, to some extent, on the burnout heat transfer results obtained from electrically heated hydraulic models of the reactor coolant passages. Past tests have shown that the outer surface of the middle annulus of the MK-IV fuel configuration goes into burnout before any other surface. Past models have contained no supports in the region where burnout has occurred, yet the reactor configuration must contain supports. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the support influence on the location and magnitude of the burnout heat flux. A second purpose is to establish burnout limits at higher coolant enthalpies. A 2-foot long electrically heated model of the coolant passage, containing supports, has been tested in the high pressure loop of the Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory. Although several supports were located in the active region, a ''W'' spring support was placed in at the channel location where burnout occurred in previous test sections. Thus, the influence of this support has been determined experimentally. Analytically, it has been possible to extend this information to other possible configurations at low quality. A suggested method for using these initial high quality data in the setting of the reactor operating limits is presented

  11. The verification of subcooled boiling models in CFX-4.2 at low pressure in annulus channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Moon-Oh; Park, Goon-Cherl

    2003-01-01

    Heat transfer in subcooled boiling is an important issue to increase the effectiveness of design and safety in operation of engineering system such as nuclear plant. The subcooled boiling, which may occur in the hot channel of reactor in normal state and in decreased pressure condition in transient state, can cause multi-dimensional and complicated respects. The variation of local heat transfer phenomena is created by changing of liquid and vapor velocity, by simultaneous bubble break-ups and coalescences, and by corresponding to bubble evaporation and condensation, and that can affect the stability of the system. The established researches have carried out not a point of local distributions of two-phase variables, but a point of systematical distributions, mostly. Although the subcooled boiling models have been used to numerical analysis using CFX-4.2, there are few verification of subcooled boiling models. This paper demonstrated locally and systematically the validation of subcooled boiling model in numerical calculations using CFX-4.2 especially, in annulus channel flow condition in subcooled boiling at low pressure with respect to subcooled boiling models such as mean bubble diameter model, bubble departure diameter model or wall heat flux model and models related with phase interface. (author)

  12. MHD mixed convection in a vertical annulus filled with Al2O3–water nanofluid considering nanoparticle migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvandi, A.; Safaei, M.R.; Kaffash, M.H.; Ganji, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, an MHD mixed convection of alumina/water nanofluid inside a vertical annular pipe is investigated theoretically. The model used for the nanofluid mixture involves Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusivities in order to take into account the effects of nanoparticle migration. Since the thermophoresis is the main mechanism of the nanoparticle migration, different temperature gradients have been imposed using the asymmetric heating. Considering hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed flow, the governing equations have been reduced to two-point ordinary boundary value differential equations and they have been solved numerically. It is revealed that the imposed thermal asymmetry would change the direction of nanoparticle migration and distorts the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration profiles. Moreover, it is shown that the advantage of nanofluids in heat transfer enhancement is reduced in the presence of a magnetic field. - Highlights: • MHD mixed convection of alumina/water nanofluid inside a vertical annulus. • The effects of nanoparticle migration on rheological and thermophysical characteristics. • The effects of asymmetric heating on nanoparticle migration. • The effects of asymmetric heating on the heat transfer enhancement. • Inclusion of nanoparticles in presence of a magnetic field has a negative effect on performance

  13. Primary closure after carotid endarterectomy is not inferior to other closure techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Chaer, Rabih A; Naddaf, Abdallah; El-Shazly, Omar M; Marone, Luke; Makaroun, Michel S

    2016-09-01

    Primary closure after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been much maligned as an inferior technique with worse outcomes than in patch closure. Our purpose was to compare perioperative and long-term results of different CEA closure techniques in a large institutional experience. A consecutive cohort of CEAs between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, was retrospectively analyzed. Closure technique was used to divide patients into three groups: primary longitudinal arteriotomy closure (PRC), patch closure (PAC), and eversion closure (EVC). End points were perioperative events, long-term strokes, and restenosis ≥70%. Multivariate regression models were used to assess the effect of baseline predictors. There were 1737 CEA cases (bilateral, 143; mean age, 71.4 ± 9.3 years; 56.2% men; 35.3% symptomatic) performed during the study period with a mean clinical follow-up of 49.8 ± 36.4 months (range, 0-155 months). More men had primary closure, but other demographic and baseline symptoms were similar between groups. Half the patients had PAC, with the rest evenly distributed between PRC and EVC. The rate of nerve injury was 2.7%, the rate of reintervention for hematoma was 1.5%, and the length of hospital stay was 2.4 ± 3.0 days, with no significant differences among groups. The combined stroke and death rate was 2.5% overall and 3.9% and 1.7% in the symptomatic and asymptomatic cohort, respectively. Stroke and death rates were similar between groups: PRC, 11 (2.7%); PAC, 19 (2.2%); EVC, 13 (2.9%). Multivariate analysis showed baseline symptomatic disease (odds ratio, 2.4; P = .007) and heart failure (odds ratio, 3.1; P = .003) as predictors of perioperative stroke and death, but not the type of closure. Cox regression analysis demonstrated, among other risk factors, no statin use (hazard ratio, 2.1; P = .008) as a predictor of ipsilateral stroke and severe (glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) renal insufficiency (hazard ratio, 2.6; P

  14. Comparison of fasciotomy wound closures using traditional dressing changes and the vacuum-assisted closure device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannis, John; Angobaldo, Jeff; Marks, Malcolm; DeFranzo, Anthony; David, Lisa; Molnar, Joseph; Argenta, Louis

    2009-04-01

    Fasciotomy wounds can be a major contributor to length of stay for patients as well as a difficult reconstructive challenge. Once the compartment pressure has been relieved and stabilized, the wound should be closed as quickly and early as possible to avoid later complications. Skin grafting can lead to morbidity and scarring at both the donor and fasciotomy site. Primary closure results in a more functional and esthetic outcome with less morbidity for the patient, but can often be difficult to achieve secondary to edema, skin retraction, and skin edge necrosis. Our objective was to examine fasciotomy wound outcomes, including time to definitive closure, comparing traditional wet-to-dry dressings, and the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device. This retrospective chart review included a consecutive series of patients over a 10-year period. This series included 458 patients who underwent 804 fasciotomies. Of these fasciotomy wounds, 438 received exclusively VAC. dressings, 270 received only normal saline wet-to-dry dressings, and 96 were treated with a combination of both. Of the sample, 408 patients were treated with exclusively VAC therapy or wet-to-dry dressings and 50 patients were treated with a combination of both. In comparing all wounds, there was a statistically significant higher rate of primary closure using the VAC versus traditional wet-to-dry dressings (P lower extremities and P extremities). The time to primary closure of wounds was shorter in the VAC. group in comparison with the non-VAC group. This study has shown that the use of the VAC for fasciotomy wound closure results in a higher rate of primary closure versus traditional wet-to-dry dressings. In addition, the time to primary closure of wounds or time to skin grafting is shorter when the VAC was employed. The VAC used in the described settings decreases hospitalization time, allows for earlier rehabilitation, and ultimately leads to increased patient satisfaction.

  15. The Rising Rate of Rural Hospital Closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Brystana G; Thomas, Sharita R; Randolph, Randy K; Perry, Julie R; Thompson, Kristie W; Holmes, George M; Pink, George H

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, the rate of rural hospital closures has increased significantly. This study is a preliminary look at recent closures and a formative step in research to understand the causes and the impact on rural communities. The 2009 financial performance and market characteristics of rural hospitals that closed from 2010 through 2014 were compared to rural hospitals that remained open during the same period, stratified by critical access hospitals (CAHs) and other rural hospitals (ORHs). Differences were tested using Pearson's chi-square (categorical variables) and Wilcoxon rank test of medians. The relationships between negative operating margin and (1) market factors and (2) utilization/staffing factors were explored using logistic regression. In 2009, CAHs that subsequently closed from 2010 through 2014 had, in general, lower levels of profitability, liquidity, equity, patient volume, and staffing. In addition, ORHs that closed had smaller market shares and operated in markets with smaller populations compared to ORHs that remained open. Odds of unprofitability were associated with both market and utilization factors. Although half of the closed hospitals ceased providing health services altogether, the remainder have since converted to an alternative health care delivery model. Financial and market characteristics appear to be associated with closure of rural hospitals from 2010 through 2014, suggesting that it is possible to identify hospitals at risk of closure. As closure rates show no sign of abating, it is important to study the drivers of distress in rural hospitals, as well as the potential for alternative health care delivery models. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  16. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Andrea; Levitt, Marc A; Lawal, Taiwo A; Peña, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48-72 h after the operation. The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung's disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic stricture and no mortality. Based on

  17. 9 CFR 318.301 - Containers and closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers and closures. 318.301... Canning and Canned Products § 318.301 Containers and closures. (a) Examination and cleaning of empty containers. (1) Empty containers, closures, and flexible pouch roll stock shall be evaluated by the...

  18. Crack closure and sequential effects in fatigue: A literature survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, M.

    A literature survey of the phenomenon of crack closure is reported here. The state of the art is reviewed and several empirical formulas for determining the crack closure are compared with each other. Their properties, advantages and disadvantages are briefly discussed. Experimental techniques for determining the crack closure stress are presented and experimental data from the literature are reported.

  19. 40 CFR 267.143 - Financial assurance for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), utilizing the certificate of insurance for closure specified at 40 CFR 264.151(e). (f) Corporate financial... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial assurance for closure. 267... PERMIT Financial Requirements § 267.143 Financial assurance for closure. The owner or operator must...

  20. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  1. Numerical approximation of the Boltzmann equation : moment closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Malik, M.R.A.; Brummelen, van E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This work applies the moment method onto a generic form of kinetic equations to simplify kinetic models of particle systems. This leads to the moment closure problem which is addressed using entropy-based moment closure techniques utilizing entropy minimization. The resulting moment closure system

  2. HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLOSURE PROJECT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, K.D.; Wessman, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is in the process of closing two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 1.14 million liter (300,000 gallon) tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF) Closure sequence consists of multiple steps to be accomplished through the existing tank riser access points. Currently, the tank risers contain steam and process waste lines associated with the steam jets, corrosion coupons, and liquid level indicators. As necessary, this equipment will be removed from the risers to allow adequate space for closure equipment and activities. The basic tank closure sequence is as follows: Empty the tank to the residual heel using the existing jets; Video and sample the heel; Replace steam jets with new jet at a lower position in the tank, and remove additional material; Flush tank, piping and secondary containment with demineralized water; Video and sample the heel; Evaluate decontamination effectiveness; Displace the residual heel with multiple placements of grout; and Grout piping, vaults and remaining tank volume. Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in June 2002. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system is cost-effective since it also utilizes existing waste transfer technology (steam jets), to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and

  3. Revisit to Grad's Closure and Development of Physically Motivated Closure for Phenomenological High-Order Moment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myong, R. S.; Nagdewe, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Grad's closure for the high-order moment equation is revisited and, by extending his theory, a physically motivated closure is developed for the one-dimensional velocity shear gas flow. The closure is based on the physical argument of the relative importance of various terms appearing in the moment equation. Also, the closure is derived such that the resulting theory may be inclusive of the well established linear theory (Navier-Stokes-Fourier) as limiting case near local thermal equilibrium.

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF DOE'S POST-CLOSURE MONITORING NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The 2006 plan sets an ambitious agenda for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the remediation of sites contaminated by decades of nuclear weapons production activities. The plan's primary objective is to reduce overall clean up costs by first eliminating the environmental problems that are most expensive to control and safely maintain. In the context of the 2006 Plan, closure refers to the completion of area or facility specific cleanup projects. The cleanup levels are determined by the planned future use of the site or facility. Use restrictions are still undecided for most sites but are highly probable to exclude residential or agricultural activities. Most of the land will be remediated to ''industrial use'' levels with access restrictions and some areas will be closed-off through containment. Portions of the site will be reserved for waste disposal, either as a waste repository or the in-situ immobilization of contaminated soil and groundwater, and land use will be restricted to waste disposal only. The land used for waste disposal will require monitoring and maintenance activities after closure. Most of the land used for industrial use may also require such postclosure activities. The required postclosure monitoring and maintenance activities will be imposed by regulators and stakeholders. Regulators will not approve closure plans without clearly defined monitoring methods using approved technologies. Therefore, among all other more costly and labor-intensive closure-related activities, inadequate planning for monitoring and lack of appropriate monitoring technologies can prevent closure. The purpose of this project is to determine, document, and track the current and evolving postclosure monitoring requirements at DOE-EM sites. This information will aid CMST-CP in guiding its postclosure technology development and deployment efforts.

  5. Temporary Closure of the Open Abdomen: A Systematic Review on Delayed Primary Fascial Closure in Patients with an Open Abdomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele van Hensbroek, Pieter; Wind, Jan; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2009-01-01

    Background This study was designed to systematically review the literature to assess which temporary abdominal closure (TAC) technique is associated with the highest delayed primary fascial closure (FC) rate. In some cases of abdominal trauma or infection, edema or packing precludes fascial closure

  6. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  7. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Oh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Results: Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578, major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99, minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279, or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00. Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068. Conclusion: The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  8. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You Na; Ha, Keong Jun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA) was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578), major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99), minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279), or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00). Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068). The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  9. Assessment of consistent two-equation closure for forest flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Cavar, Dalibor; Bechmann, Andreas

    of grid turbulence and wall-bounded flow, the closure suggested is also valid for homogeneous shear flows commonly observed inside tall vegetative canopies. The present work assess the plant drag closure by comparing results of two different CFD models against observations derived over the forested area...... and can be applied for any twoequation closure. Results derived by different CFD models with k-epsilon and k-omega closure are similar and in good comparison with observations. Overall, numerical results show that the closure performs well, opening new possibilities for application to tasks related...... to the atmospheric boundary layer—where it is important to adequately account for the influences of vegetation....

