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Sample records for annually laminated late-glacial

  1. Morphological determinants of the course of laminated sedimentation in the basin of Lake Czechowskie (northern Poland) in the Late Glacial and Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowski, Mateusz; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-05-01

    The analyses of the annually laminated lacustrine sediments are particularly important in the studies of global climate change. They provide information about the ecosystem response to environmental and climate changes. The condition for the laminated sedimentation with the annual resolution is the calm sedimentation environment where there is no mixing and thus there are anaerobic conditions in the benthic zone. Water mixing occurs mainly as a result of weather factors such as wind and temperature. Below a certain depth water does not undergo mixing evoked by waves and also has a constant temperature which causes its stagnation. In shallower areas such conditions are favoured by the morphology of the lake basin and the long presence of ice cover (bradymictic). The combination of these environmental features predispose to the deposition of laminated sediments. Lake Czechowskie is situated in a deep kettle-hole type basin in the marginal zone of the maximum range of the Pomeranian Phase of the last Weichselian ice sheet. Taking into account the thickness of the lacustrine sediments, the maximum depth of the basin exceeds 70 m. Detailed surveying as well as geological drilling using the GIS techniques made it possible to reconstruct the morphology of the basin of Lake Czechowskie and its adjacent areas back to the state from before the biogenic sedimentation started in Allerød. The analysis of the morphology of the lake basin becomes the basis for modelling the sedimentation conditions considering, inter alia, the wind direction and velocity, fluctuations in water levels and the degree of filling the basin with the deposits in different periods of the Late Glacial and Holocene. It allows specifying the variability and sedimentation rate within the basin. The analysis shows the spatial variation of erosion and accumulation zones, and enables to determine the zones of quiet sedimentation revealing places particularly predisposed to accumulate annually laminated

  2. Late-glacial of southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, C. J.

    Overall trends in late-glacial paleoenvironments of southern South America are interpretable from the pollen stratigraphy of radiocarbon dated sections of mires in Tierra del Fuego (55°S), the Chilotan archipelago (42-43°S), and the Chilean Lake District (39-41°S). In Tierra del Fuego, southern beech ( Nothofagus) and shrub and herb taxa (Gramineae, Empetrum, Acaena, Gunnera, Compositae and Cyperaceae) serve as indicators of the changing climate; in the Chilotan archipelago and in the Chilean Lake District, southern beech and other trees (species of Myrtaceae, Podocarpus, Prumnopitys, Pseudopanax and Weinmannia) suffice as indices of climatic change. Pollen records from each of these regions, although in need of greater dating control, indicate climatic sequences that are broadly similar. The records, however, are not regionally consistent in all aspects and differ in their indicator value with the implication of fossil beetle evidence. Attempts at correlation can be unsatisfactory at times and can stem inter alia from the different ecophysiological responses of both plants and beetles to environmental pressures. These differences, which affect the timing of reproduction and migration, may result in the variable occurrence of different species in the records. The broad implication of the pollen data is that following a glacial readvance culminating at about 15,000-14,500 BP, late-glacial climate was generally warmer during intervals before 13,000 and between 12,000 and 11,000 BP, and was cooler between 13,000 and 12,000 and from 11,000 to 10,000 BP.

  3. LATE GLACIAL AND HOLOCENE BIOCLIMATIC RECONSTRUCTION IN SOUTHERN ITALY: THE TRIFOGLIETTI LAKE

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    E. Brugiapaglia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The pollen record from Trifoglietti lake (Calabria region provides new information about the paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes occurred during the LateGlacial and Holocene period. The LateGlacial part of the record, for which only preliminary data is available, is a new and original sequence from southern Italy. The Holocene sequence, with 11 AMS radiocarbon dates shows a stable Fagus forest for the entire period. Apart from sporadic pastoralism activities and the selective exploitation of Abies, only a weak human impact is recognized in the pollen records. Lake level oscillations have been reconstructed and annual precipitations quantified using the Modern Analogue Technique. The reconstruction was effectuated both at millennial and centennial scale: the first shows an increasing of moisture from 11000 to 9400 cal BP and a maximum of humidity from 9400 to 6200 cal BP. Moreover, several climatic oscillations punctuated the Holocene and therefore superimposed the millennial trend.

  4. Late-Glacial radiocarbon- and palynostratigraphy in the Swiss Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, B.; Lotter, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed Late-Glacial radiocarbon stratigraphy for the Swiss Plateau has been established on the basis of over 90 accelerator 14 C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils. A comparison of the radiocarbon ages derived from terrestrial, telmatic and limnic material at different sites on the Swiss Plateau yields a proposal for modifying the zonation system of Welten for the Late-Glacial. By retaining the limits of chronozones and by refining the palynostratigraphic criteria for the limits of biozones, a separation between chrono- and biozonation at the beginning of the Boelling and the Younger Dryas becomes obvious. 54 refs

  5. Abiotic landscape and vegetation patterns in the Netherlands during the Weichselian Late Glacial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, W.Z.

    2000-01-01

    The Late Glacial landscape of the Netherlands was a landscape with changing geomorphology and vegetation. Glacial, eolian and fluvial processes in the time before the Late Glacial initially had formed the main landscape types that still existed during the Late Glacial. In these landscape types,

  6. Post-Late Glacial calcareous tufas from the Kurai fault zone (Southeastern Gorny Altai, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokh, Svetlana N.; Sokol, Ella V.; Deev, Evgeny V.; Ryapolova, Yuliya M.; Rusanov, Gennady G.; Tomilenko, Anatoliy A.; Bul'bak, Taras A.

    2017-06-01

    Calcareous tufa deposits have been discovered in the Chibitka River valley near Lake Cheybek-Kohl, at the junction of the Kurai and Teletsk-Kurai large active faults in the southeastern Gorny Altai, Russia, at an altitude of 1800-2000 m. Fossil tufa is composed of calcite and cements Holocene grey colluvium and glacial till deposited by the Late Glacial Chibitka Glacier. Current tufa precipitation has been observed from a low-flow spring with cold (10 °C) HCO3-SO4-Ca-Mg water, pH = 6.86. The stable isotope composition of spring water is - 5.8‰ VPDB δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon and - 14.5‰ VSMOW δ18O. Modern tufa consists of thin laminated Mg-calcite and Sr-aragonite crusts, with abundant algae and biofilms on their surfaces. Both modern and fossil tufas are depleted in REE (a total of 0.40-16.4 ppm and 0.40-3.80 ppm, respectively) and share similar PAAS-normalised REE + Y spectra with HREE enrichment and slight progressive LREE depletion. The modern tufas show positive δ13C values of 0.1‰ to 0.9‰ VPDB while the fossil ones have an isotopically lighter composition of δ13C = - 4.1‰ to - 1.9‰ VPDB; the δ18O range is very narrow (- 13.0 to - 13.8‰ VPDB). Both stable isotope and trace-element signatures (including REE patterns) of the tufas indicate precipitation from cold groundwaters subjected to prolonged interaction with a carbonate aquifer (the Baratal Group of limestone and dolostone) in a cold continental climate similar to the present conditions. Tufa deposition in the Lake Cheybek-Kohl area began with the onset of post-Late Glacial global warming and permafrost degradation. Unlike the fossil tufa formation, current precipitation of freshwater carbonates has been microbially mediated. The discovered tufa deposits provide new palaeoclimatic and active tectonic proxies in the southeastern Gorny Altai.

  7. A late glacial record of ice-sheet dynamics and melt supply recovered in the sediments of IODP Expedition 347 in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passchier, Sandra; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Kenzler, Michael; Johnson, Sean; Andrén, Thomas; Barker Jørgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Modern observations of increased surface ablation, meltwater routing to the bed, and increases in glacial speeds point to feedbacks between ice-sheet dynamics, melt supply, and subglacial discharge. Paleorecords have the potential to explore the decadal to centennial variability of these systems, but until recently such records were short and discontinuous in ice-proximal settings and underutilized for this specific purpose. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 in the Baltic Sea recovered annually laminated sediments that document the dynamics of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Hydraulic piston cores recovered from Sites M0060, M0063, M0064, and M0065 allow us to reconstruct a nearly complete record of ca. 6000 years in ice retreat history at annual to decadal resolution between ca. 17 and 11ka. The late glacial successions of these four IODP drillsites comprise of a till or proglacial fluvioglacial sediment overlain by variable thicknesses of well-laminated deglacial successions within several high-recovery holes. As the Scandinavian Ice Sheet retreated from the western Baltic Sea, and to the North, the ice-sheet's grounding line migrated across the four sites and deposited overlapping sections of high-resolution ice-proximal to ice-distal successions. Laser particle size results from Sites M0060 and M0063, and inspection of line-scan images, show shifts in sedimentary facies and lithologies that were not recognized during initial visual core description. For example, at Site M0060 in the Kattegat, ice-rafting fluxes in silty clays decrease upward and are negligible in the overlying varved succession. These characteristics are interpreted as ice retreat within a calving bay environment from ca. 17ka onward, followed by distal glacial marine deposition from sediment plumes governed by meltwater discharge. Moreover, at Site M0063 in the Baltic Sea, laser particle size distributions record an abrupt shift from interlaminated clayey silt to laminated clay

  8. Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentary evolution of Czechowskie Lake (Eastern Pomerania, North Central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordowski, Jarosław; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Brauer, Achim; Ott, Florian

    2015-04-01

    transient increase of organic sedimentation. Increased deposition of colluvial deposits took place in Late Glacial and again about 200 years ago due to transient deforestation of the lake vicinity. Acknowledgements: This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association.

  9. Atmospheric radiocarbon calibration to 45,000 yr BP: Late glacial fluctuations and cosmogenic isotope production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitagawa, H.; van der Plicht, J.

    1998-01-01

    More than 250 carbon-14 accelerator mass spectrometry dates of terrestrial macrofossils from annually laminated sediments from Lake Suigetsu (Japan) provide a first atmospheric calibration for almost the total range of the radiocarbon method (45,000 years before the present), The results confirm the

  10. A Late-Glacial sedimentary sequence at KIlkeel, Northern Ireland: implications for the glaciation of the Irish Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Jon; Roberson, Sam; Cooper, Mark

    2017-04-01

    This paper re-evaluates the nature and timing of a Late-Glacial ice sheet re-advance in the north western sector of the Irish Sea basin. The sedimentary archive in the region records the collapse of the Irish Sea Ice Stream, a major outlet glacier of the British-Irish Ice Sheet. The region documents the interplay between southerly flowing Scottish ice, ice flowing southeast from Lough Neagh and locally sourced Mournes ice. We present the results of sedimentological analysis of a glacigenic sequence exposed in a modern cliff section 3 km long between Derryoge and Kilkeel, Co. Down, Northern Ireland. The interaction between an advancing ice-sheet outlet lobe and rapidly changing sea levels are examined using facies analysis and micromorphology. The section is composed of four lithofacies associations (LAs). These are, from the base, a laminated, fossiliferous and deformed silt (LA1) at least 4.5 m thick that contains lenses of diamicton and discontinuous rafts of sandy gravel. Marine shells form the axis of a fold hinge, part of a lightly tectonised channel fill within the raft. LA1 is overlain by a sandy diamict (LA2) up to 14 m thick containing mainly local clasts with some of northern provenance. Within LA2 are wide channel structures infilled by laminated clayey silts (LA2b). These form deposits up to 14 m thick and contain small-scale folds, discrete shear zones and ball-and-pillow structures. LA2b forms a lithofacies association with LA2, consisting of a lower subfacies of sheared and deformed silts, overlain by sandy diamicton, capped by a striated boulder pavement. These are interpreted to represent retreat/advance cycles of a marine terminating ice margin. Up to five such cycles are identified. LA2 is widely punctuated by fissures and conduits infilled by loose sands and gravels. These are inferred to be emplaced by subglacial meltwater during the final stages of ice sheet advance. Covering both LA2 and LA2b, LA3 is a unit of glaciofluvial outwash, composed

  11. The late-glacial reoccupation of the British Isles and the Creswellian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barton, RNE; Jacobi, RM; Stapert, D; Street, MJ

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of AMS radiocarbon dating evidence for human occupation of Britain during the Late-glacial Interstadial. The dates are all on humanly modified materials, including artefacts, and on human bone. The CalPal program is used to test whether the earliest evidence of human

  12. What lies beneath... : Late Glacial human occupation of the submerged North Sea landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amkreutz, Luc; A., Verpoorte; Waters-Rist, A.; Niekus, Marcel; van Heekeren, Vivian; van der Merwe, Alie; van der Plicht, Johannes; Glimmerveen, Jan; Stapert, Dick; Johansen, Lykke

    2018-01-01

    Archaeological evidence from the submerged North Sea landscape has established the rich diversity of Pleistocene and Early Holocene ecosystems and their importance to hunter- gatherer subsistence strategies. Comparatively little of this evidence, however, dates to the Late Glacial, the period when

  13. Limiting factors for vegetation development during the early late glacial in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Morten Fischer; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Jessen, Cathrine

    periods at Slotseng was dominated by Betula nana and Dryas octopetala and associated with many herbs of open habitats. Late-glacial pollen records are frequently interpreted only in the context of climate change. However, the forcing mechanisms of vegetational change may shift over time between e...... type (peat/gyttja) and δ18O from assumedly synchronous levels in the NGRIP and GRIP ice-cores. Our series of RDA’s show that climate variations as expressed by proxy ice-core δ18O had limited correlation with our pollen data during these shorter intervals. The lack of immediate palynological response...... glacial vegetation changes. This result strongly suggests that late glacial pollen records may not be interpreted merely as a direct climate proxy....

  14. Palaeoecological reconstruction of Komořany Lake in Late Glacial based on diatom analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Poštulková, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Diatom analysis of basal part of profile PK-1-L contributes to multi-proxy research of former Lake Komořany. At this part of profile radiocarbon dating (dates sediments into Late Glacial and Early Holocene) and LOI (loss on ignition) had been conducted before, of which results have been utilized to more accurate interpretation of diatom analysis conclusions. Apart from diatom valves, presence of stomatocysts of Chrysophyceae has been observed. Having separated diatom valves from 32 sediment s...

  15. Late-glacial atmospheric CO{sub 2} reconstructions from western Norway using fossil leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birks, H.H.; Birks, H.J.B. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Animal and Plant Sciences; Beerling, D.J.; Woodward, F.I. [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Botanical Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Analyses of air bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice-cores have shown that atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are 180-200 ppmv during glacial periods, and ca. 280 ppmv during interglacials, including the Holocene. The change from glacial to Holocene concentrations occurred steadily over ca. 5000 years, slightly lagging the temperature increase inferred from {delta}{sup 18}. Antarctic ice cores lack fine time resolution over the late-glacial/early Holocene period 12-9000 {sup 14}C yr BP, that includes the Younger Dryas cold oscillation. The stomatal density on leaves is inversely proportional to the concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. A late glacial sequence at Kraakenes, western Norway, contains well-preserved Salix herbacea (dwarf willow) leaves, dated from 11700-9600 {sup 14}C yr BP. If the stomatal density is measured on the fossil leaves, a calibration derived from the relationship of stomatal density of modern material of the same species to known CO{sub 2} concentrations can be used to reconstruct CO{sub 2} concentrations of the past. Because of the decadal time-resolution available at Kraakenes through the late-glacial and early Holocene, a detailed record of CO{sub 2} concentrations can be reconstructed over this period, that will complement the ice core record. (author)

  16. Late Glacial climate and palaeoenvironment in the Southern Carpathian Mountains inferred by chironomid and pollen analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, M.; Heiri, O.; Magyari, E.; Braun, M.; Buczkó, K.; Bálint, M.; Jakab, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Carpathian Mountains have several glacial lakes with their sediments extending back to the Late Glacial period (ca. 11,500-14,700 calibrated radiocarbon years BP). This area has so far missed quantitative palaeoclimate records that are however much needed in order to obtain a continental-scale picture of ecosystem reorganization in response to rapid climatic changes during the Late Glacial. High-resolution chironomid and pollen analyses can both provide such records. In this study these two methods are applied to the sediment sequence of a small sub-alpine lake, Taul dintre Brazi (Retezat Mts, 1740 m a.s.l., 0.5 ha). The lake is situated on base-poor, granite bedrock, within the Picea abies forest belt. Our aim was (1) to study changes in the chironomid fauna, (2) to obtain summer temperature estimates using a chironomid-mean July air temperature inference model, and finally (3) to compare the chironomid-inferred climate record with a pollen-based quantitative climate record (plant functional type method). Here we provide first results from this multi-proxy study. The Late Glacial and Early Holocene part of this core was analysed at 100-200 yr resolution. During the Oldest Dryas the chironomid fauna was dominated by Pseudodiamesa and Tanytarsini species; the start of the Lateglacial interstadial was marked by the diversification of Tanytarsini (Tanytarsus lugens-type, Tanytarsus pallidicornis-type, Paratanytarsus sp, Micropsectra insignilobus-type) and the disappearance of Pseudodiamesa suggesting a distinct increase in summer temperature. At the same time afforestation by Larix, Pinus cembra, Pinus mugo and Picea abies was signaled by the pollen, stomatal and plant macrofossil records. During the Younger Dryas reversal the chironomid fauna showed increasing abundance of Micropsectra insignilobus-type, a chironomid typical for cool, nutrient poor lakes whereas the pollen, plant macrofossil and stomatal records pointed to a decrease of Picea abies

  17. Quantitative functional analysis of Late Glacial projectile points from northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dev, Satya; Riede, Felix

    2012-01-01

    that, based on metric considerations, arch-backed points (pen-knife points or Federmesser) most likely were part of a bow-and-arrow weapon system, while large tanged points (Bromme points) most likely tipped spears propelled with the help of a spear-thrower/atlatl. This paper then presents...... surely fully serviceable, diverged considerably from the functional optimum predicated by ballistic theory. These observations relate directly to southern Scandinavian Late Glacial culture-history which is marked by a sequence of co-occurrence of arch-backed and large tanged points in the earlier part...

  18. Late Glacial to Early Holocene socio-ecological responses to climatic instability within the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López de Pablo, Javier; Jones, Samantha E.; Burjachs, Francesc

    2018-03-01

    The period spanning the Late Glacial and the Early Holocene (≈19-8.2 ka) witnessed a dramatic sequence of climate and palaeoenvironmental changes (Rasmussen et al., 2014). Interestingly, some of the most significant transformations ever documented in human Prehistory took place during this period such as the intensification of hunter-gatherer economic systems, the domestication process of wild plants and animals, and the spread of farming across Eurasia. Understanding the role of climate and environmental dynamics on long-term cultural and economic trajectories, as well as specific human responses to episodes of rapid climate change, still remains as one of the main challenges of archaeological research (Kintigh et al., 2014).

  19. The development of Belarusian lakes during the Late Glacial and Holocene

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    Novik, Aliaksei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sediment cores from six lakes in northern, central, and southern Belarus were eõamined to establish correlationsbetween changes in lake conditions and catchment evolution since the Older Dryas. Detailed studies were conducted in three areaswith highly different landscape development history. Common patterns and synchronism in lake sedimentation and fluctuations aremore diverse during the Late Glacial and early Holocene, mainly due to the general tendency of climate warming at the beginning ofthe postglacial epoch and disappearance of permafrost, which led to the increase in infiltrating processes. During the latter half of theHolocene lake level changes were asynchronous in different regions of Belarus. At that time most of the existing differences werecaused by local factors.

  20. Late glacial multiproxy evidence of vegetation development and environmental change at Solova, southeastern Estonia

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    Amon, Leeli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the late glacial Solova (Remmeski basin, based on plant macro­fossil and diatom record, AMS 14C chronology and sediment composition (loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility data, provided information on vegetation history and palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes since the time of the deglaciation of the area around 14 000 cal yr BP. The chronology of the sequence is based on seven AMS dates on terrestrial macrofossils, providing evidence of rapid sedimentation in between 14 000 and 13 500 cal yr BP. Loss-on-ignition data show a clear short-lived warming episode centred to 13 800 cal yr BP, tentatively correlated with the GI-1c warming of the event stratigraphy of the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region, which suggests that at least parts of the Haanja Heights were ice-free by 14 000 cal yr BP. Macrofossil evidence indicates Betula nana–Dryas octopetala-dominated open tundra communities with Saxifraga on dry ground, and Carex sp. and Juncus on wet ground at that time. The first evidence of the postglacial presence of tree birch (Betula pendula in Estonia is dated back to 13 500 cal yr BP. However, conifer remains were not found in the late glacial sediment sequence of Solova Bog. The late-Allerød (GI-1a organic deposits, which are quite typical of other parts of Estonia and indicate general warming, are missing at Solova, most probably due to a hiatus in sedimentation in this very small and shallow upland basin.

  1. A Late-glacial chironomid record from Hawes Water, northwest England

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    Bedford, Alan; Jones, Richard. T.; Lang, Barbara; Brooks, Stephen; Marshall, Jim D.

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a high-resolution Late-glacial chironomid stratigraphy from Hawes Water, a small carbonate lake in northern Lancashire. The samples were from a core taken from the terrestrialised margin of the present lake, which represents an intermediate depth between the true littoral and the profundal. The chironomid assemblage showed a high degree of sensitivity to both broad-scale and short-term temperature changes. Comparison with an existing proxy temperature record (18O) for the site confirmed the presence of four temperature inversions within the Late-glacial Interstadial. A mean July air temperature inference model, derived from acid, soft-water lakes in Norway and Svalbard, was applied to the data. Despite the absence of carbonate lakes within the Norwegian training set, there was a close similarity between trends in estimated July air temperature and the 18O trace, with a particularly strong correspondence in the periods of clay deposition. This suggests that this model is highly robust. The inferred maximum Interstadial temperature was 13.4°C, dropping initially to 7.5°C in the Loch Lomond Stadial. Temperatures reach a maximum of nearly 10°C in this period, cool for a short period before rising rapidly to 13.2°C at the start of the Holocene. These temperatures are similar to but slightly higher than those estimated for Whitrig Bog, southeast Scotland, and lower than those inferred from coleopteran-based models for sites in South Wales. Copyright

  2. Icelandic volcanic ash from the Late-glacial open-air archaeological site of Ahrenshöft LA 58 D, North Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Housley, R. A.; Lane, C. S.; Cullen, V. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptotephra of Icelandic origin from the open-air archaeological site of Ahrenshöft LA 58 D (Kr. Nordfriesland, Schleswig-Holstein), northern Germany overlies a Late-glacial Havelte lithic assemblage, hitherto dated by 14C and biostratigraphy to the earliest part of the Late-glacial interstadial...

  3. Late-glacial to Holocene aeolian deposition in northeastern Europe - The timing of sedimentation at the Iisaku site (NE Estonia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinska-Nartisa, Edyta; Nartiss, Maris; Thiel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Late-glacial and Holocene aeolian inland dune complex at Iisaku (NE Estonia) has been investigated using an accurate and detailed compilation of the sedimentary properties and chronological framework. The quartz grains forming the dunes are very variable, reflecting aeolian, weathering...

  4. Vegetation history and paleoclimate at Lake Dojran (FYROM/Greece during the Late Glacial and Holocene

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    A. Masi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new high-resolution pollen and NPP (non-pollen palynomorph analysis has been performed on the sediments of Lake Dojran, a transboundary lake located at the border between Greece and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM. The sequence covers the last 12 500 years and provides information on the vegetational dynamics of the Late Glacial and Holocene for the southern Balkans. Robust age model, sedimentological diatom, and biomarker analyses published previously have been the base for a multi-perspective interpretation of the new palynological data. Pollen analysis revealed that the Late Glacial is characterized by steppic taxa with prevailing Amaranthaceae, Artemisia and Poaceae. The arboreal vegetation starts to rise after 11 500 yr BP, taking a couple of millennia to be definitively attested. Holocene vegetation is characterized by the dominance of mesophilous plants. The Quercus robur type and Pinus are the most abundant taxa, followed by the Quercus cerris type, the Quercus ilex type and Ostrya–Carpinus orientalis. The first attestation of human presence can be presumed at 5000 yr BP from the contemporary presence of cereals, Juglans and Rumex. A drop in both pollen concentration and influx together with a δ18Ocarb shift indicates increasing aridity and precedes clear and continuous human signs since 4000 yr BP. Also, a correlation between Pediastrum boryanum and fecal stanol suggests that the increase in nutrients in the water is related to human presence and pasture. An undoubted expansion of human-related plants occurs since 2600 yr BP when cereals, arboreal cultivated and other synanthropic non-cultivated taxa are found. A strong reduction in arboreal vegetation occurred at 2000 yr BP, when the Roman Empire impacted a landscape undergoing climate dryness in the whole Mediterranean area. In recent centuries the human impact still remains high but spots of natural vegetation are preserved. The Lake

  5. Oxygen isotope composition as late glacial palaeoclimate indicators of groundwater recharge in the Baltic Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrik, R.; Mazeika, J.

    2002-01-01

    Several hypotheses were established to explain low δ 18 O values of groundwater which have been found in the Estonian Homocline. Traces of depleted groundwater were found also in other parts of the Baltic Basin near the shoreline. From data collected in this and previous studies, the δ 18 O values of groundwater in most aquifers are known to range from -7.7 to -13.9 per mille. However, the groundwater in Estonia in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system has significantly lower δ 18 O values, which vary mainly from -18 to -22.5 per mille. The overlying Ordovician-Cambrian aquifer is also depleted in 18 O, but, as a rule, the degree of depletion is several per mille less than in case of the Cambrian- Vendian aquifer. The thickness of the depleted water in Estonia reaches 450 m. At similar depths beneath Gotland Island (Sweden Homocline), groundwater has significantly higher δ 18 O values (from -5.7 to -6.1 per mille). A hydrogeologic model, depicting conditions during the pre Late Glacial, and accounting for hydraulic connections between the lake and river systems through taliks in permafrost, was developed to explain the observed groundwater isotope data. According to the adopted model, penetration of isotopically depleted surface waters could have reached depths of up to 500 m, with subsequent mixing between subglacial meltwater and old groundwater of Huneborg-Denekamp time. Traces of this penetration were discovered only near the shoreline, where δ 18 O values vary from -12 to -13.9 per mille and 14 C is below 4%. In the territory of the Estonian Homocline, the hydraulically close connection via the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer between talik systems of the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland existed through permafrost before the Late Glacial. This was due to subglacial recharge during the recessional Pandivere (12 ka BP) and Palivere (11.2 ka BP) phases, which is also associated with recharge of isotopically depleted groundwater. (author)

  6. Vegetation history and paleoclimate at Lake Dojran (FYROM/Greece) during the Late Glacial and Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Alessia; Francke, Alexander; Pepe, Caterina; Thienemann, Matthias; Wagner, Bernd; Sadori, Laura

    2018-03-01

    A new high-resolution pollen and NPP (non-pollen palynomorph) analysis has been performed on the sediments of Lake Dojran, a transboundary lake located at the border between Greece and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). The sequence covers the last 12 500 years and provides information on the vegetational dynamics of the Late Glacial and Holocene for the southern Balkans. Robust age model, sedimentological diatom, and biomarker analyses published previously have been the base for a multi-perspective interpretation of the new palynological data. Pollen analysis revealed that the Late Glacial is characterized by steppic taxa with prevailing Amaranthaceae, Artemisia and Poaceae. The arboreal vegetation starts to rise after 11 500 yr BP, taking a couple of millennia to be definitively attested. Holocene vegetation is characterized by the dominance of mesophilous plants. The Quercus robur type and Pinus are the most abundant taxa, followed by the Quercus cerris type, the Quercus ilex type and Ostrya-Carpinus orientalis. The first attestation of human presence can be presumed at 5000 yr BP from the contemporary presence of cereals, Juglans and Rumex. A drop in both pollen concentration and influx together with a δ18Ocarb shift indicates increasing aridity and precedes clear and continuous human signs since 4000 yr BP. Also, a correlation between Pediastrum boryanum and fecal stanol suggests that the increase in nutrients in the water is related to human presence and pasture. An undoubted expansion of human-related plants occurs since 2600 yr BP when cereals, arboreal cultivated and other synanthropic non-cultivated taxa are found. A strong reduction in arboreal vegetation occurred at 2000 yr BP, when the Roman Empire impacted a landscape undergoing climate dryness in the whole Mediterranean area. In recent centuries the human impact still remains high but spots of natural vegetation are preserved. The Lake Dojran multi-proxy analysis including pollen

  7. Late glacial vegetation and climate changes in the high mountains of Bulgaria (Southeast Europe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozilova, E.D.; Tonkov, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Late glacial vegetation history in the high mountains of Southern Bulgaria (Rila, Pirin, Western Rhodopes) is reconstructed by means of pollen analysis, plant macrofossils and radiocarbon dating of sediments from lakes and peat-bogs located between 1300 and 2200 m a.s.l. The vegetation response to the climate fluctuations after 13000 14 C yrs. BP in the Rila Mountains is bound for the first time to a detailed chronological framework. Two stadial and one interstadial phases are delimited analogous with the Oldest Dryas-Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas cycle for Western Europe. During the stadials mountain-steppe vegetation composed of Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae and other cold-resistant herbs dominated at high elevation with sparse stands of Pinus, Betula, and shrubland of Juniperus and Ephedra. The climate improvement in the interstadial resulted in the initial spread of deciduous and coniferous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Corylus, Carpinus, Abies, Picea) from their local refugia below 1000 m. The palaeoecological record from the climate deterioration during the Younger Dryas is documented in thin sections of the cores investigated. (author)

  8. Adaptation and niche construction in human prehistory: a case study from the southern Scandinavian Late Glacial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Felix

    2011-03-27

    The niche construction model postulates that human bio-social evolution is composed of three inheritance domains, genetic, cultural and ecological, linked by feedback selection. This paper argues that many kinds of archaeological data can serve as proxies for human niche construction processes, and presents a method for investigating specific niche construction hypotheses. To illustrate this method, the repeated emergence of specialized reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) hunting/herding economies during the Late Palaeolithic (ca 14.7-11.5 kyr BP) in southern Scandinavia is analysed from a niche construction/triple-inheritance perspective. This economic relationship resulted in the eventual domestication of Rangifer. The hypothesis of whether domestication was achieved as early as the Late Palaeolithic, and whether this required the use of domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris) as hunting, herding or transport aids, is tested via a comparative analysis using material culture-based phylogenies and ecological datasets in relation to demographic/genetic proxies. Only weak evidence for sustained niche construction behaviours by prehistoric hunter-gatherer in southern Scandinavia is found, but this study nonetheless provides interesting insights into the likely processes of dog and reindeer domestication, and into processes of adaptation in Late Glacial foragers.

  9. A Late Glacial to Holocene record of environmental change from Lake Dojran (Macedonia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Francke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A Late Glacial to Holocene sediment sequence (Co1260, 717 cm from Lake Dojran, located at the boarder of the F.Y.R. of Macedonia and Greece, has been investigated to provide information on climate variability in the Balkan region. A robust age-model was established from 13 radiocarbon ages, and indicates that the base of the sequence was deposited at ca. 12 500 cal yr BP, when the lake-level was low. Variations in sedimentological (H2O, TOC, CaCO3, TS, TOC/TN, TOC/TS, grain-size, XRF, δ18Ocarb, δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg data were linked to hydro-acoustic data and indicate that warmer and more humid climate conditions characterised the remaining period of the Younger Dryas until the beginning of the Holocene. The Holocene exhibits significant environmental variations, including the 8.2 and 4.2 ka cooling events, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. Human induced erosion processes in the catchment of Lake Dojran intensified after 2800 cal yr BP.

  10. Extensive wet episodes in Late Glacial Australia resulting from high-latitude forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Germain; de Deckker, Patrick; Magee, John W.; Germain, Yoan; Bermell, Sylvain; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Norman, Marc D.

    2017-03-01

    Millennial-scale cooling events termed Heinrich Stadials punctuated Northern Hemisphere climate during the last glacial period. Latitudinal shifts of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) are thought to have rapidly propagated these abrupt climatic signals southward, influencing the evolution of Southern Hemisphere climates and contributing to major reorganisation of the global ocean-atmosphere system. Here, we use neodymium isotopes from a marine sediment core to reconstruct the hydroclimatic evolution of subtropical Australia between 90 to 20 thousand years ago. We find a strong correlation between our sediment provenance proxy data and records for western Pacific tropical precipitations and Australian palaeolakes, which indicates that Northern Hemisphere cooling phases were accompanied by pronounced excursions of the ITCZ and associated rainfall as far south as about 32°S. Comparatively, however, each of these humid periods lasted substantially longer than the mean duration of Heinrich Stadials, overlapping with subsequent warming phases of the southern high-latitudes recorded in Antarctic ice cores. In addition to ITCZ-driven hydroclimate forcing, we infer that changes in Southern Ocean climate also played an important role in regulating late glacial atmospheric patterns of the Southern Hemisphere subtropical regions.

  11. Late Glacial and Holocene plant cover in Węgliny, Lubsza Plain, south-west Poland, based on pollen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurochnik Aleksandra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Late Glacial (since Oldest Dryas and Holocene (to Subatlantic changes of vegetation at the Węgliny site (south-west Poland are reconstructed based mainly on pollen analysis of five cores from the palaeobasin (anaerobic sediments. The chronology of the described events is based on palynological comparison with the Lubsza Plain environs, based on LPAZs from several published pollen diagrams on 14C data, and multiple cryptotephra levels determined in the Węgliny profiles. The Węgliny record integrates well into the north European Holocene and Late Glacial biostratigraphic framework. The Węgliny site is the next (fourth locality in Poland where the Laacher See Tephra (LST horizon within the Allerød chronozone was identified.

  12. Atmospheric radiocarbon calibration to 45,000 yr B.P.: late glacial fluctuations and cosmogenic isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa; van der Plicht J

    1998-02-20

    More than 250 carbon-14 accelerator mass spectrometry dates of terrestrial macrofossils from annually laminated sediments from Lake Suigetsu (Japan) provide a first atmospheric calibration for almost the total range of the radiocarbon method (45,000 years before the present). The results confirm the (recently revised) floating German pine chronology and are consistent with data from European and marine varved sediments, and combined uranium-thorium and carbon-14 dating of corals up to the Last Glacial Maximum. The data during the Glacial show large fluctuations in the atmospheric carbon-14 content, related to changes in global environment and in cosmogenic isotope production.

  13. Chronostratigraphical Subdivision of the Late Glacial and the Holocene for the Alaska Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michczynska, D. J.; Hajdas, I.

    2009-04-01

    Our work is a kind of so called data mining. The first step of our work was collection of the radiocarbon data for samples coming from Alaska. We construct data base using Radiocarbon Measurements Lists published by different radiocarbon laboratories (mainly in the journal 'Radiocaron'). The next step was careful analysis of collected dates. We excluded from our analysis all dates suspected of contamination by younger or older organic matter. Such fact could be stated, for instance, on the base of inconsistency of radiocarbon age and stratigraphy or palynology. Finally, we calibrated whole large set of chosen radiocarbon dates and construct probability density function (PDF). Analysis of the shape of PDF was the subject of the previous research (eg. Michczynska and Pazdur, 2004; Macklin et al., 2006; Starkel et al., 2006, Michczynska et al., 2007). In our analysis we take into account the distinct tendency to collect samples from specific horizons. It is a general rule to take samples for radiocarbon dating from places of visible sedimentation changes or changes in palynological diagram. Therefore the culminations of the PDF represent periods of environmental changes and could be helpful in identifying the chronostratigraphical boundaries on the calendar time scale. References: Michczyńska D.J., Pazdur A., 2004. A shape analysis of cumulative probability density function of radiocarbon dates set in the study of climate change in Late Glacial and Holocene. Radiocarbon 46(2): 733-744. Michczyńska D.J., Michczyński A., Pazdur A. 2007. Frequency distribution of radiocarbon dates as a tool for reconstructing environmental changes. Radiocarbon 49(2): 799-806. Macklin M.G., Benito G., Gregory K.J., Johnstone E., Lewin J., Michczyńska D.J., Soja R., Starkel L., Thorndycraft V.R., 2006. Past hydrological events reflected in the Holocene fluvial record of Europe. CATENA 66: 145-154. Starkel L., Soja R., Michczyńska D.J., 2006. Past hydrological events reflected in

  14. Climate Change in Cariaco Basin During the Late Glacial “Mystery Interval”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurco, L. N.; Peterson, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    A distinctive gray clay layer was deposited in Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, between approximately 17.5 and 14.5ka. Its deposition coincides with a poorly-understood period of abrupt climate change during the late glacial termed the “Mystery Interval” for the variety of unusual climatic conditions occurring globally during this time. The so-called “gray layer” in Cariaco Basin is an unexplained depositional anomaly seen nowhere else in the basin’s sediment record for the last 500 kyrs, with the possible exception of a similar gray layer observed just below the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9/10 boundary. In order to understand its climatic significance and relation to other global climate events during the Mystery Interval, it is necessary to determine the origin of the gray layer in Cariaco. One hypothesis for its origin is an increase in fluvial discharge due to elevated rainfall in the region. Modern precipitation in Cariaco Basin is controlled in large part by the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which migrates seasonally and brings increased rainfall to the region during boreal summer. Back through MIS 4, Cariaco’s sediment record provides evidence that the ITCZ had a predictable migration pattern on longer timescales, with increased terrigenous input to the basin during periods of warm North Atlantic SST indicating a northward position of the ITCZ. Similarly, during times of colder North Atlantic SST, decreased terrigenous input to the basin implies a more southerly ITCZ position. At face value, the gray layer in Cariaco Basin seems to contradict this pattern as it records high terrigenous input during the period of cold North Atlantic SST that accompanied Heinrich Event 1. To test the origins of the gray layer, we have analyzed oxygen isotope and Mg/Ca ratios in the planktonic foraminifer G. ruber. Oxygen isotope data show a decrease of ~1‰ with the onset of gray layer deposition, suggesting either warming or the presence of lower salinity

  15. Late glacial drainage systems along the northwestern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, Donald S.; Duk-Rodkin, Alejandra; Bednarski, Jan M.

    The evolution of drainage systems along the retreating northwestern Laurentide Ice Sheet was complex. The interaction of ice-margin configuration, topography and glacioisostasy resulted in a network of meltwater rivers that variably overflowed to the Arctic and Pacific Oceans and to the Gulf of Mexico. Glacial lakes also changed dramatically in size and location during the period of deglaciation. At the last (and all time) glacial maximum, the ice sheet extended into the eastern Cordillera, blocking northward and eastward drainage to the Arctic Ocean. Some meltwater and most non-glacial runoff were diverted through the mountains to the Yukon River basin, into Alaska and the Pacific Ocean. Retreat from the glacial maximum prior to 21 ka BP allowed proglacial drainage from the western margin of the ice sheet to flow into the Beaufort Sea/Arctic Ocean. Deglaciation was rapid after about 13 ka BP, with the present route of the lower Mackenzie River established between 13 and 11.5 ka BP. Continued ice retreat led to significant southward expansion of the Mackenzie/Beaufort drainage basin at about 11.5 ka BP through drainage capture of glacial Lake Peace, which previously had drained southeastward into the Missouri River and to the Gulf of Mexico. Very rapid ice retreat between 10.5 and 10 ka BP allowed glacial lake McConnell to expand down-slope in contact with the ice margin. Numerous glacial lakes occurred along the northwestern margin of the ice sheet during the maximum and retreat phases. These include ice-dammed glacial Lake Old Crow, which occupied unglaciated terrain of the northern Yukon, and glacial Lake Peace, which utilized a number of outlets as it migrated eastward with the ice front along the Peace Valley. The largest glacial lakes in the region were the result of glacioisostatic depression reversing the regional drainage. The Mackenzie Phase of glacial Lake McConnell was the second largest Pleistocene lake in North America (> 215,000 km2). Late glacial

  16. Preliminary results on the search for new Late Glacial rock shelter-sites in the Federal State of Hesse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Florian Rudolf

    . One of the major work packages is the discovery of new sites which can provide Late Palaeolithic strata in the context of volcanic ash deposits. Previous tephrochronological research has demonstrated that neither open-air nor deep cave sites harbour great potential for discovering in situ volcanic ash...... of the Laacher See eruption (Hofbauer 1991, 1995). Geospatial approaches, including archaeological predictive modelling and the use of geological proxies, were used to estimate conditions most adequate for the potential presence of rock shelters used by Late Glacial foragers. Following this computer-aided pre...

  17. Was the Sun especially active at the end of the late glacial epoch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Liliya

    In their pioneering work, the geophysicists A. Brekke and A. Egeland (1983) collected beliefs of different peoples, associated with northern lights. Our analyses of this collection show that these beliefs are mainly related to the mythological idea of ``abnormal'' deads (dead, childless old maids in Finnish beliefs; killed people; spirits dangerous to children). We find similar motifs in Slavic fairy tales about the ``Thrice-Nine Land,'' regarded as the other world in folkloric studies (in the Land where mobile and agitated warlike girls live, whose Head Girl is characterized by the words ``white snow, pretty light, the prettiest in the World,'' but whose name ``Mariya Morevna'' refers to the word ``mort''; where a river flows with its banks covered by human bones; where the witch Baba-Yaga dwells, being extremely dangerous for children). Moreover, it can be noted that similar narrative fabulous myths deal with the concept of auroral oval northern lights, since some specific features of the natural auroral forms are mentioned there, with their particular spatial orientations (to the North or West). This resembles the manner in which Ancient Greek myths describe the real properties of the heavenly phenomena in a mythological language. It is interesting that myths on the high-latitude northern lights spread even to the South of Europe (and, might be, to India and Iran). This fact can be understood in view of the following. It has been established that, during the late glacial epoch, the environmental and cultural conditions were similar over the area from Pyrenean to the Ural Mountains; the pattern of hunters' settlements outlined the glacial sheet from the outside. Relics of the hunters' beliefs can now be found in Arctic, where the environment and lifestyle remain nearly unchanged. The ethnographer Yu.B. Simchenko (1976) has reconstructed the most archaic Arctic myths. According to them, the World of dead is associated with the world of ice governed by the ``Ice

  18. Some comments on the terminology of the Late Glacial in Central Europe and the problem of its application to SW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf JÖRIS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, the Late Glacial interstadials Bølling and Allerød, originally defined in northern Europe, are often applied as chronozones in different palaeoclimate contexts across the Northern Hemisphere. The scientific community in both palaeoclimate research and archaeology often disregards the fact that the Meiendorf interstadial has long been identified as preceding the Bølling-Allerød sequence, and that there are lots of difficulties with the synchronization of the Oldest Dryas-Bølling-Older Dryas-sequence. Synchronization of important Central European high-resolution pollen records with the Greenland GRIP ice core demonstrates a strong climatic gradient from the South to the North of Europe over the entire Late Glacial. Therefore, the northern European interstadials (Meiendorf, Bølling, Allerød cannot serve universally as Late Glacial chronozones with reference to their characteristic pollen compositions, even though they are of greatest importance for the understanding of the regional vegetational history. The Greenland ice cores offer continous climate information over the entire Late Glacial and may serve as chronostratigraphical type sections. In the close future, detailed synchronization of terrestrial sequences with the Greenland ice core records will be achieved, using high-precision radiocarbon calibration based on Late Glacial dendrochronologies.

  19. Timing of the deglaciation and the late-glacial vegetation development on the Pandivere Upland, North Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Amon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the deglaciation chronology of the Pandivere Upland is defined, and the late-glacial vegetation trends of north-eastern Estonia are summarised. The multi-proxy study includes accelerated mass spectrometry 14 C dating, plant macrofossil, magnetic susceptibility, loss-on-ignition and grain-size distribution data of the lacustrine sediment record from one previously unpublished study site (Kursi, and the study discusses the results in combination with five previously published study locations from the area. The results indicate that the deglaciation of the Pandivere Upland started at approximately 14 200 cal. yr BP and was completed by 13 800 cal. yr BP. The ice recession rate was approximately 180 m yr -1 . Based on these new radiocarbon dates, the Baltic Ice Lake stage A 1 submerged the northern and western ice-free areas of Estonia by ca. 13 800 cal. yr BP. The prevalent vegetation type in north-eastern Estonia during the late-glacial period was tundra with local variations in the dominant shrub species. The region remained treeless until the Holocene.

  20. Late Glacial and Early Holocene Climatic Changes Based on a Multiproxy Lacustrine Sediment Record from Northeast Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorowski, H D; Anderson, P M; Sletten, R S; Lozhkin, A V; Brown, T A

    2008-05-20

    Palynological (species assemblage, pollen accumulation rate), geochemical (carbon to nitrogen ratios, organic carbon and biogenic silica content), and sedimentological (particle size, magnetic susceptibility) data combined with improved chronology and greater sampling resolution from a new core from Elikchan 4 Lake provide a stronger basis for defining paleoenvironmental changes than was previously possible. Persistence of herb-dominated tundra, slow expansion of Betula and Alnus shrubs, and low percentages of organic carbon and biogenic silica suggest that the Late-Glacial transition (ca. 16,000-11,000 cal. yr BP) was a period of gradual rather than abrupt vegetation and climatic change. Consistency of all Late-Glacial data indicates no Younger Dryas climatic oscillation. A dramatic peak in pollen accumulation rates (ca. 11,000-9800 cal. yr BP) suggests a possible summer temperature optimum, but finer grain-sizes, low magnetic susceptibility, and greater organic carbon and biogenic silica, while showing significant warming at ca. 11,000 cal. yr BP, offer no evidence of a Holocene thermal maximum. When compared to trends in other paleo-records, the new Elikchan data underscore the apparent spatial complexity of climatic responses in Northeast Siberia to global forcings between ca. 16,000-9000 cal. yr BP.

