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Sample records for annular superposition integral

  1. Integral superposition of paraxial Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures in Cartesian coordinates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2015), s. 109-155. ISSN 2336-3827 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : integral superposition of paraxial Gaussian beams * inhomogeneous anisotropic media * S waves in weakly anisotropic media Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  2. Superposition Formulas for Darboux Integrable Exterior Differential Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, I. M.; Fels, M. E.; Vassiliou, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a far-reaching generalization of E. Vessiot's analysis of the Darboux integrable partial differential equations in one dependent and two independent variables. Our approach provides new insights into this classical method, uncovers the fundamental geometric invariants of Darboux integrable systems, and provides for systematic, algorithmic integration of such systems. This work is formulated within the general framework of Pfaffian exterior differential systems and, as...

  3. Liquid Encapsulation in Parylene Microstructures Using Integrated Annular-Plate Stiction Valves

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Christian A.; Ellis Meng

    2011-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of micromachined Parylene structures for self-sealing liquid encapsulation applications. Automatic sealing is enabled through the use of an integrated annular-plate stiction valve which greatly reduces device footprint over in-plane configurations. We achieve automatic wafer-level liquid entrapment without using adhesives or processing at elevated pressures or temperatures. The ability to track changes to the internal liquid volume throug...

  4. Quantifying Superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Aberg, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Measures are introduced to quantify the degree of superposition in mixed states with respect to orthogonal decompositions of the Hilbert space of a quantum system. These superposition measures can be regarded as analogues to entanglement measures, but can also be put in a more direct relation to the latter. By a second quantization of the system it is possible to induce superposition measures from entanglement measures. We consider the measures induced from relative entropy of entanglement an...

  5. Free vibration analysis of smart annular FGM plates integrated with piezoelectric layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a nonlinear free vibration analysis of a thin annular functionally graded (FG) plate integrated with two uniformly distributed actuator layers made of piezoelectric (PZT4) material on the top and bottom surfaces of the annular FG plate is presented based on Kirchhoff plate theory. The material properties of the functionally graded core plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to the power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents and the distribution of the electric potential field along the thickness direction of piezoelectric layers is simulated by a sinusoidal function such that the Maxwell static electricity equation is satisfied. The differential equations of motion are solved analytically for various boundary conditions of the plate. The analytical solutions are derived and validated by comparing the obtained resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric coupled FG annular plate with those of an isotropic core plate. In a numerical study the emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of varying the gradient index of the FG plate on the free vibration characteristics of the structure. Also the good agreement between the results of this paper and those of the finite element (FE) analyses validated the presented approach

  6. Liquid Encapsulation in Parylene Microstructures Using Integrated Annular-Plate Stiction Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Gutierrez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the design, fabrication and characterization of micromachined Parylene structures for self-sealing liquid encapsulation applications. Automatic sealing is enabled through the use of an integrated annular-plate stiction valve which greatly reduces device footprint over in-plane configurations. We achieve automatic wafer-level liquid entrapment without using adhesives or processing at elevated pressures or temperatures. The ability to track changes to the internal liquid volume through the use of electrochemical impedance measurements is also presented.

  7. Estimation of C*-Integral for Radial Cracks in Annular Discs under Constant Angular Velocity and Internal Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Gowhari-Anaraki; Djavanroodi, F.; S. Shadlou

    2008-01-01

    The finite element method has been used to predict the creep rupture parameter, C*-Integral for single and double-edge cracks in eight annular rotating discs under constant angular velocity with and without internal pressure. In this study, a new dimensionless creeping crack configuration factor, Q* has been introduced. Power law creeping finite element analyses have been performed and the results are presented in the form of Q* for a wide range of components and crack geometry parameters. Th...

  8. Annular pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001142.htm Annular pancreas To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An annular pancreas is a ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles ...

  9. Experimental Investigation on Heat Exchange and Separation Performance of an Annular Structured Internal Heat-integrated Distillation Column☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianghua Xu; Dawei Chen; Binghai Yan; Xigang Yuan⁎

    2014-01-01

    In this paper heat exchange coefficient and separation efficiency of an annular structured internal heat-integrated distil ation column (HIDiC) were experimental y measured. About 50%heat of the inner column could be transferred to the outer column. The overall heat exchange coefficient decreased with an increase in pressure ratio of the inner column and the outer column, but was little affected by the F-factor. The increase of the pressure ratio decreased obviously the separation efficiency of the outer column but had little effect on that of the inner column.

  10. Internal combustion engine with a central crankshaft and integral tandem annular pistons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparbes, Bernard

    1993-08-01

    An internal combustion engine with tandem annular pistons and a central crankshaft is disclosed, based on that found in British patent 11027 of 11 May 1914. The piston block formed by the two pistons presents, at each axial extremity, a double axial skirt fitted with an outer crown forming the head of the piston as such, and an inner crown forming an inlet pump with a holding chamber radially located at the inside of the corresponding annular cylinder, in which the piston head delimits a combustion chamber. Radial fingers, crossing axial openings of the crankcase and radial holes of the piston block, have their inner radial ends engaged within wavy sinusoidal peripheral slots arranged in a bulging central portion of the central crankshaft set into rotation by alternating axial movements of the piston block. The admission of fuel or combustion sustaining gas is ensured axially by the extremities, valves, and openings in the end plates closing the holding chambers in which the inner crowns slide, fitted with valves to act as an inlet pump. The invention is particularly applicable to aircraft engines in view of the ease in which the shaft rotation can be adapted to such a use.

  11. Diffractive analysis of annular resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, M; Bélanger, P A

    1992-04-20

    The modal properties of annular resonators are investigated by using an approximate version of the Kirchhoff-Fresnel integral. It is shown that the radial diffraction of a thin annular beam with a large inside radius is similar to that of a cylindrical field distribution. This permits the formal demonstration of the equivalence that exists between large Fresnel number annular resonators and infinite strip resonators. The model explains the properties of annular resonators that have been observed either experimentally or numerically by others, such as the lack of azimuthal discrimination. PMID:20720842

  12. Estimation of C*-Integral for Radial Cracks in Annular Discs under Constant Angular Velocity and Internal Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Gowhari-Anaraki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite element method has been used to predict the creep rupture parameter, C*-Integral for single and double-edge cracks in eight annular rotating discs under constant angular velocity with and without internal pressure. In this study, a new dimensionless creeping crack configuration factor, Q* has been introduced. Power law creeping finite element analyses have been performed and the results are presented in the form of Q* for a wide range of components and crack geometry parameters. These parameters are chosen to be representative of typical practical situations and have been determined from evidence presented in the open literature. The extensive range of Q* obtained from the analyses are then used to obtain equivalent prediction equations using a statistical multiple non-linear regression model. The predictive equations for Q*, can also be used easily to calculate the C*-Integral values for extensive range of geometric parameters. The C*-Integral values obtained from predictive equations were also compared with those obtained from reference stress method (RSM. Finally, creep zone growth behavior was studied in the component during transient time.

  13. Granuloma annulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Diptesh; Hess, Brian; Bachegowda, Lohith

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of a 77-year-old, diabetic male with a 20-year history of a migratory erythematous, asymptomatic, generalized, nonscaly, and nonitchy rash that started over the dorsum of his left hand. On examination, there were multiple annular erythematous plaques, distributed symmetrically and diffusely over his torso and arms, with central clearing and no scales. A punch biopsy of the skin helped us to arrive at the diagnosis of a generalized granuloma annulare (GA). GA is a benign, self-limiting skin condition of unknown etiology that is often asymptomatic. The cause of this condition is unknown, but it has been associated with diabetes mellitus, infections such as HIV, and malignancies such as lymphoma. These lesions typically start as a ring of flesh-colored papules that slowly progress with central clearing. Lack of symptoms, scaling, or associated vesicles helps to differentiate GA from other skin conditions such as tinea corporis, pityriasis rosea, psoriasis, or erythema annulare centrifugum. Treatment is often not needed as the majority of these lesions are self-resolving within 2 years. Treatment may be pursued for cosmetic reasons. Available options include high-dose steroid creams, PUVA, cryotherapy, or drugs such as niacinamide, infliximab, Dapsone, and topical calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:20209383

  14. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-10

    Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  15. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-07

    Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  16. Supercement for Annular Seal and Long-Term Integrity in Deep, Hot Wells "Deep Trek"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin D. Edgley; Fred L. Sabins; Larry T. Watters

    2005-08-31

    The purpose of this project is to formulate a ''Supercement'' designed for improving the long-term sealing integrity in HPHT wells. Phase I concentrated on chemistry studies and screening tests to design and evaluate Portland-based, hybrid Portland, and non-Portland-based cement systems suitable for further scale-up testing. Phase II work concentrated on additional lab and field testing to reduce the candidate materials list to two systems, as well as scale up activities aimed at verifying performance at the field scale. Phase II was extended thorough a proposal to develop additional testing capabilities aimed at quantifying cementing material properties and performance that were previously not possible. Two materials are being taken into Phase III for field testing and commercialization: {lg_bullet} Highly-expansive cement (Portland-based), patent pending as ''Pre-Stressed Cement'' {lg_bullet} Epoxy Resin (non-Portland-based), patent pending In Phase II, significant effort was expended on scaling up the processes for handling resin in the field, as it is quite different than conventional Portland-based cements in mixing, personnel protection, and cleanup. Through this effort, over fifty (50) field jobs were done at a variety of temperatures and depths, most with excellent results. Large-scale field testing was less relevant with Pre-stressed Cement, because the materials and surface processes do not vary from those that have been developed for conventional Portland materials over the last eighty (80) years. The formulation is quite unique, however, and performs very differently than conventional Portland cements downhole.

  17. Living in a Superposition

    CERN Document Server

    Hartle, James B

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers a model quantum universe consisting of a very large box containing a screen with two slits and an observer (us) that can pass though the slits. We apply the modern quantum mechanics of closed systems to calculate the probabilities for alternative histories of how we move through the universe and what we see. After passing through the screen with the slits, the quantum state of the universe is a superposition of classically distinguishable histories. We are then living in a superposition. Some frequently asked questions about such situations are answered using this model. The model's relationship to more realistic quantum cosmologies is briefly discussed.

  18. Measuring a coherent superposition

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, N V; Unanyan, R G; Bergmann, K

    1999-01-01

    We propose a simple method for measuring the populations and the relative phase in a coherent superposition of two atomic states. The method is based on coupling the two states to a third common (excited) state by means of two laser pulses, and measuring the total fluorescence from the third state for several choices of the excitation pulses.

  19. Integral experiment on effects of large opening in fusion reactor blanket on tritium breeding using annular geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment involving a simulated blanket with an opening has been performed using the line source and annular blanket system developed under the JAERI/USDOE collaborative programme in order to examine the effects of the opening on neutronics parameters such as the tritium-breeding ratio. The annular test assembly was rectangular in shape and consisted of a lithium oxide blanket covered with graphite and SS304 which simulated the graphite armour plate and first wall in a fusion device. A large opening (376mm x 425.5mm) was made in the middle of the test blanket. This opening simulated a neutral beam injector.Tritium production rates and reaction rates were measured inside the blanket. Neutron spectra and reaction rates were also measured on the surfaces of both sides and without the opening of the inner cavity. The opening decreased the number of low energy neutrons contained in the cavity and especially decreased 6Li tritium production by 10% inside the blanket at the opposite side of the opening. The Monte Carlo code GMVP using the JENDL-3 nuclear data library predicted the measured nuclear parameters in the test blankets, such as the tritium production rate, to within 10% accuracy. (orig.)

  20. Superposition as a logical glue

    CERN Document Server

    Asperti, Andrea; 10.4204/EPTCS.53.1

    2011-01-01

    The typical mathematical language systematically exploits notational and logical abuses whose resolution requires not just the knowledge of domain specific notation and conventions, but not trivial skills in the given mathematical discipline. A large part of this background knowledge is expressed in form of equalities and isomorphisms, allowing mathematicians to freely move between different incarnations of the same entity without even mentioning the transformation. Providing ITP-systems with similar capabilities seems to be a major way to improve their intelligence, and to ease the communication between the user and the machine. The present paper discusses our experience of integration of a superposition calculus within the Matita interactive prover, providing in particular a very flexible, "smart" application tactic, and a simple, innovative approach to automation.

  1. Annular Flow Distribution test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) Annular Flow Distribution testing for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The objective of the Annular Flow Distribution Test Program is to characterize the flow distribution between annular coolant channels for the Mark-22 fuel assembly with the bottom fitting insert (BFI) in place. Flow rate measurements for each annular channel were obtained by establishing ''hydraulic similarity'' between an instrumented fuel assembly with the BFI removed and a ''reference'' fuel assembly with the BFI installed. Empirical correlations of annular flow rates were generated for a range of boundary conditions

  2. Teleporting Superpositions of Chiral Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Maierle, C S; Harris, R A; Maierle, Christopher S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Harris, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Chiral molecules may exist in superpositions of left- and right-handed states. We show how the amplitudes of such superpositions may be teleported to the polarization degrees of freedom of a photon. Two experimental schemes are proposed, one leading to perfect, the other to state-dependent teleportation. Both methods yield complete information about the amplitudes. This is the first explicit example of "inter-species" teleportation, where the amplitudes of the quantum superposition of one species are transferred at the end of the process to a different species. The latter is then easily accessible for measurement.

  3. Annular pancreas (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  4. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus;

    2011-01-01

    information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security of...... string model. While our protocol is classical, it is sound against a cheating unbounded quantum prover and computational zero-knowledge even if the verifier is allowed a superposition attack. Finally, we consider multiparty computation and show that for the most general type of attack, simulation based...... several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  5. Superposition, Entanglement and Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Forcer, T.M.; Hey, A. J. G.; Ross, D. A.; P.G.R.Smith

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines the roles played by superposition and entanglement in quantum computing. The analysis is illustrated by discussion of a 'classical' electronic implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm. It is shown explicitly that the absence of multi-particle entanglement leads to exponentially rising resources for implementing such quantum algorithms.

  6. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis on Turbulent Annular Seals of Centrifugal Pumps during Transient Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dazhuan Wu; Leqin Wang; Qinglei Jiang; Lulu Zhai

    2011-01-01

    The current paper studies the influence of annular seal flow on the transient response of centrifugal pump rotors during the start-up period. A single rotor system and three states of annular seal flow were modeled. These models were solved using numerical integration and finite difference methods. A fluid-structure interaction method was developed. In each time step one of the three annular seal models was chosen to simulate the annular seal flow according to the state of rotor systems. The ...

  7. Generalized granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-years-old female patient had generalized pruritic papular lesions, distributed like dermatitis herpetiformis for last 4 years. Histopathologic changes were typical of granuloma annulare with negative results of direct immunofluorescence. The patient did not have association of diabetes mellitus or any other systemic disease. She failed to respond to dapsone therapy and 13-cis-retinoic acid.

  8. Oscillating annular liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of annular liquid membranes (e.g. used as protection systems in laser fusion reactors) to sinusoidal mass flow rate fluctuations at the nozzle exit is analyzed as a function of the amplitude and frequency of the axial velocity fluctuations at the nozzle exit and thermodynamic compression of the gas enclosed by the membrane. The pressure of the gases enclosed by the annular membrane and the axial distance at which the annular membrane merges on the symmetry axis are periodic functions of time which have the same period as that of the mass flow rate fluctuations at the nozzle exit. They are also nearly sinusoidal functions of time for small amplitudes of the mass flow rate fluctuations at the nozzle exit, and exhibit delay and lag times with respect to the sinusoidal axial velocity fluctuations at the nozzle exit. The delay and the lag times are functions of the amplitude and frequency of the mass flow rate fluctuations at the nozzle exit and the polytropic exponent. The amplitudes of both the pressure of the gases enclosed by the annular liquid membrane and the convergence length increase and decrease, resp., as the amplitude and frequency of the mass flow rate fluctuations at the nozzle exit, resp., are increased. They also increase as the polytropic exponent is increased. (orig.)

  9. Annular Planar Monopole Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Z. N.; Ammann, Max; Chia, W.Y. W.; See, T.S. P.

    2002-01-01

    A type of annular planar monopole antenna is presented. The impedance and radiation characteristics of the monopole with different holes and feed gaps are experimentally examined. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna is capable of providing significantly broad impedance bandwidth with acceptable radiation performance.

  10. On some properties of the superposition operator on topological manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Dronka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the superposition operator in the space of vector-valued, bounded and continuous functions on a topological manifold is considered. The acting conditions and criteria of continuity and compactness are established. As an application, an existence result for the nonlinear Hammerstein integral equation is obtained.

  11. The Paraconsistent Logic of Quantum Superpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, N.; de Ronde, C.

    2013-07-01

    Physical superpositions exist both in classical and in quantum physics. However, what is exactly meant by `superposition' in each case is extremely different. In this paper we discuss some of the multiple interpretations which exist in the literature regarding superpositions in quantum mechanics. We argue that all these interpretations have something in common: they all attempt to avoid `contradiction'. We argue in this paper, in favor of the importance of developing a new interpretation of superpositions which takes into account contradiction, as a key element of the formal structure of the theory, "right from the start". In order to show the feasibility of our interpretational project we present an outline of a paraconsistent approach to quantum superpositions which attempts to account for the contradictory properties present in general within quantum superpositions. This approach must not be understood as a closed formal and conceptual scheme but rather as a first step towards a different type of understanding regarding quantum superpositions.

  12. Wave Superposition Based Sound Field Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia-qing; CHEN Jin; YANG Chao

    2008-01-01

    In order to overcome the obstacle of singular integral in boundary element method (BEM), wepresented an efficient sound field reconstruction technique based on the wave superposition method (WSM). Itsprinciple includes three steps: first, the sound pressure field of an arbitrary shaped radiator is measured witha microphone array; then, the exterior sound field of the radiator is computed backward and forward using theWSM; at last, the final results are visualized in terms of sound pressure contours or animations. With thesevisualized contours or animations, noise sources can be easily located and quantified; also noise transmissionpath can be found out. By numerical simulation and experimental results, we proved that the technique aresuitable and accurate for sound field reconstruction. In addition, we presented a sound field reconstruction sys-tem prototype on the basis of this technique. It makes a foundation for the application of wave superpositionin the sound field reconstruction in industry situations.

  13. Using bias superposition to test a thick film conductance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel on-line monitoring technique for a range of MEMS and integrated sensor systems is presented based on the injection of a test stimuli into the bias structure of transducer functions. The technique 'Bias Superposition' utilises both signal injection and signal extraction techniques to achieve an indication of structural integrity of the transducer and interface. The technique has been successfully applied to a thick film conductance sensor

  14. Linear superposition solutions to nonlinear wave equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu

    2012-01-01

    The solutions to a linear wave equation can satisfy the principle of superposition,i.e.,the linear superposition of two or more known solutions is still a solution of the linear wave equation.We show in this article that many nonlinear wave equations possess exact traveling wave solutions involving hyperbolic,triangle,and exponential functions,and the suitable linear combinations of these known solutions can also constitute linear superposition solutions to some nonlinear wave equations with special structural characteristics.The linear superposition solutions to the generalized KdV equation K(2,2,1),the Oliver water wave equation,and the k(n,n) equation are given.The structure characteristic of the nonlinear wave equations having linear superposition solutions is analyzed,and the reason why the solutions with the forms of hyperbolic,triangle,and exponential functions can form the linear superposition solutions is also discussed.

  15. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-18

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states. PMID:27035290

  16. The Paraconsistent Logic of Quantum Superpositions

    OpenAIRE

    Da Costa, Newton; de Ronde, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Physical superpositions exist both in classical and in quantum physics. However, what is exactly meant by 'superposition' in each case is extremely different. In this paper we discuss some of the multiple interpretations which exist in the literature regarding superpositions in quantum mechanics. We argue that all these interpretations have something in common: they all attempt to avoid 'contradiction'. We argue in this paper, in favor of the importance of developing a new interpretation of s...

  17. Macroscopic superpositions as quantum ground states

    OpenAIRE

    Dakić, Borivoje; Radonjić, Milan

    2016-01-01

    We study the question of whether a macroscopic superposition can naturally exist as a ground state of some gapped many-body Hamiltonian. We derive an upper bound on the energy gap of an arbitrary physical Hamiltonian provided that its ground state is a superposition of two macroscopic "semi-classical" states. For a large class of such macroscopic superposition states we show that the gap vanishes in the macroscopic limit. Our main result shows an interesting quantitative relation between the ...

  18. Communication: Two measures of isochronal superposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Lisa Anita; Gundermann, Ditte; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Niss, Kristine

    2013-09-01

    A liquid obeys isochronal superposition if its dynamics is invariant along the isochrones in the thermodynamic phase diagram (the curves of constant relaxation time). This paper introduces two quantitative measures of isochronal superposition. The measures are used to test the following six liquids for isochronal superposition: 1,2,6 hexanetriol, glycerol, polyphenyl ether, diethyl phthalate, tetramethyl tetraphenyl trisiloxane, and dibutyl phthalate. The latter four van der Waals liquids obey isochronal superposition to a higher degree than the two hydrogen-bonded liquids. This is a prediction of the isomorph theory, and it confirms findings by other groups.

  19. Engineering mesoscopic superpositions of superfluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Hallwood, David W

    2011-01-01

    Modeling strongly correlated atoms demonstrates the possibility to prepare quantum superpositions that are robust against experimental imperfections and temperature. Such superpositions of vortex states are formed by adiabatic manipulation of interacting ultracold atoms confined to a one-dimensional ring trapping potential when stirred by a barrier. Here, we discuss the influence of non-ideal experimental procedures and finite temperature. Adiabaticity conditions for changing the stirring rate reveal that superpositions of many atoms are most easily accessed in the strongly-interacting, Tonks-Girardeau, regime, which is also the most robust at finite temperature. NOON-type superpositions of weakly interacting atoms are most easily created by adiabatically decreasing the interaction strength by means of a Feshbach resonance. The quantum dynamics of small numbers of particles is simulated and the size of the superpositions is calculated based on their ability to make precision measurements. Experimental creatio...

  20. Verifying quantum superpositions at metre scales

    CERN Document Server

    Stamper-Kurn, Dan M; Müller, Holger

    2016-01-01

    While the existence of quantum superpositions of massive particles over microscopic separations has been established since the birth of quantum mechanics, the maintenance of superposition states over macroscopic separations is a subject of modern experimental tests. In Ref. [1], T. Kovachy et al. report on applying optical pulses to place a freely falling Bose-Einstein condensate into a superposition of two trajectories that separate by an impressive distance of 54 cm before being redirected toward one another. When the trajectories overlap, a final optical pulse produces interference with high contrast, but with random phase, between the two wave packets. Contrary to claims made in Ref. [1], we argue that the observed interference is consistent with, but does not prove, that the spatially separated atomic ensembles were in a quantum superposition state. Therefore, the persistence of such superposition states remains experimentally unestablished.

  1. Axisymmetric annular curtain stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A temporal stability analysis was carried out to investigate the stability of an axially moving viscous annular liquid jet subject to axisymmetric disturbances in surrounding co-flowing viscous gas media. We investigated in this study the effects of inertia, surface tension, the gas-to-liquid density ratio, the inner-to-outer radius ratio and the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet. With an increase in inertia, the growth rate of the unstable disturbances is found to increase. The dominant (or most unstable) wavenumber decreases with increasing Reynolds number for larger values of the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio. However, an opposite tendency for the most unstable wavenumber is predicted for small viscosity ratio in the same inertia range. The surrounding gas density, in the presence of viscosity, always reduces the growth rate, hence stabilizing the flow. There exists a critical value of the density ratio above which the flow becomes stable for very small viscosity ratio, whereas for large viscosity ratio, no stable flow appears in the same range of the density ratio. The curvature has a significant destabilizing effect on the thin annular jet, whereas for a relatively thick jet, the maximum growth rate decreases as the inner radius increases, irrespective of the surrounding gas viscosity. The degree of instability increases with Weber number for a relatively large viscosity ratio. In contrast, for small viscosity ratio, the growth rate exhibits a dramatic dependence on the surface tension. There is a small Weber number range, which depends on the viscosity ratio, where the flow is stable. The viscosity ratio always stabilizes the flow. However, the dominant wavenumber increases with increasing viscosity ratio. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by the curvature effect. (paper)

  2. Robust Mesoscopic Superposition of Ultracold Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Hallwood, David W; Brand, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states, as in Schroedinger's example of a dead and alive cat, are important for our understanding of quantum mechanics and carry great promise for enhanced precision measurement techniques. Due to their inherent fragility, the maximally entangled "NOON" states engineered in optics and spin systems for ultra-precise spectroscopy have been limited to 10 particles. The related mesoscopic superpositions of flux states consisting of 10^9 Cooper pairs observed in superconducting rings have proven more robust but their microscopic nature is debated. Binary superpositions with multiple ultra-cold atoms have not yet been seen and existing proposals suffer severe limitations due to decoherence and the unfavorable scaling of precision and time scales needed to produce these states. In this paper we show how robust superpositions of mesoscopic flow in a ring trap can be made with strongly-correlated ultra-cold atoms under one-dimensional confinement. We present a microsc...

  3. A Superposition Calculus for Abductive Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Echenim, Mnacho; Peltier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We present a modification of the superposition calculus that is meant to generate consequences of sets of first-order axioms. This approach is proven to be sound and deductive-complete in the presence of redundancy elimination rules, provided the considered consequences are built on a given finite set of ground terms, represented by constant symbols. In contrast to other approaches, most existing results about the termination of the superposition calculus can be carried over to our procedure....

  4. Equal Superposition Transformations and Quantum Random Walks

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Preeti

    2007-01-01

    The largest ensemble of qubits which satisfy the general transformation of equal superposition is obtained by different methods, namely, linearity, no-superluminal signalling and non-increase of entanglement under LOCC. We also consider the associated quantum random walk and show that all unitary balanced coins give the same asymmetric spatial probability distribution. It is further illustrated that unbalanced coins, upon appropriate superposition, lead to new unbiased walks which have no cla...

  5. Experimental superposition of orders of quantum gates

    OpenAIRE

    Procopio, Lorenzo M.; Moqanaki, Amir; Araújo, Mateus; Costa, Fabio; Alonso Calafell, Irati; Dowd, Emma G.; Hamel, Deny R.; Rozema, Lee A.; Brukner, Časlav; Walther, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In a quantum computer, creating superpositions of quantum bits (qubits) in different states can lead to a speed-up over classical computers [1], but quantum mechanics also allows for the superposition of quantum circuits [2]. In fact, it has recently been theoretically predicted that superimposing quantum circuits, each with a different gate order, could provide quantum computers with an even further computational advantage [3-5]. Here, we experimentally demonstrate this enhancement by applyi...

  6. Spontaneous Breaking of the Quantum Superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Pankovic, Vladan; Predojevic, Milan

    2007-01-01

    In this work spontaneous (non-dynamical) breaking (effective hiding) of the unitary quantum mechanical dynamical symmetry (superposition) is considered. It represents an especial but very interesting case of the general formalism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (effective hiding). Conceptual analogies with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry in Weinberg-Sallam's electro-weak interaction are pointed out. Also, consequences of the spontaneous superposition breaking in the measuremen...

  7. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has...

  8. Manufacture of annular cermet articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2004-11-02

    A method to produce annular-shaped, metal-clad cermet components directly produces the form and avoids multiple fabrication steps such as rolling and welding. The method includes the steps of: providing an annular hollow form with inner and outer side walls; filling the form with a particulate mixture of ceramic and metal; closing, evacuating, and hermetically sealing the form; heating the form to an appropriate temperature; and applying force to consolidate the particulate mixture into solid cermet.

  9. Quantum resource studied from the perspective of quantum state superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chengjun; Li, Junhui; Luo, Bin; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Quantum resources,such as discord and entanglement, are crucial in quantum information processing. In this paper, quantum resources are studied from the aspect of quantum state superposition. We define the local superposition (LS) as the superposition between basis of single part, and nonlocal superposition (NLS) as the superposition between product basis of multiple parts. For quantum resource with nonzero LS, quantum operation must be introduced to prepare it, and for quantum resource with ...

  10. Adiabatic Steam-Water Annular Flow in an Annular Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P. S.; Würtz, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental results for fully developed steam-water annular flow in annular geometries are presented. Rod and tube film flow rates and axial pressure gradients were measured for mass fluxes between 500 and 2000 kg/m2s, steam qualities between 20 and 60 per cent and pressures ranging from 3 to 9...... MPa. It was found that the measured tube film flow rate per unit tube perimeter is always many times greater than the corresponding rod film flow rate. Possible explanations for this asymmetry are discussed....

  11. Scan Quantum Mechanics: Quantum Inertia Stops Superposition

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    A novel interpretation of the quantum mechanical superposition is put forward. Quantum systems scan all possible available states and switch randomly and very rapidly among them. The longer they remain in a given state, the larger the probability of the system to be found in that state during a measurement. A crucial property that we postulate is quantum inertia, that increases whenever a constituent is added, or the system is perturbed with all kinds of interactions. Once the quantum inertia $I_q$ reaches a critical value $I_{cr}$ for an observable, the switching among the different eigenvalues of that observable stops and the corresponding superposition comes to an end. Consequently, increasing the mass, temperature, gravitational force, etc. of a quantum system increases its quantum inertia until the superposition of states disappears for all the observables and the system transmutes into a classical one. The process could be reversible decreasing the size, temperature, gravitational force, etc. leading to...

  12. Experimental superposition of orders of quantum gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Lorenzo M; Moqanaki, Amir; Araújo, Mateus; Costa, Fabio; Alonso Calafell, Irati; Dowd, Emma G; Hamel, Deny R; Rozema, Lee A; Brukner, Časlav; Walther, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Quantum computers achieve a speed-up by placing quantum bits (qubits) in superpositions of different states. However, it has recently been appreciated that quantum mechanics also allows one to 'superimpose different operations'. Furthermore, it has been shown that using a qubit to coherently control the gate order allows one to accomplish a task--determining if two gates commute or anti-commute--with fewer gate uses than any known quantum algorithm. Here we experimentally demonstrate this advantage, in a photonic context, using a second qubit to control the order in which two gates are applied to a first qubit. We create the required superposition of gate orders by using additional degrees of freedom of the photons encoding our qubits. The new resource we exploit can be interpreted as a superposition of causal orders, and could allow quantum algorithms to be implemented with an efficiency unlikely to be achieved on a fixed-gate-order quantum computer. PMID:26250107

  13. Detonation Propagation Characteristics of Superposition Explosive Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate detonation propagation characteristics of different charge patterns,the detonation velocities of superposition strip-shaped charges made up of a detonating cord and explosives were measured by a detonation velocity measuring instrument under conditions of different ignition.The experimental results and theoretical analysis show that the maximum detonation propagation velocity depends on the explosive materials with the maximum velocity among all the explosive materials.Using detonating cord in a superposition charge can shorten detonation propagation time and improve the efficiency of explosive energy.The measurement method of detonation propagation velocity and experimental results are presented and investigated.

  14. Large energy superpositions via Rydberg dressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazali, Mohammadsadegh; Lau, Hon Wai; Humeniuk, Adam; Simon, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    We propose to create superposition states of over 100 strontium atoms in a ground state or metastable optical clock state using the Kerr-type interaction due to Rydberg state dressing in an optical lattice. The two components of the superposition can differ by an order of 300 eV in energy, allowing tests of energy decoherence models with greatly improved sensitivity. We take into account the effects of higher-order nonlinearities, spatial inhomogeneity of the interaction, decay from the Rydberg state, collective many-body decoherence, atomic motion, molecular formation, and diminishing Rydberg level separation for increasing principal number.

  15. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition in Cavity Optomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    2016-04-22

    Quantum superposition in mechanical systems is not only key evidence for macroscopic quantum coherence, but can also be utilized in modern quantum technology. Here we propose an efficient approach for creating macroscopically distinct mechanical superposition states in a two-mode optomechanical system. Photon hopping between the two cavity modes is modulated sinusoidally. The modulated photon tunneling enables an ultrastrong radiation-pressure force acting on the mechanical resonator, and hence significantly increases the mechanical displacement induced by a single photon. We study systematically the generation of the Yurke-Stoler-like states in the presence of system dissipations. We also discuss the experimental implementation of this scheme. PMID:27152802

  16. Phase flow rate measurements of annular flows

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Yarubi, Qahtan

    2010-01-01

    In the international oil and gas industry multiphase annular flow in pipelines and wells is extremely important, but not well understood. This thesis reports the development of an efficient and cheap method for measuring the phase flow rates in two phase annular and annular mist flow, in which the liquid phase is electrically conducting, using ultrasonic and conductance techniques. The method measures changes in the conductance of the liquid film formed during annular flow and uses these to c...

  17. Towards Quantum Superposition of Living Organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Romero-Isart, Oriol; Quidant, Romain; Cirac, J Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The most striking feature of quantum mechanics is the existence of superposition states, where an object appears to be in different situations at the same time. Up to now, the existence of such states has been tested with small objects, like atoms, ions, electrons and photons, and even with molecules. Recently, it has been even possible to create superpositions of collections of photons, atoms, or Cooper pairs. Current progress in optomechanical systems may soon allow us to create superpositions of even larger objects, like micro-sized mirrors or cantilevers, and thus to test quantum mechanical phenomena at larger scales. Here we propose a method to cool down and create quantum superpositions of the motion of sub-wavelength, arbitrarily shaped dielectric objects trapped inside a high--finesse cavity at a very low pressure. Our method is ideally suited for the smallest living organisms, such as viruses, which survive under low vacuum pressures, and optically behave as dielectric objects. This opens up the poss...

  18. The principle of superposition in human prehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.; Gao, Fan; Shim, Jae Kun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The experimental evidence supports the validity of the principle of superposition for multi-finger prehension in humans. Forces and moments of individual digits are defined by two independent commands: “Grasp the object stronger/weaker to prevent slipping” and “Maintain the rotational equilibrium of the object”. The effects of the two commands are summed up. PMID:20186284

  19. A possible explanation of the superposition principle

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Kent A.

    2002-01-01

    I tentatively suggest that the superposition principle of quantum mechanics is explicable in a mathematically natural way if it is possible to understand probability amplitudes as complex-valued logarithms. This notion is inspired by the fact that the quantum state may be interpreted as a measure of information.

  20. Macroscopicity of Mechanical Quantum Superposition States

    OpenAIRE

    Nimmrichter, Stefan; Hornberger, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We propose an experimentally accessible, objective measure for the macroscopicity of superposition states in mechanical quantum systems. Based on the observable consequences of a minimal, macrorealist extension of quantum mechanics, it allows one to quantify the degree of macroscopicity achieved in different experiments.

  1. Hiding Quantum States in a Superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Younes, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    A method to hide certain quantum states in a superposition will be proposed. Such method can be used to increase the security of a communication channel. States represent an encrypted message will disappear during data exchange. This makes the message 100% safe under direct measurement by an eavesdropper. No entanglement sharing is required among the communicating parties.

  2. Quantum computation with mesoscopic superposition states

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, M. C.; Munro, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    We present a strategy to engineer a simple cavity-QED two-bit universal quantum gate using mesoscopic distinct quantum superposition states. The dissipative effect on decoherence and amplitude damping of the quantum bits are analyzed and the critical parameters are presented.

  3. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.)

  4. Alternation in Quantum Programming: From Superposition of Data to Superposition of Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    We extract a novel quantum programming paradigm - superposition of programs - from the design idea of a popular class of quantum algorithms, namely quantum walk-based algorithms. The generality of this paradigm is guaranteed by the universality of quantum walks as a computational model. A new quantum programming language QGCL is then proposed to support the paradigm of superposition of programs. This language can be seen as a quantum extension of Dijkstra's GCL (Guarded Command Language). Sur...

  5. Annular-Efficient Triangulations of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Jaco, William

    2011-01-01

    A triangulation of a compact 3-manifold is annular-efficient if it is 0-efficient and the only normal, incompressible annuli are thin edge-linking. If a compact 3-manifold has an annular-efficient triangulation, then it is irreducible, boundary-irreducible, and an-annular. Conversely, it is shown that for a compact, irreducible, boundary-irreducible, and an-annular 3-manifold, any triangulation can be modified to an annular-efficient triangulation. It follows that for a manifold satisfying this hypothesis, there are only a finite number of boundary slopes for incompressible and boundary-incompressible surfaces of a bounded Euler characteristic.

  6. Analytical solution of neutron transport equation in an annular reactor with a rotating pulsed source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an analytical solution of the neutron transport equation in an annular reactor is presented with a short and rotating neutron source of the type S(x) δ (x- Vt), where V is the speed of annular pulsed reactor. The study is an extension of a previous study by Williams [12] carried out with a pulsed source of the type S(x) δ (t). In the new concept of annular pulsed reactor designed to produce continuous high flux, the core consists of a subcritical annular geometry pulsed by a rotating modulator, producing local super prompt critical condition, thereby giving origin to a rotating neutron pulse. An analytical solution is obtained by opening up of the annular geometry and applying one energy group transport theory in one dimension using applied mathematical techniques of Laplace transform and Complex Variables. The general solution for the flux consists of a fundamental mode, a finite number of harmonics and a transient integral. A condition which limits the number of harmonics depending upon the circumference of the annular geometry has been obtained. Inverse Laplace transform technique is used to analyse instability condition in annular reactor core. A regenerator parameter in conjunction with perimeter of the ring and nuclear properties is used to obtain stable and unstable harmonics and to verify if these exist. It is found that the solution does not present instability in the conditions stated in the new concept of annular pulsed reactor. (author)

  7. Overcoming Sequence Misalignments with Weighted Structural Superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Khazanov, Nickolay A.; Damm-Ganamet, Kelly L.; Quang, Daniel X.; Carlson, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    An appropriate structural superposition identifies similarities and differences between homologous proteins that are not evident from sequence alignments alone. We have coupled our Gaussian-weighted RMSD (wRMSD) tool with a sequence aligner and seed extension (SE) algorithm to create a robust technique for overlaying structures and aligning sequences of homologous proteins (HwRMSD). HwRMSD overcomes errors in the initial sequence alignment that would normally propagate into a standard RMSD ov...

  8. Typing quantum superpositions and projective measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Caro, Alejandro; Dowek, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    We study a purely functional quantum extension of lambda calculus, that is, an extension of lambda calculus to express some quantum features, where the quantum memory is abstracted out. This calculus is a typed extension of the first-order linear-algebraic lambda-calculus. The type is linear on superpositions, so to forbid from cloning them, while allows to clone basis vectors. We provide examples of the Deutsch algorithm and the Teleportation, and prove the subject reduction of the calculus....

  9. Superposition and Entanglement from Quantum Scope

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong-sheng

    2011-01-01

    The abstract framework of quantum mechanics (QM) causes the well-known weirdness, which leads to the field of foundation of QM. We constructed the new concept, i.e., scope, to lay the foundation of quantum coherence and openness, also the principles of superposition and entanglement. We studied analytically and quantitatively the quantum correlations and information, also we discussed the physical essence of the existed entanglement measures. We compared with several other approaches to the f...

  10. Quantum superposition and entanglement of mesoscopic plasmons

    OpenAIRE

    Fasel, Sylvain; Halder, Matthaus; Gisin, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Quantum superpositions and entanglement are at the heart of the quantum information science. There have been only a few investigations of these phenomena at the mesoscopic level, despite the fact that these systems are promising for quantum state storage and processing. Here, we present two novel experiments with surface plasmons propagating on cm-long metallic stripe waveguides. We demonstrate that two plasmons can be entangled at remote places. In addition, we create a single plasmon in a t...

  11. Toward quantum superposition of living organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Isart, Oriol; Juan, Mathieu L.; Quidant, Romain; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2010-03-01

    The most striking feature of quantum mechanics is the existence of superposition states, where an object appears to be in different situations at the same time. The existence of such states has been previously tested with small objects, such as atoms, ions, electrons and photons (Zoller et al 2005 Eur. Phys. J. D 36 203-28), and even with molecules (Arndt et al 1999 Nature 401 680-2). More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to create superpositions of collections of photons (Deléglise et al 2008 Nature 455 510-14), atoms (Hammerer et al 2008 arXiv:0807.3358) or Cooper pairs (Friedman et al 2000 Nature 406 43-6). Very recent progress in optomechanical systems may soon allow us to create superpositions of even larger objects, such as micro-sized mirrors or cantilevers (Marshall et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 130401; Kippenberg and Vahala 2008 Science 321 1172-6 Marquardt and Girvin 2009 Physics 2 40; Favero and Karrai 2009 Nature Photon. 3 201-5), and thus to test quantum mechanical phenomena at larger scales. Here we propose a method to cool down and create quantum superpositions of the motion of sub-wavelength, arbitrarily shaped dielectric objects trapped inside a high-finesse cavity at a very low pressure. Our method is ideally suited for the smallest living organisms, such as viruses, which survive under low-vacuum pressures (Rothschild and Mancinelli 2001 Nature 406 1092-101) and optically behave as dielectric objects (Ashkin and Dziedzic 1987 Science 235 1517-20). This opens up the possibility of testing the quantum nature of living organisms by creating quantum superposition states in very much the same spirit as the original Schrödinger's cat 'gedanken' paradigm (Schrödinger 1935 Naturwissenschaften 23 807-12, 823-8, 844-9). We anticipate that our paper will be a starting point for experimentally addressing fundamental questions, such as the role of life and consciousness in quantum mechanics.