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan for the Y-12 9409-5 Tank Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This document presents information on the closure of the Y-12 9409-5 Tank Storage Facility. Topics discussed include: facility description; closure history; closure performance standard; partial closure; maximum waste inventory; closure activities; schedule; and postclosure care

  11. Echocardiographic predictors of coil vs device closure in patients undergoing percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushdy, Alaa; Abd El Razek, Yasmeen; Mamdouh Tawfik, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    To determine anatomic and hemodynamic echocardiographic predictors for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) device vs coil closure. Seventy-six patients who were referred for elective transcatheter PDA closure were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent full echocardiogram including measurement of the PDA pulmonary end diameter, color flow width and extent, peak and end-diastolic Doppler gradients across the duct, diastolic flow reversal, left atrial dimensions and volume, left ventricular sphericity index, and volumes. The study group was subdivided into 2 subgroups based on the mode of PDA closure whether by coil (n = 42) or device (n = 34). Using univariate analysis there was a highly significant difference between the 2 groups as regard the pulmonary end diameter measured in both the suprasternal and parasternal short-axis views as well as the color flow width and color flow extent (P closure group had statistically significant higher end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes indexed, left atrial volume, and diastolic flow reversal. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a pulmonary end diameter cutoff point from the suprasternal view > 2.5 mm and from parasternal short-axis view > 2.61 mm to have the highest balanced sensitivity and specificity to predict the likelihood for device closure (AUC 0.971 and 0.979 respectively). The pulmonary end diameter measured from the suprasternal view was the most independent predictor of device closure. The selection between PDA coil or device closure can be done on the basis of multiple anatomic and hemodynamic echocardiographic variables. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Predictions for heat transfer characteristics in a natural draft reactor cooling system using a second moment closure turbulence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, M.; Maekawa, I.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical study is performed on the natural draft reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). In the cooling system, buoyancy driven heated upward flow could be in the mixed convection regime that is accompanied by heat transfer impairment. Also, the heating wall condition is asymmetric with regard to the channel cross section. These flow regime and thermal boundary conditions may invalidate the use of design correlation. To precisely simulate the flow and thermal fields within the RCCS, the second moment closure turbulence model is applied. Two types of the RCCS channel geometry are selected to make a comparison: an annular duct with fins on the outer surface of the inner circular wall, and a multi-rectangular duct. The prediction shows that the local heat transfer coefficient on the RCCS with finned annular duct is less than 1/6 of that estimated with Dittus-Boelter correlation. Much portion of the natural draft airflow does not contribute cooling at all because mainstream escapes from the narrow gaps between the fins. This result and thus the finned annulus design are unacceptable from the viewpoint for structural integrity of the RCCS wall boundary. The performance of the multi-rectangular duct design is acceptable that the RCCS maximum temperature is less than 400 degree centigrade even when the flow rate is halved from the designed condition. (author)

  13. A regenerative approach towards mucosal fenestration closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandi, Padma; Anumala, Naveen; Reddy, Amarender; Viswa Chandra, Rampalli

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal fenestration is an opening or an interstice through the oral mucosa. A lesion which occurs with greater frequency than generally realised, its occurrence is attributed to a myriad of causes. Mucogingival procedures including connective tissue grafts, free gingival grafts and lateral pedicle grafts are generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the closure of a mucosal fenestration. More often, these procedures are performed in conjunction with other procedures such as periradicular surgery and with bone grafts. However, the concomitant use of gingival grafts and bone grafts in mucosal fenestrations secondary to infections in sites exhibiting severe bone loss is highly debatable. In this article, we report two cases of mucosal fenestrations secondary to trauma and their management by regenerative periodontal surgery with the placement of guided tissue regeneration membrane and bone graft. The final outcome was a complete closure of the fenestration in both the cases. PMID:23749826

  14. Numerical study of methanol–steam reforming and methanol–air catalytic combustion in annulus reactors for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chein, Reiyu; Chen, Yen-Cho; Chung, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance of mini-scale integrated annulus reactors for hydrogen production. ► Flow rates fed to combustor and reformer control the reactor performance. ► Optimum performance is found from balance of flow rates to combustor and reformer. ► Better performance can be found when shell side is designed as combustor. -- Abstract: This study presents the numerical simulation on the performance of mini-scale reactors for hydrogen production coupled with liquid methanol/water vaporizer, methanol/steam reformer, and methanol/air catalytic combustor. These reactors are designed similar to tube-and-shell heat exchangers. The combustor for heat supply is arranged as the tube or shell side. Based on the obtained results, the methanol/air flow rate through the combustor (in terms of gas hourly space velocity of combustor, GHSV-C) and the methanol/water feed rate to the reformer (in terms of gas hourly space velocity of reformer, GHSV-R) control the reactor performance. With higher GHSV-C and lower GHSV-R, higher methanol conversion can be achieved because of higher reaction temperature. However, hydrogen yield is reduced and the carbon monoxide concentration is increased due to the reversed water gas shift reaction. Optimum reactor performance is found using the balance between GHSV-C and GHSV-R. Because of more effective heat transfer characteristics in the vaporizer, it is found that the reactor with combustor arranged as the shell side has better performance compared with the reactor design having the combustor as the tube side under the same operating conditions.

  15. Beta1 integrin inhibits apoptosis induced by cyclic stretch in annulus fibrosus cells via ERK1/2 MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Ding, Wei; Sun, Wei; Sun, Xiao-jiang; Xie, You-zhuan; Zhao, Chang-qing; Zhao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is associated with intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) due to cellular loss through apoptosis. Mechanical factors play an important role in maintaining the survival of the annulus fibrosus (AF) cells and the deposition of extracellular matrix. However, the mechanisms that excessive mechanical forces lead to AF cell apoptosis are not clear. The present study was to look for how AF cells sense mechanical changes. In vivo experiments, the involvement of mechanoreceptors in apoptosis was examined by RT-PCR and/or immunoblotting in the lumbar spine of rats subjected to unbalanced dynamic and static forces. In vitro experiments, we investigated apoptotic signaling pathways in untransfected and transfected AF cells with the lentivirus vector for rat β1 integrin overexpression after cyclic stretch. Apoptosis in AF cells was assessed using flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining. Western blotting was used to analyze expression of β1 integrin and caspase-3 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling molecules. In the rat IVDD model, unbalanced dynamic and static forces induced apoptosis of disc cells, which corresponded to decreased expression of β1 integrin. Cyclic stretch-induced apoptosis in rat AF cells correlated with the activation of caspase-3 and with decreased levels of β1 integrin and the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 activation level. However, the overexpression of β1 integrin in AF cells ameliorated cyclic stretch-induced apoptosis and decreased caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, ERK1/2-specific inhibitor promotes apoptosis in vector β1-infected AF cells. These results suggest that the disruption of β1 integrin signaling may underlie disc cell apoptosis induced by mechanical stress. Further work is necessary to fully elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie IVDD caused by unbalanced dynamic and static forces.

  16. In vitro and biomechanical screening of polyethylene glycol and poly(trimethylene carbonate) block copolymers for annulus fibrosus repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rose G; Rotman, Stijn G; Hom, Warren W; Assael, Dylan J; Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Grijpma, Dirk W; Iatridis, James C

    2018-02-01

    Herniated intervertebral discs (IVDs) are a common cause of back and neck pain. There is an unmet clinical need to seal annulus fibrosus (AF) defects, as discectomy surgeries address acute pain but are complicated by reherniation and recurrent pain. Copolymers of polyethylene glycol with trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) end-groups were formulated as AF sealants as the HDI form covalent bonds with native AF tissue. TMC adhesives were evaluated and optimized using the design criteria: stable size, strong adherence to AF tissue, high cytocompatibility, restoration of IVD biomechanics to intact levels following in situ repair, and low extrusion risk. TMC adhesives had high adhesion strength as assessed with a pushout test (150 kPa), and low degradation rates over 3 weeks in vitro. Both TMC adhesives had shear moduli (220 and 490 kPa) similar to, but somewhat higher than, AF tissue. The adhesive with three TMC moieties per branch (TMC3) was selected for additional in situ testing because it best matched AF shear properties. TMC3 restored torsional stiffness, torsional hysteresis area and axial range of motion to intact states. However, in a failure test of compressive deformation under fixed 5 ° flexion, some herniation risk was observed with failure strength of 5.9 MPa compared with 13.5 MPa for intact samples; TMC3 herniated under cyclic organ culture testing. These TMC adhesives performed well during in vitro and in situ testing, but additional optimization to enhance failure strength is required to further this material to advanced screening tests, such as long-term degradation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Characteristics of electrode impedance and stimulation efficacy of a chronic cortical implant using novel annulus electrodes in rat motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Brunton, Emma; Haghgooie, Saman; Cassells, Kahli; Lowery, Arthur; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Cortical neural prostheses with implanted electrode arrays have been used to restore compromised brain functions but concerns remain regarding their long-term stability and functional performance. Approach. Here we report changes in electrode impedance and stimulation thresholds for a custom-designed electrode array implanted in rat motor cortex for up to three months. Main Results. The array comprises four 2000 µm long electrodes with a large annular stimulating surface (7860-15700 µm2) displaced from the penetrating insulated tip. Compared to pre-implantation in vitro values there were three phases of impedance change: (1) an immediate large increase of impedance by an average of two-fold on implantation; (2) a period of continued impedance increase, albeit with considerable variability, which reached a peak at approximately four weeks post-implantation and remained high over the next two weeks; (3) finally, a period of 5-6 weeks when impedance stabilized at levels close to those seen immediately post-implantation. Impedance could often be temporarily decreased by applying brief trains of current stimulation, used to evoke motor output. The stimulation threshold to induce observable motor behaviour was generally between 75-100 µA, with charge density varying from 48-128 µC cm-2, consistent with the lower current density generated by electrodes with larger stimulating surface area. No systematic change in thresholds occurred over time, suggesting that device functionality was not compromised by the factors that caused changes in electrode impedance. Significance. The present results provide support for the use of annulus electrodes in future applications in cortical neural prostheses.

  18. Theater gateway closure: a strategic level barricade

    Science.gov (United States)

    logistical planners at the strategic level can anticipate or mitigate the effects of a theater gateway closure on military operations. Through two...that at the strategic level the effects are based on the economic and diplomatic elements of the national power, affecting proportionally sustainment...Finally, logistical planners at the strategic level need to have a vast and ample knowledge and understanding of the operational environment to

  19. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C.

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a open-quotes Settlement Agreementclose quotes (or open-quotes Batt Agreementclose quotes) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed

  20. Base Closure: A Road Map for Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-22

    leadership . At the same time, he should issue written press releases. Selected senior leaders from the base should be briefed separately from key community...they will hold with other agencies on base. These matters should be the commander’s call; they will reflect his style of leadership and preference for...base closure. He alone must foresee what can most likely go wrong as well as what should go right in this arduous process. DCNSIZING AN ORGANIZATIN The

  1. The Galois closure of Drinfeld modular towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study Drinfeld modular curves X0(pn) associated to congruence subgroups Γ0(pn) of GL(2,Fq[T]) where p is a prime of Fq[T]. For n>r>0 we compute the extension degrees and investigate the structure of the Galois closures of the covers X0(pn)→X0(pr) and some of their variations...

  2. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of Two Energy Balance Closure Parametrizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    A general lack of energy balance closure indicates that tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements underestimate turbulent heat fluxes, which calls for robust correction schemes. Two parametrization approaches that can be found in the literature were tested using data from the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft and from tower-based measurements of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Our analysis shows that the approach of Huang et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:273-292, 2008), based on large-eddy simulation, is not applicable to typical near-surface flux measurements because it was developed for heights above the surface layer and over homogeneous terrain. The biggest shortcoming of this parametrization is that the grid resolution of the model was too coarse so that the surface layer, where EC measurements are usually made, is not properly resolved. The empirical approach of Panin and Bernhofer (Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 44:701-716, 2008) considers landscape-level roughness heterogeneities that induce secondary circulations and at least gives a qualitative estimate of the energy balance closure. However, it does not consider any feature of landscape-scale heterogeneity other than surface roughness, such as surface temperature, surface moisture or topography. The failures of both approaches might indicate that the influence of mesoscale structures is not a sufficient explanation for the energy balance closure problem. However, our analysis of different wind-direction sectors shows that the upwind landscape-scale heterogeneity indeed influences the energy balance closure determined from tower flux data. We also analyzed the aircraft measurements with respect to the partitioning of the "missing energy" between sensible and latent heat fluxes and we could confirm the assumption of scalar similarity only for Bowen ratios 1.

  4. Phenomenology of convection-parameterization closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-I. Yano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Closure is a problem of defining the convective intensity in a given parameterization. In spite of many years of efforts and progress, it is still considered an overall unresolved problem. The present article reviews this problem from phenomenological perspectives. The physical variables that may contribute in defining the convective intensity are listed, and their statistical significances identified by observational data analyses are reviewed. A possibility is discussed for identifying a correct closure hypothesis by performing a linear stability analysis of tropical convectively coupled waves with various different closure hypotheses. Various individual theoretical issues are considered from various different perspectives. The review also emphasizes that the dominant physical factors controlling convection differ between the tropics and extra-tropics, as well as between oceanic and land areas. Both observational as well as theoretical analyses, often focused on the tropics, do not necessarily lead to conclusions consistent with our operational experiences focused on midlatitudes. Though we emphasize the importance of the interplays between these observational, theoretical and operational perspectives, we also face challenges for establishing a solid research framework that is universally applicable. An energy cycle framework is suggested as such a candidate.

  5. Stochastic particle acceleration and statistical closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimits, A.M.; Krommes, J.A.