  1. The sedimentary sequence from the Lake Ķūži outcrop, central Latvia: implications for late glacial stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Koff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from an outcrop in the near-shore area of Lake Ķūži (Vidzeme Heights, Central Latvia were investigated using palaeobotanical (pollen and macrofossil analysis and lithological (grain-size analysis methods and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating. A dark, organic-rich sediment layer was found below 1.7 m of sandy layers approximately 30 cm above the present lake level. Radiocarbon dating of a wood sample from the lowermost layer (11 050 ± 60 14C BP, 13 107–12 721 cal BP shows that the layer is of late glacial age. The composition of the pollen spectra is characterized by Betula nana, Cyperaceae pollen and spores of Equisetum, confirming that the lowermost sediments were formed during the late glacial. Fossils of obligate aquatic organisms in the upper layer, which include oospores of Characeae and seeds of Potamogeton, indicate an open water environment. Pollen of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton and non-pollen palynomorphs, such as algal Botryococcus and Pediastrum cf. boryanum, confirm this conclusion. The pollen assemblage from the greyish loam layer following this lacustrine phase shows a pattern characteristic of the Younger Dryas vegetation before the start of the real expansion of birch forests at the beginning of the Holocene.

  2. High-resolution study of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in the Southern Carpathian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, E.; Jakab, G.; Braun, M.; Buczkó, K.; Bálint, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Retezat Massif of the S Carpathian Mountains abounds in glacial lakes, mainly above 1900 m a.s.l., just above the present day tree limit formed by Picea abies and Pinus cembra in the northern slopes. For the reconstruction of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in this mountain, two lakes were selected: Taul dintre Brazi (1740 m a.s.l.) and Lake Gales (1990 m a.s.l.). Sediments obtained from these lakes extend back to the Late Glacial, and so provide us an exceptional opportunity to study 1) when trees were first established locally around the lower lake following glacial retreat and 2) what tree and shrub species were present and replaced each other in the Late Glacial and early postglacial forests in response to the high-amplitude climatic fluctuation, and in case of the Early Holocene, the high-amplitude climatic amelioration. Pollen, conifer stomata and plant macrofossils were studied from both lake sediments at approximately 100 years resolution. Sediment chronologies were based on multiple AMS radiocarbon dates. Preliminary results from this study show that Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies and Betula nana appeared very early during the lateglacial interstadial, ca. 14,500 cal yr BP followed by Larix decidua around 14,200 cal yr BP. Pinus cembra gained dominance in the Latglacial interstadial forest and survived locally during the Younger Dryas reversal unlike Picea abies. Another important result was the reconstruction of the Early Holocene forest composition around the lower lake that proved much more species rich than the present-day forest; Picea abies grew together with Larix decidua, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Alnus viridis, Juniperus, Betula nana and Betula pubescens during the Early Holocene, furthermore the stomatal record suggested that conifer species were evenly distributed around the lake. In light of our data, the position of the Early Holocene tree line reached 1990 m a.s.l. by ca. 10,700 cal yr BP (i

  3. Late-glacial and Holocene history of the dry forest area in the south Colombian Cauca Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrío, Juan Carlos; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Marchant, Robert; Rangel, Orlando

    2002-10-01

    Two sedimentary cores with pollen, charcoal and radiocarbon data are presented. These records document the Late-glacial and Holocene dry forest vegetation, fire and environmental history of the southern Cauca Valley in Colombia (1020 m). Core Quilichao-1 (640 cm; 3° 6N, 76° 31W) represents the periods of 13 150-7720 14C yr BP and, following a hiatus, from 2880 14C yr BP to modern. Core La Teta-2 (250 cm; 3° 5N, 76° 32W) provides a continuous record from 8700 14C yr BP to modern.Around 13 150 14C yr BP core Quilichao-1 shows an active Late-glacial drainage system and presence of dry forest. From 11 465 to 10 520 14C yr BP dry forest consists mainly of Crotalaria, Moraceae/Urticaceae, Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Piper and low stature trees, such as Acalypha, Alchornea, Cecropia and Celtis. At higher elevation Andean forest comprising Alnus, Hedyosmum, Quercus and Myricacrop taxa (a.o.

  4. New tree-ring evidence for the Late Glacial period from the northern pre-Alps in eastern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, Frederick; Nievergelt, Daniel; Esper, Jan; Friedrich, Michael; Helle, Gerhard; Hellmann, Lena; Kromer, Bernd; Morganti, Sandro; Pauly, Maren; Sookdeo, Adam; Tegel, Willy; Treydte, Kerstin; Verstege, Anne; Wacker, Lukas; Büntgen, Ulf

    2018-04-01

    The rate and magnitude of temperature variability at the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum into the early Holocene represents a natural analog to current and predicted climate change. A limited number of high-resolution proxy archives, however, challenges our understanding of environmental conditions during this period. Here, we present combined dendrochronological and radiocarbon evidence from 253 newly discovered subfossil pine stumps from Zurich, Switzerland. The individual trees reveal ages of 41-506 years and were growing between the Allerød and Preboreal (∼13‧900-11‧300 cal BP). Together with previously collected pines from this region, this world's best preserved Late Glacial forest substantially improves the earliest part of the absolutely dated European tree-ring width chronology between 11‧300 and 11‧900 cal BP. Radiocarbon measurements from 65 Zurich pines between ∼12‧320 and 13‧950 cal BP provide a perspective to prolong the continuous European tree-ring record by another ∼2000 years into the Late Glacial era. These data will also be relevant for pinpointing the Laacher See volcanic eruption (∼12‧900 cal BP) and two major Alpine earthquakes (∼13‧770 and ∼11‧600 cal BP). In summary, this study emphasizes the importance of dating precision and multi-proxy comparison to disentangle environmental signals from methodological noise, particularly during periods of high climate variability but low data availability, such as the Younger Dryas cold spell (∼11‧700 and 12‧900 cal BP).

  5. Late Holocene Climate Change in Central Finland (62º-64Nº) Recorded by the Annually Laminated Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, T. J.; Haltia-Hovi, E.; Turunen, S.; Brauer, A.; Dulski, P.; Czymzik, M.

    2008-12-01

    The deepest basins of six small lakes (Lake Kalliojarvi, Lake Kortejarvi, Lake Korttajarvi, Lake Kallio- Kourujarvi, Lake Lehmilampi and Lake Vahajarvi) depositing varved sediment in Central and Eastern Finland have been cored through winter ice using piston corers and wedge-shaped freeze coring techniques to obtain continuous sediment sequences extending until the present year. The lakes investigated have almost similar surface area with water depth varying between 10.5 and 12.5 m. So far 2-5 m (covering last 2000- 6000 yrs) of finely laminated sediment from all lakes has been impregnated in low viscosity epoxy resin using the water-acetone-epoxy-exchange technique. Laminae counts and thickness measurements have been made using thin sections or image analysis techniques from scanned X-ray radiographs depending on the varve type. Micro XRF technique was applied to study geochemical variations in high resolution. Our preliminary results (Haltia-Hovi et al. 2007) suggest that Finnish annually laminated sediments are excellent material for studying the past climate change and the impact of solar forcing on sedimentation. Due to their precise time control varved sediments can be correlated with other high resolution climate proxies.

  6. Long-time duration of gravitaty induced caves versus landslide aktivity in the Late Glacial-Holocene. Polish Flysch Carpathians case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margielewski, W.; Urban, J.; Zernitskaya, V.; Žák, Karel; Szura, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120 (2017), s. 30-32 ISSN 0944-4122. [Central European Geomorphology Conference /4./. 09.10.2017-13.10.2017, Bayreuth] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * Late Glacial-Holocene * Polish Flysch Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  7. Late Glacial to Holocene climate change and human impact in the Mediterranean : The last ca. 17ka diatom record of Lake Prespa (Macedonia/Albania/Greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane M.; Wagner, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Lake Prespa (Macedonia/Albania/Greece) occupies an important location between Mediterranean and central European climate zones. Although previous multi-proxy research on the Late Glacial to Holocene sequence, core Co1215 (320cm; ca. 17cal ka BP to present), has demonstrated its great value as an

  8. High-Resolution Geochemical and Paleoecological Records of Climate Change Since the Late Glacial at Lake Tanganyika, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alin, S. R.; Cohen, A. S.

    2002-12-01

    We used high-resolution geochemical and paleoecological records from shallow-water sediment cores to refine previous descriptions of climatic conditions at Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, for the period from the Late Glacial to the present. Radiocarbon and 210Pb dating were used to establish chronologies for the cores. Sedimentological changes indicate that lake level has risen approximately 50-70 m since the Late Glacial. A depositional hiatus occurred between 6.4 and 11.4 ka BP (all dates in calendar years) in several of the shallow-water cores. Elemental abundance (%C, %N) and stable isotopic (δ15N, δ13C) data for one core suggest that substantial changes in primary productivity and nutrient recycling regimes have occurred since 6.4 ka BP. Carbonate and ostracode crustacean preservation were low and nil, respectively, prior to 2.4 ka BP. Generally, these data support previous interpretations of regional paleoclimate and lake conditions, with wet and warm conditions during the interval from 6.4 to 4.0 ka, and increasingly arid conditions since 2.4 ka. However, for the interval from 4.0 to 2.4 ka, paleoenvironmental indicators (δ15N, reduced carbonate and ostracode preservation) suggest that the central part of Lake Tanganyika was stably stratified at a shallower depth than present as a result of diminished southerly trade winds. After 2.4 ka BP, sedimentary carbonate concentrations increase, and δ13C values become enriched, suggesting that lacustrine productivity increased with the resumption of deeper wind-driven mixing, lasting until 1 ka BP. For post-2.4 ka samples, species abundance data for ostracodes were used to generate an ostracode water depth index (OWDI). OWDI indicated that severe drought conditions were persistent or recurred at Lake Tanganyika between 1550 and 1850 A.D. Droughts resulted in marked lowstands at Lake Tanganyika at 1580+/-15 A.D., 1730+/-35 A.D., and 1800+/-30 A.D. These data contribute new information on the timing of Little Ice Age

  9. Two late-Glacial avifaunas from eastern North Island, New Zealand : Te Aute Swamp and Wheturau Quarry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthy, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    Late-Glacial faunas from Wheturau Quarry near Gisborne and Te Aute, near Napier, North Island, New Zealand, are described and radiocarbon dates presented. These faunas suggest that the eastern North Island was covered in open shrubland until 10,500 years BP. There were significant changes in the fauna of the eastern North Island during the Early Holocene, when the dominant moa species was replaced; the key species Cnemiornis gracilis disappeared from the fauna; and others, such as Euryanas finschi became scarce. The Wheturau fauna includes the largest collection of Cnemiornis gracilis bones yet found, and a storm petrel that may be Oceanites maorianus, named from three skins collected last century off Banks Peninsula. The Te Aute site is notable for the large number of moa bones preserved, especially Euryapteryx curtus and Dinonnis giganteus. It is also the type locality for Diornis gazella Oliver, Cnermiornis gracilis Forbes, Circus teauteensis Forbes, Circus hamiltoni Forbes, and Phalacrocorax novaezealandiae var. major Forbes. The record of Harpagornis moorei from Te Aute is shown to have been an error in identification by Hamilton, and Harpagornis is therefore unknown in the North Island. (author). 41 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  10. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  11. New observations on lower than present relative sea-levels since the late Glacial from the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. Andrew; Long, Antony; Plets, Ruth; Callard, Louise; Quinn, Rory; Kelley, Joseph; Belknap, Daniel; Jackson, Derek; Edwards, Robin; Long, David; Monteys, Xavier; Milne, Glenn

    2014-05-01

    Relative sea-level change around the British Isles shows marked spatial variability in response to ice sheet history and crustal response to loading/offloading. The area thus offers an ideal natural laboratory for the investigation of such interactions and has formed the basis of several models of earth-ice-ocean interaction. RSL data with which to test models is, however, largely restricted to the late Holocene. The paucity of data from much lower than present sea levels is reflected in large (tens of metres) discrepancies between different modelled RSL curves for the late-glacial to early Holocene period. WE report on two years intensive fieldwork on six sites around the Irish Sea (at Bantry Bay, Waterford, Cardigan Bay, offshore Louth, Isle of Man, and Belfast Lough) on a north-south gradient. These were selected to target lower than present sea-level indicators from ice-proximal to ice-distal locations. The initial investigation using multibeam bathymetry and shallow seismic profiling identified wave-cut platforms and associated cliffs in bedrock, planation surfaces on drumlins, incised valley termini and the seaward limit of the transgressive unconformity. Subsequent coring of seabed targets yielded over 450m of core from 150 sites. Palaeoenvironmental interpretation and radiocarbon dating of material has yielded new observational data on lower than present sea levels that challenge existing model simulations.

  12. Palaeoclimate significance of speleothems in crystalline rocks: a test case from the Late Glacial and early Holocene (Vinschgau, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Gabriella; Cheng, Hai; Spötl, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    Partly coeval flowstones formed in fractured gneiss and schist were studied to test the palaeoclimate significance of this new type of speleothem archive on a decadal-to-millennial timescale. The samples encompass a few hundred to a few thousand years of the Late Glacial and the early Holocene. The speleothem fabric is primarily comprised of columnar fascicular optic calcite and acicular aragonite, both indicative of elevated Mg / Ca ratios in the groundwater. Stable isotopes suggest that aragonite is more prone to disequilibrium isotope fractionation driven by evaporation and prior calcite/aragonite precipitation than calcite. Changes in mineralogy are therefore attributed to these two internal fracture processes rather than to palaeoclimate. Flowstones formed in the same fracture show similar δ18O changes on centennial scales, which broadly correspond to regional lacustrine δ18O records, suggesting that such speleothems may provide an opportunity to investigate past climate conditions in non-karstic areas. The shortness of overlapping periods in flowstone growth and the complexity of in-aquifer processes, however, render the establishment of a robust stacked δ18O record challenging.

  13. Climate and landscape in Italy during Late Epigravettian. The Late Glacial small mammal sequence of Riparo Tagliente (Stallavena di Grezzana, Verona, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Claudio; Luzi, Elisa; Canini, Guido Montanari; Guerreschi, Antonio; Fontana, Federica

    2018-03-01

    The site of Riparo Tagliente (north-eastern Italy) contains one of the main Upper Pleistocene archaeological sequences of south-western Europe. It also represents a key site for the study of human adaptation to Late Glacial environmental changes in the southern Alpine area. These climatic and environmental conditions are here reconstructed based on small mammal assemblages, using the Bioclimatic model and Habitat Weighting methods. Climate proxies indicate a rise in temperature during the transition between HE1 and the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, while the landscape surrounding the shelter was still dominated by open grasslands. By comparing the data obtained from Riparo Tagliente with other coeval small mammal faunas from the Italian Peninsula and Europe we contribute to the reconstruction of the processes of faunal renewal registered during the Late Glacial across the continent and of the climatic and environmental context in which the Late Epigravettian hunter-gatherer groups lived.

  14. Late Glacial and Holocene sequences in rockshelters and adjacent wetlands of Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic: Correlation of environmental and archaeological records

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Pokorný, P.; Horáček, I.; Sázelová, Sandra; Abraham, V.; Divišová, M.; Ivanov, M.; Kozáková, Radka; Novák, J.; Novák, Martin; Šída, P.; Perri, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 465, January 26 2018 (2018), s. 234-250 ISSN 1040-6182 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08169S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Czech Republic * sandstone rockshelters * wetlands * Late Glacial * Holocene * Late Paleolithic * Mesolithic * paleoecology * lithic industries Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology; AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology (ARU-G) OBOR OECD: Archaeology; Archaeology (ARU-G) Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2016

  15. Late Glacial to Holocene environmental variabilities: A new multi-proxy paleolimnological study of sedimentary sequences from Como (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höbig, N.; Martinelli, E.; Motella, S.; Michetti, A. M.; Livio, F.; Tinner, W.; Reicherter, K.; Castelletti, L.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Como (northern Italy) is the deepest Italian lake, reaching a depth of about 425 m. The lambda-shaped lake expands about 45 km in NE-SW direction. Southwards of the hydrologically closed western branch, two sediment cores of 70 m (S1) and 65 m length (S2) were taken in the year 2005 close to the cathedral of Como (Piazza Verdi). The drilling sites are located in the middle of the Southern Alps, some 300 m from the present-day lakeshore. The cores provide the first detailed Late Glacial to Holocene multi-proxy record for the Lake Como basin. Our research is aimed at investigating the environmental and geological evolution of the Insubria Region. The multi-proxy study of the stratigraphic sequences contain geophysical, geotechnical, sedimentological, paleobotanical, and radiocarbon analyses. They have been performed for core S1 and are still in progress on core S2. With this data the working group focuses on two main issues. The first topic is the reconstruction of the natural and anthropogenic processes controlling the ground subsidence in the Como urban area (e.g., Comerci et al., 2007) and another aim is to reconstruct vegetation and land-use dynamics. In particular, 150 samples of vegetal macroremains have been collected in the palustrine deposits along S1 core, down to 31,00 m. Below this depth (dated 14C 12,496 ± 55 yr BP - 15,050 - 14,250 cal yr BP), the amount of plant macroremains in the sediment drops dramatically. The taxonomic determination was carried out on more than 800 macroremains. They are represented by fragments of wood, leaves, needles, seeds, fruits, mosses and tiny charcoals (Motella, 2009, unpublished PhD Thesis). Picea/Larix, Pinus sp., Juniperus with Betula, found in the deeper levels (30.80 - 30.00 m), are the first arboreal taxa that colonized the shores of Lake Como, and show that the reforestation began in this area about 16,000 years ago. During the early Holocene (25.10 m) Abies alba expanded and further upwards the sequence

  16. Mitogenomes from two uncommon haplogroups mark late glacial/postglacial expansions from the near east and neolithic dispersals within Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olivieri

    Full Text Available The current human mitochondrial (mtDNA phylogeny does not equally represent all human populations but is biased in favour of representatives originally from north and central Europe. This especially affects the phylogeny of some uncommon West Eurasian haplogroups, including I and W, whose southern European and Near Eastern components are very poorly represented, suggesting that extensive hidden phylogenetic substructure remains to be uncovered. This study expanded and re-analysed the available datasets of I and W complete mtDNA genomes, reaching a comprehensive 419 mitogenomes, and searched for precise correlations between the ages and geographical distributions of their numerous newly identified subclades with events of human dispersal which contributed to the genetic formation of modern Europeans. Our results showed that haplogroups I (within N1a1b and W originated in the Near East during the Last Glacial Maximum or pre-warming period (the period of gradual warming between the end of the LGM, ∼19 ky ago, and the beginning of the first main warming phase, ∼15 ky ago and, like the much more common haplogroups J and T, may have been involved in Late Glacial expansions starting from the Near East. Thus our data contribute to a better definition of the Late and postglacial re-peopling of Europe, providing further evidence for the scenario that major population expansions started after the Last Glacial Maximum but before Neolithic times, but also evidencing traces of diffusion events in several I and W subclades dating to the European Neolithic and restricted to Europe.

  17. Quantitative Temperature Reconstructions from Holocene and Late Glacial Lake Sediments in the Tropical Andes using Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews-Bird, F.; Gosling, W. D.; Brooks, S. J.; Montoya, E.; Coe, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chironomidae (non-biting midges) is a family of two-winged aquatic insects of the order Diptera. They are globally distributed and one of the most diverse families within aquatic ecosystems. The insects are stenotopic, and the rapid turnover of species and their ability to colonise quickly favourable habitats means chironomids are extremely sensitive to environmental change, notably temperature. Through the development of quantitative temperature inference models chironomids have become important palaeoecological tools. Proxies capable of generating independent estimates of past climate are crucial to disentangling climate signals and ecosystem response in the palaeoecological record. This project has developed the first modern environmental calibration data set in order to use chironomids from the Tropical Andes as quantitative climate proxies. Using surface sediments from c. 60 lakes from Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador we have developed an inference model capable of reconstructing temperatures, with a prediction error of 1-2°C, from fossil assemblages. Here we present the first Lateglacial and Holocene chironomid-inferred temperature reconstructions from two sites in the tropical Andes. The first record, from a high elevation (4153 m asl) lake in the Bolivian Andes, shows persistently cool temperatures for the past 15 kyr, punctuated by warm episodes in the early Holocene (9-10 kyr BP). The chironomid-inferred Holocene temperature trends from a lake sediment record on the eastern Andean flank of Ecuador (1248 m asl) spanning the last 5 millennia are synchronous with temperature changes in the NGRIP ice core record. The temperature estimates suggest along the eastern flank of the Andes, at lower latitudes (~1°S), climate closely resemble the well-established fluctuations of the Northern Hemisphere for this time period. Late-glacial climate fluctuations across South America are still disputed with some palaeoecological records suggesting evidence for Younger Dryas

  18. Heavy Metal Enrichment History in annually laminated Lake Tiefer See (NE-Germany) and Lake Czechowskie (N-Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzmann, Philipp; Dräger, Nadine; Kienel, Ulrike; Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Within the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analyses (ICLEA) high-resolution geo-archives (e.g. lakes as natural data loggers) of the northeastern german and northern polish lowlands are investigated to identify influences of land-use on the landscape evolution. For two annually laminated lake sediment records, situated in rural environments in NE-Germany (Lake Tiefer See) and N-Poland (Czechowskie Lake), we present a detailed heavy metal enrichment history for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn for the last two hundred years at 1 cm intervals. Both lakes show a similar pattern of relatively low heavy metal concentrations if compared to the so-called index of geoaccumulation (Müller 1979), which is based on the average global metal content in shales (Turekian and Wedepohl, 1961). Only Pb, Zn and Cd show a clear parallel pattern of enrichment in both lakes starting around 1850 according to mainly atmospheric input due to increasing industrialization within the framework of the Industrial Revolution. Highest input for Cd, Zn, and Pb occur around 1960 to 1980 and thereafter a clear pattern of declining anthropogenic input is registered. On the base of heavy-metal analysis of pre-industrial sediments and different sediment types (e.g. calcareous gyttja, organic gyttja etc.) the local and specific geogenic background values for various metals are determined. These results provide means to calculate and quantify with sub-decadal resolution anthropogenic heavy metal accumulations and enrichment factors as well as to define regional measures for a state of reference, reflecting natural conditions without human impact. Müller, G. (1979): Schwermetalle in den Sedimenten des Rheins - Veränderungen seit 1971. Umschau 79: 778-783. Turekian, K. and Wedepohl, K. (1961): Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth's crust. Bull.Geol.Soc.Am. 72: 175-192.

  19. LATE GLACIAL AND HOLOCENE ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE INFERRED FROM THE PÁRAMO OF CAJANUMA IN THE PODOCARPUS NATIONAL PARK, SOUTHERN ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA VILLOTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To reconstruct the environmental history including vegetation, fire and climate dynamics, from the Cajanuma valley area ( 3285 m elevation in the Podocarpus National Park, southern Ecuador , we address the following major research question: (1 How did the mountain vegetation developed during the late Glacial and Holocene? (2 Did fire played an important control on the vegetation change and was it natural or of anthropogenic origin?. Palaeoenvironmental changes were investigated using multiple proxies such as pollen, spores, charcoal analyses and radiocarbon dating. Pollen data indicated that during the late Glacial and transition to the early Holocene (ca. 16 000-10 500 cal yr BP herb páramo was the main vegetation type around the study area, while subpáramo and mountain rainforest were scarcely represented. The early and mid-Holocene (ca. 10 500 to 5600 cal yr BP is marked by high abundance of páramo during the early Holocene followed by a slight expansion of mountain forest during the mid-Holocene. During the mid- to late Holocene (ca. 5600-1200 cal yr BP there is a significant presence of páramo and subpáramo while Lower Mountain Forest decreased substantially, although, Upper Mountain Forest remained relatively stable during this period. The late Holocene, from ca. 1200 cal yr BP to present, was characterized by páramo; however, mountain forest and subpáramo presented significantly abundance compared to the previous periods. Fires became frequent since the late Holocene. The marked increased local and regional fire intensity during the wetter late Holocene strongly suggests that were of anthropogenic origin. During the late Glacial and early Holocene, the upper forest line was located at low elevations; but shifted slightly upslope to higher elevations during the mid-Holocene.

  20. Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa in male and female specimens of an ostracod Cypria ophtalmica (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Late Glacial lacustrine sediments of Southern Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepure, Sanda; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Valdecasas, Antonio G.; Magyari, Enikö K.

    2012-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa observed between abundant decalcified carapace valves of ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) were found in Late Glacial to Holocene (14,400 to 10,000 cal years bp) lacustrine sediments in the southern Romanian Carpathians. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed good preservation of the appendages enabling specific identification as Cypria ophtalmica (Candonidae) and indication of the presence of both female and male specimens based on the sexual dimorphism of the second antenna. This record represents the oldest and richest direct evidence of virtually morphologically unaltered animal spermatozoa preserved in females after mating.

  1. Post-Lamination Manufacturing Process Automation for Photovoltaic Modules; Annual Technical Progress Report: 15 June 1999--14 July 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Lewis, E. R.; Hogan, S. J.

    2000-09-29

    Spire is addressing the PVMaT project goals of photovoltaic (PV) module cost reduction and improved module manufacturing process technology. New cost-effective automation processes are being developed for post-lamination PV module assembly, where post-lamination is defined as the processes after the solar cells are encapsulated. These processes apply to both crystalline and thin-film solar cell modules. Four main process areas are being addressed: (1) Module buffer storage and handling between steps; (2) Module edge trimming, edge sealing, and framing; (3) Junction-box installation; and (4) Testing for module performance, electrical isolation, and ground-path continuity.

  2. Vegetation development in south-east Denmark during the Weichselian Late Glacial: palaeoenvironmental studies close to the Palaeolithic site of Hasselø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Morten Fischer; Henriksen, Peter Steen; Christensen, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    and northern Germany during a large part of the Late Glacial period. This was especially the case during the Older Dryas and early Allerød periods, when woodland was expanding in northern Germany while the Danish area remained open. Later in the Allerød period, northern Germany seems to have been the northern...... frequency of Palaeolithic finds is seen here. It has long been thought that tree birch grew in the Danish region from the beginning of the Late Glacial, but this study of both local and regional proxies clearly shows that the immigration of tree birch was delayed by more than 1000 years. A delay of c. 250...... years between the climatic transition from GI-1a to GS-1 and the biostratigraphic transition from the Allerød to the Younger Dryas periods is also shown. The three 14 C ages available from the Danish Bromme Culture are from this transition phase when the birch woodland was becoming more open. Pollen...

  3. Late glacial and Holocene history of the dry forest area in south Colombian Cauca Valley from sites Quilichao and la Teta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrio, Juan Carlos; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Marchant, Rob; Rangel Orlando

    2002-01-01

    Two sedimentary cores with records of pollen and charcoal content within a chronology provided by radiocarbon are presented from the southern Cauca Valley in Colombia (1020 m). These records document the late glacial and Holocene dry forest vegetation, fire and environment history. Specifically, core Quilichao -1 (640 cm; 3 degrade 6' N, 76 degrade 31' W) represents the periods of 13/150-7720 14 C yr BP and following a hiatus from 2880 14 C yr BP to recent. Core la Teta - 2 (250 cm; 3 degrade 5' N, 76 degrade 32' W) provides a record from 8700 14 C yr BP around 13/150 21 4 C yr BP Quilichao shown an active late glacial drainage system and presence of dry forest. From 11/465-10/520 14 C yr BP dry forest consists mainly of Crotalaria Moraceae Urticaceae, Melastomataceae, Piper and low stature trees, such as Acalypha, Alchornea, Cecropia and Celtis. At higher elevation on the slopes Andean forest with Quercus, Hedyosmum, Myrica and Alnus are common

  4. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W.B.; Griggs, C.B.; Miller, N.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Weddle, T.K.; Kilian, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907??31 to 11,650??5014C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520+95/??20calyr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850??6514C yr BP (Mytilus edulis) and 12,800??5514C yr BP (Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  5. Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; Słowiński, Michał; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly

  6. The development and genesis of a small thaw lake filling the Skaliska Basin during the Late Glacial and Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz-Rybka Renata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The northern part of the Mazury Lake District is marked by the presence of a depression described as the Skaliska Basin. At the end of the Pleistocene, the Skaliska Basin was the site of functioning of a thaw lake, within series of laminated clayey sediments were formed. The surface of the clayey sediments was overlain by a sandy fan. Blocks of dead ice underlying the fan and the overlying surface of the clayey sediments were the origin of small isolated water basins. Since the Allerod they were filled with limnic sediments, passing into peats towards the upper part. In order to reconstruct the vegetational history of the Skaliska Basin and the conditions of sedimentation of the lacustrine gyttjas and peats, several sections were obtained from such basins and subjected to examination of plant macroremains, palaeolimnological analysis and AMS dating. Sedimentation of lacustrine sediments began with sands with an admixture of silt and peat. The beginning of sedimentation of lacustrine sands of aeolian origin falls within the Allerod, whereas the end of that process in ca the middle of the Preboreal. Sands are frequently overlain by a strongly decomposed lacustrine dy sediment. Subsequently a sequence of detritus gyttja accumulated. The complex of gyttjas is interbedded with occasional Scirpo-Typheti peats. Sedimentation of lacustrine sediments is followed by accumulation of peats formed within communities with tall sedges. These communities, according to their compoition, correspond to the associations of Cicuto- Caricetum pseudocyperi Boer. et Siss. and Caricetum elatae Koch. The upper part comprises peats resembling the present-day community of Sphagnum centrale, displaying features of a transition bog. Also the occurrence of Eriophorum vaginatum confirms changes towards ombrotrophic conditions. The uppermost part of the sections often comprises heavily decomposed peat with components no longer identifiable by macroscopic analysis.

  7. Discovery of a landscape-wide drape of late-glacial aeolian silt in the western Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria): First results and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gild, Charlotte; Geitner, Clemens; Sanders, Diethard

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian deposits record palaeoenvironmental conditions and may coin soil properties. Whereas periglacial loess is extensively investigated for 200 years, the study of the intramontane wind-blown deposits of the Alps has just stuttered along. Herein, we describe a drape of polymictic siliciclastic silt interpreted as an aeolian deposit that veneers extensive areas in the western Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA), from kames terraces near valley floors up to last-glacial nunataks. The NCA - part of the Eastern Alps mountain range - consist mainly of Triassic carbonate rocks; these are overlain by deposits of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and its deglacial-paraglacial aftermath (e.g., glacial tills, fluvio-lacustrine successions, alluvial fans, scree slopes) - and a regional drape of polymictic silt newly described herein. The drape is typically a few decimeters in thickness and slightly modified by soil formation; it consists mainly of well-sorted silt of quartz, feldspars, phyllosilicates (muscovite, chlorite, biotite), amphiboles and, rarely, calcite or dolomite. The drape is unrelated to the substrate: it overlies carbonate bedrock and - in lateral continuity - abandoned deposystems such as colluvial slopes of redeposited till, kames, alluvial fans, scree slopes, and rock avalanche deposits. The drape was spotted from near the present valley floors up to LGM nunataks, over a vertical range of some 2000 m; it is also present in catchments of the NCA that were not overridden by far-travelled ice streams and that lack metamorphic rock fragments. Two OSL quartz ages of the drape from two distinct locations (18.77 ± 1.55 ka; 17.81 ± 1.68 ka) fall into the early Alpine late-glacial interval shortly after the collapse of pleniglacial ice streams; this fits with geological and geomorphological evidence, respectively, that the drape should be of early late-glacial age, and that it accumulated during a specific interval of time. In the NCA, localized minor deposition of

  8. Numerical modeling of late Glacial Laurentide advance of ice across Hudson Strait: Insights into terrestrial and marine geology, mass balance, and calving flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, W.T.; Dyurgerov, M.; Kaplan, M.; Dwyer, J.; Sassolas, C.; Jennings, A.; Raup, B.; Manley, W.

    1997-01-01

    A time-dependent finite element model was used to reconstruct the advance of ice from a late Glacial dome on northern Quebec/Labrador across Hudson Strait to Meta Incognita Peninsula (Baffin Island) and subsequently to the 9.9-9.6 ka 14C Gold Cove position on Hall Peninsula. Terrestrial geological and geophysical information from Quebec and Labrador was used to constrain initial and boundary conditions, and the model results are compared with terrestrial geological information from Baffin Island and considered in the context of the marine event DC-0 and the Younger Dryas cooling. We conclude that advance across Hudson Strait from Ungava Bay to Baffin Island is possible using realistic glacier physics under a variety of reasonable boundary conditions. Production of ice flux from a dome centered on northeastern Quebec and Labrador sufficient to deliver geologically inferred ice thickness at Gold Cove (Hall Peninsula) appears to require extensive penetration of sliding south from Ungava Bay. The discharge of ice into the ocean associated with advance and retreat across Hudson Strait does not peak at a time coincident with the start of the Younger Dryas and is less than minimum values proposed to influence North Atlantic thermohaline circulation; nevertheless, a significant fraction of freshwater input to the North Atlantic may have been provided abruptly and at a critical time by this event.

  9. A Reassessment of U-Th and 14C Ages for Late-Glacial High-Frequency Hydrological Events at Searles Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.C.; Broecker, W.S.; Hemming, S.R.; Hajdas, I.; Anderson, Robert F.; Smith, G.I.; Kelley, M.; Bonani, G.

    1998-01-01

    U-Th isochron ages of tufas formed on shorelines suggest that the last pluvial event in Lake Lahontan and Searles Lake was synchronous at about 16,500 cal yr B.P. (equivalent to a radiocarbon age of between 14,000 and 13,500 yr B.P.), whereas the timing of this pluvial event determined by radiocarbon dating is on the order of 1000 yr younger. The timing of seven distinct periods of near desiccation in Searles Lake during late-glacial time has been reinvestigated for U-Th age determination by mass spectrometry. U-Th dating of evaporite layers in the interbedded mud and salt unit called the Lower Salt in Searles Lake was hampered by the uncertainty in assessing the initial 230Th/232Th of the samples. The resulting ages, corrected by a conservative range of initial 230Th/ 232Th ratios, suggest close correlation of the abrupt changes recorded in Greenland ice cores (Dansgaard-Oeschger events) and wet-dry conditions in Searles Lake between 35,000 and 24,000 Cal yr B.P. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  10. The late-glacial fluvial terrace t7 at Raunheim (lower River Main), Germany. Constraining the chronological placement by optical stimulated luminescence dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemeyer, Heinrich; Kadereit, Annette; Zipf, Lars; Flettner, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    The lower River Main valley exhibits up to seven fluvial terrace levels (t1 - t7, according to the stratigraphy of Semmel 1969). The lowermost terrace (t7) represents the most recently formed level which due to stratigraphical considerations is assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age (Semmel 1969). However, the chronological placement of the terrace has not been determined by numerical dating so far. The area was apparently roamed by Late Palaeolithic people as evidenced by artefacts which were discovered on a former sandy river bank between 87 m and 91 m above sea level on top of the t7 east of the town of Raunheim. We took this opportunity to open four trenches in order to localize additional in situ Palaeolithic artefacts and to investigate the stratigraphy of the sediments and soils and, for the first time, to provide numerical ages in order to narrow down the period of the t7 activity. Eight samples from three profiles in three of the trenches were collected for optical stimulated (OSL) dating. OSL dating occurred applying a blue light stimulated luminescence (BLSL) single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol (Murray & Wintle 2000) to small aliquots (few 102 grains) of quartz coarse grain separates (125 - 212 µm). The trenches showed that the t7 sediments consist of fluvial sand over gravel. They are overlain by calcareous loamy and sandy overbank deposits. At the investigated site the Holocene Cambisol at the surface passes into a Gleysol that has developed in a palaeochannel which is incised into the t7. The trenches revealed further that only parts of the Late Palaeolithic site are in situ and therefore contemporaneous with the fluvial sediments beneath the Cambisol. The upper part of the sections consists of colluvial deposits lying on truncated Cambisols. The OSL dating places the section into the period spanning the last glacial maximum (LGM) / late glacial to the late Holocene. The oldest investigated fluvial t7 sediments date around 24.7 ka. Slightly

  11. Holocene and late glacial palaeoceanography and palaeolimnology of the Black Sea: Changing sediment provenance and basin hydrography over the past 20,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David Z.; Calvert, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    The elemental geochemistry of Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments of the Black Sea, recovered in box cores from the basin margins and a 5-m gravity core from the central abyssal region of the basin, identifies two terrigenous sediment sources over the last 20 kyrs. One source region includes Anatolia and the southern Caucasus; the second region is the area drained by rivers entering the Black Sea from Eastern Europe. Alkali metal:Al and heavy:light rare-earth element ratios reveal that the relative contribution of the two sources shifted abruptly every few thousand years during the late glacial and early Holocene lacustrine phase of the basin. The shifts in source were coeval with changes in the lake level as determined from the distribution of quartz and the heavy mineral-hosted trace elements Ti and Zr.The geochemistry of the abyssal sediments further recorded a sequence of changes to the geochemistry of the water column following the lacustrine phase, when high salinity Mediterranean water entered the basin beginning 9.3 kyrs BP. Bottom water that had been oxic throughout the lake phase became anoxic at approximately 8.4 kyrs BP, as recorded by the accumulation from the water column of several redox-sensitive trace metals (Mo, Re, U). The accumulation of organic carbon and several trace nutrients (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) increased sharply ca. 0.4 kyrs later, at 8.0 kyrs BP, reflecting an increase of primary productivity. Its increase was coeval with a shift in the dinoflagellate ecology from stenohaline to euryhaline assemblages. During this profound environmental change from the lacustrine to the marine phase, the accumulation rate of the lithogenous sediment fraction decreased as much as 10-fold in response to the rise of the water level in the basin from a low stand ca. 9.3 ka to its current level.

  12. Climate evolution during the Pleniglacial and Late Glacial as recorded in quartz grain morphoscopy of fluvial to aeolian successions of the European Sand Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woronko Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results of research into fluvial to aeolian successions at four sites in the foreland of the Last Glacial Maximum, i.e., the central part of the “European Sand Belt”. These sites include dune fields on higher-lying river terraces and alluvial fans. Sediments were subjected to detailed lithofacies analyses and sampling for morphoscopic assessment of quartz grains. Based on these results, three units were identified in the sedimentary succession: fluvial, fluvio-aeolian and aeolian. Material with traces of aeolian origin predominate in these sediments and this enabled conclusions on the activity of aeolian processes during the Pleniglacial and Late Glacial, and the source of sediment supply to be drawn. Aeolian processes played a major role in the deposition of the lower portions of the fluvial and fluvio-aeolian units. Aeolian material in the fluvial unit stems from aeolian accumulation of fluvial sediments within the valley as well as particles transported by wind from beyond the valley. The fluvio-aeolian unit is composed mainly of fluvial sediments that were subject to multiple redeposition, and long-term, intensive processing in an aeolian environment. In spite of the asynchronous onset of deposition of the fluvio-aeolian unit, it is characterised by the greatest homogeneity of structural and textural characteristics. Although the aeolian unit was laid down simultaneously, it is typified by the widest range of variation in quartz morphoscopic traits. It reflects local factors, mainly the origin of the source material, rather than climate. The duration of dune-formation processes was too short to be reflected in the morphoscopy of quartz grains.

  13. New findings of Late Glacial Etna pumice fall deposits in NE Sicily and implications for distal tephra correlations in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carlo, Paola; Branca, Stefano; D'Oriano, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    Pumice fall deposits found in the Nebrodi Mountains and along the Alcantara River, close to the town of Randazzo (NE Sicily), have been studied to derive information about their volcanic source and age. The geochemical Na-alkaline affinity of juvenile products, benmoreite to trachyte, clearly indicates they originated from Etna volcano (Sicily). Major (EMPA) and trace (LA-ICP-MS) element compositional data on matrix glasses indicate that the investigated deposits have a compositional affinity consistent with the tephra deposits of unit D produced by the Ellittico caldera-forming eruptions between ca. 17 and 19 cal ka BP. Furthermore, their compositions correspond to the distal tephra equivalent found in some lacustrine and marine cores in Central Italy (Y-1, TM-11), Tyrrhenian Sea (Et-1; MD10α) and Adriatic Sea (Pal94-66-358; Pal94-8-353). We applied the principal components analysis (PCA), a statistical tool able to reduce the variability of a complex system, to compare the compositions of the proximal samples with the possible distal counterparts found in drill cores of the Mediterranean area. On the basis of northward dispersal of the studied deposits and their geochemical features, we suggest they represent a previously unreported sub-Plinian/Plinian eruption of Ellittico volcano producing medial-distal pumice fall deposits in the Nebrodi Mountains and close to Randazzo, named here the D1c layer. The discovery of these deposits helps solve the problem of distal correlations of the northerly dispersed tephra from Etna related to unit D, for which no definitive attribution with proximal units was given in previous studies. The results presented here add to the knowledge of the eruptive history of the volcano and contribute to expanding the proximal geochemical glass dataset for distal tephra correlation in the Mediterranean region during the Late Glacial period.

  14. Stable isotope record in annually laminated lake sediments from Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) for the last millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabryś, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Hernandez-Almeida, Ivan; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope record of carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) has been analysed from an annually laminated sediment from Lake Zabinskie (Mazurian Lakeland, NE Poland) with high resolution (1-3 yrs). The sediment layers which were formed in each year during the last millennium contain information about environmental changes in the past. The calcite layers are formed in lake sediment in warm months of the year, therefore the reconstruction of summer climate variables in the past is potentially possible. The investigation of correlation between isotope dataset and instrumental climate data for years 1897-2008 AD confirmed that theory. The record of temperature, precipitation and SPEI (Standardised Precipitation Evaporation Index) coefficient, which is a combination of both temperature and precipitation, was tested. The strongest linear correlations were found for most samples for June, July, August (JJA) months but in some cases the correlation coefficient was stronger when also May was taken into account. For the whole 120-yrs series the correlation between δ18O and average JJA temperature is 0.007, average JJA precipitation is 0.16 and average JJA SPEI is 0.20. Analyzing the results for 1897-2008 we can distinguish period 1960-2008 with relevantly stronger correlations: R(temperature) = 0.19, R(precipitation) = 0.20 and R(SPEI) = 0.45. This period is connected with cessation of human activity close to Lake Zabinskie. Reconstruction of climate variables for the last millennium was made using transfer function obtained for calibration period (1897-2008). Reconstructions showed that known climate extremes like Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age with Sporer (1420-1570), Maunder (1645-1715) and Dalton (1790-1820) Minimum was recorded in sediment from Lake Zabinskie. The presented study is a part of the project "Climate of northern Poland during the last 1000 years: Constraining the future with the past (CLIMPOL)", funded within Polish-Swiss Research Programme. http://www.climpol.ug.edu.pl

  15. Laminate article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2002-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  16. Impact of late glacial climate variations on stratification and trophic state of the meromictic lake Längsee (Austria: validation of a conceptual model by multi proxy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens MÜLLER

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Selected pigments, diatoms and diatom-inferred phosphorus (Di-TP concentrations of a late glacial sediment core section of the meromictic Längsee, Austria, were compared with tephra- and varve-dated pollen stratigraphic and geochemical results. A conceptual model was adopted for Längsee and evaluated using multi proxy data. During the unforested late Pleniglacial, a holomictic lake stage with low primary productivity prevailed. Subsequent to the Lateglacial Betula expansion, at about 14,300 cal. y BP, okenone and isorenieratene, pigments from purple and green sulphur bacteria, indicate the onset of anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion. The formation of laminae coincides with this anoxic, meromictic period with high, though fluctuating, amounts of okenone that persisted throughout the Lateglacial interstadial. The occurrence of unlaminated sediment sections of allochthonous origin, and concurrent low concentrations of okenone, were related to cool and wet climate fluctuations during this period, probably coupled with a complete mixing of the water column. Two of these oscillations of the Lateglacial interstadial have been correlated tentatively with the Aegelsee and Gerzensee oscillations in the Alps. The latter climate fluctuation divides a period of enhanced anoxia and primary productivity, correlated with the Alleröd chronozone. Continental climate conditions were assumed to be the main driving forces for meromictic stability during Alleröd times. In addition, calcite dissolution due to severe hypolimnetic anoxia, appear to have supported meromictic stability. Increased pigment concentrations, which are in contrast to low diatom-inferred total phosphorus (Di- TP, indicate the formation of a productive metalimnion during this period, probably due to a clear-water phase (low catchment erosion, increased temperatures, and a steep gradient between the phosphorus enriched hypolimnion and the oligotrophic epilimnion. Meltwater impacts from an

  17. Discovery of laterally extensive drape of siliciclastic silt in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria: Late-glacial to ?early Holocene aeolian deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gild, Charlotte; Geitner, Clemens; Haas, Jean Nicolas; Sanders, Diethard

    2016-04-01

    Field surveys in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA, a nappe stack of Triassic carbonate rocks) revealed a drape, or drapes, typically 20-40 cm in thickness of siliciclastic silt over extensive landscape areas, from valley floors to LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) nunataks. The drape veneers substrates ranging from country rocks to diverse post-LGM deposits - the latter with depositional and/or erosional topographies. The drape mostly is overlain by vegetated organic material and, in turn, tops inactive/abandoned post-LGM successions of fluvial (including kame terrace), alluvial fan, scree slope, LGM basal till, and rock-avalanche origin. The drape extends over kilometers at least (limit of field investigation in specific areas), up to LGM nunatak plateaus. Deposystems (e.g., scree slopes, alluvial fans) on carbonate-rocky terrain that remained active until the Holocene are not topped by the drape; a level of siliciclastic silt, however, was spotted within a few of these successions. The possibility that several levels of silt are intercalated within or top post-glacial deposits cannot be excluded at present; the large lateral extent and the stratigraphic position, however, suggest that at least most locations pertain to a single widespread level (with that reservation, we prefer to speak in singular of the drape). Over the inspected area (~ 90 x 20 km), the drape consists mainly of silt-sized grains of quartz, feldspars, micas, and amphiboles; at a few sites, calci- or dolosilt are admixed. Most of the grains are angular to subrounded, some grains show features of corrosion. Preliminary palynological analyses of this silt - seven locations from LGM nunataks to kame terrace and alluvial fans - suggest vegetation types that, together, may be assigned to palaeoclimates ranging from the late-glacial (Younger Dryas?) to the middle Holocene. A few of the pollen spectra appear to record sparse vegetation cover allowing for enhanced aeolian deposition, but other spectra (e

  18. The contribution of micrometeorites to the iron stocks of buried podzols, developed in Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits (Brabant, The Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; de Vet, Sebastiaan

    2015-04-01

    The surface geology of an extensive part of NW-Europe is dominated by coversands (Late-glacial chemical poor aeolian sand deposits). The geomorphology of coversand landscapes is dominated by ridges and planes. Podzolation is the dominant soil forming process in coversands under moderate humid climatic conditions. Umbric Podzols developed on the ridges under Quercetum-mixtum, Gleyic and Histic Podzols developed in the planes under Alnetum. Even in chemical poor coversands, iron will be released by hydrolysis from iron containing silicate minerals (such as feldspars). It is well known that the vertical iron distribution in Podzols is effected by translocation of active iron from eluvial to illuvial horizons and that iron is leaching to the aquifer. Iron stocks of Podzols, in contrasts, have not been widely studied for comparison purposes of individual soil horizons or between soils. We determined the stocks of active and immobile iron in the horizons of buried xeromorphic Podzols (soils that developed without any contact with groundwater). The results show that the total amount of iron exceeds the potential amount which can be released by hydrolysis from the parent material. Furthermore, to amount of iron that leached to the groundwater is unknown. It is evident that we must find an additional source to explain the total iron stocks in buried Podzols. It is known from analysis of ice cores that the earth atmosphere is subjected to a continuous influx of (iron rich) micrometeorites. The precipitation of micrometeorites (and other aerosols) on the earth surface is concentrated in humid climatic zones with (intensive) rain fall. We analyzed minerals, extracted from the ectorganic horizon of the Initial Podzols, developed in driftsand that stabilized around 1900 AD, overlying Palaeopodzols, buried around 1200 AD. Among blown in quartz grains, we could determine also micrometeorites, embedded in the organic skeleton of the fermentation horizon of the Initial Podzol

  19. Eruptions and ruptures - a social network perspective on vulnerability and impact of the Laacher See eruption (c. 13,000 BP) on Late Glacial hunter-gatherers in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2014-01-01

    of arguably adaptive technology has, in this and other case studies, been explained through formal demographic modelling, where parameters such as population size, density and connectedness play a critical role. This paper extends these efforts by taking an explicit social network perspective......-eruption regionalization in northern Europe can be seen as a critical rupture along the periphery of these networks. In turn, this conclusion is set into a broader perspective by drawing on anthropological and sociological studies of recent disasters that also highlight the importance of social networks in mediating......, and by empirically exploring contemporaneous network parameters in light of ethnographic comparative data, and through evidence for the movement of lithic and non-lithic resources across Europe. It is argued that Late Glacial networks at the time prior to the eruption were already stressed, and that the post...