  12. Toward quantum superposition of living organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Isart, Oriol; Cirac, J Ignacio [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Juan, Mathieu L; Quidant, Romain [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Castelldefels, Barcelona 08860 (Spain)], E-mail: oriol.romero-isart@mpq.mpg.de

    2010-03-15

    The most striking feature of quantum mechanics is the existence of superposition states, where an object appears to be in different situations at the same time. The existence of such states has been previously tested with small objects, such as atoms, ions, electrons and photons (Zoller et al 2005 Eur. Phys. J. D 36 203-28), and even with molecules (Arndt et al 1999 Nature 401 680-2). More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to create superpositions of collections of photons (Deleglise et al 2008 Nature 455 510-14), atoms (Hammerer et al 2008 arXiv:0807.3358) or Cooper pairs (Friedman et al 2000 Nature 406 43-6). Very recent progress in optomechanical systems may soon allow us to create superpositions of even larger objects, such as micro-sized mirrors or cantilevers (Marshall et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 130401; Kippenberg and Vahala 2008 Science 321 1172-6; Marquardt and Girvin 2009 Physics 2 40; Favero and Karrai 2009 Nature Photon. 3 201-5), and thus to test quantum mechanical phenomena at larger scales. Here we propose a method to cool down and create quantum superpositions of the motion of sub-wavelength, arbitrarily shaped dielectric objects trapped inside a high-finesse cavity at a very low pressure. Our method is ideally suited for the smallest living organisms, such as viruses, which survive under low-vacuum pressures (Rothschild and Mancinelli 2001 Nature 406 1092-101) and optically behave as dielectric objects (Ashkin and Dziedzic 1987 Science 235 1517-20). This opens up the possibility of testing the quantum nature of living organisms by creating quantum superposition states in very much the same spirit as the original Schroedinger's cat 'gedanken' paradigm (Schroedinger 1935 Naturwissenschaften 23 807-12, 823-8, 844-9). We anticipate that our paper will be a starting point for experimentally addressing fundamental questions, such as the role of life and consciousness in quantum mechanics.

  13. X-ray optics simulation using Gaussian superposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idir, M.; Cywiak, M.; Morales, A. and Modi, M.H.

    2011-09-15

    We present an efficient method to perform x-ray optics simulation with high or partially coherent x-ray sources using Gaussian superposition technique. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that full characterization of optical systems, diffractive and geometric, is possible by using the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant (FGSI) previously reported in the literature. The complex amplitude distribution in the object plane is represented by a linear superposition of complex Gaussians wavelets and then propagated through the optical system by means of the referred Gaussian invariant. This allows ray tracing through the optical system and at the same time allows calculating with high precision the complex wave-amplitude distribution at any plane of observation. This technique can be applied in a wide spectral range where the Fresnel diffraction integral applies including visible, x-rays, acoustic waves, etc. We describe the technique and include some computer simulations as illustrative examples for x-ray optical component. We show also that this method can be used to study partial or total coherence illumination problem.

  14. X-ray optics simulation using Gaussian superposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idir, Mourad; Cywiak, Moisés; Morales, Arquímedes; Modi, Mohammed H

    2011-09-26

    We present an efficient method to perform x-ray optics simulation with high or partially coherent x-ray sources using Gaussian superposition technique. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that full characterization of optical systems, diffractive and geometric, is possible by using the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant (FGSI) previously reported in the literature. The complex amplitude distribution in the object plane is represented by a linear superposition of complex Gaussians wavelets and then propagated through the optical system by means of the referred Gaussian invariant. This allows ray tracing through the optical system and at the same time allows calculating with high precision the complex wave-amplitude distribution at any plane of observation. This technique can be applied in a wide spectral range where the Fresnel diffraction integral applies including visible, x-rays, acoustic waves, etc. We describe the technique and include some computer simulations as illustrative examples for x-ray optical component. We show also that this method can be used to study partial or total coherence illumination problem. PMID:21996845

  15. Annular beam shaping and optical trepanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Danyong

    surfaces of the annulus, respectively, and full Gaussian with maximum intensity within the annulus. Two refractive arrangements have been presented in this study. Geometric optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays. However, it is a simplification of optics, and fails to account for many important optical effects such as diffraction and polarization. The diffractive behaviors of this optical trepanning system are stimulated and analyzed based on the Fresnel diffraction integral. Diffraction patterns of the resulting optical system are measured using a laser beam analyzer and compared with the theoretical results. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the effects of experimental parameters are discussed. We have designed the annular beam shaping optical elements and the gas delivery system to construct an optical trepanning system. Laser drilling experiments are performed on the Stainless Steel-316 (SS 316) plate and the Inconel 718 (IN 718) plate. The geometry of the trepanning holes with different sizes is presented in this study.

  16. Charged annular disks and Reissner-Nordstroem type black holes from extremal dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first analytical superposition of a charged black hole with an annular disk of extremal dust. In order to obtain the solutions, we first solve the Einstein-Maxwell field equations for sources that represent disklike configurations of matter in confomastatic spacetimes by assuming a functional dependence among the metric function, the electric potential, and an auxiliary function, which is taken as a solution of the Laplace equation. We then employ the Lord Kelvin inversion method applied to models of finite extension in order to obtain annular disks. The structures obtained extend to infinity, but their total masses are finite and all the energy conditions are satisfied. Finally, we observe that the extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black hole can be embedded into the center of the disks by adding a boundary term in the inversion.

  17. Charged Annular Disks and Reissner-Nordstro ?m Type Black Holes from Extremal Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Lora-Clavijo, F D; Pedraza, J F

    2010-01-01

    We present the first analytical superposition of a charged black hole with an annular disk of extremal dust. In order to obtain the solutions, we first solve the Einstein-Maxwell field equations for sources that represent disk-like configurations of matter in confomastatic spacetimes by assuming a functional dependence between the metric function, the electric potential and an auxiliary function, which is taken as a solution of the Laplace equation. We then employ the Lord Kelvin Inversion Method applied to models of finite extension in order to obtain annular disks. The structures obtained extend to infinity, but their total masses are finite and all the energy conditions are satisfied. Finally, we observe that the extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole can be embedded into the center of the disks by adding a boundary term in the inversion.

  18. Quantum resource studied from the perspective of quantum state superposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum resources, such as discord and entanglement, are crucial in quantum information processing. In this paper, quantum resources are studied from the aspect of quantum state superposition. We define the local superposition (LS) as the superposition between basis of single part, and nonlocal superposition (NLS) as the superposition between product basis of multiple parts. For quantum resource with nonzero LS, quantum operation must be introduced to prepare it, and for quantum resource with nonzero NLS, nonlocal quantum operation must be introduced to prepare it. We prove that LS vanishes if and only if the state is classical and NLS vanishes if and only if the state is separable. From this superposition aspect, quantum resources are categorized as superpositions existing in different parts. These results are helpful to study quantum resources from a unified frame. (paper)

  19. CFD Simulation of Annular Centrifugal Extractors

    OpenAIRE

    Vedantam, S.; Wardle, K. E.; Tamhane, T. V.; Ranade, V. V.; Joshi, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Annular centrifugal extractors (ACE), also called annular centrifugal contactors offer several advantages over the other conventional process equipment such as low hold-up, high process throughput, low residence time, low solvent inventory and high turn down ratio. The equipment provides a very high value of mass transfer coefficient and interfacial area in the annular zone because of the high level of power consumption per unit volume and separation inside the rotor due to the high g of cent...

  20. Granuloma annulare in herpes zoster scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, C; Shirabe, H; Takagi, K; Kawatsu, T

    2000-03-01

    A 54-year-old Japanese female developed granuloma annulare twice in herpes zoster scars. Soon after the second event, she developed ulcerative colitis, which was well controlled by sulfonamides and corticosteroid suppository. She had no history of diabetes mellitus. There was no recurrence of granuloma annulare by June of 1999. Granuloma annulare might have contributed to the complications of ulcerative colitis, although this had not been noticed before. PMID:10774142

  1. Braided nodal lines in wave superpositions

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, M R

    2003-01-01

    Nodal lines (phase singularities, optical vortices) are the generic interference fringes of complex scalar waves. Here, an exact complex solution of the time independent wave equation (Helmholtz equation) is considered, possessing nodal lines which are braided in the form of a borromean, or pig-tail braid. The braid field is a superposition of counterpropagating, counterrotating, non-coaxial order 3 Bessel beams, and a plane wave whose propagation is perpendicular to that of the beams. The construction is structurally stable, and can be generalized to a limited class of other braids.

  2. Design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Keyi

    2015-12-01

    In this research, design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye is presented. The imaging system consists of three layers of lens arrays. In each channel, two lenses are designed to control the angular magnification and a field lens is added to improve the image quality and extend the field of view. Aspherical surfaces are introduced to improve the image quality. Ray tracing results demonstrate that the light from the same object point is focused at the same imaging point through different channels. Therefore the system has much higher energy efficiency than conventional spherical apposition compound eye.

  3. Generation of picosecond pulsed coherent state superpositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Tipsmark, Anders; Laghaout, Amine;

    2014-01-01

    We present the generation of approximated coherent state superpositions-referred to as Schrodinger cat states-by the process of subtracting single photons from picosecond pulsed squeezed states of light. The squeezed vacuum states are produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in a...... periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal while the single photons are probabilistically subtracted using a beamsplitter and a single photon detector. The resulting states are fully characterized with time-resolved homodyne quantum state tomography. Varying the pump power of the SPDC, we generated different states...

  4. Systematic comparison of the use of annular and Zernike circle polynomials for annular wavefronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahajan, V.N.; Aftab, M.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of wavefront analysis of a noncircular wavefront is given and applied for a systematic comparison of the use of annular and Zernike circle polynomials for the analysis of an annular wavefront. It is shown that, unlike the annular coefficients, the circle coefficients generally change as t

  5. Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).

  6. Quantum Superposition of a Mirror and Relative Decoherence (as Spontaneous Superposition Breaking)

    OpenAIRE

    Pankovic, V.; Predojevic, M.; Krmar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Marshall et al. gedanken experiment of the quantum superpposition of a mirror (oscilating part of a Michelson interferometer) interacting with single photon is consequently interpreted by relative decoherence.Such relative decoherence (based on the spontaneous superposition breaking (effective hiding)) on the photon (quantum object) caused by mirror (measurement device) is sufficient to model real measurement.

  7. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  8. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  9. Soliton bunching in annular Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernik, I.V; Lazarides, Nickos; Sørensen, Mads Peter;

    1996-01-01

    By studying soliton (fluxon) motion in long annular Josephson junctions it is possible to avoid the influence of the boundaries and soliton-soliton collisions present in linear junctions. A new experimental design consisting of a niobium coil placed on top of an annular junction has been used to...

  10. Bistability and hysteresis of annular impinging jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisovsky, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    In present study, the bistability and hysteresis of annular impinging jets is investigated. Annular impinging jets are simulated using open source CFD code - OpenFOAM. Both flow field patterns of interest are obtained and hysteresis is found by means of dynamic mesh simulation. Effect of nozzle exit velocity on resulting hysteresis loop is also illustrated.

  11. Generation of Superposition Spin States in an Atomic Ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Massar, S.; Polzik, E. S.

    2003-01-01

    A method for generating a mesoscopic superposition state of the collective spin variable of a gas of atoms is proposed. The state consists of a superposition of the atomic spins pointing in two slightly different directions. It is obtained by using off resonant light to carry out Quantum Non Demolition Measurements of the spins. The relevant experimental conditions, which require very dense atomic samples, can be realized with presently available techniques. Long-lived atomic superposition st...

  12. Nonclassical properties and quantum resources of hierarchical photonic superposition states

    OpenAIRE

    Volkoff, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    We motivate and introduce a class of "hierarchical" quantum superposition states of $N$ coupled quantum oscillators. Unlike other well-known multimode photonic Schr\\"{o}dinger cat states such as entangled coherent states, the hierarchical superposition states are characterized as two-branch superpositions of tensor products of single-mode Schr\\"{o}dinger cat states. In addition to analyzing the photon statistics and quasiprobability distributions of prominent examples of these nonclassical st...

  13. Remnant quantum resources of collapsed macroscopic quantum superpositions

    OpenAIRE

    Volkoff, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the collapse of a macroscopic quantum superposition occurring due to the measurement which optimally distinguishes its branches. Given a macroscopic superposition of N spin-1/2 particles, we use such a Helstrom measurement to construct the local unitary operator which maximizes the usefulness of the superposition for Heisenberg-limited phase estimation (i.e., with quantum Cram\\'{e}r Rao bound proportional to 1/N). In contrast, the collapsed state is not useful as a probe for phase...

  14. Quantum Superposition States of Two Valleys in Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Jia-Bin; Chu, Zhao-Dong; Wu, Liang-Mei; He, Lin

    2014-01-01

    A system in a quantum superposition of distinct states usually exhibits many peculiar behaviors. Here we show that putting quasiparticles of graphene into superpositions of states in the two valleys can complete change the properties of the massless Dirac fermions. Due to the coexistence of both the quantum and relativistic characteristics, the superposition states exhibit many oddball behaviors in their chiral tunneling process. We further demonstrate that a recently observed line defect in ...

  15. Manifestation of a General Coherent State Superposition without Nonlinear Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cordshooli, Ghasem; Mirzaee, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    We report the formation of a general superposition of coherent states in exact analytical solution of the Schrodingers equatin for atom-photon interaction by taking into account the role of virtual photons. Despite some known superposition of quantum states, the general superposition state introduced in this letter constructed without any nonlinear effect. The Yurke- Stoler state and its special cases, the even and odd cat states, obtained as some simple examples of the method. A general expe...

  16. High efficiency Nondistortion Quantum Interrogation of atoms in quantum superpositions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xingxiang; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Feldman, Marc J.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the nondistortion quantum interrogation (NQI) of an atom prepared in a quantum superposition. By manipulating the polarization of the probe photon and making connections to interaction free measurements of opaque objects, we show that nondistortion interrogation of an atom in a quantum superposition can be done with efficiency approaching unity. However, if any component of the atom's superposition is completely transparent to the probe wave function, a nondistortion interrogation...

  17. Nuclei as superposition of topological solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rational map approximation provides an opportunity to describe light nuclei as classical solitons with baryon number B > 1 in the framework of the Skyrme model. The rational map ansatz yields a possibility of factorization of S3 baryon charge into S1 and S2 parts, the phenomenology of the model being strongly affected by the chosen factorization. Moreover, in the fundamental representation superposition of two different soliton factorizations can be used as solution ansatz. The canonical quantization procedure applied to collective degrees of freedom of the classical soliton leads to anomalous breaking of the chiral symmetry and exponential falloff of the energy density of the soliton at large distance, without explicit symmetry breaking terms included. The evolution of the shape of electric form factor as a function of two different factorization soliton mix ratio is investigated. Numerical results are presented. (author)

  18. Teleportation of Unknown Superpositions of Collective Atomic Coherent States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG ShiBiao

    2001-01-01

    We propose a scheme to teleport an unknown superposition of two atomic coherent states with different phases. Our scheme is based on resonant and dispersive atom-field interaction. Our scheme provides a possibility of teleporting macroscopic superposition states of many atoms first time.``

  19. Metastable superpositions of ortho- and para-Helium states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho, P. [GPV de Valladolid, Centro Zonal en Castilla y Leon, AEMET. Orion 1, 47014 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: psancho@inm.es; Plaja, L. [Area de Optica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Pl. de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2008-08-18

    We analyze superpositions of ortho- and para-Helium states, considering the possible existence of stationary and metastable states in the system. In particular, the metastable superposition of 1s2s ortho- and para-states seems to be accessible to experimental scrutiny.

  20. Partial coherence and other optical delicacies of lepidopteran superposition eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG

    2006-01-01

    Superposition eyes are generally thought to function ideally when the eye is spherical and with rhabdom tips in the focal plane of the imaging optics of facet lenses and crystalline cones. Anatomical data as well as direct optical measurements demonstrate that the superposition eyes of moths and ski

  1. Ultrafast optical signature of quantum superpositions in a nanostructure

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, F. J.; Quiroga, L.; Johnson, N. F.

    2002-01-01

    We propose an unambiguous signature for detecting quantum superposition states in a nanostructure, based on current ultrafast spectroscopy techniques. The reliable generation of such superposition states via Hadamard-like quantum gates is crucial for implementing solid-state based quantum information schemes. The signature originates from a remarkably strong photon antibunching effect which is enhanced by non-Markovian dynamics.

  2. Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    I dette projektarbejde med titlen “Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing” har målet været at generere optiske kat-tilstande. Dette er en kvantemekanisk superpositions tilstand af to koherente tilstande med stor amplitude. Sådan en tilstand er...

  3. Etizolam-induced superficial erythema annulare centrifugum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, K; Yabunami, H; Hisanaga, Y

    2002-01-01

    Erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC) is characterized by slowly enlarging annular erythematous lesions. Although the origin is not clear in most cases, EAC has been associated with infections, medications, and in rare cases, underlying malignancy. We describe a patient who developed annular erythematous lesions after etizolam administration. The eruptions were typical of the superficial form of EAC, both clinically and histopathologically. The lesions disappeared shortly after discontinuation of the medication. Patch testing with etizolam gave positive results. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of etizolam-induced superficial EAC. PMID:11952667

  4. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis on Turbulent Annular Seals of Centrifugal Pumps during Transient Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglei Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper studies the influence of annular seal flow on the transient response of centrifugal pump rotors during the start-up period. A single rotor system and three states of annular seal flow were modeled. These models were solved using numerical integration and finite difference methods. A fluid-structure interaction method was developed. In each time step one of the three annular seal models was chosen to simulate the annular seal flow according to the state of rotor systems. The objective was to obtain a transient response of rotor systems under the influence of fluid-induced forces generated by annular seal flow. This method overcomes some shortcomings of the traditional FSI method by improving the data transfer process between two domains. Calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental results. The annular seal was shown to have a supportive effect on rotor systems. Furthermore, decreasing the seal clearance would enhance this supportive effect. In the transient process, vibration amplitude and critical speed largely changed when the acceleration of the rotor system increased.

  5. Generation of photonic orbital angular momentum superposition states using vortex beam emitters with superimposed gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingsheng; Klitis, Charalambos; Li, Shimao; Chen, Yueyang; Cai, Xinlun; Sorel, Marc; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-02-22

    An integrated approach to produce photonic orbital angular momentum (OAM) superposition states with arbitrary OAM spectrum has been demonstrated. Superposition states between two vector OAM modes have been achieved by integrating a superimposed angular grating in one silicon micro-ring resonator, with each mode having near equal weight. The topological charge difference between the two compositional OAM modes is determined by the difference between the numbers of elements in the two original gratings being superimposed, while the absolute values of the topological charge can be changed synchronously by switching WGM resonant wavelengths. This novel approach provides a scalable and flexible source for the OAM-based quantum information and optical manipulation applications. PMID:26906981

  6. Divergent Field Annular Ion Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work investigates an approach that would allow an annular ion engine geometry to achieve ion beam currents approaching the Child-Langmuir limit. In...

  7. Quantum superposition of multiple clones and the novel cloning machine

    OpenAIRE

    Pati, Arun Kumar

    1999-01-01

    we envisage a novel quantum cloning machine, which takes an input state and produces an output state whose success branch can exist in a linear superposition of multiple copies of the input state and the failure branch exist in a superposition of composite state independent of the input state. We prove that unknown non-orthogonal states chosen from a set $\\cal S$ can evolve into a linear superposition of multiple clones by a unitary process if and only if the states are linearly independent. ...

  8. Empirical Evaluation of Superposition Coded Multicasting for Scalable Video

    KAUST Repository

    Chun Pong Lau

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we investigate cross-layer superposition coded multicast (SCM). Previous studies have proven its effectiveness in exploiting better channel capacity and service granularities via both analytical and simulation approaches. However, it has never been practically implemented using a commercial 4G system. This paper demonstrates our prototype in achieving the SCM using a standard 802.16 based testbed for scalable video transmissions. In particular, to implement the superposition coded (SPC) modulation, we take advantage a novel software approach, namely logical SPC (L-SPC), which aims to mimic the physical layer superposition coded modulation. The emulation results show improved throughput comparing with generic multicast method.

  9. Many-Body Basis Set Superposition Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, John F; Bettens, Ryan P A

    2015-11-10

    The basis set superposition effect (BSSE) arises in electronic structure calculations of molecular clusters when questions relating to interactions between monomers within the larger cluster are asked. The binding energy, or total energy, of the cluster may be broken down into many smaller subcluster calculations and the energies of these subsystems linearly combined to, hopefully, produce the desired quantity of interest. Unfortunately, BSSE can plague these smaller fragment calculations. In this work, we carefully examine the major sources of error associated with reproducing the binding energy and total energy of a molecular cluster. In order to do so, we decompose these energies in terms of a many-body expansion (MBE), where a "body" here refers to the monomers that make up the cluster. In our analysis, we found it necessary to introduce something we designate here as a many-ghost many-body expansion (MGMBE). The work presented here produces some surprising results, but perhaps the most significant of all is that BSSE effects up to the order of truncation in a MBE of the total energy cancel exactly. In the case of the binding energy, the only BSSE correction terms remaining arise from the removal of the one-body monomer total energies. Nevertheless, our earlier work indicated that BSSE effects continued to remain in the total energy of the cluster up to very high truncation order in the MBE. We show in this work that the vast majority of these high-order many-body effects arise from BSSE associated with the one-body monomer total energies. Also, we found that, remarkably, the complete basis set limit values for the three-body and four-body interactions differed very little from that at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level for the respective subclusters embedded within a larger cluster. PMID:26574311

  10. Superposition Formulas for Darboux Integrable Exterior Differential Sys-tems

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Ian M; Fels, Mark E.; Vassiliou, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we solve an inverse problem in the theory of quotients for differential equations. We characterize a family of exterior differential systems that can be written as a quotient of a direct sum of two associated systems that are constructed from the original. The fact that a system can be written as a quotient can be used to find the general solution to these equations. Some examples are given to demonstrate the theory.

  11. Linear Superposition of Minimal Surfaces: Generalized Helicoids and Minimal Cones

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Observing a linear superposition principle, a family of new minimal hypersurfaces in Euclidean space is found, as well as that linear combinations of generalized helicoids induce new algebraic minimal cones of arbitrarily high degree.

  12. Nonclassical properties and quantum resources of hierarchical photonic superposition states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We motivate and introduce a class of “hierarchical” quantum superposition states of N coupled quantum oscillators. Unlike other well-known multimode photonic Schrödinger-cat states such as entangled coherent states, the hierarchical superposition states are characterized as two-branch superpositions of tensor products of single-mode Schrödinger-cat states. In addition to analyzing the photon statistics and quasiprobability distributions of prominent examples of these nonclassical states, we consider their usefulness for highprecision quantum metrology of nonlinear optical Hamiltonians and quantify their mode entanglement. We propose two methods for generating hierarchical superpositions in N = 2 coupled microwave cavities, exploiting currently existing quantum optical technology for generating entanglement between spatially separated electromagnetic field modes

  13. On the Superposition and Elastic Recoil of Electromagnetic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Schantz, Hans G

    2014-01-01

    Superposition demands that a linear combination of solutions to an electromagnetic problem also be a solution. This paper analyzes some very simple problems: the constructive and destructive interferences of short impulse voltage and current waves along an ideal free-space transmission line. When voltage waves constructively interfere, the superposition has twice the electrical energy of the individual waveforms because current goes to zero, converting magnetic to electrical energy. When voltage waves destructively interfere, the superposition has no electrical energy because it transforms to magnetic energy. Although the impedance of the individual waves is that of free space, a superposition of waves may exhibit arbitrary impedance. Further, interferences of identical waveforms allow no energy transfer between opposite ends of a transmission line. The waves appear to recoil elastically one from another. Although alternate interpretations are possible, these appear less likely. Similar phenomenology arises i...

  14. Nonclassical properties and quantum resources of hierarchical photonic superposition states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkoff, T. J., E-mail: adidasty@gmail.com [University of California, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We motivate and introduce a class of “hierarchical” quantum superposition states of N coupled quantum oscillators. Unlike other well-known multimode photonic Schrödinger-cat states such as entangled coherent states, the hierarchical superposition states are characterized as two-branch superpositions of tensor products of single-mode Schrödinger-cat states. In addition to analyzing the photon statistics and quasiprobability distributions of prominent examples of these nonclassical states, we consider their usefulness for highprecision quantum metrology of nonlinear optical Hamiltonians and quantify their mode entanglement. We propose two methods for generating hierarchical superpositions in N = 2 coupled microwave cavities, exploiting currently existing quantum optical technology for generating entanglement between spatially separated electromagnetic field modes.

  15. Experimental creation of superposition of unknown photonic quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Hu, Meng-Jun; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Liu, Bi-Heng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most intriguing intrinsic properties of quantum world, quantum superposition provokes great interests in its own generation. Oszmaniec [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110403 (2016)] have proven that though a universal quantum machine that creates superposition of arbitrary two unknown states is physically impossible, a probabilistic protocol exists in the case of two input states have nonzero overlaps with the referential state. Here we report a heralded quantum machine realizing superpo...

  16. Testing the quantum superposition principle in the frequency domain

    OpenAIRE

    M Bahrami; Bassi, A.; Ulbricht, H.

    2014-01-01

    New technological developments allow to explore the quantum properties of very complex systems, bringing the question of whether also macroscopic systems share such features, within experimental reach. The interest in this question is increased by the fact that, on the theory side, many suggest that the quantum superposition principle is not exact, departures from it being the larger, the more macroscopic the system. Here we propose a novel way to test the possible violation of the superposit...

  17. Quantum superposition of charge states on capacitively coupled superconducting islands

    OpenAIRE

    Heij, C. P.; Dixon, D C; van der Wal, C H; Hadley, P.; Mooij, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the ground state properties of a system containing two superconducting islands coupled capacitively by a wire. The ground state is a macroscopic superposition of charge states, even though the islands cannot exchange charge carriers. The ground state of the system is probed by measuring the switching current of a Bloch transistor containing one of the islands. Calculations based on superpositions of charge states on both islands show good agreement with the experiments. The abi...

  18. Superposition States in Cavities Fed by Injected Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Marian, Paulina; Marian, Tudor

    1997-01-01

    We study the possibility of producing disentangled states in the Jaynes-Cummings model when the input field is a superposition of two Fock states, |M〉 and |M+ 1〉, and the atom is initially in a superposition of its two stationary states. In the case of large M, we show that Jaynes-Cummings interaction provides quantum state swapping between the two qubits (atom and field).

  19. Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.

    1996-01-01

    The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.

  20. CFD Simulation of Annular Centrifugal Extractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vedantam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Annular centrifugal extractors (ACE, also called annular centrifugal contactors offer several advantages over the other conventional process equipment such as low hold-up, high process throughput, low residence time, low solvent inventory and high turn down ratio. The equipment provides a very high value of mass transfer coefficient and interfacial area in the annular zone because of the high level of power consumption per unit volume and separation inside the rotor due to the high g of centrifugal field. For the development of rational and reliable design procedures, it is important to understand the flow patterns in the mixer and settler zones. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has played a major role in the constant evolution and improvements of this device. During the past thirty years, a large number of investigators have undertaken CFD simulations. All these publications have been carefully and critically analyzed and a coherent picture of the present status has been presented in this review paper. Initially, review of the single phase studies in the annular region has been presented, followed by the separator region. In continuation, the two-phase CFD simulations involving liquid-liquid and gas-liquid flow in the annular as well as separator regions have been reviewed. Suggestions have been made for the future work for bridging the existing knowledge gaps. In particular, emphasis has been given to the application of CFD simulations for the design of this equipment.

  1. Annular bilayer magnetoelectric composites: theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingsen; Dong, Shuxiang

    2010-01-01

    The laminated bilayer magnetoelectric (ME) composites consist of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers are known to have giant ME coefficient due to the high coupling efficiency in bending mode. In our previous report, the bar-shaped bilayer composite has been investigated by using a magnetoelectric-coupling equivalent circuit. Here, we propose an annular bilayer ME composite, which consists of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric rings. This composite has a much lower resonance frequency of bending mode compared with its radial mode. In addition, the annular bilayer ME composite is expected to respond to vortex magnetic field as well as unidirectional magnetic field. In this paper, we investigate the annular bilayer ME composite by using impedance-matrix method and predict the ME coefficients as a function of geometric parameters of the composites. PMID:20178914

  2. Apodized annular-aperture logarithmic axicon: smoothness and uniformity of intensity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewicz, Z; Sochacki, J; Kolodziejczyk, A; Staronski, L R

    1993-11-15

    We show that the apodized annular-aperture logarithmic axicon preserves excellent uniformity of the on-axis intensity, energy flow, and lateral resolution. Numerical evaluation of the Fresnel diffraction integral leads to results very close to geometrical-optics predictions. Once again the geometrical law of energy conservation turns out to be a useful tool in designing axicons. PMID:19829438

  3. Stitching algorithm for annular subaperture interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Hou; Fan Wu; Li Yang; Shibin Wu; Qiang Chen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Annular subaperture interferometry (ASI) has been developed for low cost and flexible test of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces, in which accurately combining the subaperture measurement data corrupted by misalignments and noise into a complete surface figure is the key problem. By introducing the Zernike annular polynomials which are orthogonal over annulus, a method that eliminates the coupling problem in the earlier algorithm based on Zernike circle polynomials is proposed. Vector-matrix notation is used to simplify the description and calculations. The performance of this reduction method is evaluated by numerical simulation. The results prove this method with high precision and good anti-noise capability.

  4. Propagation of hermite-cosh-gaussian beams passing through ABCD optical system with an annular aperture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By using the expansion of the aperture function into a finte sum of complex Gaussian functions, the corresponding analytical expressions of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian beams passing through annular apertured paraxially and symmetrically optical systems written in terms of ABCD matrix were derived, and they could reduce to the cases with squared aperture. In a similar way, the corresponding analytical expressions of cosh-Gaussian beams through annular apertured ABCD matrix were also given. The method could save more calculation time than that by using the diffraction integral formula directly.

  5. Quasi-static transient thermal stresses in a thick annular disc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Kulkarni; K C Deshmukh

    2007-10-01

    The present paper deals with the determination of transient thermal stresses in a thick annular disc. A thick annular disc is considered having zero initial temperature and subjected to arbitrary heat flux on the upper and lower surfaces where as the fixed circular edges are at zero temperature.The governing heat conduction equation have been solved by using integral transform technique. The results are obtained in series form in terms of Bessel’s functions. The results for displacement and stresses have been computed numerically and are illustrated graphically

  6. Quantum superposition at the half-metre scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachy, T.; Asenbaum, P.; Overstreet, C.; Donnelly, C. A.; Dickerson, S. M.; Sugarbaker, A.; Hogan, J. M.; Kasevich, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The quantum superposition principle allows massive particles to be delocalized over distant positions. Though quantum mechanics has proved adept at describing the microscopic world, quantum superposition runs counter to intuitive conceptions of reality and locality when extended to the macroscopic scale, as exemplified by the thought experiment of Schrödinger’s cat. Matter-wave interferometers, which split and recombine wave packets in order to observe interference, provide a way to probe the superposition principle on macroscopic scales and explore the transition to classical physics. In such experiments, large wave-packet separation is impeded by the need for long interaction times and large momentum beam splitters, which cause susceptibility to dephasing and decoherence. Here we use light-pulse atom interferometry to realize quantum interference with wave packets separated by up to 54 centimetres on a timescale of 1 second. These results push quantum superposition into a new macroscopic regime, demonstrating that quantum superposition remains possible at the distances and timescales of everyday life. The sub-nanokelvin temperatures of the atoms and a compensation of transverse optical forces enable a large separation while maintaining an interference contrast of 28 per cent. In addition to testing the superposition principle in a new regime, large quantum superposition states are vital to exploring gravity with atom interferometers in greater detail. We anticipate that these states could be used to increase sensitivity in tests of the equivalence principle, measure the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect, and eventually detect gravitational waves and phase shifts associated with general relativity.

  7. Quantum superposition at the half-metre scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachy, T; Asenbaum, P; Overstreet, C; Donnelly, C A; Dickerson, S M; Sugarbaker, A; Hogan, J M; Kasevich, M A

    2015-12-24

    The quantum superposition principle allows massive particles to be delocalized over distant positions. Though quantum mechanics has proved adept at describing the microscopic world, quantum superposition runs counter to intuitive conceptions of reality and locality when extended to the macroscopic scale, as exemplified by the thought experiment of Schrödinger's cat. Matter-wave interferometers, which split and recombine wave packets in order to observe interference, provide a way to probe the superposition principle on macroscopic scales and explore the transition to classical physics. In such experiments, large wave-packet separation is impeded by the need for long interaction times and large momentum beam splitters, which cause susceptibility to dephasing and decoherence. Here we use light-pulse atom interferometry to realize quantum interference with wave packets separated by up to 54 centimetres on a timescale of 1 second. These results push quantum superposition into a new macroscopic regime, demonstrating that quantum superposition remains possible at the distances and timescales of everyday life. The sub-nanokelvin temperatures of the atoms and a compensation of transverse optical forces enable a large separation while maintaining an interference contrast of 28 per cent. In addition to testing the superposition principle in a new regime, large quantum superposition states are vital to exploring gravity with atom interferometers in greater detail. We anticipate that these states could be used to increase sensitivity in tests of the equivalence principle, measure the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect, and eventually detect gravitational waves and phase shifts associated with general relativity. PMID:26701053

  8. Optimal Thrust Vectoring for an Annular Aerospike Nozzle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent success of an annular aerospike flight test by NASA Dryden has prompted keen interest in providing thrust vector capability to the annular aerospike nozzle...

  9. Quantic Superpositions and the Geometry of Complex Hilbert Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, D

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a superposition is a revolutionary novelty introduced by Quantum Mechanics. If a system may be in any one of two pure states x and y, we must consider that it may also be in any one of many superpositions of x and y. An in-depth analysis of superpositions is proposed. Superpositions must be considered when one cannot distinguish between possible paths, i.e., histories, leading to the current state of the system. In such a case the resulting state is some compound of the states that result from each of the possible paths. States can be compounded, i.e., superposed in such a way only if they are not orthogonal. Since different classical states are orthogonal, the claim implies no non-trivial superpositions can be observed in classical systems. The parameters that define such compounds and finds two: a proportion defining the mix of the different states entering the compound and a phase difference describing the interference between the different paths. Both quantities are geometrical in nature: r...

  10. A New Annular Shear Piezoelectric Accelerometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin; Kriegbaum, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance of a recently introduced Annular Shear piezoelectric accelerometer, Type 4511. The design has insulated and double-shielded case. The accelerometer housing is made of stainless steel, AISI 316L. Piezoceramic PZ23 is used. The seismic mass...

  11. Azimuthally forced flames in an annular combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Nicholas; Dawson, James; Mastorakos, Epaminondas

    2015-11-01

    Thermoacoustic instabilities are more likely to occur in lean burn combustion systems, making their adoption both difficult and costly. At present, our knowledge of such phenomena is insufficient to produce an inherently stable combustor by design, and therefore an improved understanding of these instabilities has become the focus of a significant research effort. Recent experimental and numerical studies have demonstrated that the symmetry of annular chambers permit a range of self-excited azimuthal modes to be generated in annular geometry, which can make the study of isolated modes difficult. While acoustic forcing is common in single flame experiments, no equivalent for forced azimuthal modes in an annular chamber have been demonstrated. The present investigation focuses on the novel application of acoustic forcing to a laboratory scale annular combustor, in order to generate azimuthal standing wave modes at a prescribed frequency and amplitude. The results focus on the ability of the method to isolate the mode of oscillation using experimental pressure and high speed OH* measurements. The successful excitation of azimuthal modes demonstrated represents an important step towards improving our fundamental understanding of this phenomena in practically relevant geometry.

  12. Macroscopicity of quantum superpositions on a one-parameter unitary path in Hilbert space

    OpenAIRE

    Volkoff, T. J.; Whaley, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze quantum states formed as superpositions of an initial pure product state and its image under local unitary evolution, using two measurement-based measures of superposition size: one based on the optimal quantum binary distinguishability of the branches of the superposition and another based on the ratio of the maximal quantum Fisher information of the superposition to that of its branches, i.e., the relative metrological usefulness of the superposition. A general formula for the ef...

  13. Motional states of magnetic molecules and their coherent superposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainos, C.; Baudon, J.; Karam, J.-C.; Perales, F.; Robert, J.; Pirani, F.; Aquilanti, V.

    2003-12-01

    We study the coherent superposition of motional states in magnetic molecules. The distinct time evolution of each motional state in the presence of an external magnetic field and the dynamics of the molecular rotation are found to be interrelated by a molecular orientation correlation function. The correlation of two distinct molecular orientations is then investigated in terms of a dimensionless time variable and is found to reflect the inertia of the reorientation process. The relative phase in the coherent superposition gives evidence of a continuous redistribution of the interaction energy among the motional states of the superposition. Numerical simulations are provided for the prototypical magnetic molecule O2 in its ground state. Relevance is indicated for experiments on molecular interferometry, coherent control, and quantum information.

  14. Response to "Verifying quantum superpositions at metre scales"

    CERN Document Server

    Kovachy, T; Overstreet, C; Donnelly, C A; Dickerson, S M; Sugarbaker, A; Hogan, J M; Kasevich, M A

    2016-01-01

    The preceding BCA (Stamper-Kurn et. al., arXiv:1607.01454) asserts that our observation of interference contrast in a half-metre-scale atom interferometer (Kovachy et. al., Nature 528, 530-3 (2015)) does not prove the existence of macroscopic quantum superpositions and hence does not test quantum mechanics at long length scales. Moreover, the BCA implies that intrinsic atomic interactions or technical imperfections could prevent the application of our work to future differential measurements. On the contrary, we argue the following: i) in standard quantum mechanics, there is no known mechanism in our system that prohibits its use in future differential measurement applications; ii) our experiment tests quantum mechanics in that it constrains any modifications that would reduce contrast in an interferometer with arms that propagate over widely separated trajectories; and iii) using a standard definition of superposition, our observation of interference results from quantum superposition at the half-metre scale...

  15. Non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Vaity, Pravin; Chithrabhanu, P; Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabakar, Shashi; Singh, R P

    2016-02-10

    Vector vortex beams are classified into four types depending upon spatial variation in their polarization vector. We have generated all four of these types of vector vortex beams by using a modified polarization Sagnac interferometer with a vortex lens. Further, we have studied the non-coaxial superposition of two vector vortex beams. It is observed that the superposition of two vector vortex beams with same polarization singularity leads to a beam with another kind of polarization singularity in their interaction region. The results may be of importance in ultrahigh security of the polarization-encrypted data that utilizes vector vortex beams and multiple optical trapping with non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams. We verified our experimental results with theory. PMID:26906384

  16. Dissipative Optomechanical Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, M.; Degenfeld-Schonburg, P.; Sameti, M.; Navarrete-Benlloch, C.; Hartmann, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    The transition from quantum to classical physics remains an intensely debated question even though it has been investigated for more than a century. Further clarifications could be obtained by preparing macroscopic objects in spatial quantum superpositions and proposals for generating such states for nanomechanical devices either in a transient or a probabilistic fashion have been put forward. Here, we introduce a method to deterministically obtain spatial superpositions of arbitrary lifetime via dissipative state preparation. In our approach, we engineer a double-well potential for the motion of the mechanical element and drive it towards the ground state, which shows the desired spatial superposition, via optomechanical sideband cooling. We propose a specific implementation based on a superconducting circuit coupled to the mechanical motion of a lithium-decorated monolayer graphene sheet, introduce a method to verify the mechanical state by coupling it to a superconducting qubit, and discuss its prospects for testing collapse models for the quantum to classical transition.

  17. Linear Plasma Oscillation Described by Superposition of Normal Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1974-01-01

    The existence of steady‐state solutions to the linearized ion and electron Vlasov equation is demonstrated for longitudinal waves in an initially stable plasma. The evolution of an arbitrary initial perturbation can be described by superposition of these solutions. Some common approximations to the...... full set of equations can be solved in the same way. In some special cases, relevant, for instance, for single‐ended Q machine experiments, a problem with given boundary conditions can be solved by superposition of normal modes....

  18. Analysis of a Fivefold Symmetric Superposition of Plane Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We show that a symmetric superposition of five standing plane waves can be expressed as an infinite series of terms of decreasing wavenumber, where each term is a product of five plane waves. We show that this series converges pointwise in R^2 and uniformly in any disk domain in R^2. Using this series, we provide a heuristic argument for why the locations of the local extrema of a symmetric superposition of five standing plane waves can be approximated by the vertices of a Penrose tiling.

  19. Periodic solutions of nonlinear equations obtained by linear superposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that a type of linear superposition principle works for several nonlinear differential equations. Using this approach, we find periodic solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, the λφ4 model, the sine-Gordon equation and the Boussinesq equation by making appropriate linear superpositions of known periodic solutions. This unusual procedure for generating solutions of nonlinear differential equations is successful as a consequence of some powerful, recently discovered, cyclic identities satisfied by the Jacobi elliptic functions

  20. Orbital angular momentum of superposition of identical shifted vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A A; Kotlyar, V V

    2015-10-01

    We have formulated and proven the following theorem: the superposition of an arbitrary number of arbitrarily off-axis, identical nonparaxial optical vortex beams of arbitrary radially symmetric shape, integer topological charge n, and arbitrary real weight coefficients has the normalized orbital angular momentum (OAM) equal to that of individual constituent identical beams. This theorem enables generating vortex laser beams with different (not necessarily radially symmetric) intensity profiles but identical OAM. Superpositions of Bessel, Hankel-Bessel, Bessel-Gaussian, and Laguerre-Gaussian beams with the same OAM are discussed. PMID:26479934

  1. Pairwise Quantum Correlations for Superpositions of Dicke States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席政军; 熊恒娜; 李永明; 王晓光

    2012-01-01

    Pairwise correlation is really an important property for multi-qubit states.For the two-qubit X states extracted from Dicke states and their superposition states,we obtain a compact expression of the quantum discord by numerical check.We then apply the expression to discuss the quantum correlation of the reduced two-qubit states of Dicke states and their superpositions,and the results are compared with those obtained by entanglement of formation,which is a quantum entanglement measure.

  2. Superposition of nonlinear coherent states on a sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Hosseinzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, by using the nonlinear coherent states on a sphere, we introduce superposition of the aforementioned coherent states. Then, we consider quantum optical properties of these new superposed states and compare these properties with the corresponding properties of the nonlinear coherent states on the sphere. Specifically, we investigate their characteristics function, photon-number distribution, Mandel parameter, quadrature squeezing, anti-bunching effect and Wigner function, and obtain the curvature effect on the properties of the superposed states. Finally, by using the trapped atom system, we introduce a theoretical scheme to generate superposition of the coherent states on the sphere.