    1985-10-01

    In a recent paper, Maasjost and Elsasser (ME) concluded, from the results of numerical experiments and heuristic arguments, that the Bourret and the direct-interaction approximation (DIA) are ''of no use in connection with the stochastic acceleration problem'' because (1) their predictions were equivalent to that of the simpler Fokker-Planck (FP) theory, and (2) either all or none of the closures were in good agreement with the data. Here some analytically tractable cases are studied and used to test the accuracy of these closures. The cause of the discrepancy (2) is found to be the highly non-Gaussian nature of the force used by ME, a point not stressed by them. For the case where the force is a position-independent Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (i.e., Gaussian) process, an effective Kubo number K can be defined. For K << 1 an FP description is adequate, and conclusion (1) of ME follows; however, for K greater than or equal to 1 the DIA behaves much better qualitatively than the other two closures. For the non-Gaussian stochastic force used by ME, all common approximations fail, in agreement with (2)

  6. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Marc A.; Lawal, Taiwo A.; Peña, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. Methods The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48–72 h after the operation. Results The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung’s disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic

  7. Republic of Korea. Closure concept development for LILW disposal facility in Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC) of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) is developing near surface disposal concepts for both a rock cavern type disposal facility, and a vault type facility; two types of facility are being considered to provide more options for LILW repository siting. The conceptual design for the vault type facility will be completed in 1999. As a part of conceptual design effort, a preliminary concept for the disposal facility closure has been identified

  8. Evaluation of the Momentum Closure Schemes in MPAS-Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shimei; Liu, Yudi; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    In order to compare and evaluate the performances of the Laplacian viscosity closure, the biharmonic viscosity closure, and the Leith closure momentum schemes in the MPAS-Ocean model, a variety of physical quantities, such as the relative reference potential energy (RPE) change, the RPE time change rate (RPETCR), the grid Reynolds number, the root mean square (RMS) of kinetic energy, and the spectra of kinetic energy and enstrophy, are calculated on the basis of results of a 3D baroclinic periodic channel. Results indicate that: 1) The RPETCR demonstrates a saturation phenomenon in baroclinic eddy tests. The critical grid Reynolds number corresponding to RPETCR saturation differs between the three closures: the largest value is in the biharmonic viscosity closure, followed by that in the Laplacian viscosity closure, and that in the Leith closure is the smallest. 2) All three closures can effectively suppress spurious dianeutral mixing by reducing the grid Reynolds number under sub-saturation conditions of the RPETCR, but they can also damage certain physical processes. Generally, the damage to the rotation process is greater than that to the advection process. 3) The dissipation in the biharmonic viscosity closure is strongly dependent on scales. Most dissipation concentrates on small scales, and the energy of small-scale eddies is often transferred to large-scale kinetic energy. The viscous dissipation in the Laplacian viscosity closure is the strongest on various scales, followed by that in the Leith closure. Note that part of the small-scale kinetic energy is also transferred to large-scale kinetic energy in the Leith closure. 4) The characteristic length scale L and the dimensionless parameter D in the Leith closure are inherently coupled. The RPETCR is inversely proportional to the product of D and L. When the product of D and L is constant, both the simulated RPETCR and the inhibition of spurious dianeutral mixing are the same in all tests using the Leith

  9. Femoral Artery Stenosis Following Percutaneous Closure Using a Starclose Closure Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, Clare Louise; Kyriakides, Constantinos; Matson, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Starclose (Abbott Vascular Devices, Redwood City, CA) is a new arterial closure device that seals a femoral puncture site with an extravascular star-shaped nitinol clip. The clip projects small tines into the arterial wall which fold inward, causing the arterial wall to pucker, producing a purse-string-like seal closing the puncture site. The case history is that of a 76-year-old female patient who underwent day-case percutaneous diagnostic coronary angiography. A Starclose femoral artery closure device was used to achieve hemostasis with subsequent femoral artery stenosis.

  10. Effects of a 3D segmental prosthetic system for tricuspid valve annulus remodelling on the right coronary artery: a human cadaveric coronary angiography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riki-Marishani, Mohsen; Gholoobi, Arash; Sazegar, Ghasem; Aazami, Mathias H; Hedjazi, Aria; Sajjadian, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Aghaii-Zade Torabi, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    A prosthetic system to repair secondary tricuspid valve regurgitation was developed. The conceptual engineering of the current device is based on 3D segmental remodelling of the tricuspid valve annulus in lieu of reductive annuloplasty. This study was designed to investigate the operational safety of the current prosthetic system with regard to the anatomical integrity of the right coronary artery (RCA) in fresh cadaveric human hearts. During the study period, from January to April 2016, the current prosthetic system was implanted on the tricuspid valve annulus in fresh cadaveric human hearts that met the study's inclusion criteria. The prepared specimens were investigated via selective coronary angiography of the RCA in the catheterization laboratory. The RCA angiographic anatomies were categorized as normal, distorted, kinked or occluded. Sixteen specimens underwent implantation of the current prosthetic system. The mean age of the cadaveric human hearts was 43.24 ± 15.79 years, with vehicle accident being the primary cause of death (59%). A dominant RCA was noticed in 62.5% of the specimens. None of the specimens displayed any injury, distortion, kinking or occlusion in the RCA due to the implantation of the prostheses. In light of the results of the present study, undertaken on fresh cadaveric human heart specimens, the current segmental prosthetic system for 3D remodelling of the tricuspid valve annulus seems to be safe vis-à-vis the anatomical integrity of the RCA. Further in vivo studies are needed to investigate the functional features of the current prosthetic system with a view to addressing the complex pathophysiology of secondary tricuspid valve regurgitation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. CT-angiography-based evaluation of the aortic annulus for prosthesis sizing in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)-predictive value and optimal thresholds for major anatomic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Florian; Lange, Philipp; Zinsser, Dominik; Greif, Martin; Boekstegers, Peter; Schmitz, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F; Kupatt, Christian; Becker, Hans C

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of CT-derived measurements of the aortic annulus for prosthesis sizing in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and to calculate optimal cutoff values for the selection of various prosthesis sizes. The local IRB waived approval for this single-center retrospective analysis. Of 441 consecutive TAVI-patients, 90 were excluded (death within 30 days: 13; more than mild aortic regurgitation: 10; other reasons: 67). In the remaining 351 patients, the CoreValve (Medtronic) and the Edwards Sapien XT valve (Edwards Lifesciences) were implanted in 235 and 116 patients. Optimal prosthesis size was determined during TAVI by inflation of a balloon catheter at the aortic annulus. All patients had undergone CT-angiography of the heart or body trunk prior to TAVI. Using these datasets, the diameter of the long and short axis as well as the circumference and the area of the aortic annulus were measured. Multi-Class Receiver-Operator-Curve analyses were used to determine the predictive value of all variables and to define optimal cutoff-values. Differences between patients who underwent implantation of the small, medium or large prosthesis were significant for all except the large vs. medium CoreValve (all p'sprosthesis size for both manufacturers (multi-class AUC's: 0.80, 0.88, 0.91, 0.88, 0.88, 0.89). Using the calculated optimal cutoff-values, prosthesis size is predicted correctly in 85% of cases. CT-based aortic root measurements permit excellent prediction of the prosthesis size considered optimal during TAVI.

  12. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references

  13. Magnetisable container closure and means for its removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, W.I.

    1984-01-01

    A container has a closed lower end and an open upper end, is made of a non-magnetic material such as aluminium, and has a peripheral groove spaced from the open end. A disc-like closure is of magnetic material such as ferritic steel, has a pair of spring jaws joined to the disc by a joining member such that when the disc of the closure is in position closing the open end of the container, the jaws engage in groove and hold the closure in position. To remove the closure, it is engaged by magnetic means mounted for example on a wall and having a step such that when the container is moved laterally away the closure is retained by the magnetic means aided by the step and thereby the closure becomes removed from the container. (author)

  14. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-12-01

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references.

  15. The Development and Test of a Sensor for Measurement of the Working Level of Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Flow in a Coalbed Methane Wellbore Annulus

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan Wu; Huafeng Ding; Lei Han

    2018-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is one kind of clean-burning gas and has been valued as a new form of energy that will be used widely in the near future. When producing CBM, the working level within a CBM wellbore annulus needs to be monitored to dynamically adjust the gas drainage and extraction processes. However, the existing method of measuring the working level does not meet the needs of accurate adjustment, so we designed a new sensor for this purpose. The principle of our sensor is a liquid pres...

  16. Formation of lamellar cross bridges in the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is a consequence of vascular regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lachlan J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2011-05-01

    Cross bridges are radial structures within the highly organized lamellar structure of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc that connect two or more non-consecutive lamellae. Their origin and function are unknown. During fetal development, blood vessels penetrate deep within the AF and recede during postnatal growth. We hypothesized that cross bridges are the pathways left by these receding blood vessels. Initially, the presence of cross bridges was confirmed in cadaveric human discs aged 25 and 53 years. Next, L1-L2 intervertebral discs (n=4) from sheep ranging in age from 75 days fetal gestation to adult were processed for paraffin histology. Mid-sagittal sections were immunostained for endothelial cell marker PECAM-1. The anterior and posterior AF were imaged using differential interference contrast microscopy, and the following parameters were quantified: total number of distinct lamellae, total number of cross bridges, percentage of cross bridges staining positive for PECAM-1, cross bridge penetration depth (% total lamellae), and PECAM-1 positive cross bridge penetration depth. Cross bridges were first observed at 100 days fetal gestation. The overall number peaked in neonates then remained relatively unchanged. The percentage of PECAM-1 positive cross bridges declined progressively from almost 100% at 100 days gestation to less than 10% in adults. Cross bridge penetration depth peaked in neonates then remained unchanged at subsequent ages. Depth of PECAM-1 positive cross bridges decreased progressively after birth. Findings were similar for both the anterior and posterior. The AF lamellar architecture is established early in development. It later becomes disrupted as a consequence of vascularization. Blood vessels then recede, perhaps due to increasing mechanical stresses in the surrounding matrix. In this study we present evidence that the pathways left by receding blood vessels remain as lamellar cross bridges. It is unclear whether the presence

  17. Do mechanical strain and TNF-α interact to amplify pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human annulus fibrosus cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Torre, Olivia M; Gruen, Jadry; Walter, Benjamin A; Hecht, Andrew C; Iatridis, James C

    2016-05-03

    During intervertebral disc (IVD) injury and degeneration, annulus fibrosus (AF) cells experience large mechanical strains in a pro-inflammatory milieu. We hypothesized that TNF-α, an initiator of IVD inflammation, modifies AF cell mechanobiology via cytoskeletal changes, and interacts with mechanical strain to enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Human AF cells (N=5, Thompson grades 2-4) were stretched uniaxially on collagen-I coated chambers to 0%, 5% (physiological) or 15% (pathologic) strains at 0.5Hz for 24h under hypoxic conditions with or without TNF-α (10ng/mL). AF cells were treated with anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6. ELISA assessed IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 production and immunocytochemistry measured F-actin, vinculin and α-tubulin in AF cells. TNF-α significantly increased AF cell pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared to basal conditions (IL-1β:2.0±1.4-84.0±77.3, IL-6:10.6±9.9-280.9±214.1, IL-8:23.9±26.0-5125.1±4170.8pg/ml for basal and TNF-α treatment, respectively) as expected, but mechanical strain did not. Pathologic strain in combination with TNF-α increased IL-1β, and IL-8 but not IL-6 production of AF cells. TNF-α treatment altered F-actin and α-tubulin in AF cells, suggestive of altered cytoskeletal stiffness. Anti-TNF-α (infliximab) significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production while anti-IL-6 (atlizumab) did not. In conclusion, TNF-α altered AF cell mechanobiology with cytoskeletal remodeling that potentially sensitized AF cells to mechanical strain and increased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results suggest an interaction between TNF-α and mechanical strain and future mechanistic studies are required to validate these observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vacuum assisted closure in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beno, M; Martin, J; Sager, P

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum assisted closure (VAC-therapy) is a well established method in nearly all surgical disciplines. The aim is to present the efficiency of vacuum assisted closure in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds in patients admitted in the department of vascular surgery. Within the year 2008 there were 59 patients (44 men, 15 women) treated with VAC therapy in our Department of Vascular surgery (Landshut, Germany). VAC was used 22x (37.28 %) in therapy of ulcus cruris (venous, arterial, mixed genesis), 15x (25.42%) in patients with diabetic foot syndrome, 12x (20.33%) in secondary healing wounds and infected wounds, 5x (8.47%) in wounds after several injuries and soft skin tissue infections and 5x (8.47%) in wound infections connected with vascular graft infections after vascular revascularization. VAC therapy seems to be very effective in the management of patients with venous ulcers, especially after a proper surgical treatment (100%), patients with soft skin tissue infections (100%) and secondary healing wounds (100%) especially in combination with MESH-Grafting. In patients with diabetic foot syndrome (80%) and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (72.7%), an evaluation of peripheral blood perfusion and revascularization prior to VAC therapy is often necessary. Although VAC was used 5x in the therapy of infected vascular grafts, successful preservation of infected graft material was observed in only one case (infection of PTFE femoro-popliteal bypass graft). Vacuum assisted closure in vascular surgery proved to be simple and efficient method in therapy of acute and chronic wounds. The efficiency of VAC systems in therapy of infected graft material after revascularization needs further studies (Tab. 3, Ref. 10).

  19. Economic and financial aspects of mine closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, James R.; Franceschi, Dina; Curi, Adilson; Vale, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Today, mine reclamation is a key component to a successful mine plan. Most of the industrialized nations have recognized the need to make mining activities relatively environmentally friendly, if they want to continue to benefit from the economic gains from mineral resource development. Countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia and South Africa are leaders in the field and have implemented relatively sophisticated legislation to ensure environmentally correct mine closure. These countries rely on a combination of strict control strategies and economic penalties to ensure compliance. Yet, from the firm's perspective, reclamation activities are counterproductive as they cut into properties. In order to attract economic development and earn much needed economic capital, most of the rest of the world, particularly the developing countries, lack effective mine closure legislation. The traditional command and control type of legislation that is sometimes used is either vague and therefore avoided, or not enforced appropriately, resulting in an undesirable level of environmental degradation. With the use of case studies from Brazil, this article shows that direct controls are effective in some instances and not in others. It proposes that economic and financial tools may be more effective than the traditional direct controls in getting firms to comply with environmental standards, particularly in developing countries where environmental compliance is more difficult to achieve. It explains the use of performance bonding as one type of economic incentive that has proven to be an effective environmental policy in mine planning and closure. The authors additionally push beyond the typical style of performance bonds to introduce a flexible bonding and insurance system that allows governments to maintain strict environmental standards but limits firms financial exposure during the mining process. Such a system learns from the successes of the industrialized

  20. Flows in Concentric Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Torii

    1998-01-01

    stress turbulence model is employed to determine three normal components of the Reynolds stress and its off-diagonal one. The turbulent heat flux is expressed by Boussinesq approximation in which the eddy diffusivity.for heat is given as functions of the temperature variance t2¯ and the dissipation rate of temperate fluctuations εt. The governing boundarylayer equations are discretized by means of a control volume finite-difference technique and numerically solved using the marching procedure. An inner core rotation causes an amplification of the three normal components of the Reynolds stress over the whole cross section, resulting in a substantial enhancement in the Nusselt number.

  1. Premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononetz, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    The premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant is discussed in outline form. The topics discussed include: an overview of Trojan; events leading to shutdown decision; Trojan's lifetime O ampersand M performance; Trojan's Regulatory performance; historical Trojan regulatory versus economic performance; applicable Oregon law; least-cost planning process; 1992 least cost plan; 1993 LCP update; LCP limitations; comparative performance analysis; management assessments; Trojan O ampersand M analysis; steam generator issues; quantification of deficiencies; quantification of impact of steam generator degradation; 'net benefits' test; conclusions from net benefits analysis; total disallowances; and conclusions and ramifications

  2. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  3. Discursive Closure and Discursive Openings in Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    and explore new ideas and practices. Accepting conceptual ambiguity, in other words, is not necessarily to evade responsibility or critique. Whereas discursive closure may bind the concept to the past and make an organization blind to new and unexpected issues of sustainability problems, an open......Sustainability is an ambiguous and open-ended concept with many different meanings. Researchers as well as practitioners often express frustration with this fact and frequently call for more consistent, measurable, and univocal definitions of sustainability to ensure agreement, mutual understanding...