  20. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  1. Integrating chronological uncertainties for annually laminated lake sediments using layer counting, independent chronologies and Bayesian age modelling (Lake Ohau, South Island, New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Howarth, Jamie D.; Dunbar, Gavin B.; Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Roop, Heidi A.; Levy, Richard H.; Li, Xun; Prior, Christine; Norris, Margaret; Keller, Liz D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Ditchburn, Robert; Fitzsimons, Sean J.; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    Annually resolved (varved) lake sequences are important palaeoenvironmental archives as they offer a direct incremental dating technique for high-frequency reconstruction of environmental and climate change. Despite the importance of these records, establishing a robust chronology and quantifying its precision and accuracy (estimations of error) remains an essential but challenging component of their development. We outline an approach for building reliable independent chronologies, testing the accuracy of layer counts and integrating all chronological uncertainties to provide quantitative age and error estimates for varved lake sequences. The approach incorporates (1) layer counts and estimates of counting precision; (2) radiometric and biostratigrapic dating techniques to derive independent chronology; and (3) the application of Bayesian age modelling to produce an integrated age model. This approach is applied to a case study of an annually resolved sediment record from Lake Ohau, New Zealand. The most robust age model provides an average error of 72 years across the whole depth range. This represents a fractional uncertainty of ∼5%, higher than the <3% quoted for most published varve records. However, the age model and reported uncertainty represent the best fit between layer counts and independent chronology and the uncertainties account for both layer counting precision and the chronological accuracy of the layer counts. This integrated approach provides a more representative estimate of age uncertainty and therefore represents a statistically more robust chronology.

  2. Stable isotope and trace element investigation of two contemporaneous annually-laminated stalagmites from northeastern China surrounding the "8.2 ka event"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The prominent "8.2 ka event" was well documented in the Greenland ice cores. It remains unclear, however, about its duration, structure and forcing mechanism at low- to mid-latitude regions. Here we use the physical and geochemical data of stalagmites from the Nuanhe Cave in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, to reconstruct a detailed history of East Asian monsoons covering the entire duration of the event. High-resolution chronologies of two contemporaneous stalagmites, each consisting of at least 770 yr annual growth bands, were established by calibrating and anchoring the floating band-counting ages against five high-precision 230Th dates. Two oxygen isotope profiles replicate each other on annual-decadal timescales despite their difference in growth rates, indicating that the δ18O variability has a climatic origin largely associated with changes in the rainfall δ18O from the West Pacific during summer season. A signal from the "8.2ka event" was faint in our δ18O records, not as significant as Indian monsoon dominated stalagmite δ18O records from Qunf in Oman and Dongge in Southern China. However, our δ13C and Ba/Ca profiles, as indicators of local environmental changes, provide strong support for a climate reversal centred at 8.2 ka BP, which is likely controlled by winter monsoon circulations via the westerly winds associated with North Atlantic climate. Therefore, we concluded that the winter- and summer-Asian monsoons responded independently to the high northern latitude climate.

  3. New observations on relative sea-level change since the late Glacial from the British and Irish continental shelf and their implications for understanding earth-ice-ocean interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. A.; Long, A. J.; Plets, R. M.; Callard, L.; Kelley, J. T.; Belknap, D. F.; Quinn, R.; Edwards, R.; Jackson, D.; Long, D.; Monteys, X.; Milne, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    The pattern of relative sea-level (RSL) change around the British Isles shows marked spatial variability in response to ice sheet history and crustal response to loading/offloading. The area thus offers an ideal natural laboratory for the investigation of such interactions and has formed the basis of several models of earth-ice-ocean interaction. Data with which to test models is, however, largely restricted to the late Holocene for which period many RSL curves have been derived from salt marsh studies. There is a paucity of data from much lower than present sea levels and this is reflected in large (tens of metres) discrepancies between different modelled RSL curves for the late-glacial early Holocene period, despite close agreement of the models for the mid-late Holocene. Few data currently exist that can resolve these discrepancies. We have just completed two years intensive fieldwork on six sites around the Irish Sea (at Bantry Bay, Waterford, Cardigan Bay, offshore Louth, Isle of Man, and Belfast Lough) on a north-south gradient. These were selected to target lower than present sea-level indicators from ice-proximal to ice-distal locations. The detailed results from two sites are presented in separate posters. The initial investigation using multibeam bathymetry and shallow seismic profiling identified several sea-level indicators including wave-cut platforms and associated cliffs in bedrock, planation surfaces on drumlins, incised valley termini and terraces and the depth of the transgressive unconformity (and in some cases its seaward terminus). Subsequent coring of seabed targets yielded over 450m of core from 150 sites. The most consistently identified RSL indicator at all sites was the transgressive unconformity. It was penetrated in cores at most sites and has yielded age-dateable material. Palaeoenvironmental interpretation and radiocarbon dating of material is ongoing, but has already yielded new observational data on lower than present sea levels with

  4. The Late Glacial and Holocene development of vegetation in the area of a fossil lake in the Skaliska Basin (north-eastern Poland inferred from pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołaczek Piotr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of vegetation in the Skaliska Basin has been reconstructed on the basis of palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating (AMS technique of 6 sites from the late phase of the Bolling- Allerod interstadial complex to modern times. Although the area covers 90 km2, the mosaic character of habitats led to the development of different patterns of vegetation changes during the Late Glacial and Holocene. Only one site located in the eastern part of the Skaliska Basin reflected the ‘pine phase’ of Allerod, and this is the oldest data on vegetation in the Skaliska Basin. Interesting discrepancies were recorded during the Younger Dryas when patches of shrublands with Juniperus were distinct around some of the sites, while steppe with Artemisia was common in others. The beginning of the Holocene brought an expansion of birch-pine forest, but around 9600 cal. BC a cold oscillation took place which was reflected in an increase in birch in the woodlands in the western and eastern part of the Skaliska Basin. In the Preboreal chronozone elm (Ulmus also expanded in the area but its appearance was non-synchronous. The vegetation of the Boreal chronozone was similar in the whole area and the most characteristic feature was the rapid expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana which displaced Betula from the most of its sites. At that time a distinct redeposition of pollen material in the Parchatka river valley was detected which was probably the effect of an increase in fluvial activity of the river (humid oscillation. The following stage of vegetation development was climax woodlands with Tilia cordata, Ulmus, Quercus, Corylus avellana, and Alnus in damp places. At the beginning of the Subboreal chronozone the expansion of Quercus took place, which was subsequently replaced by Picea abies and partly Carpinus betulus. The pattern of Picea abies expansion distinctly presents two maxima which is characteristic of many sites in the north-eastern Poland

  5. Laminate armor and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; Zagula, Thomas M

    2013-02-26

    Laminate armor and methods of manufacturing laminate armor. Specifically, laminate armor plates comprising a commercially pure titanium layer and a titanium alloy layer bonded to the commercially pure titanium outer layer are disclosed, wherein an average thickness of the titanium alloy inner layer is about four times an average thickness of the commercially pure titanium outer layer. In use, the titanium alloy layer is positioned facing an area to be protected. Additionally, roll-bonding methods for manufacturing laminate armor plates are disclosed.

  6. EB curable laminating adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Asao; Kobayashi, Masahide; Gotoh, Sakiko

    1992-01-01

    New developed solvent free EB curable laminating adhesives have two liquid components, A with hydroxy and acryloyl group, B with isocyanate and acryloyl group in a molecule. These EB laminating adhesives do not need any aging process, which is a big advantage, and are very suitable for environment, safety, and health because of no heating process and solvent free formulas. And we have made basic research about the relation of peel strength or heat seal strength versus Tg of cured film, elongation at break, elastic modulus, and so on. Basic specifications of the new developed adhesives are shown. (author)

  7. Photovoltaic module and laminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunea, Gabriela E.; Kim, Sung Dug; Kavulak, David F.J.

    2018-04-10

    A photovoltaic module is disclosed. The photovoltaic module has a first side directed toward the sun during normal operation and a second, lower side. The photovoltaic module comprises a perimeter frame and a photovoltaic laminate at least partially enclosed by and supported by the perimeter frame. The photovoltaic laminate comprises a transparent cover layer positioned toward the first side of the photovoltaic module, an upper encapsulant layer beneath and adhering to the cover layer, a plurality of photovoltaic solar cells beneath the upper encapsulant layer, the photovoltaic solar cells electrically interconnected, a lower encapsulant layer beneath the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, the upper and lower encapsulant layers enclosing the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, and a homogenous rear environmental protection layer, the rear environmental protection layer adhering to the lower encapsulant layer, the rear environmental protection layer exposed to the ambient environment on the second side of the photovoltaic module.

  8. A theory of piezoelectric laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giangreco, E.

    1997-01-01

    A theory of piezoelectric laminates is rationally derived from the three-dimensional Voigt theory of piezoelectricity. The present theory is a generalization to piezoelectric laminates of the Reissner-Mindlin-type layer-wise theory of elastic laminates. Both a differential formulation and a variational formulation of the piezoelectric laminate problem are presented. The proposed theory is adopted in the analysis of simple problems, in order to verify its effectiveness. The results it provides turn out to be in good agreement with the results supplied by the Voigt theory of piezoelectricity

  9. TERFENOL-D Lamination Process Cost Reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slaughter, Julie

    1998-01-01

    The process of manufacturing laminated TERFENOL-D is costly and time consuming. This Phase I study was aimed at reducing the reject rate of the current lamination process and thus reducing the cost of laminated TERFENOL-D...

  10. Lamins, laminopathies and disease mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... Lamins are major structural proteins of the nucleus and are essential for nuclear integrity and organization of nuclear functions. Mutations in the human lamin genes lead to highly degenerative genetic diseases that affect a number of different tissues such as muscle, adipose or neuronal tissues, or cause ...

  11. "Subclinical" laminitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, J J

    1992-12-01

    In dairying countries worldwide, the economic importance of lameness in cattle is now recognised. Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders such as white zone lesions, sole ulcer, and heel horn erosion. The existence of subclinical laminitis was first suggested in the late 1970s by Dutch workers describing the symptoms of sole haemorrhages and yellowish-coloured, soft sole horn. In an attempt to clarify some of the confusing and often conflicting terminology, the literature on laminitis is reviewed. Disturbed haemodynamics, in particular repeated or prolonged dilation of arteriovenous anastomoses, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both equine and bovine laminitis. Some characteristics of the vascular system of the bovine claw which may be of importance in the pathophysiology of the subclinical laminitis syndrome are therefore discussed. Clinical observations suggest that subclinical laminitis is a multifactorial disease. The different factors that are or may be involved in its aetiology vary in complexity and severity according to the management protocol of the animals. The possible involvement of subclinical laminitis in claw lesions is assessed.

  12. An update on equine laminitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Laskoski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Laminitis is a severe podal affection, which pathophysiology remains partially renowned. Ischemic, enzymatic, metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms are connected to the development of laminar lesions. However, few therapeutic measures are effective to prevent or control the severity of acute laminitis and its prodromal stage, which often determines serious complications such as rotation and/or sinking of the distal phalanx and even the loss of hoof. The purpose of this study is to compile the actual knowledge in respect to the pathophysiology and treatment of equine laminitis.

  13. Subclinical laminitis in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, H K; Shannon, D; Neilson, D R

    1989-08-19

    By causing poorer horn quality, subclinical laminitis is considered to be a major predisposing cause of other hoof problems, particularly sole ulcers in newly calved heifers. In this study the hind hooves of 136 female Friesian/Holstein cattle aged between four months and two years were examined to discover at what age the signs of subclinical laminitis appeared. Sole haemorrhages were found in the hoof horn of calves as young as five months. The consistent finding of these lesions in heifers of all ages indicated that subclinical laminitis of varying degree was a common condition during the early growing period of young dairy heifers.

  14. Insulin resistance and laminitis in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Isabella

    2009-01-01

    Laminitis is a common painful condition in horses that often has a poor outcome. The aetiology of laminitis has been widely studied, but still not completely understood. There is some evidence that pasture associated laminitis is one of the most common forms of laminitis , and this is most likely associated with underlying endocrine dysfunction i.e. insulin resistance. However, what the prevalence of insulin resistance in horses presented with laminitis is, that is currently unknown and it ha...

  15. An update on equine laminitis

    OpenAIRE

    Laskoski, Luciane Maria; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo; Dittrich, Rosangela Locatelli; Deconto, Ivan; Faleiros, Rafael Resende

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Laminitis is a severe podal affection, which pathophysiology remains partially renowned. Ischemic, enzymatic, metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms are connected to the development of laminar lesions. However, few therapeutic measures are effective to prevent or control the severity of acute laminitis and its prodromal stage, which often determines serious complications such as rotation and/or sinking of the distal phalanx and even the loss of hoof. The purpose of this study is to c...

  16. Codimension zero laminations are inverse limits

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Rojo, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the relation between inverse limit of branched manifolds and codimension zero laminations. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such an inverse limit to be a lamination. We also show that codimension zero laminations are inverse limits of branched manifolds. The inverse limit structure allows us to show that equicontinuous codimension zero laminations preserves a distance function on transversals.

  17. Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanCleave, R.A.

    1977-09-01

    An investigation has been conducted of the use of laser energy for cutting contours, diameters, and holes in flat and shaped Kevlar 49 fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates as an alternate to conventional machining. The investigation has shown that flat laminates 6.35 mm thick may be cut without backup by using a high-powered (1000-watt) continuous wave CO/sub 2/ laser at high feedrates (33.87 mm per second). The cut produced was free of the burrs and delaminations resulting from conventional machining methods without intimate contact backup. In addition, the process cycle time was greatly reduced.

  18. Elastomer-metal laminate armor

    OpenAIRE

    Gamache, R.M.; Giller, C.B.; Montella, G.; Fragiadakis, D.; Roland, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.08.072 A study was carried out of pressure wave transmission and the ballistic penetration of steel substrates incorporating a front-face laminate, the latter consisting of alternating layers of thin metal and a soft polymer; the latter undergoes a viscoelastic phase transition on impact. The ballistic properties of laminate/steel structures are substantially better than conventional military armor. ...

  19. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate, without reinforcement fibre, exhibited a few fold superiority in tensile ...

  20. Strength and stiffness of small glued-laminated beams with different qualities of tension laminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine M. Marx; Russell C. Moody

    1981-01-01

    A total of 180 small Douglas Fir–Larch (DF-L) or Southern Pine (SP) glued-laminated beams were evaluated to determine the tension lamination quality necessary to obtain desired design stresses. The test beams had either the regular laminating grades of L1 DF-L/No. 1D SP or the special 302-24 laminating grade as tension laminations. Because an initial set of SP beams...

  1. Lamin in inflammation and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Joseph R; Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-06-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of tissue function and an increased susceptibility to injury and disease. Many age-associated pathologies manifest an inflammatory component, and this has led to the speculation that aging is at least in part caused by some form of inflammation. However, whether or not inflammation is truly a cause of aging, or is a consequence of the aging process is unknown. Recent work using Drosophila has uncovered a mechanism where the progressive loss of lamin-B in the fat body upon aging triggers systemic inflammation. This inflammatory response perturbs the local immune response of the neighboring gut tissue and leads to hyperplasia. Here, we will discuss the literature connecting lamins to aging and inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of Laminated Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Søren Randrup

    allows for a higher degree of tailoring of the resulting material. To enable better utilization of the composite materials, optimum design procedures can be used to assist the engineer. This PhD thesis is focused on developing numerical methods for optimization of laminated composite structures....... The first part of the thesis is intended as an aid to read the included papers. Initially the field of research is introduced and the performed research is motivated. Secondly, the state-of-the-art is reviewed. The review includes parameterizations of the constitutive properties, linear and geometrically...... of the contributions of the PhD project are included in the second part of the thesis. Paper A presents a framework for free material optimization where commercially available finite element analysis software is used as analysis tool. Robust buckling optimization of laminated composite structures by including...

  3. The Development of Laminated Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-09-27

    unsaturated alkyd . Initially, two commercially available rigid polyester resins were examined, namely, Plaskon 920 and Laminac 4125. Laminac 4125 had a com...combination under various conditions of resin content and molding pressures. The binders employed in this study were restricted, exclusively, to the...low-pressure polyester resins which are commonly employed in laminate fabrication. In addition to their ready adaptability, they offer the advantage

  4. Impact damages modeling in laminated composite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreculj Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated composites have an important application in modern engineering structures. They are characterized by extraordinary properties, such as: high strength and stiffness and lightweight. Nevertheless, a serious obstacle to more widespread use of those materials is their sensitivity to the impact loads. Impacts cause initiation and development of certain types of damages. Failures that occur in laminated composite structures can be intralaminar and interlaminar. To date it was developed a lot of simulation models for impact damages analysis in laminates. Those models can replace real and expensive testing in laminated structures with a certain accuracy. By using specialized software the damage parameters and distributions can be determined (at certain conditions on laminate structures. With performing numerical simulation of impact on composite laminates there are corresponding results valid for the analysis of these structures.

  5. Paradigm shifts in understanding equine laminitis

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson-Kane, J.C.; Karikoski, N.P.; McGowan, C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Laminitis, one of the most debilitating conditions of all equids, is now known to be the result of several systemic disease entities. This finding, together with other recent developments in the field of laminitis research, have provoked a rethink of our clinical and research strategies for this condition. First, laminitis is now considered to be a clinical syndrome associated with systemic disease (endocrine disease, sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SIRS) or altered weight ...

  6. The management of equine acute laminitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell CF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colin F Mitchell, Lee Ann Fugler, Susan C Eades Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Abstract: Laminitis is an extremely painful condition resulting in damage to the soft tissues anchoring the third phalanx to the hoof, which can result in life-threatening debilitation. Specific therapy is not available. The most important principles of therapy include aggressive nutritional and medical management of primary disease processes, cryotherapy, anti-inflammatory therapy, pain management, and biomechanical support. This review focuses on the principles of evidenced-based therapies. Keywords: laminitis treatment, laminitis biomechanics, laminitis pain

  7. Field performance of stress-laminated highway bridges constructed with glued laminated timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Wacker

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the field performance of three stress-laminated deck timber bridges located in Wisconsin, New York, and Arizona. The deck superstructures of these single-span highway bridges is comprised of full-span glued laminated timber (glulam) beam laminations manufactured with southern pine, hem fir/red maple combination, and/or Douglas fir lumber species....

  8. Late Glacial and Holocene Paleoliminology of two temperate lakes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stable carbon isotope (13C) and elemental C/N ratios in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) extracted from radiometrically dated cores from two Midwestern USA lakes were determined to investigate the factors that control these values in temperate lakes. The range of 13C values ( -26 to -32%) and C/N ratios (mean value ...

  9. Natural fabric sandwich laminate composites: development and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 1 ... Natural fabrics; jute; linen; sandwich laminate; mechanical properties; fractographic analysis. ... In this work, eco-friendly natural fabric sandwich laminate (NFSL) composites are formulated using jute and linen-fabric-reinforced epoxy with different layer ...

  10. Optimal Design of Laminated Composite Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral

    This thesis presents an optimal design framework for the structural design of laminated composite beams. The possibility of improving the static and dynamic performance of laminated composite beam through the use of optimal design techniques motivates the investigation presented here. A structural....... Furthermore, the devised beam model is able account for the different levels of anisotropic elastic couplings which depend on the laminate lay-up. An optimization model based on multi-material topology optimization techniques is described. The design variables represent the volume fractions of the different...... design of laminated composite beams. The devised framework is applied in the optimal design of laminated composite beams with different cross section geometries and subjected to different load cases. Design criteria such as beam stiffness, weight, magnitude of the natural frequencies of vibration...

  11. Wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Jihye; Seo, Keumyoung; Park, Ji-Hoon; Ahn, Joung Real; Ju, Sanghyun

    2014-12-01

    The wetting control of graphene is of great interest for electronic, mechanical, architectural, and bionic applications. In this study, the wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures was manipulated by changing the height of graphene-laminated structures and employing the trichlorosilane (HDF-S)-based self-assembly monolayer. Graphene-laminated micropillar structures with HDF-S exhibited higher hydrophobicity (contact angle of 129.5°) than pristine graphene thin film (78.8°), pristine graphene-laminated micropillar structures (97.5°), and HDF-S self-assembled graphene thin film (98.5°). Wetting states of the graphene-laminated micropillar structure with HDF-S was also examined by using a urea solution, which flowed across the surface without leaving any residues.

  12. Wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bong, Jihye; Seo, Keumyoung; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Ji-Hoon; Ahn, Joung Real

    2014-01-01

    The wetting control of graphene is of great interest for electronic, mechanical, architectural, and bionic applications. In this study, the wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures was manipulated by changing the height of graphene-laminated structures and employing the trichlorosilane (HDF-S)-based self-assembly monolayer. Graphene-laminated micropillar structures with HDF-S exhibited higher hydrophobicity (contact angle of 129.5°) than pristine graphene thin film (78.8°), pristine graphene-laminated micropillar structures (97.5°), and HDF-S self-assembled graphene thin film (98.5°). Wetting states of the graphene-laminated micropillar structure with HDF-S was also examined by using a urea solution, which flowed across the surface without leaving any residues

  13. Laminitis and the equine metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T

    2010-08-01

    Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct Composite Laminate Veneers: Three Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Korkut

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Re-establishing a patient’s lost dental esthetic appearance is one of the most important topics for contemporary dentistry. New treatment materials and methods have been coming on the scene, day by day, in order to achieve such an aim. Most dentists prefer more conservative and aesthetic approaches, such as direct and indirect laminate veneer restorations, instead of full-ceramic crowns for anteriors where aesthetics is really important. Laminate veneers are restorations which are envisioned to correct existing abnormalities, esthetic deficiencies and discolorations. Laminate veneer restorations may be processed in two different ways: direct or indirect. Direct laminate veneers have no need to be prepared in the laboratory and are based on the principle of application of a composite material directly to the prepared tooth surface in the dental clinic. Indirect laminate veneers may be produced from composite materials or ceramics, which are cemented to the tooth with an adhesive resin. In this case report, direct composite laminate veneer technique used for three patients with esthetic problems related to fractures, discolorations and an old prolapsed restoration, is described and six-month follow-ups are discussed. As a conclusion, direct laminate veneer restorations may be a treatment option for patients with the esthetic problems of anterior teeth in cases similar to those reported here.

  15. Predisposing factors of laminitis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, J J; Greenough, P R

    1994-01-01

    Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders. Despite intensive study, both by experiment and by clinical observation, knowledge of the precise aetiology and pathogenesis of bovine laminitis is still incomplete. It is often hypothesized that changes in the micro-circulation of the corum (dermis) of the bovine claw contribute significantly to the development of laminitis; arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) playing a crucial role. Many factors have been implicated as contributing causes of laminitis in cattle; the disease has a multifactorial aetiology. The cause of laminitis should be considered as a combination of predisposing factors leading to vascular (AVAs in particular) reactivity and inhibition of normal horn synthesis. Nutrition, disease, management and behaviour appear to be closely involved in the pathogenesis of bovine laminitis. The major factors predisposing to laminitis in cattle, as reported or suggested in the literature, are reviewed, including systemic disease, nutrition (barley grain, protein, carbohydrate and fibre), management (housing, bedding and exercise), calving, season, age, growth, genetics, conformation and behaviour.

  16. Structural feasibility of parallel-laminated veneer crossarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Youngquist; Frank Brey; Joseph Jung

    1977-01-01

    Experimentally and commercially produced laminated M-19 crossarms were tested by standard Rural Electrification Administration (REA) crossarm tests. The laminated crossarms, produced by laminating veneer and by laminating solid-sawn dimension stock, generally performed satisfactorily according to REA specified standards. Materials tested are described and results on...

  17. Meshfree modeling in laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Simkins, Daniel Craig

    2012-09-27

    A problem of increasing importance in the aerospace industry is in detailed modeling of explicit fracture in laminated composite materials. For design applications, the simulation must be capable of initiation and propagation of changes in the problem domain. Further, these changes must be able to be incorporated within a design-scale simulation. The use of a visibility condition, coupled with the local and dynamic nature of meshfree shape function construction allows one to initiate and explicitly open and propagate holes inside a previously continuous problem domain. The method to be presented naturally couples to a hierarchical multi-scale material model incorporating external knowldege bases to achieve the goal of a practical explicit fracture modeling capability for full-scale problems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Shielding Effectiveness of Laminated Shields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Rao

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Shielding prevents coupling of undesired radiated electromagnetic energy into equipment otherwise susceptible to it. In view of this, some studies on shielding effectiveness of laminated shields with conductors and conductive polymers using plane-wave theory are carried out in this paper. The plane wave shielding effectiveness of new combination of these materials is evaluated as a function of frequency and thickness of material. Conductivity of the polymers, measured in previous investigations by the cavity perturbation technique, is used to compute the overall reflection and transmission coefficients of single and multiple layers of the polymers. With recent advances in synthesizing stable highly conductive polymers these lightweight mechanically strong materials appear to be viable alternatives to metals for EM1 shielding.

  19. The role of neutrophils in equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leise, Britta

    2018-03-01

    Equine laminitis is a devastating disease in which failure of the adhesion between the digital dermal and epidermal laminae at the basement membrane results in crippling lameness and structural damage to the foot of the horse. Laminitis occurring secondary to sepsis is known to result from a significant inflammatory response that includes leukocyte emigration into the lamellar tissue. These leukocytes, in particular the neutrophil, have been extensively evaluated in experimental models of sepsis-related laminitis in the horse. This review will discuss the relevant findings elucidated from these models and how these findings have affected the development of therapies used to treat this crippling disease.

  20. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... is ensured using a structural adhesive. At first, the elastic and viscoelastic material properties of the adhesive are identified where the influence of load-rate and failure properties are also examined. Through an inverse analysis using the finite element method, the experimental observations...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  1. Behaviour of Mechanically Laminated CLT Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklík, P.; Velebil, L.

    2015-11-01

    Cross laminated timber (CLT) is one of the structural building systems based on the lamination of multiple layers, where each layer is oriented perpendicularly to each other. Recent requirements are placed to develop an alternative process based on the mechanical lamination of the layers, which is of particular interest to our research group at the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings. The goal is to develop and verify the behaviour of mechanically laminated CLT wall panels exposed to shear stresses in the plane. The shear resistance of mechanically jointed CLT is ensured by connecting the layers by screws. The paper deals with the experimental analysis focused on the determination of the torsional stiffness and the slip modulus of crossing areas for different numbers of orthogonally connected layers. The results of the experiments were compared with the current analytical model.

  2. Oseledec multiplicative ergodic theorem for laminations

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyên, Viêt-Anh

    2017-01-01

    Given a n-dimensional lamination endowed with a Riemannian metric, the author introduces the notion of a multiplicative cocycle of rank d, where n and d are arbitrary positive integers. The holonomy cocycle of a foliation and its exterior powers as well as its tensor powers provide examples of multiplicative cocycles. Next, the author defines the Lyapunov exponents of such a cocycle with respect to a harmonic probability measure directed by the lamination. He also proves an Oseledec multiplicative ergodic theorem in this context. This theorem implies the existence of an Oseledec decomposition almost everywhere which is holonomy invariant. Moreover, in the case of differentiable cocycles the author establishes effective integral estimates for the Lyapunov exponents. These results find applications in the geometric and dynamical theory of laminations. They are also applicable to (not necessarily closed) laminations with singularities. Interesting holonomy properties of a generic leaf of a foliation are obtained...

  3. Laminate mechanics for balanced woven fabrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Remko

    2006-01-01

    Laminate mechanics equations are presented for composites with balanced woven fabric reinforcements. It is shown that mimicking these textile composites with equivalent transversely isotropic (‘unidirectional’) layers requires disputable manipulations. Various micromechanics predictions of textile

  4. Free edge effects in laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakovich, C. T.

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental mechanics of free-edge effects in laminated fiber-reinforced composites is examined, reviewing the results of recent experimental and analytical investigations. The derivation of the governing equations for the basic problem is outlined, including the equilibrium and mismatch conditions and the elasticity formulation, and experimental data on axial displacement and shear strain in angle-ply laminates are summarized. Numerical predictions of free-edge deformation and interlaminar and through-thickness stress distributions are presented for cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates, and the mechanisms of edge damage and failure in angle-ply laminates are briefly characterized. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  5. Mechanical characterisation of structural laminated bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bhavna; Bauer, Helene; Schickhofer, Gerhard; Ramage, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    Low carbon construction materials are needed to reduce CO2 emissions in the built environment. Laminated bamboo is an example of such a material, however to be used in structural applications, fundamental mechanical properties are needed to establish the design values used in architecture and engineering practice. Recent studies on laminated bamboo have focused on the use of timber standards for small clear specimens, with little work published on structural scale testing. The presented work ...

  6. Paradigm shifts in understanding equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Kane, J C; Karikoski, N P; McGowan, C M

    2018-01-01

    Laminitis, one of the most debilitating conditions of all equids, is now known to be the result of several systemic disease entities. This finding, together with other recent developments in the field of laminitis research, have provoked a rethink of our clinical and research strategies for this condition. First, laminitis is now considered to be a clinical syndrome associated with systemic disease (endocrine disease, sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SIRS) or altered weight bearing rather than being a discrete disease entity. Next, laminitis associated with endocrine disease (endocrinopathic laminitis) is now believed to be the predominant form in animals presenting (primarily) for lameness. Third, the designation of laminitis as a primary and severe basement membrane pathology now requires revision. Instead, current data now proposes a variable subclinical phase associated with gross changes in the hoof capsule, with stretching and elongation of the lamellar cells an early and key event in the pathophysiology. These findings have fuelled new mechanistic hypotheses and research directions that will be discussed, together with their implications for future clinical management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The nuclear lamins: flexibility in function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Brian; Stewart, Colin L

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is an important structural determinant for the nuclear envelope as a whole, attaching chromatin domains to the nuclear periphery and localizing some nuclear envelope proteins. The major components of the lamina are the A-type and B-type lamins, which are members of the intermediate filament protein family. Whereas the expression of A-type lamins is developmentally regulated, B-type lamins, as a class, are found in all cells. The association of B-type lamins with many aspects of nuclear function has led to the view that these are essential proteins, and there is growing evidence suggesting that they regulate cellular senescence. However, B-type lamins are dispensable in certain cell types in vivo, and neither A-type nor B-type lamins may be required in early embryos or embryonic stem cells. The picture that is beginning to emerge is of a complex network of interactions at the nuclear periphery that may be defined by cell- and tissue-specific functions.

  8. Laminopathy-inducing lamin A mutants can induce redistribution of lamin binding proteins into nuclear aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, S; Eam, J E; Hübner, A; Jans, D A

    2006-01-15

    Lamins, members of the family of intermediate filaments, form a supportive nucleoskeletal structure underlying the nuclear envelope and can also form intranuclear structures. Mutations within the A-type lamin gene cause a variety of degenerative diseases which are collectively referred to as laminopathies. At the molecular level, laminopathies have been shown to be linked to a discontinuous localization pattern of A-type lamins, with some laminopathies containing nuclear lamin A aggregates. Since nuclear aggregate formation could lead to the mislocalization of proteins interacting with A-type lamins, we set out to examine the effects of FLAG-lamin A N195K and R386K protein aggregate formation on the subnuclear distribution of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and the sterol responsive element binding protein 1a (SREBP1a) after coexpression as GFP-fusion proteins in HeLa cells. We observed strong recruitment of both proteins into nuclear aggregates. Nuclear aggregate recruitment of the NPC component nucleoporin NUP153 was also observed and found to be dependent on the N-terminus. That these effects were specific was implied by the fact that a number of other coexpressed karyophilic GFP-fusion proteins, such as the nucleoporin NUP98 and kanadaptin, did not coaggregate with FLAG-lamin A N195K or R386K. Immunofluorescence analysis further indicated that the precursor form of lamin A, pre-lamin A, could be found in intranuclear aggregates. Our results imply that redistribution into lamin A-/pre-lamin A-containing aggregates of proteins such as pRb and SREBP1a could represent a key aspect underlying the molecular pathogenesis of certain laminopathies.

  9. Bovine laminitis: clinical aspects, pathology and pathogenesis with reference to acute equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R; Németh, F; Gruys, E

    1991-07-01

    This review deals with the features of clinical and subclinical laminitis in cattle. Prominent clinical signs of acute laminitis are a tender gait and arched back. The sole horn reveals red and yellowish discolourations within five days. In subacute and chronic cases clinical signs are less severe. In chronic laminitis the shape of the claws is altered. Laminitis is frequently followed by sole ulceration and white zone lesions. Blood tests showed no significant changes for laminitic animals. Arteriographic studies of claws affected by laminitis indicated that blood vessels had narrowed lumens. Gross pathology revealed congestion of the corium and rotation of the distal phalanx. Histopathologic studies indicate that laminitis is associated with changes of the vasculature. Peripartum management and nutrition are important factors in its aetiology. It is hypothesised that laminitis is evoked by disturbed digital circulation. In the pathogenesis of acute laminitis three factors are considered important: the occurrence of thrombosis, haemodynamic aspects of the corium, and endotoxins which trigger these pathologic events.

  10. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zonghong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  11. Nuclear Actin and Lamins in Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, Jakub; Fraiberk, Martin; Forstova, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Lamins are the best characterized cytoskeletal components of the cell nucleus that help to maintain the nuclear shape and participate in diverse nuclear processes including replication or transcription. Nuclear actin is now widely accepted to be another cytoskeletal protein present in the nucleus that fulfills important functions in the gene expression. Some viruses replicating in the nucleus evolved the ability to interact with and probably utilize nuclear actin for their replication, e.g., for the assembly and transport of capsids or mRNA export. On the other hand, lamins play a role in the propagation of other viruses since nuclear lamina may represent a barrier for virions entering or escaping the nucleus. This review will summarize the current knowledge about the roles of nuclear actin and lamins in viral infections. PMID:22590674

  12. On thermal edge effects in composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakovich, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a finite-element investigation of the combined influence of edge effects due to mechanical and thermal mismatch in composite laminates with free edges. Laminates of unidirectional boron/epoxy symmetrically bonded to sheets of aluminum and titanium were studied. It is shown that interlaminar thermal stresses may be more significant than the interlaminar stresses due to loading only. In addition, the stresses due to thermal mismatch may be of the same sign as those due to Poisson's mismatch or they may be of opposite sign depending upon material properties, stacking sequence, and direction of loading. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of thermal stresses in all-composite laminates.

  13. Topology optimization of laminated plates with prestress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2002-01-01

    Laminated plates with different prestress in the layers are topology optimized. The objectives are to minimize the deflection due to the prestress or to minimize ordinary compliance. The prestress is accounted for by including the force equivalent to the prestressing and adding the initial stress...... stiffness matrix to the structural stiffness. The calculations of sensitivities are complicated not only by the prestress but also because we are dealing with laminates. The topology optimization problem is solved using a new penalization scheme as an alternative to the SIMP (power law) approach...

  14. Properties of Chitosan-Laminated Collagen Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lazić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine physical, mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan-laminated collagen film. Commercial collagen film, which is used for making collagen casings for dry fermented sausage production, was laminated with chitosan film layer in order to improve the collagen film barrier properties. Different volumes of oregano essential oil per 100 mL of filmogenic solution were added to chitosan film layer: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mL to optimize water vapour barrier properties. Chitosan layer with 0.6 or 0.8 % of oregano essential oil lowered the water vapour transmission rate to (1.85±0.10·10–6 and (1.78±0.03·10–6 g/(m2·s·Pa respectively, compared to collagen film ((2.51±0.05·10–6 g/(m2·s·Pa. However, chitosan-laminated collagen film did not show improved mechanical properties compared to the collagen one. Tensile strength decreased from (54.0±3.8 MPa of the uncoated collagen film to (36.3±4.0 MPa when the film was laminated with 0.8 % oregano essential oil chitosan layer. Elongation at break values of laminated films did not differ from those of collagen film ((18.4±2.7 %. Oxygen barrier properties were considerably improved by lamination. Oxygen permeability of collagen film was (1806.8±628.0·10–14 cm3/(m·s·Pa and values of laminated films were below 35·10–14 cm3/(m·s·Pa. Regarding film appearance and colour, lamination with chitosan reduced lightness (L and yellowness (+b of collagen film, while film redness (+a increased. These changes were not visible to the naked eye.

  15. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate, without reinforcement fibre, exhibited a few fold superiority in tensile ...

  16. Cycling fiber metal laminates : Considerations, test setup and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.; Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of fiber metal laminates to multi-functional materials by embedding heater elements in the laminate extends their field of application. Fiber metal laminates with embedded heater elements are likely to be used for the de- and anti-icing of leading edges in aircraft as they combine

  17. Thermal cycling fiber metal laminates : Considerations, test setup and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.; Teixeira de Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of fiber metal laminates to multi-functional materials by embedding heater elements in the laminate extends their field of application. Fiber metal laminates with embedded heater elements are likely to be used for the de- and anti-icing of leading edges in aircraft as they combine

  18. Impact performance of two bamboo-based laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanrong Liu; Zehui Jiang; Zhengjun Sun; Yan Yan; Zhiyong Cai; Xiubiao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The present work aims to determine the impact performance of two bamboo-based laminated composites [bamboo/poplar laminated composite (BPLC) and bamboo/ glass fiber laminated composite (BGFLC)] using lowvelocity impact tests by a drop tower. In addition, fracture characteristics were evaluated using computed tomography (CT). Results showed that BPLC presented better...

  19. Tropicalized Lambda Lengths, Measured Laminations and Convexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Penner, R.

    of the basic cell decomposition of Riemann's moduli space to other contexts for general moduli spaces of flat connections on a surface. In any case, this discussion drastically simplifies aspects of previous related studies as is explained. Furthermore, a new class of measured laminations relative to an ideal...

  20. Prediction of fatigue damage in tapered laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raeis Hosseiny, Seyed Aydin; Jakobsen, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    . By increasing the cracks density, damage occurs when residual material properties reduce to a critical level. Residual strength and stiffness of simple laminates are assigned in a set of fatigue failure criteria to assess the remaining life of the components by increasing number of loading cycles. The mode...

  1. Finite Element Anlaysis of Laminated Composite Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    4 B. THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK .............. 4 C. LAMINATE THEORY ........................ 8 1. Introduction...described. The principle of virtual displacements is invoked to obtain equilibrium relations. B. THE PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK In this section, we prove...that total internal virtual work is equal to total ex- ternal virtual work and equivalence of this principle to the minimum total potential energy

  2. Recycling of Aluminum from Fibre Metal Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, G.; Xiao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, B.; Boom, R.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of aluminum alloy scrap obtained from delaminated fibre metal laminates (FMLs) was studied through high temperature refining in the presence of a salt flux. The aluminum alloy scrap contains approximately mass fraction w(Cu) = 4.4%, w(Mg) = 1.1% and w(Mn) = 0.6% (2024 aluminum alloy). The

  3. Laminated Root Rot of Western Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.E. Nelson; N.E. Martin; R.E. Williams

    1981-01-01

    Laminated root rot is caused by the native fungus Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gilb. It occurs throughout the Northwestern United States and in southern British Columbia, Canada. The disease has also been reported in Japan and Manchuria. In the United States, the pathogen is most destructive in pure Douglas-fir stands west of the crest of the Cascade Range in Washington...

  4. [Laminitis in cattle: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischer, C; Ossent, P

    1994-10-01

    Worldwide afflictions of the claws belong to the economically important diseases in dairy cattle. The significance of laminitis has gained importance in the last years since the condition is regarded as the most important predisposing factor for the development of lesions such as sole ulcer, white line disease and heel horn erosion. Apart from the clinical stages (acute, subacute, chronic, chronic-recurrent) there is also a subclinical form of laminitis which does not cause lameness. It is characterized by soft yellowish sole and heel horn with haemorrhages in the sole and along the white line. Laminitis is a multifactorial event in which nutrition, genetic disposition and the perinatal period, combined with the associated diseases of high-yielding cows, have a particular significance. Currently, two principally different hypotheses on the pathogenesis are discussed. The generally accepted theory bases on a disturbance in the microcirculation of the corium. According to the other theory the circulatory disturbances are secondary to changes which occur in the horn producing cells of the stratum basale of the epidermis. The predisposing factors and the pathogenesis of laminitis are discussed in the light of possible therapeutic and prophylactic measures.

  5. Natural fabric sandwich laminate composites: development and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natural fabrics; jute; linen; sandwich laminate; mechanical properties; fractographic analysis. 1. Introduction. Owing to ecological necessities and strict regulations, incor- porating natural fibres in the place of synthetic fibres becomes inevitable for the manufacturers to accomplish new composite materials originated from ...

  6. Nuclear Structures Surrounding Internal Lamin Invaginations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legartová, Soňa; Stixová, Lenka; Laur, O.; Kozubek, Stanislav; Sehnalová, Petra; Bártová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2014), s. 476-487 ISSN 0730-2312 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11020 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : LAMINS * NUCLEAR PORES * CHROMATIN Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  7. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  8. Lamin C and chromatin organization in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Drosophila lamin C (LamC) is a developmentally regulated component of the nuclear lamina. The lamC gene is situated in the fifth intron of the essential gene tout velu (ttv). We carried out genetic analysis of lamC during development. Phenotypic analyses of RNAi-mediated downregulation of lamC expression as well as ...

  9. Natural fabric sandwich laminate composites: development and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci., Vol. 40, No. 1, February 2017, pp. 139–146. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12034-016-1356-y. Natural fabric sandwich laminate composites: development and investigation ... studied by Gassan and Bledzki [17]. An investigation on the ... spread with the aid of a brush. Another layer of reinforce- ment in ...

  10. Edge effects in angle-ply composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, P. W.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a zeroth-order solution for edge effects in angle-ply composite laminates obtained using perturbation techniques and a limiting free body approach. The general solution for edge effects in laminates of arbitrary angle ply is applied to the special case of a (+ or - 45)s graphite/epoxy laminate. Interlaminar stress distributions are obtained as a function of the laminate thickness-to-width ratio and compared to finite difference results. The solution predicts stable, continuous stress distributions, determines finite maximum tensile interlaminar normal stress and provides mathematical evidence for singular interlaminar shear stresses in (+ or - 45) graphite/epoxy laminates.

  11. Novel Remanufacturing Process of Recycled Polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE)/GF Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Z.; Ghita, O. R.; Johnston, P.; Evans, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the PTFE/GF laminate and PTFE PCB manufacturers are under considerable pressure to address the recycling issues due to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive, shortage of landfill capacity and cost of disposal. This study is proposing a novel manufacture method for reuse of the mechanical ground PTFE/Glass fibre (GF) laminate and production of the first reconstitute PTFE/GF laminate. The reconstitute PTFE/GF laminate proposed here consists of a layer of recycled sub-sheet, additional layers of PTFE and PTFE coated glass cloth, also covered by copper foils. The reconstitute PTFE/GF laminate showed good dielectric properties. Therefore, there is potential to use the mechanical ground PTFE/GF laminate powder to produce reconstitute PTFE/GF laminate, for use in high frequencies PCB applications.