  3. Seeing lens imaging as a superposition of multiple views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusche, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    In the conventional approach to lens imaging, rays are used to map object points to image points. However, many students want to think of the image as a whole. To answer this need, Kepler’s ray drawing is reinterpreted in terms of shifted camera obscura images. These images are uncovered by covering the lens with pinholes. Thus, lens imaging is seen as a superposition of sharp images from different viewpoints, so-called elemental images. This superposition is simulated with projectors, and with transparencies. Lens ray diagrams are constructed based on elemental images; the conventional construction method is included as a special case.

  4. Management of Periocular Granuloma Annulare Using Topical Dapsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayha; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare is a disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the dermis. Localized granuloma annulare may resolve spontaneously, while generalized granuloma annulare may persist for decades. The authors present the case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man with a two-week history of periocular granuloma annulare. Due to previously reported success in the use of systemic dapsone for the treatment of granuloma annulare, and the periocular proximity of the patient’s lesion, topical dapsone was used for treatment. Various additional therapies for the management of granuloma annulare have been reported, such as topical and systemic steroids, isotretinoin, pentoxifylline, cyclosporine, Interferon gamma, potassium iodide, nicotinamide, niacinamide, salicylic acid, fumaric acid ester, etanercept, infliximab, and hydroxychloroquine. Additional clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of topical dapsone in the management of granuloma annulare. PMID:26203321

  5. Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Benjamin Simon

    2008-12-19

    In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)

  6. Evolution of Colour Superposition in the Stochastic QCD Vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvshinov, V. I.; Bagashov, E. G.

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that confinement of spinless heavy quarks can be treated as decoherence of an arbitrary colour superposition into a mixture quantum state with equal probabilities for different colours with the use of stochastic QCD vacuum model. Decoherence rate is found to be proportional to the distance between colour charges. Purity, fidelity, and Von Neumann entropy of colour states are evaluated.

  7. Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)

  8. Superposition and Entanglement: Pillars of Quantum Information Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant; Chakrabarty, Indranil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the important primitives of Superposition and Entanglement in Quantum Information Processing from physics point of view. System of spin-1/2 particles has been considered which presents itself as a logical and conceptual candidate to understand these concepts. The article is intended as a review of these important concepts and hopes to bring forth a conceptual framework in this regard.

  9. Atomic quantum superposition state generation via optical probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ersbak Bang; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Negretti, Antonio;

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the performance of a protocol to prepare an atomic ensemble in a superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable states. The protocol relies on conditional measurements performed on a light field, which interacts with the atoms inside an optical cavity prior to detection, and we...

  10. Quantum superposition of charge states on capacitively coupled superconducting islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, C.P.; Dixon, D.C.; Wal, C.H. van der; Hadley, P.; Mooij, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the ground state properties of a system containing two superconducting islands coupled capacitively by a wire. The ground state is a macroscopic superposition of charge states, even though the islands cannot exchange charge carriers. The ground state of the system is probed by measuri

  11. Non newtonian annular alloy solidification in mould

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga, Nelson O.; Garrido, Carlos P. [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, La Serena (Chile); Castillo, Ernesto F. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-08-15

    The annular solidification of an aluminium-silicon alloy in a graphite mould with a geometry consisting of horizontal concentric cylinders is studied numerically. The analysis incorporates the behavior of non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic (n=0.2), Newtonian (n=1), and dilatant (n=1.5) fluids. The fluid mechanics and heat transfer coupled with a transient model of convection diffusion are solved using the finite volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm. Solidification is described in terms of a liquid fraction of a phase change that varies linearly with temperature. The final results make it possible to infer that the fluid dynamics and heat transfer of solidification in an annular geometry are affected by the non-Newtonian nature of the fluid, speeding up the process when the fluid is pseudoplastic. (orig.)

  12. Performance of annular high frequency thermoacoustic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ivan A.

    This thesis presents studies of the behavior of miniature annular thermoacoustic prime movers and the imaging of the complex sound fields using PIV inside the small acoustic wave guides when driven by a temperature gradient. Thermoacoustic engines operating in the standing wave mode are limited in their acoustic efficiency by a high degree of irreversibility that is inherent in how they work. Better performance can be achieved by using traveling waves in the thermoacoustic devices. This has led to the development of an annular high frequency thermoacoustic prime mover consisting of a regenerator, which is a random stack in-between a hot and cold heat exchanger, inside an annular waveguide. Miniature devices were developed and studied with operating frequencies in the range of 2-4 kHz. This corresponds to an average ring circumference of 11 cm for the 3 kHz device, the resonator bore being 6 mm. A similar device of 11 mm bore, length of 18 cm was also investigated; its resonant frequency was 2 kHz. Sound intensities as high as 166.8 dB were generated with limited heat input. Sound power was extracted from the annular structure by an impedance-matching side arm. The nature of the acoustic wave generated by heat was investigated using a high speed PIV instrument. Although the acoustic device appears symmetric, its performance is characterized by a broken symmetry and by perturbations that exist in its structure. Effects of these are observed in the PIV imaging; images show axial and radial components. Moreover, PIV studies show effects of streaming and instabilities which affect the devices' acoustic efficiency. The acoustic efficiency is high, being of 40% of Carnot. This type of device shows much promise as a high efficiency energy converter; it can be reduced in size for microcircuit applications.

  13. Annular Alopecia Areata: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Manish; Manchanda, Kajal; Pandey, SS

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an auto-immune disorder characterized by the appearance of non-scarring bald patches affecting the hair bearing areas of the body. Scalp is the most common site of involvement. AA can affect any age group. The usual pattern of the hair loss is oval or round. We hereby, report two cases of annular and circinate pattern of AA due to its unusual morphology.

  14. Annular pancreas associated with duodenal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enrico; Bronnimann; Silke; Potthast; Tatjana; Vlajnic; Daniel; Oertli; Oleg; Heizmann

    2010-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly. Coexisting malignancy has been reported only in a few cases. We report what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case in the English literature of duodenal adenocarcinoma in a patient with AP. In a 55-year old woman with duodenal outlet stenosis magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed an aberrant pancreatic duct encircling the duodenum. Duodenojejunostomy was performed. Eight weeks later she presented with painless jaundice. Duodenopancre...

  15. Vibration analysis of annular-like plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Li, Y. Y.; Yam, L. H.

    2003-05-01

    The existence of eccentricity of the central hole for an annular plate results in a significant change in the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, the vibration analysis of annular-like plates is presented based on numerical and experimental approaches. Using the finite element analysis code Nastran, the effects of the eccentricity, hole size and boundary condition on vibration modes are investigated systematically through both global and local analyses. The results show that analyses for perfect symmetric conditions can still roughly predict the mode shapes of "recessive" modes of the plate with a slightly eccentric hole. They will, however, lead to erroneous results for "dominant" modes. In addition, the residual displacement mode shape is verified as an effective parameter for identifying damage occurring in plate-like structures. Experimental modal analysis on a clamped-free annular-like plate is performed, and the results obtained reveal good agreement with those obtained by numerical analysis. This study provides guidance on modal analysis, vibration measurement and damage detection of plate-like structures.

  16. Effect of Annular Slit Geometry on Characteristics of Spiral Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigeru Matsuo; Kwon-Hee Lee; Shinsuke Oda; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Heuy-Dong Kim

    2003-01-01

    A spiral flow using an annular slit connected to a conical cylinder does not need special device to generate a tangential velocity component of the flow and differs from swirling flows. Pressurized fluid is supplied to an annular chamber and injected into the convergent nozzle through the annular slit. The annular jet develops into the spiral flow. In the present study, a spiral jet discharged out of nozzle exit was obtained by using a convergent nozzle and an annular slit set in nozzle inlet, and the effect of annular slit geometry on characteristics of the spiral jet was investigated by using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) experimentally. Furthermore, velocity distributions of the spiral jet were compared with those of a normal jet.

  17. Ultrasonogrphic diagnosis of snapping annular ligament in the elbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Jee Won; Kim Su Jin; Lim, Hyun Kyong; Bae, Kee Jeong [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Elbow snapping by annular ligament is rare and may be difficult to diagnose, when this Epub ahead of print condition is not familiar. We report a case of elbow snapping by annular ligament diagnosed by ultrasonography, which was confirmed by arthroscopic observation. The ultrasonographic findings were thickening of the annular ligament and snapping in and out of the radiocapitellar joint during elbow flexion and extension on dynamic ultrasonography.

  18. The Bound of Entanglement of Superpositions with More Than Two Components

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Yang; Xiong, Shi-Jie; Hong, Fang-Yu

    2007-01-01

    A bipartite quantum state (for two systems in any dimensions) can be decomposed as a superposition of many components. For a superposition of more than two components we prove that there is a bound of the entanglement of the superposition state which can be expressed according to entanglements of its component states. Especially, if the component states are mutually bi-orthogonal, the entanglement of the superposition state can be exactly given in terms of the entanglements of the states bein...

  19. A measurement-based measure of the size of macroscopic quantum superpositions

    OpenAIRE

    Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Whaley, K. Birgitta; DuBois, Jonathan; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments claiming formation of quantum superposition states in near macroscopic sys- tems raise the question of how the sizes of general quantum superposition states in an interacting system are to be quantified. We propose here a measure of size for such superposition states that is based on what measurements can be performed to probe and distinguish the different branches of the state. The measure allows comparison of the effective size for superposition states in very different p...

  20. Is quantum linear superposition an exact principle of nature?

    CERN Document Server

    Bassi, Angelo; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    The principle of linear superposition is a hallmark of quantum theory. It has been confirmed experimentally for photons, electrons, neutrons, atoms, for molecules having masses up to ten thousand amu, and also in collective states such as SQUIDs and Bose-Einstein condensates. However, the principle does not seem to hold for positions of large objects! Why for instance, a table is never found to be in two places at the same time? One possible explanation for the absence of macroscopic superpositions is that quantum theory is an approximation to a stochastic nonlinear theory. This hypothesis may have its fundamental origins in gravitational physics, and is being put to test by modern ongoing experiments on matter wave interferometry.

  1. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

    CERN Document Server

    Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations an...

  2. Granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trap, R; Wiebe, B

    1993-01-01

    A case of granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis is reported. The differential diagnoses are discussed. Penile granuloma annulare is a rare disorder and it is concluded that biopsies of penile lesions are recommended to verify the correct diagnosis.......A case of granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis is reported. The differential diagnoses are discussed. Penile granuloma annulare is a rare disorder and it is concluded that biopsies of penile lesions are recommended to verify the correct diagnosis....

  3. The propagation of hypergeometric beams through an annular apertured paraxial ABCD optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of expanding the hard aperture function into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions and based on the generalized Huygens–Fresnel diffraction integral, a novel approximate analytical expression of hypergeometric (HyG) beams passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system with an annular aperture is derived. The results could be reduced to the case of a circular aperture or a circular black screen. Some numerical simulations are also performed and illustrated for the propagation characteristics and focusing properties of a HyG beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system with an annular aperture. The results obtained from the approximate analytical formula provide more efficiency than the usual way of using diffraction integral formula directly. (paper)

  4. The propagation of hypergeometric beams through an annular apertured paraxial ABCD optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Jiang, Chun; Zhu, Haibin; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Shuai

    2014-12-01

    By means of expanding the hard aperture function into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions and based on the generalized Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral, a novel approximate analytical expression of hypergeometric (HyG) beams passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system with an annular aperture is derived. The results could be reduced to the case of a circular aperture or a circular black screen. Some numerical simulations are also performed and illustrated for the propagation characteristics and focusing properties of a HyG beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system with an annular aperture. The results obtained from the approximate analytical formula provide more efficiency than the usual way of using diffraction integral formula directly.

  5. Macroscopic Superposition of Ultracold Atoms with Orbital Degrees of Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-March, M. A.; Dounas-Frazer, D. R.; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce higher dimensions into the problem of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential, taking into account orbital angular momentum. We completely characterize the eigenstates of this system, delineating new regimes via both analytical high-order perturbation theory and numerical exact diagonalization. Among these regimes are mixed Josephson- and Fock-like behavior, crossings in both excited and ground states, and shadows of macroscopic superposition states.

  6. Slow Decoherence of Superpositions of Macroscopically Distinct States

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, D; Haake, F; Braun, Daniel; Braun, Petr A.; Haake, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    Linear superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states (sometimes also called Schrödinger cat states) are usually almost immediately reduced to a statistical mixture if exposed to the dephasing influence of a dissipative environment. Couplings to the environment with a certain symmetry can lead to slow decoherence, however. We give specific examples of slowly decohering Schrödinger cat states in a realistic quantum optical system and discuss how they might be constructed experimentally.

  7. Quantum Teleportation of Superposition State for Squeezed States

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Xin-Hua; Kuang, Le-Man

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for teleporting an arbitrary coherent superposition state of two equal-amplitude and opposite-phase squeezed vacuum states (SVS) via a symmetric 50/50 beam splitter and photodetectors. It is shown that the quantum teleportation scheme has the successful probability 1/4. Maximally entangled SVS's are used as quantum channel for realizing the teleportation scheme. It is shown that if an initial quantum channel is in a pure but not maximally entangled SVS, the quantu...

  8. Realization of an Optimally Distinguishable Multi-photon Quantum Superposition

    OpenAIRE

    De Martini, Francesco; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    We report the successful generation of an entangled multiparticle quantum superposition of pure photon states. They result from a multiple (universal} cloning of a single photon qubit by a high gain, quantum-injected parametric amplifier. The information preserving property of the process suggests for these states the name of ''multi-particle qubits''. They are ideal objects for investigating the emergence of the classical world in quantum systems with increasing complexity, the decoherence p...

  9. Sensing Super-position: Visual Instrument Sensor Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.; Schipper, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The coming decade of fast, cheap and miniaturized electronics and sensory devices opens new pathways for the development of sophisticated equipment to overcome limitations of the human senses. This project addresses the technical feasibility of augmenting human vision through Sensing Super-position using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR). The current implementation of the VISOR device translates visual and other passive or active sensory instruments into sounds, which become relevant when the visual resolution is insufficient for very difficult and particular sensing tasks. A successful Sensing Super-position meets many human and pilot vehicle system requirements. The system can be further developed into cheap, portable, and low power taking into account the limited capabilities of the human user as well as the typical characteristics of his dynamic environment. The system operates in real time, giving the desired information for the particular augmented sensing tasks. The Sensing Super-position device increases the image resolution perception and is obtained via an auditory representation as well as the visual representation. Auditory mapping is performed to distribute an image in time. The three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. This paper details the approach of developing Sensing Super-position systems as a way to augment the human vision system by exploiting the capabilities of the human hearing system as an additional neural input. The human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns. The known capabilities of the human hearing system to learn and understand complicated auditory patterns provided the basic motivation for developing an

  10. Adiabatic creation of coherent superposition states via multiple intermediate states

    CERN Document Server

    Karpati, A

    2003-01-01

    We consider an adiabatic population transfer process that resembles the well established stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). In our system, the states have nonzero angular momentums $J$, therefore, the coupling laser fields induce transitions among the magnetic sublevels of the states. In particular, we discuss the possibility of creating coherent superposition states in a system with coupling pattern $J=0\\Leftrightarrow J=1$ and $J=1\\Leftrightarrow J=2$. Initially, the system is in the J=0 state. We show that by two delayed, overlapping laser pulses it is possible to create any final superposition state of the magnetic sublevels $|2,-2>$, $|2,0>$, $|2,+2>$. Moreover, we find that the relative phases of the applied pulses influence not only the phases of the final superposition state but the probability amplitudes as well. We show that if we fix the shape and the time-delay between the pulses, the final state space can be entirely covered by varying the polarizations and relative phases of the two pu...

  11. Single-Atom Gating of Quantum State Superpositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-04-28

    The ultimate miniaturization of electronic devices will likely require local and coherent control of single electronic wavefunctions. Wavefunctions exist within both physical real space and an abstract state space with a simple geometric interpretation: this state space - or Hilbert space - is spanned by mutually orthogonal state vectors corresponding to the quantized degrees of freedom of the real-space system. Measurement of superpositions is akin to accessing the direction of a vector in Hilbert space, determining an angle of rotation equivalent to quantum phase. Here we show that an individual atom inside a designed quantum corral1 can control this angle, producing arbitrary coherent superpositions of spatial quantum states. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and nanostructures assembled atom-by-atom we demonstrate how single spins and quantum mirages can be harnessed to image the superposition of two electronic states. We also present a straightforward method to determine the atom path enacting phase rotations between any desired state vectors. A single atom thus becomes a real-space handle for an abstract Hilbert space, providing a simple technique for coherent quantum state manipulation at the spatial limit of condensed matter.

  12. Thread-annular flow in vertical pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Ch.; Lüscher, P.; Wintermantel, E.

    2000-05-01

    Thread injection is a promising method for different minimally invasive medical applications. This paper documents an experimental study dealing with an axially moving thread in annular pipe flow. Mass flow and axial force on the thread are measured for a 0.46 mm diameter thread in pipes with diameters between 0.55 and 1.35 mm. The experiments with thread velocities of up to 1.5 ms[minus sign]1 confirm the findings of theoretical studies that for clinical requirements the radius ratio between thread and pipe is crucial for the adjustments of mass ow and force on the thread.

  13. Deep variant of Erythema Annulare Centrifugum

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Yorulmaz; Ferda Artuz; Devrim Tuba Unal

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman came to our outpatient clinic with a several-month history of itchy red lesions over her trunk. There was no family history and past history of any other diseases or medication. Dermatological examination revealed annular and oval-shaped plaques up to several cm’s in size, one of which was polycyclic in configuration, on back of the patient (Fig. 1). It was also noticed that lesions had erythematous indurated bordes with paler central areas (Fig. 1).

  14. Deep variant of Erythema Annulare Centrifugum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman came to our outpatient clinic with a several-month history of itchy red lesions over her trunk. There was no family history and past history of any other diseases or medication. Dermatological examination revealed annular and oval-shaped plaques up to several cm’s in size, one of which was polycyclic in configuration, on back of the patient (Fig. 1. It was also noticed that lesions had erythematous indurated bordes with paler central areas (Fig. 1.

  15. Visualization of the annular synthetic jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Broučková, Zuzana; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Šafařík, Pavel

    Praha: Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, v. v. i, 2012 - (Šimurda, D.; Kozel, K.), s. 13-16 ISBN 978-80-87012-40-6. [Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics 2012. Praha (CZ), 15.02.2012-17.02.2012] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jet * annular jet * visualization Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  17. Interfacial friction in cocurrent upward annular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossfeld, L. M.; Bharathan, D.; Wallis, G. B.; Richter, H. J.

    1982-03-01

    Cocurrent upward annular flow is investigated, with an emphasis on correlating and predicting pressure drop. Attention is given to the characteristics of the liquid flow in the film, and the interaction of the core with the film. Alternate approaches are discussed for correlating suitably defined interfacial friction factors. Both approaches are dependent on knowledge of the entrainment in order to make predictions. Dimensional analysis is used to define characteristic parameters of the flow and an effort is made to determine, to the extent possible, the influences of these parameters on the interfacial friction factor.

  18. Air-water countercurrent annular flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.

    1979-09-01

    Countercurrent annular flow of air and water in circular tubes of diameters ranging from 6.4 to 152 mm is investigated. Experimental measurements include liquid fraction, pressure gradients and countercurrent gas and liquid fluxes. Influences of tube end geometries on the countercurrent fluxes are isolated. Analogies between countercurrent flow, open channel flow, and compressible flow are established. Interfacial momentum transfer between the phases are characterized by empirical friction factors. The dependence of interfacial friction factors on tube diameter is shown to yield a basis for extending the present results to larger tubes.

  19. Annular diffraction of very unstable light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because they are brittle, unstable light nuclei can produce an annular diffraction pattern observed on their decay products with large cross sections. With such a simple model, the 9Li angular distribution observed in the 11Li fragmentation have been reproduced together with the reaction cross-section and the fragmentation yield provided recoil effects from neutron emission are included. It results that for this projectile and for light targets, diffraction is the main source of transverse momentum for 9Li whereas for neutrons it originates from its emission energy in the 11Li center of mass

  20. Air-water countercurrent annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countercurrent annular flow of air and water in circular tubes of diameters ranging from 6.4 to 152 mm is investigated. Experimental measurements include liquid fraction, pressure gradients and countercurrent gas and liquid fluxes. Influences of tube end geometries on the countercurrent fluxes are isolated. Analogies between countercurrent flow, open channel flow, and compressible flow are established. Interfacial momentum transfer between the phases are characterized by empirical friction factors. The dependence of interfacial friction factors on tube diameter is shown to yield a basis for extending the present results to larger tubes

  1. Detonation diffraction from an annular channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, James; Ng, Hoi Dick; Lee, John H. S.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, gaseous detonation diffraction from an annular channel was investigated with a streak camera and the critical pressure for transmission of the detonation wave was obtained. The annular channel was used to approximate an infinite slot resulting in cylindrically expanding detonation waves. Two mixtures, stoichiometric acetylene-oxygen and stoichiometric acetylene-oxygen with 70% Ar dilution, were tested in a 4.3 and 14.3 mm channel width ( W). The undiluted and diluted mixtures were found to have values of the critical channel width over the cell size around 3 and 12 respectively. Comparing these results to values of the critical diameter ( d c ), in which a spherical detonation occurs, a value of critical d c / W c near 2 is observed for the highly diluted mixture. This value corresponds to the geometrical factor of the curvature term between a spherical and cylindrical diverging wave. Hence, the result is in support of Lee's proposed mechanism [Lee in Dynamics of Exothermicity, pp. 321, Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1996] for failure due to diffraction based on curvature in stable mixtures such as those highly argon diluted with very regular detonation cellular patterns.

  2. The Design and Manufacturing Report of Non-Instrumented Rig for Dual-cooled Annular Fuel Irradiation Test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Lim, Ik Sung; Kim, Sun Ki; Yang, Yong Sik; Song, Kun Woo; Seo, Chul Gyo; Park, Chan Kook

    2008-09-15

    This project is preparing to irradiation test of the developed double cooled annular fuel pellet in HANARO for pursuit advanced performance in High Performance Fuel Technology Development as a part Nuclear Mid and Long-term R and D Program. On the basis test rod is performed the nuclei property and preliminary fuel performance analysis, test rod and non-instrumented rig designed and manufactured for irradiation test in HANARO OR hole. This non- instrumented rig was confirmed the compatibility of HANARO and the integrity of rig structure, and satisfied the quality assurance requirements. This non- instrumented rig is adopt to the irradiation test for double cooled annular fuel pellet in HANARO.

  3. 75 FR 23582 - Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Recommended Practice (RP) 90. As explained in API RP 90, Section 3, Annular Casing Pressure Management Program... Institute's Recommended Practice for managing annular casing pressure. New regulations are needed because... Continental Shelf lessees to follow best industry practices for wells with sustained casing pressure....

  4. Obtention of an empirical equation for annular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a trial circuit, the experimental heat transfer coefficient is determined, in forced convection at one phase only within an annular channel in which water flows ascendantly and for this reason an empirical equation is determined. This work tries to contribute to the understanding of the forced convection phenomena in non tubular geometries like the annular channels. (Author)

  5. Limited Diffraction Maps for Pulsed Wave Annular Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure is provided for decomposing the linear field of flat pulsed wave annular arrays into an equivalent set of known limited diffraction Bessel beams. Each Bessel beam propagates with known characteristics, enabling good insight into the propagation of annular fields to be obtained...

  6. Effect of annular secondary conductor in a linear electromagnetic stirrer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Madhavan; V Ramanarayanan

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the variation of average axial force density in the annular secondary conductor of a linear electromagnetic stirrer. Different geometries of secondaries are considered for numerical and experimental validation namely, 1. hollow annular ring, 2. annular ring with a solid cylinder and 3. solid cylinder. Experimental and numerical simulations are performed for a 2-pole in house built 15 kW linear electromagnetic stirrer (EMS). It is observed for a supply current of 200 A at 30 Hz the force densities in the hollow annular ring is 67% higher than the equivalent solid cylinder. The same values are 33% for annular ring with a solid cylinder. Force density variation with supply frequency and current are also reported. Numerical simulations using finite element model are validated with experimental results.

  7. Measurement-induced macroscopic superposition states in cavity optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hoff, Ulrich B; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel proposal for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the readily achievable bad-cavity limit. The scheme is based on a pulsed cavity optomechanical quantum non-demolition (QND) interaction, driven by displaced non-Gaussian states, and measurement-induced feedback, avoiding the need for strong single-photon optomechanical coupling. Furthermore, we show that single-quadrature cooling of the mechanical oscillator is sufficient for efficient state preparation, and we outline a three-pulse protocol comprising a sequence of QND interactions for squeezing-enhanced cooling, state preparation, and tomography.

  8. On Kolmogorov's superpositions and Boolean functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    The paper overviews results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on an explicit numerical (i.e., constructive) algorithm for Kolmogorov's superpositions they will show that for obtaining minimum size neutral networks for implementing any Boolean function, the activation function of the neurons is the identity function. Because classical AND-OR implementations, as well as threshold gate implementations require exponential size (in the worst case), it will follow that size-optimal solutions for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions require analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.

  9. The entropic squeezing of superposition of two arbitrary coherent states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Dao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the superpusitious of two arbitrary coherent states |ψ>= α|β>+bei4 |mβei(o)> are constructed by using the superposition principle of quantum mechanics.The entropic squeezing effects of the quantum states are studied.The numerical results indicate that the amplitudes,the ratio between the amplitudes of two coherent states,the phase difference between the two components and the relative phase of the two coefficients play important roles in the squeezing effects of the position entropy and momentum entropy.

  10. Three Party Quantum Authenticated Key Distribution Protocol Using Superposition States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sathi Reddy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Quantum authenticated key distribution protocol that can perform key distribution and also ensure that the participants of the communication are authentic, both implicitly and explicitly. This protocol provides new directions in Classical cryptography and Quantum cryptography.The Participants of the protocol trust the third party regarding the authentication part only. Thus the proposed protocol will be preferable for network systems which deal with highly sensitive information, such as military, hospitals, research facilities. Our protocol utilizes polarized photons in superposition states for authentication and key distribution which provides high security against many attacks.

  11. Quantum teleportation of one- and two-photon superposition states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英; 张天才; 张俊香; 谢常德

    2003-01-01

    Quantum teleportation of one- and two-photon superposition states based on EPR entanglement of continuouswave two-mode squeezed state is discussed. The fidelities of teleportation are deduced for two different input quantum states. The dependence of the fidelity on the parameters of EPR entanglement and the gain of the classical channels are shown numerically. Comparing with the teleportation of Fock state and coherent state, it is pointed out that for given EPR entanglement and classical gain, the higher the nonclassicality of the input state, the lower the accessible fidelity of teleportation.

  12. Scaling of macroscopic superpositions close to a quantum phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Tahereh; Karimipour, Vahid

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that in a quantum phase transition (QPT), entanglement remains short ranged [Osterloh et al., Nature (London) 416, 608 (2005), 10.1038/416608a]. We ask if there is a quantum property entailing the whole system which diverges near this point. Using the recently proposed measures of quantum macroscopicity, we show that near a quantum critical point, it is the effective size of macroscopic superposition between the two symmetry breaking states which grows to the scale of system size, and its derivative with respect to the coupling shows both singular behavior and scaling properties.

  13. Seeing lens imaging as a superposition of multiple views

    CERN Document Server

    Grusche, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    In the conventional approach to lens imaging, rays are used to map object points to image points. However, many students have a need to think of the image as a whole. To answer this need, lens imaging is reinterpreted as a superposition of sharp images from different viewpoints. These so-called elemental images are uncovered by covering the lens with a pinhole array. Rays are introduced to connect elemental images. Lens ray diagrams are constructed based on bundles of elemental images. The conventional construction method is included as a special case. The proposed approach proceeds from concrete images to abstract rays.

  14. Efficient Power Allocation for Video over Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider a wireless multimedia system by mapping scalable video coded (SVC) bit stream upon superposition coded (SPC) signals, referred to as (SVC-SPC) architecture. Empirical experiments using a software-defined radio(SDR) emulator are conducted to gain a better understanding of its efficiency, specifically, the impact of the received signal due to different power allocation ratios. Our experimental results show that to maintain high video quality, the power allocated to the base layer should be approximately four times higher than the power allocated to the enhancement layer.

  15. AXISYMMETRIC BENDING OF TWO-DIRECTIONAL FUNCTIONALLY GRADED CIRCULAR AND ANNULAR PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojun Nie; Zheng Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Assuming the material properties varying with an exponential law both in the thickness and radial directions, axisymmetric bending of two-directional functionally graded circular and annular plates is studied using the semi-analytical numerical method in this paper. The deflections and stresses of the plates are presented. Numerical results show the well accuracy and convergence of the method. Compared with the finite element method, the semi-analytical numerical method is with great advantage in the computational efficiency. Moreover, study on axisymmetric bending of two-directional functionally graded annular plate shows that such plates have better performance than those made of isotropic homogeneous materials or one-directional functionally graded materials. Two-directional functionally graded material is a potential alternative to the one-directional functionally graded material. And the integrated design of materials and structures can really be achieved in two-directional functionally graded materials.

  16. Irradiation Test Plan of the Dual Cooled UO{sub 2} Annular Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Dae Ho; Chun, Tae Hyun; Kim, Keon Sik; Kim, Hyung Kyu; In, Wang Ki; Yang, Yong Sik; Song, Kun Woo; Chae, Hee Taek; Seo, Chul Gyo

    2008-09-15

    In order to study the behavior of the UO{sub 2} annular pellet developed by the high performance fuel technology development project, irradiation test will be carried out in HANARO research reactor for 5 cycles up to the burnup 12 MWD/kgU. After irradiation test in HANARO, the test fuel rod will be transferred to the hot cell and examined to verify the in-pile behavior. For the irradiation test, new irradiation test rig was designed and manufactured. The out-pile verification test and safety evaluation were performed and the results showed that the test rig and test rod will maintain the integrity and satisfy all the safety requirements during irradiation test. Therefore, it is expected that UO{sub 2} annular fuel can be irradiated safely in HANARO.

  17. Combined evaporating meniscus-driven convection and radiation in annular microchannels for electronics cooling application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, C.P.; Mahulikar, S.P. [Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Production Engineering

    2000-03-01

    Surface radiation interchange in an annular enclosure is numerically modeled together with evaporating meniscus-driven convection, for investigating the application of the concept for cooling in microelectronic devices. The geometry is axially discretised into ring elements, where the wall and fluid temperatures within each element are unknowns. The governing algebraic energy equations for convection and surface radiation for each element are formulated for steady-state operating conditions for heat generating cylinders. These equations are then solved simultaneously for all the elements, together with the integral form of the momentum equation, which equates the driving force due to the meniscus curvature to the weight of the coolant and the frictional resistance, and solely dictates the coolant rise length in the microchannel. The results reveal the coupling of fluid flow and heat transfer in the annular microchannel, and the relative importance of radiation. (author)

  18. Dual-Band Annular-Ring Microstrip Patch Antenna for Satellite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvs Divakar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A dual-band circularly polarized antenna fed by four apertures that covers the bands of GPS, Galileo, is introduced. The ARSAs designed using FR4 substrates in the L and S bands have 3-dB axial-ratio bandwidths (ARBWs of as large as 37% and 52%, respectively, whereas the one using an RT5880 substrate in the L band, 61%. In these 3-dB axial-ratio bands, impedance matching with VSWR<=1.8 is also achieved. Three wideband planar baluns are used to achieve good axial ratio and VSWR. The results of the annular-ring microstrip antenna show good performance of a dual-band operation, which meets the requirement of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS applications.

  19. Facility modernization Annular Core Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) has undergone numerous modifications since its conception in response to program needs. The original reactor fuel, which was special U-ZrH TRIGA fuel designed primarily for pulsing, has been replaced with a higher pulsing capacity BeO fuel. Other advanced operating modes which use this increased capability, in addition to the pulse and steady state, have been incorporated to tailor power histories and fluences to the experiments. Various experimental facilities have been developed that range from a radiography facility to a 50 cm diameter External Fuel Ring Cavity (FREC) using 180 of the original ZrH fuel elements. Currently a digital reactor console is being produced with GA, which will give enhanced monitoring capabilities of the reactor parameters while leaving the safety-related shutdown functions with analog technology. (author)

  20. Hydrodynamics of annular-dispersed flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interfacial drag, droplet entrainment, and droplet size distributions are important for detailed mechanistic modeling of annular dispersed two-phase flow. In view of this, recently developed correlations for these parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. The drag correlations for multiple fluid particle systems have been developed from a similarity hypothesis based on the mixture viscosity model. The results show that the drag coefficient depends on the particle Reynolds number and droplet concentration. The onset on droplet entrainment significantly alters the mechanisms of mass, momentum, and energy transfer between the film and gas core flow as well as the transfer between the two-phase mixture and the wall. By assuming the roll wave entrainment mechanism, the correlations for the amount of entrained droplet as well as for the droplet size distribution have been obtained from a simple model in collaboration with a large number of data

  1. A Bethe ansatz solvable model for superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, K. E.; Dunning, C.; Links, J.

    2006-08-01

    We introduce a general Hamiltonian describing coherent superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons. For particular choices of the coupling parameters, the model is integrable. One integrable manifold, as well as the Bethe ansatz solution, was found by Dukelsky et al. [J. Dukelsky, G.G. Dussel, C. Esebbag, S. Pittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 050403]. Here we show that there is a second integrable manifold, established using the boundary quantum inverse scattering method. In this manner we obtain the exact solution by means of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. In the case where the Cooper pair energies are degenerate we examine the relationship between the spectrum of these integrable Hamiltonians and the quasi-exactly solvable spectrum of particular Schrödinger operators. For the solution we derive here the potential of the Schrödinger operator is given in terms of hyperbolic functions. For the solution derived by Dukelsky et al., loc. cit. the potential is sextic and the wavefunctions obey PT-symmetric boundary conditions. This latter case provides a novel example of an integrable Hermitian Hamiltonian acting on a Fock space whose states map into a Hilbert space of PT-symmetric wavefunctions defined on a contour in the complex plane.

  2. A Bethe ansatz solvable model for superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibberd, K.E. [Centre for Mathematical Physics, University of Queensland, 4072 (Australia); Dunning, C. [Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent (United Kingdom); Links, J. [Centre for Mathematical Physics, University of Queensland, 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: jrl@maths.uq.edu.au

    2006-08-07

    We introduce a general Hamiltonian describing coherent superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons. For particular choices of the coupling parameters, the model is integrable. One integrable manifold, as well as the Bethe ansatz solution, was found by Dukelsky et al. [J. Dukelsky, G.G. Dussel, C. Esebbag, S. Pittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 050403]. Here we show that there is a second integrable manifold, established using the boundary quantum inverse scattering method. In this manner we obtain the exact solution by means of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. In the case where the Cooper pair energies are degenerate we examine the relationship between the spectrum of these integrable Hamiltonians and the quasi-exactly solvable spectrum of particular Schrodinger operators. For the solution we derive here the potential of the Schrodinger operator is given in terms of hyperbolic functions. For the solution derived by Dukelsky et al., loc. cit. the potential is sextic and the wavefunctions obey PT-symmetric boundary conditions. This latter case provides a novel example of an integrable Hermitian Hamiltonian acting on a Fock space whose states map into a Hilbert space of PT-symmetric wavefunctions defined on a contour in the complex plane.

  3. Recurrent Annular Peripheral Choroidal Detachment after Trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a challenging case of recurrent flat anterior chamber without hypotony after trabeculectomy in a 54-year-old Black male with a remote history of steroid-treated polymyositis, cataract surgery, and uncontrolled open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a flat chamber on postoperative day 11, but had a normal fundus exam and intraocular pressure (IOP. Flat chamber persisted despite treatment with cycloplegics, steroids, and a Healon injection into the anterior chamber. A transverse B-scan of the peripheral fundus revealed a shallow annular peripheral choroidal detachment. The suprachoroidal fluid was drained. The patient presented 3 days later with a recurrent flat chamber and an annular peripheral choroidal effusion. The fluid was removed and reinforcement of the scleral flap was performed with the resolution of the flat anterior chamber. A large corneal epithelial defect developed after the second drainage. The oral prednisone was tapered quickly and the topical steroid was decreased. One week later, his vision decreased to count fingers with severe corneal stromal edema and Descemet's membrane folds that improved to 20/50 within 24 h of resumption of the oral steroid and frequent topical steroid. The patient's visual acuity improved to 20/20 following a slow withdrawal of the oral and topical steroid. Eight months after surgery, the IOP was 15 mm Hg without glaucoma medication. The detection of a shallow anterior choroidal detachment by transverse B-scan is critical to making the correct diagnosis. Severe cornea edema can occur if the steroid is withdrawn too quickly. Thus, steroids should be tapered cautiously in steroid-dependent patients.

  4. A post-correction modal superposition method for nonlinear dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A post-correction algorithm developed for the dynamic analysis of simple nonlinear and hysteretic structures is extended for the analysis of building structures under earthquake loadings. The nonlinearities in the system are moved to the right-hand-side of the equations of motion and treated as a generalized loading. At each time step, the equations of motion for the resulting linear system are solved either numerically using the constant acceleration method, or analytically using modal superposition. The effect of the nonlinear generalized forces is made equivalent to a series of impulse forces acting on the resulting linear system. The method does not require the re-factorization of the effective tangent stiffness matrix at each step of the integration. (author)

  5. Optimal control theory with arbitrary superpositions of waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard optimal control methods perform optimization in the time domain. However, many experimental settings demand the expression of the control signal as a superposition of given waveforms, a case that cannot easily be accommodated using time-local constraints. Previous approaches [1, 2] have circumvented this difficulty by performing optimization in a parameter space, using the chain rule to make a connection to the time domain. In this paper, we present an extension to optimal control theory which allows gradient-based optimization for superpositions of arbitrary waveforms directly in a time-domain subspace. Its key is the use of the Moore–Penrose pseudoinverse as an efficient means of transforming between a time-local and waveform-based descriptions. To illustrate this optimization technique, we study the parametrically driven harmonic oscillator as model system and reduce its energy, considering both Hamiltonian dynamics and stochastic dynamics under the influence of a thermal reservoir. We demonstrate the viability and efficiency of the method for these test cases and find significant advantages in the case of waveforms which do not form an orthogonal basis. (paper)

  6. Double-Fock superposition interferometry for differential diagnosis of decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interferometric signals are degraded by decoherence, which encompasses dephasing, mixing and any distinguishing which-path information. These three paradigmatic processes are fundamentally different, but, for coherent, single-photon and N00N-states, they degrade interferometric visibility in the very same way, which impedes the diagnosis of the cause for reduced visibility in a single experiment. We introduce a versatile formalism for many-boson interferometry based on double-sided Feynman diagrams, which we apply to a protocol for differential decoherence diagnosis: twin-Fock states ∣N,N〉 with N⩾2 reveal to what extent decoherence is due to path distinguishability or to mixing, while double-Fock superpositions ∣N:M〉=(∣N,M〉+∣M,N〉)/√2 with N>M>0 additionally witness the degree of dephasing. Hence, double-Fock superposition interferometry permits the differential diagnosis of decoherence processes in a single experiment, indispensable for the assessment of interferometers. (paper)

  7. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Andrea; De Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation. PMID:26959656

  8. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Andrea; De Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation. PMID:26959656

  9. Coherent superposition in the coulomb explosion spectra of H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram for charge-resonance enhanced ionization (CREI) and the calculated kinetic energy spectra of proton from the Coulomb explosion of H2+ with 100 fs, 791 nm laser pulses, the peak laser intensities are from 5.0 x 1013 to 8.8 x 1013 W/cm2. Display Omitted Highlights: → Our quantum dynamics calculations confirm the multi-peak structures in CE spectra. → The main sharp peaks are attributed to vibrationally coherent superposition. → The structures disappear at relative higher laser intensities. - Abstract: Quantum wave packet calculations have been carried out to interpret the multi-peak structures in the Coulomb explosion spectra at low laser intensities from 5.0 x 1013 to 8.8 x 1013 W/cm2. A clear mechanism in comparison with experiment is presented. The calculated results confirm the previous experimental observations. The main sharp peaks can be attributed to vibrationally coherent superposition. It is different from the proposed explanation of the recent experimental measurements, in which each main peak is attributed to Coulomb explosion occurring at the same critical internuclear distance for all definite vibrational levels after the dissociation of the molecular ion. Moreover, our calculations indicate that these structures disappear at relative higher laser intensities, which is also consistent with the experiment.

  10. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Andrea; de Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-03-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation.

  11. Java application for the superposition T-matrix code to study the optical properties of cosmic dust aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Halder, P; Roy, P Deb; Das, H S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a java application for the Superposition T-matrix code, JaSTA (Java Superposition T-matrix App), to study the light scattering properties of aggregate structures. It has been developed using Netbeans 7.1.2, which is a java integrated development environment (IDE). The JaSTA uses double precession superposition codes for multi-sphere clusters in random orientation developed by Mackowski and Mischenko (1996). It consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) in the front hand and a database of related data in the back hand. Both the interactive GUI and database package directly enable a user to model by self-monitoring respective input parameters (namely, wavelength, complex refractive indices, grain size, etc.) to study the related optical properties of cosmic dust (namely, extinction, polarization, etc.) instantly, i.e., with zero computational time. This increases the efficiency of the user. The database of JaSTA is now created for a few sets of input parameters with...