  4. Multiple coil closure of isolated aortopulmonary collateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhi Sumanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-month-old girl was diagnosed to have large aortopulmonary collateral during evaluation for congestive heart failure. There was no other evidence of cardiopulmonary disease. The collateral was successfully closed with multiple coils delivered sequentially. We describe the issues associated during closure of the aortopulmonary collateral in this case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of large aortopulmonary collateral presenting with heart failure in an otherwise structurally normal heart that was closed successfully with multiple coils delivered sequentially.

  5. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D

  6. Mixed Waste Management Facility closure at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, M.F.

    1991-08-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility of the Savannah River Plant received hazardous and solid low level radioactive wastes from 1972 until 1986. Because this facility did not have a permit to receive hazardous wastes, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure was performed between 1987 and 1990. This closure consisted of dynamic compaction of the waste trenches and placement of a 3-foot clay cap, a 2-foot soil cover, and a vegetative layer. Operations of the waste disposal facility, tests performed to complete the closure design, and the construction of the closure cap are discussed herein

  7. Top closure for control rod drive for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raas, J.H.; Schwartz, J.I.

    1978-01-01

    A removable top closure and venting assembly for the tubular housing of a control rod drive includes a mounting ring threadably inserted in the upper end of the housing, a fluid-sealing closure member beneath the mounting ring and which is mounted in and coupled to the mounting ring by means of a ball and socket joint, a gas vent defined by interconnecting passages extending through the closure and through the ball and socket joint, and a vent valve accessible from the top of the closure assembly. 3 claims, 2 figures

  8. Design and analysis of PCRV core cavity closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.T.; Schwartz, A.A.; Koopman, D.C.A.

    1980-05-01

    Design requirements and considerations for a core cavity closure which led to the choice of a concrete closure with a toggle hold-down as the design for the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) plant are discussed. A procedure for preliminary stress analysis of the closure by means of a three-dimensional finite element method is described. A limited parametric study using this procedure indicates the adequacy of the present closure design and the significance of radial compression developed as a result of inclined support reaction

  9. Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale: Devices and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Transcatheter closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) reduces the risk of recurrent cryptogenic stroke compared with medical therapy. PFO closure is a prophylactic procedure, and will not provide the patient with symptomatic improvement, except in cases of hypoxemia due to right-to-left shunt or possibly migraine headaches. Therefore, appropriate patient selection is critical, and procedural safety is paramount. Herein, we review key characteristics of the devices currently available for transcatheter PFO closure within the United States, and highlight key technical aspects of the PFO closure procedure that will maximize procedural success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulating school closure policies for cost effective pandemic decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araz Ozgur M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the globe, school closures were used sporadically to mitigate the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. However, such closures can detrimentally impact economic and social life. Methods Here, we couple a decision analytic approach with a mathematical model of influenza transmission to estimate the impact of school closures in terms of epidemiological and cost effectiveness. Our method assumes that the transmissibility and the severity of the disease are uncertain, and evaluates several closure and reopening strategies that cover a range of thresholds in school-aged prevalence (SAP and closure durations. Results Assuming a willingness to pay per quality adjusted life-year (QALY threshold equal to the US per capita GDP ($46,000, we found that the cost effectiveness of these strategies is highly dependent on the severity and on a willingness to pay per QALY. For severe pandemics, the preferred strategy couples the earliest closure trigger (0.5% SAP with the longest duration closure (24 weeks considered. For milder pandemics, the preferred strategies also involve the earliest closure trigger, but are shorter duration (12 weeks for low transmission rates and variable length for high transmission rates. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of obtaining early estimates of pandemic severity and provide guidance to public health decision-makers for effectively tailoring school closures strategies in response to a newly emergent influenza pandemic.

  11. The potential migration effect of rural hospital closures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2008-01-01

    to out-migration, although the hypothetical way of questioning leaves uncertainty about the actual scale of out-migration. Child families appear to be the most likely out-migrants. Elderly people may be hardest hit by a hospital closure, being most reliant on health care and least inclined to move away.......Rural hospital closures are high on the current health care agenda in Denmark. One raised concern is that rural hospital closures may further decrease population numbers in rural areas, as closures may induce some residents to move away from affected areas, i.e. closer to health care services...

  12. U.S. Small Business HUBZone Base Closure Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — HUBZone Qualitified Base Closure Areas - the lands within the boundaries of a military installation that was closed through a privatization process under the Federal...

  13. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruteau, Alban-Elouen; Hascoët, Sébastien; Baruteau, Julien; Boudjemline, Younes; Lambert, Virginie; Angel, Claude-Yves; Belli, Emre; Petit, Jérôme; Pass, Robert

    2014-02-01

    This review aims to describe the past history, present techniques and future directions in transcatheter treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Transcatheter PDA closure is the standard of care in most cases and PDA closure is indicated in any patient with signs of left ventricular volume overload due to a ductus. In cases of left-to-right PDA with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, closure may be performed under specific conditions. The management of clinically silent or very tiny PDAs remains highly controversial. Techniques have evolved and the transcatheter approach to PDA closure is now feasible and safe with current devices. Coils and the Amplatzer Duct Occluder are used most frequently for PDA closure worldwide, with a high occlusion rate and few complications. Transcatheter PDA closure in preterm or low-bodyweight infants remains a highly challenging procedure and further device and catheter design development is indicated before transcatheter closure is the treatment of choice in this delicate patient population. The evolution of transcatheter PDA closure from just 40 years ago with 18F sheaths to device delivery via a 3F sheath is remarkable and it is anticipated that further improvements will result in better safety and efficacy of transcatheter PDA closure techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Interim status of closure/post-closure plan for 183-H solar evaporation basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report describes a plan for decommissioning several solar evaporation basins on the Hanford reservation. The document describes procedures for sampling during decommissioning and a plan for certification of the resulting completed landfill. Additional plans deal with the training, security of the site, and post-closure monitoring

  15. Military Base Closures: Updated Status of Prior Base Realignments and Closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the Department of Defense (DOD) prepares for the 2005 base realignment and closure (BRAC) round, questions continue to be raised about the transfer and environmental cleanup of unneeded property arising from the prior four BRAC rounds and their impact on cost and savings and on local economies.

  16. Framed by Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Swee-Kin

    2013-01-01

    Academic developers in New Zealand, including many specialising in educational technology, have recently been asked to demonstrate their value to the Tertiary Education Commission in view of a new funding model (Prebble, 2011). Cost-cutting measures in other countries, including the 2010 closure of UK's agency for information and communication…

  17. Patent ductus arteriosus closure using an Amplatzer™ ventricular septal defect closure device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Rajeev; Koranne, Ketan; Loyalka, Pranav; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The ductus arteriosus originates from the persistence of the distal portion of the left sixth aortic arch. It connects the descending aorta (immediately distal to the left subclavian artery) to the roof of the main pulmonary artery, near the origin of the left pulmonary artery. Persistence of the duct beyond 48 h after birth is abnormal and results in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). PDA is rare in adults because it is usually discovered and treated in childhood. Mechanical closure remains the definitive therapy because the patency of ductus arteriosus may lead to multiple complications, depending on the size and flow through the ductus. PDA closure is indicated in patients with symptoms and evidence of left heart enlargement, and in patients with elevated pulmonary pressures when reversal is possible. Transcatheter closure is the preferred technique in adults because it avoids sternotomy, reduces the length of hospital stay and is associated with fewer complications compared with surgery. First demonstrated in 1967, both the technique and the occluder devices used have since evolved. However, designing an ideal PDA occluder has been a challenge due to the variability in size, shape and orientation of PDAs. The present article describes a case involving a 35-year-old woman who presented to the Center for Advanced Heart Failure (Houston, USA) with congestive heart failure due to a large PDA, which was successfully occluded using an Amplatzer (St Jude Medical, USA) muscular ventricular septal defect closure device. The wider waist and dual-retention discs of these ventricular septal defect closure devices may be important factors to consider in the future development of devices for the occlusion of large PDAs. PMID:24294051

  18. Patent ductus arteriosus closure using an Amplatzer(™) ventricular septal defect closure device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Rajeev; Koranne, Ketan; Loyalka, Pranav; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The ductus arteriosus originates from the persistence of the distal portion of the left sixth aortic arch. It connects the descending aorta (immediately distal to the left subclavian artery) to the roof of the main pulmonary artery, near the origin of the left pulmonary artery. Persistence of the duct beyond 48 h after birth is abnormal and results in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). PDA is rare in adults because it is usually discovered and treated in childhood. Mechanical closure remains the definitive therapy because the patency of ductus arteriosus may lead to multiple complications, depending on the size and flow through the ductus. PDA closure is indicated in patients with symptoms and evidence of left heart enlargement, and in patients with elevated pulmonary pressures when reversal is possible. Transcatheter closure is the preferred technique in adults because it avoids sternotomy, reduces the length of hospital stay and is associated with fewer complications compared with surgery. First demonstrated in 1967, both the technique and the occluder devices used have since evolved. However, designing an ideal PDA occluder has been a challenge due to the variability in size, shape and orientation of PDAs. The present article describes a case involving a 35-year-old woman who presented to the Center for Advanced Heart Failure (Houston, USA) with congestive heart failure due to a large PDA, which was successfully occluded using an Amplatzer (St Jude Medical, USA) muscular ventricular septal defect closure device. The wider waist and dual-retention discs of these ventricular septal defect closure devices may be important factors to consider in the future development of devices for the occlusion of large PDAs.

  19. Accelerating cleanup. Paths to closure Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    1998-01-01

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE's national strategy, the Richland Operations Office's Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established

  20. Distributed Programming via Safe Closure Passing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Haller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Programming systems incorporating aspects of functional programming, e.g., higher-order functions, are becoming increasingly popular for large-scale distributed programming. New frameworks such as Apache Spark leverage functional techniques to provide high-level, declarative APIs for in-memory data analytics, often outperforming traditional "big data" frameworks like Hadoop MapReduce. However, widely-used programming models remain rather ad-hoc; aspects such as implementation trade-offs, static typing, and semantics are not yet well-understood. We present a new asynchronous programming model that has at its core several principles facilitating functional processing of distributed data. The emphasis of our model is on simplicity, performance, and expressiveness. The primary means of communication is by passing functions (closures to distributed, immutable data. To ensure safe and efficient distribution of closures, our model leverages both syntactic and type-based restrictions. We report on a prototype implementation in Scala. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results evaluating the performance impact of a static, type-based optimization of serialization.

  1. Targeted transtracheal stimulation for vocal fold closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Aaron J; Thompson, Paul; Kolb, Ilya; Hahn, Elizabeth C; Tyler, Dustin J

    2014-06-01

    Paralysis of the structures in the head and neck due to stroke or other neurological disorder often causes dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing). Patients with dysphagia have a significantly higher incidence of aspiration pneumonia and death. The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), which innervates the intrinsic laryngeal muscles that control the vocal folds, travels superiorly in parallel to the trachea in the tracheoesophageal groove. This study tests the hypothesis that functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied via transtracheal electrodes can produce controlled vocal fold adduction. Bipolar electrodes were placed at 15° intervals around the interior mucosal surface of the canine trachea, and current was applied to the tissue while electromyography (EMG) from the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and vocal fold movement visualization via laryngoscopy were recorded. The lowest EMG thresholds were found at an average location of 100° to the left of the ventral midsagittal line and 128° to the right. A rotatable pair of bipolar electrodes spaced 230° apart were able to stimulate bilaterally both RLNs in every subject. Laryngoscopy showed complete glottal closure with transtracheal stimulation in six of the eight subjects, and this closure was maintained under simultaneous FES-induced laryngeal elevation. Transtracheal stimulation is an effective tool for minimally invasive application of FES to induce vocal fold adduction, providing an alternative mechanism to study airway protection.

  2. Closure plan for the proposed Millennium Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, S.; Sisson, R.

    1999-01-01

    A $2.2 billion expansion of the current oil sands operation has been proposed by Suncor Energy Inc. The expansion would more than double the productive capacity of the present facility. As part of the application for this expansion, called Project Millennium, a comprehensive closure plan has been developed and filed by the Corporation. The Plan includes a systematic evaluation of the area to be developed, a description of the development activities planned, and the goals and objectives of the Corporation in re-establishing the landforms and ecosystems concurrently with running the operation. The Plan envisages surface contouring as early as practicable during the mine development, soil reconstruction, and re-establishment of vegetation, surface drainage and wetlands. The Corporation undertakes to monitor the performance of the reclaimed areas based on landform performance, the impact of chemical constituents on the landscape and ecosystem sustainability. An annual monitoring report assessing herbaceous vegetation growth, major species composition, tree and shrub survival and growth rate, groundwater conditions, amount of precipitation, the utility of constructed wetlands for treatment of reclamation area seepage and runoff waters, and wildlife population changes, will be prepared annually. A future research program associated with the Reclamation and Closure Plan will also examine the effectiveness of the reclamation drainage system as fish habitat, and the potential of the proposed end-pit lake to provide a viable aquatic ecosystem. 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. Vascular Closure Devices in Interventional Radiology Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rafiuddin, E-mail: rafiuddin.patel@ouh.nhs.uk [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Muller-Hulsbeck, Stefan, E-mail: muehue@diako.de [Diakonissen Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology/Neuroradiology (Germany); Morgan, Robert, E-mail: robert.morgan@stgeorges.nhs.uk [St George’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Uberoi, Raman, E-mail: raman.uberoi@orh.nhs.uk [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Manual compression (MC) is a well-established technique for haemostasis following percutaneous arterial intervention. However, MC is labour and time intensive with potential limitations, particularly for patients who are coagulopathic, unable to comply with bed rest or obese and when large sheaths or anti-coagulants are used. There are a variety of vascular closure devices (VCDs) available to overcome these limitations. This review gives an overview of current VCDs, their mechanism of action, individual strengths and weaknesses, evidence base and utility in interventional radiology (IR) practice. The majority of the published evidence on VCDs is derived from patients undergoing cardiac interventions, which should be borne in mind when considering the applicability and transfer of this data for general IR practice. Overall, the evidence suggests that most VCDs are effective in achieving haemostasis with a similar rate of complications to MC although the complication profile associated with VCDs is distinct to that of MC. There is insufficient evidence to comparatively analyse the different types of VCDs currently available or reliably judge their cost-effectiveness. The interventional radiologist should have a thorough understanding of the available techniques for haemostasis and be able to identify and utilise the most appropriate strategy and closure technique for the individual patient.