  12. Using palynology to re-assess the Dead Sea laminated sediments - Indeed varves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookman, Revital; Lopez-Merino, Lourdes; Belmaker, Reuven; Eshel, Amram; Epshtein Epshtein, Valentina; Leroy, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Lacustrine laminated sediments are often varves representing annual rhythmic deposition. The Dead Sea high-stand laminated sections consist of mm-scale alternating detrital and authigenic aragonite laminae. Previous studies assumed these laminae were varves; detritus deposition during the winter and aragonite in the summer. These sequences were used for varve counting and chronology, however this assumption has never been robustly validated. Here, we report an examination of the seasonal deposition of detrital and aragonite couplets from two well-known Late Holocene laminated sections at the Ze'elim fan-delta using palynology and grain-size distribution analyses. These analyses are complemented by the study of contemporary flash-flood samples and multivariate statistical analysis. Because transport affects the pollen preservation state, well-preserved (mostly) air-borne transported pollen was analysed separately from badly-preserved pollen and fungal spores, which are more indicative of water transport and reworking from soils. Our results indicate that (i) both detrital and aragonite laminae were deposited during the rainy season; (ii) aragonite laminae have significantly lower reworked pollen and fungal spore concentrations than detrital and flash-flood samples; and (iii) detrital laminae are composed of recycling of local and distal sources, with coarser particles that were initially deposited in the Dead Sea watershed and later transported via run-off to the lake. The conclusions suggest that detrital and aragonite couplets in the Dead Sea laminated sediments are most likely not varves and that the laminae deposition is related to the occurrence of flash-flood events. Consequently, at least for the Holocene sequences, laminated sediments cannot be considered as varves and Quaternary laminated sequences should be re-evaluated. The Dead Sea Basin laminated sequences (as the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project record) should be used for the reconstruction of

  13. Fatigue and fracture of fibre metal laminates

    CERN Document Server

    Alderliesten, René

    2017-01-01

    This book contributes to the field of hybrid technology, describing the current state of knowledge concerning the hybrid material concept of laminated metallic and composite sheets for primary aeronautical structural applications. It is the only book to date on fatigue and fracture of fibre metal laminates (FMLs). The first section of the book provides a general background of the FML technology, highlighting the major FML types developed and studied over the past decades in conjunction with an overview of industrial developments based on filed patents. In turn, the second section discusses the mechanical response to quasi-static loading, together with the fracture phenomena during quasi-static and cyclic loading. To consider the durability aspects related to strength justification and certification of primary aircraft structures, the third section discusses thermal aspects related to FMLs and their mechanical response to various environmental and acoustic conditions.

  14. High energy impact on woven laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Puente, J.; Zaera, R.; Navarro, C.

    2003-09-01

    The influence of high velocity impacts on CFRPs was studied by launching Spherical steel masses, at velocities from 60 m/s to 550 m/s, against carbon fiber/epoxy woven laminates. The extension of the damage induced in the laminate was measured by C-Scan. Finite element numerical simulation of the impact test used a failure model based on the Chang-Chang model. A comparison was made of the damaged areas resulting from non-destructive inspection of the specimens and those predicted by numerical simulation. To conclue the analysis, an analytical model developed by Cantwell-Morton was used to calculate the residual velocity of the projectile after perforation. The residual velocities predicted by numerical and by analytical models, were also compared.

  15. Gamma-quantum channeling in laminated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinetskij, V.L.; Fajngol'd, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    The phenomenon of the neutral particle (gamma-quanta) channeling in a laminated system (a stack of layers with different electron densities, where the corresponding refraction index serves as a potential) is considered. The examination is carried out in the framework of geometrical optics. A case is analyzed when the quantum wavelength is less than the atomic radius (lambda 0 ). It is obtained that the maximum channeling angle is independent of the period of layers and for lambda=10 -9 -10 -10 cm it amounts to 10 -4 -10 -5 . The approximation under consideration can be applied for long-period systems, particularly, for amorphous media of light atoms, periodically doped with atoms of heavier elements (laminated minerals, disordered alloys, polymers, some plastics and so on). Chenneling in similar structures made of cylindrical layers is considered [ru

  16. The management of equine acute laminitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell CF; Fugler LA; Eades SC

    2014-01-01

    Colin F Mitchell, Lee Ann Fugler, Susan C Eades Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Abstract: Laminitis is an extremely painful condition resulting in damage to the soft tissues anchoring the third phalanx to the hoof, which can result in life-threatening debilitation. Specific therapy is not available. The most important principles of therapy include aggressive nutritional and medical management of primary disease pro...

  17. Laminated multilayer sheet structure and its utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, K.; Itoh, K.; Mitani, Y.; Sobajima, S.; Yonemura, U.

    1980-01-01

    A laminated multilayer sheet structure is described comprising (A) an opaque flexible sheet layer, and (B) a flexible layer laminated on the surface of layer (A) and composed of a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer (B 1 ) bonded to a transparent synthetic resin layer (B 2 ), said layer (B 1 ) being a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer composed of (I) a layer of a metal having a thickness of about 50 to about 600 A, said metal being selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, copper, aluminum and a mixture of alloy of at least two of said metals, and (II) a high refractive substance layer having a thickness of about 50 to about 600 A, of an oxide of titanium derived from a layer of an organic titanium compound of the formula Ti 1 O/sub m/R/sub n/, where R is alkyl of 1-20 carbon atoms, l=1-30, m=4+3(1-1), and n=4+2(1-1), and containing the organic residual moiety of the organic titanium compound, the amount of said organic residual moiety being 0.1 to 30% by weight based on the weight of the high refractive substance layer; or said layer (B 1 ) being a transparent semiconductive layer having a thickness of about 500 to about 5,000 a and being composed of a compound selected from the group consisting of indium oxide, tin oxide, cadmium oxide, antimony oxide, copper iodide, and a mixture of at least two of said compounds. A method is described for heat-insulating a room, which comprises applying to the surface of a floor, wall, ceiling or partition in the room a laminated multilayer sheet structure comprising (A) an opaque flexible sheet layer, and (B) a flexible layer laminated on the surface of layer (A) and composed of a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer (B 1 ) bonded to a transparent synthetic resin layer

  18. The prevalence of endocrinopathic laminitis among horses presented for laminitis at a first-opinion/referral equine hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikoski, N P; Horn, I; McGowan, T W; McGowan, C M

    2011-10-01

    Endocrinopathic causes of laminitis may be a common underlying causative pathogenesis in first-opinion or field cases presenting with laminitis, as opposed to laminitis produced in inflammatory research models. This study aimed to determine whether evidence of an underlying endocrinopathy was present in horses presented for laminitis to a first-opinion/referral veterinary teaching hospital. A second aim was to compare the signalment of horses and ponies with laminitis with the equine hospital population during the same period. All horses presenting for laminitis at Helsinki University Equine Teaching Hospital, Finland, over a 16-month period were examined for an underlying endocrinopathy. Horses presenting for laminitis were compared with the hospitalized population over the same period. There were 36 horses presented for laminitis, and evidence of endocrinopathy was present in 89%. Of the horses showing an underlying endocrinopathy, one-third had a diagnosis of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, and two-thirds showed basal hyperinsulinemia indicative of insulin resistance, without evidence of hirsutism. Phenotypic indicators of obesity were present in 95% of horses with basal hyperinsulinemia without hirsutism. Compared with the hospital population during the same period, horses with laminitis associated with an underlying endocrinopathy were significantly older and more likely to be pony breeds. Our data support that endocrine testing should be performed on all cases of laminitis that do not have a clear inflammatory or gastrointestinal origin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Numerical analysis of laminated elastomer by FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazda, T.; Shiojiri, H.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer code based on mixed finite element method was developed for three dimensional large strain analyses of laminated elastomers including nonlinear bulk stress vs. bulk strain relationships. The adopted element is the variable node element with maximum node numbers of 27 for displacements and 4 for pressures. At first, the displacements and pressures were calculated by the code using single element under various loading conditions. The results were compared with theoretical solutions and the both results' exactly coincided with each other. Next, the analyses of laminated elastomers subjected to axial loadings were conducted using both the new code and ABAQUS code, and the results were compared with the test results. The agreement of the results of the present code were better than ABAQUS code mainly due to the capability of handling wider range of material properties. Lastly, the shearing tests of laminated elastomers were simulated by the new code. The results were shown to be in good agreement with the test results. (author)

  20. Peeling stress analysis of piezo-bonded laminated composite plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Kim, Heung Soo

    2012-04-01

    A stress function based method is proposed to analyze the interlaminar stresses at the free edge of a piezo-bonded composite laminated structure. Two piezoelectric actuators are symmetrically surface bonded on composite laminate. Same electric fields are applied to the two symmetric piezoelectric actuators which can generate induced strain, resulting in pure extension on the laminated plate. The stresses that satisfy the traction-free boundary conditions at the free edge and at the top and bottom surfaces of the laminate were obtained by using the complementary virtual work principle. Cross-ply and angle-ply laminates were analyzed. To verify the proposed method, the stress concentrations predicted by the present method were compared with those analyzed by the finite element method. The results provided that the stress function based analysis of piezo-bonded laminated composite structure is an efficient and accurate method for initial design stage of piezo-composite structure.

  1. A peculiar lamin in a peculiar mammal: Expression of lamin LIII in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Annette; Khandekar, Shaunak; Deakin, Janine E; Stick, Reimer

    2015-11-01

    Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) holds a unique phylogenetic position at the base of the mammalian lineage due to an amalgamation of mammalian and sauropsid-like features. Here we describe the set of four lamin genes for platypus. Lamins are major components of the nuclear lamina, which constitutes a main component of the nucleoskeleton and is involved in a wide range of nuclear functions. Vertebrate evolution was accompanied by an increase in the number of lamin genes from a single gene in their closest relatives, the tunicates and cephalochordates, to four genes in the vertebrate lineage. Of the four genes the LIII gene is characterized by the presence of two alternatively spliced CaaX-encoding exons. In amphibians and fish LIII is the major lamin protein in oocytes and early embryos. The LIII gene is conserved throughout the vertebrate lineage, with the notable exception of marsupials and placental mammals, which have lost the LIII gene. Here we show that platypus has retained an LIII gene, albeit with a significantly altered structure and with a radically different expression pattern. The platypus LIII gene contains only a single CaaX-encoding exon and the head domain together with coil 1a and part of coil1b of the platypus LIII protein is replaced by a novel short non-helical N-terminus. It is expressed exclusively in the testis. These features resemble those of male germ cell-specific lamins in placental mammals, in particular those of lamin C2. Our data suggest (i) that the specific functions of LIII, which it fulfills in all other vertebrates, is no longer required in mammals and (ii) once it had been freed from these functions has undergone structural alterations and has adopted a new functionality in monotremes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Bayesian inference model for fatigue life of laminated composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Kiureghian, Armen Der; Berggreen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic model for estimating the fatigue life of laminated composite plates is developed. The model is based on lamina-level input data, making it possible to predict fatigue properties for a wide range of laminate configurations. Model parameters are estimated by Bayesian inference....... The reference data used consists of constant-amplitude cycle test results for four laminates with different layup configurations. The paper describes the modeling techniques and the parameter estimation procedure, supported by an illustrative application....

  3. Arteriographical and pathological changes in chronic laminitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R; Nemeth, F; Gruys, E; Klarenbeek, A

    1989-07-01

    The arteriographic appearance of 76 bovine hind digits, obtained from a slaughterhouse, was related to the macroscopic signs of chronic laminitis in the digits. There were statistically significant correlations between the macroscopic and the arteriographic appearance of the claws. Subsequent histological examination of the radiographically abnormal arteries revealed features indicative of arteriosclerosis. The results of this study indicate that chronic laminitis develops following a subclinical attack of laminitis due to a continous hypoperfusion of the digit.

  4. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio-Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly S.; Allan, Shawn M.

    2009-11-11

    This Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate Ceralink's energy saving process for flat glass lamination from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. Radio-frequency heating was any un-explored option for laminating glass prior to this program. With significant commercial success through time and energy savings in the wood, paper, and plastics industries, RF heating was found to have significant promise for the energy intensive glass lamination industry. A major technical goal of the program was to demonstrate RF lamination across a wide range of laminate sizes and materials. This was successfully accomplished, dispelling many skeptics' concerns about the abilities of the technology. Ceralink laminated panels up to 2 ft x 3 ft, with four sets processed simultaneously, in a 3 minute cycle. All major categories of interlayer materials were found to work with RF lamination. In addition to laminating glass, other materials including photovoltaic silicon solar cells, light emitting diodes, metallized glass, plastics (acrylic and polycarbonate), and ceramics (alumina) were found compatible with the RF process. This opens up a wide range of commercial opportunities beyond the initially targeted automotive industry. The dramatic energy savings reported for RF lamination at the bench scale were found to be maintained through the scale up of the process. Even at 2 ft x 3 ft panel sizes, energy savings are estimated to be at least 90% compared to autoclaving or vacuum lamination. With targeted promotion through conference presentations, press releases and internet presence, RF lamination has gained significant attention, drawing large audiences at American Ceramic Society meetings. The commercialization success of the project includes the establishment of a revenue-generating business model for providing process development and demonstrations for

  5. Current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance in laminated nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedyayev, A.; Zhukov, I.; Dieny, B.

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically studied spin-dependent electron transport perpendicular-to-plain (CPP) in magnetic laminated multilayered structures by using Kubo formalism. We took into account not only bulk scattering, but the interface resistance due to both specular and diffuse reflection and also spin conserving and spin-flip processes. It was shown that spin-flip scattering at interfaces substantially reduces the value of giant magnetoresistance (GMR). This can explain the experimental observations that the CPP GMR ratio for laminated structures only slightly increases as compared to non-laminated ones even though lamination induces a significant increase in CPP resistance

  6. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Shawn M.

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  7. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Shawn M; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  8. Laminitis subclínica en bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, M. S.; Oliver, O. J.

    2012-01-01

    La laminitis subclínica es una entidad multifactorial que afecta a los bovinos especialmente en el periodo del periparto. Se caracteriza por la coloración amarilla de la suela, hemorragias de la suela, separación de la línea blanca y erosiones de talón. Se considera que es el mayor factor predisponente para la presentación de cojeras de pezuña a causa del debilitamiento del tejido corneo de la misma, lo que comrpromete el bienestar del animal y acarrea perdidas económicas directas e indirecta...

  9. A MEMS lamination technology based on sequential multilayer electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Jooncheol; Herrault, Florian; Schafer, Richard; Allen, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    A MEMS lamination technology based on sequential multilayer electrodeposition is presented. The process comprises three main steps: (1) automated sequential electrodeposition of permalloy (Ni 80 Fe 20 ) structural and copper sacrificial layers to form multilayer structures of significant total thickness; (2) fabrication of polymeric anchor structures through the thickness of the multilayer structures and (3) selective removal of copper. The resulting structure is a set of air-insulated permalloy laminations, the separation of which is sustained by insulating polymeric anchor structures. Individual laminations have precisely controllable thicknesses ranging from 500 nm to 5 µm, and each lamination layer is electrically isolated from adjacent layers by narrow air gaps of similar scale. In addition to air, interlamination insulators based on polymers are investigated. Interlamination air gaps with very high aspect ratio (>1:100) can be filled with polyvinylalcohol and polydimethylsiloxane. The laminated structures are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to directly examine properties such as the roughness and the thickness uniformity of the layers. In addition, the quality of the electrical insulation between the laminations is evaluated by quantifying the eddy current within the sample as a function of frequency. Fabricated laminations are comprised of uniform, smooth (surface roughness <100 nm) layers with effective electrical insulation for all layer thicknesses and insulator approaches studied. Such highly laminated structures have potential uses ranging from energy conversion to applications where composite materials with highly anisotropic mechanical or thermal properties are required. (paper)

  10. Lateral testing of glued laminated timber tudor arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Philip Line

    2016-01-01

    Glued laminated timber Tudor arches have been in wide use in the United States since the 1930s, but detailed knowledge related to seismic design in modern U.S. building codes is lacking. FEMA P-695 (P-695) is a methodology to determine seismic performance factors for a seismic force resisting system. A limited P-695 study for glued laminated timber arch structures...

  11. Three-dimensional free vibration analysis of thick laminated circular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oke

    Laminated circular plates are commonly used structural component having a broad application in aerospace, civil, mechanical, nuclear, electronic as well as marine ..... sufficient to obtain satisfactory convergence for first five frequency parameters of glass/epoxy laminated circular plates. It is seen that the first axisymmetric ...

  12. Morphing of Bistable Composite Laminates Using Distributed Piezoelectric Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Dano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bistable unsymmetric cross-ply laminates for morphing application has received growing attention in the last few years. So far, most studies use large rectangular piezoelectric Macro Fiber Composite (MFC patches bonded at the center of the laminate to induce snap-through. However, the use of large rectangular MFC patches bonded in the center of the laminates significantly influences the shape of the laminate by greatly reducing the curvature at the midsection of the laminate where the MFC patches are bonded. This paper presents a study where narrow cocured MFC strips distributed over the entire surface are used to induce snap-through of unsymmetric cross-ply laminates. This MFC configuration allows having a more uniform curvature in the laminate. Since the strips are bonded on both sides, reverse snap-through should be obtained. The study was both theoretical and experimental. A finite element nonlinear analysis was used to predict the two stable cylindrical configurations and the snap-through induced by MFC actuation. For the experimental study, a laminate-MFC structure was manufactured and tested. The shapes were measured using a 3D image correlation system as a function of applied voltage. Good correlations for the cylindrical shape and displacement field were observed.

  13. Optimum design of laminated composite under axial compressive load

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study optimal design of composite laminates, with and without rectangular cut-out, is carried out for maximizing the buckling load. Optimization study is carried out for obtaining the maximum buckling load with design variables as ply thickness, cut-out size and orientation of cut-out with respect to laminate.

  14. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam

    2015-02-17

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  15. Thickness effect in composite laminates in static and fatigue loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta Calahorra, F.

    2017-01-01

    Thick Laminates (above 6mm) are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Designs are based on static and fatigue coupon tests performed on 1-4mm thin laminates. However, a thickness effect has been observed in limited available experimental data. For this

  16. Three-dimensional free vibration analysis of thick laminated circular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three-dimensional free vibration analysis of thick laminated circular plates. Sumit Khare, N.D. Mittal. Abstract. In this communication, a numerical analysis regarding free vibration of thick laminated circular plates, having free, clamped as well as simply-supported boundary conditions at outer edges of plates is presented.

  17. Lamins, laminopathies and disease mechanisms: Possible role for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... Lamins are major structural proteins of the nucleus and are essential for nuclear integrity and organization of nuclear functions. Mutations in the human lamin genes lead to highly degenerative genetic diseases that affect a number of different tissues such as muscle, adipose or neuronal tissues, or cause ...

  18. Lamins, laminopathies and disease mechanisms: Possible role for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lamins are major structural proteins of the nucleus and are essential for nuclear integrity and organization of nuclear functions. Mutations in the human lamin genes lead to highly degenerative genetic diseases that affect a number of different tissues such as muscle, adipose or neuronal tissues, or cause premature ageing ...

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of thick embedded laminated glass connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santarsiero, Manuel; Bedon, Chiara; Louter, P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Laminated glass components are usually realized by bonding glass plates using interlayer polymers that develop adhesion forces during lamination. Recently, these adhesion forces have been used also to realize special adhesive connections for structural glass components and assemblies. The typical

  20. Does oral prednisolone treatment increase the incidence of acute laminitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, V J; Ireland, J L; Rendle, D I

    2017-01-01

    It is accepted among equine practitioners that glucocorticoid treatment is a risk factor for the development of laminitis. However, there is little published evidence of a link between glucocorticoids and laminitis. To determine whether horses receiving oral prednisolone are at increased risk of laminitis. Retrospective case-control study. Clinical records of horses registered with the ambulatory service at Liphook Equine Hospital between January 2001 and November 2014 were reviewed retrospectively to identify horses that had received treatment with oral prednisolone. For each treated horse, 2 time-matched controls that received veterinary attention but were not treated with prednisolone were selected. Incidence of laminitis was compared between the 2 groups and factors associated with laminitis were assessed using Cox regression analysis. Of the 416 horses treated with prednisolone, 16 (3.8%) were diagnosed with laminitis subsequent to the initiation of prednisolone treatment with an overall incidence of 2.60 (95% CI 1.49-4.22) cases per 100 horse-years at risk. A total of 7 horses (1.7%) developed laminitis during the course of their treatment and 3 (0.7%) of the horses treated with prednisolone were ultimately subjected to euthanasia as a result of laminitis. A total of 46 (5.7%), of the 814 time-matched control horses were diagnosed with laminitis during the study period with an overall incidence of 3.46 (95% CI 2.54-4.62) cases per 100 horse-years at risk. Of these, 12 (1.5%) were subjected to euthanasia as a result of laminitis. There were no significant differences in the overall laminitis incidence rate (P = 0.8), incidence rate during prednisolone treatment (P = 0.09), or probability of laminitis (P = 0.3) between the 2 groups. Mean survival time was greater in the prednisolone than the control group. Equine metabolic syndrome and increasing age were associated with increased risk of laminitis. Administration of oral prednisolone did not increase the risk

  1. VARIATIONALLY-BASED EFFECTIVE DYNAMIC THICKNESS FOR LAMINATED GLASS BEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Schmidt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Laminated glass, consisting of glass layers connected with transparent foils, has found its applications in civil, automotive, or marine engineering. Due to a high contrast in layer properties, mechanical response of laminated glass structures cannot be predicted using classical laminate theories. On the other hand, engineering applications demand easy-to-use formulas of acceptable accuracy. This contribution addresses such simplified models for free vibrations of laminated glass beams, with the goal to determine their natural frequencies and modal damping properties. Our strategy is to approximate the complex behavior of a laminated structure with that of an equivalent monolithic beam. Its effective thickness is determined by the variational method proposed by Galuppi and Royer-Carfagni for static problems, which we extended for modal analysis. We show that this new approach overcomes inaccuracies of the currently used dynamic effective thickness model by López-Aenlle and Pelayo.

  2. Fatigue Performance of Composite Laminates After Low-velocity Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Xiao-lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Compression-compression fatigue tests were carried out on T300/5405 composite laminates after low-velocity impact, compression performance of the laminates with different impact damages was studied together with its fatigue life and damage propagation under different stress levels, then the effects of impact energy, stress level and damage propagation on fatigue life of laminates were discussed. The results indicate that impact damage can greatly reduce the residual strength of laminates; under low fatigue load levels, the higher impact energy is, the shorter the fatigue life of laminates with impact damage will be; damage propagation undergoes two stages during the fatigue test, namely the steady propagation and the rapid propagation, accounting for 80% and 20% of the overall fatigue life, respectively; damage propagation rate decreases with the reduction of stress level.

  3. The mechanical behavior of GLARE laminates for aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guocai; Yang, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    GLARE (glass-reinforced aluminum laminate) is a new class of fiber metal laminates for advanced aerospace structural applications. It consists of thin aluminum sheets bonded together with unidirectional or biaxially reinforced adhesive prepreg of high-strength glass fibers. GLARE laminates offer a unique combination of properties such as outstanding fatigue resistance, high specific static properties, excellent impact resistance, good residual and blunt notch strength, flame resistance and corrosion properties, and ease of manufacture and repair. GLARE laminates can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications by varying the fiber/resin system, the alloy type and thickness, stacking sequence, fiber orientation, surface pretreatment technique, etc. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of various GLARE laminates under different loading conditions.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.

  5. Deficiencies in lamin B1 and lamin B2 cause neurodevelopmental defects and distinct nuclear shape abnormalities in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinier, Catherine; Jung, Hea-Jin; Nobumori, Chika; Chang, Sandy; Tu, Yiping; Barnes, Richard H; Yoshinaga, Yuko; de Jong, Pieter J; Vergnes, Laurent; Reue, Karen; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G

    2011-12-01

    Neuronal migration is essential for the development of the mammalian brain. Here, we document severe defects in neuronal migration and reduced numbers of neurons in lamin B1-deficient mice. Lamin B1 deficiency resulted in striking abnormalities in the nuclear shape of cortical neurons; many neurons contained a solitary nuclear bleb and exhibited an asymmetric distribution of lamin B2. In contrast, lamin B2 deficiency led to increased numbers of neurons with elongated nuclei. We used conditional alleles for Lmnb1 and Lmnb2 to create forebrain-specific knockout mice. The forebrain-specific Lmnb1- and Lmnb2-knockout models had a small forebrain with disorganized layering of neurons and nuclear shape abnormalities, similar to abnormalities identified in the conventional knockout mice. A more severe phenotype, complete atrophy of the cortex, was observed in forebrain-specific Lmnb1/Lmnb2 double-knockout mice. This study demonstrates that both lamin B1 and lamin B2 are essential for brain development, with lamin B1 being required for the integrity of the nuclear lamina, and lamin B2 being important for resistance to nuclear elongation in neurons.

  6. The clinicopathological significance of lamin A/C, lamin B1 and lamin B receptor mRNA expression in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Umar; Ahmed, Mai Hassan; Bridger, Joanna M; Harvey, Amanda; Jiang, Wen G; Sharma, Anup K; Mokbel, Kefah

    2013-12-01

    Lamin A/C (LMNA), lamin B1 (LMNB1) and lamin B receptor (LBR) have key roles in nuclear structural integrity and chromosomal stability. In this study, we have studied the relationships between the mRNA expressions of A-type lamins, LMNB1 and LBR and the clinicopathological parameters in human breast cancer. Samples of breast cancer tissues (n = 115) and associated non-cancerous tissue (ANCT; n = 30) were assessed using reverse transcription and quantitative PCR. Transcript levels were correlated with clinicopathological data. Higher levels of A-type lamins and LMNB1 mRNA expression were seen in ANCT. Higher lamin A/C expression was associated with the early clinical stage (TNM1 vs. TNM3 - 13 vs. 0.21; p = 0.0515), with better clinical outcomes (disease-free survival vs. mortality - 11 vs. 1; p = 0.0326), and with better overall (p = 0.004) and disease-free survival (p = 0.062). The expression of LMNB1 declined with worsening clinical outcome (disease-free vs. mortalities - 0.0011 vs. 0.000; p = 0.0177). LBR mRNA expression was directly associated with tumor grade (grade 1 vs. grade 3 - 0.00 vs. 0.00; p = 0.0479) and Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI1 vs. NPI3 - 0.00 vs. 0.00; p = 0.0551). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest such a role for A-type lamins, lamin B1 and LBR in human breast cancer, identifying an important area for further research.

  7. Production and Characterization of Laminates of Paper and Cellulose Nanofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi Shivyari, Niloofar; Tajvidi, Mehdi; Bousfield, Douglas W; Gardner, Douglas J

    2016-09-28

    A novel laminate system comprising of sheets of paper bound together using cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) is manufactured and characterized. Bonding properties of CNF were first confirmed through a series of peeling tests. Composite laminates were manufactured from sheets of paper bonded together using CNF at two different consistencies, press times, and press temperatures. Mechanical properties of the laminates in tension and bending were characterized and the results were statistically analyzed. Elastic modulus and strength results met or exceeded those of a short glass fiber reinforced polypropylene and various natural fiber-filled polypropylene composites as well as some wood and paper based laminates. Stiffness properties, assuming perfect bonding within the laminates, were successfully estimated through a classical laminated plate theory (CLPT) with only 2-10% variation compared to experimental results. Laminates, together with CNF-peeled surfaces, were observed and qualitatively analyzed by SEM imaging. Physical properties, namely, water absorption and thickness swelling were measured. Swelling was controlled by the addition of a small percentage of a cross-linking additive.

  8. Mechanical performance of laminated composites incorporated with nanofibrous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Huang, Z.-M.; He, C.L.; Han, X.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of non-woven nanofibrous membranes as interlaminar interfaces on the mechanical performance of laminated composites was investigated experimentally. The nanofibrous membranes are porous, thin and lightweight, and exhibit toughness and strength to some extent. They give little increase in weight and thickness when incorporated into a laminate. More important, they can be used as a functional agent carrier for the laminate. The nanofiber membranes used in this paper were prepared by electrospinning of Nylon-6 (PA6), Epoxy 609 (EPO 1691-410) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), with a thickness ranging from 20 to 150 μm. The non-woven fabrics were attached to one side of a glass/epoxy fabric lamina prior to lamination and each fabric was arranged in between two adjacent plies of the laminate. The nanofibrous membranes were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile testing, whereas the mechanical properties of the laminate were understood in terms of three-point bending and short-beam shear tests. Results have shown that the nanofibrous membranes in the ply interfaces with a proper thickness did not affect the mechanical performance of the composite laminates significantly

  9. A Perspective on the Experimental Techniques for Studying Lamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Pecorari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamins are type V intermediate filaments that collectively form a meshwork underneath the inner nuclear membrane, called nuclear lamina. Furthermore, they are also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are experiencing a growing interest, since a wide range of diseases are induced by mutations in the gene coding for A-type lamins, globally known as laminopathies. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that lamins are involved in other pathological conditions, like cancer. The role of lamins has been studied from several perspectives, exploiting different techniques and procedures. This multidisciplinary approach has contributed to resolving the unique features of lamins and has provided a thorough insight in their role in living organisms. Yet, there are still many unanswered questions, which constantly generate research in the field. The present work is aimed to review some interesting experimental techniques performed so far to study lamins. Scientists can take advantage of this collection for their novel investigations, being aware of the already pursued and consolidated methodologies. Hopefully, advances in these research directions will provide insights to achieve better diagnostic procedures and effective therapeutic options.

  10. A Perspective on the Experimental Techniques for Studying Lamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorari, Ilaria; Borin, Daniele; Sbaizero, Orfeo

    2017-10-10

    Lamins are type V intermediate filaments that collectively form a meshwork underneath the inner nuclear membrane, called nuclear lamina. Furthermore, they are also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are experiencing a growing interest, since a wide range of diseases are induced by mutations in the gene coding for A-type lamins, globally known as laminopathies. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that lamins are involved in other pathological conditions, like cancer. The role of lamins has been studied from several perspectives, exploiting different techniques and procedures. This multidisciplinary approach has contributed to resolving the unique features of lamins and has provided a thorough insight in their role in living organisms. Yet, there are still many unanswered questions, which constantly generate research in the field. The present work is aimed to review some interesting experimental techniques performed so far to study lamins. Scientists can take advantage of this collection for their novel investigations, being aware of the already pursued and consolidated methodologies. Hopefully, advances in these research directions will provide insights to achieve better diagnostic procedures and effective therapeutic options.

  11. Bi-2212/Ag tapes and laminates: effects of bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyushechkin, A.Y.; Yamashita, T.; Williams, B.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting Bi-2212 tapes and laminates are fabricated by a combination of dip-coating and partial melt processing. The heat treated tapes have critical current densities (J c ) up to 11 kA cm -2 . We investigate the degradation of critical current (I c ) during bending experiments for both single tapes and tapes with laminate structure. Although degradation of I c is observed in both forms, the characteristics of the degradation differ. It is determined that laminated tapes perform better than single tapes when critical current is measured against bending radius, and laminated tapes tolerate a higher strain for a given reduction in critical current. It is found that increasing the number of Bi-2212 layers increases the total I c of the laminated tape, but degradation of critical current is more pronounced during bending because of the increased total thickness of the laminate structure. It is also found that addition of silver to the Bi-2212 layers reduces critical current degradation during bending for both tapes and laminates. (author)

  12. Bending strength of shallow glued-laminated beams of a uniform grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine M. Marx; Russell C. Moody

    1981-01-01

    Ninety glued-laminated Douglas-fir or southern pine beams of a uniform grade with 2-, 4-, or 6-laminations were evaluated in static bending tests. No specially graded tension laminations or end joints were used. The purpose of the tests was to determine which of three present design criteria best predict near minimum bending strength values for shallow glued-laminated...

  13. Prospective cohort study evaluating risk factors for the development of pasture-associated laminitis in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies-Gow, N J; Harris, P A; Elliott, J

    2017-05-01

    Certain individuals appear to be predisposed to recurrent pasture-associated laminitis. Previous studies have predominantly investigated risk factors only after disease occurrence. To investigate risk factors for pasture-associated laminitis prior to disease occurrence. Prospective cohort study. Non-laminitic ponies aged ≥7 years were recruited. Body condition score (BCS), height, weight, crest height and thickness were measured and an overnight dexamethasone suppression test performed. Plasma or serum adiponectin, leptin, triglyceride, basal insulin, insulin post-dexamethasone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), IGFBP-3, C-reactive protein, von Willebrand's factor, soluble E-selectin and P-selectin concentrations were assayed. Follow-up data were obtained from owners annually for 3 years to ascertain occurrences of veterinarian-diagnosed pasture-associated laminitis. Data were analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis was performed for significant risk factors and cut-off values determined. A total of 446 animals with a median (interquartile range) age of 15 (10-20) years were recruited. Of these, 50.4% were mares and 49.6% were geldings. The most common breeds were Welsh (36.4%), Shetland (17.0%) and cob (9.4%). Overall, 72.2% of animals were overweight/obese (BCS 7-9/9), 27.3% were of ideal weight (BCS 4-6/9) and 0.5% were underweight (BCS 1-3/9). After 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively, 18 (4.0%), 30 (6.7%) and 44 (9.9%) animals were reported to have had laminitis. Plasma adiponectin, and serum basal (insulin) and (insulin) post-dexamethasone levels were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with laminitis occurrence cumulatively after 1, 2 and 3 years. Use of the area under the ROC curves to distinguish animals that did and did not develop laminitis showed good (basal [insulin] after 1 year), fair (all others) or poor ([insulin] post-dexamethasone) levels of accuracy

  14. Aesthetic Qualities of Cross Laminated Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard

    in the great importance wood has had as a building material throughout history as a naturally occurring, strong, light and workable construction material with various multi-sensuous qualities and great applicability. Over the last two decades, wood as a building material has gained renewed focus, partly due...... to its sustainable profile. In parallel to this, new production methods and further refined timber products have been developed. Among these are the engineered timber-based product Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) that show enhanced structural properties compared to unrefined timber. However, the question......) the materiality of CLT, and 3) how one can deal with these qualitative aspects in the design process. This leads to: firstly, the development of an explicit model to help structuring the analysis and evaluation of the materiality of CLT, and secondly, a clarification and articulation of the aesthetic qualities...

  15. Aesthetic Qualities of Cross Laminated Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard

    to its sustainable profile. In parallel to this, new production methods and further refined timber products have been developed. Among these are the engineered timber-based product Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) that show enhanced structural properties compared to unrefined timber. However, the question...... is what happens to the aesthetic qualities of wood as a building material in this process? What does it mean to the experience and perception of CLT that it is processed to products whose properties differ significantly from those of wood in its raw form? Based on the hypothesis that CLT possesses...... an undefined aesthetic potential that may innovate how we construct and perceive timber architecture, the overall aim of the thesis is to inquire into the architectural and aesthetic qualities of CLT. Through three chapters this thesis examines and discusses 1) the architectural qualities of CLT, 2...

  16. THERMO-VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMER LAMINATE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Truszkiewicz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigated material - laminate is intended as a substrate for small electronic components, electrodes and printed circuits, which are processed onto the laminate prior to thermoforming. The placement of the electronic components and the connecting circuits must be carefully designed to prevent damage during the thermoforming. The thermo-viscoelastic behavior of a polymer laminate film was characterized by mechanical measurements to obtain data for material modeling. The strain was measured using digital image correlation. The film is anisotropic and is able to deform to strains up to 60%.

  17. Modeling delamination of FRP laminates under low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Wen, H. M.; Ren, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic laminates (FRP) have been increasingly used in various engineering such as aeronautics, astronautics, transportation, naval architecture and their impact response and failure are a major concern in academic community. A new numerical model is suggested for fiber reinforced plastic composites. The model considers that FRP laminates has been constituted by unidirectional laminated plates with adhesive layers. A modified adhesive layer damage model that considering strain rate effects is incorporated into the ABAQUS / EXPLICIT finite element program by the user-defined material subroutine VUMAT. It transpires that the present model predicted delamination is in good agreement with the experimental results for low velocity impact.

  18. Nuclear lamins in the brain - new insights into function and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hea-Jin; Lee, John M; Yang, Shao H; Young, Stephen G; Fong, Loren G

    2013-02-01

    The nuclear lamina is an intermediate filament meshwork composed largely of four nuclear lamins - lamins A and C (A-type lamins) and lamins B1 and B2 (B-type lamins). Located immediately adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane, the nuclear lamina provides a structural scaffolding for the cell nucleus. It also interacts with both nuclear membrane proteins and the chromatin and is thought to participate in many important functions within the cell nucleus. Defects in A-type lamins cause cardiomyopathy, muscular dystrophy, peripheral neuropathy, lipodystrophy, and progeroid disorders. In contrast, the only bona fide link between the B-type lamins and human disease is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system - adult-onset autosomal-dominant leukoencephalopathy, caused by a duplication of the gene for lamin B1. However, this leukoencephalopathy is not the only association between the brain and B-type nuclear lamins. Studies of conventional and tissue-specific knockout mice have demonstrated that B-type lamins play essential roles in neuronal migration in the developing brain and in neuronal survival. The importance of A-type lamin expression in the brain is unclear, but it is intriguing that the adult brain preferentially expresses lamin C rather than lamin A, very likely due to microRNA-mediated removal of prelamin A transcripts. Here, we review recent studies on nuclear lamins, focusing on the function and regulation of the nuclear lamins in the central nervous system.

  19. The LMNA mutation p.Arg321Ter associated with dilated cardiomyopathy leads to reduced expression and a skewed ratio of lamin A and lamin C proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Saaidi, Rasha; Rasmussen, Torsten Bloch; Palmfeldt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    degraded. Furthermore, WB analysis showed that the expression of lamin C protein was reduced by the expected approximately 50%. Clearly decreased lamin A and lamin C levels were also observed by immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. However, results from both WB and nano-liquid chromatography...... and sequencing of these PCR products indicated that transcripts from the mutant allele were degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) mechanism. The fact that no truncated mutant protein was detectable in western blot (WB) analysis strengthens the notion that the mutant transcript is efficiently....../mass spectrometry demonstrated that the levels of lamin A protein were more reduced suggesting an effect on expression of lamin A from the wild type allele. PCR analysis of the ratio of lamin A to lamin C transcripts showed unchanged relative amounts of lamin A transcript suggesting that the effect on the wild type...

  20. Finite elements modeling of delaminations in composite laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiotti, m.; Rizzo, C.M.; Branner, Kim

    2011-01-01

    of the buckling strength of composite laminates containing delaminations. Namely, non-linear buckling and post-buckling analyses are carried out to predict the critical buckling load of elementary composite laminates affected by rectangular delaminations of different sizes and locations, which are modelled......The application of composite materials in many structures poses to engineers the problem to create reliable and relatively simple methods, able to estimate the strength of multilayer composite structures. Multilayer composites, like other laminated materials, suffer from layer separation, i.......e., delaminations, which may affect the stiffness and stability of structural components. Especially deep delaminations in the mid surface of laminates are expected to reduce the effective flexural stiffness and lead to collapse, often due to buckling behaviour. This paper deals with the numerical modelling...

  1. Pliocene benthonic foraminifera from homogeneous and laminated marls on Crete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the Pliocene, the paleogeography of central Crete consisted of a number of basins which were filled by predominantly marly sediments. In the sedimentary sequence numerous laminated sapropelic intercalations can be observed. At a higher stratigraphic level diatomaceous laminites appear.

  2. Response to acupuncture treatment in horses with chronic laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Babak; Lee, Dongbin; May, Kevin; Dong, Fanglong

    2017-08-01

    There is a need for evidence-based scientific research to address the question of the effectiveness of acupuncture in improving clinical signs of laminitis in horses. The objective of this study was to compare lameness levels before and after 2 acupuncture treatments in horses with chronic laminitis. Twelve adult horses with chronic laminitis received 2 acupuncture treatments 1 week apart. The points were treated using dry needling, hemo-acupuncture, and aqua-acupuncture. Lameness level was objectively evaluated using an inertial sensor-based lameness evaluation system (Lameness Locator), as well as routine examinations following American Association of Equine Practitioners scoring before the first and 1 week after the second acupuncture treatment. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and P -values equine laminitis.

  3. Tensile strength of glulam laminations of Nordic spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bräuner, Lise; Boström, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Design of glulam according to the European timber code Eurocode 5 is based on the standard document prEN1194 , according to which glulam beam strength is to be established either by full scale testing or by calculation. The calculation must be based on a knowledge of lamination tensile strength....... This knowledge may be obtained either by adopting a general rule that the characteristic tensile strength is sixty percent of the characteristic bending strength, or by performing tensile tests on an adequate number of laminations representative of the whole population. The present paper presents...... an investigation aimed at establishing such an adequate experimental background for the assignment of strength classes for glulam made of visually strength graded laminations from Nordic sawmills. The investigation includes more than 1800 boards (laminations) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) sampled from eight...

  4. Modal analysis of pre and post impacted nano composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velmurugan

    Full Text Available Modal analysis is carried out on pre and post impacted nano composite laminates. The laminates are prepared using 3, 5 and 8 layers of 610gsm glass woven roving mats(WRM with epoxy resin and montmorillonite(MMT clay content is varied from 1% to 5%. Impulse hammer technique is used to find natural frequency and damping factor of laminates. Medium velocity impact tests are conducted by using a gas gun. The vibration responses of natural frequency and damping factor are obtained and are studied for laminates with all edges clamped boundary conditions. Results show considerable improvement in natural frequency and damping factor due to nano clay addition. It is also seen that the nano clay controls the delamination due to impact loading.

  5. Multi-scale effects in the consolidation of thermoplastic laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Akkerman, Remko

    2009-01-01

    Consolidation experiments were performed on thermoplastic composite laminates produced by film- stacking. The results suggest that the consolidation takes place in different stages: plastic deformation of the thermoplastic film, meso-impregnation and finally micro-impregnation. However, the

  6. Equine laminitis: induced by 48 h hyperinsulinaemia in Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; McGowan, C M; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2010-03-01

    Hyperinsulinaemia is known to induce laminitis experimentally in healthy ponies with no history of the condition. Horses are more insulin sensitive than ponies and whether prolonged hyperinsulinaemia and euglycaemia would have a similar laminitogenic effect requires study. To determine if laminitis results when the prolonged euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique (p-EHC) is applied to clinically normal Standardbred horses, and to monitor hoof wall temperature seeking an association between vascular activity and laminitis development. Eight young, clinically normal Standardbred horses were assigned into 4 pairs and within each pair, one was assigned randomly to either treatment (n = 4) or control (n = 4) groups. Treated horses received continuous infusions of insulin and glucose until clinical signs of laminitis developed, at which point the horses were subjected to euthanasia. Control horses received an equivalent volume of a balanced electrolyte infusion for the same period. Hoof wall surface temperature (HWST) was monitored continuously throughout the experimental period. All horses in the treatment group were calculated to have normal insulin sensitivity. All treated horses, and none in the control group, developed laminitis (P = 0.01). Pronounced digital pulses were a feature of the treatment group, while insignificant digital pulses occurred in control horses. HWST was higher and less variable in treated horses once hyperinsulinaemia was established. Healthy Standardbred horses subjected to prolonged hyperinsulinaemia develop laminitis within 48 h, demonstrating that laminitis in horses can be triggered by insulin. Insulin resistance and the associated hyperinsulinaemia place horses and ponies at risk of developing laminitis. This study demonstrates a need for prompt management of the persistent hyperinsulinaemia seen in some endocrinopathies.

  7. Subclinical Laminitis in Dairy Cattle: 205 Selected Cases

    OpenAIRE

    BAKIR, Ali BELGE Bahtiyar

    2005-01-01

    The economic importance of lameness in dairy cattle has newly been recognized in Turkey. Lameness incidence in Turkey has been reported to be between 13% and 58%, which is similar to that of other countries where 4% and 55% incidence rates have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sole lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in the hooves of dairy cattle in Van, Turkey. The risk factors for subclinical laminitis are proposed and discussed. The so...

  8. Dowelled structural connections in laminated bamboo and timber

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Thomas Peter; Sharma, Bhavna; Harries, Kent; Ramage, Michael Hector

    2015-01-01

    Structural sections of laminated bamboo can be connected using methods common in timber engineering, however the different material properties of timber and laminated bamboo suggest that the behaviour of connections in the two materials would not be the same. This study investigates the dowelled connection, in which a connector is passed through a hole in the material, and load is resisted by shear in the connector and embedment into the surrounding material. Steel dowels were used in a conne...

  9. Buckling Analysis of Woven Glass Epoxy Laminated Composite Plate

    OpenAIRE

    M Mohan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Buckling behavior of laminated composite plates subjected to in-plane loads is an important consideration in the preliminary design of aircraft components. The sizing of many structural subcomponents of the aircraft structures is often determined by stability constraints. The objective of the current study is to understand the influence of the length-to-thickness ratio, the aspect ratio, the fiber orientation and the cut-out shapes on the buckling load for the glass epoxy laminated composit...