  12. Stability of cantilevered coaxial shells with internal and annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a theoretical study of the stability of cantilevered coaxial cylindrical shells conveying incompressible fluid in the annular space in- between and within the inner shell. The viscous effects of the mean flow are taken into account, but the perturbations of the equilibrium state on the basis of which stability is assessed is carried out by means of potential flow theory, thus neglecting unsteady viscous effects which are known to become important for narrow annular flows. Shell displacements are described by Flugge's equations of motion. Solution of the coupled fluid-structure equations is carried out by means of the Fourier Transform Method. The main finding of this research is that stability is lost by flutter for internal flow, according to both the inviscid and viscous variants of the theory; for annular flow, however, whereas inviscid theory predicts loss of stability by flutter, viscous theory (with dissipative effects included) predicts that the shell loses stability by divergence and then, at appreciably higher flow, by flutter. Reduction of the annular gap generally destabilizes the system; while increased steady viscous effects slightly stabilize the system for internal flow, they strongly destabilize it for annular flow. Increasing the length of the shell destabilizes the system for both internal and annular flows. The presence of internal flow in addition to annular flow tends to stabilize the system vis-a-vis the case of annular flow, but only at low flow velocities, having the opposite effect at higher flows; the same effects arise when the main flow is internal and an annular flow added to the system

  13. Detonation Initiation by Annular Jets and Shock Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to experimentally determine the feasibility of initiating detonation in fuel-air mixtures using only the energy in hot, compressed air. The existing 6-inch shock tube at Caltech was used to create hot, high-pressure air behind a reflected shock wave. The hot air created an imploding annular shock wave when it jetted through an annular orifice into a 76-mm-diameter, 1-m-long tube attached to the end of the shock tube. A special test section with an annular ...

  14. Disappearance of macroscopic superpositions in perfectly isolated systems by thermalization processes

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chae-Yeun; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2016-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's illustration of an imaginary cat in a box, neither alive nor dead, leads to a question of whether and how long a macroscopic quantum superposition can exist in various situations. It is well known that a macroscopic superposition is destroyed very quickly by environmental effects called decoherence. On the contrary, it is often believed that a macroscopic superposition continues to "survive" if it is ideally isolated from its environment. In this paper, using a well-establishe...

  15. A Possible Resolution of the Tolman Paradox as a Quantum Superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Fayngold, Moses

    2011-01-01

    This is an attempt to find a hidden virtue in Tolman's paradox by showing that it can give rise to quantum superposition. We consider tachyon exchange between two particles and show that it can generate superposition of eigenstates characterizing each particle, as well as the entangled state of the particle pair. The new possible aspect of quantum superposition reveals an unexpected connection with cosmological expansion of the Universe.

  16. Role of the superposition principle for enhancing the efficiency of the quantum-mechanical Carnot engine

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Sumiyoshi; Okuyama, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    A role of the superposition principle is discussed for the quantum-mechanical Carnot engine introduced by Bender, Brody, and Meister [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)]. It is shown that the efficiency of the engine can be enhanced by superposition of quantum states. A finite-time process is also discussed, and the condition of the maximum power output is presented. Interestingly, the efficiency at the maximum power is lower than that without superposition.

  17. Connection between the N00N State and a superposition of SU(2) Coherent States

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Barry C.; Gerry, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The N00N state, which was introduced as a resource for quantum-enhanced metrology, is in fact a special case of a superposition of two SU(2) coherent states. We show here explicitly the derivation of the N00N state from the superposition state. This derivation makes clear the connection between these seemingly disparate states as well as shows how the N00N state can be generalized to a superposition of SU(2) coherent states.

  18. Collapsing a Perfect Superposition to a Chosen Quantum State without Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Younes; Mahmoud Abdel-Aty

    2014-01-01

    Given a perfect superposition of [Formula: see text] states on a quantum system of [Formula: see text] qubits. We propose a fast quantum algorithm for collapsing the perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state [Formula: see text] without applying any measurements. The basic idea is to use a phase destruction mechanism. Two operators are used, the first operator applies a phase shift and a temporary entanglement to mark [Formula: see text] in the superposition, and the second operator appl...

  19. Transfer of arbitrary quantum emitter states to near-field photon superpositions in nanocavities

    OpenAIRE

    Thijssen, Arthur C. T.; Martin J. Cryan; Rarity, John G.; Oulton, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to analyze the suitability of particular photonic cavity designs for information exchange between arbitrary superposition states of a quantum emitter and the near-field photonic cavity mode. As an illustrative example, we consider whether quantum dot emitters embedded in "L3" and "H1" photonic crystal cavities are able to transfer a spin superposition state to a confined photonic superposition state for use in quantum information transfer. Using an established dyadic Green...

  20. Improving entanglement of even entangled coherent states by a coherent superposition of photon subtraction and addition

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shi-you; Huang, Jie-Hui; Hu, Li-Yun; Duan, Zheng-lu; Xu, Xue-xiang; JI, YING-HUA

    2014-01-01

    A new entangled quantum state is introduced by applying local coherent superposition (ra^+ +ta) of photon subtraction and addition to each mode of even entangled coherent state (EECS) and the properties of entanglement are investigated. It is found that the Shchukin-Vogel inseparability, the degree of entanglement and the average fidelity of quantum teleportation of the EECS can be improved due to the coherent superposition operation. The effects of improvement by coherent superposition opera...

  1. Superposition Coherent States and Their Properties%叠加相干态及其性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董传华

    2000-01-01

    Special kinds of generalized superposition states, superposition coherent states, are studied in this paper. These states can be produced by superposing a pair of coherent states |α>and |α>.Their quantum statistical properties, the fluctuations of field and squeezing have been discussed in detail. These properties are dependent on superposition phase. We also describe the squeezing regions in phase space for these states.

  2. Analytical solution of neutron transport equation in an annular reactor with a rotating pulsed source; Resolucao analitica da equacao de transporte de neutrons em um reator anelar com fonte pulsada rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Paulo Cleber Mendonca

    2002-12-01

    In this study, an analytical solution of the neutron transport equation in an annular reactor is presented with a short and rotating neutron source of the type S(x) {delta} (x- Vt), where V is the speed of annular pulsed reactor. The study is an extension of a previous study by Williams [12] carried out with a pulsed source of the type S(x) {delta} (t). In the new concept of annular pulsed reactor designed to produce continuous high flux, the core consists of a subcritical annular geometry pulsed by a rotating modulator, producing local super prompt critical condition, thereby giving origin to a rotating neutron pulse. An analytical solution is obtained by opening up of the annular geometry and applying one energy group transport theory in one dimension using applied mathematical techniques of Laplace transform and Complex Variables. The general solution for the flux consists of a fundamental mode, a finite number of harmonics and a transient integral. A condition which limits the number of harmonics depending upon the circumference of the annular geometry has been obtained. Inverse Laplace transform technique is used to analyse instability condition in annular reactor core. A regenerator parameter in conjunction with perimeter of the ring and nuclear properties is used to obtain stable and unstable harmonics and to verify if these exist. It is found that the solution does not present instability in the conditions stated in the new concept of annular pulsed reactor. (author)

  3. Effects study on the thermal stresses in a LEU metal foil annular target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of fission gas pressure, uranium swelling and thermal contact conductance on the thermal–mechanical behavior of an annular target containing a low-enriched uranium foil (LEU) encapsulated in a nickel foil have been presented in this paper. The draw-plug assembly method is simulated to obtain the residual stresses, which are applied to the irradiation model as initial inputs, and the integrated assembly-irradiation process is simulated as an axisymmetric problem using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. Parametric studies were performed on the LEU heat generation rate and the results indicate satisfactory irradiation performance of the annular target. The temperature and stress margins have been provided along with a discussion of the results. - Highlights: • Analyzed the thermal stresses in a low-enriched uranium foil based annular target. • Included fission gas, uranium swelling, and thermal contact conductance effects. • Worst case scenarios for temperature and stresses were found to be different. • Sensitivity studies on the foil heat generation rates were performed. • Temperature and stress were found to be within acceptable limits

  4. Wall pressure measurements of flooding in vertical countercurrent annular air–water flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choutapalli, I., Vierow, K.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study of flooding in countercurrent air-water annular flow in a large diameter vertical tube using wall pressure measurements is described in this paper. Axial pressure profiles along the length of the test section were measured up to and after flooding using fast response pressure transducers for three representative liquid flow rates representing a wide range of liquid Reynolds numbers (ReL = 4Γ/μ; Γ is the liquid mass flow rate per unit perimeter; μ is the dynamic viscosity) from 3341 to 19,048. The results show that flooding in large diameter tubes cannot be initiated near the air outlet and is only initiated near the air inlet. Fourier analysis of the wall pressure measurements shows that up to the point of flooding, there is no dominant wave frequency but rather a band of frequencies encompassing both the low frequency and the broad band that are responsible for flooding. The data indicates that flooding in large diameter vertical tubes may be caused by the constructive superposition of a plurality of waves rather than the action of a single large-amplitude wave.

  5. Wall pressure measurements of flooding in vertical countercurrent annular air-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of flooding in countercurrent air-water annular flow in a large diameter vertical tube using wall pressure measurements is described in this paper. Axial pressure profiles along the length of the test section were measured up to and after flooding using fast response pressure transducers for three representative liquid flow rates representing a wide range of liquid Reynolds numbers (ReL = 4Γ/μ; Γ is the liquid mass flow rate per unit perimeter; μ is the dynamic viscosity) from 3341 to 19,048. The results show that flooding in large diameter tubes cannot be initiated near the air outlet and is only initiated near the air inlet. Fourier analysis of the wall pressure measurements shows that up to the point of flooding, there is no dominant wave frequency but rather a band of frequencies encompassing both the low frequency and the broad band that are responsible for flooding. The data indicates that flooding in large diameter vertical tubes may be caused by the constructive superposition of a plurality of waves rather than the action of a single large-amplitude wave.

  6. Pollution technology program, can-annular combustor engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Greene, W.

    1976-01-01

    A Pollution Reduction Technology Program to develop and demonstrate the combustor technology necessary to reduce exhaust emissions for aircraft engines using can-annular combustors is described. The program consisted of design, fabrication, experimental rig testing and assessment of results and was conducted in three program elements. The combustor configurations of each program element represented increasing potential for meeting the 1979 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards, while also representing increasing complexity and difficulty of development and adaptation to an operational engine. Experimental test rig results indicate that significant reductions were made to the emission levels of the baseline JT8D-17 combustor by concepts in all three program elements. One of the Element I single-stage combustors reduced carbon monoxide to a level near, and total unburned hydrocarbons (THC) and smoke to levels below the 1979 EPA standards with little or no improvement in oxides of nitrogen. The Element II two-stage advanced Vorbix (vortex burning and mixing) concept met the standard for THC and achieved significant reductions in CO and NOx relative to the baseline. Although the Element III prevaporized-premixed concept reduced high power NOx below the Element II results, there was no improvement to the integrated EPA parameter relative to the Vorbix combustor.

  7. Self-assembled large-area annular cavity arrays with tunable cylindrical surface plasmons for sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haibin; Wang, Ming; Shen, Tianyi; Zhou, Jing

    2015-02-24

    Surface plasmons that propagate along cylindrical metal/dielectric interfaces in annular apertures in metal films, called cylindrical surface plasmons (CSPs), exhibit attractive optical characteristics. However, it is challenging to fabricate these nanocoaxial structures. Here, we demonstrate a practical low-cost route to manufacture highly ordered, large-area annular cavity arrays (ACAs) that can support CSPs with great tunability. By employing a sol-gel coassembly method, reactive ion etching and metal sputtering techniques, regular, highly ordered ACAs in square-centimeter-scale with a gap width tunable in the range of several to hundreds of nanometers have been produced with good reproducibility. Ag ACAs with a gap width of 12 nm and a gap height of 635 nm are demonstrated. By finite-difference time-domain simulation, we confirm that the pronounced dips in the reflectance spectra of ACAs are attributable to CSP resonances excited in the annular gaps. By adjusting etching time and Ag film thickness, the CSP dips can be tuned to sweep the entire optical range of 360 to 1800 nm without changing sphere size, which makes them a promising candidate for forming integrated plasmonic sensing arrays. The high tunability of the CSP resonant frequencies together with strong electric field enhancement in the cavities make the ACAs promising candidates for surface plasmon sensors and SERS substrates, as, for example, they have been used in liquid refractive index (RI) sensing, demonstrating a sensitivity of 1505 nm/RIU and a figure of merit of 9. One of the CSP dips of ACAs with a certain geometry size is angle- (0-70 degrees) and polarization-independent and can be used as a narrow-band absorber. Furthermore, the nano annular cavity arrays can be used to construct solar cells, nanolasers and nanoparticle plasmonic tweezers. PMID:25639937

  8. CFD model of diabatic annular two-phase flow using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A CFD model of annular two-phase flow with evaporating liquid film has been developed. • A two-dimensional liquid film model is developed assuming that the liquid film is sufficiently thin. • The liquid film model is coupled to the gas core flow, which is represented using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. - Abstract: A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of annular two-phase flow with evaporating liquid film has been developed based on the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach, with the objective to predict the dryout occurrence. Due to the fact that the liquid film is sufficiently thin in the diabatic annular flow and at the pre-dryout conditions, it is assumed that the flow in the wall normal direction can be neglected, and the spatial gradients of the dependent variables tangential to the wall are negligible compared to those in the wall normal direction. Subsequently the transport equations of mass, momentum and energy for liquid film are integrated in the wall normal direction to obtain two-dimensional equations, with all the liquid film properties depth-averaged. The liquid film model is coupled to the gas core flow, which currently is represented using the Eulerian–Lagrangian technique. The mass, momentum and energy transfers between the liquid film, gas, and entrained droplets have been taken into account. The resultant unified model for annular flow has been applied to the steam–water flow with conditions typical for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The simulation results for the liquid film flow rate show favorable agreement with the experimental data, with the potential to predict the dryout occurrence based on criteria of critical film thickness or critical film flow rate

  9. Sensing Super-Position: Human Sensing Beyond the Visual Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.; Schipper, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The coming decade of fast, cheap and miniaturized electronics and sensory devices opens new pathways for the development of sophisticated equipment to overcome limitations of the human senses. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of augmenting human vision through Sensing Super-position by mixing natural Human sensing. The current implementation of the device translates visual and other passive or active sensory instruments into sounds, which become relevant when the visual resolution is insufficient for very difficult and particular sensing tasks. A successful Sensing Super-position meets many human and pilot vehicle system requirements. The system can be further developed into cheap, portable, and low power taking into account the limited capabilities of the human user as well as the typical characteristics of his dynamic environment. The system operates in real time, giving the desired information for the particular augmented sensing tasks. The Sensing Super-position device increases the image resolution perception and is obtained via an auditory representation as well as the visual representation. Auditory mapping is performed to distribute an image in time. The three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. This paper details the approach of developing Sensing Super-position systems as a way to augment the human vision system by exploiting the capabilities of Lie human hearing system as an additional neural input. The human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns. The known capabilities of the human hearing system to learn and understand complicated auditory patterns provided the basic motivation for developing an image-to-sound mapping system. The

  10. Vibration Superposition in Tunnel Blasting with Millisecond Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-jie; LOU Xiao-ming; LUO De-pi

    2009-01-01

    According to explosion dynamics and elastic wave theory,the models of particle vibration velocity for simultaneous blasting and millisecond blasting are built.In the models,influential factors such as delay interval and charge quantity,are considered.The calculated vibration velocity is compared with the field test results,which shows that the theoretical values are close to the experimental ones.Meanwhile,the particle vibration velocity decreases quickly with time due to the damping of rock mass and has a harmonic motion,and the particle vibration velocity of millisecond blasting has short interval.The superposition of particle vibration velocities may reduce vibration because of wave interference,or magnify the surrounding rock response to the blasting-induced vibration.

  11. Quantum Decoherence Timescales for Ionic Superposition States in Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Salari, V; Fazileh, F; Shahbazi, F

    2014-01-01

    There are many controversial and challenging discussions about quantum effects in microscopic structures in neurons of the human brain. The challenge is mainly because of quick decoherence of quantum states due to hot, wet and noisy environment of the brain which forbids long life coherence for brain processing. Despite these critical discussions, there are only a few number of published papers about numerical aspects of decoherence in neurons. Perhaps the most important issue is offered by Max Tegmark who has calculated decoherence times for the systems of "ions" and "microtubules" in neurons of the brain. In fact, Tegmark did not consider ion channels which are responsible for ions displacement through the membrane and are the building blocks of electrical membrane signals in the nervous system. Here, we would like to re-investigate decoherence times for ionic superposition states by using the data obtained via molecular dynamics simulations. Our main approach is according to what Tegmark has used before. I...

  12. Superposition method for analysis of free-edge stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, J. D.; Raju, I. S.

    1983-01-01

    Superposition techniques were used to transform the edge stress problem for composite laminates into a more lucid form. By eliminating loads and stresses not contributing to interlaminar stresses, the essential aspects of the edge stress problem are easily recognized. Transformed problem statements were developed for both mechanical and thermal loads. Also, a technique for approximate analysis using a two dimensional plane strain analysis was developed. Conventional quasi-three dimensional analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the transformed problems and the approximate two dimensional analysis. The transformed problems were shown to be exactly equivalent to the original problems. The approximate two dimensional analysis was found to predict the interlaminar normal and shear stresses reasonably well.

  13. Mesoscopic Quantum Superposition of Generalized Cat State: A Diffraction limit

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Suranjana; Panigrahi, Prasanta K

    2015-01-01

    The orthogonality of cat and displaced cat states, underlying Heisenberg limited measurement in quantum metrology, is studied in the limit of large number of states. The mesoscopic superposition of the generalized cat state is correlated with the corresponding state overlap function, controlled by the sub-Planck structures arising from phase space interference. The asymptotic expression of this overlap function is evaluated and the validity of large phase space support and distinguishability of the constituent states, in which context the asymptotic limit is achieved, are discussed in detail. For large number of coherent states, uniformly located on a circle, the overlap function significantly matches with the diffraction pattern for a circular ring source with uniform angular strength. This is in accordance with the van Cittert-Zernike theorem, where the overlap function, similar to the mutual coherence function, matches with a diffraction pattern. The physical situation under consideration is delineated in ...

  14. Assessment of Inner Channel Blockage on the Annular Fuel Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, C. H.; In, W. K.; Oh, D. S.; Chun, T. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A dual-cooled annular fuel for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been introduced for a significant amount of reactor power uprate. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been performing a research to develop a dual-cooled annular fuel for the power uprate of 20% in an optimized PWR in Korea, OPR1000. An inner channel blockage is principal one of technical issues of the annular fuel rod. The inner channel in an annular fuel is isolated from the neighbor channels unlike the outer channels. The inner channel will be faced with a DNB accident by the partial blockage. In this paper, the largest fractional channel blockage was assessed by subchannel analysis code MATRA-AF and an end plug design to complement inlet blockage of inner channel was estimated by CFD code, CFD-ACE

  15. Annular linear induction pump with an externally supported duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An annular linear induction pump of increased efficiency is described, capable of being readily disassembled for repair or replacement of parts, and having one pass flow of the liquid metal through the pump. (U.K.)

  16. Principle of radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunchao, E-mail: yunchao.zhang@anu.edu.au; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Bldg 60, Mills Road, Australian Capital Territory 2601 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas is investigated theoretically in this paper. The electrons are assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium due to their high temperature and light inertial mass. The ions are not in equilibrium and their transport is analyzed in three different situations: a low electric field (LEF) model, an intermediate electric field (IEF) model, and a high electric field (HEF) model. The universal IEF model smoothly connects the LEF and HEF models at their respective electric field strength limits and gives more accurate results of the ion mobility coefficient and effective ion temperature over the entire electric field strength range. Annular modelling is applied to an argon plasma and numerical results of the density peak position, the annular boundary loss coefficient and the electron temperature are given as functions of the annular geometry ratio and Paschen number.

  17. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Rishi Hassan; P Arunprasath; Padmavathy, L.; K Srivenkateswaran

    2016-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the clas...

  18. Annular bright and dark field imaging of soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here polyethylene, as an example of an important soft material, was studied by STEM annular bright and dark field. The contrast as function of the probe size/shape and the detector collection angle are discussed. The results are compared to conventional bright field transmission electron microscopy, electron energy filtered imaging and energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping. Annular bright and dark field gave a higher contrast than conventional transmission and analytical mapping techniques

  19. Interfacial friction in low flowrate vertical annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During boil-off and reflood transients in nuclear reactors, the core liquid inventory and inlet flowrate are largely determined by the interfacial friction in the reactor core. For these transients, annular flow occurs at relatively modest liquid flowrates and at the low heat fluxes typical of decay heat conditions. The resulting low vapor Reynolds numbers, are out of the data range used to develop the generally accepted interfacial friction relations for annular flow. In addition, most existing annular flow data comes from air/liquid adiabatic experiments with fully developed flows. By contrast, in a reactor core, the flow is continuously developing along the heated length as the vapor flowrate increases and the flow regimes evolve from bubbly to annular flow. Indeed, the entire annular flow regime may exist only over tens of L/D's. Despite these limitations, many of the advanced reactor safety analysis codes employ the Wallis model for interfacial friction in annular flow. Our analyses of the conditions existing at the end-of-reflood in the PERICLES tests have indicated that the Wallis model seriously underestimates the interfacial shear for low vapor velocity cocurrent upflow. To extend the annular flow data base to diabatic low flowrate conditions, the DADINE tests were re-analyzed. In these tests, both pressure drop and local cross-section averaged void fractions were measured. Thus, both the wall and interfacial shear can be deduced. Based on the results of this analysis, a new correlation is proposed for interfacial friction in annular flow. (authors). 5 figs., 12 refs

  20. New mitral annular force transducer optimized to distinguish annular segments and multi-plane forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Søren Nielsen; Røpcke, Diana Mathilde; Ilkjær, Christine; Rasmussen, Jonas; Tjørnild, Marcell Juan; Jimenez, Jorge H; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Jensen, Morten Olgaard

    2016-03-21

    Limited knowledge exists about the forces acting on mitral valve annuloplasty repair devices. The aim of this study was to develop a new mitral annular force transducer to measure the forces acting on clinically used mitral valve annuloplasty devices. The design of an X-shaped transducer in the present study was optimized for simultaneous in- and out-of-plane force measurements. Each arm was mounted with strain gauges on four circumferential elements to measure out-of-plane forces, and the central parts of the X-arms were mounted with two strain gauges to measure in-plane forces. A dedicated calibration setup was developed to calibrate isolated forces with tension and compression for in- and out-of-plane measurements. With this setup, it was possible with linear equations to isolate and distinguish measured forces between the two planes and minimize transducer arm crosstalk. An in-vitro test was performed to verify the crosstalk elimination method and the assumptions behind it. The force transducer was implanted and evaluated in an 80kg porcine in-vivo model. Following crosstalk elimination, in-plane systolic force accumulation was found to be in average 4.0±0.1N and the out-of-plane annular segments experienced an average force of 1.4±0.4N. Directions of the systolic out-of-plane forces indicated movements towards a saddle shaped annulus, and the transducer was able to measure independent directional forces in individual annular segments. Further measurements with the new transducer coupled with clinical annuloplasty rings will provide a detailed insight into the biomechanical dynamics of these devices. PMID:26903412

  1. Fabrication and Resintering of Annular UO2 Pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel is one of the most important components in a PWR affecting its safety and economy. The traditional PWR fuel pellet has a shape of cylindrical tablets of about 800 μm in diameter with a chamfer and dishes. A significant reduction in its failure rate has resulted from the improvements in fuel and cladding quality. Enhanced fuel assembly design allowed appreciable power density increases. However, it is difficult to achieve a significant increase of a power density under the current fuel pin design. Recently, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has proposed an annular UO2 fuel with an internal cooling of each fuel rod. Annular fuel pellets with a voided central region have been used in VVER reactors without an internal cooling. Annular fuels with both internal and external cooling have been proposed for high temperature gas cooled reactors. However, commercial PWR reactors have not used such annular internally and externally cooled fuel rods, yet. There must be a lot of considerations in the various fields to introduce an annular internally and externally cooled fuel to commercial PWR reactors. The dimension tolerance and the thermal stability of a pellet are very important from the viewpoint of fabrication technology, because they have an influence on the size of the gap between the pellet and the inner/outer claddings. In this study, annular UO2 pellets with various densities were fabricated and then a resintering test was conducted. The changes of dimension and density of the sintered pellets were characterized

  2. Sonographic evaluation of digital annular pulley tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To evaluate the sonographic (US) appearance of digital annular pulley (DAP) tears in high-level rock climbers. Design and patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the US examinations of 16 high-level rock climbers with clinical signs of DAP lesions. MRI and surgical evaluation were performed in five and three patients respectively. The normal US and MRI appearances of DAP were evaluated in 40 and three normal fingers respectively. Results. Nine of 16 patients presented a DAP tear. In eight subjects (seven with complete tears involving the fourth finger and one the fifth finger), US diagnosis was based on the indirect sign of volar bowstringing of the flexor tendons. Injured pulleys were not appreciated by US. Tears concerned the A2 and A3 in six patients and the A3 and A4 in two patients. A2 pulley thickening and hypoechogenicity compatible with a partial tear was demonstrated in one patient. MRI and surgical data correlated well with the US findings. Four patients had tenosynovitis of the flexor tendons but no evidence of pulley disruption. US examinations of three patients were normal. In the healthy subjects US demonstrated DAP in 16 of 40 digits. Conclusion. US can diagnose DAP tears and correlates with the MRI and surgical data. Because of its low cost and non-invasiveness we suggest US as the first imaging modality in the evaluation of injuries of the digital pulley. (orig.)

  3. Annular burnout data from rod bundle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnout data for annular flow in a rod bundle are presented for both transient and steady-state conditions. Tests were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a pressurized-water loop containing an electrically heated 64-rod bundle. The bundle configuration is typical of later generation pressurized-water reactors with 17 x 17 fuel arrays. Both axial and radial power profiles are flat. All experiments were carried out in upflow with subcooled inlet conditions, insuring accurate flow measurement. Conditions within the bundle were typical of those which could be encountered during a nuclear reactor loss-of-coolant accident. Level average fluid conditions within the test section were calculated using steady-state mass and energy conservation considerations for the steady-state tests and a transient, homogeneous, equilibrium computer code for the transient tests. Unlike tube dryout, burnout within a rod bundle does not necessarily occur at one distinct axial level. The location of individual rod dryout was determined by scanning rods axially and locating the position where rod superheat increased from approx. =0 to 30 K or greater. Thermocouple instrumentation within the bundle allows the location of dryout to be determined to within approximately +.5 cm for many of the tests

  4. The numerical calculation of heat transfer performance for annular flow of liquid nitrogen in a vertical annular channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shufeng; Wu, Yuyuan; Zhao, Rongyi

    2001-04-01

    According to a separated phase flow model for vertical annular two-phase flow in an annular channel, the liquid film thickness, distributions of velocities and temperatures in the liquid layer are predicted in the range of heat fluxes: 6000-12000 W/m 2, mass flux: 500-1100 kg/m2 s. The pressure drop along the flow channel and heat transfer coefficient are also calculated. The liquid film thickness is in the order of micrometers and heat transfer coefficient is 2800-7800 W/m2 K of liquid nitrogen boiling in narrow annular channels. The measured heat transfer coefficient is 29% higher than the calculated values. With the mass flux increasing and the gap of the annular channel decreasing, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient increase.

  5. X-ray diffraction from bone employing annular and semi-annular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a compelling need for accurate, low cost diagnostics to identify osteo-tissues that are associated with a high risk of fracture within an individual. To satisfy this requirement the quantification of bone characteristics such as ‘bone quality’ need to exceed that provided currently by densitometry. Bone mineral chemistry and microstructure can be determined from coherent x-ray scatter signatures of bone specimens. Therefore, if these signatures can be measured, in vivo, to an appropriate accuracy it should be possible by extending terms within a fracture risk model to improve fracture risk prediction.In this preliminary study we present an examination of a new x-ray diffraction technique that employs hollow annular and semi-annular beams to measure aspects of ‘bone quality’. We present diffractograms obtained with our approach from ex vivo bone specimens at Mo Kα and W Kα energies. Primary data is parameterized to provide estimates of bone characteristics and to indicate the precision with which these can be determined. (paper)

  6. Superpositions in Prigogine's approach to irreversibility for physical and financial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Carfi', David

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we apply the theory of superpositions for Radon measures on compact subsets of the real Euclidean n-space Rn to Prigogine's approach in the study of irreversible processes, which emerge in physics and in economics, showing that the superposition is a natural rigorous tool feasible to face the problem.

  7. Superposition Principle and Young Type Double-Slit Experiment in Vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Savas, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, it is shown with reasons that superposition principle does not work in vacuum. This case can be observed by Young type double slit experiment to be carried out. Since field-field interaction is carried through charged particles, in the absence of charged particles linear superposition of two fields is not possible and interference will not be observed.

  8. Mesoscopic Superposition of States with Sub-Planck Structures in Phase Space

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, G. S.; Pathak, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a method using the dispersive interaction between atoms and a high quality cavity to realize the mesoscopic superposition of coherent states which would exhibit sub-Planck structures in phase space. In particular we focus on a superposition involving four coherent states. We show interesting interferences in the conditional measurements involving two atoms.

  9. Generation of any superposition of Dicke state of excitons in coupled quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, XuBo; Pahlke, K.; Mathis, W.

    2002-01-01

    We present a scheme to generate arbitrary superposition of the Dicke states of excitons in optically driven quantum dots. This proposal is based on a sequence of laser pulses, which are tuned appropriately to control transitions on Dicke state. It is shown that N laser pulses are needed to generate arbitrary superposition of the Dicke states of N quantum dots.

  10. A note on superposition of two unknown states using Deutsch CTC model

    CERN Document Server

    Sami, Sasha

    2016-01-01

    In a recent work, authors prove a yet another no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. In this short note, we show that in the presence of closed time like curves, one can indeed create superposition of unknown quantum states and evade the no-go result.

  11. Testing quantum superpositions of the gravitational field with Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Netanel H.; Peres, Asher

    2004-01-01

    We consider the gravity field of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a quantum superposition. The gravity field then is also in a quantum superposition which is in principle observable. Hence we have ``quantum gravity'' far away from the so-called Planck scale.

  12. Generating and Revealing a Quantum Superposition of Electromagnetic Field Binomial States in a Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, R. Lo; Compagno, G; Messina, A.; Napoli, A.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the $N$-photon quantum superposition of two orthogonal generalized binomial states of electromagnetic field. We then propose, using resonant atom-cavity interactions, non-conditional schemes to generate and reveal such a quantum superposition for the two-photon case in a single-mode high-$Q$ cavity. We finally discuss the implementation of the proposed schemes.

  13. Student Ability to Distinguish between Superposition States and Mixed States in Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passante, Gina; Emigh, Paul J.; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Superposition gives rise to the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics and is therefore one of the concepts at the heart of quantum mechanics. Although we have found that many students can successfully use the idea of superposition to calculate the probabilities of different measurement outcomes, they are often unable to identify the…

  14. Generation of discrete superpositions of coherent states in the anharmonic oscillator model

    CERN Document Server

    Miranowicz, A; Kielich, S; 10.1088/0954-8998/2/3/006

    2011-01-01

    The problem of generating discrete superpositions of coherent states in the process of light propagation through a nonlinear Kerr medium, which is modelled by the anharmonic oscillator, is discussed. It is shown that under an appropriate choice of the length (time) of the medium the superpositions with both even and odd numbers of coherent states can appear. Analytical formulae for such superpositions with a few components are given explicitly. General rules governing the process of generating discrete superpositions of coherent states are also given. The maximum number of well distinguished states that can be obtained for a given number of initial photons is estimated. The quasiprobability distribution $Q(\\alpha,\\alpha^*,t)$ representing the superposition states is illustrated graphically, showing regular structures when the component states are well separated.

  15. Gas-liquid annular flow in vertical circular tubes with liquid penetrated in nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A semi-analytical model is proposed for fully developed upward gas-liquid annular flow inside vertical circular tubes, by utilizing wall-known turbulence algebraic models for single-phase flows, within both streams, combined with empirical correlations for the gas-liquid interface friction factor. Direct integration of the associated momentum equations provide the velocity distribution for each phase, as well as overall quantities of practical interest such as liquid film thickness and pressure gradient. The effects of liquid droplets entrainment in the gas is specialized empirical correlations. Extensive comparisons with experimental results are made in order to demonstrate the consistency of the proposed model. (author)

  16. Sea Carousel—A benthic, annular flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Carl L.; Grant, J.; Daborn, G. R.; Black, K.

    1992-06-01

    A benthic annular flume (Sea Carousel) has been developed and tested to measure in situ the erodibility of cohesive sediments. The flume is equipped with three optical backscatter sensors, a lid rotation switch, and an electromagnetic (EM) flow meter capable of detecting azimuthal and vertical components of flow. Data are logged at rates up to 10·66 Hz. Erodibility is inferred from the rate of change in suspended sediment concentration detected in the annulus. The energy-density/wave number spectrum of azimuthal flow showed peaks in the energy spectrum at paddle rotation wave numbers (k) of 14 and 7 m -1 (macroturbulent time scales) but were not significant. Friction velocity ( U*), measured (1) at 1 Hz using a flush-mounted hot-film sensor, and (2) derived from measured velocity profiles in the inner part of the logarithmic layer gave comparable results for Ū* 0·32 m s -1. Radial velocity gradients were proportional to ( Ū y - 0·32 m s -1). Maximum radial differences in U* were 10% for Ū y = 0·5 ms -1. Suspended sediment mass concentration ( S) in the annulus resulted in a significant decrease (10·5%) in Ū* derived by method (1) over the range 0calibration with changes in S. Subaerial deployments of Sea Carousel caused severe substrate disturbance, water losses, and aeration of the annulus. Submarine deployments produced stable results, though dispersion of turbid flume water took place. Results clearly demonstrated the existence of 'Type I' and 'Type II' erosion documented from laboratory studies.

  17. The manipulation of massive ro-vibronic superpositions using time-frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (TFRCARS) from quantum control to quantum computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zadoyan, R; Lidar, D A; Apkarian, V A

    2001-01-01

    Molecular ro-vibronic coherences, joint energy-time distributions of quantum amplitudes, are selectively prepared, manipulated, and imaged in Time-Frequency-Resolved Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (TFRCARS) measurements using femtosecond laser pulses. The studies are implemented in iodine vapor, with its thermally occupied statistical ro-vibrational density serving as initial state. The evolution of the massive ro-vibronic superpositions, consisting of 1000 eigenstates, is followed through two-dimensional images. The first- and second-order coherences are captured using time-integrated frequency-resolved CARS, while the third-order coherence is captured using time-gated frequency-resolved CARS. The Fourier filtering provided by time integrated detection projects out single ro-vibronic transitions, while time-gated detection allows the projection of arbitrary ro-vibronic superpositions from the coherent third-order polarization. Beside the control and imaging of chemistry, the controlled manipulation of...

  18. Large quantum superpositions of a nanoparticle immersed in superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychkovskiy, O.

    2016-06-01

    Preparing and detecting spatially extended quantum superpositions of a massive object comprises an important fundamental test of quantum theory. These quantum states are extremely fragile and tend to quickly decay into incoherent mixtures due to the environmental decoherence. Experimental setups considered up to date address this threat in a conceptually straightforward way—by eliminating the environment, i.e., by isolating an object in a sufficiently high vacuum. We show that another option exists: decoherence is suppressed in the presence of a strongly interacting environment if this environment is superfluid. Indeed, as long as an object immersed in a pure superfluid at zero temperature moves with a velocity below the critical one, it does not create, absorb, or scatter any excitations of the superfluid. Hence, in this idealized situation the decoherence is absent. In reality the decoherence will be present due to thermal excitations of the superfluid and impurities contaminating the superfluid. We examine various decoherence channels in the superfluid

  19. Far-field Diffraction Properties of Annular Walsh Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pubali Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Annular Walsh filters are derived from the rotationally symmetric annular Walsh functions which form a complete set of orthogonal functions that take on values either +1 or −1 over the domain specified by the inner and outer radii of the annulus. The value of any annular Walsh function is taken as zero from the centre of the circular aperture to the inner radius of the annulus. The three values 0, +1, and −1 in an annular Walsh function can be realized in a corresponding annular Walsh filter by using transmission values of zero amplitude (i.e., an obscuration, unity amplitude and zero phase, and unity amplitude and phase, respectively. Not only the order of the Walsh filter but also the size of the inner radius of the annulus provides an additional degree of freedom in tailoring of point spread function by using these filters for pupil plane filtering in imaging systems. In this report, we present the far-field amplitude characteristics of some of these filters to underscore their potential for effective use in several demanding applications like high-resolution microscopy, optical data storage, microlithography, optical encryption, and optical micromanipulation.

  20. Rotordynamic Analysis of Textured Annular Seals With Multiphase (Bubbly Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard PINEAU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For some applications it must be considered that the flow in the annular seal contains a mixture of liquid and gas. The multiphase character of the flow is described by the volume fraction of gas (usually air contained in the liquid under the form of bubbles.The fluid is then a homogenous mixture of air and liquid all thru the annular seal. Its local gas volume fraction depends on the pressure field and is calculated by using a simplified form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation.The influence of such of a multiphase (bubbly flow on the dynamic characteristics of a straight annular seal is minimal because the volume of the fluid is reduced.The situation is quite different for textured annular (damper seals provided with equally spaced deep cavities intended to increase the damping capabilities and to reduce the leakage flow rate.As a by-product, the volume of the fluid in the seal increases drastically and the compressibility effects stemming from the bubbly nature of the flow are largely increased even for a low gas volume fraction. The present work depicts the influence of the gas volume fraction on the dynamic characteristics of a textured annular seal. It is shown that variations of the gas volume fraction between 1% and 0.1% can lead to frequency dependent stiffness, damping and added mass coefficients.

  1. A reciprocal space approach for locating symmetry elements in Patterson superposition maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrixson, T.

    1990-09-21

    A method for determining the location and possible existence of symmetry elements in Patterson superposition maps has been developed. A comparison of the original superposition map and a superposition map operated on by the symmetry element gives possible translations to the location of the symmetry element. A reciprocal space approach using structure factor-like quantities obtained from the Fourier transform of the superposition function is then used to determine the best'' location of the symmetry element. Constraints based upon the space group requirements are also used as a check on the locations. The locations of the symmetry elements are used to modify the Fourier transform coefficients of the superposition function to give an approximation of the structure factors, which are then refined using the EG relation. The analysis of several compounds using this method is presented. Reciprocal space techniques for locating multiple images in the superposition function are also presented, along with methods to remove the effect of multiple images in the Fourier transform coefficients of the superposition map. In addition, crystallographic studies of the extended chain structure of (NHC{sub 5}H{sub 5})SbI{sub 4} and of the twinning method of the orthorhombic form of the high-{Tc} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} are presented. 54 refs.

  2. Vibration Analysis of Annular Sector Plates under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical framework is developed for the vibration analysis of annular sector plates with general elastic restraints along each edge of plates. Regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement solution is invariably expressed as a new form of trigonometric expansion with accelerated convergence. The expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. This work allows a capability of modeling annular sector plates under a variety of boundary conditions and changing the boundary conditions as easily as modifying the material properties or dimensions of the plates. Of equal importance, the proposed approach is universally applicable to annular sector plates of any inclusion angles up to 2π. The reliability and accuracy of the current method are adequately validated through numerical examples.

  3. Hydrodynamic stability of inverted annular flow in an adiabatic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments, inverted annular flow was simulated adiabatically with turbulent water jets, issuing downward from long aspect nozzles, enclosed in gas annuli. Velocities, diameters, and gas species were varied, and core jet length, shape, break-up mode, and dispersed-core droplet sizes were recorded at approximately 750 data points. Inverted annular flow was observed to develop into inverted slug flow at low relative velocities, and into dispersed droplet flow at high relative velocities. For both of the above transitions from inverted annular flow, a correlation for core jet length was developed by extending work done on free liquid jets to include this new, coaxial, jet disintegration phenomenon. The result, showing length dependence upon diameter, jet Reynolds number, jet Weber number, void fraction, and gas Weber number, correlates the data well, especially at moderate-to-large relative velocities

  4. Fluidic Analysis in an Annular Centrifugal Contactor for Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An annular centrifugal contactor (ACC) is a promising device for fuel reprocessing process, because it offers several advantages—a smaller size, a smaller holdup volume, and a higher separation performance—over conventional contactors such as a mixer-settler and a pulse column. Fluid dynamics and dispersion in an ACC, which has a combined mixer/centrifuge structure, are closely related to its separation performance and capacity, and this information is useful in improving equipment design. In this paper, experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies were conducted to analyze fluidic and dispersion behavior in ACCs. Multiphase mixing (water/TBP-dodecane/air) in the annular zone was observed by Particle Imaging Velocimetry, and the change in the fluidic and dispersion behavior was ascertained under several operational conditions. The results of the CFD studies, which considered multiphase turbulent flow in the annular and rotor interior zones, were in a good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  5. Air entrainment into annular water flows in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental investigation was carried out on air entrainment into water flowing downward in a vertical pipe. Local flow rates of water and air in a fluid layer of annular flow, formed on the pipe wall, were measured precisely by using a small tube probe. Measurements were also made of local flow rates of water and air in bubbly flow downstream of annular water flow. Distributions of local flow rates in the radial direction of the pipe for annular flow regime indicate that the fluid layer consists of a water layer adjacent to the pipe wall and a water-air (two-phase fluid) layer located inside of the water layer. The water-air layer is formed as a result of air entrainment. The departure of air bubbles from a water pool to air phase was found for bubbly flow regime. (author)

  6. Generating superposition of up-to three photons for continuous variable quantum information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miyata, Kazunori; Mizuta, Takahiro; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim; Furusawa, Akira

    2013-03-11

    We develop an experimental scheme based on a continuous-wave (cw) laser for generating arbitrary superpositions of photon number states. In this experiment, we successfully generate superposition states of zero to three photons, namely advanced versions of superpositions of two and three coherent states. They are fully compatible with developed quantum teleportation and measurement-based quantum operations with cw lasers. Due to achieved high detection efficiency, we observe, without any loss correction, multiple areas of negativity of Wigner function, which confirm strongly nonclassical nature of the generated states. PMID:23482124

  7. Superpositions of the orbital angular momentum for applications in quantum experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaziri, Alipasha; Weihs, Gregor; Zeilinger, Anton [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2002-04-01

    Two different experimental techniques for preparing and analysing superpositions of Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian modes are presented. These involve exploiting an interferometric method in one case and using computer-generated holograms in the other. It is shown that by shifting a hologram with respect to an incoming Gaussian beam, different superpositions of the Gaussian and the Laguerre-Gaussian beam can be produced. An analytical expression connecting the relative phase, the amplitudes of the modes and the displacement of the hologram is given. The application of such orbital angular momenta superpositions in quantum experiments such as quantum cryptography is discussed.