  4. Container Closure Integrity Testing of Prefilled Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Sarah S; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Matter, Anja; Koulov, Atanas; Singh, Satish K; Germershaus, Oliver; Mathaes, Roman

    2018-04-04

    Prefilled syringes (PFSs) are increasingly preferred over vials as container closure systems (CCSs) for injectable drug products when facilitated or self-administration is required. However, PFSs are more complex compared to CCSs consisting of vial, rubber stopper and crimp cap. Container closure integrity (CCI) assurance and verification has been a specific challenge for PFSs as they feature several sealing areas. A comprehensive understanding of the CCS is necessary for an appropriate CCI assessment as well as for packaging development and qualification. A comprehensive CCI assessment of six different PFSs from three different manufacturers (including one polymeric PFS) was conducted using helium leak testing. PFS components were manipulated to systematically assess the contribution of the different sealing areas to CCI, namely rigid needle shield (RNS)/needle, RNS/tip cone and the individual ribs of a syringe plunger. The polymeric PFS required an equilibrium measurement for accurate CCIT. The different sealing areas and a single plunger rib were shown to provide adequate CCI. Acceptable tip cap movement until the point of CCI failure was estimated. The assessment of acceptable tip cap movement demonstrated the importance of considering the RNS/tip cone seal design to ensure CCI of the PFS upon post assembly possesses and shipment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. IT SERVICES AVAILABILITY DURING CERN ANNUAL CLOSURE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Mail, NICE 2000, Web, EDMS (in collaboration with EST Division), General purpose databases, lxbatch, lxplus, Automated tape devices, Castor, Backups, Campus Network, Remedy, Security and VPN services will be available during the CERN annual closure. Problems developing on these services should be addressed within about half a day except on Christmas and New Year evenings, December 25, 2002 and January 1st, 2003. All other services will be left running mostly unattended. No interruptions are scheduled but restoration of the service in case of failure cannot be guaranteed. It should be noted that the Helpdesk will be closed, that no file restores from backups will be possible and damaged tapes will not be processed. An operator service will be maintained and can be reached at extension 75011 or by email to computer.operations@cern.ch. Please remember to shutdown and power off any equipment in your office which is not foreseen to be used during the annual closure before you leave for the holiday.

  6. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, Edward [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Blanton, Paul [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bobbitt, John H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.

  7. Fresh Autologous Pericardium to Reconstruct the Pulmonary Valve at the Annulus When Tetralogy of Fallot Requires a Transannular Patch at Midterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Shantanu; Sharma, Jugal K; Siddartha, C R; Bansal, Anubhav; Agarwal, Surendra K; Tewari, Prabhat; Kapoor, Aditya

    2016-06-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot often requires reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract with a transannular patch (TAP), but this renders the pulmonary valve incompetent and eventually leads to right ventricular dysfunction. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of a reconstructed pulmonary valve and annulus in 70 patients who underwent, from December 2006 through December 2010, complete correction of tetralogy of Fallot. We divided the 70 patients into 2 groups in accordance with whether they required (n=50) or did not require (n=20) a TAP. We used autologous untreated pericardium to fashion the TAP and to create both an annulus of the correct size and a competent pulmonary valve with native leaflets. We evaluated the efficiency of this procedure both functionally and anatomically. The median age of the patients was 11 years (range, 2-38 yr). There were 56 males, with no significant difference in sexual distribution between groups. The clinical follow-up was 88% for 57.5 months, and the echocardiographic follow-up was 80% for 36 months. There was no significant difference in outflow gradient or in the occurrence of pulmonary insufficiency between the TAP group (none, 31; mild, 12; moderate, 6; and severe, 1) and the No-TAP group (none, 16; moderate, 2; and severe, 2) (P=0.59). Nor was there any thickening or calcification in the constructed valves. We conclude that pulmonary valves constructed of untreated autologous pericardium performed as well as native valves after total tetralogy of Fallot correction at midterm.

  8. Finding Closure, Continuing Bonds, and Codentification After the 9/11 Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toom, Victor

    2017-06-13

    In this article, I'm interested in the 2750 victims of the 9/11 attacks in New York City. I consider two connected issues. The first regards bereavement journeys of victims' families and the significance of receiving a body to bury vis-à-vis the normative assignment to find closure. The second issue I address is how forensic experts, their technologies, and managing protocols interact with victims' families and their emotions. Using insights from Science and Technology Studies, I articulate some of the goods and bads of identification practices and argue for extensive communication and cooperation between experts and victims' families.

  9. Mass extraction container closure integrity physical testing method development for parenteral container closure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Yil; Sagi, Hemi; Goldhammer, Craig; Li, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Container closure integrity (CCI) is a critical factor to ensure that product sterility is maintained over its entire shelf life. Assuring the CCI during container closure (C/C) system qualification, routine manufacturing and stability is important. FDA guidance also encourages industry to develop a CCI physical testing method in lieu of sterility testing in a stability program. A mass extraction system has been developed to check CCI for a variety of container closure systems such as vials, syringes, and cartridges. Various types of defects (e.g., glass micropipette, laser drill, wire) were created and used to demonstrate a detection limit. Leakage, detected as mass flow in this study, changes as a function of defect length and diameter. Therefore, the morphology of defects has been examined in detail with fluid theories. This study demonstrated that a mass extraction system was able to distinguish between intact samples and samples with 2 μm defects reliably when the defect was exposed to air, water, placebo, or drug product (3 mg/mL concentration) solution. Also, it has been verified that the method was robust, and capable of determining the acceptance limit using 3σ for syringes and 6σ for vials. Sterile products must maintain their sterility over their entire shelf life. Container closure systems such as those found in syringes and vials provide a seal between rubber and glass containers. This seal must be ensured to maintain product sterility. A mass extraction system has been developed to check container closure integrity for a variety of container closure systems such as vials, syringes, and cartridges. In order to demonstrate the method's capability, various types of defects (e.g., glass micropipette, laser drill, wire) were created in syringes and vials and were tested. This study demonstrated that a mass extraction system was able to distinguish between intact samples and samples with 2 μm defects reliably when the defect was exposed to air, water

  10. Surgical Experience with Closure of an Isolated PDA at Muhimbili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 52 patients with clinical diagnosis of PDA, 26 patients in each treatment group of either standard closure or new closure technique. ... string on the ampulla of the PDA followed by a silk ligature has proved to be efficient and reliable technique that leaves no residual lesion with no long term complications.

  11. Decontamination Study for Mixed Waste Storage Tanks RCRA Closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaphart, D.M.; Reed, S.R.; Rankin, W.N.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to close six underground tanks storing mixed waste under RCRA regulations. In support of this closure effort, a study was performed to determine the optimal method of decontaminating these tanks to meet the closure requirements. Items consaidered in the evaluation of the decontamination methods included effectiveness, compatibility with existing waste residues, possible cleaning solution disposal methods, and cost

  12. Cracked Vases and Untidy Seams: Narrative Structure and Closure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The TRC reveals a tension between a desire to open up the story of the past and to “close the chapter on our past”. I explore this tension by considering both the TRC's relation to closure and those of selected fictional narratives that explicitly respond to the TRC. I argue that the tidy closure of reconciliation both excludes the ...

  13. The effectiveness of eye-closure in repeated interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, A.; Baddeley, A.D.; Hitch, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Closing the eyes during recall can help witnesses remember more about a witnessed event. This study examined the effectiveness of eye-closure in a repeated recall paradigm with immediate free recall followed 1 week later by both free and cued recall. We examined whether eye-closure was more

  14. Structural analysis of closure bolts for shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, G.C.; Fischer, L.E.

    1993-04-01

    This paper identifies the active forces and moments in a closure bolt of a shipping cask. It examines the interactions of these forces/moments and suggest simplified methods for their analysis. The paper also evaluates the role that the forces and moments play in the structure integrity of the closure bolt and recommends stress limits and desirable practices to ensure its integrity

  15. The Finishing Touch: Anatomy of Expert Lesson Closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Connolly, Graeme; Schempp, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Based on the idea that students remember best what is presented last, the lesson closure is commonly identified as an important component of effective teaching and has recently surfaced as a routine practice of expert teachers in sport. Despite its link to both effective and expert instruction, the lesson closure has seen scarce…

  16. 40 CFR 264.119 - Post-closure notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure... closure of each hazardous waste disposal unit, the owner or operator must submit to the local zoning... disposal unit of the facility. For hazardous wastes disposed of before January 12, 1981, the owner or...

  17. WASTE PACKAGE OPERATIONS FY99 CLOSURE METHODS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. C. Knapp

    1999-09-23

    The waste package (WP) closure weld development task is part of a larger engineering development program to develop waste package designs. The purpose of the larger waste package engineering development program is to develop nuclear waste package fabrication and closure methods that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will find acceptable and will license for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), non-fuel components, and vitrified high-level waste within a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Within the WP closure development program are several major development tasks, which, in turn, are divided into subtasks. The major tasks include: WP fabrication development, WP closure weld development, nondestructive examination (NDE) development, and remote in-service inspection development. The purpose of this report is to present the objectives, technical information, and work scope relating to the WP closure weld development.and NDE tasks and subtasks and to report results of the closure weld and NDE development programs for fiscal year 1999 (FY-99). The objective of the FY-99 WP closure weld development task was to develop requirements for closure weld surface and volumetric NDE performance demonstrations, investigate alternative NDE inspection techniques, and develop specifications for welding, NDE, and handling system integration. In addition, objectives included fabricating several flat plate mock-ups that could be used for NDE development, stress relief peening, corrosion testing, and residual stress testing.

  18. Biomechanics Strategies for Space Closure in Deep Overbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto Wijaya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Space closure is an interesting aspect of orthodontic treatment related to principles of biomechanics. It should be tailored individually based on patient’s diagnosis and treatment plan. Understanding the space closure biomechanics basis leads to achieve the desired treatment objective. Overbite deepening and losing posterior anchorage are the two most common unwanted side effects in space closure. Conventionally, correction of overbite must be done before space closure resulted in longer treatment. Application of proper space closure biomechanics strategies is necessary to achieve the desired treatment outcome. This cases report aimed to show the space closure biomechanics strategies that effectively control the overbite as well as posterior anchorage in deep overbite patients without increasing treatment time. Two patients who presented with class II division 1 malocclusion were treated with fixed orthodontic appliance. The primary strategies included extraction space closure on segmented arch that employed two-step space closure, namely single canine retraction simultaneously with incisors intrusion followed by enmasse retraction of four incisors by using differential moment concept. These strategies successfully closed the space, corrected deep overbite and controlled posterior anchorage simultaneously so that the treatment time was shortened. Biomechanics strategies that utilized were effective to achieve the desired treatment outcome.

  19. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  20. WASTE PACKAGE OPERATIONS FY-99 CLOSURE METHODS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. C. Knapp

    1999-01-01

    The waste package (WP) closure weld development task is part of a larger engineering development program to develop waste package designs. The purpose of the larger waste package engineering development program is to develop nuclear waste package fabrication and closure methods that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will find acceptable and will license for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), non-fuel components, and vitrified high-level waste within a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Within the WP closure development program are several major development tasks, which, in turn, are divided into subtasks. The major tasks include: WP fabrication development, WP closure weld development, nondestructive examination (NDE) development, and remote in-service inspection development. The purpose of this report is to present the objectives, technical information, and work scope relating to the WP closure weld development.and NDE tasks and subtasks and to report results of the closure weld and NDE development programs for fiscal year 1999 (FY-99). The objective of the FY-99 WP closure weld development task was to develop requirements for closure weld surface and volumetric NDE performance demonstrations, investigate alternative NDE inspection techniques, and develop specifications for welding, NDE, and handling system integration. In addition, objectives included fabricating several flat plate mock-ups that could be used for NDE development, stress relief peening, corrosion testing, and residual stress testing

  1. T-tube vs Primary Common Bile Duct Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Joshi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Closure of the common bile duct over T-tube after exploration is a widely practiced traditional method. However, its use may give rise to many complications. We do primary closure of common bile duct after exploration. Aim of the study is to see the efficacy and safety of the primary closure. METHODS: Study was carried out to compare the results of both the techniques from 2006 to 2009 in the cases proven to have common bile duct stone with or without the features of obstructive jaundice. Post operative hospital stay and morbidities related to both the groups were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were total 71 cases included in the study. Thirty one in T-tube group and 40 in primary closure group. T-tube was removed in most of the cases after three weeks where as average time of drain removal in primary closure group is 5.79 +/-1.79 days. Incidence of retained stone was equal in each group. Major complication in T-tube group is biliary peritonitis in four patients at the time of T-tube removal whereas none of the patient from primary closure group suffered from such major complication. CONCLUSIONS: Primary closure after the common bile duct exploration is safe and it helps to avoid the morbidities related to T-tube. Keywords: Choledocholithiasis, Primary closure, retained stone, T-tube, Ureterorenoscope.

  2. Radiographic study of distal radial physeal closure in thoroughbred horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulcano, L.C.; Mamprim, M.J.; Muniz, L.M.R.; Moreira, A.F.; Luna, S.P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Monthly radiography was performed to study distal radial physeal closure in ten male and ten female Throughbred horses. The height, thoracic circumference and metacarpus circumference were also measured, Distal radial physeal closure time was sooner in females than males, and took 701 +/- 37 and 748 +/- 55 days respectively

  3. Vascularized fibular graft combined with vacuum assisted closure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flowthrough fibular graft combined with Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) controlled the infection, shortened the course of treatment, and effectively restored limb function when applied to the treatment of tibial defects. Keywords: Tibial defect, Flow-through fibular graft, Vacuum Assisted Closure, Chronic Osteomyelitis ...