  10. Tracer Lamination in the Stratosphere: A Global Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenzeller, Christof; Holton, James R.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical soundings of stratospheric ozone often exhibit laminated tracer structures characterized by strong vertical tracer gradients. The change in time of these gradients is used to define a tracer lamination rate. It is shown that this quantity can be calculated by the cross product of the horizontal temperature and horizontal tracer gradients. A climatology based on UARS satellite-borne ozone data and on ozone-like pseudotracer data is presented. Three stratospheric regions with high lamination rates were found: the part of the stratospheric overworld which is influenced by the polar vortex, the part of the lowermost stratosphere which is influenced by the tropopause and a third region in the subtropical lower stratosphere mainly characterized with strong vertical shear. High lamination rates in the stratospheric overworld were absent during summer, whereas in the lowermost stratosphere high lamination rates were found year-round. This is consistent with the occurrence and seasonal variation of the horizontal tracer gradient and vertical shear necessary for tilting the tracer surfaces. During winter, high lamination rates associated with the stratospheric polar vortex are present down to approximately 100 hPa. Several features of the derived climatology are roughly consistent with earlier balloon-borne studies. The patterns in the southern and northern hemisphere are comparable, but details differ as anticipated from a less disturbed and more symmetric southern polar vortex.

  11. Experimental Assessment of Tensile Failure Characteristic for Advanced Composite Laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Keon; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, major airplane manufacturers have been using the laminate failure theory to estimate the strain of composite structures for airplanes. The laminate failure theory uses the failure strain of the laminate to analyze composite structures. This paper describes a procedure for the experimental assessment of laminate tensile failure characteristics. Regression analysis was used as the experimental assessment method. The regression analysis was performed with the response variable being the laminate failure strain and with the regressor variables being two-ply orientation (0° and ±45°) variables. The composite material in this study is a carbon/epoxy unidirectional (UD) tape that was cured as a pre-preg at 177°C(350°F). A total of 149 tension tests were conducted on specimens from 14 distinct laminates that were laid up at standard angle layers (0°, 45°, -45°, and 90°). The ASTM-D-3039 standard was used as the test method.

  12. Experimental Assessment of Tensile Failure Characteristic for Advanced Composite Laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Keon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Won; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    In recent years, major airplane manufacturers have been using the laminate failure theory to estimate the strain of composite structures for airplanes. The laminate failure theory uses the failure strain of the laminate to analyze composite structures. This paper describes a procedure for the experimental assessment of laminate tensile failure characteristics. Regression analysis was used as the experimental assessment method. The regression analysis was performed with the response variable being the laminate failure strain and with the regressor variables being two-ply orientation (0° and ±45°) variables. The composite material in this study is a carbon/epoxy unidirectional (UD) tape that was cured as a pre-preg at 177°C(350°F). A total of 149 tension tests were conducted on specimens from 14 distinct laminates that were laid up at standard angle layers (0°, 45°, -45°, and 90°). The ASTM-D-3039 standard was used as the test method.

  13. Ceramic laminates with tailored residual stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudín, C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe environments imposed by new technologies demand new materials with better properties and ensured reliability. The intrinsic brittleness of ceramics has forced scientists to look for new materials and processing routes to improve the mechanical behaviour of ceramics in order to allow their use under severe thermomechanical conditions. The laminate approach has allowed the fabrication of a new family of composite materials with strength and reliability superior to those of monolithic ceramics with microstructures similar to those of the constituent layers. The different ceramic laminates developed since the middle 1970´s can be divided in two large groups depending on whether the development of residual stresses between layers is the main design tool. This paper reviews the developments in the control and tailoring of residual stresses in ceramic laminates. The tailoring of the thickness and location of layers in compression can lead to extremely performing structures in terms of strength values and reliability. External layers in compression lead to the strengthening of the structure. When relatively thin and highly compressed layers are located inside the material, threshold strength, crack bifurcation and crack arrest during fracture occur.

    Las severas condiciones de trabajo de las nuevas aplicaciones tecnológicas exigen el uso de materiales con mejores propiedades y alta fiabilidad. La potencialidad de uso de materiales frágiles, como los cerámicos, en estas aplicaciones exige el desarrollo de nuevos materiales y métodos de procesamiento que mejoren su comportamiento mecánico. El concepto de material laminado ha permitido la fabricación de una nueva familia de materiales con tensiones de fractura y fiabilidad superiores a las de materiales monolíticos con microestructuras similares a las de las láminas que conforman el laminado. Los distintos materiales laminados desarrollados desde mediados de los años 70 se pueden

  14. Effect of resin system on the mechanical properties and water absorption of kenaf fibre reinforced laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassmann, S.; Paskaramoorthy, R.; Reid, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the mechanical and water absorption properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fibre reinforced laminates made of three different resin systems. The use of different resin systems is considered so that potentially complex and expensive fibre treatments are avoided. The resin systems used include a polyester, a vinyl ester and an epoxy. Laminates of 15%, 22.5% and 30% fibre volume fraction were manufactured by resin transfer moulding. The laminates were tested for strength and modulus under tensile and flexural loading. Additionally, tests were carried out on laminates to determine the impact energy, impact strength and water absorption. The results revealed that properties were affected in markedly different ways by the resin system and the fibre volume fraction. Polyester laminates showed good modulus and impact properties, epoxy laminates displayed good strength values and vinyl ester laminates exhibited good water absorption characteristics. Scanning electron microscope studies show that epoxy laminates fail by fibre fracture, polyester laminates by fibre pull-out and vinyl ester laminates by a combination of the two. A comparison between kenaf and glass laminates revealed that the specific tensile and flexural moduli of both laminates are comparable at the volume fraction of 15%. However, glass laminates have much better specific properties than the kenaf laminates at high fibre volume fractions for all three resins used.

  15. Preliminary Report on Unique Laminated Holocene Sediments from the Qarun Lake in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks Leszek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Qarun (Faiyum Oasis, northern Egypt is a relic of the much larger Holocene lake. Past lake levels and extensions were reconstructed, based on setting of archaeological sites scattered along northern paleoshores of the ancient lake. However, geoarcheological works did not yield enough data to establish continuous environmental history of the lake. A deep drilling FA-1 on the southeastern shore of the lake, performed in 2014, supplied with a core, 26 m long that is the one of the longest lake sediment cores in northeastern Africa. The basal section of the core consisted of thin-laminated diatom marly deposits, underlain at the Late Pleistocene/Holocene boundary by coarse-grained sands. The sediment lamine were quite well developed, especially in the lower part of the core. Preliminary results indicated annually deposited sediment sequence with seasonality signals provided by microlamine of diatoms, calcite, organic matter and clastic material. Early Holocene varved sediments from the Faiyum Oasis supplied with exceptional paleoenvironmental data for northeastern Africa, which enriched a record from previous logs drilled at the southwestern margin of the Qarun Lake.

  16. Association of the glycoxidative stress marker pentosidine with equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, E; Storace, D; Sanguineti, R; Carter, R; Odetti, P; Geor, R; Bergero, D

    2013-06-01

    Ponies suffering from recurrent episodes of laminitis when grazed at pasture (pasture-associated laminitis) exhibit phenotypes similar to those associated with human metabolic syndrome. In humans, evidence suggests that the obesity-related morbidities associated with metabolic syndrome, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are caused by an increase in the production of advanced glycoxidation end-products (AGEs). These end-products have been recognised as putative pro-inflammatory mediators and are considered a 'risk factor' for human health. However, the evaluation of AGEs in laminitic ponies has not been explored. The aim of this study was to compare plasma concentrations of the AGE pentosidine (PENT) in ponies presenting with clinical features of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) with a history of recent laminitis and/or showing signs of laminitis at the time of sampling (LP) with those with no prior history of clinical laminitis (NL). Age, body condition score (BCS) and bodyweight were recorded and blood samples collected for the measurement of plasma concentrations of PENT, glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and cortisol. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the reciprocal of the square root of insulin (RISQI) and the insulin:glucose ratio. Plasma PENT concentrations were twofold higher (Plaminitis is associated with EMS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Steel skin - SMC laminate structures for lightweight automotive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliato, Luca; Jang, Changsoon; Murugesan, Mohanraj; Kim, Naksoo

    2017-09-01

    In the present research work an innovative material, made of steel skin and sheet molding compound core, is presented and is aimed to be utilized for the production of automotive body frames. For a precise description of the laminate structure, the material properties of all the components, including the adhesive utilized as an interlayer, have been carried out, along with the simple tension test of the composite material. The result have shown that the proposed laminate structure has a specific yield strength 114% higher than 6061 T6 aluminum, 34% higher than 7075 T6 aluminum, 186% higher than AISI 304 stainless steel (30HRC) and 42% than SK5 high-strength steel (52HRC), showing its reliability and convenience for the realization of automotive components. After calibrating the material properties of the laminate structure, and utilizing as reference the simple tension results of the laminate structure, the derived material properties have been utilized for the simulation of the mechanical behavior of an automotive B-pillar. The results have been compared with those of a standard B-pillar made of steel, showing that the MS-SMC laminate structure manifests load and impact carry capacity comparable with those of high strength steel, while granting, at least, an 11% weight reduction.

  18. Analytical study for deformability of laminated sheet metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Serror

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While a freestanding high-strength sheet metal subject to tension will rupture at a small strain, it is anticipated that lamination with a ductile sheet metal will retard this instability to an extent that depends on the relative thickness, the relative stiffness, and the hardening exponent of the ductile sheet. This paper presents an analytical study for the deformability of such laminate within the context of necking instability. Laminates of high-strength sheet metal and ductile low-strength sheet metal are studied assuming: (1 sheets are fully bonded; and (2 metals obey the power law material model. The effect of hardening exponent, volume fraction and relative stiffness of the ductile component has been studied. In addition, stability of both uniform and nonuniform deformations has been investigated under plane strain condition. The results have shown the retardation of the high-strength layer instability by lamination with the ductile layer. This has been achieved through controlling the aforementioned key parameters of the ductile component, while the laminate exhibits marked enhancement in strength–ductility combination that is essential for metal forming applications.

  19. Analytical study for deformability of laminated sheet metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serror, Mohammed H

    2013-01-01

    While a freestanding high-strength sheet metal subject to tension will rupture at a small strain, it is anticipated that lamination with a ductile sheet metal will retard this instability to an extent that depends on the relative thickness, the relative stiffness, and the hardening exponent of the ductile sheet. This paper presents an analytical study for the deformability of such laminate within the context of necking instability. Laminates of high-strength sheet metal and ductile low-strength sheet metal are studied assuming: (1) sheets are fully bonded; and (2) metals obey the power law material model. The effect of hardening exponent, volume fraction and relative stiffness of the ductile component has been studied. In addition, stability of both uniform and nonuniform deformations has been investigated under plane strain condition. The results have shown the retardation of the high-strength layer instability by lamination with the ductile layer. This has been achieved through controlling the aforementioned key parameters of the ductile component, while the laminate exhibits marked enhancement in strength-ductility combination that is essential for metal forming applications.

  20. Palliatives for Low Velocity Impact Damage in Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarak Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced polymer laminated composites are susceptible to impact damage during manufacture, normal operation, maintenance, and/or other stages of their life cycle. Initiation and growth of such damage lead to dramatic loss in the structural integrity and strength of laminates. This damage is generally difficult to detect and repair. This makes it important to find a preventive solution. There has been abundance of research dealing with the impact damage evolution of composite laminates and methods to mitigate and alleviate the damage initiation and growth. This article presents a comprehensive review of different strategies dealing with development of new composite materials investigated by several research groups that can be used to mitigate the low velocity impact damage in laminated composites. Hybrid composites, composites with tough thermoplastic resins, modified matrices, surface modification of fibres, translaminar reinforcements, and interlaminar modifications such as interleaving, short fibre reinforcement, and particle based interlayer are discussed in this article. A critical evaluation of various techniques capable of enhancing impact performance of laminated composites and future directions in this research field are presented in this article.

  1. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ruth A; Keen, John A; Walker, Brian R; Hadoke, Patrick W F

    Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL) is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6) and horses with EL (n = 6) destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein) and the facial skin (facial skin arteries) by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M) and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M) was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01). In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006) and veins (P = 0.009) from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  2. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Morgan

    Full Text Available Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6 and horses with EL (n = 6 destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein and the facial skin (facial skin arteries by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01. In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006 and veins (P = 0.009 from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  3. Using lamb waves tomonitor moisture absorption thermally fatigues composite laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sun; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nondestructive evaluation for material health monitoring is important in aerospace industries. Composite laminates are exposed to heat cyclic loading and humid environment depending on flight conditions. Cyclic heat loading and moisture absorption may lead to material degradation such as matrix breaking, debonding, and delamination. In this paper, the moisture absorption ratio was investigated by measuring the Lamb wave velocity. The composite laminates were manufactured and subjected to different thermal aging cycles and moisture absorption. For various conditions of these cycles, not only changes in weight and also ultrasonic wave velocity were measured, and the Lamb wave velocity at various levels of moisture on a carbon-epoxy plate was investigated. Results from the experiment show a linear correlation between moisture absorption ratio and Lamb wave velocity at different thermal fatigue stages. The presented method can be applied as an alternative solution in the online monitoring of composite laminate moisture levels in commercial flights.

  4. Multiscale modeling of damage in multidirectional composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra Veer

    The problem of damage accumulation in laminated composite materials has received much attention due to their widespread application in the aerospace, automotive, civil, and sports industries. In the aerospace industry, composites are used to make light weight and efficient structural components. In the Boeing 787, for example, more than 50% of the structure is made of composite materials. Although there have been significant developments in analyzing cross-ply laminates, none of the present approaches provides reasonable predictions for multidirectional laminates in which intralaminar cracks may form in multiple orientations. Nevertheless, the prediction of damage accumulation and its effect on structural performance is a very difficult problem due to complexity of the cracking processes. This study presents a synergistic damage mechanics (SDM) methodology to analyze damage behavior in multidirectional composite laminates with intralaminar cracks in plies of multiple orientations. SDM combines the strengths of micro-damage mechanics (MDM) and continuum damage mechanics (CDM) in predicting the stiffness degradation due to these cracks. The micromechanics is performed on a representative unit cell using a three-dimensional finite element analysis to calculate the crack opening displacement accounting for the influence of the surrounding plies, the so-called constraint effect. This information is then incorporated in the CDM formulation dealing with laminates containing cracks in different ply orientations through a 'constraint parameter'. Following CDM, a separate damage mode is defined for each type of crack and the expressions for engineering moduli of the damaged laminate are then derived in terms of crack density and the constraint parameter. The SDM methodology is implemented for [0 m/+/- thetan/0 m/2]s laminates containing cracks in +/-theta plies. It is then extended to [0m /+/- thetan/90 r]s and [0m/90 r/+/- thetan] s laminates with cracks additionally in the

  5. Feeding practices and potential risk factors for laminitis in dairy cows in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pilachai, R.

    2013-01-01

    Laminitis is considered an important health problem facing the Thai dairy industry. Although the etiology of laminitis is multifactorial, nutrition is considered an important risk factor. Rumen acidosis, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and histamine may play a role in the development of laminitis in dairy cattle. However, the relevancy of these risk factors in relation to the occurrence of laminitis under practical feeding conditions in Thailand is not clear. In Thailand, dairy rations are generall...

  6. Subclinical laminitis and its association with pO2 and faecal alterations: Isikli, Aydin experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Akin; Deniz Alic Ural; Mehmet Gultekin; Kerem Ural

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. The aim of this field trial was to investigate the relationships among subclinical laminitis, hematological, ruminal and faecal alterations. Materials and Methods. To this extent dairy cows presenting subclinical laminitis (n=11) and to those of other healthy cows without laminitis (n=10) were enrolled and assigned into two groups. All animals were receiving the same daily ration formulated to contain 47% cornsilage and 18% hay, mainly. Effects of subclinical laminitis chal...

  7. Cloning and expression of ADAM related metalloproteases in Equine Laminitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Michael J.; Cousin, Hélène; Loftus, John P.; Johnson, Philip J.; Belknap, James K.; Gradil, Carlos M.; Black, Samuel J.; Alfandari, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Equine laminitis is a debilitating disease affecting the digital laminae that suspends the distal phalanx within the hoof. While the clinical progression of the disease has been well documented, the molecular events associated with its pathogenesis remain largely unknown. We have investigated the expression of genes coding for proteins containing a Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain (ADAM), as well as genes encoding the natural inhibitors of these enzymes (Tissue Inhibitor of MetalloProtease; TIMP) in horses with naturally acquired (acute, chronic and aggravated chronic cases collected in clinic) or experimentally-induced (black walnut extract and starch gruel models) laminitis using real time quantitative RT-PCR. Changes in expression of these enzymes and regulators may underlie the pathologic remodeling of lamellar tissue in laminitis. Genes encoding ADAMs involved in inflammation (ADAM-10 and ADAM-17), as well as those implicated in arthritis (ADAMTS-1, ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5) were cloned, and the sequences used to generate specific oligonucleotide primers for the RT-qPCR experiments. Our results show that genes encoding ADAM-10 and 17 were not induced in most laminitic animals whereas ADAMTS-4 gene expression was strongly upregulated in practically all cases of experimentally induced and naturally acquired laminitis. The expression of MMP-9 and ADAMTS-5 was also increased in many of the laminitic horses. In addition, TIMP-2 gene expression was decreased in most laminitic horses, whereas expression of genes encoding other TIMPs, namely TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 was randomly increased or decreased in the various models. We conclude that elevated expression of lamellar ADAMTS-4 is a common feature of laminitis consistent with a central role of the gene product in the pathophysiology of laminitis. PMID:19131116

  8. Evolution of ice-dammed proglacial lakes in Última Esperanza, Chile: implications from the late-glacial R1 eruption of Reclús volcano, Andean Austral Volcanic Zone Evolución de lagos proglaciales embalsados por hielo en Última Esperanza, Chile: Implicancias de la explosión volcánica tardiglacial R1 del volcán Reclús, Zona Volcánica Austral Andina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Stern

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly described outerops, excavations and sediment cores from the region of Última Esperanza, Magallanes, contain tephra derived from the large late-glacial explosive Rl eruption of the Reclús volcano in the Andean Austral Volcanic Zone. New radiocarbon dates associated to these deposits refine previous estimates of the age, to 14.9 cal kyrs BP (12,670±240 14C yrs BP, and volume, to >5 km³, of this tephra. The geographic and stratigraphic distribution of Rl also place constraints on the evolution of the ice-dammed proglacial lake that existed east of the cordillera in this area between the termination of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and the Holocene. This proglacial lake generated wave-cut terraces, and also caves, such as the Cueva de Milodón, along the highest prominent terrace. The current elevation of these terraces depends on the total amount of post-glacial isostatic rebound, which is unknown. Due to differential rebound, the highest prominent lake terraces decrease in height from west-to-east, from -170 m a.s.l. on Península Antonio Varas west of Seno Ultima Esperanza, to-150 m a.s.l. aroundLago Sofía, anddownto-125 m a.s.l. along their easternmost margin. The presence of thick deposits of Rl tephra in some of the caves around Lago Sofía implies that the proglacial lake had already dropped below its highest level prior to the time of this eruption, and, in fact, even earlier, prior to 16.1 cal kyrs BP (13,560±180 14C yrs BP, when land mammals first oceupied these caves. The depositional environment of Rl in a core from Dumestre bog suggests that the lake level was in fact 70 m a.s.l. until 12.8 cal kyrs BP (10,695±40 14C yrs BP. However, a 14.2 cal kyrs BP (12,125±85 14C yrs BF Mylodon pelvis from a nearby site, located at only -7 m a.s.l., suggests that the lake could have emptied, for at least a brief period, to this low level at this time. This latter datum, combined with the lack of any prominent terraces between the

  9. Visco-piezo-elastic parameter estimation in laminated plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araujo, A. L.; Mota Soares, C. M.; Herskovits, J.

    2009-01-01

    A parameter estimation technique is presented in this article, for identification of elastic, piezoelectric and viscoelastic properties of active laminated composite plates with surface-bonded piezoelectric patches. The inverse method presented uses experimental data in the form of a set...... determining the material parameters for the best fit. The solution of the inverse problem is obtained by gradient-based optimization techniques, through constrained minimization of an error functional, which expresses the deviation of the numerical model's response with respect to the experimentally measured...... data. Results are presented for the estimation of elastic, piezoelectric and viscoelastic properties in laminated plates....

  10. Calculation of deflection for cross laminated timber floor panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarić Ljiljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper analytically calculated values of effective flexural stiffness and deflections of five-layer CLT panels height 14 cm due to the payload defined in Eurocode 1 for floors in residential buildings are compared. Effective flexural stiffness was calculated using Gamma method, K-method and Kreuzinger's analogy. Three floor panels with identical height but with different combinations of lamination thicknesses in cross-layers were analyzed. The panels are 4.5 meters long and 1 meter wide. Lamination thicknesses in cross-sections of panels are 33,4 cm+21,9 cm, then 33 cm+22,5 cm and 52,8 cm.

  11. Multi-material topology design of laminates with strength criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a novel approach for multi-material topology optimization of laminated composite structures where strength constraints are taken into account together with other global structural performance measures. The topology design problem considered contains very...... many design variables, and when strength criteria are included in the problem, a very large number of criteria functions must be considered in the optimization problem to be solved. Thus, block aggregation methods are introduced, such that global strength measures are obtained. These formulations...... are illustrated for multi-material laminated design problems where the maximum failure index is minimized while compliance and mass constraints are taken into account....

  12. Microleakage patterns of porcelain and castable ceramic laminate veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjan, A H; Dunn, J R; Sanderson, I R

    1989-03-01

    This investigation evaluated the microleakage of conventional porcelain and Dicor castable ceramic laminate veneers bonded either entirely on acid-etched enamel or with the cervical margins on dentin. Three brands of light-activated composite resin cement systems were used and compared. Laminate veneers were bonded to extracted human maxillary central incisors and the extent of the marginal microleakage was measured. The findings indicated minimal marginal microleakage under both types of ceramic veneers bonded to all-enamel preparations. A markedly greater leakage at the dentin-composite resin interface was observed in veneers with cervical margins placed on dentin.

  13. Recent developments of discrete material optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik; Sørensen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    This work will give a quick summary of recent developments of the Discrete Material Optimization approach for structural optimization of laminated composite structures. This approach can be seen as a multi-material topology optimization approach for selecting the best ply material and number...... of plies in a laminated composite structure. The conceptual combinatorial design problem is relaxed to a continuous problem such that well-established gradient based optimization techniques can be applied, and the optimization problem is solved on basis of interpolation schemes with penalization...

  14. Optimum single modal and bimodal buckling design of symmetric laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, B.; Reiss, R.; Aung, W.

    1989-01-01

    Variational calculus is used to determine the design that maximizes the resistance of classical symmetric laminates against buckling. The orientations of the constituent orthotropic laminae with respect to the principal axes of the laminate are the design variables. It is shown that the optimal design may not be a point of analyticity of the buckling load. Local analytic extrema are obtained from the design derivatives of the buckling load. Nonanalytic extrema occur whenever the buckling load is a repeated eigenvalue. A novel approach, using a directional design derivative, is employed to determine nonanalytic extrema. Specific examples are presented for biaxial buckling for several different boundary conditions.

  15. Criterion of damage beginning: experimental identification for laminate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiebaud, F.; Perreux, D.; Varchon, D.; Lebras, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a criterion of damage beginning for laminate composite. The materials is a glass-epoxy laminate [+55 deg.,-55 deg.[ n performed by winding filament process. First of all a description of the damage is performed and allows to define a damage variable. Thanks to the potential of free energy, an associated variable is defined. The damage criterion is written by using this last one. The parameter of the criterion is identified using mechanical and acoustical methods. The result is compared and exhibit a good agreement. (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs

  16. Lamin A/C-dependent interaction with 53BP1 promotes cellular responses to DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Markiewicz, Ewa; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    damage. Lamins A/C regulate 53BP1 levels and consequently lamin A/C-null HDF display a 53BP1 null-like phenotype. Our data favour a model in which lamins A/C maintain a nucleoplasmic pool of 53BP1 in order to facilitate its rapid recruitment to sites of DNA damage and could explain why an absence...

  17. Abnormal A-type lamin organization in a human lung carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, BM; Broers, JL; Raymond, Y; de Leij, Louis; Kuijpers, HJH; Caberg, NEH; Ramaekers, Frans C. S.

    We have studied the expression of lamins A and C (A-type lamins) in a lung carcinoma cell line using type-specific monoclonal antibodies, Using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies it was noted that several irregularities in lamin expression exist in the cell line GLC-A1, derived from an

  18. On the drop-weight testing of alumina/aluminum laminated composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, DWT of alumina/aluminum laminated composites was done in order to investigate the effects of lamination type, density with respect to area and mechanical property of backing material on the low velocity ballistic performance of these composites. The experimental results showed that the laminated composite ...

  19. Nuclear lamins and peripheral nuclear antigens during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatten, G.; Schatten, H.; Simerly, C.; Maul, G.G.; Chaly, N.

    1985-07-01

    Nuclear structural changes during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins are traced using four antibodies. The oocytes from virgin female mice, morulae and blastocytes from mated females, and gametes from the sea urchin Lytechnius variegatis are studied using mouse monoclonal antibodies to nuclear lamin A/C, monoclonal antibody to P1, human autoimmune antibodies to lamin A/C, and to lamin B. The mouse fertilization data reveal no lamins on the oocyte; however, lamins are present on the pronuclei, and chromosomes are found on the oocytes and pronuclei. It is detected that on the sea urchin sperm the lamins are reduced to acrosomal and centriolar fossae and peripheral antigens are around the sperm nucleus. The mouse sperm bind lamin antibodies regionally and do not contain antigens. Lamins and antigens are observed on both pronuclei and chromosomes during sea urchin fertilization. Mouse embryogenesis reveals that lamin A/C is not recognized at morula and blastocyst stages; however, lamin B stains are retained. In sea urchin embryogenesis lamin recognition is lost at the blastrula, gastrula, and plutei stages. It is noted that nuclear lamins lost during spermatogenesis are restored at fertilization and peripheral antigens are associated with the surface of chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis and with the periphery of the pronuclei and nuclei during interphase. 32 references.

  20. Feeding practices and potential risk factors for laminitis in dairy cows in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.

    2013-01-01

    Laminitis is considered an important health problem facing the Thai dairy industry. Although the etiology of laminitis is multifactorial, nutrition is considered an important risk factor. Rumen acidosis, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and histamine may play a role in the development of laminitis in dairy

  1. Risk and resilience in the late glacial: A case study from the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. Michael; Aura Tortosa, J. Emili; Garcia-Puchol, Oreto; Riel-Salvatore, Julien G.; Gauthier, Nicolas; Vadillo Conesa, Margarita; Pothier Bouchard, Geneviève

    2018-03-01

    The period spanning the Last Glacial Maximum through early Holocene encompasses dramatic and rapid environmental changes that offered both increased risk and new opportunities to human populations of the Mediterranean zone. The regional effects of global climate change varied spatially with latitude, topography, and distance from a shifting coastline; and human adaptations to these changes played out at these regional scales. To better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of climate change and human social-ecological-technological systems (or SETS) during the transition from full glacial to interglacial, we carried out a meta-analysis of archaeological and paleoenvironmental datasets across the western Mediterranean region. We compiled information on prehistoric technology, land-use, and hunting strategies from 291 archaeological assemblages, recovered from 122 sites extending from southern Spain, through Mediterranean France, to northern and peninsular Italy, as well as 2,386 radiocarbon dates from across this region. We combine these data on human ecological dynamics with paleoenvironmental information derived from global climate models, proxy data, and estimates of coastlines modeled from sea level estimates and digital terrain. The LGM represents an ecologically predictable period for over much of the western Mediterranean, while the remainder of the Pleistocene was increasingly unpredictable, making it a period of increased ecological risk for hunter-gatherers. In response to increasing spatial and temporal uncertainty, hunter-gatherers reorganized different constituents of their SETS, allowing regional populations to adapt to these conditions up to a point. Beyond this threshold, rapid environmental change resulted in significant demographic change in Mediterranean hunter-gatherer populations.

  2. Late Glacial and Holocene Flow Dynamics of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Schmidt, D. N.; Andersen, M. B.; Barker, S.; McCave, I. N. N.

    2014-12-01

    The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge forms a major component of the deep branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and influences the climate system in Northwest Europe. Research has focused on deep convection of the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and its links to climate variability in the North Atlantic. Our understanding of the history of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) is significantly less constrained and yet it accounts for half of the total overflow production today. We focus on the Eirik Drift south of Greenland in the vicinity of the DSOW. Down-core 230Thxs derived sediment focusing factors (Ψ) and measurements of the mean size of sortable silt reveal winnowed sediments during the Last Glacial Maximum and Heinrich 1 suggesting an influx of vigorous southern sourced waters and restricted DSOW production. Reduced overflow may be due to glacial isostatic processes which shoaled the Denmark Strait sill combined with a southward shift of deep convection sites in response to enhanced ice cover in the Nordic Seas. Intensification of the DSOW is evident between 9 and 13ka BP indicating initial deepening of the Denmark Strait sill and northward migration of the locus of deep water production. Ψ values for the Holocene suggest an active DSOW with a shift in the flow regime at 6.8 ka BP indicated by a reduction and subsequent stabilization of mean size sortable silt during the mid-late Holocene. This is corroborated by other studies showing a reorganization of the deep water after 7ka. An establishment of the Labrador Sea Water at intermediate depths altered the density structure of the deep western boundary current and weakened the ISOW. Changes in deep water circulation occur as North Atlantic climate entered Neoglacial cooling determined by Mg/Ca derived sea surface temperatures and abundances of the polar planktic foraminifera species N. pachyderma. They indicate a southward shift of the polar front in response to declining solar insolation during the late Holocene. Combined, our results suggest intimate links between the deep and surface ocean of the Labrador Sea.

  3. Late Glacial and Holocene Climate Change in the subantarctic Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, G.; Moy, C. M.; Vandergoes, M.; Gadd, P.; Riesselman, C. R.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Wilson, G. S.; Visinand, C.

    2017-12-01

    Situated within the core of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, and between the subtropical and subantarctic fronts, the New Zealand subantarctic islands are uniquely positioned to evaluate past ocean and atmospheric change in the middle to high southern latitudes. We collected a series of sediment cores from Auckland Island fjords to produce a high-resolution record of climate change following the Last Glacial Maximum. Physical property and organic geochemical data, Itrax XRF, and visual core descriptions indicate the cores capture several phases of sedimentation. From these studies, we identify four primary sedimentary facies: 1) a deglacial facies exhibiting mm-scale laminae defined by magnetic susceptibility and density contrasts and high counts of elements associated with terrigenous sources; 2) a lacustrine facies defined by very low density, high organic carbon concentrations and low counts of lithophilic elements; 3) a marine transgression facies with moderate density, moderate bioturbation and alternating marine and lacustrine sedimentary components; 4) a marine facies that contains biogenic carbonate. Radiocarbon results indicate deglacial sedimentation was underway in the basin by approximately 19,000 cal yr BP. Lacustrine deposition in ice-free conditions began around 15,600 cal yr BP and continued until marine transgression at approximately 9,500 cal yr BP. During the early Holocene between 11 and 9.5 ka, we observe elevated n-alkane δD values and an overall increase in redox-sensitive elements that signal a combination of warmer atmospheric temperatures and reduced westerly wind strength that drives fjord stratification. Poleward-shifted westerlies south of the Auckland Islands could accommodate these results, but there are few records to corroborate this interpretation. We will discuss these results within the context of developing New Zealand and subantarctic paleoclimate records in order to provide a more comprehensive record of past change.

  4. Correlation of Lake Agassiz Shoreline Deposits Through Reconstruction of Late-Glacial Paleotopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, D.; Matile, G.

    2006-12-01

    During the most recent deglaciation, retreat of the southern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) progressively exposed large expanses of North America. In the central portion of the continent, the wasting LIS acted to impede northward drainage, at times causing water to pool against the ice sheet to form proglacial lakes. The largest of these was Lake Agassiz, which is believed to have existed over a period of ~5000 calendar years. The history of Lake Agassiz was complex as a result of the combined effects of differential glacio-isostatic rebound and the shifting position of the confining northern ice margin. Much of the history of Lake Agassiz was recorded in the form of shoreline and off-shore deposits. The extents of various stages of Lake Agassiz have, in over a century of research, been determined from the distribution and geometry of beach deposits, which are only discontinuously preserved and have been vertically deformed by differential rebound. Many of these beach segments are located in southern Manitoba. In the present study, computer-based reconstructions of the paleobathymetry of Lake Agassiz were used to correlate shoreline deposits with particular lakes stages in an area of southeastern Manitoba between 95 and 98 degrees longitude, and 49 and 51 degrees latitude. The study was conducted using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, as well as isobase curves produced in past work on the basis of the collective geometry of selected shoreline deposits located throughout much the Lake Agassiz basin. A series of 17 maps has been generated, each map depicting the location of the shoreline of Lake Agassiz at the time of a particular lake stage. The overlay of beach deposits on paleoshoreline maps has allowed for the correlation between beach deposits and past lake levels. Isobase data were originally derived from a proportion of the very shoreline deposits being investigated, and thus the correlations do not add to our understanding of the nature of the deformation of the Lake Agassiz basin itself. Instead, this study has allowed numerous unstudied and recently-mapped beach segments to be grouped and correlated with particular stages of Lake Agassiz at high spatial resolution, under an assumption that the characteristics of previously-derived isobases are generally valid across the study region. The study has also allowed for the identification of the likely positions of as-yet- unidentified Lake Agassiz shoreline deposits of particular ages, should such deposits have been preserved to the present.

  5. Sur, a former late-glacial and Holocene lake at the westernmost margin of the Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petr, L.; Žáčková, P.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Píšková, Anna; Křížek, M.; Treml, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2013), s. 239-263 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Geochemistry * Geomorphology * Multi-proxy reconstruction * Palaeobotany * Palaeolimnology * Pannonia Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2013

  6. Late glacial and Holocene sedimentary environments of Quesnel Lake, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Robert; Desloges, Joseph R.

    2012-12-01

    At 512 m Quesnel Lake is the third deepest in North America and at 100 km long its drainage basin spans from the arid interior plateau to the high mountains of the eastern Cordillera where small glaciers are a significant source of sediment. In most of the lake sediment is 0 to 40 m thick, reaching a maximum of just over 100 m thick near the junction of the three arms. Cores from three locations in the lake provide evidence that the entire Holocene record is contained in the upper 4 to 6 m of the sedimentary record where rates of accumulation have been constant or have decreased slowly. The highest rates (0.35 to 0.72 mm/a) occur near points of inflow, while the lowest rate (0.22 mm/a) occurs in a sheltered environment with limited inflow, and significant hypolimnic circulation which may flush water and suspended sediment from the water column. Late Pleistocene sediment beneath has a similar acoustic signature to the cored Holocene record above, suggesting that the sedimentary processes governing its deposition were not greatly different than in the present lake but that extensive glacial and paraglacial sources contributed to a significantly higher rate of accumulation. Mazama ash analyzed from two locations near points of inflow has an age of 7576 ± 60 cal. BP according to our chronology. Vivianite, which is uncommon in lakes of the Cordillera, occurs in the middle of the cores mainly associated with macroscopic wood fragments and indicates reducing conditions within the sediment.

  7. 78 FR 23591 - Certain Prepregs, Laminates, and Finished Circuit Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... connection with this investigation are or will be available for inspection during official business hours (8... VENTEC-Global Laminates USA LLC based on a consent order. On April 10, 2009, the Commission issued notice... consent order issued against TUC on April 10, 2009, based on a settlement agreement and license. Also on...

  8. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    laminates and composites was done by tensile test. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Materials. In the present investigation, two different types of kraft papers and an ONP (old news paper) were fibre- reinforced using jute fibre of average diameter, 0⋅045 mm and tensile strength, 470 MPa. Thickness, tensile strength and weight of ...

  9. Design Optimisation of Practical Variable Stiffness and Thickness Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, D.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The use of composite materials in airplanes has been increasing over the last decades, mainly due to the high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio of composites. Traditionally, the possible fibre angles are often restricted to 0°, ±45° and 90°, referred to as conventional laminates.

  10. Photodegradation in ballistic laminates: Spectroscopy and lifetime extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; Stallard, B.R.; White, C.A.; Garcia, M.J.; Morse, H.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Properties of Organic Materials Dept.

    1996-06-01

    Several years ago, the Materials and Process Sciences Center (Org. 1800) was asked by Dept. 9613 to study the materials aging issues which had led to the loss of ballistic protection by Armored Tractor (AT) windshields and windows. The authors speculated that this loss of impact strength was due to photodegradation of the polycarbonate (PC) inboard ply. They developed a spectroscopic method to identify changes in the outboard surface of the PC, and showed that the changes in the surface which occurred upon natural aging in the field could be reproduced by exposing the laminates to a simulated solar flux. Based on these results, they recommended changes in the adhesive interlayers to filter out the ultraviolet (UV) light causing the aging problem. Working with the laminate vendor, PPG, they re-designed the laminates to implement these changes and block essentially all UV light from the inboard ply. The most recent phase of this work involved accelerated solar aging of laminates made with the new design to verify that photoaging effects have been blocked by the new materials. They report here the results of that study, and recommended follow-on work.

  11. Bending analysis of laminated composite plates using finite element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a number of finite element analyses have been carried out for various side-to-thickness ratios, aspect ratios and modulus ratios to study the effect of transverse shear deformation on deflection and stresses of laminated composite plates subjected to uniformly distributed load. The numerical results showed, ...

  12. Laser cutting of metal laminates: analysis and experimental validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.F.; Meijer, J.

    2000-01-01

    Laser cutting has been investigated for a number of aluminum–synthetic laminates, newly developed materials for the aeronautic and automotive industry. The materials consist of alternating aluminum and synthetic layers. It is shown that these materials can be cut at the same speed as homogeneous

  13. Laser cutting of laminated sheet material: a modeling exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.F.; Meijer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Laser cutting has been investigated for a number of aluminum-synthetic laminates, newly developed materials for the aeronautic and automotive industry. The materials consist of alternating aluminum and synthetic layers. It is shown that these materials can be cut at rates comparable to those of

  14. The extrinsic influence of carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The intrinsic advantages of strengthening the steel-based structures by the use of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) material have not yet been fully exploited. In this paper, a succinct overview of recent studies made to enhance the strength of steel beams using FRP laminates is presented. The results presented and ...

  15. Chapter 1: CLT Introduction to cross-laminated timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan Gagnon; E.M.(Ted) Bilek; Lisa Podesto; Pablo Crespell

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber ( CLT), a new generation of engineered wood product developed initially in Europe, has been gaining increased popularity in residential and non-residential applications in several countries. Many impressive low- and mid-rise buildings built around the world using CLT showcase the many advantages this product has to offer to the construction...

  16. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Jute fibre; laminated paper composite; plastic bag pollution. 1. Introduction. Since the development of plastic in the ... that contaminate soils and water bodies and enter even the food chains. It may also be noted that a very ... poor tear resistance are major hurdles in their use as widely acceptable wrapping and packaging ...

  17. Repair of white oak glued-laminated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence A. Soltis; Robert J. Ross

    1999-01-01

    Connections between steel side plates and white oak glued-laminated beams subjected to tension perpendicular-to-grain stresses were tested to failure. The beams were then repaired with five different configurations using two sizes of lag screws, with and without steel reinforcing plates. The repaired beams were re-tested to failure. Results indicate that in all...

  18. Nonlinear Vibrations of 3D Laminated Composite Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoykov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for 3D laminated composite beams, that is, beams that can vibrate in space and experience longitudinal and torsional deformations, is derived. The model is based on Timoshenko’s theory for bending and assumes that, under torsion, the cross section rotates as a rigid body but can deform longitudinally due to warping. The warping function, which is essential for correct torsional deformations, is computed preliminarily by the finite element method. Geometrical nonlinearity is taken into account by considering Green’s strain tensor. The equation of motion is derived by the principle of virtual work and discretized by the p-version finite element method. The laminates are assumed to be of orthotropic materials. The influence of the angle of orientation of the laminates on the natural frequencies and on the nonlinear modes of vibration is presented. It is shown that, due to asymmetric laminates, there exist bending-longitudinal and bending-torsional coupling in linear analysis. Dynamic responses in time domain are presented and couplings between transverse displacements and torsion are investigated.

  19. Damage in woven CFRP laminates subjected to low velocity impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H; Abdel-Wahab, A A; Harland, A R; Silberschmidt, V V

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fabric-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large dynamic bending deformations caused by impact loading. Composite materials subjected to such loads demonstrate various damage modes such as matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage evolution in these materials affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These processes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation and non-destructive examination of internal damage in composite laminates. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in woven composite laminates due to low-velocity dynamic out-of-plane bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of such laminates under large-deflection dynamic bending in un-notched specimens in Izod tests using a Resil Impactor. A series of low-velocity impact tests is carried out at various levels of impact energy to assess the energy absorbed and force-time response of CFRP laminates. X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to investigate material damage modes in the impacted specimens. X-ray tomographs revealed that through-thickness matrix cracking, inter-ply delamination and intra-ply delamination, such as tow debonding and fabric fracture, were the prominent damage modes.

  20. Blunt and Sharp Notch Behaviour of Glare Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Glare laminates are materials that consist of alternating aluminium and glass prepreg layers especially designed for aeroplane structures. The result is a material that combines the properties of its constituents and the properties of a bonded structure. Some of the favourable characteristics of

  1. Piezoelectrically strained bistable laminates with macro fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew J.; Moosavian, Amin; Inman, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The bistability and snap through capability of an unsymmetric laminate consisting of only Macro Fiber Composites (MFC) are investigated. The non-linear analysis predicts two cylindrically stable configurations when strain anisotropy is piezoelectrically induced within a [0MFC/90MFC]T laminate. This is achieved by bonding two MFCs in their actuated states and releasing the voltage post cure to create in-plane residual stresses. The minimization of total potential energy with the Rayleigh-Ritz method are used to analytically model the resulting laminate. A finite element analysis is conducted in MSC Nastran using the piezoelectric-thermal analogy approach to verify the analytical results. The effects of adhesive properties, bonding cure cycles, MFC layup, and its geometry on the curvatures, displacements, and bifurcation voltages are characterized. Finally, the snap through and reverse snap through capabilities with piezoelectric actuation are demonstrated. This adaptive laminate functions as both the actuator and the primary structure and allows large deformations under a non-continuous energy input. Its snap through capability allows full configuration control necessary in morphing applications.

  2. Dual Teichmüller and lamination spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, Vladimir V.; Goncharov, Alexander B.

    2007-01-01

    We survey explicit coordinate descriptions for two versions of Teichmüller and lamination spaces for open surfaces, and extend them to the more general set-up of surfaces with distinguished collections of points on the boundary. Main features, such as mapping class group action, Poisson and sympl...

  3. Thermoviscoelastic characterization and prediction of Kevlar/epoxy composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1990-01-01

    The thermoviscoelastic characterization of Kevlar 49/Fiberite 7714A epoxy composite lamina and the development of a numerical procedure to predict the viscoelastic response of any general laminate constructed from the same material were studied. The four orthotropic material properties, S sub 11, S sub 12, S sub 22, and S sub 66, were characterized by 20 minute static creep tests on unidirectional (0) sub 8, (10) sub 8, and (90) sub 16 lamina specimens. The Time-Temperature Superposition-Principle (TTSP) was used successfully to accelerate the characterization process. A nonlinear constitutive model was developed to describe the stress dependent viscoelastic response for each of the material properties. A numerical procedure to predict long term laminate properties from lamina properties (obtained experimentally) was developed. Numerical instabilities and time constraints associated with viscoelastic numerical techniques were discussed and solved. The numerical procedure was incorporated into a user friendly microcomputer program called Viscoelastic Composite Analysis Program (VCAP), which is available for IBM PC type computers. The program was designed for ease of use. The final phase involved testing actual laminates constructed from the characterized material, Kevlar/epoxy, at various temperatures and load level for 4 to 5 weeks. These results were compared with the VCAP program predictions to verify the testing procedure and to check the numerical procedure used in the program. The actual tests and predictions agreed for all test cases which included 1, 2, 3, and 4 fiber direction laminates.

  4. Bending analysis of laminated composite plates using finite element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Laminated composite plate structures find numerous applications in aerospace, military and automotive industries. The role of transverse shear .... node i about vector {b}. Note that the nodal translations are in global Cartesian space, and the nodal rotations are based on the element (s-t) space. 2.2. Stress-strain relationship.

  5. Nonlinear oscillations of laminated plates using an accurate four ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    differential equation. This equation is solved by employing the direct numerical integration method. A series of numerical examples are solved to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed element. Keywords. Nonlinear oscillations; unsymmetrically laminated plates; finite element method; direct numerical integration method.

  6. Design of Multiple Bolted Connections for Laminated Veneer Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjen Yeh; Douglas Rammer; Jeff Linville

    2014-01-01

    The design of multiple bolted connections in accordance with Appendix E of the National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS) has incorporated provisions for evaluating localized member failure modes of row and group tear-out when the connections are closely spaced. Originally based on structural glued laminated timber (glulam) members made with all L1...

  7. Characterisation of fibre metal laminates under thermomechanical loadings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenbeek, M.

    2005-01-01

    Fibre metal laminates, such as Arall or Glare, can offer improved properties compared to monolithic materials. Glare for example shows improved fatigue, residual strength, burn-through, impact and corrosion properties with respect to aluminium 2024, together with a considerable weight reduction and

  8. Laminated Ti-Al composites: Processing, structure and strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yan; Fan, Guohua; Yu, Tianbo

    2016-01-01

    . The mechanical properties of the composites with different volume fractions of Al from 10% to 67% show a good combination of strength and ductility. A constraint strain in the hot-rolled laminated structure between the hard and soft phases introduces an elastic-plastic deformation stage, which becomes more...