  8. A convolution-superposition dose calculation engine for GPUs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Graphic processing units (GPUs) are increasingly used for scientific applications, where their parallel architecture and unprecedented computing power density can be exploited to accelerate calculations. In this paper, a new GPU implementation of a convolution/superposition (CS) algorithm is presented. Methods: This new GPU implementation has been designed from the ground-up to use the graphics card's strengths and to avoid its weaknesses. The CS GPU algorithm takes into account beam hardening, off-axis softening, kernel tilting, and relies heavily on raytracing through patient imaging data. Implementation details are reported as well as a multi-GPU solution. Results: An overall single-GPU acceleration factor of 908x was achieved when compared to a nonoptimized version of the CS algorithm implemented in PlanUNC in single threaded central processing unit (CPU) mode, resulting in approximatively 2.8 s per beam for a 3D dose computation on a 0.4 cm grid. A comparison to an established commercial system leads to an acceleration factor of approximately 29x or 0.58 versus 16.6 s per beam in single threaded mode. An acceleration factor of 46x has been obtained for the total energy released per mass (TERMA) calculation and a 943x acceleration factor for the CS calculation compared to PlanUNC. Dose distributions also have been obtained for a simple water-lung phantom to verify that the implementation gives accurate results. Conclusions: These results suggest that GPUs are an attractive solution for radiation therapy applications and that careful design, taking the GPU architecture into account, is critical in obtaining significant acceleration factors. These results potentially can have a significant impact on complex dose delivery techniques requiring intensive dose calculations such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and arc therapy. They also are relevant for adaptive radiation therapy where dose results must be obtained rapidly.

  9. A convolution-superposition dose calculation engine for GPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hissoiny, Sami; Ozell, Benoit; Despres, Philippe [Departement de genie informatique et genie logiciel, Ecole polytechnique de Montreal, 2500 Chemin de Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Departement de radio-oncologie, CRCHUM-Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Graphic processing units (GPUs) are increasingly used for scientific applications, where their parallel architecture and unprecedented computing power density can be exploited to accelerate calculations. In this paper, a new GPU implementation of a convolution/superposition (CS) algorithm is presented. Methods: This new GPU implementation has been designed from the ground-up to use the graphics card's strengths and to avoid its weaknesses. The CS GPU algorithm takes into account beam hardening, off-axis softening, kernel tilting, and relies heavily on raytracing through patient imaging data. Implementation details are reported as well as a multi-GPU solution. Results: An overall single-GPU acceleration factor of 908x was achieved when compared to a nonoptimized version of the CS algorithm implemented in PlanUNC in single threaded central processing unit (CPU) mode, resulting in approximatively 2.8 s per beam for a 3D dose computation on a 0.4 cm grid. A comparison to an established commercial system leads to an acceleration factor of approximately 29x or 0.58 versus 16.6 s per beam in single threaded mode. An acceleration factor of 46x has been obtained for the total energy released per mass (TERMA) calculation and a 943x acceleration factor for the CS calculation compared to PlanUNC. Dose distributions also have been obtained for a simple water-lung phantom to verify that the implementation gives accurate results. Conclusions: These results suggest that GPUs are an attractive solution for radiation therapy applications and that careful design, taking the GPU architecture into account, is critical in obtaining significant acceleration factors. These results potentially can have a significant impact on complex dose delivery techniques requiring intensive dose calculations such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and arc therapy. They also are relevant for adaptive radiation therapy where dose results must be obtained rapidly.

  10. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  11. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Rishi; Arunprasath, P; Padmavathy, L; Srivenkateswaran, K

    2016-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27057492

  12. Portal annular pancreas: the pancreatic duct ring sign on MRCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lath, Chinar O; Agrawal, Dilpesh S; Timins, Michael E; Wein, Melissa M

    2015-12-01

    Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends and fuses to the dorsal surface of the body of the pancreas by surrounding the portal vein. It is asymptomatic, but it can be mistaken for a pancreatic head mass on imaging and could also have serious consequences during pancreatic surgery, if unrecognized. We report this case of a 53-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have portal annular pancreas on the basis of an unusual course (ring appearance) of the main pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, not described earlier in the radiology literature. PMID:26649117

  13. Portal annular pancreas: the pancreatic duct ring sign on MRCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinar O. Lath, MD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends and fuses to the dorsal surface of the body of the pancreas by surrounding the portal vein. It is asymptomatic, but it can be mistaken for a pancreatic head mass on imaging and could also have serious consequences during pancreatic surgery, if unrecognized. We report this case of a 53-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have portal annular pancreas on the basis of an unusual course (ring appearance of the main pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, not described earlier in the radiology literature.

  14. Flow Visualisation of Annular Liquid Sheet Instability & Atomisation

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Daniel; Soria, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Fluid dynamics videos of unstable thin annular liquid sheets are presented in this short paper. These videos are to be presented in the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the American Physical Society 65th Annual Meeting of the Division of Fluid Dynamics in San Diego, CA, 18-20 November 2012. An annular sheet of thickness h=1mm and mean radius R=18.9mm is subjected to aerodynamic axial shear from co-flowing air at various shear rates on both the inner and outer surface at a liquid sheet Reynolds Number of Re=500.

  15. Generalization of Abel's mechanical problem: The extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugawa, Tohru

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a simple but nontrivial generalization of Abel's mechanical problem, based on the extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle. There are two primary aims. The first one is to reveal the linear relation between the transit-time T and the travel-length X hidden behind the isochronicity problem that is usually discussed in terms of the nonlinear equation of motion {d^2X}/{dt^2} + {dU}/{dX} = 0 with U(X) being an unknown potential. Second, the isochronicity condition is extended for the possible Abel-transform approach to designing the isochronous trajectories of charged particles in spectrometers and/or accelerators for time-resolving experiments. Our approach is based on the integral formula for the oscillatory motion by Landau and Lifshitz [Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), pp. 27-29]. The same formula is used to treat the non-periodic motion that is driven by U(X). Specifically, this unknown potential is determined by the (linear) Abel transform X(U) ∝ A[T(E)], where X(U) is the inverse function of U(X), A = (1/sqrt{π })int 0E {dU}/sqrt{E-U} is the so-called Abel operator, and T(E) is the prescribed transit-time for a particle with energy E to spend in the region of interest. Based on this Abel-transform approach, we have introduced the extended isochronicity condition: typically, τ = TA(E) + TN(E) where τ is a constant period, TA(E) is the transit-time in the Abel type [A-type] region spanning X > 0 and TN(E) is that in the Non-Abel type [N-type] region covering X 0, the unknown inverse function XA(U) is determined from TA(E) via the Abel-transform relation XA(U) ∝ A[TA(E)]. In contrast, the N-type region in X particle spectrometers and/or accelerators. In this Abel-transform approach, the superposition principle simplifies the derivation of XA(U) satisfying the extended isochronicity condition. Although the extended isochronicity condition inevitably discards the low-energy particles, there is no problem for

  16. Design and Evaluation of a Research-Based Teaching Sequence: The Superposition of Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennot, L.; Rainson, S.

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates an approach to research-based teaching strategies and their evaluation. Addresses a teaching sequence on the superposition of electric fields implemented at the college level in an institutional framework subject to severe constraints. Contains 28 references. (DDR)

  17. Collapsing a perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state without measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Younes

    Full Text Available Given a perfect superposition of [Formula: see text] states on a quantum system of [Formula: see text] qubits. We propose a fast quantum algorithm for collapsing the perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state [Formula: see text] without applying any measurements. The basic idea is to use a phase destruction mechanism. Two operators are used, the first operator applies a phase shift and a temporary entanglement to mark [Formula: see text] in the superposition, and the second operator applies selective phase shifts on the states in the superposition according to their Hamming distance with [Formula: see text]. The generated state can be used as an excellent input state for testing quantum memories and linear optics quantum computers. We make no assumptions about the used operators and applied quantum gates, but our result implies that for this purpose the number of qubits in the quantum register offers no advantage, in principle, over the obvious measurement-based feedback protocol.

  18. A cute and highly contrast-sensitive superposition eye - the diurnal owlfly Libelloides macaronius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belusic, Gregor; Pirih, Primoz; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Belušič, Gregor; Pirih, Primož

    2013-01-01

    The owlfly Libelloides macaronius (Insecta: Neuroptera) has large bipartite eyes of the superposition type. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the photoreceptor array in the dorsofrontal eye part was studied with optical and electrophysiological methods. Using structured illumination microsco

  19. Can the Hypothesis 'Photon Interferes only with Itself' be Reconciled with Superposition of Light from Multiple Beams or Sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar; Prasad, Narasimha S.; Peng, Qing

    2007-01-01

    Any superposition effect as measured (SEM) by us is the summation of simultaneous stimulations experienced by a detector due to the presence of multiple copies of a detectee each carrying different values of the same parameter. We discus the cases with light beams carrying same frequency for both diffraction and multiple beam Fabry-Perot interferometer and also a case where the two superposed light beams carry different frequencies. Our key argument is that if light really consists of indivisible elementary particle, photon, then it cannot by itself create superposition effect since the state vector of an elementary particle cannot carry more than one values of any parameter at the same time. Fortunately, semiclassical model explains all light induced interactions using quantized atoms and classical EM wave packet. Classical physics, with its deeper commitment to Reality Ontology, was better prepared to nurture the emergence of Quantum Mechanics and still can provide guidance to explore nature deeper if we pay careful attention to successful classical formulations like Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral.

  20. Resilience to decoherence of the macroscopic quantum superpositions generated by universally covariant optimal quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the quantum states generated by universal optimal quantum cloning of a single photon represent a universal set of quantum superpositions resilient to decoherence. We adopt the Bures distance as a tool to investigate the persistence of quantum coherence of these quantum states. According to this analysis, the process of universal cloning realizes a class of quantum superpositions that exhibits a covariance property in lossy configuration over the complete set of polarization states in the Bloch sphere.

  1. Accuracy of a teleported squeezed coherent-state superposition trapped into a high-Q cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J. S.; da Silva, L. F.; de Almeida, N. G.

    2011-03-01

    We propose a scheme to teleport a superposition of squeezed coherent states from one mode of a lossy cavity to one mode of a second lossy cavity. Based on current experimental capabilities, we present a calculation of the fidelity demonstrating that accurate quantum teleportation can be achieved for some parameters of the squeezed coherent states superposition. The signature of successful quantum teleportation is present in the negative values of the Wigner function.

  2. Mesoscopic superposition and sub-Planck-scale structure in molecular wave packets

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Suranjana; Chiruvelli, Aravind; Banerji, J.; P. K. Panigrahi

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of realizing sub-Planck-scale structures in the mesoscopic superposition of molecular wave packets involving vibrational levels. The time evolution of the wave packet, taken here as the SU(2) coherent state of the Morse potential describing hydrogen iodide molecules, produces macroscopicquantum- superposition-like states, responsible for the above phenomenon. We investigate the phase-space dynamics of the coherent state through the Wigner function approach and i...

  3. Transition to sub-Planck structures through the superposition of q-oscillator stationary states

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarov, EI; Van der Jeugt, Joris

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the superposition of four different quantum states based on the $q$-oscillator. These quantum states are expressed by means of Rogers-Szeg\\"o polynomials. We show that such a superposition has the properties of the quantum harmonic oscillator when $q\\to 1$, and those of a compass state with the appearance of chessboard-type interference patterns when $q \\to 0$.

  4. Entanglement, EPR correlations and mesoscopic quantum superposition by the high-gain quantum injected parametric amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Caminati, Marco; De Martini, Francesco; Perris, Riccardo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Secondi, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the multiparticle quantum superposition and the persistence of multipartite entanglement of the quantum superposition generated by the quantum injected high-gain optical parametric amplification of a single photon. The physical configuration based on the optimal universal quantum cloning has been adopted to investigate how the entanglement and the quantum coherence of the system persists for large values of the nonlinear parametric gain g.

  5. Realization of a Decoherence-free, Optimally Distinguishable Mesoscopic Quantum Superposition

    OpenAIRE

    De Martini, Francesco; Sciarrino, Fabio; Secondi, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    We report the realization of an entangled quantum superposition of M=12 photons by a high gain, quantum-injected optical parametric amplification. The system is found so highly resilient against decoherence to exhibit directly accessible mesoscopic interference effects at normal temperature. By modern tomographic methods the non-separability and the quantum superposition are demonstrated for the overall mesoscopic output state of the dynamic ''closed system''. The device realizes the conditio...

  6. Generation of large-amplitude coherent-state superposition via ancilla-assisted photon-subtraction

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Wakui, Kentaro; Suzuki, Shigenari; Takeoka, Masahiro; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Furusawa, Akira; Sasaki, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel method to generate a large-amplitude coherent-state superposition (CSS) via ancilla-assisted photon-subtraction. The ancillary mode induces quantum interference of indistinguishable processes, widening the controllability of quantum superposition at the conditional output. We demonstrate the concept in the time domain, by a simple time-separated two-photon subtraction from cw squeezed light. We observe the largest CSS ever reported without any corrections, w...

  7. Comment on Limitations on the superposition principle: superselection rules in non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, Namit

    2015-01-01

    This is a comment to the paper, Limitations on the superposition principle: superselection rules in non-relativistic quantum mechanics by C Cisneros et al 1998 Eur. J. Phys. 19 237. doi:10.1088/0143-0807/19/3/005. The proof that the authors construct for the limitation on the superposition of state vectors corresponding to different sectors of the Hilbert space, partitioned by a superoperator has a flaw as outlined below.

  8. Transforming squeezed light into large-amplitude coherent-state superposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ersbak Bang; Mølmer, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    A quantum superposition of two coherent states of light with small amplitude can be obtained by subtracting a photon from a squeezed vacuum state. In experiments this preparation can be made conditioned on the detection of a photon in the field from a squeezed light source. We propose and analyze...... an extended measurement strategy which allows generation of high fidelity coherent state superpositions with larger amplitude....

  9. Quantum state engineering by a coherent superposition of photon subtraction and addition

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su-Yong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2010-01-01

    We study a coherent superposition of field annihilation and creation operator acting on continuous variable systems and propose its application for quantum state engineering. Specifically, it is investigated how the superposed operation transforms a classical state to a nonclassical one, together with emerging nonclassical effects. We also propose an experimental scheme to implement this elementary coherent operation and discuss its usefulness to produce an arbitrary superposition of number s...

  10. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Of Thorium-Based Annular Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyu Hyun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Thermal hydraulic characteristics of thorium-based fuel assemblies loaded with annular seed pins have been analyzed using AMAP combined with MATRA, and compared with those of the existing thorium-based assemblies. MATRA and AMAP showed good agreements for the pressure drops at the internal sub-channels. The pressure drop generally increased in the cases of the assemblies loaded with annular seed pins due to the larger wetted perimeter, but an exception existed. In the inner sub-channels of the seed pins, mass fluxes were high due to the grid form losses in the outer sub-channels. About 43% of the heat generated from the seed pin flowed into the inner sub-channel and the rest into the outer sub-channel, which implies the inner to outer wall heat flux ratio was approximately 1.2. The maximum temperatures of the annular seed pins were slightly above 500 deg. C. The MDNBRs of the assemblies loaded with annular seed pins were higher than those of the existing assemblies. Due to the fact that inter-channel mixing cannot occur in the inner sub-channels, temperatures and enthalpies were higher in the inner sub-channels. (author)

  11. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Of Thorium-Based Annular Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal hydraulic characteristics of thorium-based fuel assemblies loaded with annular seed pins have been analyzed using AMAP combined with MATRA, and compared with those of the existing thorium-based assemblies. MATRA and AMAP showed good agreements for the pressure drops at the internal sub-channels. The pressure drop generally increased in the cases of the assemblies loaded with annular seed pins due to the larger wetted perimeter, but an exception existed. In the inner sub-channels of the seed pins, mass fluxes were high due to the grid form losses in the outer sub-channels. About 43% of the heat generated from the seed pin flowed into the inner sub-channel and the rest into the outer sub-channel, which implies the inner to outer wall heat flux ratio was approximately 1.2. The maximum temperatures of the annular seed pins were slightly above 500 deg. C. The MDNBRs of the assemblies loaded with annular seed pins were higher than those of the existing assemblies. Due to the fact that inter-channel mixing cannot occur in the inner sub-channels, temperatures and enthalpies were higher in the inner sub-channels. (author)

  12. Annular linear induction pump with an externally supported duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several embodiments of an annular linear induction pump for pumping liquid metals are disclosed having the features of generally one pass flow of the liquid metal through the pump and an increased efficiency resulting from the use of thin duct walls to enclose the stator. The stator components of this pump are removable for repair and replacement. 15 claims

  13. Localized granuloma annulare and autoimmune thyroid disease. Are they associated?

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, J; Lamb, J.

    1995-01-01

    This case report identifies a temporal relationship between the diagnosis of localized granuloma annulare and the subsequent development of primary hypothyroidism in a previously healthy 10-year-old girl. We suspect these disorders are associated, but any association between them requires further study.

  14. Fluxon dynamics in long annular Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martucciello, N.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V.P.; Shchukin, A.V.; Filippenko, L.; Monaco, R

    1998-01-01

    Single-fluxon dynamics has been experimentally investigated in high-quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb annular Josephson tunnel junctions having a radius much larger than the Josephson penetration depth. Strong evidence of self-field effects is observed. An external magnetic field in the barrier plane acts on...

  15. Improvement of image processing algorithms for annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annular flow occurs in a wide range of industrial heat-transfer equipment, including the top of a BWR core, in the steam generator of a PWR, and in postulated accident scenarios including critical heat flux (CHF) by dryout. The modeling of annular flow often requires information regarding the average thickness of liquid film at the periphery of the flow channel as a measurement of film roughness (film roughness concept). More recently, two-region modeling efforts require wave intermittency as a measurement of disturbance wave (as opposed to base film thickness) contribution to gas-to-liquid momentum transfer and pressure loss. The present work focuses on the characterization of film behaviors in annular flow using quantitative visualization. The data reduction codes for planar laser-induced flourescence (PLIF) imaging and back-lit quartz tube imaging have been further developed to improve measurement accuracy. Film thickness distribution (base film and wave), disturbance wave length, and wave intermittency estimates have been updated and applied to a recent two-region annular flow model. Outputs of average film thickness, pressure gradient, and average wave velocity have been modeled with mean absolute errors of 8.70%, 17.42%, and 19.14%, respectively. (author)

  16. Nonlinear quantum mechanics, the superposition principle, and the quantum measurement problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kinjalk Lochan; T P Singh

    2011-01-01

    There are four reasons why our present knowledge and understanding of quantum mechanics can be regarded as incomplete. (1) The principle of linear superposition has not been experimentally tested for position eigenstates of objects having more than about a thousand atoms. (2) There is no universally agreed upon explanation for the process of quantum measurement. (3) There is no universally agreed upon explanation for the observed fact that macroscopic objects are not found in superposition of position eigenstates. (4) Most importantly, the concept of time is classical and hence external to quantum mechanics: there should exist an equivalent reformulation of the theory which does not refer to an external classical time. In this paper we argue that such a reformulation is the limiting case of a nonlinear quantum theory, with the nonlinearity becoming important at the Planck mass scale. Such a nonlinearity can provide insights into the aforesaid problems. We use a physically motivated model for a nonlinear Schr ¨odinger equation to show that nonlinearity can help in understanding quantum measurement. We also show that while the principle of linear superposition holds to a very high accuracy for atomic systems, the lifetime of a quantum superposition becomes progressively smaller, as one goes from microscopic to macroscopic objects. This can explain the observed absence of position superpositions in macroscopic objects (lifetime is too small). It also suggests that ongoing laboratory experiments may be able to detect the finite superposition lifetime for mesoscopic objects in the near future.

  17. Study of film boiling dispersed two phase in narrow annular gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigation on film boiling dispersed two phase friction pressure drop in narrow annular gap with deionized water was performed in three types of narrow annular gap. The friction pressure drop differences were compared between narrow annular gap and circular channel was compared in the paper. The influence of narrow annular gap on friction pressure drop was examined in this paper. Results showed that the modified Sadatomi's correlation can be used to calculate film boiling dispersed two-phase friction pressure drop in narrow annular gap for engineering application

  18. The Gabor superlens as an alternative wafer-level camera approach inspired by superposition compound eyes of nocturnal insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollberg, Klemens; Brückner, Andreas; Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2009-08-31

    We present the microoptical adaption of the natural superposition compound eye, which is termed "Gabor superlens". Enabled by state-of-the-art microoptics technology, this well known principle has been adapted for ultra-compact imaging systems for the first time. By numerical ray tracing optimization, and by adding diaphragm layers and a field lens array, the optical performance of the Gabor superlens is potentially comparable to miniaturized conventional lens modules, such as currently integrated in mobile phones. However, in contrast to those, the Gabor superlens is fabricated using a standard microlens array technology with low sag heights and small diameter microlenses. Hence, there is no need for complex diamond turning for the generation of the master structures. This results in a simple and well controllable lens manufacturing process with the potential to high yield. PMID:19724574

  19. The classification of travelling wave solutions and superposition of multi-solutions to Camassa-Holm equation with dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Cheng-Shi

    2007-01-01

    Under the travelling wave transformation, the Camassa-Holm equation with dispersion is reduced to an integrable ordinary differential equation (ODE), whose general solution can be obtained using the trick of one-parameter group.Furthermore, by using a complete discrimination system for polynomial, the classification of all single travelling wave solutions to the Camassa-Holm equation with dispersion is obtained. In particular, an affine subspace structure in the set of the solutions of the reduced ODE is obtained. More generally, an implicit linear structure in the Camassa-Holm equation with dispersion is found. According to the linear structure, we obtain the superposition of multi-solutions to Camassa-Holm equation with dispersion.

  20. Analytical tools for calculating the maximum heat transfer of annular stepped fins with internal heat generation and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASFs (Annular stepped fins) require less material than ADFs (annular disc fins) while retaining the ability to produce the same cooling rate in a convection environment. A simple analysis was developed for ASFs that considered radiative heat transfer and heat generated by a nuclear reactor through linearization of the radiation terms. The linearized equations were solved by exact and approximate analytical methods. Without any linearization, a new closed-form analysis was established for the temperature profile with the help of the differential transform method. An integral differential transform method was introduced to determine the actual heat-transfer rate when heat was generated inside an ASF under nonlinear radiation surface conditions. The temperature results obtained using this analytical approach were compared with those obtained from a finite-difference analysis, and were in excellent agreement. The fin performance was defined as a function of the heat generated for a given set of design conditions. An optimization study with varying heat generation was carried out to compare the performance of ADFs and ASFs, which highlighted the superior aspects of an annular fin design. - Highlights: • A new analytical model for ASF under heat generation and radiation heat transfer. • Exact and approximate analysis for linearization of governing equation. • A high accuracy obtained from approximate analysis. • Fin heat transfer for nonlinear surface conditions and heat generation. • Calculation of maximum heat transfer as a function of heat generation parameter

  1. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  2. About simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of special exact solutions of Veselov-Novikov equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New exact solutions, nonstationary and stationary, of Veselov-Novikov (VN) equation in the forms of simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of arbitrary number N of exact special solutions u(n), n= 1, …, N are constructed via Zakharov and Manakov ∂-dressing method. Simple nonlinear superpositions are represented up to a constant by the sums of solutions u(n) and calculated by ∂-dressing on nonzero energy level of the first auxiliary linear problem, i.e., 2D stationary Schrödinger equation. It is remarkable that in the zero energy limit simple nonlinear superpositions convert to linear ones in the form of the sums of special solutions u(n). It is shown that the sums u=u(k1)+...+u(km), 1 ⩽k1 2 m⩽N of arbitrary subsets of these solutions are also exact solutions of VN equation. The presented exact solutions include as superpositions of special line solitons and also superpositions of plane wave type singular periodic solutions. By construction these exact solutions represent also new exact transparent potentials of 2D stationary Schrödinger equation and can serve as model potentials for electrons in planar structures of modern electronics.

  3. Selective preparation of the maximum coherent superposition state in four-level atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Deng; Yueping Niu; Shangqing Gong

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the maximum coherent superposition state can be selectively prepared using a sequence of pulse pairs in lambda-type atomic systems, with the final level as a doublet. In each pair, the Stocks pulse comes before the pump pulse, with their back edges overlapping. Numerical results indicate that by tuning the interval of the adjacent pulse pairs, the selective maximum coherent superposition state preparation between the initial and one of the final levels can be achieved. The phenomenon is caused by the accumulative property of the pulse sequence.%The coherent superposition state in atoms or molecules plays a crucial role in quantum physics.It has applications in many areas such as electromagnetically induced transparency[1-5],quantum information[6-8] and control of chemical reaction[9-11].Many schemes can prepare the coherent superposition state.For instance,the fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage(F-STIRAP) [12] and the coherent population trapping[13] can obtain the maximum coherent superposition state of the two lower levels in lambda-type atoms.Our group also proposed several schemes to achieve this goal,such as the methods based on the STIRAP[14,15] and the pulse train method[16].

  4. Attosecond probing of state-resolved ionization and superpositions of atoms and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet are used to probe strong field ionization and to initiate electronic and vibrational superpositions in atoms and small molecules. Few-cycle 800 nm pulses produce strong-field ionization of Xe atoms, and the attosecond probe is used to measure the risetimes of the two spin orbit states of the ion on the 4d inner shell transitions to the 5p vacancies in the valence shell. Step-like features in the risetimes due to the subcycles of the 800 nm pulse are observed and compared with theory to elucidate the instantaneous and effective hole dynamics. Isolated attosecond pulses create massive superpositions of electronic states in Ar and nitrogen as well as vibrational superpositions among electronic states in nitrogen. An 800 nm pulse manipulates the superpositions, and specific subcycle interferences, level shifting, and quantum beats are imprinted onto the attosecond pulse as a function of time delay. Detailed outcomes are compared to theory for measurements of time-dynamic superpositions by attosecond transient absorption. Supported by DOE, NSF, ARO, AFOSR, and DARPA.

  5. ANNULAR PANCREAS CAUSING DUODENAL OBSTRUCTION: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the band of pancreatic tissue of variable width partially or completely encircling the duodenum. This abnormality, although at times clinically silent or may be the cause of a broad spectrum of diseases. Complications range from neonatal intestinal obstruction to more complex pathologies in the adult such as pancreatitis, duodenal stenosis or duodenal or gastric ulceration. This condition is important to recognise, because radiologists are usually the first person to diagnose such condition. We report the case of a young patient of 10 years old female hospitalized for epigastric pain and repeated episodes of vomiting, in whom radiological investigations showed an annular pancreas. No other congenital anomaly of the intra-abdominal organs was noted. Both the rarity of this congenital abnormality and its probability of successful correction by surgical means have prompted us to make the following presentation.

  6. Analysis of a Low-Angle Annular Expander Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyll Schomberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of a low-angle annular expander nozzle is presented to observe the variance in shock structure within the flow field. A RANS-based axisymmetric numerical model was used to evaluate flow characteristics and the model validated using experimental pressure readings and schlieren images. Results were compared with an equivalent converging-diverging nozzle to determine the capability of the wake region in varying the effective area of a low-angle design. Comparison of schlieren images confirmed that shock closure occurred in the expander nozzle, prohibiting the wake region from affecting the area ratio. The findings show that a low angle of deflection is inherently unable to influence the effective area of an annular supersonic nozzle design.

  7. Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Annular Thermoelectric Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.; Hans, Ranjana

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the concept of an annular thermoelectric heat pump (ATEHP) has been introduced. An exoreversible thermodynamic model of the ATEHP considering the Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction has been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for dimensionless heating power, optimum current at the maximum energy, exergy efficiency conditions and dimensionless irreversibilities in the ATEHP are derived. The results show that the heating power, energy and exergy efficiency of the ATEHP are lower than the flat-plate thermoelectric heat pump. The effects of annular shape parameter ( S r = r 2 /r 1), dimensionless temperature ratio ( θ = T h /T c) and the electrical contact resistances on the heating power, energy/exergy efficiency of an ATEHP have been studied. This study will help in the designing of actual ATEHP systems.

  8. High Thrust-to-Power Annular Engine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Thomas, Robert E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Young, Jason A.; Foster, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Gridded ion engines have the highest efficiency and total impulse of any mature electric propulsion technology, and have been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments with excellent ground/in-space correlation of performance. However, they have not been optimized to maximize thrust-to-power, an important parameter for Earth orbit transfer applications. This publication discusses technology development work intended to maximize this parameter. These activities include investigating the capabilities of a non-conventional design approach, the annular engine, which has the potential of exceeding the thrust-to-power of other EP technologies. This publication discusses the status of this work, including the fabrication and initial tests of a large-area annular engine. This work is being conducted in collaboration among NASA Glenn Research Center, The Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.

  9. Axisymmetric buckling of laminated thick annular spherical cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumir, P. C.; Dube, G. P.; Mallick, A.

    2005-03-01

    Axisymmetric buckling analysis is presented for moderately thick laminated shallow annular spherical cap under transverse load. Buckling under central ring load and uniformly distributed transverse load, applied statically or as a step function load is considered. The central circular opening is either free or plugged by a rigid central mass or reinforced by a rigid ring. Annular spherical caps have been analysed for clamped and simple supports with movable and immovable inplane edge conditions. The governing equations of the Marguerre-type, first order shear deformation shallow shell theory (FSDT), formulated in terms of transverse deflection w, the rotation ψ of the normal to the midsurface and the stress function Φ, are solved by the orthogonal point collocation method. Typical numerical results for static and dynamic buckling loads for FSDT are compared with the classical lamination theory and the dependence of the effect of the shear deformation on the thickness parameter for various boundary conditions is investigated.

  10. Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Annular Thermoelectric Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.; Hans, Ranjana

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the concept of an annular thermoelectric heat pump (ATEHP) has been introduced. An exoreversible thermodynamic model of the ATEHP considering the Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction has been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for dimensionless heating power, optimum current at the maximum energy, exergy efficiency conditions and dimensionless irreversibilities in the ATEHP are derived. The results show that the heating power, energy and exergy efficiency of the ATEHP are lower than the flat-plate thermoelectric heat pump. The effects of annular shape parameter (S r = r 2 /r 1), dimensionless temperature ratio (θ = T h /T c) and the electrical contact resistances on the heating power, energy/exergy efficiency of an ATEHP have been studied. This study will help in the designing of actual ATEHP systems.

  11. Development of annular targets for 99Mo production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1999, significant progress was made in the development of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) target for production of 99Mo. Successful conversion requires an inexpensive, reliable target. To keep the target geometry the same when changing from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets, a denser form of uranium is required in order to increase the amount of uranium per target by a factor of approximately five. Targets containing LEU in the form of a metal foil are being developed for producing 99Mo from the fissioning of 235U. A new annular target was developed this year, and seven targets were irradiated in the Indonesian RSG-GAS reactor. Results of development of this annular target and its performance during irradiation are described. (author)

  12. Production of annular flat-topped vortex beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiannong Chen; Yongjiang Yu; Feifei Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ A model of an annular flat-topped vortex beam based on multi-Gaussian superimposition is proposed. We experimentally produce this beam with a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). The power of the beam is concentrated on a single-ring structure and has an extremely strong radial intensity gradient. This beam facilitates various applications ranging from Sisyphus atom cooling to micro-particle trapping.%A model of an annular fiat-topped vortex beam based on multi-Gaussian superimposition is proposed. We experimentally produce this beam with a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). The power of the beam is concentrated on a single-ring structure and has an extremely strong radial intensity gradient. This beam facilitates various applications ranging from Sisyphus atom cooling to micro-particle trapping.

  13. Electroosmotic flow and Joule heating in preparative continuous annular electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, René; Bart, Hans-Jörg

    2015-09-01

    An openFOAM "computational fluid dynamic" simulation model was developed for the description of local interaction of hydrodynamics and Joule heating in annular electrochromatography. A local decline of electrical conductivity of the background eluent is caused by an electrokinetic migration of ions resulting in higher Joule heat generation. The model equations consider the Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible fluids, the energy equation for stationary temperature fields, and the mass transfer equation for the electrokinetic flow. The simulations were embedded in commercial ANSYS Fluent software and in open-source environment openFOAM. The annular gap (1 mm width) contained an inorganic C8 reverse-phase monolith as stationary phase prepared by an in situ sol-gel process. The process temperature generated by Joule heating was determined by thermal camera system. The local hydrodynamics in the prototype was detected by a gravimetric contact-free measurement method and experimental and simulated values matched quite well. PMID:25997390

  14. Excitational metamorphosis of surface flowfield under an impinging annular jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 2 (2008), s. 312-316. ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499; GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : jets * impinging jets * flow topology * annular jets * stagnation points Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.813, year: 2008 http://www.sciencedirect.com/

  15. Heat transfer to liquid sodium flowing through annular channel, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study was carried out to clarify the heat transfer characteristics of liquid sodium flowing turbulently through an annular channel. For a concentric condition, average psi(=average epsilonH/epsilonM) was found to agree with that proposed by Aoki or Ramm for circular tube. For eccentric conditions, circumferential temperature variations around the inner wall were measured and Nusselt numbers were evaluated. Numerical calculations were also made for temperature fields and compared with the measurements. (author)

  16. Unusual Presentation of Acute Annular Urticaria: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Guerrier; Jean-Marc Daronat; Roger Deltour

    2011-01-01

    Acute urticarial lesions may display central clearing with ecchymotic or haemorrhagic hue, often misdiagnosed as erythema multiforme, serum-sickness-like reactions, or urticarial vasculitis. We report a case of acute annular urticaria with unusual presentation occurring in a 20-month-old child to emphasize the distinctive morphologic manifestations in a single disease. Clinicians who care for children should be able to differentiate acute urticaria from its clinical mimics. A directed history...

  17. Fluxon dynamics in long annular Josephson tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Martucciello, N.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V. P.; Shchukin, A. V.; Filippenko, L.; Monaco, R.

    1998-01-01

    Single-fluxon dynamics has been experimentally investigated in high-quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb annular Josephson tunnel junctions having a radius much larger than the Josephson penetration depth. Strong evidence of self-field effects is observed. An external magnetic field in the barrier plane acts on the fluxon as a periodic potential and lowers its average speed. Further, the results of perturbative calculations do not fit the experimental current-voltage profile and, provided the temperature is...

  18. Ignition sequence of an annular multi-injector combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Maxime; Boileau, Matthieu; Vicquelin, Ronan; Schmitt, Thomas; Durox, Daniel; Bourgoin, Jean-François; Candel, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Ignition is a critical process in combustion systems. In aeronautical combustors, altitude relight capacities are required in case of accidental extinction of the chamber. A simultaneous study of light-round ignition in an annular multi-injector combustor has been performed on the experimental and numerical sides. This effort allows a unique comparison to assess the reliability of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in such a configuration. Results are presented in fluid dynamics videos.

  19. Large Eddy Simulation of thermoacoustic instabilities in annular combustion chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly stringent regulations and the need to tackle rising fuel prices have placed great emphasis on the design of aeronautical gas turbines. This drive towards innovation has resulted sometimes in new concepts being prone to combustion instabilities. Combustion instabilities arise from the coupling of acoustics and combustion. In the particular field of annular combustion chambers, these instabilities often take the form of azimuthal modes. To predict these modes, one must consider the...

  20. Thermohydraulic analysis of smooth and finned annular ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is concerned with the turbulent heat transfer and pressure drop in smooth and finned annular ducts overage heat transfer coefficients have been obtained by means of the heat exchanger theory. In addition, friction factors have also been determined. The experiments were performed by utilizing four double-pipe heat exchangers. The flowing fluids, in the heat exchangers, were air and water. The average heat transfer coefficients, for air flowing in the annular section, were determined by measuring the overall heat transfer coefficients of the heat exchangers. In order to attain fully developed conditions, the heat exchangers had a starting length of 30 hydraulic diameters. The thermal boundary conditions consisted of uniform temperature on the inner surface, the outer surface being insulated. The heat transfer coefficients and friction factors are presented in dimensionaless forms, as functions of the Reynolds number of the flow. The results for the smooth and finned annular ducts were compared. The purpose of such comparison was to study the influence of the fins on the pressure drop and heat transfer rate. In the case of the finned nular ducts, it is shown that the fin efficiency has some fluence on the heat transfer rates. The, a two-dimensional at transfer analysis was performed in order to obtain the n efficiency and the annular region efficiency. It is also shown that the overall thermal performance of finned surfaces epends mainly on the Nusselt number and on the region eficiency. These parameters are presented as functions of the Reynolds number of the flow and the geometry of the problem. (author)

  1. Hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals in centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, T.; Kaneko, H.

    1980-01-01

    The hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals were investigated. The measured inlet and exit loss coefficients of the flow through the seals were much smaller than the conventional values. The results indicate that the damping coefficient and the inertia coefficient of the fluid film in the seal are not affected much by the rotational speed or the eccentricity of the rotor, though the stiffness coefficient seemed to be influenced by the eccentricity.

  2. Guided Wave Annular Array Sensor Design for Improved Tomographic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduru, Jaya Prakash; Rose, Joseph L.

    2009-03-01

    Guided wave tomography for structural health monitoring is fast emerging as a reliable tool for the detection and monitoring of hotspots in a structure, for any defects arising from corrosion, crack growth etc. To date guided wave tomography has been successfully tested on aircraft wings, pipes, pipe elbows, and weld joints. Structures practically deployed are subjected to harsh environments like exposure to rain, changes in temperature and humidity. A reliable tomography system should take into account these environmental factors to avoid false alarms. The lack of mode control with piezoceramic disk sensors makes it very sensitive to traces of water leading to false alarms. In this study we explore the design of annular array sensors to provide mode control for improved structural tomography, in particular, addressing the false alarm potential of water loading. Clearly defined actuation lines in the phase velocity dispersion curve space are calculated. A dominant in-plane displacement point is found to provide a solution to the water loading problem. The improvement in the tomographic images with the annular array sensors in the presence of water traces is clearly illustrated with a series of experiments. An annular array design philosophy for other problems in NDE/SHM is also discussed.

  3. Entrainment in vertical annular two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of amount of entrained droplets or entrainment fraction in annular two-phase flow is essential for the estimation of dryout condition and analysis of post dryout heat transfer in light water nuclear reactors and steam boilers. In this study, air-water and organic fluid (Freon-113) annular flow entrainment experiments have been carried out in 9.4 and 10.2 mm diameter test sections, respectively. Both the experiments covered three distinct pressure conditions and wide range of liquid and gas flow conditions. The organic fluid experiments simulated high pressure steam-water annular flow conditions. In each of the experiments, measurements of entrainment fraction, droplet entrainment rate and droplet deposition rate have been performed by using a liquid film extraction method. A simple, explicit and non-dimensional correlation developed by Sawant et al. (2008a) for the prediction of entrainment fraction is further improved in this study in order to account for the existence of critical gas and liquid flow rates below which no entrainment is possible. Additionally, a new correlation is proposed for the estimation of minimum liquid film flow rate at the maximum entrainment fraction condition. The improved correlation successfully predicted the newly collected air-water and Freon-113 entrainment fraction data. Furthermore, the correlations satisfactorily compared with the air-water, helium-water and air-genklene experimental data measured by Willetts (1987). (author)

  4. Treatment of generalized granuloma annulare - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, J; Schliemann, S; Elsner, P

    2015-08-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign inflammatory skin disease. Localized GA is likely to resolve spontaneously, while generalized GA (GGA) is rare and may persist for decades. GGA usually is resistant to a variety of therapeutic modalities and takes a chronic course. The objective of this study was to summarize all reported treatments of generalized granuloma annulare. This is a systematic review based on MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central Register search of articles in English and German and a manual search, between 1980 and 2013, to summarize the treatment of generalized granuloma annulare. Most medical literature on treatment of GGA is limited to individual case reports and small series of patients treated without a control group. Randomized controlled clinical studies are missing. Multiple treatment modalities for GGA were reported including topical and systemic steroids, PUVA, isotretinoin, dapsone, pentoxifylline, hydroxychloroquine, cyclosporine, IFN-γ, potassium iodide, nicotinamide, niacinamide, salicylic acid, dipyridamole, PDT, fumaric acid ester, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab. While there are numerous case reports of successful treatments in the literature including surgical, medical and phototherapy options, well-designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials are required for an evidence-based treatment of GGA. PMID:25651003

  5. Experimental study on particles mixing in an annular spouted bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Huang; Guoxin, Hu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Fengchao, Wang [Science and Technology Development Office, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2008-02-15

    A novel annular spouted bed was developed and studied experimentally. The experiments were performed to examine the effects of feeding mode, air velocity and static bed height as well as particle size on particle mixing for different conditions in this device. The results show that feeding by a rotating cone greatly improves particle mixing by homogeneously projecting the particles into the annular bed. For feeding by a rotating cone, the time required to get uniform mixing laterally is shorten almost 10 times less than that for feeding at a fixed point. With increasing air velocity, the axial mixing speed increases more significantly than the lateral mixing speed. The static bed height has important effects on the uniformity of the final admixtures. With increasing static bed height, the degree of mixing of the final mixture (FDM) axially first decreases, then increases, but laterally, the FDM is monotone decreasing. The particles of small size are helpful to raise the mixing speed. In addition, the dead zone in the annular spouted bed was analyzed. (author)

  6. Experimental study on particles mixing in an annular spouted bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Hao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Hu Guoxin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: hugx@sjtu.edu.cn; Wang Fengchao [Science and Technology Development Office, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2008-02-15

    A novel annular spouted bed was developed and studied experimentally. The experiments were performed to examine the effects of feeding mode, air velocity and static bed height as well as particle size on particle mixing for different conditions in this device. The results show that feeding by a rotating cone greatly improves particle mixing by homogeneously projecting the particles into the annular bed. For feeding by a rotating cone, the time required to get uniform mixing laterally is shorten almost 10 times less than that for feeding at a fixed point. With increasing air velocity, the axial mixing speed increases more significantly than the lateral mixing speed. The static bed height has important effects on the uniformity of the final admixtures. With increasing static bed height, the degree of mixing of the final mixture (FDM) axially first decreases, then increases, but laterally, the FDM is monotone decreasing. The particles of small size are helpful to raise the mixing speed. In addition, the dead zone in the annular spouted bed was analyzed.