  4. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-09-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  5. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-01-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  6. 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Facility is owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. Dangerous waste and mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components) are managed and produced on the Hanford Facility. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office and serves as cooperator of the 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site, the unit addressed in this closure plan. The 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Part A Permit Application (Revision 3) and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application revision is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and three appendices. This 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of October 15, 1992

  7. Bidirectional Barbed Sutures for Wound Closure: Evolution and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Malcolm D.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, wound closure sutures have in common the need to tie knots with the inherent risk of extrusion, palpability, microinfarcts, breakage, and slippage. Bidirectional barbed sutures have barbs arrayed in a helical fashion in opposing directions on either side of an unbarbed midsegment. This suture is inserted at the midpoint of a wound and pulled through till resistance is encountered from the opposing barbs; each half of the suture is then advanced to the lateral ends of the wound. This design provides a method of evenly distributing tension along the incision line, a faster suture placement and closure time with no need to tie knots, and the possibility of improved cosmesis. Bidirectional barbed sutures, which are available in both absorbable and nonabsorbable forms, can be used for simple closures, multilayered closures, and closure of high-tension wounds in a variety of surgical settings. PMID:24527114

  8. Reliability in maintenance and design of elastomer sealed closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    The methods of reliability are considered for maintenance and design of elastomer sealed containment closures. Component reliability is used to establish a replacement schedule for system maintenance. Reliability data on elastomer seals is used to evaluate the common practice of annual replacement, and to calculate component reliability values for several typical shipment time periods. System reliability methods are used to examine the relative merits of typical closure designs. These include single component and redundant seal closure, with and without closure verification testing. The paper presents a general method of quantifying the merits of closure designs through the use of reliability analysis, which is a probabilistic technique. The reference list offers a general source of information in the field of reliability, and should offer the opportunity to extend the procedures discussed in this paper to other design safety applications

  9. Socket sclerosis--an obstacle for orthodontic space closure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertel, Sebastian

    2009-07-01

    Socket sclerosis is a rare reaction to tooth extraction resulting in high-density bone in the center of the alveolar process, where, under normal circumstances, cancellous bone is to be expected. In an adult orthodontic patient, routine extractions of the mandibular first permanent bicuspids were performed, resulting in socket sclerosis and unsuccessful orthodontic space closure. Orthodontic mini-implants were inserted to augment anchorage and aid in space closure. In the presence of socket sclerosis, conventional orthodontic mechanics failed to close the extraction spaces. However, with absolute anchorage in place, space closure occurred at a nearly normal rate. After treatment, no signs of socket sclerosis were discernible on the periapical radiographs. Socket sclerosis can be an obstacle for orthodontic space closure if traditional mechanics are employed. However, mini-implant-reinforced anchorage can lead to successful space closure, resulting in complete resolution of the sclerotic sites.

  10. Predictors of successful closure of patent ductus arteriosus with indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, M F; Verma, P; Lee, S; Vega, M; Wang, D; Kim, M; Fuloria, M

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether platelet counts can predict the likelihood of successful closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with indomethacin. This was a retrospective cohort study of infants closure with indomethacin and those who failed were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of successful ductal closure. In infants with hemodynamically significant PDA, older GA (odds ratio=1.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 2.13), male gender (odds ratio=3.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 8.49) and higher platelet count (odds ratio=1.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 2.17) prior to indomethacin treatment were associated with successful ductal closure with indomethacin. Older GA, male gender and higher platelet count at time of treatment of hemodynamically significant PDA are predictors of successful ductal closure with indomethacin.

  11. Single-site neural tube closure in human embryos revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Bernadette S; Driessen, Stan; Boukens, Bastiaan J D; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-10-01

    Since the multi-site closure theory was first proposed in 1991 as explanation for the preferential localizations of neural tube defects, the closure of the neural tube has been debated. Although the multi-site closure theory is much cited in clinical literature, single-site closure is most apparent in literature concerning embryology. Inspired by Victor Hamburgers (1900-2001) statement that "our real teacher has been and still is the embryo, who is, incidentally, the only teacher who is always right", we decided to critically review both theories of neural tube closure. To verify the theories of closure, we studied serial histological sections of 10 mouse embryos between 8.5 and 9.5 days of gestation and 18 human embryos of the Carnegie collection between Carnegie stage 9 (19-21 days) and 13 (28-32 days). Neural tube closure was histologically defined by the neuroepithelial remodeling of the two adjoining neural fold tips in the midline. We did not observe multiple fusion sites in neither mouse nor human embryos. A meta-analysis of case reports on neural tube defects showed that defects can occur at any level of the neural axis. Our data indicate that the human neural tube fuses at a single site and, therefore, we propose to reinstate the single-site closure theory for neural tube closure. We showed that neural tube defects are not restricted to a specific location, thereby refuting the reasoning underlying the multi-site closure theory. Clin. Anat. 30:988-999, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Occupational closure in nursing work reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traynor, Michael; Nissen, Nina; Lincoln, Carol

    2015-01-01

    In healthcare, occupational groups have adopted tactics to maintain autonomy and control over their areas of work. Witz described a credentialist approach to occupational closure adopted by nursing in the United Kingdom during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However, the recent advancement...... boundaries and a usurpatory stance towards these boundaries. Participants had usually been handpicked by managers and some were ambitious and confident in their abilities. Many aspired to train to be nurses claiming that they will gain recognition that they do not currently get but which they deserve....... Their scope of practice is based upon their managers' or supervisors' perception of their individual aptitude rather than on a credentialist claim. They 'usurp' nurses claim to be the healthcare worker with privileged access to patients, saying they have taken over what nursing has considered its core work...

  13. Gonioscopy in primary angle closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Christina A; Alward, Wallace L M

    2002-06-01

    Primary angle closure is a condition characterized by obstruction to aqueous humor outflow by the peripheral iris, and results in changes in the iridocorneal angle that are visible through gonioscopic examination. Gonioscopy in these eyes, however, can be difficult. This chapter discusses techniques that might help in the examination. These include beginning the examination with the inferior angle, methods to help in looking over the iris, cycloplegia, locating the corneal wedge, indentation, van Herick estimation, examining the other eye, and topical glycerin. Finally, there is a discussion about the pathology associated with the closed angle, with emphasis on the appearance of iris bombé, plateau iris, and the distinction between iris processes and peripheral anterior synechiae.

  14. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout

  15. Closure for casks containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.V.B.; Mallory, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an improved closure for covering and sealing an opening in a single cask for containing radioactive material, wherein the opening is characterized by a ledge. It comprises: an inner lid receivable within the opening and having a gasket means that is seatable over the ledge; an outer lid which is likewise receivable into the opening and securable therearound when the outer lid is rotated relative to the opening. The inner lid remaining stationary relative to the cask opening when the outer lid is rotated and having no torque applied thereto by the outer lid when the outer lid is rotated, and bolt means threadedly mounted through the outer lid for applying a compressive force between the inner and outer lids after the outer lid has been secured to the opening in order to depress the gasket means of the inner lid into sealing engagement with the ledge while avoiding the application of torsion between the gasket means and the ledge

  16. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ildeu

    2017-02-01

    Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification.

  17. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu Andrade Jr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification.

  18. Spontaneous closure of midline diastema following frenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koora Kiran

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic problem in mixed and early permanent dentitions. The space can occur either as a transient malocclusion or created by developmental, pathological or iatrogenical factors. Many innovative therapies varying from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (frenectomies and orthodontics are available. Although literature says every frenectomy procedure should be preceded by orthodontic treatment, we opted for frenectomy technique without any orthodontic intervention. Presented herewith is a case report of a 9-year-old girl with a high frenal attachment that had caused spacing of the maxillary central incisors. A spontaneous closure of the midline diastema was noted within 2 months following frenectomy. The patient was followed up for 4 months after which the space remained closed and there was no necessity for an orthodontic treatment at a later stage.

  19. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  20. Comparing over-the-scope clip versus endoloop and clips (KING closure) for access site closure: a randomized experimental study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínek, J.; Ryska, O.; Tučková, I.; Filípková, T.; Doležel, R.; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan; Zavoral, M.; Ryska, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), s. 1203-1210 ISSN 0930-2794 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : NOTES * gastrotomy closure * rectotomy closure Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2013

  1. 303-K Storage Facility closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Recyclable scrap uranium with zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy, and zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gallon containers) in the 303-K Storage Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy and zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as mixed waste with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 303-K Storage Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040. This closure plan presents a description of the 303-K Storage Facility, the history of materials and waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 303-K Storage Facility. The 303-K Storage Facility is located within the 300-FF-3 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater) operable units, as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992). Contamination in the operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5 is scheduled to be addressed through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 remedial action process. Therefore, all soil remedial action at the 304 Facility will be conducted as part of the CERCLA remedial action of operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5

  2. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  3. Laboratory testing of closure cap repair techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Moridis, G.; Tuck, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Landfill design requires a low permeability closure cap as well as a low permeability liner. The Savannah River Site, in South Carolina, has approximately 85 acres of mixed waste landfills covered with compacted kaolin clay. Maintaining low permeability of the clay cap requires both that the permeability of the compacted clay itself remain low and that the integrity of the barrier be maintained. Barrier breaches typically result from penetration by roots or animals, and especially cracks caused by uneven settling or desiccation. In this study, clay layers, 0.81 m in diameter and 7.6 cm thick, were compacted in 7 lysimeters to simulate closure caps. The hydraulic conductivity of each layer was measured, and the compacted clay layers (CCL's) were cracked by drying. Then various repair techniques were applied and the effectiveness of each repair was assessed by remeasuring the hydraulic conductivity. Finally the repaired CCL was again dried and measured to determine how the repair responded to the conditions that caused the original failure. For a full report of this investigation see Persoff et al. Six repair techniques have been tested, four of which involve the use of injectable barrier liquids colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX) described below: (I) covering the crack with a bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), (ii) recompaction of new kaolinite at STD+3 moisture content joined to existing kaolinite that had dried and shrunk, (iii) direct injection of colloidal silica to a crack, (iv) injection of colloidal silica (CS) to wells in an overlying sand layer, (v) direct injection of polysiloxane to a crack, and (vi), injection of polysiloxane (PSX) to wells in an overlying soil layer

  4. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study

  5. Patent ductus arteriosus closure using an Amplatzer™ ventricular septal defect closure device

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Rajeev; Koranne, Ketan; Loyalka, Pranav; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The ductus arteriosus originates from the persistence of the distal portion of the left sixth aortic arch. It connects the descending aorta (immediately distal to the left subclavian artery) to the roof of the main pulmonary artery, near the origin of the left pulmonary artery. Persistence of the duct beyond 48 h after birth is abnormal and results in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). PDA is rare in adults because it is usually discovered and treated in childhood. Mechanical closure remains the...

  6. Senescent vs. non-senescent cells in the human annulus in vivo: Cell harvest with laser capture microdissection and gene expression studies with microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingram Jane A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senescent cells are well-recognized in the aging/degenerating human disc. Senescent cells are viable, cannot divide, remain metabolically active and accumulate within the disc over time. Molecular analysis of senescent cells in tissue offers a special challenge since there are no cell surface markers for senescence which would let one use fluorescence-activated cell sorting as a method for separating out senescent cells. Methods We employed a novel laser capture microdissection (LCM design to selectively harvest senescent and non-senescent annulus cells in paraffin-embedded tissue, and compared their gene expression with microarray analysis. LCM was used to separately harvest senescent and non-senescent cells from 11 human annulus specimens. Results Microarray analysis revealed significant differences in expression levels in senescent cells vs non-senescent cells: 292 genes were upregulated, and 321 downregulated. Genes with established relationships to senescence were found to be significantly upregulated in senescent cells vs. non-senescent cells: p38 (MPAK14, RB-Associated KRAB zinc finger, Discoidin, CUB and LCCL domain, growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible beta, p28ING5, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 and somatostatin receptor 3; cyclin-dependent kinase 8 showed significant downregulation in senescent cells. Nitric oxidase synthase 1, and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6, both of which were significantly down-regulated in senescent cells, also showed significant changes. Additional genes related to cytokines, cell proliferation, and other processes were also identified. Conclusions Our LCM-microarray analyses identified a set of genes associated with senescence which were significantly upregulated in senescent vs non-senescent cells in the human annulus. These genes include p38 MAP kinase, discoidin, inhibitor of growth family member 5, and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible beta. Other genes, including genes

  7. Influence of Closure & Non-Closure of the Visceral and Parietal Peritoneum on Post Cesarean Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabasi Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: One of the most important issues in promoting mother and child health is reducing the morbidity rate after cesarean section. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of closure and non-closure of the visceral and parietal peritoneum on post cesarean morbidity in women attending Shabihkhani Maternity Hospital in Kashan, Iran.Methods: This study was conducted with a single blind randomized clinical trial method on 100 parturient women that underwent emergency or elective cesarean section. Patients with previous cesarean section and or abdominal surgery, diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and premature rupture of membrane and pre operative bleeding, were excluded from this study. Then, the participants were randomly divided into two groups: in one group both peritoneal layers were closed while in the other group, they were not closed. Post operative morbidity including fever, bleeding, post operative pain, analgesic consumption and time of operation were assessed. Data were analyzed with t-tests, and χ2 and a P<0.05 were considered significant.Results: In this study, there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, gestational age, the reason for caesarean section and gravidity, nor were there any differences with respect to the incidence of fever or bleeding and was similar between the two groups, but there was a significant difference between the two groups regarding to feeling of severe pain (P=0.0003, analgesic consumption (P=0.0003 and time of operation (P=0.004. In the non-closure group, dose of analgesic drugs, pain severity and time of operation were less than those of the other group.Conclusion: The Findings showed that non-closure of peritoneal layers as a shorter and simpler procedure has no influence on increasing post cesarean morbidity. Therefore, due to maternal health promotion and early neonatal breastfeeding, non closure of peritoneal

  8. Influence of Closure & Non-Closure of the Visceral and Parietal Peritoneum on Post Cesarean Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Tabasi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: One of the most important issues in promoting mother and child health is reducing the morbidity rate after cesarean section. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of closure and non-closure of the visceral and parietal peritoneum on post cesarean morbidity in women attending Shabihkhani Maternity Hospital in Kashan, Iran.

    Methods: This study was conducted with a single blind randomized clinical trial method on 100 parturient women that underwent emergency or elective cesarean section. Patients with previous cesarean section and or abdominal surgery, diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and premature rupture of membrane and pre operative bleeding, were excluded from this study. Then, the participants were randomly divided into two groups: in one group both peritoneal layers were closed while in the other group, they were not closed. Post operative morbidity including fever, bleeding, post operative pain, analgesic consumption and time of operation were assessed. Data were analyzed with t-tests, and χ2 and a P<0.05 were considered significant.

    Results: In this study, there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, gestational age, the reason for caesarean section and gravidity, nor were there any differences with respect to the incidence of fever or bleeding and was similar between the two groups, but there was a significant difference between the two groups regarding to feeling of severe pain (P=0.0003, analgesic consumption (P=0.0003 and time of operation (P=0.004. In the non-closure group, dose of analgesic drugs, pain severity and time of operation were less than those of the other group.