  9. Damage in woven CFRP laminates subjected to low velocity impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, H.; Abdel-Wahab, A. A.; Harland, A. R.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    Carbon fabric-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large dynamic bending deformations caused by impact loading. Composite materials subjected to such loads demonstrate various damage modes such as matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage evolution in these materials affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These processes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation and non-destructive examination of internal damage in composite laminates. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in woven composite laminates due to low-velocity dynamic out-of-plane bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of such laminates under large-deflection dynamic bending in un-notched specimens in Izod tests using a Resil Impactor. A series of low-velocity impact tests is carried out at various levels of impact energy to assess the energy absorbed and force-time response of CFRP laminates. X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to investigate material damage modes in the impacted specimens. X-ray tomographs revealed that through-thickness matrix cracking, inter-ply delamination and intra-ply delamination, such as tow debonding and fabric fracture, were the prominent damage modes.

  10. Optimum design of laminated composite under axial compressive load

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... c/a ratio: 0.2. 3. Results and discussion. Both symmetric and anti-symmetric laminates, with simply supported and clamped edges are considered for computation. The validation of the genetic algorithm code is carried out on three sets of problems for which results are available. The tests problems are hard globalization ...

  11. Fracture behaviour of alumina and zirconia thin layered laminate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlup, Zdeněk; Hadraba, Hynek; Slabáková, L.; Drdlík, D.; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 9 (2012), s. 2057-2061 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD106/09/H035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Ceramics * Laminates * Crack propagation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.360, year: 2012

  12. Bending analysis of laminated composite plates using finite element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In the past, the structural behavior of plates and shells using the finite element method has been studied by a variety of approaches. Choudhary and Tungikar ... (2011) presented the nonlinear static analysis of a rectangular laminated composite thick plate resting on nonlinear two-parameter elastic foundation with cubic.

  13. Damage and Failure of Non-Conventional Composite Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    For a long time, the application of composite materials was restricted to military aircraft and secondary structures of commercial aircraft. Furthermore, the design possibilities offered by composite laminates were narrowed to quasi-isotropic configurations due to their closer behaviour with

  14. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  15. Mechanical properties of small-scale wood laminated composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2004-01-01

    Power companies in the United States consume millions of solid wood poles every year. These poles are from high-valued trees that are becoming more expensive and less available. wood laminated composite poles (LCP) are a novel alternative to solid wood poles. LCP consists of trapezoid wood strips that are bonded by a synthetic resin. The wood strips can be made from...

  16. Computational Fatigue Life Analysis of Carbon Fiber Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Shrimukhi G.; Chandrashekara, C. V., Dr.

    2018-02-01

    In the present scenario, many traditional materials are being replaced by composite materials for its light weight and high strength properties. Industries like automotive industry, aerospace industry etc., are some of the examples which uses composite materials for most of its components. Replacing of components which are subjected to static load or impact load are less challenging compared to components which are subjected to dynamic loading. Replacing the components made up of composite materials demands many stages of parametric study. One such parametric study is the fatigue analysis of composite material. This paper focuses on the fatigue life analysis of the composite material by using computational techniques. A composite plate is considered for the study which has a hole at the center. The analysis is carried on (0°/90°/90°/90°/90°)s laminate sequence and (45°/-45°)2s laminate sequence by using a computer script. The life cycles for both the lay-up sequence are compared with each other. It is observed that, for the same material and geometry of the component, cross ply laminates show better fatigue life than that of angled ply laminates.

  17. The effect of sea water on laminated wooden material

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... In the present study, black pine samples laminated with epoxy and polyurethane glues were treated with various wood preservative chemicals and made subject to seawater for one year. The samples were examined from the point of view of physical features such as changes in odor and color as well as.

  18. Process-induced viscoelastic stress in composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stango, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has developed in evaluating the stress response of composite laminates which is associated with cooling the material system from the cure temperature to room temperature. This research examines the fundamental nature of time-dependent residual-thermal stresses in composite laminates which are caused by the extreme temperature reduction encountered during the fabrication process. Viscoelastic stress in finite-width, symmetric composite laminates is examined on the basis of a formulation that employs an incremental hereditary integral approach in conjunction with a quasi-three dimensional finite element analysis. A consistent methodology is developed and employed for the characterization of lamina material properties. Special attention is given to the time-dependent stress response at ply-interface locations near the free-edge. In addition, the influence of cooling path on stress history is examined. Recently published material property data for graphite-epoxy lamina is employed in the analysis. Results of the investigation generally indicate that nominal differences between the thermoelastic and viscoelastic solutions are obtained. Slight changes of the final stress state are observed to result when different cooling paths are selected for the temperature history. The methodology employed is demonstrated to result in an accurate, efficient, and consistent approach for the viscoelastic analysis of advanced composite laminates

  19. Consolidation process model for film stacking glass/PPS laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Akkerman, Remko

    2010-01-01

    A model is proposed to optimise the processing parameters for the consolidation of glass/polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) laminates using a film stacking procedure. In a split approach, the heating and consolidation phase are treated separately. The heating phase is modelled using the one-dimensional

  20. Chapter 4: Lateral design of cross-laminated timber buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer; Marjan Popovski; Phil Line; Shiling Pei; Steven E. Pryor

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an innovative wood product that was developed approximately two decades ago in Europe and has since been gaining in popularity. Based on the experience of European researchers and designers, it is believed that CLT can provide the U.S. market the opportunity to build mid- and high-rise wood buildings. This Chapter presents a summary of...

  1. Chapter 5: Connections Connections in cross-laminated timber buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Mohammad; Bradford Douglas; Douglas Rammer; Steven E. Pryor

    2013-01-01

    The light weight of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products combined with the high level of prefabrication involved, in addition to the need to provide wood-based alternative products and systems to steel land concrete, have significantly contributed to the development of CLT products and systems, especially in mid-rise buildings (5 to 9 stories). While this product is...

  2. Buckling Analysis of Laminate Short Beams by High Order Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamza madjid berrabah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The transverse shear behavior of the composite beams can be critical and must therefore be properly represented by the various models of structures normally used to predict their behavior or to identify their properties. We propose in this work, a warpage analysis in short laminated beams using a simple analytical approach based on the theories of higher order.

  3. The effect of sea water on laminated wooden material

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... The effect of sea water on laminated wooden material. Murat Ozalp1, Osman Percin1 and Suleyman .... It can resist against acids, fats, boiling water and microorganisms. Curing time is 60 min at room ..... Morrell J, Miller D (1988). Wood preservation and wood products treatment training manual. Oregon ...

  4. Finite element analyses of wood laminated composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Finite element analyses using ANSYS were conducted on orthotropic, polygonal, wood laminated composite poles subjected to a body force and a concentrated load at the free end. Deflections and stress distributions of small-scale and full-size composite poles were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in an experimental study. The predicted deflection for both...

  5. Preliminary investigation of crack arrest in composite laminates containing buffer strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goree, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanical properties of some hybrid buffer strip laminates and the crack arrest potential of laminates containing buffer strips were determined. The hybrid laminates consisted of graphite with either S-glass, E-glass, or Kevlar. Unnotched tensile coupons and center-cracked fracture coupons were tested. Elastic properties, complete stress/strain curves, and critical stress intensity values are given. The measured elastic properties compare well with those calculated by classical lamination theory for laminates with linear stress/strain behavior. The glass hybrids had more delamination and higher fracture toughness than the all-graphite or the Kevlar hybrid.

  6. A limiting analysis for edge effects in angle-ply laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, P. W.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    A zeroth order solution for edge effects in angle ply composite laminates using perturbation techniques and a limiting free body approach was developed. The general method of solution for laminates is developed and then applied to the special case of a graphite/epoxy laminate. Interlaminar stress distributions are obtained as a function of the laminate thickness to width ratio h/b and compared to existing numerical results. The solution predicts stable, continuous stress distributions, determines finite maximum tensile interlaminar normal stress for two laminates, and provides mathematical evidence for singular interlaminar shear stresses.

  7. Mechanics of damping for fiber composite laminates including hygro-thermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated mechanics theory was developed for the modeling of composite damping from the micromechanics to the laminate level. Simplified, design oriented equations based on hysteretic damping are presented for on-axis plies, off-axis plies, and laminates including the effect of temperature, moisture, and interply hysteretic damping. The temperature rise within vibrating composite laminates resulting from strain energy dissipation is also modeled, and their coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical response is predicted. The method correlates well with reported damping measurements. Application examples illustrate the effect of various ply, laminate, and hygro-thermal parameters on the overall damping performance of composite laminates.

  8. The LMNA mutation p.Arg321Ter associated with dilated cardiomyopathy leads to reduced expression and a skewed ratio of lamin A and lamin C proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saaidi, Rasha; Rasmussen, Torsten B.; Palmfeldt, Johan; Nissen, Peter H.; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Hansen, Jakob; Pinto, Yigal M.; Boesen, Thomas; Mogensen, Jens; Bross, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by cardiac chamber enlargement and reduced systolic function of the left ventricle. Mutations in the LMNA gene represent the most frequent known genetic cause of DCM associated with disease of the conduction systems. The LMNA gene generates two major transcripts encoding the nuclear lamina major components lamin A and lamin C by alternative splicing. Both haploinsuffiency and dominant negative effects have been proposed as disease mechanism for premature termination codon (PTC) mutations in LMNA. These mechanisms however are still not clearly established. In this study, we used a representative LMNA nonsense mutation, p.Arg321Ter, to shed light on the molecular disease mechanisms. Cultured fibroblasts from three DCM patients carrying this mutation were analyzed. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and sequencing of these PCR products indicated that transcripts from the mutant allele were degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) mechanism. The fact that no truncated mutant protein was detectable in western blot (WB) analysis strengthens the notion that the mutant transcript is efficiently degraded. Furthermore, WB analysis showed that the expression of lamin C protein was reduced by the expected approximately 50%. Clearly decreased lamin A and lamin C levels were also observed by immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. However, results from both WB and nano-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry demonstrated that the levels of lamin A protein were more reduced suggesting an effect on expression of lamin A from the wild type allele. PCR analysis of the ratio of lamin A to lamin C transcripts showed unchanged relative amounts of lamin A transcript suggesting that the effect on the wild type allele was operative at the protein level. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis showed no abnormal nuclear morphology of patient fibroblast cells. Based on these data, we propose that

  9. The LMNA mutation p.Arg321Ter associated with dilated cardiomyopathy leads to reduced expression and a skewed ratio of lamin A and lamin C proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saaidi, Rasha [Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Rasmussen, Torsten B. [Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Palmfeldt, Johan [Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Nissen, Peter H. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Beqqali, Abdelaziz [Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hansen, Jakob [Department of Forensic Medicine, Bioanalytical Unit, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Pinto, Yigal M. [Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boesen, Thomas [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Mogensen, Jens [Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Bross, Peter, E-mail: peter.bross@ki.au.dk [Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by cardiac chamber enlargement and reduced systolic function of the left ventricle. Mutations in the LMNA gene represent the most frequent known genetic cause of DCM associated with disease of the conduction systems. The LMNA gene generates two major transcripts encoding the nuclear lamina major components lamin A and lamin C by alternative splicing. Both haploinsuffiency and dominant negative effects have been proposed as disease mechanism for premature termination codon (PTC) mutations in LMNA. These mechanisms however are still not clearly established. In this study, we used a representative LMNA nonsense mutation, p.Arg321Ter, to shed light on the molecular disease mechanisms. Cultured fibroblasts from three DCM patients carrying this mutation were analyzed. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and sequencing of these PCR products indicated that transcripts from the mutant allele were degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) mechanism. The fact that no truncated mutant protein was detectable in western blot (WB) analysis strengthens the notion that the mutant transcript is efficiently degraded. Furthermore, WB analysis showed that the expression of lamin C protein was reduced by the expected approximately 50%. Clearly decreased lamin A and lamin C levels were also observed by immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. However, results from both WB and nano-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry demonstrated that the levels of lamin A protein were more reduced suggesting an effect on expression of lamin A from the wild type allele. PCR analysis of the ratio of lamin A to lamin C transcripts showed unchanged relative amounts of lamin A transcript suggesting that the effect on the wild type allele was operative at the protein level. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis showed no abnormal nuclear morphology of patient fibroblast cells. Based on these data, we propose that

  10. Influences of lamin A levels on induction of pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfeng Zuo

    2012-09-01

    Lamin A is an inner nuclear membrane protein that maintains nuclear structure integrity, is involved in transcription, DNA damage response and genomic stability, and also links to cell differentiation, senescence, premature aging and associated diseases. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells have been successfully generated from various types of cells and used to model human diseases. It remains unclear whether levels of lamin A influence reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotent states during iPS induction. Consistently, lamin A is expressed more in differentiated than in relatively undifferentiated somatic cells, and increases in expression levels with age. Somatic cells with various expression levels of lamin A differ in their dynamics and efficiency during iPS cell induction. Cells with higher levels of lamin A show slower reprogramming and decreased efficiency to iPS cells. Furthermore, depletion of lamin A by transient shRNA accelerates iPS cell induction from fibroblasts. Reduced levels of lamin A are associated with increased expression of pluripotent genes Oct4 and Nanog, and telomerase genes Tert and Terc. On the contrary, overexpression of lamin A retards somatic cell reprogramming to iPS-like colony formation. Our data suggest that levels of lamin A influence reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells and that artificial silencing of lamin A facilitates iPS cell induction. These findings may have implications in enhancing rejuvenation of senescent or older cells by iPS technology and manipulating lamin A levels.

  11. Lamination and end plate design studies of SSC Low Energy Booster magnet prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.

    1993-01-01

    The LEB machine includes six kinds of laminated magnets and 4 kinds of laminations. The main quadrupole magnet and low field and high field corrector quadrupoles use the same lamination shape. The chromaticity sextupole, corrector dipole, and main dipole have different lamination designs. To test the physical design and production procedure for the magnets, it is necessary to build 2 or 3 prototypes for each kind of magnet. The ZVI plant in Moscow, manufactured all 4 kinds of lamination punching dies for the LEB magnets. Each die takes 3 to 5 months to fabricate. SSCL manufactured laser cut laminated magnet prototypes in the SSC shop at the same time. Since the LEB cycles at 10 Hz, the high frequency current and laminated end plate design causes a delamination problem on the magnet end. This problem is of concern and will be addressed

  12. Prophylactic digital cryotherapy is associated with decreased incidence of laminitis in horses diagnosed with colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, A; Holcombe, S J; Hurcombe, S D; Roessner, H A; Hauptman, J G; Geor, R J; Belknap, J

    2014-09-01

    Recent research suggested that prophylactic digital cryotherapy (ICE) improved lameness scores, diminished histological changes and early laminar inflammatory signalling in horses following oligofructose administration. In clinical practice, horses at risk for sepsis-associated laminitis receive ICE. Evidence to support this practice is lacking. To determine factors associated with development of laminitis in horses diagnosed with colitis, including ICE. Multicentre retrospective case series. Medical records for horses admitted to 2 university hospitals diagnosed with colitis with evidence of systemic inflammatory response from 2002 to 2012 were reviewed. Horses were excluded if they exhibited signs of laminitis at admission, were ponies, miniature or draught breeds, or laminitis. Seven of 69 (10%) horses treated with ICE developed laminitis compared with 20/61 (33%) horses that developed laminitis but did not receive ICE. Factors associated with laminitis included site of hospitalisation, admission respiratory rate (↑) and blood L-lactate (↑), and ICE (↓), Plaminitis compared with horses treated without ICE (odds ratio 0.11, 95% confidence limit 0.03-0.44). Sixteen horses (16/130, 12%) were subjected to euthanasia in hospital. Fourteen of these horses had laminitis and 2 did not develop laminitis. Survival for horses with colitis that developed laminitis was 13/27 (48%) compared with survival for horses with colitis that did not develop laminitis, 101/103 (98%). Laminitis occurred in more clinically compromised horses. Use of ICE reduced the incidence of clinical laminitis in the study population suggesting that digital cryotherapy is an effective prophylactic strategy for the prevention of laminitis in horses with colitis. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Southern East African climate recorded in laminated sediments of Lake Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. T.; Katsev, S.

    2012-12-01

    Southern East African climate recorded in laminated sediments of Lake Malawi Annually laminated sediments from the northern basin of Lake Malawi (southern East Africa) provide a high-resolution record of regional environmental history for the past several centuries in a region where climate records are particularly scarce. The Lake Malawi Scientific Drilling Program recovered core (MAL05-2A) from this basin that yielded an 80 kyr record showing a tropical component of millennial scale climate fluctuations during MIS 3 and 4. In addition, northern Lake Malawi sediments recorded decade-to-century scale variations during the "Little Ice Age." To evaluate the response of this system to 21st Century changes in climate and shifts in regional land use, a series of multicores was recovered in January 2012. We developed a working varve-counting chronology that is consistent with previous studies of cores from nearby locations, but includes an additional 14 years of sediment accumulated since previous field programs, allowing evaluation of recent environmental changes in a broader context. Bulk elemental composition of sediments were evaluated using an ITRAX XRF core scanner; these results may be used as proxies for fluxes of terrigenous and biogenic sediments, as well as provenance indicators for the terrigenous material. During much of the 20th Century, lake productivity appears to increase in response to greater wind stress, and to positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions. However, signals in the uppermost sediments appear to be overprinted by the impact of changing land use in the basin, notably conversion of hill-slope forests to agriculture, leading to enhanced input of terrigenous materials.

  14. Preparation of Chitin-PLA laminated composite for implantable application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Nasrin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the possibilities of using locally available inexpensive waste prawn shell derived chitin reinforced and bioabsorbable polylactic acid (PLA laminated composites to develop new materials with excellent mechanical and thermal properties for implantable application such as in bone or dental implant. Chitin at different concentration (1–20% of PLA reinforced PLA films (CTP were fabricated by solvent casting process and laminated chitin-PLA composites (LCTP were prepared by laminating PLA film (obtained by hot press method with CTP also by hot press method at 160 °C. The effect of variation of chitin concentration on the resulting laminated composite's behavior was investigated. The detailed physico-mechanical, surface morphology and thermal were assessed with different characterization technique such as FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA. The FTIR spectra showed the characteristic peaks for chitin and PLA in the composites. SEM images showed an excellent dispersion of chitin in the films and composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that the complete degradation of chitin, PLA film, 5% chitin reinforced PLA film (CTP2 and LCTP are 98%, 95%, 87% and 98% respectively at temperature of 500 °C. The tensile strength of the LCTP was found 25.09 MPa which is significantly higher than pure PLA film (18.55 MPa and CTP2 film (8.83 MPa. After lamination of pure PLA and CTP2 film, the composite (LCTP yielded 0.265–1.061% water absorption from 30 min to 24 h immerse in water that is much lower than PLA and CTP. The increased mechanical properties of the laminated films with the increase of chitin content indicated good dispersion of chitin into PLA and strong interfacial actions between the polymer and chitin. The improvement of mechanical properties and the results of antimicrobial and cytotoxicity of the composites also evaluated and revealed the composite would be a suitable candidate for implant application in biomedical

  15. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  16. Hygrothermal Effect on Mechanical and Fatigue Properties of laminated Lower Limb Socket and Bacteria Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhel Abbas Abdullah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hygrothermal effect on the mechanical and fatigue properties of prosthetic socket lamination and its effect on the bacteria growth were studied. Two laminations composite materials were used in manufacturing prosthetic socket by using vacuum device. The reinforced materials of these laminations were perlon and carbon nanopowder (CNP while the matrix material was polyurethane resin. Tests performed in this work were the moisture absorption properties test to calculate percent moisture content according to ASTM 5229, tensile and fatigue tests with and without the hygrothermal effect to find the mechanical and fatigue properties, and the bacteria growth test under the hygrothermal effect to calculate the number of bacteria on the laminations. The results showed that the lamination (10 perlon+1 wt % CNP has mechanical properties than lamination (10 perlon with and without hygrothermal effect. The mechanical and fatigue properties for the two laminations were decreasing with increasing temperature and moisture.. Adding carbon nanopowder to the lamination (10 perlon increased ultimate stress, modulus of elastic, and endurance limit by (1.36, 2.35, and2.72 time respectively. Finally, the results showed that the Staphylococcus aureus growth increases with increasing temperature and moisture on the two laminations used in manufacturing prosthetic socket, and adding carbon nanopowder also increased the Staphylococcus aureus growth on the lamination.

  17. Hygrothermal effects on the tensile strength of carbon/epoxy laminates with molded edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Geraldo Maurício

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interlaminar stresses are confined to a region near the free edge. Therefore, the laminate stacking sequence and the free edge finishing are some of the factors that affect the strength of the laminate and limit its life. The use of molded edges eliminates the need for trimming and machining the laminates edges thus improving productivity. However, this fabrication technique may have a detrimental effect on the laminate strength for certain stacking sequences. This effect in the presence of moisture has not been characterized. This work presents the results of a comparative study of the resistance to delamination of laminates with machined edges and molded edges. Additionally, two environmental conditions were considered: dry laminates and laminates saturated with moisture. The tensile strength of the laminates were measured and micrographs were used to analyze the microstructure of the laminates near the free edges. It is concluded that the mechanical properties of advanced composites depend on the environmental conditions and the fabrication techniques used to produce the laminates. Therefore, it is necessary to account for these factors when experimentally determining the design allowables.

  18. A low frequency vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric laminate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Suna; Chae, Song Hee; Choi, Yunhee; Lee, Seungjun; Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Lee, Hyang Woon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric laminate composite and a springless spherical permanent magnet as a proof mass. The harvester utilizes a freely movable spherical permanent magnet to transform external vibration into a time varying magnetic field applied to the magnetoelectric transducer. The laminate composite consists of a Ni–Mn–Ga-based MSMA (magnetic shape memory alloy) element and a PZT (lead zirconate titanate) plate. A proof-of-concept harvester has been fabricated and characterized at various input accelerations and frequencies. A maximum open circuit voltage of 1.18 V has been obtained in response to a 3g vibration at 17 Hz with the fabricated device. Moreover, a maximum output voltage of 10.24 V and output power of 4.1 μW have been achieved on a 950 Ω load, when the fabricated energy harvester was mounted on a smartphone and shaken by hand. (paper)

  19. Development of failure criterion for Kevlar-epoxy fabric laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Elliott, W. G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis is discussed. In particular, emphasis is given to the fabrication and testing of Kevlar-49 fabric (Style 285)/Narmco 5208 Epoxy. The quadratic-failure criterion with F(12)=0 provides accurate estimates of failure stresses for the Kevlar/Epoxy investigated. The cubic failure criterion was re-cast into an operationally easier form, providing the engineer with design curves that can be applied to laminates fabricated from unidirectional prepregs. In the form presented no interaction strength tests are required, although recourse to the quadratic model and the principal strength parameters is necessary. However, insufficient test data exists at present to generalize this approach for all undirectional prepregs and its use must be restricted to the generic materials investigated to-date.

  20. Bovine pododermatitis aseptica diffusa (laminitis) aetiology, pathogenesis, treatment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgasa, M N

    1987-01-01

    Pododermatitis aseptica diffusa (laminitis) is a major cause of lameness and discomfort to cattle with resultant economic losses. The disease is a result of multifactorial aetiology most of which is not clearly understood. Feeding readily fermentable carbohydrates to unaccustomed cattle predisposes to the disease. Histamine, lactic acid and endotoxins are believed to be involved. Systemic acidosis, histaminosis and endotoxaemia are thought to produce the pathophysiological characteristics of laminitis. The diagnosis is primarily based on the observation of symmetrical and bilateral lesions in hooves and characteristic lameness affecting all feet. Gross lesions include concavity of the dorsal wall, discolorations in the sole and rotation of the pedal bone. Degenerative changes and arteriosclerosis are constant histological findings in the corium, with chronic thrombi and chronic granulation tissue. The disease may be treated conservatively and by application of cyclo-oxygenase inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prevented or controlled by proper feeding and management practices.

  1. On a Four-Node Quadrilateral Plate for Laminated Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elias Abdalla Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract An assessment of the efficiency and convergence characteristics of a four-node quadrilateral plate finite element in the analysis of laminated composites is performed. The element, which is suitable for global response analysis, is developed in the framework of the strain gradient notation such that its modeling capabilities as well as modeling deficiencies can be physically interpreted by the analyst during the formulation process. Thus, shear locking typically encountered in four-noded plate elements is identified as caused by spurious terms which appear in the shear strain polynomial expansions. These identified spurious terms are removed a priori such that shear locking does not occur during numerical analysis and numerical remedies do not need to be applied. Stress solutions for different laminated plates are presented to demonstrate that the corrected model converges well to reference solutions.

  2. Modelling low velocity impact induced damage in composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents recent progress on modelling low velocity impact induced damage in fibre reinforced composite laminates. It is important to understand the mechanisms of barely visible impact damage (BVID) and how it affects structural performance. To reduce labour intensive testing, the development of finite element (FE) techniques for simulating impact damage becomes essential and recent effort by the composites research community is reviewed in this work. The FE predicted damage initiation and propagation can be validated by Non Destructive Techniques (NDT) that gives confidence to the developed numerical damage models. A reliable damage simulation can assist the design process to optimise laminate configurations, reduce weight and improve performance of components and structures used in aircraft construction.

  3. An inelastic constitutive equation of fiber reinforced plastic laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, Y.; Murakami, S.; Mizobe, T. [Univ. of Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-01-01

    A constitutive model for describing the time-dependent inelastic deformation of unidirectional and symmetric angle-ply CFRP (carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) laminates is developed. The kinematic hardening creep law of Malinin and Khadjinsky and the evolution equation of Armstrong and Frederick are extended to describe the creep deformation of initially anisotropic materials. In particular, the evolution equations of the back stresses of the anisotropic material were formulated by introducing a transformed strain tensor, by which the expression of the equivalent strain rate of the anisotropic material has the identical form as that of the isotropic materials. The resulting model is applied to analyze the time-dependent inelastic deformation of symmetric angle-ply laminates. Comparison between the predictions and the experimental observations shows that the present model can describe well the time-dependent inelastic behavior under different loadings.

  4. Delamination modeling of laminate plate made of sublaminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormaníková, Eva; Kotrasová, Kamila

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the mixed-mode delamination of plates made of sublaminates. To this purpose an opening load mode of delamination is proposed as failure model. The failure model is implemented in ANSYS code to calculate the mixed-mode delamination response as energy release rate. The analysis is based on interface techniques. Within the interface finite element modeling there are calculated the individual components of damage parameters as spring reaction forces, relative displacements and energy release rates along the lamination front.

  5. Lamin A/C and polymeric actin in genome organization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondřej, V.; Lukášová, Emilie; Kroupová, Jana; Matula, P.; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2008), s. 356-361 ISSN 1016-8478 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040508; GA MŠk(CZ) LC535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : lamin A/C * polymeric actin * chromosome territories Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.023, year: 2008

  6. Estimation of piezoelastic and viscoelastic properties in laminated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araujo, A. L.; Soares, C. M. Mota; Herskovits, J.

    2009-01-01

    An inverse method for material parameter estimation of elastic, piezoelectric and viscoelastic laminated plate structures is presented. The method uses a gradient based optimization technique in order to solve the inverse problem, through minimization of an error functional which expresses...... the difference between experimental free vibration data and corresponding numerical data produced by a finite element model. The complex modulus approach is used to model the viscoelastic material behavior, assuming hysteretic type damping. Applications that illustrate the influence of adhesive material...

  7. Capacitive short circuit detection in transformer core laminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Carl A.; Duchesne, Stephane; Roger, Daniel; Vincent, Jean-Noel

    2008-01-01

    A capacitive measurement procedure is proposed that serves to detect burr-induced short circuits in transformer core laminations. The tests are conducted on stacks of transformer steel sheets as used for transformer core production and yield a short-circuit probability indicative of the additional eddy current losses to be expected. Applied during the assembly of transformer cores, the measurements can help to decide whether the burr treatment process is working efficiently or has to be readjusted

  8. A failure scenario of ceramic laminates with strong interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Štegnerová, Kateřina; Máša, Bohuslav; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 167, NOV (2016), s. 56-67 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09347S; GA MŠk LM2015069 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Damage mechanism * Ceramic laminates * Residual stresses * Strain energy density factor * Crack propagation direction Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.151, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013794416301783

  9. On a Four-Node Quadrilateral Plate for Laminated Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla Filho, João Elias; Belo, Ivan Moura; Dow, John Otto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An assessment of the efficiency and convergence characteristics of a four-node quadrilateral plate finite element in the analysis of laminated composites is performed. The element, which is suitable for global response analysis, is developed in the framework of the strain gradient notation such that its modeling capabilities as well as modeling deficiencies can be physically interpreted by the analyst during the formulation process. Thus, shear locking typically encountered in four-n...

  10. Relationship of structure and stiffness in laminated bamboo composites

    OpenAIRE

    Penellum, Matthew; Sharma, Bhavna; Shah, Darshil Upendra; Foster, Robert; Ramage, Michael Hector

    2018-01-01

    Laminated bamboo in structural applications has the potential to change the way buildings are constructed. The fibrous microstructure of bamboo can be modelled as a fibre-reinforced composite. This study compares the results of a fibre volume fraction analysis with previous experimental beam bending results. The link between fibre volume fraction and bending stiffness shows that differences previously attributed to preservation treatment in fact arise due to strip thickness. Composite t...

  11. Condensed tannin-resorcinol adducts in laminating adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; Roland E. Kreibich

    1985-01-01

    A condensed tannin-resorcinol adduct made by co-reaction of an extract from southern pine bark with resorcinol at a 2 to 1 weight ratio was used to prepare a laminating resin in which the entire amount of resorcinol normally used was replaced by this adduct. The resin was formulated into a room temperature setting adhesive that meets the basic criteria of product...

  12. Fatigue damage mechanism and strength of woven laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J.; Bathias, C.

    1993-01-01

    The apparent secant stiffness changes with the cyclic number for both unnotched and notched woven laminated specimens (two orthotropic and one quasi-isotropic) during tensile fatigue test at a fixed ratio of maximum fatigue load to UTS were observed. The observable damage initiation and evolution as a function of the cyclic number were directly measured at the notched specimen surface with a video-camera system. The fatigue strengths of the unnotched and notched specimens were determined. The results show that the normalized apparent secant stiffness change curves as a function of cyclic numbers can be divided into three stages. For the first and the second stages in notched specimens and for total life of unnotched specimens, the damage has not been evidently observed and certainly verified with the traditional experimental methods such as radiography and microscopy although many acoustic emission signals can be obtained. The last stage for the notched specimens (N/Nf>0.4, the secant stiffness decreases fast) corresponds to the initiation and evolution of the observable damages. The fatigue strength of these woven composite laminates is dominated by the third stage during which the observable damage develops along the specimen ligament until fracture. During the third stage, a critical dimension at the specimen ligament and a life threshold can be found beyond which a final catastrophic fracture will immediately occur. The quasi-isotropic laminate is of a fatigue strength lower than the two orthotropic laminates of which the fatigue strengths are approaching to each other. The fatigue life is also influenced by the stacking sequences. (orig.)

  13. On the stabilization of viscoelastic laminated beams with interfacial slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Muhammad I.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we consider a viscoelastic laminated beam model. This structure is given by two identical uniform layers on top of each other, taking into account that an adhesive of small thickness is bonding the two surfaces and produces an interfacial slip. We use viscoelastic damping with general assumptions on the relaxation function and establish explicit energy decay result from which we can recover the optimal exponential and polynomial rates. Our result generalizes the earlier related results in the literature.

  14. Cellular and humoral immunity in chronic equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Samantha M; Johnson, Daisy; Wagner, Bettina; Stokes, Ashleym; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2013-06-15

    Chronic equine laminitis causes persistent pain and lameness in affected animals and often necessitates euthanasia when pain management strategies become ineffective. Published studies as well as anecdotal reports suggest that this chronic inflammatory disease is associated with systemic alterations in immune responsiveness, perhaps involving an autoimmune component. We investigated this broad hypothesis by measuring a variety of immune indicators in healthy control horses (CON) and horses with chronic laminitis (LMN). We found that white blood cells from LMN horses produced more IFNγ than did cells from CON horses when stimulated in vitro with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], possibly due to an elevated number of circulating monocytes. No differences between groups were observed in plasma concentrations of IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, or rheumatoid factor. Laminar tissue from LMN horses expressed elevated levels of keratinocyte damage-related genes as well as inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which corresponded with a modest amount of neutrophil infiltration as shown by histological staining of fixed tissue and accumulation of neutrophil elastase protein. Taken together, our results do not support the hypothesis of an autoimmune component in chronic laminitis, although the strong induction of neutrophil chemokines and the presence of tissue neutrophils suggests that this cell type is likely involved in perpetuating the inflammation and tissue damage associated with this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Parametric study on patch repaired CFRP laminates using FEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashfuddoja, M.; Ramji, M. [Indian Institute of Technology. Engineering Optics Lab. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates have become popular for structural applications as they are lighter, stronger and tougher. Composite structures are also susceptible to damage while in service. For improved service life, the damage needs to be repaired so that repair structure integrity is enhanced. Various parameters like patch size and shape, it's layup sequence and adhesive thickness would influence the performance of the repaired structure. In present work, a parametric study is carried out using finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the influence of various parameters involved in composite repair. The panel is made of carbon / epoxy composite laminate with stacking sequence of (0/{+-}45/900)s and is subjected to tensile load. Damaged CFRP laminates is repaired by symmetrical patch adhesively bonded over the damaged area. Circular patch of different stacking sequence and size is considered. Influence of adhesive material and it's thickness on repair efficiency is also investigated. The influence of various repair parameters on peel stress is also analysed. (Author)

  16. Fatigue crack growth in fiber-metal laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, YuE; Xia, ZhongChun; Xiong, XiaoFeng

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-metal laminates (FMLs) consist of three layers of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 and two layers of glass/epoxy prepreg, and it (it means FMLs) is laminated by Al alloy and fiber alternatively. Fatigue crack growth rates in notched fiber-metal laminates under constant amplitude fatigue loading were studied experimentally and numerically and were compared with them in monolithic 2024-T3 Al alloy plates. It is shown that the fatigue life of FMLs is about 17 times longer than monolithic 2024-T3 Al alloy plate; and crack growth rates in FMLs panels remain constant mostly even when the crack is long, unlike in the monolithic 2024-T3 Al alloy plates. The formula to calculate bridge stress profiles of FMLs was derived based on the fracture theory. A program by Matlab was developed to calculate the distribution of bridge stress in FMLs, and then fatigue growth lives were obtained. Finite element models of FMLs were built and meshed finely to analyze the stress distributions. Both results were compared with the experimental results. They agree well with each other.

  17. Structural Analysis of Composite Laminates using Analytical and Numerical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghi Divya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A laminated composite material consists of different layers of matrix and fibres. Its properties can vary a lot with each layer’s or ply’s orientation, material property and the number of layers itself. The present paper focuses on a novel approach of incorporating an analytical method to arrive at a preliminary ply layup order of a composite laminate, which acts as a feeder data for the further detailed analysis done on FEA tools. The equations used in our MATLAB are based on analytical study code and supply results that are remarkably close to the final optimized layup found through extensive FEA analysis with a high probabilistic degree. This reduces significant computing time and saves considerable FEA processing to obtain efficient results quickly. The result output by our method also provides the user with the conditions that predicts the successive failure sequence of the composite plies, a result option which is not even available in popular FEM tools. The predicted results are further verified by testing the laminates in the laboratory and the results are found in good agreement.

  18. Damage in woven CFRP laminates under impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, H.; Harland, A. R.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large dynamic bending deformations caused by impact loading. Composite materials subjected to such loads demonstrate various damage modes such as matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage evolution affects both in-service properties and performance of CFRP that can deteriorate with time. These failure modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation and numerical simulations. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates due to dynamic bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of a woven CFRP material under large-deflection dynamic bending in impact tests carried out to obtain the force-time and absorbed energy profiles for CFRP laminates. Damage in the impacted laminates is analysed using optical microscopy. Numerical simulations are performed to study the deformation behaviour and damage in CFRP for cases of large-deflection bending based on three-dimensional finite-element models implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the initiation and progression of inter-ply delamination observed in the microscopy studies. The obtained results of simulations show good agreement with experimental data.

  19. Stability and morphing characteristics of bistable composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Samer A.

    The focus of the current research is to investigate the potential of using bistable unsymmetric cross-ply laminated composites as a means for achieving structures with morphed characteristics. To this end, an investigation of the design space for laminated composites exhibiting bistable behavior is undertaken and the key parameters controlling their behavior are identified. For this purpose a nonlinear Finite Element methodology using ABAQUS(TM) code is developed to predict both the cured shapes and the stability characteristics of unsymmetric cross-ply laminates. In addition, an experimental program is developed to validate the analytically predicted results through comparison with test data. A new method is proposed for attaching piezoelectric actuators to a bistable panel in order to preserve its favorable stability characteristics as well as optimizing the actuators performance. The developed nonlinear FE methodology is extended to predict the actuation requirements of bistable panels. Actuator requirements, predicted using the nonlinear FE analysis, are found to be in agreement with the test results. The current research also explores the potential for implementing bistable panels for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) wing configuration. To this end, a set of bistable panels is manufactured by combining symmetric and unsymmetric balanced and unbalanced stacking sequence and their stability characteristics are predicted. A preliminary analysis of the aerodynamic characteristics of the manufactured panels is carried out and the aerodynamic benefits of manufactured bistable panel are noted.

  20. 3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.

  1. Curing of Thick Thermoset Composite Laminates: Multiphysics Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, S.; Dhaliwal, G. S.; Huo, Z.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Apetre, N.; Iyyer, N.

    2017-11-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used in high-performance aerospace applications as they are resistant to fatigue, corrosion free and possess high specific strength. The mechanical properties of these composite components depend on the degree of cure and residual stresses developed during the curing process. While these parameters are difficult to determine experimentally in large and complex parts, they can be simulated using numerical models in a cost-effective manner. These simulations can be used to develop cure cycles and change processing parameters to obtain high-quality parts. In the current work, a numerical model was built in Comsol MultiPhysics to simulate the cure behavior of a carbon/epoxy prepreg system (IM7/Cycom 5320-1). A thermal spike was observed in thick laminates when the recommended cure cycle was used. The cure cycle was modified to reduce the thermal spike and maintain the degree of cure at the laminate center. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the effect of air flow in the oven, post cure cycles and cure temperatures on the thermal spike and the resultant degree of cure in the laminate.

  2. Damage in woven CFRP laminates under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberschmidt V.V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large dynamic bending deformations caused by impact loading. Composite materials subjected to such loads demonstrate various damage modes such as matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage evolution affects both in-service properties and performance of CFRP that can deteriorate with time. These failure modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation and numerical simulations. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates due to dynamic bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of a woven CFRP material under large-deflection dynamic bending in impact tests carried out to obtain the force-time and absorbed energy profiles for CFRP laminates. Damage in the impacted laminates is analysed using optical microscopy. Numerical simulations are performed to study the deformation behaviour and damage in CFRP for cases of large-deflection bending based on three-dimensional finite-element models implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the initiation and progression of inter-ply delamination observed in the microscopy studies. The obtained results of simulations show good agreement with experimental data.

  3. The function of lamins in the context of tissue building and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; McDole, Katie; Zheng, Yixian

    2012-01-01

    Lamins are the major structural components of the nuclear lamina found in metazoan organisms. Extensive studies using tissue culture cells have shown that lamins are involved in a wide range of basic cell functions. This has led to the prevailing idea that a given animal cell needs at least one lamin protein for its basic proliferation and survival. However, recent studies have shown that lamins are dispensable for the proliferation and survival of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC). In contrast to a lack of essential functions in ESCs, certain differentiated cells lacking B-type lamins exhibit increased cell cycle exit rates and enhanced senescence. In this Extra View, we discuss how studies using animal models and cell cultures have begun to reveal cell-type specific functions of lamins in tissue building and homeostasis.

  4. Load bearing enhancement of pin joined composite laminates using electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibers were produced by an electrospinning technique and directly deposited onto carbon fabric to improve the load bearing strength of pin joined composite laminates. Two types of specimens, virgin laminates and nano-modified laminates, were prepared. A modified carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminate was fabricated by interleaving electrospun nanofibers at all of the interlayers of an eight-ply woven carbon fiber fabric. The load bearing test results of the pin joined laminates indicated the electrospun PAN nanofibers increased the load bearing strength by 18.9%. In addition, three point bending tests were also conducted to investigate the flexural modulus and flexural strength of both types of laminates. The flexural modulus and flexural strength also increased by 20.9% and 55.91%, respectively.

  5. Coupled mixed-field laminate theory and finite element for smart piezoelectric composite shell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1996-01-01

    Mechanics for the analysis of laminated composite shells with piezoelectric actuators and sensors are presented. A new mixed-field laminate theory for piezoelectric shells is formulated in curvilinear coordinates which combines single-layer assumptions for the displacements and a layerwise representation for the electric potential. The resultant coupled governing equations for curvilinear piezoelectric laminates are described. Structural mechanics are subsequently developed and an 8-node finite-element is formulated for the static and dynamic analysis of adaptive composite structures of general laminations containing piezoelectric layers. Evaluations of the method and comparisons with reported results are presented for laminated piezoelectric-composite plates, a closed cylindrical shell with a continuous piezoceramic layer and a laminated composite semi-circular cantilever shell with discrete cylindrical piezoelectric actuators and/or sensors.

  6. Impact Response of Quasi-Isotropic Asymmetric Carbon Fabric/Epoxy Laminate Infused with MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nand Kishore Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of embedding multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs on low velocity impact response of quasi-isotropic asymmetric laminate of plain woven carbon fabric/epoxy was investigated. Laminates were embedded with 0 wt.%, 2 wt.%, and 5 wt.% MWCNTs to improve impact resistance. Impact in laminates was conducted according to ASTM D7136 standard at an impact energy of 94.14 J corresponding to the impact velocity of 6 m/sec. Energy-time response, force-time response, and pyramidal damage area of laminates doped with varying weight percentage (wt.% of MWCNTs were quantified and compared with laminate without MWCNTs. Absorbed impact energy increases by 13.53% on doping of 2 wt.% MWCNTs, whereas it decreases by 10.49% on doping 5 wt.% MWCNTs. Damage area is reduced on doping 2 wt.% MWCNTs in laminate.

  7. Laminae type and possible mechanisms for the formation of laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, northern Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Seeberg-Elverfeldt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, a brine-filled basin in the northern Red Sea, were analyzed with backscattered electron imagery. Here we present possible mechanisms involved in the formation of laminae of various types and homogenous intervals arising from the detailed investigation of multicore GeoB 7805-1 (26°13.9' N and 35°22.6' E; water depth 1447 m and gravity core GeoB 5836-2 (26°12.61' N, 35°21.56' E; water depth 1475 m. Sediment makeup includes six types: a a laminated structure with alternating light (mainly coccoliths and dark (diatom frustules layers, where the diatom component is indicative of the intra-annual variability between stratification and mixing events; b a pocket-like structure attributed to the sinking of particles within fecal pellets and aggregates; c a matrix of tightly packed diatoms that relates to extended stratification/mixing periods of the water column; d homogenous intervals that result from turbidity deposition; e silt accumulations which origin may lie in agglutinated foraminifers; and f pyrite layers with pyrite formation initiated at the seawater-brine interface.

  8. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  9. Advanced glycation endproducts in horses with insulin-induced laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Kyaw-Tanner, M T; Sillence, M N; McGowan, C M; Pollitt, C C

    2012-01-15

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, inflammatory conditions and diabetic complications. An interaction of AGEs with their receptor (RAGE) results in increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing damage to susceptible tissues. Laminitis, a debilitating foot condition of horses, occurs in association with endocrine dysfunction and the potential involvement of AGE and RAGE in the pathogenesis of the disease has not been previously investigated. Glucose transport in lamellar tissue is thought to be largely insulin-independent (GLUT-1), which may make the lamellae susceptible to protein glycosylation and oxidative stress during periods of increased glucose metabolism. Archived lamellar tissue from horses with insulin-induced laminitis (n=4), normal control horses (n=4) and horses in the developmental stages (6h, 12h and 24h) of the disease (n=12) was assessed for AGE accumulation and the presence of oxidative protein damage and cellular lipid peroxidation. The equine-specific RAGE gene was identified in lamellar tissue, sequenced and is now available on GenBank. Lamellar glucose transporter (GLUT-1 and GLUT-4) gene expression was assessed quantitatively with qRT-PCR in laminitic and control horses and horses in the mid-developmental time-point (24 h) of the disease. Significant AGE accumulation had occurred by the onset of insulin-induced laminitis (48 h) but not at earlier time-points, or in control horses. Evidence of oxidative stress was not found in any group. The equine-specific RAGE gene was not expressed differently in treated and control animals, nor was the insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT-4. However, the glucose transporter GLUT-1 was increased in lamellar tissue in the developmental stages of insulin-induced laminitis compared to control horses and the insulin-independent nature of the lamellae may facilitate AGE formation. However, due to the lack of

  10. Numerical evaluation of delamination in CFRP laminates by stereo X-ray pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunoo, Kazuo; Uda, Nobuhide; Ono, Kousei; Onohara, Kaoru; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hisahiro.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for quantifying damage in composite laminates by stereo X-ray pictures. A three dimensional image of delamination, which is one of the characteristic types of damage in composite laminates can be reconstructed with this method. A digital image processing technique is used to analyze X-ray pictures. Experimental results of reconstructing delaminations in carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates show that this method is accurate enough for practical usage. (author)

  11. Field performance of timber bridges. 9, Big Erick`s stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Kainz; J. P. Wacker; M. Nelson

    The Big Erickas bridge was constructed during September 1992 in Baraga County, Michigan. The bridge is 72 ft long, 16 ft wide, and consists of three simple spans: two stress-laminated deck approach spans and a stress-laminated box center span. The bridge is unique in that it is one of the first known stress-laminated timber bridge applications to use Eastern Hemlock...