  7. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data

  8. The influence of annular seal clearance to the critical speed of the multistage pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the multistage pump of high head, pressure difference in two ends of annular seal clearance and rotor eccentric would produce the sealing fluid force, the effect of which can be expressed by a damping and stiffness coefficient. It has a great influence on the critical speed of the rotor system. In order to research the influence of the annular seal to the rotor system, this paper used CFD method to conduct the numerical simulation for the flow field of annular seal clearance. The radial and tangential forces were obtained to calculate the annular dynamic coefficients. Also dynamic coefficient were obtained by Matlab. The rotor system was modeled using ANSYS finite software and the critical speed with and without annular seal clearance were calculated. The result shows: annular seal's fluid field is under the comprehensive effect of pressure difference and rotor entrainment. Due to the huge pressure difference in front annular seal, fluid flows under pressure difference; the low pressure difference results in the more obvious effect on the clearance field in back annular seal. The first order critical speed increases greatly with the annular seal clearance; while the average growth rate of the second order critical speed is only 3.2%; the third and fourth critical speed decreases little. Based on the above result, the annular seal has great influence to the first order speed, while has little influence on the rest

  9. About simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of special exact solutions of Veselov-Novikov equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    New exact solutions, nonstationary and stationary, of Veselov-Novikov (VN) equation in the forms of simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of arbitrary number N of exact special solutions u(n), n = 1, …, N are constructed via Zakharov and Manakov overline{partial }-dressing method. Simple nonlinear superpositions are represented up to a constant by the sums of solutions u(n) and calculated by overline{partial }-dressing on nonzero energy level of the first auxiliary linear problem, i.e., 2D stationary Schrödinger equation. It is remarkable that in the zero energy limit simple nonlinear superpositions convert to linear ones in the form of the sums of special solutions u(n). It is shown that the sums u= u^{(k_1)}+ldots + u^{(k_m)}, 1 ⩽ k1 modern electronics.

  10. Quantum Superpositions and the Representation of Physical Reality Beyond Measurement Outcomes and Mathematical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    de Ronde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we intend to discuss the importance of providing a physical representation of quantum superpositions which goes beyond the mere reference to mathematical structures and measurement outcomes. This proposal goes in the opposite direction of the orthodox project which attempts to "bridge the gap" between the quantum formalism and common sense "classical reality" --precluding, right from the start, the possibility of interpreting quantum superpositions through non-classical notions. We will argue that in order to restate the problem of interpretation of quantum mechanics in truly ontological terms we require a radical revision of the problems and definitions addressed within the orthodox literature. On the one hand, we will discuss the need of providing a formal redefinition of superpositions which captures their contextual character. On the other hand, we attempt to replace the focus on the measurement problem, which concentrates on the justification of measurement outcomes from "weird" superposed ...

  11. Neural networks learn highly selective representations in order to overcome the superposition catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S; Vankov, Ivan I; Damian, Markus F; Davis, Colin J

    2014-04-01

    A key insight from 50 years of neurophysiology is that some neurons in cortex respond to information in a highly selective manner. Why is this? We argue that selective representations support the coactivation of multiple "things" (e.g., words, objects, faces) in short-term memory, whereas nonselective codes are often unsuitable for this purpose. That is, the coactivation of nonselective codes often results in a blend pattern that is ambiguous; the so-called superposition catastrophe. We show that a recurrent parallel distributed processing network trained to code for multiple words at the same time over the same set of units learns localist letter and word codes, and the number of localist codes scales with the level of the superposition. Given that many cortical systems are required to coactivate multiple things in short-term memory, we suggest that the superposition constraint plays a role in explaining the existence of selective codes in cortex. PMID:24564411

  12. Oblique superposition of two elliptically polarized lightwaves using geometric algebra: is energy-momentum conserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Michelle Wynne C; Sugon, Quirino M; McNamara, Daniel J

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we use Clifford (geometric) algebra Cl(3,0) to verify if electromagnetic energy-momentum density is still conserved for oblique superposition of two elliptically polarized plane waves with the same frequency. We show that energy-momentum conservation is valid at any time only for the superposition of two counter-propagating elliptically polarized plane waves. We show that the time-average energy-momentum of the superposition of two circularly polarized waves with opposite handedness is conserved regardless of the propagation directions of the waves. And, we show that the resulting momentum density of the superposed waves generally has a vector component perpendicular to the momentum densities of the individual waves. PMID:21045912

  13. Quantum superposition, entanglement, and state teleportation of a microorganism on an electromechanical oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tongcang

    2016-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's thought experiment to prepare a cat in a superposition of both alive and dead states reveals profound consequences of quantum mechanics and has attracted enormous interests. Here we propose a straightforward method to create quantum superposition states of a living microorganism by putting a small bacterium on top of an electromechanical oscillator. Our proposal is based on recent developments that the center-of-mass oscillation of a 15-$\\mu$m-diameter aluminium membrane has been cooled to its quantum ground state [Nature 475, 359 (2011)], and entangled with a microwave field [Science, 342, 710 (2013)]. A microorganism with a mass much smaller than the mass of the electromechanical membrane will not significantly affect the quality factor of the membrane and can be cooled to the quantum ground state together with the membrane. Quantum superposition and teleportation of its center-of-mass motion state can be realized with the help of superconducting microwave circuits. More importantly, the int...

  14. Mesoscopic Superposition States Generated by Synthetic Spin-Orbit Interaction in Fock-State Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Wei; Cai, Han; Liu, Ren-Bao; Scully, Marlan O.

    2016-06-01

    Mesoscopic superposition states of photons can be prepared in three cavities interacting with the same two-level atom. By periodically modulating the three cavity frequencies around the transition frequency of the atom with a 2 π /3 phase difference, the time reversal symmetry is broken and an optical circulator is generated with chiralities depending on the quantum state of the atom. A superposition of the atomic states can guide photons from one cavity to a mesoscopic superposition of the other two cavities. The physics can be understood in a finite spin-orbit-coupled Fock-state lattice where the atom and the cavities carry the spin and the orbit degrees of freedom, respectively. This scheme can be realized in circuit QED architectures and provides a new platform for exploring quantum information and topological physics in novel lattices.

  15. Generation of squeezed-state superpositions via time-dependent Kerr nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    León-Montiel, R de J

    2015-01-01

    We put forward an experimental scheme for direct generation of optical squeezed coherent-state superpositions. The proposed setup makes use of an optical cavity, filled with a nonlinear Kerr medium, whose frequency is allowed to change during time evolution. By exactly solving the corresponding time-dependent anharmonic-oscillator Hamiltonian, we demonstrate that squeezed-state superpositions can be generated in an optical cavity. Furthermore, we show that the squeezing degree of the produced states can be tuned by properly controlling the frequency shift of the cavity, a feature that could be useful in many quantum information protocols, such as quantum teleportation and quantum computing.

  16. Two-photon ionization of He through a superposition of higher harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present experimental results and theoretical analysis of two-photon ionization of He by a superposition of the 7th to the 13th harmonic of a Ti:sapphire laser. Solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for He in a coherent polychromatic field, the He+ yield is calculated. From this yield the number of He+ ions produced has been estimated and found in reasonable agreement with its measured value. The present results establish the feasibility of a second-order autocorrelation measurement of superposition of harmonics, and thus they represent the precursor towards the direct temporal characterization of attosecond pulse trains

  17. Quantum decoherence time scales for ionic superposition states in ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, V.; Moradi, N.; Sajadi, M.; Fazileh, F.; Shahbazi, F.

    2015-03-01

    There are many controversial and challenging discussions about quantum effects in microscopic structures in neurons of the brain and their role in cognitive processing. In this paper, we focus on a small, nanoscale part of ion channels which is called the "selectivity filter" and plays a key role in the operation of an ion channel. Our results for superposition states of potassium ions indicate that decoherence times are of the order of picoseconds. This decoherence time is not long enough for cognitive processing in the brain, however, it may be adequate for quantum superposition states of ions in the filter to leave their quantum traces on the selectivity filter and action potentials.

  18. Entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of modes within two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use spatial light modulators (SLMs) to measure correlations between arbitrary superpositions of orbital angular momentum (OAM) states generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our technique allows us to fully access a two-dimensional OAM subspace described by a Bloch sphere, within the higher-dimensional OAM Hilbert space. We quantify the entanglement through violations of a Bell-type inequality for pairs of modal superpositions that lie on equatorial, polar, and arbitrary great circles of the Bloch sphere. Our work shows that SLMs can be used to measure arbitrary spatial states with a fidelity sufficient for appropriate quantum information processing systems.

  19. The general use of the time-temperature-pressure superposition principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) section 3.6(a). DPL do only concern material functions and only the effect of the temperature on these. This is a short introduction to the general use of the time-temperature-pressure superposition principle.......This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) section 3.6(a). DPL do only concern material functions and only the effect of the temperature on these. This is a short introduction to the general use of the time-temperature-pressure superposition principle....

  20. Intensity improvement in the attosecond pulse generation with the coherent superposition initial state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liqiang; Chu, Tianshu

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the coherent superposition initial state effect and found that when the initial active electron state is prepared in the coherent superposition of the 1s and 2s states of the He+ ion and the chirp parameter of the fundamental field in the two-color scheme is chosen to be β=0.3, the harmonic cutoff energy is remarkably extended and the harmonic yield is enhanced by at least 6 orders of magnitude compared with the case of the single 1s ground state with chirp-free pulse. An ultrabroad supercontinuum with a 458 eV bandwidth is formed, directly producing an intense isolated 34 as pulse.

  1. Dense coding scheme using superpositions of Bell-states and its NMR implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jingfu; XIE; Jingyi; DENG; Zhiwei; LU; Zhiheng

    2005-01-01

    Dense coding using superpositions of Bell-states is proposed. The generalized Grover's algorithm is used to prepare the initial entangled states, and the reverse process of the quantum algorithm is used to determine the entangled state in the decoding measurement. Compared with the previous schemes, the superpositions of two Bell-states are exploited. Our scheme is demonstrated using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)quantum computer. The corresponding manipulations are obtained. Experimental results show a good agreement between theory and experiment. We also generalize the scheme to transmit eight messages by introducing an additional two-state system.

  2. Creation and detection of a mesoscopic gas in a non-local quantum superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Christoph; Castin, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    4 pages, 1 figure International audience We investigate the scattering of a quantum matter wave soliton on a barrier in a one dimensional geometry and we show that it can lead to mesoscopic Schrödinger cat states, where the atomic gas is in a coherent superposition of being in the half-space to the left of the barrier and being in the half-space to the right of the barrier. We propose an interferometric method to reveal the coherent nature of this superposition and we discuss in details...

  3. On the possibility of the game Aethod application for the pulse superposition elimination in gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of superposition pulses elimination in gamma-spectroscopy based on conclusions of the matrix theory of games is described. The optimum solution in mixed strategies is given and probabilities, when the optimum evaluation of the spectrum is realized, have been calculated. Ways of possible realization of the superposition pulses elimination method are discussed. The simplest is the variant when a random number transducer and a logic device are attached to a standard analyzer. Every input signal starts up the logic device and random number transducer which registrate or don't registrate with pre-set probability the given concrete event in the pulse analyzer memory

  4. Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Tall Reinforced Concrete Chimney with Piled Raft and Annular Raft under Along-Wind Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Jayalekshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D soil-structure interaction (SSI analysis of 300 m high reinforced concrete chimneys having piled annular raft and annular raft foundations subjected to along-wind load is carried out in the present study. To understand the significance of SSI, four types of soils were considered based on their flexibility. The effect of stiffness of the raft was evaluated using three different ratios of external diameter to thickness of the annular raft. The along-wind load was computed according to IS:4998 (Part 1-1992. The integrated chimney-foundation-soil system was analysed by commercial finite element (FE software ANSYS, based on direct method of SSI assuming linear elastic behaviour. FE analyses were carried out for two cases of SSI (I chimney with annular raft foundation and (II chimney with piled raft foundation. The responses in chimney such as tip deflection, bending moments, and base moment and responses in raft such as bending moments and settlements were evaluated for both cases and compared to that obtained from the conventional method of analysis. It is found that the responses in chimney and raft depend on the flexibility of the underlying soil and thickness of the raft.

  5. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreas carcinoma occurring in the annular pancreas: report of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaida, Hiromichi; KONO, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Maki, Akira; Amemiya, Hidetake; Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Takahashi, Ei; Sano, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly in which a ring of the pancreas parenchyma surrounds the second part of the duodenum. Malignant tumors are extremely rare in patients with an annular pancreas. A 64-year-old man presented with appetite loss and vomiting. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) indicated pancreas parenchyma surrounding the second part of the duodenum, and a hypovascular area occupying lesion in the annular pancreas. Subtotal stomach-preserving panc...

  6. Repeated mitral valve replacement in a patient with extensive annular calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura Tadashi; Fukuda Sachito; Sawada Takahiro; Miura Sumio; Kigawa Ikutaro; Miyairi Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mitral valve replacement in the presence of severe annular calcification is a technical challenge. Case report A 47-year-old lady who had undergone mitral and aortic valve replacement for rheumatic disease 27 years before presented with dyspnea. At reoperation, extensive mitral annular calcification was hindering the disc motion of the Starr-Edwards mitral prosthesis. The old prosthesis was removed and a St Jude Medical mechanical valve was implanted after thorough annular...

  7. An Annular Gap Acceleration Model for γ-ray Emission of Pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    If the binding energy of the pulsar's surface is not so high (the case of a neutron star), both negative and positive charges will flow out freely from the surface of the star. An annular free flow model for γ-ray emission of pulsars is suggested. It is emphasized that:(1) Two kinds of acceleration regions (annular and core) need to be taken into account. The annular acceleration region is defined by the magnetic field lines that cross the null charge surface within the light cylinder. (2) If the potential drop in the annular region of a pulsar is high enough (normally the case for young pulsars), charges in both the annular and the core regions could be accelerated and produce primary gamma-rays. Secondary pairs are generated in both regions and stream outwards to power the broadband radiations. (3) The potential drop grows more rapidly in the annular region than in the core region. The annular acceleration process is a key process for producing the observed wide emission beams. (4)The advantages of both the polar cap and outer gap models are retained in this model. The geometric properties of the γ-ray emission from the annular flow are analogous to that presented in a previous work by Qiao et al., which match the observations well. (5) Since charges with different signs leave the pulsar through the annular and the core regions respectively, the current closure problem can be partially solved.

  8. Development of probabilistic design method for annular fuel. Development of BORNFREE-CEPTAR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of linear power and burn-up during the reactor operation is considered as one of measures for the utility of fast reactor in future, and then the application of annular fuels is under consideration. In order to make a design for thus annular fuels, annular fuel design code 'CEPTAR' has been developed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). In addition, probabilistic fuel design code 'BORNFREE' has been also developed for the reasonable fuel design with safety and the quantitative evaluation of design margin. In this study, aiming at the development of probabilistic design method, we developed BORNFREE-CEPTAR code to develop the reasonable design method for annular fuels. As the results of probability evaluation of fuel melting at the transient at the initial power increase, by using the probabilistic annular fuel design code 'BORNFREE-CEPTAR', the melting probability for annular fuels was estimated to be approximately two figures lower than that for solid fuels, and the remarkable decrease of melting probability, which was caused by the fuel restructuring effect, was seen in the estimation results for solid fuels, on the other hand, the results for annular fuels indicated that this effect was comparably small. In addition, the permissive linear power for annular fuels tended to enhance from that for solid fuels with the increase of initial central-hole diameter under the similar fuel melting probability condition. This indicated the possibility of higher linear power operation for high-density annular fuels than low-density solid fuels. (author)

  9. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2015-08-11

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  10. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2014-07-29

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  11. Teleportation of a Superposition of Three Orthogonal States of an Atom via Photon Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2006-01-01

    We propose a scheme to teleport a superposition of three states of an atom trapped in a cavity to a second atom trapped in a remote cavity. The scheme is based on the detection of photons leaking from the cavities after the atom-cavity interaction.

  12. Application of time-temperature-stress superposition on creep of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Cheng; Lam, Frank; Kadla, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Time-temperature-stress superposition principle (TTSSP) was widely applied in studies of viscoelastic properties of materials. It involves shifting curves at various conditions to construct master curves. To extend the application of this principle, a temperature-stress hybrid shift factor and a modified Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation that incorporated variables of stress and temperature for the shift factor fitting were studied. A wood-plastic composite (WPC) was selected as the test subject to conduct a series of short-term creep tests. The results indicate that the WPC were rheologically simple materials and merely a horizontal shift was needed for the time-temperature superposition, whereas vertical shifting would be needed for time-stress superposition. The shift factor was independent of the stress for horizontal shifts in time-temperature superposition. In addition, the temperature- and stress-shift factors used to construct master curves were well fitted with the WLF equation. Furthermore, the parameters of the modified WLF equation were also successfully calibrated. The application of this method and equation can be extended to curve shifting that involves the effects of both temperature and stress simultaneously.

  13. Using Musical Intervals to Demonstrate Superposition of Waves and Fourier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    What follows is a description of a demonstration of superposition of waves and Fourier analysis using a set of four tuning forks mounted on resonance boxes and oscilloscope software to create, capture and analyze the waveforms and Fourier spectra of musical intervals.

  14. Calculating Interaction Energies Using First Principle Theories: Consideration of Basis Set Superposition Error and Fragment Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, J. Philip; Sorensen, Jennifer B.; Kirschner, Karl N.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis explains the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and fragment relaxation involved in calculating the interaction energies using various first principle theories. Interacting the correlated fragment and increasing the size of the basis set can help in decreasing the BSSE to a great extent.

  15. Linear superposition method for (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear wave equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Ji; Wang Rui-Min; Ye Li-Jun

    2006-01-01

    New forms of different-periodic travelling wave solutions for the(2+1)-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov(ZK) equation and the Davey-Stewartson(DS)equation are obtained by the linear superposition approach of Jacobi elliptic function.A sequence of cyclic identities plays an important role in these procedures.

  16. A digital interface for Gaussian relay and interference networks: Lifting codes from the discrete superposition model

    CERN Document Server

    Anand, M

    2010-01-01

    For every Gaussian network, there exists a corresponding deterministic network called the discrete superposition network. We show that this discrete superposition network provides a near-optimal digital interface for operating a class of Gaussian networks in the sense that any code for the discrete superposition network can be naturally lifted to a corresponding code for the Gaussian network, while achieving a rate that is at most a constant number of bits lesser than the rate it achieves for discrete superposition network. This constant depends only on the number of nodes in the network and not on the channel gains or SNR. Moreover the capacities of the two networks are within a constant of each other, again independent of channel gains and SNR. The class of Gaussian networks for which this property holds includes relay networks with a single source-destination pair, interference networks, multicast networks, and the MIMO counterparts of these networks. The capacity of the Gaussian relay network with a singl...

  17. Using musical intervals to demonstrate superposition of waves and Fourier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-09-01

    What follows is a description of a demonstration of superposition of waves and Fourier analysis using a set of four tuning forks mounted on resonance boxes and oscilloscope software to create, capture and analyze the waveforms and Fourier spectra of musical intervals.

  18. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States in a Model of Photon-Supersonic Phonon Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Jin-Hua; WANG Yan-Bang; LU Yi-Qun

    2000-01-01

    A model of photon-hypersonic phonon interaction is proposed. The evolution of macroscopic quantum superpo sition states is analyzed, including the wave function and number distribution. It is shown that a superposition state of hypersonic phonon modes can be generated in the case of nondetuning and no losses.

  19. Suitability of the approximate superposition of squeezed coherent states for various quantum protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Marek, Petr; Kim, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A state in a d-dimensional Hilbert space can be simulated by a state defined in a different dimension with high fidelity. We assess how faithfully such the approximated state can perform quantum protocols, using an example of the squeezed coherent superposition state which was recently experimentally generated.

  20. Generation of macroscopic quantum-superposition states by linear coupling to a bath

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Bar-Gill, Nir; Kurizki, Gershon

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate through an exactly solvable model that collective coupling to any thermal bath induces effectively nonlinear couplings in a quantum many-body (multi-spin) system. The resulting evolution can drive an uncorrelated large-spin system with high probability into a macroscopic quantum-superposition state. We discuss possible experimental realizations.

  1. Dialogue on the Quantum Mechanics Foundation Problem and its Solution by Spontaneous Superposition Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Pankovic, Vladan

    2009-01-01

    In this work problem of the quantum mechanics, i.e. measurement process foundation is analyzed in the form of the Galileian dialogue. Also, a solution, by spontaneous (non-dynamical) unitary symmetry (superposition) breaking (as an especial case of the spontaneous (non-dynamical) symmetry breaking) is suggested.

  2. Scheme for entangling atom-photon pairs via an input light in superposition state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qirun Dai; Jiqing Fu; Hui Jing

    2009-01-01

    We propose a feasible scheme to create macroscopically entangled atom-photon pairs by preparing an input optical superposition state.Several interesting non-classical quantum statistical effects like the atomic squeezed effects are clearly demonstrated.The making and manipulation of entangled atom-photon pairs are useful for,e.g.,high-precision interferometry and quantum information science.

  3. Superposition of Coherent States in a Mesoscopic Josephson Junction with Dissipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Jian; SHAO Bin; SU Wen-Yong

    2001-01-01

    A mesoscopic Josephson junction with dissipation is considered. Usually the dissipation in the system is described as a consequence of its coupling to a reservoir. By solving the master equation we show that the state of the junction can evolve in a quantum superposition of two coherent states even when the dissipation is present.``

  4. Superposition of flux-qubit states and the law of angular momentum conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulov, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the assumptions on macroscopic quantum tunneling and on superposition of two macroscopically distinct quantum states of superconducting loop, considered as flux qubit by many authors, contradict to the fundamental law of angular momentum conservation and the universally recognized quantum formalism.

  5. Modeling of annular film dryout with Cobra-TF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The COBRA-TF computer code uses a two-fluid, three-field and three-dimensional formulation to model a two-phase flow field in a specific geometry. The liquid phase is divided in a continuous liquid field and a separate dispersed field, which is used to describe the entrained liquid drops. For each space dimension, the code solves three momentum equations, three mass conservation equations and two energy conservation equations. Entrainment and depositions models are implemented into the code to model the mass transfer between the two liquid fields. In annular flow condition critical heat flux is caused by annular film dryout. Film dryout is a complex function of the film flow rate, the applied heat flux, and the entrainment from the liquid film to the continuous vapor region, and the deposition of entrained droplets back to the liquid film. Because of the three-field approach, COBRA-TF hydrodynamic equations are able to predict dry-out by solving directly the film dry-out as a hydrodynamic process rather than using an empirical dry-out correlation. The dry-out is driven by the hydraulic calculation and the prediction is the result of the combined effect of the entrainment, the deposition models and interfacial heat transfer. The paper discusses the annular film entrainment and deposition models used in the code as well as the logic, which is used to determine the dry-out phenomena as the film thickness decreases. The obtained results with COBRA-TF are compared with the test data from the Bennett Tube Dry-out Experiments. In general, the COBRA-TF prediction of the dry-out location is in good agreement with Bennett test data. In particular, results show that the predicted dry-out length tends to be longer than the measured value and in the post dry-out region the wall temperature, which is dependent on vapor superheat, tends to be underestimated by the code. (authors)

  6. Java application for the superposition T-matrix code to study the optical properties of cosmic dust aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, P.; Chakraborty, A.; Deb Roy, P.; Das, H. S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a java application for the Superposition T-matrix code, JaSTA (Java Superposition T-matrix App), to study the light scattering properties of aggregate structures. It has been developed using Netbeans 7.1.2, which is a java integrated development environment (IDE). The JaSTA uses double precession superposition codes for multi-sphere clusters in random orientation developed by Mackowski and Mischenko (1996). It consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) in the front hand and a database of related data in the back hand. Both the interactive GUI and database package directly enable a user to model by self-monitoring respective input parameters (namely, wavelength, complex refractive indices, grain size, etc.) to study the related optical properties of cosmic dust (namely, extinction, polarization, etc.) instantly, i.e., with zero computational time. This increases the efficiency of the user. The database of JaSTA is now created for a few sets of input parameters with a plan to create a large database in future. This application also has an option where users can compile and run the scattering code directly for aggregates in GUI environment. The JaSTA aims to provide convenient and quicker data analysis of the optical properties which can be used in different fields like planetary science, atmospheric science, nano science, etc. The current version of this software is developed for the Linux and Windows platform to study the light scattering properties of small aggregates which will be extended for larger aggregates using parallel codes in future. Catalogue identifier: AETB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571570 No. of bytes in distributed program

  7. Characteristic analysis of a double stator annular linear electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A annular linear induction electromagnetic pump (ALIP) is generally used to transport liquid sodium coolants for liquid metal reactors. In the present study, the theoretical induction of a developing equation has been carried out for a double stator version of the ALIP which is noticebly employed for the sodium circulation of a large flowrate. The computerzed P-Q relation, which is represented by the pump geometrical and electrical variables, has been applied to a double stator version of the ALMR EM pump. An induced equation was verified by the compared analysis with the known data on the P-Q characteristic according to the input currents

  8. A high efficiency annular dark field detector for STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, E J; Thomas, M G

    1996-01-01

    A new high efficiency annular dark field (ADF) detector for an HB501 STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope) has been constructed and tested. This detector uses a single crystal YAP scintillator and a solid quartz light pipe extending from the scintillator (inside the vacuum) to the photomultiplier tube (outside the vacuum). A factor of approximately 100 improvement in signal relative to the original detector has been obtained. This has substantially improved the signal to noise ratio in the recorded high resolution ADF-STEM images. PMID:22666919

  9. Unusual Presentation of Acute Annular Urticaria: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Guerrier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute urticarial lesions may display central clearing with ecchymotic or haemorrhagic hue, often misdiagnosed as erythema multiforme, serum-sickness-like reactions, or urticarial vasculitis. We report a case of acute annular urticaria with unusual presentation occurring in a 20-month-old child to emphasize the distinctive morphologic manifestations in a single disease. Clinicians who care for children should be able to differentiate acute urticaria from its clinical mimics. A directed history and physical examination can reliably orientate necessary diagnostic testing and allow for appropriate treatment.

  10. Analytic vortex dynamics in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toikka, L. A.; Suominen, K.-A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider analytically the dynamics of an arbitrary number and configuration of vortices in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate obtaining expressions for the free energy and vortex precession rates to logarithmic accuracy. We also obtain lower bounds for the lifetime of a single vortex in the annulus. Our results enable a closed-form analytic treatment of vortex-vortex interactions in the annulus that is exact in the incompressible limit. The incompressible hydrodynamics that is developed here paves the way for more general analytical treatments of vortex dynamics in non-simply-connected geometries.

  11. New fluxon resonant mechanism in annular Josephson tunnel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel dynamical state has been observed in the dynamics of a perturbed sine-Gordon system. This resonant state has been experimentally observed as a singularity in the dc current-voltage characteristic of an annular Josephson tunnel junction, excited in the presence of a magnetic field. In this respect it can be assimilated to self-resonances known as Fiske steps. Differently from these, however, we demonstrate, on the basis of numerical simulations, that its detailed dynamics involves rotating fluxon pairs, a mechanism associated, so far, to self-resonances known as zero-field steps. This occurs because the size of nonlinear excitations is comparable with that of the system

  12. Critical heat flux prediction for the annular core research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on best estimate predictions of Critical Heat Flux Ratio (CHFR) obtained to support the upgrade of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories for 2 to 4 MWt. The CHF productions are based on the University of New Mexico's (UNM)-CHF correlations in conjunction with the Global Conditions Hypothesis (GCH). Results indicate that for the range of inlet water temperature of 293 to 333 K, CHFR predictions range from 3.9 to 2.1, which is more than sufficient to support the proposed ACRR upgrade

  13. Exhaust emissions of a double annular combustor: Parametric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    A full scale double-annular ram-induction combustor designed for Mach 3.0 cruise operation was tested. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and smoke were measured over a range of combustor operating variables including reference velocity, inlet air temperature and pressure, and exit average temperature. ASTM Jet-A fuel was used for these tests. An equation is provided relating oxides of nitrogen emissions as a function of the combustor, operating variables. A small effect of radial fuel staging on reducing exhaust emissions (which were originally quite low) is demonstrated.

  14. Interfacial friction in cocurrent upward annular flow. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocurrent upward annular flow is investigated, with an emphasis on correlating and predicting pressure drop. Attention is given to the characteristics of the liquid flow in the film, and the interaction of the core with the film. Alternate approaches are discussed for correlating suitably defined interfacial friction factors. Both approaches are dependent on knowledge of the entrainment in order to make predictions. Dimensional analysis is used to define characteristic parameters of the flow and an effort is made to determine, to the extent possible, the influences of these parameters on the interfacial friction factor

  15. Annular burnout data from rod-bundle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnout data for annular flow in a rod bundle are presented for both transient and steady-state conditions. Tests were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a pressurized-water loop containing an electrically heated 64-rod bundle. The bundle configuration is typical of later generation pressurized-water reactors with 17 x 17 fuel arrays. Both axial and radial power profiles are flat. All experiments were carried out in upflow with subcooled inlet conditions, insuring accurate flow measurement. Conditions within the bundle were typical of those which could be encountered during a nuclear reactor loss-of-coolant accident

  16. Noise-based logic hyperspace with the superposition of 2N states in a single wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the introductory paper [L.B. Kish, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 911], about noise-based logic, we showed how simple superpositions of single logic basis vectors can be achieved in a single wire. The superposition components were the N orthogonal logic basis vectors. Supposing that the different logic values have 'on/off' states only, the resultant discrete superposition state represents a single number with N bit accuracy in a single wire, where N is the number of orthogonal logic vectors in the base. In the present Letter, we show that the logic hyperspace (product) vectors defined in the introductory paper can be generalized to provide the discrete superposition of 2N orthogonal system states. This is equivalent to a multi-valued logic system with 22N logic values per wire. This is a similar situation to quantum informatics with N qubits, and hence we introduce the notion of noise-bit. This system has major differences compared to quantum informatics. The noise-based logic system is deterministic and each superposition element is instantly accessible with the high digital accuracy, via a real hardware parallelism, without decoherence and error correction, and without the requirement of repeating the logic operation many times to extract the probabilistic information. Moreover, the states in noise-based logic do not have to be normalized, and non-unitary operations can also be used. As an example, we introduce a string search algorithm which is O(√(M)) times faster than Grover's quantum algorithm (where M is the number of string entries), while it has the same hardware complexity class as the quantum algorithm.

  17. Electrorheological damper with annular ducts for seismic protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nicos; Burton, Scott A.; Taylor, Douglas P.

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis, testing and modeling of an electrorheological (ER) fluid damper developed for vibration and seismic protection of civil structures. The damper consists of a main cylinder and a piston rod that pushes an ER fluid through a stationary annular duct. The behavior of the damper can be approximated with Hagen - Poiseuille flow theory. The basic equations that describe the fluid flow across an annular duct are derived. Experimental results on the damper response with and without the presence of electric field are presented. As the rate of deformation increases, viscous stresses prevail over field-induced yield stresses and a smaller fraction of the total damper force can be controlled. Simple physically motivated phenomenological models are considered to approximate the damper response with and without the presence of electric field. Subsequently, the performance of a multilayer neural network constructed and trained by an efficient algorithm known as the Dependence Identification Algorithm is examined to predict the response of the electrorheological damper. A combination of a simple phenomenological model and a neural network is then proposed as a practical tool to approximate the nonlinear and velocity-dependent damper response.

  18. Development of Dual Cooled Annular Fuel Temperature Analysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong Sik; Shin, C. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. K.; Lim, I. S.; Koo Yang Hyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To calculate the temperature distribution of dual cooled annular fuel, the DUOS program has been developed. Various thermal hydraulic models to determine the inner channel and outer channel flow distribution were established based on equal pressure drop condition at the top of fuel rod. The effect of gap width change was considered by employing thermal deformation model of pellet and claddings. Heat conduction model in the pellet was solved by finite difference method to consider burnup and power difference according to pellet radius. Pellet temperature model was validated by comparison with calculated temperature profile, which was determined by analytical solution of heat conduction equation under controlled input condition. Accuracy of thermal hydraulic models of DUOS were validated by core sub-channel analysis code MATRA-AF. Coolant bulk temperature of inner/outer channel and pressure drop prediction results of DUOS program show good agreement with that of MATRA-AF. Further models should be added in DUOS program to describe dual cooled annular fuel in-pile behavior, but basic thermal analysis structure has been established successfully

  19. Development of Dual Cooled Annular Fuel Temperature Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To calculate the temperature distribution of dual cooled annular fuel, the DUOS program has been developed. Various thermal hydraulic models to determine the inner channel and outer channel flow distribution were established based on equal pressure drop condition at the top of fuel rod. The effect of gap width change was considered by employing thermal deformation model of pellet and claddings. Heat conduction model in the pellet was solved by finite difference method to consider burnup and power difference according to pellet radius. Pellet temperature model was validated by comparison with calculated temperature profile, which was determined by analytical solution of heat conduction equation under controlled input condition. Accuracy of thermal hydraulic models of DUOS were validated by core sub-channel analysis code MATRA-AF. Coolant bulk temperature of inner/outer channel and pressure drop prediction results of DUOS program show good agreement with that of MATRA-AF. Further models should be added in DUOS program to describe dual cooled annular fuel in-pile behavior, but basic thermal analysis structure has been established successfully

  20. Design Attributes and Scale Up Testing of Annular Centrifugal Contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David H. Meikrantz; Jack D. Law

    2005-04-01

    Annular centrifugal contactors are being used for rapid yet efficient liquid- liquid processing in numerous industrial and government applications. Commercialization of this technology began eleven years ago and now units with throughputs ranging from 0.25 to 700 liters per minute are readily available. Separation, washing, and extraction processes all benefit from the use of this relatively new commercial tool. Processing advantages of this technology include: low in-process volume per stage, rapid mixing and separation in a single unit, connection-in-series for multi-stage use, and a wide operating range of input flow rates and phase ratios without adjustment. Recent design enhancements have been added to simplify maintenance, improve inspection ability, and provide increased reliability. Cartridge-style bearing and mechanical rotary seal assemblies that can include liquid-leak sensors are employed to enhance remote operations, minimize maintenance downtime, prevent equipment damage, and extend service life. Clean-in-place capability eliminates the need for disassembly, facilitates the use of contactors for feed clarification, and can be automated for continuous operation. In nuclear fuel cycle studies, aqueous based separations are being developed that efficiently partition uranium, actinides, and fission products via liquid-liquid solvent extraction. Thus, annular centrifugal contactors are destined to play a significant role in the design of such new processes. Laboratory scale studies using mini-contactors have demonstrated feasibility for many such separation processes but validation at an engineering scale is needed to support actual process design.

  1. Investigation of azimuthal staging concepts in annular gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiray, Nicolas; Bothien, Mirko; Schuermans, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the influence of azimuthal staging concepts on the thermoacoustic behavior of annular combustion chambers is assessed theoretically and numerically. Staging is a well-known and effective method to abate thermoacoustic pulsations in combustion chambers. However, in the case of, for example, fuel staging the associated inhomogeneity of equivalence ratio may result in increased levels of NOx emissions. In order to minimize this unwanted effect a staging concept is required in which the transfer functions of the burners are changed while affecting the equivalence ratio as little as possible. In order to achieve this goal, a theoretical framework for predicting the influence of staging concepts on pulsations has been developed. Both linear and nonlinear analytical approaches are presented and it is shown that the dynamics of azimuthal modes can be described by coupled Van der Pol oscillators. A criterion based on the thermoacoustic coupling strength and on the asymmetry degree provides the modal behavior in the annular combustor, i.e. standing or traveling waves. The model predictions have been verified by numerical simulations of a heavy-duty gas turbine using an in-house thermoacoustic network-modeling tool. The interaction between the heat release of the flame and the acoustic field was modeled using measured transfer functions and source terms. These numerical simulations confirmed the original theoretical considerations.

  2. The Growth of Instabilities in Annular Liquid Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, Daniel J.; Honnery, Damon R; Soria, Julio

    2015-11-01

    An annular liquid sheet surrounded by parallel co-flowing gas is an effective atomiser. However, the initial instabilities which determine the primary break-up of the liquid sheet are not well understood. Lack of agreement on the influence of the boundary conditions and the non-dimension scaling of the initial instability persists between theoretical stability analyses and experiments. To address this matter, we have undertaken an experimental parametric study of an aerodynamically-driven, non-swirling annular water sheet. The effects of sheet thickness, inner and outer gas-liquid momentum ratio were investigated over an order of magnitude variation in Reynolds and Weber number. From high-speed image correlation measurements in the near-nozzle region, we propose new empirical correlations for the frequency of the instability as a function of the total gas-liquid momentum ratio, with good non-dimensional collapse. From analysis of the instability velocity probability densities, we find two persistent and distinct superimposed instabilities with different growth rates. The first is a short-lived, rapidly saturating sawtooth-like instability. The second is a slower-growing stochastic instability which persists through the break-up of the sheet. The presence of multiple instabilities whose growth rates do not strongly correlate with the shear velocities may explain some of the discrepancies between experiments and stability analyses.

  3. Study on annular mist flow in pipe, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An annular mist flow using air and water at room temperature has been studied experimentally in a vertical pipe with a nozzle along the axis of the pipe for supplying liquid. Observations were made of flow patterns of liquid on the inner surface of the pipe, and measurements were made of pressure losses in pipe, profiles of radial distribution of liquid droplets and total flow rates of the liquid droplets. Changes of these four factors along the pipe were measured in the non-equilibrium region. It was found that the non-equilibrium length should be decided by a position where any changes in the four factors mentioned above could not be recognized in the axial direction. For relatively high velocities of air, i.e., for apparent gaseous Reynolds number R sub(ego) >= 9.4 x 104, it was ascertained that the annular mist flow reached equilibrium at a distance of 170 - 190 diameters from the nozzle outlet when apparent liquid Reynolds number R sub(elo) = 62.1 - 183.6. (author)

  4. A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihua Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna’s performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  5. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions of...

  6. Core-annular flow through a horizontal pipe: Hydrodynamic counterbalancing of buoyancy force on core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, G.; Vuik, C.; Poesio, P.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of core-annular flow: the flow of a high-viscosity liquid core surrounded by a low-viscosity liquid annular layer through a horizontal pipe. Special attention is paid to the question of how the buoyancy force on the core, caused by a density difference betwe

  7. A magnetorheological valve with both annular and radial fluid flow resistance gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase the efficiency of magnetorheological (MR) valves, Ai et al (2006) proposed an MR valve simultaneously possessing annular and radial fluid flow resistance channels with the assumption that the magnetic flux densities at the annular and radial fluid flow gaps are identical. In this paper, an MR valve simultaneously possessing annular and radial fluid flow resistance channels is designed, fabricated, modeled and tested. A model for the developed MR valve is produced and its performances are theoretically predicted based on the average magnetic flux densities in the annular and radial fluid flow gaps through finite element analysis. The theoretical results for the developed MR valve are compared with the experimental results. In addition, the performances of the developed MR valve are theoretically and experimentally compared with those of the MR valve with only annular fluid flow gaps. It has been shown that the theoretical results match well with the experimental results. Mainly attributed to the radial fluid flow gaps, the pressure drops across the MR valve with both annular and radial fluid flow gaps are larger than those across the MR valve with only annular fluid flow gaps for varying valve parameters. The radial fluid flow gaps in the MR valve can reach a higher efficiency and larger controllable range than those by annular fluid flow gaps to some extent

  8. Multiple lesions of granuloma annulare on the hand in a patient with scabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Aboud K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Khalid Al Aboud1, Daifullah Al Aboud21Department of Dermatology, King Faisal Hospital, Makkah; 2Department of Dermatology, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Granuloma annulare induced by scabies infection has been described previously in three patients. In this report, we share our observation of a fourth case.Keywords: granuloma annulare, scabies, skin

  9. DC intrinsic Josephson effect in 1{mu}m-lateral-size annular Bi-2212 stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.J.; Yamashita, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. of Electrical Comunication; Latyshev, Y.I.; Pavlenko, V.N. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Inst of Radio-Engineerig and Electronics Russian Academic of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-11-10

    Small annular junctions were the subjects of particular interest last decade because of possibility of flux trapping (see, e.g. [1]). Related magnetic field can contain radial component affecting Josephson critical current. Here we report on the first studies of intrinsic dc Josephson effect [2] in small annular type Bi-2212 mesas and its sensitivity to the trapped flux. (translated by NEDO)

  10. In-Reactor Densification of Dual Cooled Annular Fuel Pellet during Irradiation Test at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Dong Joo; Kwon, Hyoung Mun; Kim, Keon Sik; Kim, Jong Hun; Oh, Jang Soo; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    These advantages result in a considerably low pellet centerline temperature. Because of this considerably low pellet temperature, in-reactor behavior of an annular pellet, such as densification and swelling may be significantly different from that of the conventional PWR solid pellet. Since the pellet temperature of an annular fuel rod is lower than that of a PWR solid fuel rod by several hundred degrees, the in-reactor densification and swelling of a dual cooled annular fuel pellet might be considered as athermal phenomena due to a low pellet temperature. In order to investigate the in-reactor behavior of the annular UO{sub 2} pellet, HANARO irradiation test was planned and conducted for annular pellets with 5 different types. Post irradiation test is being carried out in the KAERI's PIE facility. In this study, we are going to report the preliminary results of PIE test on the inreactor densification behavior of a dual cooled annular fuel pellet. Irradiation test of dual cooled annular UO{sub 2} pellet was conducted at the OR-4 hole in HANARO by using a non-instrumented test rig. The preliminary results of PIE test on the in-reactor densification behavior showed that the irradiated pellets densified much more than expected values based on MATPRO relations of inreactor densification at low temperature in the annular pellet with low initial sintered density. It might be attributed to the higher fission rate during HANARO irradiation.