    Conclusion: The
  9. Rocky flats closure project - lessons learned in worker stakeholder engagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Laura [Des Moines Area Community College, Ankeny, Iowa (United States); Mazur, Robert E. [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Edelson, Martin [Ames Laboratory-USDOE (Retired), Ames, Iowa (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (EPA Superfund site near Denver, Colorado) produced plutonium components for nuclear weapons for the U.S. defense program. The facility shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992. To ensure safe remediation of inactive nuclear sites, site owners have begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. The closure of Rocky Flats aimed to set the standard for stakeholder involvement in doing the work safely, complying with regulations/standards, in a cost-effective manner. We have studied, using ethnographic methods, the extent to which workers at Rocky Flats were involved in communication and decision making strategies. Our results point out that workers can have perceptions of the site remediation process that differ from management and even other workers and that a significant number of workers questioned the commitment by management to engage the worker as stakeholder. The most effective remediation efforts should involve careful consideration of the insights and observations of all workers, particularly those who face immediate and high-level health and safety risks. (authors)

  10. Closure certification report: TA-35 TSL-125 surface impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the actions that were taken to clean close the TA-35 TSL-125 surface impoundment Building 125 is used for developing electron guns and related laser assemblies/equipment for a Laser Technology Research Program at the Laboratory. There is no permanent outfall from the surface impoundment; however, the impoundment accidentally overtopped on December 3, 1986, spilling an unknown volume of insulating oil and water into Ten Site Canyon. Sandbags were installed around the surface impoundment on June 25, 1988, to provide additional freeboard in the impoundment and reduce the risk of overtopping during a precipitation event. On July 1, 1988, the impoundment again overtopped releasing an unknown volume of insulating oil and water. Actions taken include removal of waste from the surface impoundment and its associated structures, decontamination of the floor trough and piping inside Building 125, grouting of the piping connecting the floor drain/trough system to the impoundment, decontamination, removal, and disposal of the impoundment liner and sandbags lining the top of the impoundment, and removal and disposal of contaminated soil underlying the impoundment area. Procedures followed to verify that clean closure objectives have been met are also documented in this report. Initial verification was performed through an extensive soil sampling and analysis program

  11. Rocky flats closure project - lessons learned in worker stakeholder engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Laura; Mazur, Robert E.; Edelson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (EPA Superfund site near Denver, Colorado) produced plutonium components for nuclear weapons for the U.S. defense program. The facility shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992. To ensure safe remediation of inactive nuclear sites, site owners have begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. The closure of Rocky Flats aimed to set the standard for stakeholder involvement in doing the work safely, complying with regulations/standards, in a cost-effective manner. We have studied, using ethnographic methods, the extent to which workers at Rocky Flats were involved in communication and decision making strategies. Our results point out that workers can have perceptions of the site remediation process that differ from management and even other workers and that a significant number of workers questioned the commitment by management to engage the worker as stakeholder. The most effective remediation efforts should involve careful consideration of the insights and observations of all workers, particularly those who face immediate and high-level health and safety risks. (authors)

  12. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF LENS THICKNESS IN ANGLE CLOSURE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Sultana Khayoom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anterior chamber depth and lens thickness have been considered as important biometric determinants in primary angle-closure glaucoma. Patients with primary narrow angle may be classified as a primary angle closure suspect (PACS, or as having primary angle closure (PAC or primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG. 23.9% of patients with primary angle closure disease are in India, which highlights the importance of understanding the disease, its natural history, and its underlying pathophysiology, so that we may try to establish effective methods of treatment and preventative measures to delay, or even arrest, disease progression, thereby reducing visual morbidity. AIM To determine the lens thickness using A-scan biometry and its significance in various stages of angle closure disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients attending outpatient department at Minto Ophthalmic Hospital between October 2013 to May 2015 were screened for angle closure disease and subsequently evaluated at glaucoma department. In our study, lens thickness showed a direct correlation with shallowing of the anterior chamber by determining the LT/ ACD ratio. A decrease in anterior chamber depth is proportional to the narrowing of the angle which contributes to the progression of the angle closure disease from just apposition to occlusion enhancing the risk for optic nerve damage and visual field loss. Hence, if the lens thickness values are assessed earlier in the disease process, appropriate intervention can be planned. CONCLUSION Determination of lens changes along with anterior chamber depth and axial length morphometrically can aid in early detection of angle closure. The role of lens extraction for PACG is a subject of increased interest. Lens extraction promotes the benefits of anatomical opening of the angle, IOP reduction and improved vision. This potential intervention may be one among the armamentarium of approaches for PACG. Among the current treatment modalities

  14. Transportable Vitrification System RCRA Closure Practical Waste Disposition Saves Time And Money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, Angie; Boles, Roger; Byars, Woody

    2003-01-01

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) was a large-scale vitrification system for the treatment of mixed wastes. The wastes contained both hazardous and radioactive materials in the form of sludge, soil, and ash. The TVS was developed to be moved to various United States Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to vitrify mixed waste as needed. The TVS consists of four primary modules: (1) Waste and Additive Materials Processing Module; (2) Melter Module; (3) Emissions Control Module; and (4) Control and Services Module. The TVS was demonstrated at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) during September and October of 1997. During this period, approximately 16,000 pounds of actual mixed waste was processed, producing over 17,000 pounds of glass. After the demonstration was complete it was determined that it was more expensive to use the TVS unit to treat and dispose of mixed waste than to direct bury this waste in Utah permitted facility. Thus, DOE had to perform a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the facility and find a reuse for as much of the equipment as possible. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful RCRA closure project: TVS site closure design and implementation; characterization activities focused on waste disposition; pollution prevention through reuse; waste minimization efforts to reduce mixed waste to be disposed; and lessons learned that would be integrated in future projects of this magnitude

  15. Regulatory Closure Options for the Residue in the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; Shyr, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Liquid, mixed, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) located in tank farms on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The DOE is developing technologies to retrieve as much remaining HLW as technically possible prior to physically closing the tank farms. In support of the Hanford Tanks Initiative, Sandia National Laboratories has addressed the requirements for the regulatory closure of the radioactive component of any SST residue that may remain after physical closure. There is significant uncertainty about the end state of each of the 149 SSTS; that is, the nature and amount of wastes remaining in the SSTS after retrieval is uncertain. As a means of proceeding in the face of these uncertainties, this report links possible end-states with associated closure options. Requirements for disposal of HLW and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) are reviewed in detail. Incidental waste, which is radioactive waste produced incidental to the further processing of HLW, is then discussed. If the low activity waste (LAW) fraction from the further processing of HLW is determined to be incidental waste, then DOE can dispose of that incidental waste onsite without a license from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC). The NRC has proposed three Incidental Waste Criteria for determining if a LAW fraction is incidental waste. One of the three Criteria is that the LAW fraction should not exceed the NRC's Class C limits

  16. Regulatory Closure Options for the Residue in the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.R. Shyr, L.J.

    1998-10-05

    Liquid, mixed, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) located in tank farms on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The DOE is developing technologies to retrieve as much remaining HLW as technically possible prior to physically closing the tank farms. In support of the Hanford Tanks Initiative, Sandia National Laboratories has addressed the requirements for the regulatory closure of the radioactive component of any SST residue that may remain after physical closure. There is significant uncertainty about the end state of each of the 149 SSTS; that is, the nature and amount of wastes remaining in the SSTS after retrieval is uncertain. As a means of proceeding in the face of these uncertainties, this report links possible end-states with associated closure options. Requirements for disposal of HLW and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) are reviewed in detail. Incidental waste, which is radioactive waste produced incidental to the further processing of HLW, is then discussed. If the low activity waste (LAW) fraction from the further processing of HLW is determined to be incidental waste, then DOE can dispose of that incidental waste onsite without a license from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC). The NRC has proposed three Incidental Waste Criteria for determining if a LAW fraction is incidental waste. One of the three Criteria is that the LAW fraction should not exceed the NRC's Class C limits.

  17. Optimal selection of annulus radius ratio to enhance heat transfer with minimum entropy generation in developing laminar forced convection of water-Al2O3 nanofluid flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siavashi Majid; Jamali Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Heat transfer and entropy generation of developing laminar forced convection flow of water-Al2O3 nanofluid in a concentric annulus with constant heat flux on the walls is investigated numerically. In order to determine entropy generation of fully developed flow, two approaches are employed and it is shown that only one of these methods can provide appropriate results for flow inside annuli. The effects of concentration of nanoparticles, Reynolds number and thermal boundaries on heat transfer enhancement and entropy generation of developing laminar flow inside annuli with different radius ratios and same cross sectional areas are studied. The results show that radius ratio is a very important decision parameter of an annular heat exchanger such that in each Re, there is an optimum radius ratio to maximize Nu and minimize entropy generation. Moreover, the effect of nanoparticles concentration on heat transfer enhancement and minimizing entropy generation is stronger at higher Reynolds.

  18. Measurements of the Effects of Spacers on the Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in a Vertical Annulus and a Vertical 7-Rod Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M; Hernborg, G

    1964-11-15

    The present report deals with measurements of the effects of spacers on the burnout conditions in a vertical annulus and a vertical 7-rod cluster. The following ranges of variables were studied and 162 burnout measurements were obtained. Pressure p = 31 kg/cm; Inlet sub-cooling 35 < {delta}t{sub sub} < 174 deg C; Surface heat flux 89 < q/A < 305 W/cm{sup 2}; Mass velocity 94 < m'/F < 900 kg/m{sup 2}/s; Burnout steam quality 0.10 < x{sub BO} < 0.56. The experimental results showed that the type of spacers employed during the present investigation had negligible effects on the burnout conditions and that the measured burnout heat fluxes could be predicted within {+-} 5 per cent by means of the correlation by Becker et al for flow in smooth channels.

  19. Measurements of the Effects of Spacers on the Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in a Vertical Annulus and a Vertical 7-Rod Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Hernborg, G.

    1964-11-01

    The present report deals with measurements of the effects of spacers on the burnout conditions in a vertical annulus and a vertical 7-rod cluster. The following ranges of variables were studied and 162 burnout measurements were obtained. Pressure p = 31 kg/cm; Inlet sub-cooling 35 sub 2 ; Mass velocity 94 2 /s; Burnout steam quality 0.10 BO < 0.56. The experimental results showed that the type of spacers employed during the present investigation had negligible effects on the burnout conditions and that the measured burnout heat fluxes could be predicted within ± 5 per cent by means of the correlation by Becker et al for flow in smooth channels

  20. Procedural method for the development of scenarios in the operational phase following closure of final repositories in deep geological formations. Report on the working package 1. Development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases; Vorgehensweise bei der Szenarienentwicklung in der Nachverschlussphase von Endlagern in tiefen geologieschen Formationen. Bericht zum Arbeitspaket 1. Weiterentwicklung des internationalen Stands von Wissenschaft und Technik zu Methoden und Werkzeugen fuer Betriebs- und Langzeitsicherheitsnachweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, Stephan

    2016-09-15

    For the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes the disposal in deep geological formations is internationally favored. The safety cases include the scientific, technical, administrative and operational safety analyses and arguments, including the management system. According to IAEA the safety case includes site qualification, the design of the facility, construction and operation including an accident analysis, the closure phase and the post-closure phase. The safety case includes the evaluation of radiological risks for several scenarios. The report covers the methodology of scenario assumption in the post-closure phase of repositories in deep geological formations.

  1. Tracheocutaneous Fistula Closure with Turnover Flap and Polydioxanone Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R. Bryant, DO, MBA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. An alternative surgical treatment is proposed for closure of tracheocutaneous fistulas. The authors present a new technique for reconstruction of persistent tracheocutaneous fistula resultant from temporary tracheostomy. The single-stage closure under local anesthesia involves a fistulous tract turnover flap with a perforated 0.15 mm polydioxanone plate between the flap and the subcutaneous closure. This article presents 3 cases of persistent tracheocutaneous fistula treated by this method. At follow-up examination after follow-up, no recurrent fistula formation had occurred, and no respiratory deformity was present.

  2. Closure of a mixed waste landfill: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Much experience has been gained during the closure of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and many lessons were learned. This knowledge was applied to other closures at SRS yielding decreased costs, schedule enhancement, and increased overall project efficiency. The next major area of experience to be gained at SRS in the field of waste site closures will be in the upkeep, maintenance, and monitoring of clay caps. Further test programs will be required to address these requirements

  3. Anterior Segment Imaging Predicts Incident Gonioscopic Angle Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Iyer, Jayant V; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; He, Yingke; Sakata, Lisandro M; Wu, Renyi; Liu, Dianna; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the incidence of gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years in subjects with gonioscopically open angles but varying degrees of angle closure detected on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT; Visante; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) at baseline. Prospective, observational study. Three hundred forty-two subjects, mostly Chinese, 50 years of age or older, were recruited, of whom 65 were controls with open angles on gonioscopy and AS OCT at baseline, and 277 were cases with baseline open angles on gonioscopy but closed angles (1-4 quadrants) on AS OCT scans. All subjects underwent gonioscopy and AS OCT at baseline (horizontal and vertical single scans) and after 4 years. The examiner performing gonioscopy was masked to the baseline and AS OCT data. Angle closure in a quadrant was defined as nonvisibility of the posterior trabecular meshwork by gonioscopy and visible iridotrabecular contact beyond the scleral spur in AS OCT scans. Gonioscopic angle closure in 2 or 3 quadrants after 4 years. There were no statistically significant differences in age, ethnicity, or gender between cases and controls. None of the control subjects demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years. Forty-eight of the 277 subjects (17.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8-23; P < 0.0001) with at least 1 quadrant of angle closure on AS OCT at baseline demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure in 2 or more quadrants, whereas 28 subjects (10.1%; 95% CI, 6.7-14.6; P < 0.004) demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure in 3 or more quadrants after 4 years. Individuals with more quadrants of angle closure on baseline AS OCT scans had a greater likelihood of gonioscopic angle closure developing after 4 years (P < 0.0001, chi-square test for trend for both definitions of angle closure). Anterior segment OCT imaging at baseline predicts incident gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years among subjects who have gonioscopically open angles and iridotrabecular contact on AS OCT at

  4. Primary angle closure glaucoma in a myopic kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, J C; Lederer, C M

    1985-03-01

    Three related myopic individuals with primary angle closure glaucoma are reported. They had true myopia and not pseudomyopia secondary to increased lenticular index of refraction. We believe one of these individuals (-8.62 spherical equivalent) to have the most myopic case of primary angle closure glaucoma reported in the literature. Although myopia is associated with anatomical factors that offer considerable protection from primary angle closure glaucoma, its presence does not eliminate the possibility of this disease. Laser iridectomy was effective in the treatment of these patients.