  12. Field performance of timber bridges. 13, Mohawk Canal stress-laminated bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. D. Hilbrich Lee; X. Lauderdale

    The Mohawk Canal bridge was constructed in August 1994, just outside Roll, Arizona. It is a simple-span, double-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure, approximately 6.4 m (21 ft) long and 10.4 m (34 ft) wide and constructed with Combination 16F-V3 Douglas Fir glued-laminated timber beam laminations. The performance of the bridge was monitored continuously for 2...

  13. Analysis of three-phase power transformer laminated magnetic core designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Levin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and research into properties and parameters of different-type laminated magnetic cores of three-phase power transformers are conducted. Most of new laminated magnetic core designs are found to have significant shortcomings resulted from design and technological features of their manufacturing. These shortcomings cause increase in ohmic loss in the magnetic core, which eliminates advantages of the new core configurations and makes them uncompetitive as compared with the classical laminated magnetic core design.

  14. Instantaneous mechanical fastening of quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates by a self-piercing rivet

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 政人; 三宅, 崇太郎; 長谷川, 寛幸; 平野, 義鎭; Ueda, Masahito; Miyake, Sotaro; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    A modified self-piercing rivet (SPR) has been proposed to mechanically fasten CFRP laminates. The modified SPR consists of a rivet body and two flat washers. The two flat washers were used to suppress delamination in the CFRP laminates at the point of piercing. The advantages of the modified SPR for fastening CFRP laminates are instantaneous process time and low cost. Any pretreatments such as surface treatments or hole drilling are not required. In this study, the viability of the modified S...

  15. Investigating compression failure mechanisms in composite laminates with a transparent fiberglass-epoxy birefringent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuart, M. J.; Williams, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The response and failure of a + or - 45s class laminate was studied by transparent fiberglass epoxy composite birefringent material. The birefringency property allows the laminate stress distribution to be observed during the test and also after the test if permanent residual stresses occur. The location of initial laminate failure and of the subsequent failure propagation are observed through its transparency characteristics. Experimental results are presented.

  16. Experimental and numerical analysis of aramid fiber laminates with DCPD resin matrix subjected to impact tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocian Miroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research for innovative composite material solutions for impact absorbers is focused on the analysis of their ability to absorb impact energy. For this purpose, aramid fiber laminate with DCPD resin matrix was prepared. Laminate samples were tested on the drop test and were subjected to ballistic loads. The laminate structure was modeled with ABAQUS software with the objective to optimize and estimate the ability to absorb impact energy in the range of high speeds (350m/s.

  17. Characterization of the Effect of Fiber Undulation on Strength and Stiffness of Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    laminate (n = 2,4,6) and a 30° undulated ply in a [30n/–60n]s laminate (n = 2,4). Specimens were manufactured with carbon fibers , various amplitudes of...Characterization of the Effect of Fiber Undulation on Strength and Stiffness of Composite Laminates by Todd C Henry, Jaret C Riddick, Ryan P...complex fiber architecture. Undulations consisting of fibers passing over and under each other result from the interweaving process . In the current

  18. The Effect of Thermal Lamination Processes on Colorimetric Change in Spot Colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Galić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effect of laminating processes on spot colours is of great importance in the offset printing process, especially given the application versatility of spot colours. Laminating process, as a very common process and one of the first in a sequence of finishing processes in graphics production, can affect print’s visual impression to varying degrees. Spot colours, as mixtures of different ratios of inks, are subject to a change due to matt or gloss lamination process. The research examined the impact of thermal lamination processes on printed spot colours on different printing substrates. The degree of change on prints caused by laminating films in the thermal process was determined using spectrophotometric and densitometric methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the spot colour because of its specific characteristics. Research results are shown in charts and they are showing clearly the modality and the extent laminating processes effect the colorimetric difference in laminated and non-laminated prints. This scientific research provides objective conclusions that help in predicting the possible variations within the usage of laminating processes.

  19. Thin zeolite laminates for rapid and energy-efficient carbon capture

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Farid; Ogunwumi, Steven; Bergstr?m, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Thin, binder-less zeolite NaX laminates, with thicknesses ranging between 310 to 750??m and widths exceeding 50?mm and biaxial tensile strength in excess of 3?MPa, were produced by pulsed current processing. The NaX laminates displayed a high CO2 adsorption capacity and high binary CO2-over-N2 and CO2-over-CH4 selectivity, suitable for CO2 capture from flue gas and upgrading of raw biogas. The thin laminates displayed a rapid CO2 uptake; NaX laminates with a thickness of 310??m were saturated...

  20. On the plastic behaviour of multi directional epoxy-bolted CFRP laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Aage; Poulsen, Ervin

    2004-01-01

    The second generation of CFRP laminate has recently been developed. It is a multi directional CFRP laminate, i.e. a laminate with carbon fibres having several directions other than the first generation. The paper describes the laboratory tests carried out in order to develop anchorage devices...... for such multi directional CFRP laminates which are epoxy-bonded and bolted or nailed to the concrete substrate for the purpose of strengthening against failure caused by bending. The tests were carried out at the Technical University of Denmark, IABM and Byg-DTU...

  1. Maximum stiffness and minimum weight optimization of laminated composite beams using continuous fiber angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Stolpe, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with identification of optimal fiber orientations and laminate thicknesses in maximum stiffness and minimum weight design of laminated composite beams. The structural response is evaluated using beam finite elements which correctly account for the influence of the fiber orientation...... and cross section geometry. The resulting finite element matrices are significantly smaller than those obtained using equivalent finite element models. This modeling approach is therefore an attractive alternative in computationally intensive applications at the conceptual design stage where the focus...... and laminate thicknesses in the design of slender laminated composite structures....

  2. Matrix elasticity regulates lamin-A,C phosphorylation and turnover with feedback to actomyosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxboim, Amnon; Swift, Joe; Irianto, Jerome; Spinler, Kyle R; Dingal, P C Dave P; Athirasala, Avathamsa; Kao, Yun-Ruei C; Cho, Sangkyun; Harada, Takamasa; Shin, Jae-Won; Discher, Dennis E

    2014-08-18

    Tissue microenvironments are characterized not only in terms of chemical composition but also by collective properties such as stiffness, which influences the contractility of a cell, its adherent morphology, and even differentiation. The nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A,C increases with matrix stiffness, confers nuclear mechanical properties, and influences differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whereas B-type lamins remain relatively constant. Here we show in single-cell analyses that matrix stiffness couples to myosin-II activity to promote lamin-A,C dephosphorylation at Ser22, which regulates turnover, lamina physical properties, and actomyosin expression. Lamin-A,C phosphorylation is low in interphase versus dividing cells, and its levels rise with states of nuclear rounding in which myosin-II generates little to no tension. Phosphorylated lamin-A,C localizes to nucleoplasm, and phosphorylation is enriched on lamin-A,C fragments and is suppressed by a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. Lamin-A,C knockdown in primary MSCs suppresses transcripts predominantly among actomyosin genes, especially in the serum response factor (SRF) pathway. Levels of myosin-IIA thus parallel levels of lamin-A,C, with phosphosite mutants revealing a key role for phosphoregulation. In modeling the system as a parsimonious gene circuit, we show that tension-dependent stabilization of lamin-A,C and myosin-IIA can suitably couple nuclear and cell morphology downstream of matrix mechanics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma fructosamine concentrations in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction with and without laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Menzies-Gow, N J; Mair, T S

    2014-03-01

    Plasma fructosamine concentration ([fructosamine]) is believed to reflect medium term, average blood glucose concentration and in a previous study was higher in horses with active laminitis than in normal horses. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is associated with hyperglycaemia and laminitis. To test the hypotheses that: [fructosamine] is higher in PPID cases than normal animals; furthermore, that within cases of PPID [fructosamine] is higher in those with active laminitis than nonlaminitic cases and in cases that have been affected by active laminitis in the preceding year than those that have not. Observational, case-control/cross-sectional study. [Fructosamine] was measured in cases of PPID (n = 46) and normal animals (n = 139). A normal range was calculated; values were compared between the 2 groups and within the PPID group, between cases with and without active laminitis and between cases that had and had not been affected by active laminitis in the preceding year. In normal animals mean [fructosamine] was 248.7 μmol/l; the normal range (mean ± 2 s.d.) was 195.5-301.9 μmol/l. Plasma [fructosamine] was not higher in PPID cases than in normal animals. In PPID cases, [fructosamine] was significantly (P = 0.006) higher in cases with active laminitis (mean ± s.d. 261.2 ± 39.2 μmol/l) compared with those without active laminitis (234.5 ± 32.9 μmol/), but [fructosamine] was not higher in cases that had been affected by active laminitis in the preceding year than those that had not. In horses affected by PPID, [fructosamine] is higher in cases with active laminitis than in cases without active laminitis. Clinical use of [fructosamine] is limited due to overlap with the normal range. Further studies into glucose and protein metabolism in cases of PPID are warranted. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Lamin A reassembly at the end of mitosis is regulated by its SUMO-interacting motif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriuchi, Takanobu; Kuroda, Masaki; Kusumoto, Fumiya; Osumi, Takashi; Hirose, Fumiko

    2016-01-01

    Modification of proteins with small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO; SUMOylation) is involved in the regulation of various biological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that noncovalent associations between SUMOylated proteins and co-operative proteins containing SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) are important for the spatiotemporal organization of many protein complexes. In this study, we demonstrate that interactions between lamin A, a major component of the nuclear lamina, and SUMO isoforms are dependent on one of the four SIMs (SIM3) resided in lamin A polypeptide in vitro. Live cell imaging and immunofluorescence staining showed that SIM3 is required for accumulation of lamin A on the chromosomes during telophase, and subsequent evaluation of a panel of deletion mutants determined that a 156-amino acid region spanning the carboxyl-terminal Ig-fold domain of lamin A is sufficient for this accumulation. Notably, mutation of SIM3 abrogated the dephosphorylation of mitosis-specific phosphorylation at Ser-22 of lamin A, which normally occurs during telophase, and the subsequent nuclear lamina reorganization. Furthermore, expression of a conjugation-defective SUMO2 mutant, which was previously shown to inhibit endogenous SUMOylation in a dominant-negative manner, also impaired the accumulation of wild type lamin A on telophase chromosomes. These findings suggest that interactions between SIM3 of lamin A and a putative SUMO2-modified protein plays an important role in the reorganization of the nuclear lamina at the end of mitosis. - Highlights: • Lamin A interacts with SUMO2 via a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) in the Ig domain. • SIM3 of lamin A is responsible for chromosomal accumulation during telophase. • A 156-aa region spanning the Ig domain is sufficient for chromosomal accumulation. • Accumulation of lamin A is required for timely dephosphorylation on chromosomes. • A putative SUMO2-modified protein may mediate chromosomal accumulation of lamin

  5. Lamin A reassembly at the end of mitosis is regulated by its SUMO-interacting motif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriuchi, Takanobu; Kuroda, Masaki; Kusumoto, Fumiya; Osumi, Takashi; Hirose, Fumiko, E-mail: fhirose@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp

    2016-03-01

    Modification of proteins with small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO; SUMOylation) is involved in the regulation of various biological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that noncovalent associations between SUMOylated proteins and co-operative proteins containing SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) are important for the spatiotemporal organization of many protein complexes. In this study, we demonstrate that interactions between lamin A, a major component of the nuclear lamina, and SUMO isoforms are dependent on one of the four SIMs (SIM3) resided in lamin A polypeptide in vitro. Live cell imaging and immunofluorescence staining showed that SIM3 is required for accumulation of lamin A on the chromosomes during telophase, and subsequent evaluation of a panel of deletion mutants determined that a 156-amino acid region spanning the carboxyl-terminal Ig-fold domain of lamin A is sufficient for this accumulation. Notably, mutation of SIM3 abrogated the dephosphorylation of mitosis-specific phosphorylation at Ser-22 of lamin A, which normally occurs during telophase, and the subsequent nuclear lamina reorganization. Furthermore, expression of a conjugation-defective SUMO2 mutant, which was previously shown to inhibit endogenous SUMOylation in a dominant-negative manner, also impaired the accumulation of wild type lamin A on telophase chromosomes. These findings suggest that interactions between SIM3 of lamin A and a putative SUMO2-modified protein plays an important role in the reorganization of the nuclear lamina at the end of mitosis. - Highlights: • Lamin A interacts with SUMO2 via a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) in the Ig domain. • SIM3 of lamin A is responsible for chromosomal accumulation during telophase. • A 156-aa region spanning the Ig domain is sufficient for chromosomal accumulation. • Accumulation of lamin A is required for timely dephosphorylation on chromosomes. • A putative SUMO2-modified protein may mediate chromosomal accumulation of lamin

  6. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  7. Crystal structures of the coil 2B fragment and the globular tail domain of human lamin B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Jianbin; Xu, Chao; Bian, Chuanbing; Lam, Robert; Wang, Jia-Pey; Kania, Joanna; Min, Jinrong; Zang, Jianye (Toronto); (UST - China)

    2012-07-18

    We present here the crystal structures of human lamin B1 globular tail domain and coiled 2B domain, which adopt similar folds to Ig-like domain and coiled-coil domain of lamin A, respectively. Despite the overall similarity, we found an extra intermolecular disulfide bond in the lamin B1 coil 2B domain, which does not exist in lamin A/C. In addition, the structural analysis indicates that interactions at the lamin B1 homodimer interface are quite different from those of lamin A/C. Thus our research not only reveals the diversely formed homodimers among lamin family members, but also sheds light on understanding the important roles of lamin B1 in forming the nuclear lamina matrix.

  8. Buckling analysis of laminated sandwich beam with soft core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Stability analysis of laminated soft core sandwich beam has been studied by a C0 FE model developed by the authors based on higher order zigzag theory (HOZT. The in-plane displacement variation is considered to be cubic for the face sheets and the core, while transverse displacement is quadratic within the core and constant in the faces beyond the core. The proposed model satisfies the condition of stress continuity at the layer interfaces and the zero stress condition at the top and bottom of the beam for transverse shear. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the present model.

  9. Propagation of waves through a float glass laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourne, N.K.; Millett, J.C.F.; Rosenberg, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Recent work has shown that failure of plates bonded together during impact has shaped the pulse transmitted through materials [Kanel, G. I., et al., J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5045-5052 (2002)]. Some of the features of their recorded pulse were noted by using particle interferometers to track the motion of interfaces. In this work high-speed photography has been used to monitor interfaces and multiple, embedded stress gauges were used to record the evolving stress level as it tracked through the laminate. Interpretation of the data was compared with the particle velocity work and related to the failure phenomena that occur at the interfaces

  10. Interlaminar fracture in woven carbon/epoxy laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N.B. Reis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental study developed to characterize the mode I and mode II fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy woven composites, using DCB and ENF tests, respectively. The laminates were manufactured using an epoxy resin and twelve woven balanced bi-directional layers of carbon fibres, all of them with the same orientation (0/90º. Significant instantaneous delaminations were observed particularly for the DCB specimen, which were responsible for an oscillatory behaviour of GI versus crack length. The maximum values obtained for GIC and GIIC were 281 and 1800 J/m2, respectively.

  11. On the Architectural Qualities of Cross Laminated Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2010-01-01

    as interior surface. The qualities which have been found to be particularly interesting seen from an architectural point of view, are those related to its property of being a plate and provider of a simple building system as well as to its great workability and high level of details in both production......In resent years wood as a building material has gain renewed focus and with that new production methods and wooden products have been developed. One of these products is Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) which, by means of high-technology production and a distinctive construction with layers of lamellae...

  12. Microcracking in composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loading. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, Jason R.

    1995-01-01

    Composites used in space structures are exposed to both extremes in temperature and applied mechanical loads. Cracks in the matrix form, changing the laminate thermoelastic properties. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a predictive methodology to quantify microcracking in general composite laminates under both thermal and mechanical loading. This objective is successfully met through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental investigation. In the analysis, the stress and displacement distributions in the vicinity of a crack are determined using a shear lag model. These are incorporated into an energy based cracking criterion to determine the favorability of crack formation. A progressive damage algorithm allows the inclusion of material softening effects and temperature-dependent material properties. The analysis is implemented by a computer code which gives predicted crack density and degraded laminate properties as functions of any thermomechanical load history. Extensive experimentation provides verification of the analysis. AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates are manufactured with three different layups to investigate ply thickness and orientation effects. Thermal specimens are cooled to progressively lower temperatures down to -184 C. After conditioning the specimens to each temperature, cracks are counted on their edges using optical microscopy and in their interiors by sanding to incremental depths. Tensile coupons are loaded monotonically to progressively higher loads until failure. Cracks are counted on the coupon edges after each loading. A data fit to all available results provides input parameters for the analysis and shows them to be material properties, independent of geometry and loading. Correlation between experiment and analysis is generally very good under both thermal and mechanical loading, showing the methodology to be a powerful, unified tool. Delayed crack initiation observed in a few cases is attributed to a

  13. On the lamb wave propagation in anisotropic laminated composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Keun; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Moon Saeng

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.

  14. Laminated Intestinal Calculi – A Rare Complication of Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old male with a 36-year history of Crohn's disease and repeated resections for small intestinal strictures developed anemia and symptoms of an intermittent partial bowel obstruction. Barium studies showed recurrent small intestinal strictures as well as filling defects in a dilated loop proximal to a stenosed segment. Subsequent abdominal films and a computed tomographic study suggested laminated radiopaque calculi with peripheral calcification in the dilated small intestinal loop. Resection of the strictured segment confirmed the presence of intestinal enterolithiasis.

  15. Field performance of timber bridges. 5, Little Salmon Creek stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; J. A. Kainz; G. J. Porter

    The Little Salmon Creek bridge was constructed in November 1988 on the Allegheny National Forest in Pennsylvania. The bridge is a simple span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26-ft long and 16-ft wide. The bridge is unique in that it is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber. The...

  16. Field performance of timber bridges. 7, Connell Lake stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. E. Hislop; M. A. Ritter

    The Connell Lake bridge was constructed in early 1991 on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska, as a demonstration bridge under the Timber Bridge Initiative. The bridge is a stress-laminated deck structure with an approximate 36-ft length and 18-ft width and is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge constructed in Alaska. Performance of the bridge was monitored...

  17. Frequency of equine laminitis: a systematic review with quality appraisal of published evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Claire E; Collins, Simon N; Verheyen, Kristien L P; Richard Newton, J

    2011-09-01

    Equine laminitis is a highly debilitating disease of the foot. Despite its perceived importance, epidemiological characteristics are poorly understood and the true frequency of the disease remains unclear. The objective of this study was to retrospectively assess previous research to identify publications which provide the best evidence of the frequency of naturally-occurring equine laminitis. A systematic review of English language publications was conducted using MEDLINE (1950-2010), CAB Direct (1910-2010) and IVIS (1997-2010). Additional publications were included by searching bibliographies. Search terms included laminitis, equine, frequency, prevalence and incidence. Studies that allowed frequency estimations to be made for naturally-occurring equine laminitis were included. Information was extracted using predefined data fields, including 13 study quality indicators. Sixty-nine publications were appraised. Ten were considered to provide the most reliable information, estimating the frequency of equine laminitis ranging from 1.5% to 34%. Previous publications estimating laminitis frequency were generally poor quality. Laminitis frequency varied across publications however the publications included in this review focussed on many of the different underlying laminitis aetiologies and comparison of the frequencies between groups would be inappropriate. High-quality evidence-based studies are needed to estimate the true disease frequency in different equine populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Equine laminitis model: cryotherapy reduces the severity of lesions evaluated seven days after induction with oligofructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eps, A W; Pollitt, C C

    2009-11-01

    A previous preliminary study demonstrated the potential of distal limb cryotherapy (DLC) for preventing laminitis. Clinically, DLC must be effective for periods longer than 48 h and the preventive effect must extend beyond its discontinuation. To evaluate the effect of DLC, applied during the developmental phase of induced laminitis, on the severity of clinical laminitis and lamellar histopathology 7 days after dosing. Eighteen normal Standardbred horses were divided into 3 groups of 6. Continuous cryotherapy was applied for 72 h to the distal limbs of the first group. The second and third groups were administered laminitis inducing doses of oligofructose and 72 h of cryotherapy applied (immediately after dosing) to the second group. After clinical assessment all horses were subjected to euthanasia 7 days after dosing and hoof lamellar tissues were harvested and analysed. In the laminitis induced horses clinical lameness and laminitis histopathology was significantly reduced in horses that underwent 72 h of DLC compared with untreated controls. Cryotherapy alone produced no significant lameness or other ill effect. Continuous, medium- to long-term (72 h) cryotherapy applied to the distal limbs of horses safely and effectively ameliorates the clinical signs and pathology of acute laminitis. Pre-emptive distal limb cryotherapy is a practical method of ameliorating laminitis in ill horses at risk of developing the disease.

  19. Equine laminitis model: lamellar histopathology seven days after induction with oligofructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eps, A W; Pollitt, C C

    2009-11-01

    The histopathology of laminitis during its transition from the acute to the chronic phase has not been previously documented. Studying hoof lamellar tissues 7 days after induction of laminitis may provide insight into the intractable nature of the chronic phase of the disease. To induce laminitis and investigate hoof wall lamellar tissues 7 days after dosing. Laminitis was induced using oligofructose in 6 normal Standardbred horses. The dorsal hoof lamellar tissues of these and 12 normal horses were processed and examined by light microscopy. Serial sections of a lamellar tip affected by laminitis were used to create a 3 dimensional reconstruction. Transverse sections of dorsal hoof wall lamellae were significantly longer than normal. Many secondary epidermal lamellae were not connected to primary lamellae and existed as spherical or ovoid, discrete islands isolated in the lamellar dermis. The lamellar basement membrane was intact. Lamellar tissue has the ability to reorganise rapidly following an episode of acute laminitis. Although histopathological evidence of ongoing acute laminitis was absent by 7 days, there was marked disruption of lamellar architecture. The architecture and subsequent strength of the resultant lamellar interface could be greatly influenced for the better by strategies that minimise mechanical displacement during the acute phase of laminitis.

  20. The potential role of Clostridium botulinum toxin in the treatment of equine laminitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, L C

    2016-01-01

    Laminitis is a severe and painful disease in the horse that may lead to loosening of the attachment of the distal phalanx to the horny hoof capsule. Although a large variety of treatment options has come and gone since the first descriptions of laminitis, there is certainly a thus far unmet need for

  1. Field performance of timber bridges. 6, Hoffman Run stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; P. D. Hilbrich Lee; G. J. Porter

    The Hoffman Run bridge, located just outside Dahoga, Pennsylvania, was constructed in October 1990. The bridge is a simple-span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26 ft long and 16 ft wide. It is the second stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber in Pennsylvania. The performance of the bridge was...

  2. Self-heating forecasting for thick laminates testing coupons in fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Westphal, T.; Nijssen, R.P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Thick laminate sections can be found from the tip to the root in most common wind turbine blade designs. Obtaining accurate and reliable design data for thick laminates is subject of investigations. Due to the poor thermal conductivity properties of composites and the material self-heating that

  3. Viscoelastic behavior of human lamin A proteins in the context of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinanda Banerjee

    Full Text Available Lamins are intermediate filament proteins of type V constituting a nuclear lamina or filamentous meshwork which lines the nucleoplasmic side of the inner nuclear membrane. This protein mesh provides a supporting scaffold for the nuclear envelope and tethers interphase chromosome to the nuclear periphery. Mutations of mainly A-type lamins are found to be causative for at least 11 human diseases collectively termed as laminopathies majority of which are characterised by aberrant nuclei with altered structural rigidity, deformability and poor mechanotransduction behaviour. But the investigation of viscoelastic behavior of lamin A continues to elude the field. In order to address this problem, we hereby present the very first report on viscoelastic properties of wild type human lamin A and some of its mutants linked with Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM using quantitative rheological measurements. We observed a dramatic strain-softening effect on lamin A network as an outcome of the strain amplitude sweep measurements which could arise from the large compliance of the quasi-cross-links in the network or that of the lamin A rods. In addition, the drastic stiffening of the differential elastic moduli on superposition of rotational and oscillatory shear stress reflect the increase in the stiffness of the laterally associated lamin A rods. These findings present a preliminary insight into distinct biomechanical properties of wild type lamin A protein and its mutants which in turn revealed interesting differences.

  4. Bending analyses for 3D engineered structural panels made from laminated paper and carbon fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Zhiyong Cai; Xianyan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of a 3-dimensional engineered structural panel (3DESP) having a tri-axial core structure made from phenolic impregnated laminated-paper composites with and without high strength composite carbon-fiber fabric laminated to the outside of both faces. Both I-beam equations and finite element method were used to analyze four-point bending of the...

  5. Sorting Nexin 6 Enhances Lamin A Synthesis and Incorporation into the Nuclear Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Granado, Jose M.; Navarro-Puche, Ana; Molina-Sanchez, Pedro; Blanco-Berrocal, Marta; Viana, Rosa; de Mora, Jaime Font; Andrés, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear lamins are important structural and functional proteins in mammalian cells, but little is known about the mechanisms and cofactors that regulate their traffic into the nucleus. Here, we demonstrate that trafficking of lamin A, but not lamin B1, and its assembly into the nuclear envelope are regulated by sorting nexin 6 (SNX6), a major component of the retromer that targets proteins and other molecules to specific subcellular locations. SNX6 interacts with lamin A in vitro and in vivo and links it to the outer surface of the endoplasmic reticulum in human and mouse cells. SNX6 transports its lamin A cargo to the nuclear envelope in a process that takes several hours. Lamin A protein levels in the nucleus augment or decrease, respectively, upon gain or loss of SNX6 function. We further show that SNX6-dependent lamin A nuclear import occurs across the nuclear pore complex via a RAN-GTP-dependent mechanism. These results identify SNX6 as a key regulator of lamin A synthesis and incorporation into the nuclear envelope. PMID:25535984

  6. Role of delamination and damage development on the strength of thick notched laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. E.; Morris, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A large, comprehensive program is being conducted at Virginia Tech to study the effect of laminate thickness on the fracture strength of notched laminated composites. Part of this program has been the study of the chracteristics and development of subcritical crack-tip damage prior to failure. The study has concentrated on the center-cracked tension specimen geometry. Subcritical crack-tip damage has been studied using enhanced X-ray radiography and the laminate deply technique. This paper examines he role that delamination plays in affecting the fracture of (0/+ or - 45/90)ns and (0/+ or - 45)ns laminates at various values of n. The study has found that delaminations do occur in thin laminates (n = 1) and affect the strength of the laminate. However, in thick laminates such as (0/+ or 45)90ns, and (0/+ or - 45)20s, there is sufficient constraint to prevent delaminations from occurring in the interior region of he specimen. The final fracture surface is uniform in the interior and self-similar (collinear with the original starter notch), with 'shear-lip' type damage in the form of delaminations and matrix cracking in the first several plies at the surface. These differences in the type of fracture of the thin and thick laminates greatly affect the fracture strength.

  7. Laminitis with severe rarefactive osteitis of the distal phalanx in a young Simmental bull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofler, J.; Stanek, C.

    1990-01-01

    A case report of a 9-month-old Simmental bull with chronic laminitis is presented including clinical examination, radiology and pathomorphology. The condition is similar to several cases of laminitis described earlier in Jersey cattle, which have been attributed to hereditary factors

  8. Effect of Translaminar Reinforcements and Hybridization on Damage Resistance and Tolerance of Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    1 Various hybrid composite laminates and FGM ................................................... 98 5-2 Elastic properties for composite materials in...91 5-5 Shear stress profiles of homogeneous the FGMs ...the bending stiffness matrix in classical plate laminate theory. Substituting for p from Eq. (2-2) into Eq. (2-3), we obtain 4 4 s m m dd w EI bp

  9. Sorting nexin 6 enhances lamin a synthesis and incorporation into the nuclear envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M González-Granado

    Full Text Available Nuclear lamins are important structural and functional proteins in mammalian cells, but little is known about the mechanisms and cofactors that regulate their traffic into the nucleus. Here, we demonstrate that trafficking of lamin A, but not lamin B1, and its assembly into the nuclear envelope are regulated by sorting nexin 6 (SNX6, a major component of the retromer that targets proteins and other molecules to specific subcellular locations. SNX6 interacts with lamin A in vitro and in vivo and links it to the outer surface of the endoplasmic reticulum in human and mouse cells. SNX6 transports its lamin A cargo to the nuclear envelope in a process that takes several hours. Lamin A protein levels in the nucleus augment or decrease, respectively, upon gain or loss of SNX6 function. We further show that SNX6-dependent lamin A nuclear import occurs across the nuclear pore complex via a RAN-GTP-dependent mechanism. These results identify SNX6 as a key regulator of lamin A synthesis and incorporation into the nuclear envelope.

  10. Normalization of Impact Energy by Laminate Thickness for Compression After Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hromisin, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of impact energy used to damage a composite laminate is a critical parameter when assessing residual strength properties. The compression after impact (CAI) strength of impacted laminates is dependent upon how thick the laminate is and this has traditionally been accounted for by normalizing (dividing) the impact energy by the laminate's thickness. However, when comparing CAI strength values for a given lay-up sequence and fiber/resin system, dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness has been noted by the author to give higher CAI strength values for thicker laminates. A study was thus undertaken to assess the comparability of CAI strength data by normalizing the impact energy by the specimen thickness raised to a power to account for the higher strength of thicker laminates. One set of data from the literature and two generated in this study were analyzed by dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness to the 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 powers. Results show that as laminate thickness and damage severity decreased, the value which the laminate thickness needs to be raised to in order to yield more comparable CAI data increases.

  11. Reliability formulation for the strength and fire endurance of glued-laminated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Bender

    A model was developed for predicting the statistical distribution of glued-laminated beam strength and stiffness under normal temperature conditions using available long span modulus of elasticity data, end joint tension test data, and tensile strength data for laminating-grade lumber. The beam strength model predictions compared favorably with test data for glued-...

  12. 75 FR 82376 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-917] Laminated Woven Sacks From... woven sacks (sacks) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period January 1, 2009, to... in the Federal Register the countervailing duty order on sacks from the PRC. See Laminated Woven...

  13. 75 FR 15418 - Laminated Woven Sacks from the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-917] Laminated Woven Sacks from... woven sacks (LWS) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period December 3, 2007 to December... Changshu was rescinded on December 4, 2009. See Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China...

  14. Degradation Behavior of Epoxy Resins in Fibre Metal Laminates Under Thermal Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, G.; Xiao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, B.; Boom, R.

    2012-01-01

    GLARE (glass fibre/epoxy reinforced aluminum laminate) is a member of the fiber metal laminate (FML) family, and is built up of alternating metal and fiber layers. About 500m2 GLARE is employed in each Airbus A380 because of the superior mechanical properties over the monolithic aluminum alloys,

  15. Post-impact mechanical characterisation of E-glass/basalt woven fabric interply hybrid laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-impact properties of different configurations (symmetrical and non-symmetrical of hybrid laminates including E-glass and basalt fibre composites, all with volume fraction of fibres equal to 0.38±0.02 and manufactured by RTM, have been studied. With this aim, interlaminar shear strength tests and four-point flexural tests of laminates impacted with different energies (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 J have been performed. Acoustic emission (AE localisation and AE evolution with applied flexural stress was studied to support impact damage characterisation, provided by SEM and transient thermography. The results indicate that a symmetrical configuration including E-glass fibre laminate as a core for basalt fibre laminate skins presents the most favourable degradation pattern, whilst intercalation of layers may bring to further improvement of the laminate properties, but also to more extended and complex damage patterns.

  16. Roles of Poly(propylene Glycol) During Solvent-Based Lamination of Ceramic Green Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppakarn, Nitinat; Ishida, Hatsuo; Cawley, James D.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Solvent lamination for alumina green tapes is readily accomplished using a mixture of ethanol, toluene and poly(propylene glycol). After lamination, the PPG is clearly present as a discrete film at the interface between the laminated tapes. This condition, however, does not generate delamination during firing. Systematic sets of experiments are undertaken to determine the role of PPG in the lamination process and, specifically, the mechanism by which it is redistributed during subsequent processing. PPG slowly diffuses through the organic binder film at room temperature. The PPG diffusion rapidly increases as temperature is increased to 80 C. The key to the efficiency of adhesives during green-tape lamination is mutual solubility of the nonvolatile component of the glue and the base polymeric binder.

  17. The role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of acute bovine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R; Mutsaers, C W; Klarenbeek, A

    1991-07-01

    To study the possible role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of bovine laminitis, local and systemic injections of endotoxin (E. coli 0111 B4) with different doses were given to three groups of four cows each. Clinical and haematologic parameters indicated an acute-phase response, including positive plasma ethanol gelation (soluble fibrin), the occurrence of fibrin degradation products and decreased thrombocyte counts. Local Shwartzman reactions were not evoked. Clinical examination of the claws and the gait of the animals revealed no signs of laminitis. However, on histopathological examination of the claw corium signs of laminitis such as vacuolisation of the Stratum basale, lymphocyte and leucocyte infiltration and thrombosis were found. These results indicate that endotoxin indeed may be involved in the pathogenesis of laminitis. For the development of a clinical acute laminitis model in cattle either another dosage, other toxins or factors in addition to the endotoxin used in this experiment are needed.

  18. 75 FR 75454 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-916] Laminated Woven Sacks From... antidumping duty administrative review on laminated woven sacks (``LWS'') from the People's Republic of China.... See Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  19. Stress-based elastodynamic discrete laminated plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppner, G. A.; Wolfe, W. E.; Sandhu, R. S.

    1994-03-01

    A static laminated plate theory based on an assumed piecewise linear through-the-thickness in-plane stress distirbution has been extended to include inertia effects. Based on this in-plane stress distribution assumption, out-of-plane shear and normal stress component distributions were derived from the three-dimensional equations of motion, resulting in six nonzero stress components. Hamilton's variational principle was used to derive the plate equations of motion, the plate constitutive relationships, and the interface continuity equations. The governing equations were written in a form that is self-adjoint with respect to the convolution bilinear mapping. The resulting system of equations for a single lamina consists of 25 field equations in terms of 9 weighted displacement field variables, 10 stress and moment resultant field variables, and 6 out-of-plane shear and normal stress boundary field variables. For the laminated system, the mixed formulation enforces both traction and displacement continuity at lamina interfaces a it satisfies layer equilibrium. A finite element formulation based on a specialized form of the governing functional was developed. The method is illustrated with results of a free vibration analysis of sandwich and homogeneous plates for which exact solutions are available.

  20. Control and characterization of a bistable laminate generated with piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew J.; Moosavian, Amin; Inman, Daniel J.

    2017-08-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on utilizing smart materials such as piezoelectric and shape memory alloy actuators to induce snap through of bistable structures for morphing applications. However, there has only been limited success in initiating snap through from both stable states due to the lack of actuation authority. A novel solution in the form of a piezoelectrically generated bistable laminate consisting of only macro fiber composites (MFC), allowing complete configuration control without any external assistance, is explored in detail here. Specifically, this paper presents the full analytical, computational, and experimental results of the laminate’s design, geometry, bifurcation behavior, and snap through capability. By bonding two actuated MFCs in a [0MFC/90MFC]T layup and releasing the voltage post cure, piezoelectric strain anisotropy and the resulting in-plane residual stresses yield two statically stable states that are cylindrically shaped. The analytical model uses the Rayleigh-Ritz minimization of total potential energy and finite element analysis is implemented in MSC Nastran. The [0MFC/90MFC]T laminate is then manufactured and experimentally characterized for model validation. This paper demonstrates the adaptive laminate’s unassisted forward and reverse snap through capability enabled by the efficiencies gained from simultaneously being the actuator and the primary structure.

  1. Aluminum Laminates in Beverage Packaging: Models and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Bolzon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum laminates are among the main components of beverage packaging. These layered material systems are coupled to paperboard plies except in the cap opening area, where the human force limit sets a requirement on the material properties to allow open-ability and the mechanical characteristics are of particular interest. Experimental investigations have been carried out on this composite and on its components by either traditional or full-field measurement techniques. The interpretation of the collected data has been supported by the simulation of the performed tests considering either a homogenized material model or the individual laminate layers. However, different results may be recovered from similar samples due to physical factors like the material processing route and the embedded defectiveness. In turn, the conclusions may vary depending on the model assumptions. This contribution focuses on the physical effects and on the modeling of the large localized deformation induced by material singularities. This topic is discussed at the light of some experimental results.

  2. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  3. Analysis of nonlinear deformations and damage in CFRP textile laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, H.; Harland, A. R.; Lucas, T.; Price, D.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2011-07-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) textile composites are widely used in aerospace, automotive and construction components and structures thanks to their relatively low production costs, higher delamination and impact strength. They can also be used in various products in sports industry. These products are usually exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Composite materials usually demonstrate multiple modes of damage and fracture due to their heterogeneity and microstructure, in contrast to more traditional homogeneous structural materials like metals and alloys. Damage evolution affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These damage modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation, numerical simulations and microtomography analysis. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates linked to their quasi-static bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of woven CFRP material under large-deflection bending. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models are implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit to study the deformation behaviour and damage in woven CFRP laminates. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the onset and progression of inter-ply delamination process. X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) analysis is carried out to investigate internal damage mechanisms such as cracking and delaminations. The obtained results of simulations are in agreement with experimental data and MicroCT scans.

  4. A polymeric piezoelectric micropump based on lamination technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thai-Quang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents the first micropumps assembled using polymeric lamination technology. Each pump consists of two 100 µm thick, 10 mm diameter SU-8 discs; two 1.5 mm thick, 15 mm diameter polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) discs; and one piezo disc. The SU-8 parts were fabricated by a two-mask polymeric surface micromachining process with silicon as the sacrificial material. Each SU-8 disc has one micro check valve. The valve is a 1 mm plate suspended on a compliant orthoplanar spring. The cross section of the spring beam has a dimension of 100 µm × 100 µm. The PMMA parts were machined from an extrusion PMMA sheet by CO2 laser. An off-the-shelf piezo bimorph disc worked as both actuator and pump membrane. The pump was assembled using adhesive bonding. The adhesive tapes were cut by the same laser system. Alignment pins were used in the assembly process. With a drive voltage of ±150 V the fabricated micropumps have been able to provide flow rates up to 2.9 ml min-1 and back pressures up to 1.6 m of water. The pump design and the polymeric technologies prove the feasibility of making more complex microfluidic systems based on the presented lamination approach.

  5. Fabrication of laminated Bi-2212/Ag multifilamentary tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D.-W.; Majer, W. J.; Francavilla, T. L.

    2000-03-01

    The powder-in-tube (PIT) process has been successfully used to make long lengths of Ag-sheathed oxide superconductors. A modified PIT approach is proposed to fabricate conductors with laminated Bi-2212 configurations. Ag/Bi-2212 tapes consisting of seven laminae were produced with various thicknesses ranging from 0.38 to 0.25 mm. The use of a turkshead was found to be beneficial, yielding tapes with good dimensional integrity and consistency. Critical current density (Jc ) values greater than 105 A cm-2 (0.01 T and Bicons/Journals/Common/perp" ALT="perp" ALIGN="TOP"/> tape surface) have been attained for tapes of different thicknesses. Nonetheless, Jc was found to be related to the average thickness of individual Bi-2212 lamina. It is believed that excessive cold working accounts for the decrease in Jc with decreasing size below a threshold value. The enhancement of Jc is attributed to the high Bi-2212 grain alignment along the Ag-oxide interfaces and uniform dimensions within the laminate conductors.

  6. Analysis of nonlinear deformations and damage in CFRP textile laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H; Harland, A R; Silberschmidt, V V; Lucas, T; Price, D

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) textile composites are widely used in aerospace, automotive and construction components and structures thanks to their relatively low production costs, higher delamination and impact strength. They can also be used in various products in sports industry. These products are usually exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Composite materials usually demonstrate multiple modes of damage and fracture due to their heterogeneity and microstructure, in contrast to more traditional homogeneous structural materials like metals and alloys. Damage evolution affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These damage modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation, numerical simulations and microtomography analysis. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates linked to their quasi-static bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of woven CFRP material under large-deflection bending. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models are implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit to study the deformation behaviour and damage in woven CFRP laminates. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the onset and progression of inter-ply delamination process. X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) analysis is carried out to investigate internal damage mechanisms such as cracking and delaminations. The obtained results of simulations are in agreement with experimental data and MicroCT scans.

  7. Analysis of nonlinear deformations and damage in CFRP textile laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, H; Harland, A R; Silberschmidt, V V [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicester-shire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Lucas, T; Price, D, E-mail: H.Ullah@lboro.ac.uk [Adidas AG, Herzogenaruch (Germany)

    2011-07-19

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) textile composites are widely used in aerospace, automotive and construction components and structures thanks to their relatively low production costs, higher delamination and impact strength. They can also be used in various products in sports industry. These products are usually exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Composite materials usually demonstrate multiple modes of damage and fracture due to their heterogeneity and microstructure, in contrast to more traditional homogeneous structural materials like metals and alloys. Damage evolution affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These damage modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation, numerical simulations and microtomography analysis. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates linked to their quasi-static bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of woven CFRP material under large-deflection bending. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models are implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit to study the deformation behaviour and damage in woven CFRP laminates. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the onset and progression of inter-ply delamination process. X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) analysis is carried out to investigate internal damage mechanisms such as cracking and delaminations. The obtained results of simulations are in agreement with experimental data and MicroCT scans.

  8. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, L.M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Byun, T.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Reiser, J.; Rieth, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten-copper laminate composite has shown promise as a structural plasma-facing component as compared to tungsten rod or plate. The present study evaluated the tungsten-copper composite after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at temperatures of 410–780 °C and fast neutron fluences of 0.02–9.0 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}, E > 0.1 MeV, 0.0039–1.76 displacements per atom (dpa) in tungsten. Tensile tests were performed on the composites, and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Before irradiation, the tungsten layers had brittle cleavage failure, but the overall composite had 15.5% elongation at 22 °C. After only 0.0039 dpa this was reduced to 7.7% elongation, and no ductility was observed after 0.2 dpa at all irradiation temperatures when tensile tested at 22 °C. For elevated temperature tensile tests after irradiation, the composite only had ductile failure at temperatures where the tungsten was delaminating or ductile. - Highlights: • Fusion reactors need a tough, ductile tungsten plasma-facing material. • The unirradiated tungsten-copper laminate is more ductile than tungsten alone. • After neutron irradiation, the composite has significantly less ductility. • The tungsten behavior appears to dominate the overall composite behavior.

  9. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn M. Allan; Patricia M. Strickland; Holly S. Shulman

    2009-11-11

    Ceralink Inc. developed FastFuse™, a rapid, new, energy saving process for lamination of glass and composites using radio frequency (RF) heating technology. The Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate the innovation from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. The attached report provides an overview of the technical and commerical progress achieved for FastFuse™ during the course of the project. FastFuse™ has the potential to revolutionize the laminate manufacturing industries by replacing energy intensive, multi-step processes with an energy efficient, single-step process that allows higher throughput. FastFuse™ transmits RF energy directly into the interlayer to generate heat, eliminating the need to directly heat glass layers and the surrounding enclosures, such as autoclaves or vacuum systems. FastFuse™ offers lower start-up and energy costs (up to 90% or more reduction in energy costs), and faster cycles times (less than 5 minutes). FastFuse™ is compatible with EVA, TPU, and PVB interlayers, and has been demonstrated for glass, plastics, and multi-material structures such as photovoltaics and transparent armor.

  10. Myopathic lamin mutations cause reductive stress and activate the nrf2/keap-1 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dialynas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human LMNA gene cause muscular dystrophy by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. The LMNA gene encodes A-type lamins, intermediate filaments that form a network underlying the inner nuclear membrane, providing structural support for the nucleus and organizing the genome. To better understand the pathogenesis caused by mutant lamins, we performed a structural and functional analysis on LMNA missense mutations identified in muscular dystrophy patients. These mutations perturb the tertiary structure of the conserved A-type lamin Ig-fold domain. To identify the effects of these structural perturbations on lamin function, we modeled these mutations in Drosophila Lamin C and expressed the mutant lamins in muscle. We found that the structural perturbations had minimal dominant effects on nuclear stiffness, suggesting that the muscle pathology was not accompanied by major structural disruption of the peripheral nuclear lamina. However, subtle alterations in the lamina network and subnuclear reorganization of lamins remain possible. Affected muscles had cytoplasmic aggregation of lamins and additional nuclear envelope proteins. Transcription profiling revealed upregulation of many Nrf2 target genes. Nrf2 is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm by Keap-1. Under oxidative stress Nrf2 dissociates from Keap-1, translocates into the nucleus, and activates gene expression. Unexpectedly, biochemical analyses revealed high levels of reducing agents, indicative of reductive stress. The accumulation of cytoplasmic lamin aggregates correlated with elevated levels of the autophagy adaptor p62/SQSTM1, which also binds Keap-1, abrogating Nrf2 cytoplasmic sequestration, allowing Nrf2 nuclear translocation and target gene activation. Elevated p62/SQSTM1 and nuclear enrichment of Nrf2 were identified in muscle biopsies from the corresponding muscular dystrophy patients, validating the disease relevance of our Drosophila model. Thus, novel

  11. A novel interaction between lamin A and SREBP1: implications for partial lipodystrophy and other laminopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David J; Trembath, Richard C; Shackleton, Sue

    2002-04-01

    The gene encoding nuclear lamins A and C is mutated in at least three inherited disorders. Two of these, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD-AD) and a form of dilated cardiomyopathy (CMD1A), involve muscle defects, and the other, familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), involves loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Mutations causing FPLD, in contrast to those causing muscle disorders, are tightly clustered within the C-terminal domain of lamin A/C. We investigated the expression and subcellular localization of FPLD lamin A mutants and found no abnormalities. We therefore set out to identify proteins interacting with the C-terminal domain of lamin A by screening a mouse 3T3-L1 adipocyte library in a yeast two-hybrid interaction screen. Using this approach, the adipocyte differentiation factor, sterol response element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) was identified as a novel lamin A interactor. In vitro glutathione S-transferase pull-down and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation studies confirmed an interaction between lamin A and both SREBP1a and 1c. A binding site for lamin A was identified in the N-terminal transcription factor domain of SREBP1, between residues 227 and 487. The binding of lamin A to SREBP1 was noticeably reduced by FPLD mutations. Interestingly, one EDMD-AD mutation also interfered with the interaction between lamin A and SREBP1. Whilst the physiological relevance of this interaction has yet to be elucidated, these data raise the intriguing possibility that fat loss seen in laminopathies may be caused, at least in part, by reduced binding of the adipocyte differentiation factor SREBP1 to lamin A.