  11. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  12. Entrance and exit region friction factor models for annular seal analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David Alan

    1988-01-01

    The Mach number definition and boundary conditions in Nelson's nominally-centered, annular gas seal analysis are revised. A method is described for determining the wall shear stress characteristics of an annular gas seal experimentally. Two friction factor models are developed for annular seal analysis; one model is based on flat-plate flow theory; the other uses empirical entrance and exit region friction factors. The friction factor predictions of the models are compared to experimental results. Each friction model is used in an annular gas seal analysis. The seal characteristics predicted by the two seal analyses are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis. The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb stators. The comparisons show that the analysis which uses empirical entrance and exit region shear stress models predicts the static and stability characteristics of annular gas seals better than the other analyses. The analyses predict direct stiffness poorly.

  13. A Defense of the Paraconsistent Approach to Quantum Superpositions (Answer to Arenhart and Krause)

    CERN Document Server

    de Ronde, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In (da Costa and de Ronde, 2014), Newton da Costa together with the author of this paper argued in favor of the possibility to consider quantum superpositions in terms of a paraconsistent approach. We claimed that, even though most interpretations of quantum mechanics attempt to escape contradictions, there are many hints that indicate it could be worth while to engage in a research of this kind. Recently, Arenhart and Krause (2014) have raised several arguments against this approach. In the present paper we attempt to answer the main questions presented by Arenhart and Krause. We will argue, firstly, that the obstacles presented by them are based on a specific metaphysical stance, which we will characterize in terms of what we call the Orthodox Line of Research (OLR). Secondly, that this is not necessarily the only possible line, and that a different one, namely, a Constructive Metaphysical Line of Research (CMLR) provides a different perspective in which the Paraconsistent Approach to Quantum Superpositions...

  14. Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Laszlo B

    2008-01-01

    A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case (N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also nonexistent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinu...

  15. On Multiple Users Scheduling Using Superposition Coding over Rayleigh Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2013-02-20

    In this letter, numerical results are provided to analyze the gains of multiple users scheduling via superposition coding with successive interference cancellation in comparison with the conventional single user scheduling in Rayleigh blockfading broadcast channels. The information-theoretic optimal power, rate and decoding order allocation for the superposition coding scheme are considered and the corresponding histogram for the optimal number of scheduled users is evaluated. Results show that at optimality there is a high probability that only two or three users are scheduled per channel transmission block. Numerical results for the gains of multiple users scheduling in terms of the long term throughput under hard and proportional fairness as well as for fixed merit weights for the users are also provided. These results show that the performance gain of multiple users scheduling over single user scheduling increases when the total number of users in the network increases, and it can exceed 10% for high number of users

  16. Quantum superposition of the order of parties as a communication resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Brukner, Časlav

    2015-11-01

    In a variant of communication complexity tasks, two or more separated parties cooperate to compute a function of their local data, using a limited amount of communication. It is known that communication of quantum systems and shared entanglement can increase the probability for the parties to arrive at the correct value of the function, compared to classical resources. Here we show that quantum superpositions of the direction of communication between parties can also serve as a resource to improve the probability of success. We present a tripartite task for which such a superposition provides an advantage compared to the case where the parties communicate in a fixed order. In a more general context, our result also provides semi-device-independent certification of the absence of a definite order of communication.

  17. Complex numbers and symmetries in quantum mechanics, and a nonlinear superposition principle for Wigner functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bracken, A J

    2005-01-01

    Complex numbers appear in the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics, but not in the formulation in phase space. Quantum symmetries are described by complex, unitary or antiunitary operators defining ray representations in Hilbert space, whereas in phase space they are described by real, true representations. Equivalence of the formulations requires that the former representations can be obtained from the latter and vice versa. Examples are given. Equivalence of the two formulations also requires that complex superpositions of state vectors can be described in the phase space formulation, and it is shown that this leads to a nonlinear superposition principle for orthogonal, pure-state Wigner functions. It is concluded that the use of complex numbers in quantum mechanics can be regarded as a computational device to simplify calculations, as in all other applications of mathematics to physical phenomena.

  18. Localization effects induced by decoherence in superpositions of many-spin quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Gonzalo A.; Suter, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The spurious interaction of quantum systems with their environment known as decoherence leads, as a function of time, to a decay of coherence of superposition states. Since the interactions between system and environment are local, they can also cause a loss of spatial coherence: correlations between spatially distant parts of the system are lost and the equilibrium states can become localized. This effect limits the distance over which quantum information can be transmitted, e.g., along a sp...

  19. Implementation and validation of collapsed cone superposition for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry of photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Gardin, Isabelle; Lebtahi, Rachida; Dieudonné, Arnaud

    2015-10-01

    Two collapsed cone (CC) superposition algorithms have been implemented for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry of photon emitters. The straight CC (SCC) superposition method uses a water energy deposition kernel (EDKw) for each electron, positron and photon components, while the primary and scatter CC (PSCC) superposition method uses different EDKw for primary and once-scattered photons. PSCC was implemented only for photons originating from the nucleus, precluding its application to positron emitters. EDKw are linearly scaled by radiological distance, taking into account tissue density heterogeneities. The implementation was tested on 100, 300 and 600 keV mono-energetic photons and 18F, 99mTc, 131I and 177Lu. The kernels were generated using the Monte Carlo codes MCNP and EGSnrc. The validation was performed on 6 phantoms representing interfaces between soft-tissues, lung and bone. The figures of merit were γ (3%, 3 mm) and γ (5%, 5 mm) criterions corresponding to the computation comparison on 80 absorbed doses (AD) points per phantom between Monte Carlo simulations and CC algorithms. PSCC gave better results than SCC for the lowest photon energy (100 keV). For the 3 isotopes computed with PSCC, the percentage of AD points satisfying the γ (5%, 5 mm) criterion was always over 99%. A still good but worse result was found with SCC, since at least 97% of AD-values verified the γ (5%, 5 mm) criterion, except a value of 57% for the 99mTc with the lung/bone interface. The CC superposition method for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry is a good alternative to Monte Carlo simulations while reducing computation complexity.

  20. Robust coherent superposition of states by single-shot shaped pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Mamadou; Djotyan, Gagik; Ruschhaupt, Andreas; Guérin, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    We adapt a single-shot shaped pulse technique to produce robust coherent superpositions of quantum states with a high fidelity of control. We derive simple pulses of low areas for the corresponding Rabi frequency which are robust with respect to pulse area imperfections. Such features of robustness, high-fidelity, and low Rabi frequency area are crucial steps towards the experimental implementation of scalable quantum gates.

  1. Phase-Matching Condition for Superpositions of Coherent States in a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiang; Shen, Luyi; Jing, Xiaoxing; Jing LIU; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    We discussed the phase-matching condition of the input states for a specific Mach-Zehnder interferometer to enhance the phase sensitivity. The input states are a coherent state and a superposition of coherent states. For both cases with and without photon losses, the phase-matching condition to enhance phase sensitivity is found to be unchanged no matter the input state has parity or not.

  2. GPU-based ultra fast dose calculation using differential convolution/superposition algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Dose calculation plays a key role in treatment planning for radiotherapy, its performance and accuracy are crucial to the quality of treatment plans. Differential convolution/superposition algorithm is considered as an accurate algorithm for photon dose calculation; however, improvement on its computational efficiency is still desirable for such purpose as real time treatment planning. Purpose: The goal of this work is to boost the performance of differential convolution/superposition algorithm by devising a graphics processing unit (GPU) implementation so as to make the method practical for daily usage. Methods: In this work, we implemented a GPU-based version of the differential convolution/superposition algorithm, by which the most time-consuming parts are implemented on GPU. In order to fully utilize the GPU computing power, the algorithm is modified to match the GPU hardware architecture. Results: Compared with the algorithm completely running on CPU, the GPU-based algorithm can speed up 30-60 times on a Tesla C1060 with higher values corresponding to larger field size. Finally, we use γ index to analyze the accuracy of calculation results, no matter one field or multi-field, homogeneous phantom or inhomogeneous phantom, the GPU implementation has the same accuracy as the CPU implementation. Conclusions: GPU is a useful solution for satisfying the increasing demands on computation speed and accuracy of dose calculation. The GPU-based differential convolution/superposition can be feasible and cost-efficient for satisfying the increasing demands for either computation speed or accuracy by advanced radiation therapy technologies. (authors)

  3. Analysis of a teleportation scheme involving cavity field states in a linear superposition of Fock states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. R.; Guerra, E. S.; Jalbert, Ginette

    2008-04-01

    We analyse a teleportation scheme of cavity field states. The experimental sketch discussed makes use of cavity quantum electrodynamics involving the interaction of Rydberg atoms with superconducting (micromaser) cavities as well as with classical microwave (Ramsey) cavities. In our scheme the Ramsey cavities and the atoms play the role of auxiliary systems used to teleport a field state, which is formed by a linear superposition of vacuum |∅> and the one-photon state |1>, from a micromaser cavity to another.

  4. Stability of a superposition of shock waves with contact discontinuities for systems of viscous conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui

    In this paper, we show the large time asymptotic nonlinear stability of a superposition of viscous shock waves with viscous contact waves for systems of viscous conservation laws with small initial perturbations, provided that the strengths of these viscous waves are small with the same order. The results are obtained by elementary weighted energy estimates based on the underlying wave structure and a new estimate on the heat equation.

  5. The superposition method in seeking the solitary wave solutions to the KdV-Burgers equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuanxi Xie; Jilashi Tang

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, starting from the careful analysis on the characteristics of the Burgers equation and the KdV equation as well as the KdV-Burgers equation, the superposition method is put forward for constructing the solitary wave solutions of the KdV-Burgers equation from those of the Burgers equation and the KdV equation. The solitary wave solutions for the KdV-Burgers equation are presented successfully by means of this method.

  6. A superposition method to calculate the interaction effect between bodies in diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a method for calculating the neutron flux around a finite number of spheres arranged in-line. The method uses the concept of superposition in which the solution for a group of spheres is composed of a sum of solutions for the individual spheres. We illustrate the method by a simple example based on a chain of highly absorbing spheres in a non-absorbing moderator and show that it converges rapidly to the exact solution

  7. Measurement of the decoherence of a mesoscopic superposition of motional states of a trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Shi-Biao

    2004-01-01

    We propose a scheme to observe the decoherence of a mesoscopic superposition of two coherent states in the motion of a trapped ion. In the scheme the ion is excited by two perpendicular lasers tuned to the ion transition. The decoherence is revealed by the decrease of the correlation between two successive measurements of the internal state of the ion after relevant laser-ion interaction.

  8. Implementation and validation of collapsed cone superposition for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry of photon emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two collapsed cone (CC) superposition algorithms have been implemented for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry of photon emitters. The straight CC (SCC) superposition method uses a water energy deposition kernel (EDKw) for each electron, positron and photon components, while the primary and scatter CC (PSCC) superposition method uses different EDKw for primary and once-scattered photons. PSCC was implemented only for photons originating from the nucleus, precluding its application to positron emitters. EDKw are linearly scaled by radiological distance, taking into account tissue density heterogeneities. The implementation was tested on 100, 300 and 600 keV mono-energetic photons and 18F, 99mTc, 131I and 177Lu. The kernels were generated using the Monte Carlo codes MCNP and EGSnrc. The validation was performed on 6 phantoms representing interfaces between soft-tissues, lung and bone. The figures of merit were γ (3%, 3 mm) and γ (5%, 5 mm) criterions corresponding to the computation comparison on 80 absorbed doses (AD) points per phantom between Monte Carlo simulations and CC algorithms. PSCC gave better results than SCC for the lowest photon energy (100 keV). For the 3 isotopes computed with PSCC, the percentage of AD points satisfying the γ (5%, 5 mm) criterion was always over 99%. A still good but worse result was found with SCC, since at least 97% of AD-values verified the γ (5%, 5 mm) criterion, except a value of 57% for the 99mTc with the lung/bone interface. The CC superposition method for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry is a good alternative to Monte Carlo simulations while reducing computation complexity. (paper)

  9. Seismic analysis of structures of nuclear power plants by Lanczos mode superposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lanczos Mode Superposition Method is applied in the seismic analysis of nuclear power plants. The coordinate transformation matrix is generated by the Lanczos algorithm. It is shown that, through a convenient choice of the starting vector of the algorithm, modes with participation factors are automatically selected. It is performed the Response Spectra analysis of a typical reactor building. The obtained results are compared with those determined by the classical aproach stressing the remarkable computer effectiveness of the proposed methodology. (Author)

  10. The Superposition Principle in Quantum Mechanics - did the rock enter the foundation surreptitiously?

    OpenAIRE

    Dass, N. D. Hari

    2013-01-01

    The superposition principle forms the very backbone of quantum theory. The resulting linear structure of quantum theory is structurally so rigid that tampering with it may have serious, seemingly unphysical, consequences. This principle has been succesful at even the highest available accelerator energies. Is this aspect of quantum theory forever then? The present work is an attempt to understand the attitude of the founding fathers, particularly of Bohr and Dirac, towards this principle. The...

  11. Long distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with coherent-state superpositions

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Cao, Wen-Fei; Fu, Yao; Tang, Yan-Lin; Yang LIU; Chen, Teng-yun; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with decoy-state method is believed to be securely applied to defeat various hacking attacks in practical quantum key distribution systems. Recently, the coherent-state superpositions (CSS) have emerged as an alternative to single-photon qubits for quantum information processing and metrology. Here, in this Letter, CSS are exploited as the source in MDI-QKD. We present an analytical method which gives two tight formulas to esti...

  12. Note: An explicit solution of the optimal superposition and Eckart frame problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    Attention is called to an explicit solution of both the optimal superposition and Eckart frame problems that requires neither matrix diagonalization nor quaternion algebra. A simple change in one variable that enters the expression for the solution matrix T allows for selection of T representing either a proper rotation or a more general orthogonal transformation. The issues concerning the use of these alternative selections and the equivalence of the two problems are addressed.

  13. Superposition rule and entanglement in diagonal and probability representations of density states

    OpenAIRE

    Man'ko, Vladimir I.; Marmo, Giuseppe; Sudarshan, E C George

    2009-01-01

    The quasidistributions corresponding to the diagonal representation of quantum states are discussed within the framework of operator-symbol construction. The tomographic-probability distribution describing the quantum state in the probability representation of quantum mechanics is reviewed. The connection of the diagonal and probability representations is discussed. The superposition rule is considered in terms of the density-operator symbols. The separability and entanglement properties of m...

  14. Multiparticle Quantum Superposition and Stimulated Entanglement by Parity Selective Amplification of Entangled States

    OpenAIRE

    De Martini, Francesco; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    A multiparticle quantum superposition state has been generated by a novel phase-selective parametric amplifier of an entangled two-photon state. This realization is expected to open a new field of investigations on the persistence of the validity of the standard quantum theory for systems of increasing complexity, in a quasi decoherence-free environment. Because of its nonlocal structure the new system is expected to play a relevant role in the modern endeavor on quantum information and in th...

  15. Investigating the influence of visualization on student understanding of quantum superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kohnle, Antje; Baily, Charles; Ruby, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Visualizations in interactive computer simulations are a powerful tool to help students develop productive mental models, particularly in the case of quantum phenomena that have no classical analogue. The QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualization Project develops research-based interactive simulations for the learning and teaching of quantum mechanics. We describe efforts to refine the visual representation of a single-photon superposition state in the QuVis simulations. We developed various depi...

  16. QUANTUM THREE-PASS PROTOCOL: KEY DISTRIBUTION USING QUANTUM SUPERPOSITION STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshito Kanamori

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This letter proposes a novel key distribution protocol with no key exchange in advance, which is secure as the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol. Our protocol utilizes a photon in superposition state for single-bit data transmission instead of a classical electrical/optical signal. The security of this protocol relies on the fact, that the arbitrary quantum state cannot be cloned, known as the no-cloning theorem. This protocol can be implemented with current technologies.

  17. Exponential communication complexity advantage from quantum superposition of the direction of communication

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, Philippe Allard; Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Brukner, Časlav

    2016-01-01

    In communication complexity, a number of distant parties have the task of calculating a distributed function of their inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. It is known that with quantum resources, such as entanglement and quantum channels, one can obtain significant reductions in the communication complexity of some tasks. In this work, we study the role of the quantum superposition of the direction of communication as a resource for communication complexity. We p...

  18. Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system

    OpenAIRE

    Kleckner, D.; Pikovski, I.; Jeffrey, E.; Ament, L.; Eliel, E.; Brink, J. van den; Bouwmeester, D.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-optomechanical systems are central to a number of recent proposals for realizing quantum mechanical effects in relatively massive systems. Here we focus on a particular class of experiments which aim to demonstrate massive quantum superpositions, although the obtained results should be generalizable to similar experiments. We analyze in detail the effects of finite temperature on the interpretation of the experiment, and obtain a lower bound on the degree of non-classicality of the cant...

  19. Quantum Three-Pass protocol: Key distribution using quantum superposition states

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshito Kanamori; Seong-Moo Yoo

    2010-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel key distribution protocol with no key exchange in advance, which is secure as the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol. Our protocol utilizes a photon in superposition state for single-bit data transmission instead of a classical electrical/optical signal. The security of this protocol relies on the fact, that the arbitrary quantum state cannot be cloned, known as the no-cloning theorem. This protocol can be implemented with current technologies.

  20. Quantum Teleportation of One-Photon and Two-Photon Superposition States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ One-photon and two-photon superposition states are the fundamental quantum states, which have shown interesting features, such as squeezing and anti-bunching. In this paper we discuss the quantum teleportation of such quantum states with the continuous-wave EPR states. Fidelity as a function of EPR correlation is obtained. We also compared the results with Fock state and coherent state teleportation.

  1. Macroscopic quantum superposition of spin ensembles with ultra-long coherence times via superradiant masing

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Liang; Yang, Sen; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena such as lasers, Bose-Einstein condensates, superfluids, and superconductors are of great importance in foundations and applications of quantum mechanics. In particular, quantum superposition of a large number of spins in solids is highly desirable for both quantum information processing and ultrasensitive magnetometry. Spin ensembles in solids, however, have rather short collective coherence time (typically less than microseconds). Here we demonstrate that under ...

  2. Note: An explicit solution of the optimal superposition and Eckart frame problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2016-07-14

    Attention is called to an explicit solution of both the optimal superposition and Eckart frame problems that requires neither matrix diagonalization nor quaternion algebra. A simple change in one variable that enters the expression for the solution matrix T allows for selection of T representing either a proper rotation or a more general orthogonal transformation. The issues concerning the use of these alternative selections and the equivalence of the two problems are addressed. PMID:27421427

  3. Continuity and differentiability of multivalued superposition operators with atoms and parameters II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Väth, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2012), s. 139-160. ISSN 0232-2064 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : superposition operator * Nemytskij operator * multivalued map Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.620, year: 2012 http://www.ems-ph.org/journals/show_abstract.php?issn=0232-2064&vol=31&iss=2&rank=2

  4. Wigner Frequency Point Slice Analysis of Superposition Data for Phased-Array Ground Penetrating Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Lian; CHEN Shu-zhen; YANG Shen; WEI Dan; XIAO Box-xun

    2004-01-01

    According to the frequency property of Phased-array ground penetrating radar (PGPR), this paper gives a frequency point slice method based on Wigner time-frequency analysis. This method solves the problem of analysis for the PGPR's superposition data and makes detecting outcome simpler and detecting target more recognizable. At last, the analytical results of road test data of the Three Gorges prove the analytical method efficient.

  5. Quantum State Engineering by Superpositions of Coherent States along aStraight Line in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑仕标

    2001-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for generating the superpositions of several coherent states in a cavity field with dispersive cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In the scheme, a sequence of atoms interacts dispersively with the cavity field, connected with a microwave source, and is manipulated by classical fields, followed by state-selective measurements. In this way, the cavity field is collapsed onto a superposition of several coherent states along a straight line with controllable coefficients. This scheme provides the possibility for quantum state engineering via coherent-state superpositions along a straight line in cavity QED for the first time.

  6. Computation of anisotropic flux escape and transmission probabilities for cylindrical annular regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the interface current method of solving the integral transport equation, most of the time is spent in the computation of various escape and transmission probabilities. The numerical integration of these probabilities is time consuming. Bonalumi's Pseudo-linear (P-L) approximation is found to be a good approximation for transmission probabilities from the outer to inner (POI) region and not for the outer to outer (POO) region. Effort was made in the past, by us, and a combination of a polynomial and P-L approximation was found to give good results for POO as well. For isotropic incident flux we computed POO as POO = POO1 - POO2. Here POO1 is related with the escape probability for a homogeneous solid cylinder, which can be expressed as a polynomial of its average chord length, and POO2 was expressed very well by the P-L approximation. In this paper, this approach has been extended to compute probabilities corresponding to anisotropic terms of the angular flux expansion at region interfaces for cylindrical annular geometry. (Author)

  7. Intensity improvement in the attosecond pulse generation with the coherent superposition initial state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the coherent superposition initial state effect and found that when the initial active electron state is prepared in the coherent superposition of the 1s and 2s states of the He+ ion and the chirp parameter of the fundamental field in the two-color scheme is chosen to be β=0.3, the harmonic cutoff energy is remarkably extended and the harmonic yield is enhanced by at least 6 orders of magnitude compared with the case of the single 1s ground state with chirp-free pulse. An ultrabroad supercontinuum with a 458 eV bandwidth is formed, directly producing an intense isolated 34 as pulse. -- Highlights: ► Simulating the HHG process irradiated from a model He+ ion in a two-color field. ► Preparing the initial active electronic state in the 1s and 2s superposition state. ► Finding the optimized chirp parameter of β=0.3 for the fundamental field. ► Observing the intensity enhancement in HHG with more than 6 orders of magnitude improvement. ► Generating a 34 as isolated attosecond pulse with similar intensity enhancement.

  8. Nuclear grade cable thermal life model by time temperature superposition algorithm based on Matlab GUI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: As nuclear grade cable must endure harsh environment within design life, it is critical to predict cable thermal life accurately owing to thermal aging, which is one of dominant factors of aging mechanism. Purpose: Using time temperature superposition (TTS) method, the aim is to construct nuclear grade cable thermal life model, predict cable residual life and develop life model interactive interface under Matlab GUI. Methods: According to TTS, nuclear grade cable thermal life model can be constructed by shifting data groups at various temperatures to preset reference temperature with translation factor which is determined by non linear programming optimization. Interactive interface of cable thermal life model developed under Matlab GUI consists of superposition mode and standard mode which include features such as optimization of translation factor, calculation of activation energy, construction of thermal aging curve and analysis of aging mechanism., Results: With calculation result comparison between superposition and standard method, the result with TTS has better accuracy than that with standard method. Furthermore, confidence level of nuclear grade cable thermal life with TTS is higher than that with standard method. Conclusion: The results show that TTS methodology is applicable to thermal life prediction of nuclear grade cable. Interactive Interface under Matlab GUI achieves anticipated functionalities. (authors)

  9. Sagnac interferometry with coherent vortex superposition states in exciton-polariton condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick Ira; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Dai, Weizhong; Byrnes, Tim

    2016-05-01

    We investigate prospects of using counter-rotating vortex superposition states in nonequilibrium exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensates for the purposes of Sagnac interferometry. We first investigate the stability of vortex-antivortex superposition states, and show that they survive at steady state in a variety of configurations. Counter-rotating vortex superpositions are of potential interest to gyroscope and seismometer applications for detecting rotations. Methods of improving the sensitivity are investigated by targeting high momentum states via metastable condensation, and the application of periodic lattices. The sensitivity of the polariton gyroscope is compared to its optical and atomic counterparts. Due to the large interferometer areas in optical systems and small de Broglie wavelengths for atomic BECs, the sensitivity per detected photon is found to be considerably less for the polariton gyroscope than with competing methods. However, polariton gyroscopes have an advantage over atomic BECs in a high signal-to-noise ratio, and have other practical advantages such as room-temperature operation, area independence, and robust design. We estimate that the final sensitivities including signal-to-noise aspects are competitive with existing methods.

  10. Static fundamental solutions of Einstein equations and superposition principle in relativistic gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that Einstein equations are compatible with the presence of massive point particle idealization and find the corresponding two parameter family of solutions. They are complete defined by the bare mechanical mass M > 0 and the Keplerian mass m > 0 (m < M) of the point source of gravity. The global analytical properties of these solutions in the complex plane define a unique preferable radial variable of the one particle problem. These new solutions are fundamental solutions of the quasi-linear Einstein equations. We introduce and discuss a novel nonlinear superposition principle for solutions of Einstein equations and discover the basic role of the relativistic analog of the Newton gravitational potential. For the relativistic potential we introduce a simple quasi-linear superposition principle as a new physical requirement for the initial conditions for Einstein equations, thus justifying the instant gravistatic case for iV-particle system. This superposition principle allows us to sketch a new theory of the gravitational mass defect. In it a specific Mach-like principle for the Keplerian mass m is valid, i.e., it depends on the mass distribution in the universe, in contrast to the bare mass M, which remains a true constant. Several basic examples both of discrete and of continuous mass distributions are considered. (authors)

  11. Intensity improvement in the attosecond pulse generation with the coherent superposition initial state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Liqiang [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Chu, Tianshu, E-mail: tschu@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Institute for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2012-03-26

    We investigate the coherent superposition initial state effect and found that when the initial active electron state is prepared in the coherent superposition of the 1s and 2s states of the He{sup +} ion and the chirp parameter of the fundamental field in the two-color scheme is chosen to be β=0.3, the harmonic cutoff energy is remarkably extended and the harmonic yield is enhanced by at least 6 orders of magnitude compared with the case of the single 1s ground state with chirp-free pulse. An ultrabroad supercontinuum with a 458 eV bandwidth is formed, directly producing an intense isolated 34 as pulse. -- Highlights: ► Simulating the HHG process irradiated from a model He{sup +} ion in a two-color field. ► Preparing the initial active electronic state in the 1s and 2s superposition state. ► Finding the optimized chirp parameter of β=0.3 for the fundamental field. ► Observing the intensity enhancement in HHG with more than 6 orders of magnitude improvement. ► Generating a 34 as isolated attosecond pulse with similar intensity enhancement.

  12. Liquid transfer and entrainment correlation for droplet-annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correlation for the amount of entrained liquid in annular flow has been developed from a simple model and experimental data. There are basically two different regions of entrainment, namely, the entrance and quasi-equilibrium regions. The correlation for the equilibrium region is expressed in terms of the dimensionless gas flux, diameter, cand total liquid Reynolds number. The entrance effect is taken into account by an exponential relaxation function. It has been shown that this new model can satisfactorily correlate wide ranges of experimental data for water. Furthermore, the necessary distance for the development of entrainment is identified. These correlations, therefore, can supply accurate information on entrainment which has not been available previously

  13. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma of conjunctiva: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabi Konar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma is a condition characterized histologically by damaged elastic fibers associated with preponderance of giant cells along with absence of necrobiosis, lipid, mucin, and pallisading granuloma. It usually occurs on sun-damaged skin and hence the previous name actinic granuloma. A similar process occurs on the conjunctiva. Over the past three decades only four cases of conjunctival actinic granuloma have been documented. All the previous patients were females with lesions in nasal or temporal bulbar conjunctiva varying 2-3 mm in size. We report a male patient aged 70 years presenting with a 14 mm × 7 mm fleshy mass on right lower bulbar conjunctiva. Clinical differential diagnoses were lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma in situ and amyloidosis. Surgical excision followed by histopathology confirmed it to be a case of actinic granuloma. This is the first case of isolated conjunctival actinic granuloma of such a large size reported from India.

  14. An in-house developed annular bright field detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annular bright field (ABF) detectors have been developed in the last few years allowing the direct imaging of low-Z atoms from oxygen down to hydrogen. These types of detectors are now available as standard attachments for the latest generation of top-end electron microscopes. However these systems cannot always be installed in previous generation microscopes. In this paper we report the preliminary results of an in-house implementation of a ABF detection system on a CEOS aberration corrected JEOL 2200FS STEM. This has been obtained by exploiting the standard BF detector coupled with a high vacuum compatible, X-ray tight and retractable shadowing mechanism. This results in the acquisition of near zero-angle scattered electrons with inner collection semi-angle from 2.0 mrad to 23 mrad and outer semi-angle in the range from 3.0 mrad to 35 mrad. The characteristics and performances of this ABF detection system are discussed

  15. Mathematical model for multicomponent separations on the continuous annular chromatograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for multicomponent separations on ion exchange columns has been adapted for use in studying the performance of the continuous annular chromatograph. The model accurately predicts solute peak positions in the column effluent and qualitatively predicts trends in solute effluent resolution as a function of increasing bandwidth of the solute feed pulse. The major virtues of the model are its simplicity in terms of the calculations involved and the fact that it incorporates the nonlinear solute-resin binding isotherms common in many ion exchange separations. Because dispersion effects are not accounted for in the model, discrepancies exist between the shapes of the effluent peaks predicted by the model and those determined experimentally

  16. Mathematical model for multicomponent separations on the continuous annular chromatograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratzler, R.L.; Begovich, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A model for multicomponent separations on ion exchange columns has been adapted for use in studying the performance of the continuous annular chromatograph. The model accurately predicts solute peak positions in the column effluent and qualitatively predicts trends in solute effluent resolution as a function of increasing bandwidth of the solute feed pulse. The major virtues of the model are its simplicity in terms of the calculations involved and the fact that it incorporates the nonlinear solute-resin binding isotherms common in many ion exchange separations. Because dispersion effects are not accounted for in the model, discrepancies exist between the shapes of the effluent peaks predicted by the model and those determined experimentally.

  17. Aerodynamic performance of an annular classical airfoil cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, D. E.; Stauter, R. C.; Fleeter, S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for a series of experiments that were performed in a large-scale subsonic annular cascade facility that was specifically designed to provide three-dimensional aerodynamic data for the verification of numerical-calculation codes. In particular, the detailed three-dimensional aerodynamic performance of a classical flat-plate airfoil cascade is determined for angles of incidence of 0, 5, and 10 deg. The resulting data are analyzed and are correlated with predictions obtained from NASA's MERIDL and TSONIC numerical programs. It is found that: (1) at 0 and 5 deg, the airfoil surface data show a good correlation with the predictions; (2) at 10 deg, the data are in fair agreement with the numerical predictions; and (3) the two-dimensional Gaussian similarity relationship is appropriate for the wake velocity profiles in the mid-span region of the airfoil.

  18. A Novel Design of Magnetorheological Damper with Annular Radial Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shisha Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of automotive vibration technology, the semiactive suspension system with adjustable damping force and high reliability is taken seriously. The magnetorheological damper (MRD that applies intelligent material (magnetorheological fluid is the key element of this system. It can achieve a continuous and adjustable damping and then reaches the purpose of comfort. In order to improve the damping effect of MRD, this paper presents a MRD, which has magnetorheological (MR effect along annular radial channel. The paper completely designs the structure and magnetic circuit of MRD. Based on the theory of electromagnetism and MR fluid dynamics, the paper analyzes and tests the external characteristics of the MRD by the MATLAB/Simulink and the vibration experiment. The results compared with ordinary MRD reveal that the damping force obviously increases and has wide adjustable range, thus verifying the reasonableness of the damper design.

  19. Investigation of a low NOx full-scale annular combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    An atmospheric test program was conducted to evaluate a low NOx annular combustor concept suitable for a supersonic, high-altitude aircraft application. The lean premixed combustor, known as the vortex air blast (VAB) concept, was tested as a 22.0-cm diameter model in the early development phases to arrive at basic design and performance criteria. Final demonstration testing was carried out on a full scale combustor of 0.66-m diameter. Variable geometry dilution ports were incorporated to allow operation of the combustor across the range of conditions between idle (T(in) = 422 K, T(out) = 917 K) and cruise (T(in) = 833 K, T(out) - 1778 K). Test results show that the design could meet the program NOx goal of 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel at a one-atmospheric simulated cruise condition.

  20. Development of annular targets for 99MO production-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new annular target performed well during irradiation. The target is inexpensive and provides good heat transfer during irradiation. Based on these and previous tests, we conclude that targets with zirconium tubes and either nickel-plated or zinc-plated foils work well. We proved that we could use aluminum target tubes, which are much cheaper and easier to work with than the zirconium tubes. In aluminum target tubes nickel-plated fission-recoil barriers work well and prevent bonding of the foil to the new target tubes during irradiation. Also, zinc-plated and aluminum-foil barriers appear promising in anodized aluminum tubes. Additional tests are anticipated to address such issues as fission-recoil barrier thickness and uranium foil composition. Overall, however, the target was successful and will provide an inexpensive, efficient way to irradiate LEU metal foil for the production of 99Mo

  1. Damping of cylindrical structures subject to annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous reports theoretical methods have been described for estimating the aerodynamic forces acting on cylinders vibrating laterally when surrounded by an annulus carrying high velocity gas. For a certain restricted set of geometries it is possible to predict whether a particular structure is stable or unstable and to determine the level of aerodynamic damping positive or negative due to the presence of the gas. This report describes experimental work which validates the computer program in which the theoretical methods are embodied; in particular the damping, inertial and decentralising forces acting on a cylinder in an annulus are measured and compared with theory over a range of frequencies from 0 to 25 Hz, and of Reynolds numbers from zero to 104. In addition a summary of simple relationships is provided which can be used to provide credible initial estimates of both the positive and negative damping of cylinders in a range of annular geometries. (author)

  2. Application study on fast extracting plutonium with annular centrifugal extractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extraction system with annular centrifugal extractors has been designed to separate plutonium. It worked well when centrifugal speed was ranged from 2000 to 8000 r/min and organic-aqueous flow ratio (o/a) ranged from 1/3 to 1, without obvious entraining phenomenon Pu (IV) in 6 mol/L HNO3 solution was fast extracted and separated, using 0.1 mol/L TOPO/Cyclohexane as extraction solvent and 0.01 mol/L oxalic acid as back extraction solvent. The extraction ratio of two stages was larger than 90%, and the back ratio per stage was more than 96%. The extraction system shows fast operating speed and high extraction ratio, therefore it is suitable for fast extracting Pu. (authors)

  3. Two-phase flow instabilities in a vertical annular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babelli, I.; Nair, S.; Ishii, M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An experimental test facility was built to study two-phase flow instabilities in vertical annular channel with emphasis on downward flow under low pressure and low flow conditions. The specific geometry of the test section is similar to the fuel-target sub-channel of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Mark 22 fuel assembly. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was observed following flow excursion and flow reversal in the test section. Density wave instability was not recorded in this series of experimental runs. The results of this experimental study show that flow excursion is the dominant instability mode under low flow, low pressure, and down flow conditions. The onset of instability data are plotted on the subcooling-Zuber (phase change) numbers stability plane.

  4. Dynamic Response of Three-Layered Annular Plate with Imperfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlus Dorota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the imperfection sensitivity of annular plate with three-layered structure. The plate composed of thin elastic facings and a thicker elastic core is loaded in facing plane. The classical issue of a three-layered plate was solved for dynamic deflection problem using the approximation methods: orthogonalization and finite difference. The solution includes the axisymmetric and asymmetric plate modes of the dynamic stability loss. The evaluation of the rate of plate sensitivity to imperfection of plate preliminary geometry has been enriched by the analysis of plate models built of finite elements. The ABAQUS program has been used. The numerous calculation results in the form of deflection characteristics, buckling modes, values of critical parameters create the view of response of dynamic plate structure with different rate of imperfection and linear in time loading growth, too.

  5. Annular modes and apparent eddy feedbacks in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Nicholas J.; Shepherd, Theodore G.; Woollings, Tim; Plumb, R. Alan

    2016-04-01

    Lagged correlation analysis is often used to infer intraseasonal dynamical effects but is known to be affected by nonstationarity. We highlight a pronounced quasi 2 year peak in the anomalous zonal wind and eddy momentum flux convergence power spectra in the Southern Hemisphere, which is prima facie evidence for nonstationarity. We then investigate the consequences of this nonstationarity for the Southern Annular Mode and for eddy momentum flux convergence. We argue that positive lagged correlations previously attributed to the existence of an eddy feedback are more plausibly attributed to nonstationary interannual variability external to any potential feedback process in the midlatitude troposphere. The findings have implications for the diagnosis of feedbacks in both models and reanalysis data as well as for understanding the mechanisms underlying variations in the zonal wind.

  6. Intermittent Flow of Granular Matter in an Annular Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzinski, Ted; Daniels, Karen E.

    Granular solids can be subjected to a finite stress below which the response is elastic. Above this yield stress, however, the material fails catastrophically, undergoing a rapid plastic deformation. In the case of a monotonically increasing stress the material exhibits a characteristic stick-slip response. We investigate the statistics of this intermittent failure in an annular shear geometry, driven with a linear-ramp torque in order to generate the stick-slip behavior. The apparatus is designed to allow visual access to particle trajectories and inter-particle forces (through the use of photoelastic materials). Additionally, twelve piezoelectric sensors at the outer wall measure acoustic emissions due to the plastic deformation of the material. We vary volume fraction, and use both fixed and deformable boundaries. We measure how the distribution of slip size and duration are related to the bulk properties of the packing, and compare to systems with similar governing statistics.

  7. Periocular granuloma annulare: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Katherine; Bhalla, Rohan; Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Piliang, Melissa P; Tamburro, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a granulomatous dermatosis that rarely presents on the face and is extremely uncommon in the periocular region. We report our experience with the presentation and management of GA lesions on the eyelids of a 17-year-old girl. We performed a review of published literature and identified 13 cases of pediatric periocular GA. One additional case was identified upon review of all pediatric GA cases at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Review of these cases suggests that periocular GA is a benign condition that spontaneously regresses within a few months. GA nodules have a predilection for the upper eyelids. A greater incidence is noted in African American children. Awareness of the self-resolving nature of this condition can prevent unnecessary surgical excisions in affected children. PMID:23551387

  8. Magnetically guided free surface annular NaK flow experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain basic information on the magnetically guided liquid metal Li waterfall type blanket concept for ICF reactors and liquid metal Li free surface flow for FMIT type accelerator target, an experimental study was conducted by using LINAK (NaK: 50 l, Ar: 0-0.3 MPa) device. A 45 mm O.D. and 25 mm I.D. annular free jet of NaK, which flowed downwards coaxially through a superconducting magnet (2.7 Tmax, B=0.38 T at the nozzle exit), was formed in vacuum chamber and at the nozzle exit where magnetic flux density B was divergent. The experiment covered ranges of U=0.5-2.5 m/s and B=0-0.38 T at the nozzle exit. Photographic and VTR observations were made on the behavior of outer surface of annular flow. The results are summarized as follows. (1) When B=0 T, the downward flow was rather convergent due to the surface tension. (2) By applying B, the flow became divergent like a cone shell and more stable. The divergent half angle increased with intensifying B. (3) The experimental results on the flow divergence agreed fairly well with the numerical analysis which took into account the MHD force, the surface tension and the gravitational force. (4) No growth of outer surface disturbance occurred within an attained maximum divergent half angle of 8deg or less. The results are considered to be encouraging for applying to ICF blanket and FMIT type target. (author)

  9. Z-pinch of an annular gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implosion and thermalization of an annular argon plasma is investigated. The plasma is produced by the z-pinch of an annular jet of argon gas, using a marx bank-transmission line system which delivers a peak current of 415 kA in 200 ns. The annulus implodes from its initial diameter of 2.5 cm and reaches a peak velocity of approx.2.8 x 107 cm/sec. Measurements of the plasma's radius, thickness, electron density, and average ionization state as a function of time are performed. When the imploding plasma reaches the axis, an 8 ns pulse of soft (0.1-1 keV) x rays is emitted. X rays with energies between 1 and 6 keV are also observed, and are emitted in a single pulse 2 to 5 ns wide. The thermalized plasma is inhomogeneous along the axial direction; vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy indicates that some regions are approx.270 eV, with Ar XIV in abundance, while x-ray spectroscopy indicates that other regions of the plasma have only highly ionized argon (XVI-XVIII). Although a thermal interpretation of the x-ray spectra would indicate an electron temperature of approx.1 keV, there is evidence that an energetic beam of electrons develops in the thermalized plasma. When this beam is included in the analysis of the x-ray spectra, it is found that the temperature in the hot spots could be as low as 400 eV. The electron density in the thermalized plasma is estimated to be greater than or equal to 1020 cm-3

  10. Annular fuel pin heat transfer and lumped model correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel pin heat transfer studies are important in nuclear reactor accident analysis. Based on the requirement of accuracy and the speed of the computation, a simple lumped heat transfer method or detailed numerical methods are chosen to solve the heat transfer equations. In a nuclear reactor design calculations, accuracy of the solution is very important than the speed. In a nuclear reactor simulator, the speed is important. Lumped model assumes fuel pellet is solid without central hole and the heat transfer coefficient is constant across the fuel pin. In the present study a new modified lumped heat transfer model is developed to consider the annular fuel pin's central hole, and the heat transfer coefficient is made as a function of average fuel pin temperature. Transient analyses are carried out with the above said modifications for a typical LMFBR annular fuel pin. The results of lumped heat transfer model are almost matching with the accurate numerical schemes like Crank-Nicolson method. Comparisons of results with Crank-Nicolson methods are good for small step reactivity addition, ramp reactivity insertion and large step reactivity addition, ramp reactivity insertion with and without reactivity feedbacks. Comparisons of results are good for LOFA also, with and without reactivity feedbacks. With the consideration of reactivity feedbacks, fuel temperature calculated through the present modified lumped model is matching well with Crank-Nicolson methods, and the nominal power also matching well. The modified lumped heat transfer model can be used in nuclear reactor simulation studies and in conservative accident analyses where fastness of the solution is a matter of concern. (author)

  11. Comparative study of convolution, superposition, and fast superposition algorithms in conventional radiotherapy, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, and intensity modulated radiotherapy techniques for various sites, done on CMS XIO planning system

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidhar K; Murthy Narayana; Raju Alluri; Sresty NVNM

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the dosimetry results that are obtained by using Convolution, Superposition and Fast Superposition algorithms in Conventional Radiotherapy, Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) for different sites, and to study the suitability of algorithms with respect to site and technique. For each of the Conventional, 3D-CRT, and IMRT techniques, four different sites, namely, Lung, Esophagus, Prostate, and Hypoph...