  5. The effectiveness of eye-closure in repeated interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Vredeveldt, A.; Baddeley, A.D.; Hitch, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Closing the eyes during recall can help witnesses remember more about a witnessed event. This study examined the effectiveness of eye-closure in a repeated recall paradigm with immediate free recall followed 1 week later by both free and cued recall. We examined whether eye-closure was more or less effective during the second free-recall attempt compared with the first, whether eye-closure during the first recall attempt had an impact on subsequent free- and cued-recall performance, a...

  6. Clad vent set cup closure-weld-zone grinding evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Woods, A.T.; Ohriner, E.K.

    1996-04-01

    Clad vent set (CVS) cups were ground in the closure-weld zone to reduce the wall-thickness variation created by the cup deep-drawing process. A significantly more uniform wall thickness would be beneficial for the CVS closure-weld operation. The goal was to reduce the average within-cup wall-thickness variation (defined as the range of wall thicknesses in the closure-weld zone) approximately 50% from the Cassini production value of 42 microm. This goal was shown to be achievable but, unfortunately, not with the existing blank and formed cup thicknesses

  7. Cleft Palate Fistula Closure Utilizing Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi, Omri; Ginini, Jiriys George; van Aalst, John A; Shilo, Dekel; Naddaf, Raja; Aizenbud, Dror; Rachmiel, Adi

    2018-03-01

    Fistulas represent failure of cleft palate repair. Secondary and tertiary fistula repair is challenging, with high recurrence rates. In the present retrospective study, we review the efficacy of using acellular dermal matrix as an interposition layer for cleft palate fistula closure in 20 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2016. Complete fistula closure was obtained in 16 patients; 1 patient had asymptomatic recurrent fistula; 2 patients had partial closure with reduction of fistula size and minimal nasal regurgitation; 1 patient developed a recurrent fistula without changes in symptoms (success rate of 85%). We conclude that utilizing acellular dermal matrix for cleft palate fistula repair is safe and simple with a high success rate.

  8. Comparison of Outcomes between Early Fascial Closure and Delayed Abdominal Closure in Patients with Open Abdomen: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to the present, the optimal time to close an open abdomen remains controversial. This study was designed to evaluate whether early fascial abdominal closure had advantages over delayed approach for open abdomen populations. Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched until April 2013. Search terms included “open abdomen,” “abdominal compartment syndrome,” “laparostomy,” “celiotomy,” “abdominal closure,” “primary,” “delayed,” “permanent,” “fascial closure,” and “definitive closure.” Open abdomen was defined as “fail to close abdominal fascia after a laparotomy.” Mortality, complications, and length of stay were compared between early and delayed fascial closure. In total, 3125 patients were included for final analysis, and 1942 (62% patients successfully achieved early fascial closure. Vacuum assisted fascial closure had no impact on pooled fascial closure rate. Compared with delayed abdominal closure, early fascial closure significantly reduced mortality (12.3% versus 24.8%, RR, 0.53, P<0.0001 and complication incidence (RR, 0.68, P<0.0001. The mean interval from open abdomen to definitive closure ranged from 2.2 to 14.6 days in early fascial closure groups, but from 32.5 to 300 days in delayed closure groups. This study confirmed clinical advantages of early fascial closure over delayed approach in treatment of patients with open abdomen.

  9. Experimental investigations of the post-CHF heat transfer of R-134a flow-boiling in an annulus with spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwi Lim; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was performed in the post-CHF condition using R-134a to investigate the effect of spacer grids on post-CHF heat transfer in an annulus channel. The experiments were conducted under the outlet pressures of 1.1 - 2.0 MPa, the mass fluxes of 100 - 400 kg/m 2 s and the inlet temperatures of 25 - 51degC. About 300 data of post-CHF data were obtained in the annular geometry without spacer grids and compared with several post-CHF correlations. The results showed the large prediction uncertainty mainly caused by the cold wall effect, so the empirical correlation for an annulus geometry without spacer grids was developed with the present experimental results. The heat transfer coefficient was calculated based on the heater rod temperature and the saturated vapor property. The average and root-mean-square(RMS) errors of the predictions were 0.17 % and 3.4 %, respectively. The experiments related to the spacer grid effects were performed with an I-type spacer grid and split-swirl mixing vane (with blockage-area ratios of 4.0 and 5.8 %). The spacer grid and mixing vane test results showed the enhancing effect on the heat transfer at the downstream location of the spacers. The experimental results from the spilt-swirl-type grid tests were more effective than the I-type grid tests. This was attributed to enhance the turbulence and increase the heat transfer caused by the mixing vane. (author)

  10. Comparison of Manual and Automated Preprocedural Segmentation Tools to Predict the Annulus Plane Angulation and C-Arm Positioning for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Veulemans

    Full Text Available Preprocedural manual multi-slice-CT-segmentation tools (MSCT-ST define the gold standard for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR. They are able to predict the perpendicular line of the aortic annulus (PPL and to indicate the corresponding C-arm angulation (CAA. Fully automated planning-tools and their clinical relevance have not been systematically evaluated in a real world setting so far.The study population consists of an all-comers cohort of 160 consecutive TAVR patients with a drop out of 35 patients for technical and anatomical reasons. 125 TAVR patients underwent preprocedural analysis by manual (M-MSCT and fully automated MSCT-ST (A-MSCT. Method-comparison was performed for 105 patients (Cohort A. In Cohort A, CAA was defined for each patient, and accordance within 10° between M-MSCT and A-MSCT was considered adequate for concept-proof (95% in LAO/RAO; 94% in CRAN/CAUD. Intraprocedural CAA was defined by repetitive angiograms without utilizing the preprocedural measurements. In Cohort B, intraprocedural CAA was established with the use of A-MSCT (20 patients. Using preprocedural A-MSCT to indicate the corresponding CAA, the levels of contrast medium (ml and radiation exposure (cine runs were reduced in Cohort B compared to Cohort A significantly (23.3±10.3 vs. 35.3 ±21.1 ml, p = 0.02; 1.6±0.7 vs. 2.4±1.4 cine runs; p = 0.02 and trends towards more safety in valve-positioning could be demonstrated.A-MSCT-analysis provides precise preprocedural information on CAA for optimal visualization of the aortic annulus compared to the M-MSCT gold standard. Intraprocedural application of this information during TAVR significantly reduces the levels of contrast and radiation exposure.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01805739.

  11. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poller, A.; Mayer, G.; Darcis M; Smith, P.

    2016-12-01

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  12. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poller, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Mayer, G.; Darcis M [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden-Dättwil, (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  13. Left ventricular remodeling and change of systolic function after closure of patent ductus arteriosus in adults: device and surgical closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Hoon; Yun, Tae-Jin; Song, Jong-Min; Park, Jung-Jun; Seo, Dong-Man; Koh, Jae-Kon; Lee, Se-Whan; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2007-09-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling and predictors of LV systolic function late after closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in adults remain to be clearly demonstrated. In 45 patients with PDA, including 28 patients who received successful occlusion using the Amplatzer device (AD group) (AGA, Golden Valley, MN) and 17 patients who received surgical closure (OP group), echocardiography studies were performed before closure and 1 day (AD group) or within 7 days (OP group) after closure, and then were repeated at > or = 6 months (17 +/- 13 months). In both groups, LV ejection fraction (EF) and end-diastolic volume index were significantly decreased immediately after closure, whereas end-systolic volume index did not change. During the long-term follow-up period, end-systolic as well as end-diastolic volume indices decreased significantly in both groups and LV EF recovered compared to the immediate postclosure state. However, LV EF remained low compared to the preclosure state. Five patients (11.1%) including 3 patients in the AD group and 2 patients in the OP group showed persistent late LV systolic dysfunction (EF or = 62% had a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 83% for predicting late normal LV EF after closure. Left ventricular EF remains low late after PDA closure compared with preclosure state in adults. Preclosure LV EF is the best index to predict late postclosure LV EF.

  14. Evaluation of a novel trocar-site closure and comparison with a standard Carter-Thomason closure device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Junco, Michael; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Juncal, Samuel; Yoon, Renai; Landman, Jaime

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare a novel trocars-site closure device, the WECK EFx™ Endo Fascial Closure System (EFx) with the Carter-Thomason CloseSure System® (CT) for the closure of laparoscopic trocar site defects created by a 12-mm dilating trocar. We created standardized laparoscopic trocars-site abdominal wall defects in cadaver models using a standard 12-mm laparoscopic dilating trocar. Trocar defects were closed in a randomized fashion using one of the two closure systems. We recorded time and number of attempts needed for complete defect closure. In addition, we recorded the ability to maintain pneumoperitoneum, endoscopic visualization, safety, security, and facility based on the surgeon's subjective evaluations. We compared outcomes for the EFx and CT closure systems. We created 72 standardized laparoscopic trocars-site abdominal wall defects. The mean time needed for complete defect closure was 98.53 seconds (±28.9) for the EFx compared with 133.61 seconds (±54.61) for the CT (Psafety were 2.92 for EFx vs 2.19 for CT (Pvs 1.83 for EFx and CT, respectively (Pvs 2.33 for CT (P=0.022). No significant difference was observed between the EFx and the CT systems for endoscopic visualization (2.28 vs 2.50, P=0.080). In this in vitro cadaver trial, the EFx was superior in terms of time needed to complete defect closure, safety, and facility. CT was superior in terms of maintenance of pneumoperitoneum. Both systems were equal in the number of attempts needed to complete the defect closure and endoscopic visualization.

  15. Case Report: Rapid staged abdominal closure using Gore-Tex® mesh as a bridge to primary omphalocele sac closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Kethman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Omphaloceles present an ongoing challenge due to significant variations in presentation and associated co-morbidities. Diverse management strategies have been described to tackle many of the fundamental challenges of closure and reconstruction of the abdominal wall – this fact demonstrates a need for increasingly individualized management options for this complex disease. We describe a novel method of rapid staged abdominal wall closure using Gore-Tex® mesh as a bridge to primary omphalocele closure in an infant with partial Pentalogy of Cantrell and giant ruptured omphalocele. This strategy can be used in management of some of the most complex abdominal wall defects.

  16. A successful environmental remediation program closure and post-closure activities (CAPCA) Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of eleven waste management units at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is nearing completion. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Closure and Post Closure Program (CAPCA) has been accomplished on an accelerated schedule through the efforts of a dedicated team from several organizations. This paper relates experience gained from the program that can be of benefit on other DOE environmental remediation projects. Technical design and construction aspects, as well as project management considerations, are discussed

  17. Turbulence closure for mixing length theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermyn, Adam S.; Lesaffre, Pierre; Tout, Christopher A.; Chitre, Shashikumar M.

    2018-05-01

    We present an approach to turbulence closure based on mixing length theory with three-dimensional fluctuations against a two-dimensional background. This model is intended to be rapidly computable for implementation in stellar evolution software and to capture a wide range of relevant phenomena with just a single free parameter, namely the mixing length. We incorporate magnetic, rotational, baroclinic, and buoyancy effects exactly within the formalism of linear growth theories with non-linear decay. We treat differential rotation effects perturbatively in the corotating frame using a novel controlled approximation, which matches the time evolution of the reference frame to arbitrary order. We then implement this model in an efficient open source code and discuss the resulting turbulent stresses and transport coefficients. We demonstrate that this model exhibits convective, baroclinic, and shear instabilities as well as the magnetorotational instability. It also exhibits non-linear saturation behaviour, and we use this to extract the asymptotic scaling of various transport coefficients in physically interesting limits.

  18. Gravitational closure of matter field equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düll, Maximilian; Schuller, Frederic P.; Stritzelberger, Nadine; Wolz, Florian

    2018-04-01

    The requirement that both the matter and the geometry of a spacetime canonically evolve together, starting and ending on shared Cauchy surfaces and independently of the intermediate foliation, leaves one with little choice for diffeomorphism-invariant gravitational dynamics that can equip the coefficients of a given system of matter field equations with causally compatible canonical dynamics. Concretely, we show how starting from any linear local matter field equations whose principal polynomial satisfies three physicality conditions, one may calculate coefficient functions which then enter an otherwise immutable set of countably many linear homogeneous partial differential equations. Any solution of these so-called gravitational closure equations then provides a Lagrangian density for any type of tensorial geometry that features ultralocally in the initially specified matter Lagrangian density. Thus the given system of matter field equations is indeed closed by the so obtained gravitational equations. In contrast to previous work, we build the theory on a suitable associated bundle encoding the canonical configuration degrees of freedom, which allows one to include necessary constraints on the geometry in practically tractable fashion. By virtue of the presented mechanism, one thus can practically calculate, rather than having to postulate, the gravitational theory that is required by specific matter field dynamics. For the special case of standard model matter one obtains general relativity.

  19. Don’t call it a closure!

    CERN Document Server

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2015-01-01

    During the Laboratory’s annual closure, some members of the personnel joined their families, others seized the chance to travel the world. The Restaurants were closed, the corridors were dark and the heating was turned off in most of the buildings. However, a lot of people spent the Christmas break working on site and the Bulletin would like to dedicate this first article of the new year to them all!   In the CERN Control Centre (CCC), each shift had two people in position to guarantee regular 24/7 service and to intervene in case of need. Gildas Langlois and Rodolphe Maillet, CCC operators from the Beams Department, spent Christmas Eve there and celebrated it with a cake. “I volunteered to work during the holidays in order to allow colleagues to stay with their families,” says Maillet. On New Year’s Eve, it was Julien Pache and Jean-Michel Nonglaton’s turn to spend the night at work. They had a nice dinner with a CCC-made fondue and some desse...

  20. Early closure of postinfarction ventricular septal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Luigi; Dottori, Vincenzo; Caputo, Enrico; Graffigna, Angelo; Pederzolli, Carlo

    2003-05-01

    According to the guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association early closure of postinfarction septal defects is now a class I indication although it still carries a relevant morbidity and mortality. The operative risk is related both to the critical hemodynamic conditions of the patient and to the technical difficulties posed by the friable tissue of the infarcted area. The most recent techniques involving the use of pericardial patches reinforced by acrylic glue have significantly reduced the hospital mortality. The aim of this study was to discuss the reliability of an aggressive, tissue-sparing surgical approach to this complication. We present a consecutive series of 12 patients operated upon between January 1998 and October 2001 within 12 hours of the onset of clinical evidence of postinfarction septal rupture. Repair was achieved with minimal septal debridement and the use of a large pericardial patch reinforced by a biological glue. Three cases of dehiscence required early reoperation with no hospital mortality. This procedure is technically feasible and allows early aggressive treatment of postinfarction septal rupture with satisfactory results.