  12. Measurement of Quasi-periodic Oscillating Flow Motion in Simulated Dual-cooled Annular Fuel Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase a significant amount of reactor power in OPR1000, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been developing a dual-cooled annular fuel. The dual-cooled annular fuel is simultaneously cooled by the water flow through the inner and the outer channels. KAERI proposed the 12x12 dual-cooled annular fuel array which was designed to be structurally compatible with the 16x16 cylindrical solid fuel array by maintaining the same array size and the guide tubes in the same locations, as shown in Fig. 1. In such a case, due to larger outer diameter of dual-cooled annular fuel than conventional solid fuel, a P/D (Pitch-to-Diameter ratio) of dual cooled annular fuel assembly becomes smaller than that of cylindrical solid fuel. A change in P/D of fuel bundle can cause a difference in the flow mixing phenomena between the dual-cooled annular and conventional cylindrical solid fuel assemblies. In this study, the rod bundle flow motion appearing in a small P/D case is investigated preliminarily using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) for dual-cooled annular fuel application

  13. Laser-induced retinal damage thresholds for annular retinal beam profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Paul K.; Zuclich, Joseph A.; Lund, David J.; Edsall, Peter R.; Till, Stephen; Stuck, Bruce E.; Hollins, Richard C.

    2004-07-01

    The dependence of retinal damage thresholds on laser spot size, for annular retinal beam profiles, was measured in vivo for 3 μs, 590 nm pulses from a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. Minimum Visible Lesion (MVL)ED50 thresholds in rhesus were measured for annular retinal beam profiles covering 5, 10, and 20 mrad of visual field; which correspond to outer beam diameters of roughly 70, 160, and 300 μm, respectively, on the primate retina. Annular beam profiles at the retinal plane were achieved using a telescopic imaging system, with the focal properties of the eye represented as an equivalent thin lens, and all annular beam profiles had a 37% central obscuration. As a check on experimental data, theoretical MVL-ED50 thresholds for annular beam exposures were calculated using the Thompson-Gerstman granular model of laser-induced thermal damage to the retina. Threshold calculations were performed for the three experimental beam diameters and for an intermediate case with an outer beam diameter of 230 μm. Results indicate that the threshold vs. spot size trends, for annular beams, are similar to the trends for top hat beams determined in a previous study; i.e., the threshold dose varies with the retinal image area for larger image sizes. The model correctly predicts the threshold vs. spot size trends seen in the biological data, for both annular and top hat retinal beam profiles.

  14. Numerical Simulation of the Laval Annular Mechanical Foam Breaker for Foam Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lu Cao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code, Fluent, is employed to simulate the flow phenomena inside the annular foam breaker in order to improve its performance. The numerical simulation results show that the value and the distribution of the negative pressure are very important for the annular foam breaker. The design of the Laval nozzle not only can increase the fluid velocity, but also can reduce the pressure value from -30.2 to -50.3 kPa compared with the common annular nozzle foam breaker. In order to improve the range of the internal negative pressure, the two-stage Laval annular foam breaker is designed in this study. The analysis results show the distance between the two annular slit have greatly influence on its performance. There is a small overlap area between the two negative pressure zones generated by the two annular slits. The smaller the value distance is, the larger the overlap zone is. When the value of the distance decreases to 50 mm, the minimum negative pressure can be reduced to approximately -65.5 kPa. Meanwhile, the range of the internal negative pressure is larger than the single Laval annular foam breaker, which is benefit to break foam.

  15. Comparative study of convolution, superposition, and fast superposition algorithms in conventional radiotherapy, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, and intensity modulated radiotherapy techniques for various sites, done on CMS XIO planning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the dosimetry results that are obtained by using Convolution, Superposition and Fast Superposition algorithms in Conventional Radiotherapy, Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3D-CRT, and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT for different sites, and to study the suitability of algorithms with respect to site and technique. For each of the Conventional, 3D-CRT, and IMRT techniques, four different sites, namely, Lung, Esophagus, Prostate, and Hypopharynx were analyzed. Treatment plans were created using 6MV Photon beam quality using the CMS XiO (Computerized Medical System, St.Louis, MO treatment planning system. The maximum percentage of variation recorded between algorithms was 3.7% in case of Ca.Lung, for the IMRT Technique. Statistical analysis was performed by comparing the mean relative difference, Conformity Index, and Homogeneity Index for target structures. The fast superposition algorithm showed excellent results for lung and esophagus cases for all techniques. For the prostate, the superposition algorithm showed better results in all techniques. In the conventional case of the hypopharynx, the convolution algorithm was good. In case of Ca. Lung, Ca Prostate, Ca Esophagus, and Ca Hypopharynx, OARs got more doses with the superposition algorithm; this progressively decreased for fast superposition and convolution algorithms, respectively. According to this study the dosimetric results using different algorithms led to significant variation and therefore care had to be taken while evaluating treatment plans. The choice of a dose calculation algorithm may in certain cases even influence clinical results.

  16. Thermal hydraulic performance assessment of dual-cooled annular nuclear fuel for OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang-Hwan, E-mail: shinch@kaeri.re.kr [LWR Fuel Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Tae-Hyun, E-mail: thchun@kaeri.re.kr [LWR Fuel Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dong-Seok, E-mail: dsoh1@kaeri.re.kr [LWR Fuel Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); In, Wang-Kee, E-mail: wkin@kaeri.re.kr [LWR Fuel Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thermal hydraulic performance of a 12 Multiplication-Sign 12 annular fuel array is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The subchannel analysis code for the dual-cooled annular fuel, MATRA-AF is validated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate the sensitivity for geometry tolerances and operating parameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We decide the essential design parameters to uprate the power generation by dual-cooled annular fuel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thermal margin amount accommodating a 20% power-uprate seems viable. - Abstract: An internally and externally cooled annular fuel was proposed for an advance PWR, which can endure substantial power uprating. KAERI is pursuing the development for a reloading of power uprated annular fuel for the operating PWR reactors of OPR-1000. In this paper, the characteristics and verification of the MATRA-AF are described. The thermal hydraulic performance of a 12 Multiplication-Sign 12 annular fuel is calculated for the major design parameters and its performance is compared against the reference 16 Multiplication-Sign 16 cylindrical fuel assembly. In particular, the enhancements of the thermal hydraulic performance of dual-cooled annular fuel are estimated for the 100% normal power reactor core. The purpose of this study is to estimate a normal power for OPR-1000 with dual-cooled annular fuel, and ultimately to assess the feasibility of 120% core power. The parametric study was carried out for the fuel rod dimension, gap conductance, thermal diffusion coefficients, and pressure loss of the spacer grids. As a result of the analysis on the nominal power, annular fuel showed a sufficient margin available on DNB and fuel pellet temperature relative to cylindrical fuel. The margin amount seems accommodating a 20% power-uprate seems viable.

  17. Hydraulic lift-off issues for application of high performance annular fuels in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pin and assembly lift-off forces are compared between solid and annular fuel. • Annular fuel experiences much stronger uplift forces. • Much stronger hold-down forces are required by annular fuel assembly. • Engineering modifications for hold-down mechanisms are required by annular fuel. - Abstract: In the PWR core, the fuel assembly is firmly seated on the lower core plate during operation. However, if the hydraulic force exerted on the fuel assembly by coolant flow is too large and the fuel assembly is lifted-off from the lower core plate, the excessive vibration will cause fuel failure. Therefore, the hydraulic lift-off issue needs to be addressed when the advanced fuel assembly is developed. It has been shown that the advanced annular fuel design with internal cooling allows power uprating up to 50% while the peak temperature of the fuel can be reduced and the MDNBR can be maintained. However, if the coolant condition in the core is kept unchanged, increasing the core power by 50% requires the core flow rate also increase proportionally, which will give rise to the hydraulic lift-off, an important issue to be addressed. In this paper, taking the 17 × 17 solid fuel design as the reference, the hydraulic lift-off issue is investigated for proposed 12 × 12 and 13 × 13 annular fuel designs. Both the steady-state and start-up operating conditions are evaluated. It is found that the hydraulic lift-off indeed is an issue for annular fuel design which requires careful analysis. By comparison, the lift-off forces and hold-down forces required for the externally and internally cooled annular fuels (13 × 13 and 12 × 12 arrays) are several times larger than that of the referenced solid fuel (17 × 17 array). Therefore, the hold-down mechanism for annular fuel needs to be carefully designed

  18. Annular and Cylindrical Phased Array Geometries for Transrectal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) using PZT and Piezocomposite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Ralf; Chen, Wohsing; Carlson, Roy; Frizzell, Leon; Warren, Gary; Smith, Nadine; Saleh, Khaldon; Gerber, Gene; Shung, Kirk; Guo, Hongkai; Sanghvi, Narendra T.

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents engineering progress and the latest in-vitro and in-vivo results obtained with a 4.0 MHz, 20 element, PZT annular transrectal HIFU array and several 4.0 MHz, 211 element, PZT and piezocomposite cylindrical transrectal HIFU arrays for the treatment of prostate cancer. The geometries of both arrays were designed and analyzed to steer the HIFU beams to the desired sites in the prostate volume using multi-channel electronic drivers, with the intent to increase treatment efficiency and reliability for the next generation of HIFU systems. The annular array is able to focus in depth from 25 mm to 50 mm, generate total acoustic powers in excess of 60W, and has been integrated into a modified Sonablate®500 HIFU system capable of controlling such an applicator through custom treatment planning and execution software. Both PZT- and piezocomposite cylindrical arrays were constructed and their characteristics were compared for the transrectal applications. These arrays have been installed into appropriate transducer housings, and have undergone characterization tests to determine their total acoustic power output, focusing range (in depth and laterally), focus quality, efficiency, and comparison tests to determine the material and technology of choice (PZT or piezocomposite) for intra-cavity HIFU applications. Array descriptions, characterization results, in-vitro and in-vivo results, and an overview of their intended use through the application software is shown.

  19. On the Motion of an Annular Film in Microgravity Gas-Liquid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Three flow regimes have been identified for gas-liquid flow in a microgravity environment: Bubble, Slug, and Annular. For the slug and annular flow regimes, the behavior observed in vertical upflow in normal gravity is similar to microgravity flow with a thin, symmetrical annular film wetting the tube wall. However, the motion and behavior of this film is significantly different between the normal and low gravity cases. Specifically, the liquid film will slow and come to a stop during low frequency wave motion or slugging. In normal gravity vertical upflow, the film has been observed to slow, stop, and actually reverse direction until it meets the next slug or wave.

  20. Burnout in the boiling of water and freon-113 on tubes with annular fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of numerical calculations of burnout heat flux associated with the boiling of Freon-113 and water on an annular fin of constant thickness which have been approximated by simple analytical relations. These are used to calculate the critical burnout parameters of tubes with an annular fin assembly. The calculated data may be used for the analysis of tubes with an annular fin assembly over a wide range of variation of the thermophysical properties of the material and geometrical parameters of the fin assembly

  1. Entrained liquid fraction calculation in adiabatic disperse-annular flows at low rate in film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagov, V. V.; Minko, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we continue our study [1] and extend further an approach to low reduced pressures. An approximate model of droplets entrainment from the laminar film surface and an equation for calculating entrainment intensity are proposed. To carry out direct verification of this equation using experimental data is extremely difficult because the integral effect—liquid flow rate in a film at a dynamic equilibrium between entrainment and deposition—is usually measured in the experiments. The balance between flows of droplets entrainment and deposition corresponds to the dynamic equilibrium because of turbulent diffusion. The transcendental equation, which was obtained on the basis of this balance, contains one unknown numerical factor and allows one to calculate the liquid rate. Comparing calculation results with the experimental data for the water-air and water-helium flows at low reduced pressures (less than 0.03) has shown their good agreement at the universal value of a numerical constant, if an additional dimensionless parameter, a fourth root of vaporliquid densities ratio, is introduced. The criterion that determines the boundary of using methods of this work and that of [1] in calculations and that reflects effect of pressure and state of film surface on distribution of the liquid in the annular flow is proposed; the numerical value of this criterion has been determined.

  2. Analysis of Annular Thermoelectric Couples with Nonuniform Temperature Distribution by Means of 3-D Multiphysics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauknecht, Andreas; Steinert, Torsten; Spengler, Carsten; Suck, Gerrit

    2013-07-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) modules with annular geometry are very attractive for waste heat recovery within the automotive world, especially when integrated as stacks into tubular heat exchangers. The required temperature difference is built up between the coolant, which flows inside an inner tube, and the exhaust gas, which flows around an outer tube. The flow pattern of the exhaust gas can be axial or circumferential, which can lead to higher heat transfer coefficients on the outer surface of the tube. However, this multidimensional construction in combination with a complex flow pattern can lead to a nonuniform heat flux. Additionally, the system experiences a nonuniform temperature distribution which consequently leads to complex conditions regarding the electrical potential. The relevant effects are investigated using a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical model implemented in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation environment Star-CCM+. The model supports temperature-dependent characteristics of the materials, contact resistances, and parasitic effects in the TE module. Furthermore, it involves techniques to quickly find the exact maximum power point of the TE module with the given boundary conditions. Using the validated model the influence of the nonuniform temperature distribution is investigated with emphasis on the electrical output and TE efficiency.

  3. A fillable micro-hollow sphere lesion detection phantom using superposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lesion detection performance of SPECT and PET scanners is most commonly evaluated with a phantom containing hollow spheres in a background chamber at a specified radionuclide contrast ratio. However, there are limitations associated with a miniature version of a hollow sphere phantom for small-animal SPECT and PET scanners. One issue is that the 'wall effect' associated with zero activity in the sphere wall and fill port causes significant errors for small diameter spheres. Another issue is that there are practical difficulties in fabricating and in filling very small spheres (0 internal rotation switches the positions of three such sectors with their corresponding background regions. Raw data from scans of each rotated configuration are combined and reconstructed to yield superposition images. Since the sphere counts and background counts are acquired separately, the wall effect is eliminated. The raw data are subsampled randomly prior to summation and reconstruction to specify the desired sphere-to-background contrast ratio of the superposition image. A set of images with multiple contrast ratios is generated for visual assessment of lesion detection thresholds. To demonstrate the utility of the phantom, data were acquired with a multi-pinhole SPECT/CT scanner. Micro-liter syringes were successful in filling the small hollow spheres, and the accuracy of the dispensed volume was validated through repeated filling and weighing of the spheres. The phantom's internal rotation and the data analysis process were successful in producing the expected superposition images. Visual inspection of the multi-contrast images provided simple determination of lesion detection thresholds for this scanner (4:1 ratio for 1.5 mm spheres and 3:1 ratio for 2.0 mm spheres) at a specified cumulated background concentration (30 kBq-min μL-1). In summary, the micro-hollow sphere phantom demonstrated its practical utility for lesion detection evaluation and is well suited for comparing

  4. Method of improving image sharpness for annular-illumination scanning electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyama, Momoyo; Hamada, Koichi; Fukuda, Muneyuki; Kazumi, Hideyuki

    2016-06-01

    Annular illumination is effective in enhancing the depth of focus for scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). However, owing to high side lobes of the point-spread function (PSF), annular illumination results in poor image sharpness. The conventional deconvolution method, which converts the PSF to a delta function, can improve image sharpness, but results in artifacts due to noise amplification. In this paper, we propose an image processing method that can reduce the deterioration of image sharpness. With this method, the PSF under annular illumination is converted to that under standard illumination. Through simulations, we verified that the image sharpness of SEM images under annular illumination with the proposed method can be improved without noise amplification.

  5. Ultra-Wide-Band Microstrip Concentric Annular Ring Antenna for Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salima Azzaz-Rahmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new design technique for bandwidth enhancement of concentric microstrip annular ring slot antennas is presented. Using this technique, an Ultra-Wide-Band antenna is designed with simulated bandwidth of 111.29%.

  6. The analysis of the annular fuel performance in steady state condition by using AFPAC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel performance code AFPAC v1.0 is used to analyze annular fuel's behavior under steady state conditions, including neutronics, thermal hydraulic, rod deformation, fission gas release and rod internal pressure. The calculation results show that: 1) Annular fuel has a good steady irradiation performance at 150% power level as current LWRs' with burnup up to 50 GWd/t, and all parameters, such as temperature, rod internal pressure and rod deformation, are meet the rod design criteria for current fuel of PWRs: 2) Compared to the solid fuel under the same irradiation condition. annular fuel has lower temperature, smaller deformation, lower fission gas release and lower pressure at EOL. From the point of view of steady irradiation performance, the safety of reactors can significantly improved by u sing the annular fuel. (authors)

  7. Effect of January 15, 2010 annular solar eclipse on meteorological parameters over Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Nisha, P.G.; Mohankumar, K.

    Atmospheric perturbations due to the annular solar eclipse were monitored to understand its influence on the meteorological parameters from surface to the lower stratosphere. A strong inversion at 13 km and an abnormal warming in the upper...

  8. Biofilm Community Dynamics in Bench-Scale Annular Reactors Simulating Arrestment of Chloraminated Drinking Water Nitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annular reactors (ARs) were used to study biofilm community succession and provide an ecological insight during nitrification arrestment through simultaneously increasing monochloramine (NH2Cl) and chlorine to nitrogen mass ratios, resulting in four operational periods (I to IV)....

  9. An iterative method for the solution of nonlinear systems using the Faber polynomials for annular sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, N.J. [Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The author gives a hybrid method for the iterative solution of linear systems of equations Ax = b, where the matrix (A) is nonsingular, sparse and nonsymmetric. As in a method developed by Starke and Varga the method begins with a number of steps of the Arnoldi method to produce some information on the location of the spectrum of A. This method then switches to an iterative method based on the Faber polynomials for an annular sector placed around these eigenvalue estimates. The Faber polynomials for an annular sector are used because, firstly an annular sector can easily be placed around any eigenvalue estimates bounded away from zero, and secondly the Faber polynomials are known analytically for an annular sector. Finally the author gives three numerical examples, two of which allow comparison with Starke and Varga`s results. The third is an example of a matrix for which many iterative methods would fall, but this method converges.

  10. Boiling two-phase flow and heat transfer in concentric annular tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boiling flow resistance and heat transfer characteristics is experimentally investigated under the outer tube wall heating condition in a concentric annular tube with 2.1 mm gap size. The results show that the flow resistance in the annular tube is greater than that in circular tube, as well as the boiling heat transfer becomes enhanced. The heat transfer coefficient has close relationship with the pressure, thermal equilibrium quality, mass flux, heat flux, gap size of the annular tube, and heat models as well. The physical explanation about the enhancement boiling heat transfer in the annular tube is proposed with both micro-film evaporation mechanics and bubble disturbance mechanics. The correlations to calculate the flow friction coefficient and heat transfer coefficient are proposed based on the experimental data. (authors)

  11. Towards Quantum Superpositions of a Mirror: Stochastic Collapse Analysis - Calculational Details

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, S L; Ippoliti, E

    2005-01-01

    We give details of calculations analyzing the proposed mirror superposition experiment of Marshall, Simon, Penrose, and Bouwmeester within different stochastic models for state vector collapse. We give two methods for exactly calculating the fringe visibility in these models, one proceeding directly from the equation of motion for the expectation of the density matrix, and the other proceeding from solving a linear stochastic unravelling of this equation. We also give details of the calculation that identifies the stochasticity parameter implied by the small displacement Taylor expansion of the CSL model density matrix equation. The implications of the two results are briefly discussed. Two pedagogical appendices review mathematical apparatus needed for the calculations.

  12. Teleportation of a Superposition of Three Orthogonal States of an Atom without Bell-State Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Zhi-Rong

    2008-01-01

    A scheme to teleport a superposition of three orthogonal states of an atom without Bell-state measurement in cavity QED is proposed. The scheme based on the resonant interaction of two A-type three-level atoms with a bimodal cavity. The detection of atom a collapses atom b to the initial state of atom a with cavity mode left in two-mode vacuum state.The probability of success and the fidelity of this scheme are 0.112 and 0.999,respectively.

  13. Security-enhanced asymmetric optical cryptosystem based on coherent superposition and equal modulus decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianjun; Shen, Xueju; Lin, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We propose a security-enhanced asymmetric optical cryptosystem based on coherent superposition and equal modulus decomposition by combining full phase encryption technique with our previous cryptosystem. In the encryption process, the original image is phase encoded rather than bonded with a RPM. In the decryption process, two phase-contrast filters (PCFs) are employed to obtain the plaintext. As a consequence, the new cryptosystem guarantees high-level security to the attack based on iterative Fourier transform and maintains the good performance of our previous cryptosystem, especially conveniences. Some numerical simulations are presented to verify the validity and the performance of the modified cryptosystem.

  14. Linear dynamic analysis of arbitrary thin shells modal superposition by using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear dynamic behaviour of arbitrary thin shells by the Finite Element Method is studied. Plane triangular elements with eighteen degrees of freedom each are used. The general equations of movement are obtained from the Hamilton Principle and solved by the Modal Superposition Method. The presence of a viscous type damping can be considered by means of percentages of the critical damping. An automatic computer program was developed to provide the vibratory properties and the dynamic response to several types of deterministic loadings, including temperature effects. The program was written in FORTRAN IV for the Burroughs B-6700 computer. (author)

  15. Measurement of orbital angular momentum with an off-axis superposition of vector modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an off-axis superposition of vector modes with orthogonal polarizations, constructed from a general scalar helical vortex mode with unknown topological charge m, as a method to measure its orbital angular momentum. We derived analytic expressions for sets of solutions to find lines of linear polarization (L lines) within the composite polarization field. We found that the solutions corresponding to the angular component of the composite field depend only on the displacement of the beams and the topological charge m, and they are invariant under propagation and changes in the relative amplitude and phase between the beams. (paper)

  16. Laser transmission welding of absorber-free thermoplastics using dynamic beam superposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander; van der Straeten, Kira; Engelmann, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    So far, the main approach to weld absorber-free thermoplastics is exploiting their intrinsic absorption by choosing a proper wavelength of the laser. In order to melt the joining partners spatially restricted at the interface usually optics with a high numerical aperture are used. However, practice shows that the heat affected zone (HAZ) extends over a large area along the beam axis regardless of the optics used. Without clamping or convective cooling thermally induced expansion of the material can cause blowholes or deformation of the irradiated surface. To reduce the thermal stress on the part surface a dynamic beam superposition is investigated with the laser beam performing a precession movement.

  17. Teleportation of a unknown coherent-state superposition within a network without photon counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Ba An [Institute for Theoretical Physics 1, Stuttgart University, Pfaffenwaldring 57/4, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany) and Institute of Physics and Electronics, 10 Dao Tan, Thu Le, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam)]. E-mail: nban@iop.vast.ac.vn; Mahler, Guenter [Institute for Theoretical Physics 1, Stuttgart University, Pfaffenwaldring 57/4, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2007-05-21

    A new experimental scheme to teleport a unknown superposition of two coherent states with an equal amplitude but opposite phases between two parties under control of a number of controllers is proposed using only 'yes/no' detectors, i.e., without photon counting. The protocol is conclusive in the sense that any party is able to recognize a failure or a possible success immediately after his measurement. The total success probability is derived which yields a maximal value of 1/2 independent of the number of controllers.

  18. Teleportation of a unknown coherent-state superposition within a network without photon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new experimental scheme to teleport a unknown superposition of two coherent states with an equal amplitude but opposite phases between two parties under control of a number of controllers is proposed using only 'yes/no' detectors, i.e., without photon counting. The protocol is conclusive in the sense that any party is able to recognize a failure or a possible success immediately after his measurement. The total success probability is derived which yields a maximal value of 1/2 independent of the number of controllers

  19. A fillable micro-hollow sphere lesion detection phantom using superposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiFilippo, Frank P; Gallo, Sven L; Patel, Sagar [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Klatte, Ryan S [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)

    2010-09-21

    The lesion detection performance of SPECT and PET scanners is most commonly evaluated with a phantom containing hollow spheres in a background chamber at a specified radionuclide contrast ratio. However, there are limitations associated with a miniature version of a hollow sphere phantom for small-animal SPECT and PET scanners. One issue is that the 'wall effect' associated with zero activity in the sphere wall and fill port causes significant errors for small diameter spheres. Another issue is that there are practical difficulties in fabricating and in filling very small spheres (<3 mm diameter). The need for lesion detection performance assessment of small-animal scanners has motivated our development of a micro-hollow sphere phantom that utilizes the principle of superposition. The phantom is fabricated by stereolithography and has interchangeable sectors containing hollow spheres with volumes ranging from 1 to 14 {mu}L (diameters ranging from 1.25 to 3.0 mm). A simple 60{sup 0} internal rotation switches the positions of three such sectors with their corresponding background regions. Raw data from scans of each rotated configuration are combined and reconstructed to yield superposition images. Since the sphere counts and background counts are acquired separately, the wall effect is eliminated. The raw data are subsampled randomly prior to summation and reconstruction to specify the desired sphere-to-background contrast ratio of the superposition image. A set of images with multiple contrast ratios is generated for visual assessment of lesion detection thresholds. To demonstrate the utility of the phantom, data were acquired with a multi-pinhole SPECT/CT scanner. Micro-liter syringes were successful in filling the small hollow spheres, and the accuracy of the dispensed volume was validated through repeated filling and weighing of the spheres. The phantom's internal rotation and the data analysis process were successful in producing the expected

  20. The Superposition Principle of Waves Not Fulfilled under M. W. Evans' O(3) Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wielandt, Erhard

    2006-01-01

    In 1992 M.W. Evans proposed a so-called O(3) symmetry of electromagnetic fields by adding a constant longitudinal "ghost field" to the well-known transversal plane em waves. He considered this symmetry as a new law of electromagnetics. Later on, since 2002, this O(3) symmetry became the center of his Generally Covariant Unified Field Theory which he recently renamed as ECE Theory. One of the best-checked laws of electrodynamics is the principle of linear superposition of electromagnetic waves...

  1. Mesoscopic superposition and sub-Planck scale structure in molecular wave packets

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, S; Banerji, J; Panigrahi, P K; Ghosh, Suranjana; Chiruvelli, Aravind

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of realizing sub-Planck scale structures in the mesoscopic superposition of molecular wave packets involving vibrational levels. The time evolution of the wave packet, taken here as the SU(2) coherent state of the Morse potential describing hydrogen iodide molecule, produces cat-like states, responsible for the above phenomenon. We investigate the phase space dynamics of the coherent state through the Wigner function approach and identify the interference phenomena behind the sub-Planck scale structures. The optimal parameter ranges are specified for observing these features.

  2. Teleportation of a Coherent Superposition State Via a nonmaximally Entangled Coherent Xhannel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ We investigate the problemm of teleportation of a superposition coherent state with nonmaximally entangled coherent channel. Two strategies are considered to complete the task. The first one uses entanglement concentration to purify the channel to a maximally entangled one. The second one teleports the state through the nonmaximally entangled coherent channel directly. We find that the probabilities of successful teleportations for the two strategies are depend on the amplitudes of the coherent states and the mean fidelity of teleportation using the first strategy is always less than that of the second strategy.

  3. Approximate eigensolutions of Dirac equation for the superposition Hellmann potential under spin and pseudospin symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Hamzavi; S M Ikhdair

    2014-07-01

    The Hellmann potential is simply a superposition of an attractive Coulomb potential $−a/r$ plus a Yukawa potential e${}^{−δr} /r$. The generalized parametric Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method is used to examine the approximate analytical energy eigenvalues and two-component wave function of the Dirac equation with the Hellmann potential for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number in the presence of exact spin and pseudospin (p-spin) symmetries. As a particular case, we obtain the energy eigenvalues of the pure Coulomb potential in the non-relativistic limit.

  4. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16O and 32S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter bNA, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus

  5. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.S.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bradnova, V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Cai, X.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chen, G.M.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Dhamija, S.; Chenawi, K.El; Felea, D.; Feng, S.Q.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Henjes, U.; Jakobsson, B.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Larionova, V.G.; Li, Y.X.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Lu, Y.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manhas, I.; Mittra, I.S.; Musaeva, A.K.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Otterlund, I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; Rao, N.K.; Roeper, M.; Rusakova, V.V.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Seitimbetov, A.M.; Sethi, R.; Singh, B.; Skelding, D.; Soderstrem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Svensson, T.; Tawfik, A.M.; Tothova, M.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.I.; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S.; Vrlakova, J.; Wang, H.Q.; Wang, X.R.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yang, C.B.; Yin, Z.B.; Yu, L.Z.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhokhova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C

    1999-03-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in {sup 16}O and {sup 32}S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b{sub NA}, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus.

  6. Superposition of two optical vortices with opposite integer or non-integer orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Díaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a brief proposal to achieve the superposition of two opposite vortex beams, both with integer or non-integer mean value of the orbital angular momentum. The first part is about the generation of this kind of spatial light distributions through a modified Brown and Lohmann’s hologram. The inclusion of a simple mathematical expression into the pixelated grid’s transmittance function, based in Fourier domain properties, shifts the diffraction orders counterclockwise and clockwise to the same point and allows the addition of different modes. The strategy is theoretically and experimentally validated for the case of two opposite rotation helical wavefronts.

  7. Strong-field effects in Rabi oscillations between a single state and a superposition of states

    CERN Document Server

    Zhdanovich, S; Milner, V

    2011-01-01

    Rabi oscillations of quantum population are known to occur in two-level systems driven by spectrally narrow laser fields. In this work we study Rabi oscillations induced by shaped broadband femtosecond laser pulses. Due to the broad spectral width of the driving field, the oscillations are initiated between a ground state and a coherent superposition of excited states, or a "wavepacket", rather than a single excited state. Our experiments reveal an intricate dependence of the wavepacket phase on the intensity of laser field. We confirm numerically that the effect is associated with the strong-field nature of the interaction, and provide a qualitative picture by invoking a simple theoretical model.

  8. The Superposition Principle in Quantum Mechanics - did the rock enter the foundation surreptitiously?

    CERN Document Server

    Dass, N D Hari

    2013-01-01

    The superposition principle forms the very backbone of quantum theory. The resulting linear structure of quantum theory is structurally so rigid that tampering with it may have serious, seemingly unphysical, consequences. This principle has been succesful at even the highest available accelerator energies. Is this aspect of quantum theory forever then? The present work is an attempt to understand the attitude of the founding fathers, particularly of Bohr and Dirac, towards this principle. The Heisenberg matrix mechanics on the one hand, and the Schrodinger wave mechanics on the other, are critically examined to shed light as to how this principle entered the very foundations of quantum theory.

  9. Strategies for reducing basis set superposition error (BSSE) in O/AU and O/Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, I. G.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of basis set superposition error (BSSE) and effective strategies for the minimisation have been investigated using the SIESTA-LCAO DFT package. Variation of the energy shift parameter ΔEPAO has been shown to reduce BSSE for bulk Au and Ni and across their oxygenated surfaces. Alternative strategies based on either the expansion or contraction of the basis set have been shown to be ineffective in reducing BSSE. Comparison of the binding energies for the surface systems obtained using LCAO were compared with BSSE-free plane wave energies.

  10. Statistical Properties and Algebraic Characteristics of Quantum Superpositions of Negative Binomial States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoGuang; FU Hong-Chen

    2001-01-01

    We introduce new kinds of states of quantized radiation fields, which are the superpositions of negative binomial states. They exhibit remarkable nonclassical properties and reduce to Schrodinger cat states in a certain limit.The algebras involved in the even and odd negative binomial states turn out to be generally deformed oscillator algebras.It is found that the even and odd negative binomial states satisfy the same eigenvalue equation with the same eigenvalue and they can be viewed as two-photon nonlinear coherent states. Two methods of generating such the states are proposed.``

  11. Strategies for reducing basis set superposition error (BSSE) in O/AU and O/Ni

    KAUST Repository

    Shuttleworth, I.G.

    2015-11-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The effect of basis set superposition error (BSSE) and effective strategies for the minimisation have been investigated using the SIESTA-LCAO DFT package. Variation of the energy shift parameter ΔEPAO has been shown to reduce BSSE for bulk Au and Ni and across their oxygenated surfaces. Alternative strategies based on either the expansion or contraction of the basis set have been shown to be ineffective in reducing BSSE. Comparison of the binding energies for the surface systems obtained using LCAO were compared with BSSE-free plane wave energies.

  12. Non-approximate method for designing annular field of two-mirror concentric system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanshen Huang; Dongyue Zhu; Baicheng Li; Dawei Zhang; Zhengji Ni; Songlin Zhuang

    2012-01-01

    Annular field aberrations of a three-reflection concentric system, which are composed of two spherical mirrors, are analyzed. An annular field with a high level of aberration correction exists near the position where the principal ray is perpendicular to the object-image plane. Aberrations are determined by the object height and aperture angle. In this letter, the general expression of the system aberration is derived using the geometric method, and the non-approximate design method is proposed to calculate the radii of the annular fields that have minimum aberrations under different aperture angles. The closer to 0.5 (the ratio of the radius of convex mirror to the radius of concave mirror) is, the smaller the system aberration is. The examples analyzed by LABVIEW indicate that the annular field designed by the proposed method has the smallest aberration in a given system.%Annular field aberrations of a three-reflection concentric system,which are composed of two spherical mirrors,are analyzed.An annular field with a high level of aberration correction exists near the position where the principal ray is perpendicular to the object-image plane.Aberrations are determined by the object height and aperture angle.In this letter,the general expression of the system aberration is derived using the geometric method,and the non-approximate design method is proposed to calculate the radii of the annular fields that have minimum aberrations under different aperture angles.The closer to 0.5 (the ratio of the radius of convex mirror to the radius of concave mirror) is,the smaller the system aberration is.The examples analyzed by LABVIEW indicate that the annular field designed by the proposed method has the smallest aberration in a given system.

  13. An X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier with an annular explosive cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of employing an annular beam instead of a solid one in the X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) is investigated in theory and simulation. Small-signal theory analysis indicates that the optimum bunching distance, fundamental current modulation depth, beam-coupling coefficient, and beam-loaded quality factor of annular beams are all larger than the corresponding parameters of solid beams at the same beam voltage and current. An annular beam RKA and a solid beam RKA with almost the same geometric parameters are compared in particle-in-cell simulation. Output microwave power of 100 MW, gain of 50 dB, and power conversion efficiency of 42% are obtained in an annular beam RKA. The annular beam needs a 15% lower uniform guiding magnetic field than the solid beam. Our investigations demonstrate that we are able to use a simple annular explosive cathode immersed in a lower uniform magnetic field instead of a solid thermionic cathode in a complicated partially shielding magnetic field for designing high-impedance RKA, which avoids high temperature requirement, complicated electron-optical system, large area convergence, high current density, and emission uniformity for the solid beam. An equivalent method for the annular beam and the solid beam on bunching features is proposed and agrees with the simulation. The annular beam has the primary advantages over the solid beam that it can employ the immersing uniform magnetic field avoiding the complicated shielding magnetic field system and needs a lower optimum guiding field due to the smaller space charge effect

  14. Recent achievements on annular Josephson structures and their application as radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the stimulating area of superconductors investigations lies in the achieved and potential applications as radiation detectors. Results concerning annular Josephson junctions in this context are discussed. Fundamental aspects, mainly related to the fluxon dynamics in such structures, are discussed in detail. The results confirm the importance of the precious sharing of technological requests with fundamental physical implications. Peculiar results are reported dealing with new resonances occurring on these Josephson junctions of annular configuration

  15. Fabrication of Annular Pellet for HANARO Irradiation Test of Dual Cooled Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important components in a Pressurized Water Reactor affecting its safety and economy is a nuclear fuel. The traditional PWR fuel pellet has a shape of cylindrical tablets of about 8 mm in diameter with a chamfer and dishes. A significant reduction in its failure rate has resulted from the improvements in the fuel and cladding quality. Enhanced fuel assembly design allowed appreciable power density increases. However, it is difficult to achieve a significant increase of a power density under the current fuel pin design. An internally and externally cooled annular fuel has been considered seriously as a promising solution for an extended power uprate of a PWR fuel assembly. A dual cooled annular fuel shows a lot of advantages from the point of a fuel safety and its economy due to its unique configurational merit such as an increased heat transfer area and a thin pellet thickness. There must be a lot of considerations in the various fields to introduce an annular internally and externally cooled fuel to commercial PWR reactors. The dimensional changes of the annular fuel pellets during the early irradiation stage are very important, because they have an influence on the size of the gap between the pellet and the inner/outer claddings. In order to gain an insight to how the annular pellets deform, a HANARO irradiation test is planned for annular pellets with 5 different types. The detailed specification of the annular pellet was shown in Table 1. It is noted that Type C has the same pore structure as a commercial PWR pellet. The purpose of this paper is to report on the manufacturing process of an annular fuel pellet for a HANARO irradiation test

  16. Large Eddy Simulation of ignition in an annular multi-injector combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicquelin, Ronan; Philip, Maxime; Boileau, Matthieu; Schmitt, Thomas; Bourgoin, Jean-François; Durox, Daniel; Candel, Sébastien

    2013-11-01

    The present work deals with validating the LES methodology for transient ignition simulations, and in particular elucidating the mechanisms that control the light round sequence in a laboratory annular combustor, representative of many practical industrial systems. The simulation benefits from the unique experimental database built at EM2C on a fully transparent annular chamber equipped with 16 premixed swirled injectors. The F-TACLES combustion model is used for its ability to properly represent the flame propagation.

  17. A simple analytical model to study and control azimuthal instabilities in annular combustion chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Parmentier, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo; Wolf, Pierre; Staffelbach, Gabriel; Nicoud, Franck; Poinsot, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a simple analytical method to compute the azimuthal modes appearing in annular combustion chambers and help analyzing experimental, acoustic and large eddy simulation (LES) data obtained in these combustion chambers. It is based on a one-dimensional zero Mach number formulation where N burners are connected to a single annular chamber. A manipulation of the corresponding acoustic equations in this configuration leads to a simple dispersion relation which can be solved by ...

  18. The numerical solution of flow field of short-annular combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Ning, H.

    1986-05-01

    The recirculating flow field of a short-annular combustion chamber has been studied. The body-fitting coordinate system and the 'simple' method combined with a constant viscosity model have been employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in a regime containing a complicated curved boundary. The result could provide the theoretical reference for the design and improvement of short-annular combustion chambers.

  19. The influence of the equivalent hydraulic diameter on the pressure drop prediction of annular test section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kayiem, A. H. H.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The flow behaviour and the pressure drop throughout an annular flow test section was investigated in order to evaluate and justify the reliability of experimental flow loop for wax deposition studies. The specific objective of the present paper is to assess and highlight the influence of the equivalent diameter method on the analysis of the hydrodynamic behaviour of the flow and the pressure drop throughout the annular test section. The test section has annular shape of 3 m length with three flow passages, namely; outer thermal control jacket, oil annular flow and inner pipe flow of a coolant. The oil annular flow has internal and external diameters of 0.0422 m and 0.0801 m, respectively. Oil was re-circulated in the annular passage while a cold water-glycol mixture was re-circulated in the inner pipe counter currently to the oil flow. The experiments were carried out at oil Reynolds number range of 2000 to 17000, covering laminar, transition and turbulent flow regimes. Four different methods of equivalent diameter of the annulus have been considered in this hydraulic analysis. The correction factor model for frictional pressure drop was also considered in the investigations. All methods addressed the high deviation of the prediction from the experimental data, which justified the need of a suitable pressure prediction correlation for the annular test section. The conventional hydraulic diameter method is a convenient substitute for characterizing physical dimension of a non-circular duct, and it leads to fairly good correlation between turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer characteristic of annular ducts.

  20. An X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier with an annular explosive cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danni; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Qi, Zumin

    2015-11-01

    The feasibility of employing an annular beam instead of a solid one in the X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) is investigated in theory and simulation. Small-signal theory analysis indicates that the optimum bunching distance, fundamental current modulation depth, beam-coupling coefficient, and beam-loaded quality factor of annular beams are all larger than the corresponding parameters of solid beams at the same beam voltage and current. An annular beam RKA and a solid beam RKA with almost the same geometric parameters are compared in particle-in-cell simulation. Output microwave power of 100 MW, gain of 50 dB, and power conversion efficiency of 42% are obtained in an annular beam RKA. The annular beam needs a 15% lower uniform guiding magnetic field than the solid beam. Our investigations demonstrate that we are able to use a simple annular explosive cathode immersed in a lower uniform magnetic field instead of a solid thermionic cathode in a complicated partially shielding magnetic field for designing high-impedance RKA, which avoids high temperature requirement, complicated electron-optical system, large area convergence, high current density, and emission uniformity for the solid beam. An equivalent method for the annular beam and the solid beam on bunching features is proposed and agrees with the simulation. The annular beam has the primary advantages over the solid beam that it can employ the immersing uniform magnetic field avoiding the complicated shielding magnetic field system and needs a lower optimum guiding field due to the smaller space charge effect.