  12. Thermal Effects on the Compressive Behavior of IM7/PET15 Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sandra Polesky

    2003-01-01

    The effect of changing operating temperature on the compressive response of IM7/PETI5 composite laminates is investigated within this paper. The three temperatures evaluated for this study were 129 C, 21 C, and 177 C, a spectrum from cryogenic to an elevated operating temperature. Laminate compressive strength property testing was conducted using the Wyoming Combined Load Compression fixture to generate strength data at the three operating temperatures of interest for several lay-ups. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of a [90/0]8s composite laminate subject to compressive loading is developed. The model is used to study the key attributes of the laminate that significantly influence the state of stress in the laminate. Both the resin rich layer located between lamina and the thermal residual stresses present in the laminate due to curing are included in the analysis model. For the laminate modeled, the effect of modeling temperature dependent material properties was determined to be insignificant for the operating temperatures studied. Simply using the material properties measured at the operating temperature of interest was sufficient for predicting stresses accurately in a linear analysis for the current problem. The three-dimensional analysis results revealed that the application of an applied compressive axial load in the 0-degree direction decreased the interlaminar stresses present in the laminate initially due to curing. Therefore, failure was concluded not be attributable to the interlaminar stresses in the composite laminate being studied when a compressive load is applied. The magnitude of the measured laminate compressive strength change with a change in temperature is concluded to be dominated by the change in the lamina compressive axial strength with a change in temperature.

  13. Lamin A/C is a risk biomarker in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi D Willis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A-type lamins are type V intermediate filament proteins encoded by the gene LMNA. Mutations in LMNA give rise to diverse degenerative diseases related to premature ageing. A-type lamins also influence the activity of the Retinoblastoma protein (pRb and oncogenes such a beta-catenin. Consequently, it has been speculated that expression of A-type lamins may also influence tumour progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An archive of colorectal cancer (CRC and normal colon tissue was screened for expression of A-type lamins. We used the Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR method to investigate patient survival. Using CRC cell lines we investigated the effects of lamin A expression on other genes by RT-PCR; on cell growth by FACS analysis; and on invasiveness by cell migration assays and siRNA knockdown of targeted genes. We found that lamin A is expressed in colonic stem cells and that patients with A-type lamin-expressing tumours have significantly worse prognosis than patients with A-type lamin negative tumours (HR = 1.85, p = 0.005. To understand this finding, we established a model system based upon expression of GFP-lamin A in CRC cells. We found that expression of GFP-lamin A in these cells did not affect cell proliferation but did promote greatly increased cell motility and invasiveness. The reason for this increased invasiveness was that expression of lamin A promoted up-regulation of the actin bundling protein T-plastin, leading to down regulation of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of A-type lamins increases the risk of death from CRC because its presence gives rise to increased invasiveness and potentially a more stem cell-like phenotype. This report directly links A-type lamin expression to tumour progression and raises the profile of LMNA from one implicated in multiple but rare genetic conditions to a gene involved in one of the commonest diseases in the Western World.

  14. Lamin A reassembly at the end of mitosis is regulated by its SUMO-interacting motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriuchi, Takanobu; Kuroda, Masaki; Kusumoto, Fumiya; Osumi, Takashi; Hirose, Fumiko

    2016-03-01

    Modification of proteins with small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO; SUMOylation) is involved in the regulation of various biological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that noncovalent associations between SUMOylated proteins and co-operative proteins containing SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) are important for the spatiotemporal organization of many protein complexes. In this study, we demonstrate that interactions between lamin A, a major component of the nuclear lamina, and SUMO isoforms are dependent on one of the four SIMs (SIM3) resided in lamin A polypeptide in vitro. Live cell imaging and immunofluorescence staining showed that SIM3 is required for accumulation of lamin A on the chromosomes during telophase, and subsequent evaluation of a panel of deletion mutants determined that a 156-amino acid region spanning the carboxyl-terminal Ig-fold domain of lamin A is sufficient for this accumulation. Notably, mutation of SIM3 abrogated the dephosphorylation of mitosis-specific phosphorylation at Ser-22 of lamin A, which normally occurs during telophase, and the subsequent nuclear lamina reorganization. Furthermore, expression of a conjugation-defective SUMO2 mutant, which was previously shown to inhibit endogenous SUMOylation in a dominant-negative manner, also impaired the accumulation of wild type lamin A on telophase chromosomes. These findings suggest that interactions between SIM3 of lamin A and a putative SUMO2-modified protein plays an important role in the reorganization of the nuclear lamina at the end of mitosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Histomorphometry of the placental vasculature and microcotyledons in Thoroughbred mares with chronic laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinato, Fernanda M; Curcio, Bruna da Rosa; Fernandes, Cristina G; Santos, Carlos A; Feijó, Lorena S; Varela, Antonio Sérgio; Nogueira, Carlos E W

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the placental vasculature and microcotyledons in pregnant mares with chronic laminitis. Twenty-six pregnant mares were enrolled in the study, 13 had chronic laminitis (Laminitis Group) and 13 were healthy mares (Healthy Group). Arterial systolic pressure and heart rate were measured in the last 30 days of gestation. After foaling, the fetal membranes were grossly evaluated and samples were harvested for histopathologic examination. All mares had digitalized images taken from chorioallantois for histomorphometry analyses (software-NIH ImageJ). Images were assessed for: (i) arterioles from the allantoic region: total and lumen vascular diameter and vascular wall thickness; (ii) microcotiledonary and capillary area/field. Mares in the Laminitis Group showed hypertension, shorter gestational length, lower placental weight and lower birthweight (p Laminitis mares had a reduction of vascular lumen diameters in the uterine body and pregnant horn (p laminitis presented signs of hypertension syndrome, and vascular abnormalitities in placental vessels such as reduction in the vascular lumen and capillary area in the microcotyledones, and thickening of the vascular wall. Foals born from mares with chronic laminitis showed lower birth weight and shorter gestation lengths. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Expression of purinergic P2X receptor subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 7 in equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboulis, Danae E; Senior, Mark; Clegg, Peter D; Milner, Peter I

    2013-11-01

    Tissue sensitisation and chronic pain have been described in chronic-active laminitis in the horse, making treatment of such cases difficult. Purinergic P2X receptors are linked to chronic pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of purinergic P2X receptor subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 7 in the hoof, palmar digital vessels and nerve, dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord in horses with chronic-active laminitis (n=5) compared to non-laminitic horses (n=5). Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue sections using antibodies against P2X receptor subtypes 1-3 and 7. In horses with laminitis, there was a reduction in the thickness of the tunica media layer of the palmar digital vein as a proportion of the whole vessel diameter (0.48±0.05) compared to the non-laminitic group (0.57±0.04; P=0.02). P2X receptor subtype 3 was expressed in the smooth muscle layer (tunica media) of the palmar digital artery of horses with laminitis, but was absent in horses without laminitis. There was strong expression of P2X receptor subtype 7 in the proliferating, partially keratinised, epidermal cells of the secondary epidermal lamellae in the hooves of horses with laminitis, but no immunopositivity in horses without laminitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Equine laminitis: membrane type matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-14) is involved in acute phase onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw-Tanner, M T; Wattle, O; van Eps, A W; Pollitt, C C

    2008-07-01

    Enzymatic separation at the hoof lamellar dermal-epidermal interface may play a role in the development of laminitis and characterising and locating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of MMPs or TIMPs) in lamellar tissues may further understanding of pathogenesis. To clone and sequence the cDNA encoding lamellar MMP-14 and TIMP-2, and quantify their transcription in normal and laminitic tissue; and to develop antibody to locate MMP-14 in lamellar tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from an oligofructose induced model of laminitis. Total RNA was isolated, amplified by RT-PCR, cloned into a vector and sequenced. Real-time PCR was used to quantify MMP-14 and TIMP-2 expression. Rabbit anti-equine MMP-14 antibody was developed to analyse MMP-14 proteins from hoof tissues. Immunohistochemistry detected MMP-14 in the cytoplasm of normal lamellar basal and parabasal cells in close proximity to the lamellar basement membrane. In laminitis affected tissue MMP-14 immunostaining was depleted in lamellar basal cells. Quantitative real-time PCR showed MMP-14 and TIMP-2 expression significantly (Plaminitis affected tissues. MMP-14, located in the cytoplasm of normal lamellar basal cells, disappears during laminitis development. The pathology of laminitis is associated with increased and lowered transcription of MMP-14 and TIMP-2, respectively. Enzymes have a role in laminitis pathology and inhibition of their activity may prevent laminitis.

  18. Evaluation of low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of equine laminitis after colic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy; Grulke, Sigrid; Detilleux, Johann; Salciccia, Alexandra; Verwilghen, Denis R; Caudron, Isabelle; Gangl, Monika; Serteyn, Didier D A

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of postoperative laminitis in colic cases and to determine if low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is effective in preventing this complication. Retrospective clinical study. Client-owned horses. Interventions- SC administration of enoxaparin during the postoperative period. Medical records of 360 horses undergoing surgery for colic and surviving at least 3 days were evaluated. Fifty-six horses admitted before 1995 did not receive LMWH (control group) and 304 admitted after 1995 received LMWH as a prophylaxis for laminitis (treatment group). Three grades of severity were defined for laminitis. Prevalence and severity of laminitis were compared between the 2 groups. Several parameters recorded on admission (sex, age, breed, site and nature of the disease, heart rate, PCV, gravity score, and shock score) and the administration of LMWH were tested as risk factors in the development of laminitis in a logistic regression procedure. Prevalence and grade of laminitis were significantly lower in the treatment group. Only the absence of LMWH was recognized as a significant risk factor in the logistic regression model. The administration of LMWH appears to be effective in the prophylaxis of laminitis following colic surgery and may be useful in the postoperative management of these horses.

  19. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the bionic alloy-ceramic laminated composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Guodong; Wu, Zhanjun; Wang, Zhi; Liang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The bionic alloy-ceramic laminated composite was fabricated by EB-PVD. → Mechanical properties and microstructure of laminated composite were investigated. → Laminated composite was heat treated in order to improve the tensile strength. -- Abstract: In the present work, the bionic alloy-ceramic laminated composite was fabricated by electron beam-physical vapor deposition method. The ingots of Ni-20Co-12Cr-4Al (wt.%) and ZrO 2 -8 mol%Y 2 O 3 were used as the sources of the alloy layer and ceramic layer, respectively. The laminated composite was generally destroyed within the ceramic layer when the interlaminar strength was determined, which revealed that the excellent interface bonding between the ceramic layer and the alloy layer. The obvious diffusion interfaces between the ceramic and alloy layers were readily detected, which was favorable to the mechanical properties of the laminated composite. In the heat treatment process, the diffusion of the flaws within the ceramic layer and/or alloy layer to the interface between the ceramic layer and alloy layer was easier compared with the occurrence of interlaminar diffusion. It was confirmed by the X-ray diffractometer that the reaction of the ceramic layer with alloy layer was simple physical diffusion. The tensile strength of the laminated composite increased first and then decreased as the heat treatment time increased, which was attributed to the mutual reaction of the increase in the relative density with the formation of the flaws located at the interface.

  20. Binder-free highly conductive graphene laminate for low cost printed radio frequency applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Hu, Zhirun, E-mail: Z.Hu@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Chen, Jia Cing; Chang, Kuo Hsin [BGT Materials Limited, Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Geim, Andre K. [Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Novoselov, Kostya S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate realization of printable radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna by low temperature processing of graphene ink. The required ultra-low resistance is achieved by rolling compression of binder-free graphene laminate. With compression, the conductivity of graphene laminate is increased by more than 50 times compared to that of as-deposited one. Graphene laminate with conductivity of 4.3 × 10{sup 4 }S/m and sheet resistance of 3.8 Ω/sq (with thickness of 6 μm) is presented. Moreover, the formation of graphene laminate from graphene ink reported here is simple and can be carried out in low temperature (100 °C), significantly reducing the fabrication costs. A dipole antenna based on the highly conductive graphene laminate is further patterned and printed on a normal paper to investigate its RF properties. The performance of the graphene laminate antenna is experimentally measured. The measurement results reveal that graphene laminate antenna can provide practically acceptable return loss, gain, bandwidth, and radiation patterns, making it ideal for low cost printed RF applications, such as RFID tags and wearable wireless sensor networks.

  1. Binder-free highly conductive graphene laminate for low cost printed radio frequency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Hu, Zhirun; Chen, Jia Cing; Chang, Kuo Hsin; Geim, Andre K.; Novoselov, Kostya S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate realization of printable radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna by low temperature processing of graphene ink. The required ultra-low resistance is achieved by rolling compression of binder-free graphene laminate. With compression, the conductivity of graphene laminate is increased by more than 50 times compared to that of as-deposited one. Graphene laminate with conductivity of 4.3 × 10 4  S/m and sheet resistance of 3.8 Ω/sq (with thickness of 6 μm) is presented. Moreover, the formation of graphene laminate from graphene ink reported here is simple and can be carried out in low temperature (100 °C), significantly reducing the fabrication costs. A dipole antenna based on the highly conductive graphene laminate is further patterned and printed on a normal paper to investigate its RF properties. The performance of the graphene laminate antenna is experimentally measured. The measurement results reveal that graphene laminate antenna can provide practically acceptable return loss, gain, bandwidth, and radiation patterns, making it ideal for low cost printed RF applications, such as RFID tags and wearable wireless sensor networks

  2. BILAM: a composite laminate failure-analysis code using bilinear stress-strain approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, P.V. Jr.; Dasgupta, A.; Chun, Y.W.

    1980-10-01

    The BILAM code which uses constant strain laminate analysis to generate in-plane load/deformation or stress/strain history of composite laminates to the point of laminate failure is described. The program uses bilinear stress-strain curves to model layer stress-strain behavior. Composite laminates are used for flywheels. The use of this computer code will help to develop data on the behavior of fiber composite materials which can be used by flywheel designers. In this program the stress-strain curves are modelled by assuming linear response in axial tension while using bilinear approximations (2 linear segments) for stress-strain response to axial compressive, transverse tensile, transverse compressive and axial shear loadings. It should be noted that the program attempts to empirically simulate the effects of the phenomena which cause nonlinear stress-strain behavior, instead of mathematically modelling the micromechanics involved. This code, therefore, performs a bilinear laminate analysis, and, in conjunction with several user-defined failure interaction criteria, is designed to provide sequential information on all layer failures up to and including the first fiber failure. The modus operandi is described. Code BILAM can be used to: predict the load-deformation/stress-strain behavior of a composite laminate subjected to a given combination of in-plane loads, and make analytical predictions of laminate strength.

  3. Delamination behaviour in differently copper laminated REBCO coated conductor tapes under transverse loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorospe, Alking; Nisay, Arman; Shin, Hyung-Seop

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • I c degradation behavior under transverse tension loading in different CC tape structure. • Weibull distribution analysis applied on delamination mechanism of CC tape. • Delamination mechanism on CC tapes depending on copper lamination type. • SEM and WDS mapping analysis of delamination sites under transverse loading. - Abstract: Laminated HTS coated conductor (CC) tapes having a unique multi-layer structure made them vulnerable when exposed to transverse loading. Electromechanical transport properties of these CC tapes can be affected by excessive transverse stresses. Due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch and incompatibility among constituent materials used in coil applications, delamination among layers occurs and causes critical current, I c degradation in the CC tapes. In this study, the delamination behaviors in copper (Cu) solder-laminated CC tapes by soldering and surround Cu-stabilized ones by electroplating under transverse tension loading were investigated. Similarly to the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes in our previous reports, the Cu solder-laminated CC tapes also showed an abrupt and gradual I c degradation behavior. However, the Cu solder-laminated CC tapes showed different delamination morphologies as compared to the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes; the superconducting side and the substrate side of the Cu solder laminated CC tapes were totally separated by delamination. On the other hand, the brass laminate did not show any significant effect on the delamination strength when it is added upon the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes

  4. Lamin A/C might be involved in the EMT signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lingkun; Zhao, Huanying; Yang, Ronghui; Wang, Liyong; Ma, Hui; Xu, Xiaoxue; Zhou, Ping; Kong, Lu

    2018-04-14

    We have previously reported a heterogeneous expression pattern of the nuclear membrane protein lamin A/C in low- and high-Gleason score (GS) prostate cancer (PC) tissues, and we have now found that this change is not associated with LMNA mutations. This expression pattern appears to be similar to the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) or to that of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). The role of lamin A/C in EMT or MET in PC remains unclear. Therefore, we first investigated the expression levels of and the associations between lamin A/C and several common EMT markers, such as E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, snail, slug and vimentin in PC tissues with different GS values and in different cell lines with varying invasion abilities. Our results suggest that lamin A/C might constitute a type of epithelial marker that better signifies EMT and MET in PC tissue, since a decrease in lamin A/C expression in GS 4 + 5 cases is likely associated with the EMT process, while the re-expression of lamin A/C in GS 5 + 4 cases is likely linked with MET. The detailed GS better exhibited the changes in lamin A/C and the EMT markers examined. Lamin A/C overexpression or knockdown had an impact on EMT biomarkers in a cell model by direct regulation of β-catenin. Hence, we suggest that lamin A/C might serve as a reliable epithelial biomarker for the distinction of PC cell differentiation and might also be a fundamental factor in the occurrence of EMT or MET in PC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. [Results of sclera-laminating goniotrephination in neovascular glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, W; Wölz, U

    1983-08-01

    Sclera-laminating goniotrepanation is a modification of the Elliot-Fronimopoulos operation. In this procedure the scleral flap is removed, so that a shallow depression is formed in the sclera; this helps to prevent an ectatic bleb. No cicatrization of the trephine hole was observed in the authors' cases. The modification is only used by them in glaucoma cases with poor prognosis. Forty-six patients, 39 of whom were suffering from neovascular glaucoma associated with occlusion of the central retinal vein or diabetic retinopathy, underwent the operation and the results were followed up. As far as regulation of intraocular pressure and elimination of pain are concerned, the results were encouraging. Severe hemorrhage into the anterior chamber without spontaneous absorption only occurred in 2 cases.

  6. Free material optimization for laminated plates and shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldeyesus, Alemseged Gebrehiwot; Stolpe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    are that it is symmetric and positive semidefinite. Most of today’s studies on FMO focus on models for two- and three-dimensional structures. The objective of this article is to extend existing FMO models and methods to laminated plate and shell structures, which are used in many engineering applications. In FMO......Free Material Optimization (FMO) is a powerful approach for conceptual optimal design of composite structures. The design variable in FMO is the entire elastic material tensor which is allowed to vary almost freely over the design domain. The imposed requirements on the tensor......, the resulting optimization problem is generally a non convex semidefinite program with many matrix inequalities which requires special-purpose optimization methods. The FMO problems are efficiently solved by a primal-dual interior point method developed and implemented by the authors. The quality...

  7. Laser cutting of laminated sheet material: a modeling exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Roelof F.; Meijer, Johan

    1997-08-01

    Laser cutting has been investigated for a number of aluminum-synthetic laminates, newly developed materials for the aeronautic and automotive industry. The materials consist of alternating aluminum and synthetic layers. It is shown that these materials can be cut at rates comparable to those of homogeneous aluminum alloys. The cuts show little dross attachment. Also some damage on the synthetic layers has to be accepted. These results initiated a modeling exercise, which resulted in a numerical simulation code. The applied cutting model is based on describing the material in several horizontal layers, each with its own specific thermophysical and optical properties. The separate layers are coupled by known mass, energy and force balanced equations.

  8. Lamin-B in systemic inflammation, tissue homeostasis, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Zheng, Yixian

    2015-01-01

    Gradual loss of tissue function (or homeostasis) is a natural process of aging and is believed to cause many age-associated diseases. In human epidemiology studies, the low-grade and chronic systemic inflammation in elderly has been correlated with the development of aging related pathologies. Although it is suspected that tissue decline is related to systemic inflammation, the cause and consequence of these aging phenomena are poorly understood. By studying the Drosophila fat body and gut, we have uncovered a mechanism by which lamin-B loss in the fat body upon aging induces age-associated systemic inflammation. This chronic inflammation results in the repression of gut local immune response, which in turn leads to the over-proliferation and mis-differentiation of the intestinal stem cells, thereby resulting in gut hyperplasia. Here we discuss the implications and remaining questions in light of our published findings and new observations.

  9. Zigzag-shaped piezoelectric based high performance magnetoelectric laminate composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Yan, Yongke; Folgar, Christian; Priya, Shashank

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate a 33-mode piezoelectric structure with zigzag shape for high sensitivity magnetoelectric laminates. In contrast to the 33-mode macro fiber composite (MFC), this zigzag shape piezoelectric layer excludes epoxy bonding layer between the electrode and piezoelectric materials, thereby, significantly improving the polarization degree, electromechanical coupling, and the stability of loss characteristics. The polarization degree was monitored from the change in phase angle near resonance, and the loss stability was determined from the changes in dielectric loss and rate of capacitance variation defined by (C - Cf)/Cf, where C is capacitance at a given frequency and Cf is capacitance at 100 Hz. Magnetoelectric composite with zigzag patterned piezoelectric layer was found to exhibit giant magnetoelectric response both in low frequency off-resonance region (6.75 V cm-1 Oe-1 at 1 kHz) and at anti-resonance frequency (357 V cm-1 Oe-1).

  10. Synthesis and characterization of laminated Si/SiC composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma M. Naga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated Si/SiC ceramics were synthesized from porous preforms of biogenous carbon impregnated with Si slurry at a temperature of 1500 °C for 2 h. Due to the capillarity infiltration with Si, both intrinsic micro- and macrostructure in the carbon preform were retained within the final ceramics. The SEM micrographs indicate that the final material exhibits a distinguished laminar structure with successive Si/SiC layers. The produced composites show weight gain of ≈5% after heat treatment in air at 1300 °C for 50 h. The produced bodies could be used as high temperature gas filters as indicated from the permeability results.

  11. Stability And Vibration Of Initially Stressed Thick Laminated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I. H.; Kuo, W. S.

    1993-12-01

    Equations of motion for antisymmetric angle-ply plates in a general state of non-uniform initial stresses, where the effects of transverse shear and rotatory inertia are included, are derived by using Trefftz equations and the variational principle. These equations are then non-dimensionalized to a generic form by introducing global constants in orthotropic space and properly rearranging on-axis to off-axis stiffness relations for angle-ply laminates. Finally, the stability and vibration equations are solved for simply supported rectangular plates in a state of normal stress plus an edge twisting stress. The effects of twisting and the global material constants on the buckling and vibration of plates are studied.

  12. An Enriched Shell Element for Delamination Simulation in Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A formulation is presented for an enriched shell finite element capable of delamination simulation in composite laminates. The element uses an adaptive splitting approach for damage characterization that allows for straightforward low-fidelity model creation and a numerically efficient solution. The Floating Node Method is used in conjunction with the Virtual Crack Closure Technique to predict delamination growth and represent it discretely at an arbitrary ply interface. The enriched element is verified for Mode I delamination simulation using numerical benchmark data. After determining important mesh configuration guidelines for the vicinity of the delamination front in the model, a good correlation was found between the enriched shell element model results and the benchmark data set.

  13. Vibration suppression of composite laminated beams using distributed piezoelectric patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, M A; Almajed, A A; ElMadany, M M

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to develop an analytical and straightforward approach to suppress the steady state transverse vibration of a symmetric cross-ply laminated composite beam that is excited by an external harmonic force. This is achieved by bonding patches of piezoelectric material at selected locations along the beam. The governing equations for the system are formulated and the dynamic Green's functions are used to obtain an exact solution for the problem. A scheme is proposed for determining the values of the driving voltages, the dimensions of the PZT patches and their locations along the beam, in order to confine the vibration in a certain chosen region where the vibration is not harmful and leave the other chosen region stationary or vibrating with very small amplitudes. Beams with different boundary conditions are considered. Numerical case studies are presented to verify the utility of the proposed scheme

  14. Design, Fabrication and Test of Multi-Fiber Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R. A.; Novak, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Unidirectional and angleply multifiber laminates were tested for improved impact strength and other mechanical properties. The effects of several variables on the mechanical properties of epoxy matrix materials were described. These include fiber type (HMS and AS graphites, glass, and Kevlar 49), ratio of primary to hybridizing fiber and hybrid configuration. It is demonstrated that AS graphite/S glass in an intraply configuration results in the best combination of static and Charpy impact properties as well as superior ballistic impact resistance. Pendulum impact tests which were conducted on thin specimens are shown to produce different ranking of materials than tests conducted on standard thickness Charpy specimens. It is shown that the thin specimen results are in better agreement with the ballistic impact data. Additional static test data are reported as a function of temperature for the seven best hybrid configurations having epoxy, polyimide (PMR-15) and polyphenylquinoxaline resins as the matrix.

  15. Calculation of neutron albedo from laminated semiinfinite media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrynin, Yu.L.; Mikaehlyan, L.A.; Skorokhvatov, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    A version of a laminated neutron detector with increased efficiency for recording external neutron fluxes by gamma-quanta from neutron capture is considered. The detector comprises two zones. The first zone constitutes an absorbent layer (europium oxide) 0.5 cm thick, and the second one is a moderator (water with gadolinium salt at the concentration of 0.8 g/l). Mono-energetic neutrons fall normally onto the detector surface. Neutron energy varied from 0.1 eV to MeV. The results of calculations of the integral numerical current albedo (INCA) of neutrons by the Monte Carlo method are presented. The INCA dependences on neutron energy are obtained for one moderator with different gadolinium contents; for the absorbent with the moderator containing and lacking the gadolinium. The resultant dependences are indicative of preferential capture of neutrons by the gadolinium in the moderator, this being more desirable for recording neutrons in the (n, γ) reaction

  16. Design of laminated plates for maximum buckling load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yung S.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Watson, Layne T.; Plaut, Raymond H.

    1989-01-01

    The buckling load of laminated plates having midplane symmetry is maximized for a given total thickness. The thicknesses of the layers are taken as the design variables. Buckling analysis is carried out using the finite element method. The optimality equations are solved by a homotopy method which permits tracing optima as a function of total thickness. It is shown that for any design with a given stacking sequence of ply orientations, there exists a design associated with any other stacking sequence which possesses the same bending stiffness matrix and same total thickness. Hence, from the optimum design for a given stacking sequence, one can directly determine the optimum design for any rearrangement of the ply orientations, and the optimum buckling load is independent of the stacking sequence.

  17. Investigation on contact melting of Cu/Al laminated composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronicheva, D.V.; Gurevicha, L.M.; Trykova, Y.P.; Trunov, M.D.

    2016-07-01

    The study presents investigation of chemical composition, microhardness and electrical conductivity of Cu/Al laminated metal composite after heat treatment at temperatures higher than Cu–Al eutectic melting point. The Cu/Al bimetal was obtained via explosion welding. Chemical composition of the material after heat treatments was identified using EDS analysis. Eddy current testing was applied to investigate electrical conductivity of the composite’s components. Strain-hardened zones were identified in the explosion welded composite. The experimental value of electrical conductivity of explosion welded composite was in good coherence with calculated by additivity rule results. Heat treatments resulted in the formation of multiple interlayers which had high microhardness value and had intermetallics in composition. The electrical conductivity of the identified interlayers was significantly lower than of Cu and Al. (Author)

  18. Free-edge delamination - Laminate width and loading conditions effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1989-01-01

    The width and loading conditions effects on free-edge stress fields in composite laminates are investigated using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. This analysis includes a special free-edge region refinement or superelement with progressive substructuring (mesh refinement) and finite thickness interply layers. The different loading conditions include in-plane and out-of-plane bending, combined axial tension and in-plane shear, twisting, uniform temperature and uniform moisture. Results obtained indicate that: axial tension causes the smallest magnitude of interlaminar free edge stress compared to other loading conditions; free-edge delamination data obtained from laboratory specimens cannot be scaled to structural components; and composite structural components are not likely to delaminate.

  19. 14C dating of freshwater carbonate sediments with special reference to calcareous tufas and laminated lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazdur, M.F.

    1992-09-01

    The sequence of laminated sediment of the lake Gosciaz, Poland, covers more than 13,000 years and is actually the longest sequence known so far. Besides of reconstructing past environmental changes, this sequence offers an excellent possibility for studying natural C-14 variations and calibrating the C-14 time scale in a range beyond 6,000 years B.P. The floating varve chronology based on previously taken sediment cores which cover a period of 9,682 years, has been improved by this study. Relative water level changes of the lake during the past 11,500 years have been reconstructed by means of C-14 and C-13 measurements carried out on carbonate fractions of the lake sediments. Periodical variations in the width of annual layers were found. The periods identified are 11 years and 22 years (solar cycle), 35 years (Bruckner cycle), and 200 years. The ratio of summer layer width and the total width of the annual layer shows secular changes which correlate with paleotemperature records. The duration of the Younger Dryas period was determined by combining the floating varve chronology with isotope and pollen analyses of the sediment material. A value of 1,500 years was found. The study also included radiocarbon dating of calcareous tufa taken from different study areas. 26 refs, 26 figs, 6 tabs

  20. Development of a realistic stress analysis for fatigue analysis of notched composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    A finite element stress analysis which consists of a membrane and interlaminar shear spring analysis was developed. This approach was utilized in order to model physically realistic failure mechanisms while maintaining a high degree of computational economy. The accuracy of the stress analysis predictions is verified through comparisons with other solutions to the composite laminate edge effect problem. The stress analysis model was incorporated into an existing fatigue analysis methodology and the entire procedure computerized. A fatigue analysis is performed upon a square laminated composite plate with a circular central hole. A complete description and users guide for the computer code FLAC (Fatigue of Laminated Composites) is included as an appendix.

  1. Observation of the stabilizing effect of a laminated ablator on the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, L; Casner, A; Galmiche, D; Huser, G; Liberatore, S; Theobald, M

    2011-05-01

    A laminated ablator is explored as an alternative concept for stabilizing the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability which develops in inertial fusion targets. Experiments measuring the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of laminated planar foils are reported. Consistent with both theory and simulations, a significant reduction of the perturbation growth is experimentally observed for laminated ablators in comparison to what is observed for classical uniform ablators. Such an enhanced hydrodynamic stability opens opportunities for the design of high-gain inertial fusion targets. © 2011 American Physical Society

  2. Aberrant localization of lamin B receptor (LBR) in cellular senescence in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Rumi; En, Atsuki; Ukekawa, Ryo [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Miki, Kensuke [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Ichiban Life Corporation, 1-1-7 Horai-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama 231-0048 (Japan); Fujii, Michihiko, E-mail: mifuji@yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Ayusawa, Dai [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Ichiban Life Corporation, 1-1-7 Horai-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama 231-0048 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analogue, induces cellular senescence in mammalian cells. BrdU induces cellular senescence probably through the regulation of chromatin because BrdU destabilizes or disrupts nucleosome positioning and decondenses heterochromatin. Since heterochromatin is tethered to the nuclear periphery through the interaction with the nuclear envelope proteins, we examined the localization of the several nuclear envelope proteins such as lamins, lamin-interacting proteins, nuclear pore complex proteins, and nuclear transport proteins in senescent cells. We have shown here that lamin B receptor (LBR) showed a change in localization in both BrdU-induced and replicative senescent cells.

  3. Detecting barely visible impact damages of honeycomb and laminate CFRP using digital shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, Mikhail; Lyubutin, Pavel; Byakov, Anton; Panin, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with testing of the developed shearographic device and signal processing software applied for nondestructive testing/evaluation (NDT/E) of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). There were 4 types of test specimens: laminate CFRP, honeycomb CFRP, laminate CFRP with the channel stiffener, and laminate CFRP bolted with the aluminum plate. All the specimens were subjected to impact loading using the drop weight technique according to the ASTM D7136 standard in order to produce barely visible impact damages (BVID). The obtained shearograms easily reveal BVIDs as nonuniformities in strain fields. The results are analyzed and discussed in view of the sensitivity of shearography to delamination and debonding.

  4. Resin infusion of layered metal/composite hybrid and resulting metal/composite hybrid laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of fabricating a metal/composite hybrid laminate is provided. One or more layered arrangements are stacked on a solid base to form a layered structure. Each layered arrangement is defined by a fibrous material and a perforated metal sheet. A resin in its liquid state is introduced along a portion of the layered structure while a differential pressure is applied across the laminate structure until the resin permeates the fibrous material of each layered arrangement and fills perforations in each perforated metal sheet. The resin is cured thereby yielding a metal/composite hybrid laminate.

  5. Probabilistic Modelling of Fatigue Life of Composite Laminates Using Bayesian Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2014-01-01

    A probabilistic model for estimating the fatigue life of laminated composite plates subjected to constant-amplitude or variable-amplitude loading is developed. The model is based on lamina-level input data, making it possible to predict fatigue properties for a wide range of laminate configurations....... Model parameters are estimated by Bayesian inference. The reference data used consists of constant-amplitude fatigue test results for a multi-directional laminate subjected to seven different load ratios. The paper describes the modelling techniques and the parameter estimation procedure, supported...

  6. Risk prediction of ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial function in Lamin A/C mutation positive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselberg, Nina E; Edvardsen, Thor; Petri, Helle

    2014-01-01

    /C mutation-positive subjects. PR-interval and occurrence of VA were recorded. Left ventricular (LV) myocardial function was assessed as ejection fraction and speckle tracking longitudinal strain by echocardiography. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to assess fibrosis in a selection of subjects......Mutations in the Lamin A/C gene may cause atrioventricular block, supraventricular arrhythmias, ventricular arrhythmias (VA), and dilated cardiomyopathy. We aimed to explore the predictors and the mechanisms of VA in Lamin A/C mutation-positive subjects.METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 41 Lamin A...

  7. Feasibility study on the development of tough, moisture-resistant laminating resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

    1979-01-01

    The potential of cyanate resins as replacement for epoxy resins in composites with graphite fiber reinforcement was investigated in an effort to provide improved moisture resistance and toughness in laminating systems at a projected cost, handleability, and processing requirements equivalent to 400 K (260 F) curing epoxies. Monomer synthesis, formulation, blending, resin preparation, catalysis studies, prepreg preparation, laminate fabrication, and testing are discussed. A graphite fiber reinforced laminate was developed with 95 percent retention of the original 363 K (180 F) flexural strength and 70 percent retention of the 363 K (180 F) short beam shear strength after 500 hour exposure to 95 + 7 relative humidity at 324 K (120 F).

  8. Amphibian oocyte nuclei expressing lamin A with the progeria mutation E145K exhibit an increased elastic modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anna; Heinemann, Fabian; Radmacher, Manfred; Stick, Reimer

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the human lamin A gene (LMNA) cause a wide range of diseases (laminopathies). Among these is the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a rare premature aging disease. Most HGPS patients carry a silent point mutation, which activates a cryptic splice site resulting in the expression of a permanently isoprenylated and truncated lamin AΔ50/progerin. Another type of mutant lamin A namely, E145K-lamin A, also causes HGPS. E145K-lamin A induces profound changes in the nuclear architecture of patient cells as well as after expression in cultured cells. The E145K mutation is located in the α-helical central domain of lamin A, which is involved in lamin filament assembly. In vitro analyses of purified E145K-lamin A have revealed severe assembly defects into higher order lamin structures, which indicates an abnormal lateral association of protofilaments. To analyze how the altered assembly observed in vitro might influence the mechanics of a nuclear lamina formed by E145K-lamin A, mutant and wild type lamin A were ectopically expressed in amphibian oocytes. Both types form a lamina consisting of multi-layered sheets of filaments at the inner side of the nuclear envelope. The mechanical properties of isolated nuclei were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). From the resulting force curves, the stiffness of the lamina was estimated. The thickness of the resulting lamin A layer was then measured by TEM. The two parameters allowed us to estimate the elastic modulus (Young's modulus) of the lamina. Lamin A sheets made from E145K filaments have a higher Young's modulus compared to wild type filaments, i.e. the E145K-lamin A sheets are more rigid than wild type laminae of comparable thickness.

  9. The role of nonlinear viscoelasticity on the functionality of laminating shortenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias-Rodriguez, Braulio A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of fats is essential for the development of homogeneous and continuous layered structures of doughs. Here, we define laminating shortenings in terms of rheological behavior displayed during linear-to-nonlinear shear deformations, investigated by large amplitude oscillatory shear rheology. Likewise, we associate the rheological behavior of the shortenings with structural length scales elucidated by ultra-small angle x-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy. Shortenings exhibited solid-like viscoelastic and viscoelastoplastic behaviors in the linear and nonlinear regimes respectively. In the nonlinear region, laminating shortenings dissipated more viscous energy (larger normalized dynamic viscosities) than a cake bakery shortening. The fat solid-like network of laminating shortening displayed a three-hierarchy structure and layered crystal aggregates, in comparison to two-hierarchy structure and spherical-like crystal aggregates of a cake shortening. We argue that the observed rheology, correlated to the structural network, is crucial for optimal laminating performance of shortenings.

  10. Design, fabrication, testing and delivery of a feasibility model laminated ferrite memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of using multiword addressing with laminated ferrite arrays was made. Both a reduction in the number of components, and a reduction in power consumption was obtained for memory capacities between one million bits and one million words. An investigation into the effect of variations in the processing steps resulted in a number of process modifications that improved the quality of the arrays. A feasibility model laminated ferrite memory system was constructed by modifying a commercial plated wire memory system to operate with laminated ferrite arrays. To provide flexibility for the testing of the laminated ferrite memory, an exerciser has been constructed to automatically control the loading and recirculation of arbitrary size checkerboard patterns of one's and zero's and to display the patterns of stored information on a CRT screen.

  11. The role of activated neutrophils in the early stage of equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy; Serteyn, Didier

    2011-07-01

    Despite ongoing research and a widening range of treatment options, laminitis remains a severely damaging condition with poorly understood pathophysiology. Results obtained from cytokine regulation studies during the last decade have highlighted the inflammatory nature of laminitis. This review will describe the role of systemic activation and local infiltration of neutrophils in laminar tissues in the induction of laminitis. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of neutrophil activation in subsequent vascular dysfunction and oxidative and proteolysis imbalances that are pathways previously implicated in laminitis. Neutrophils, by the way of their interdependent relationship with endothelial cells and keratinocytes, dramatically increase the inflammatory response culminating in the failure of the laminar dermal-epidermal interface. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbial events in the hindgut during carbohydrate-induced equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Klieve, Athol V; Pollitt, Christopher C; Trott, Darren J

    2010-04-01

    Equine laminitis is the most serious foot disease of the horse, often resulting in death or euthanasia. Laminitis has long been recognized as an affliction of horses, as has the association of this condition with the ingestion of carbohydrates. Research into the pathophysiology of this condition has been facilitated by the development of reliable models for experimentally inducing laminitis, and DNA-based techniques for profiling complex microbiomes have dramatically increased the knowledge of the microbiology of this disease. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence showing equine hindgut streptococcal species to be the most likely causative agent. Although these studies are not definitive, they provide the foundations for future work to determine the source of laminitis trigger factors and their mechanisms of action. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Derivation and application of blending constraints in lamination parameter space for composite optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquart, T.B.M.J.; Bordogna, MT; Lancelot, P.M.G.J.; De Breuker, R.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper proposes a set of blending constraints expressed in lamination parameter space, applicable during the continuous optimisation of composite structures. Thicknesses and ply orientations of large composite structures are often locally optimised in response to unequal spatial load

  14. Electromagnetic flat-faced robot gripper for handling multiple industrial transformer core lamination plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, B.; Vinay, T.; Kangsanant, T.; Harvey, A. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1998-05-01

    In the industrial transformer core assembly process, significant productivity gains can be achieved by utilizing a robotic gripper that is able to handle, and accurately position, multiple transformer laminations during each pick-and-place cycle. This paper reports on the development of a novel electromagnetic lifter for such applications. The lifter has the unique capability to selectively pick a given number of laminations at a time (the usual requirement is three) from a stack. By considering an analytical model of the magnetic circuit of the electromagnet-lamination stack combination, closed form solutions are obtained for the flux flow pattern and the lifting force on each lamination in the stack which closely agrees with the numerical results obtained using two-dimensional finite element analysis software. Results of experiments conducted on a prototype electromagnet are also presented that validate the analytical model findings.

  15. Control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates using piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Kim, Heung Soo

    2014-07-01

    The control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in laminated composite structures using a stress function-based approach is proposed. The assumed stress fields satisfy pointwise traction and free boundary conditions at surfaces. Governing equations are derived using the principle of complementary virtual work. A general eigenvalue solution procedure was adopted to obtain accurate stress states of the laminated composite structure. The results obtained from the proposed method were compared with those obtained by three-dimensional finite element analyses. It was found that interlaminar stresses generated by mechanical loadings could be significantly reduced by applying proper electric fields to piezoelectric actuators, which were surface bonded or embedded in composite laminates. Locations of piezoelectric actuators also influenced the distributions of interlaminar stresses. The results provided that piezoelectric actuators have potential in the application to actively control interlaminar stresses in composite laminates.

  16. Free Vibration Analysis of Laminated Plates Using First-Order Shear Deformation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Umut; Uzman, Ümit

    This paper deals with free vibration analysis of simply supported laminated composite plates using first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The displacement field of a laminated composite plate is given for FSDT. The numerical studies are conducted to determine the effect of width-to-thickness ratio, degree of orthotropy, fiber orientation, aspect ratio on the nondimensionalized fundamental frequency for laminated composite plates. Also, the effect of shear deformation, rotatory inertia and shear correction coefficient on the nondimensionalized fundamental frequency is examined. A MATLAB code is written for free vibration of laminated plates. However, the problem is modeled using finite element package program ANSYS for different meshes. Finally, the results are given in graphical and tabular form and compared.

  17. Failure analysis of single-bolted joint for lightweight composite laminates and metal plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linjie; Qu, Junli; Liu, Xiangdong

    2018-01-01

    A three-dimensional progressive damage model was developed in ANSYS to predict the damage accumulation of single bolted joint in composite laminates under in-plane tensile loading. First, we describe the formulation and algorithm of this model. Second, we calculate the failure loads of the joint in fibre reinforced epoxy laminated composite plates and compare it with the experiment results, which validates that our model can appropriately simulate the ultimate tensile strength of the joints and the whole process of failure of structure. Finally, this model is applied to study the failure process of the light-weight composite material (USN125). The study also has a great potential to provide a strong basis for bolted joints design in composite Laminates as well as a simple tool for comparing different laminate geometries and bolt arrangements.

  18. Vibration and Energy Dissipation of Nanocomposite Laminates for Below Ballistic Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balaganesan

    Full Text Available Abstract Composite laminates are made of glass woven roving mats of 610gsm, epoxy resin and nano clay which are subjected to projectile impact. Nano clay dispersion is varied from 1% to 5%. Impact tests are conducted in a gas gun setup with a spherical nose cylindrical projectile of diameter 9.5 mm of mass 7.6 g. The energy absorbed by the laminates when subjected to impact loading is studied, the velocity range is below ballistic limit. The effect of nano clay on energy absorption in vibration, delamination and matrix crack is studied for different weight % of nano clay and for different thickness values of the laminates. The natural frequencies and damping factors are obtained for the laminates during impact and the effect of nano clay is studied. The results show considerable improvement in energy absorption due to the presence of nano clay

  19. A consolidation process model for film-stacking glass/PPS laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Akkerman, Remko

    2009-01-01

    The applied pressure, processing temperature and holding time influence the consolidation of thermoplastic laminates. A model to optimise the processing parameters is proposed. The influence of heating rate, processing temperature and pressure is investigated. Short textile impregnation times, in

  20. On the bounds for the stress intensity factor in laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, F.; Gupta, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt was made to calculate the upper and lower bound for the stress intensity factor when crack tips are in the primary laminate, the buffer strips, and at the interfaces. The tests were made on boron-epoxy composites.

  1. DMTO – a method for Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Nørgaard; Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a gradient based topology optimization method for Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization of laminated composite structures, labelled the DMTOmethod. The capabilities of the proposed method are demonstrated on mass minimization, subject to constraints on the structural...

  2. Annual Check-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Annual Check-Up Posted under Health Guides . Updated 24 April 2017. + ... I get ready for my annual medical check-up? If this is your first visit to your ...

  3. Dynamic changes in circulating leukocytes during the induction of equine laminitis with black walnut extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, David J; Parks, Robert J; Reber, Adrian J; Donovan, Douglas C; Okinaga, Tatsuyuki; Vandenplas, Michel L; Peroni, John F; Moore, James N

    2006-04-15

    Administration of black walnut heartwood extract (BWHE) via nasogastric tube induces acute laminitis in horses. However, the processes responsible for the development of laminitis, including laminitis induced with BWHE, remain unclear. The results of recent studies indicate that administration of BWHE initiates an inflammatory response in the laminar tissues and that this response may be due to extravasation of activated leukocytes from the circulation. This study examines the effects of BWHE administration on the dynamics of circulating neutrophils and monocytes, and the capacity of blood leukocytes to produce radical oxygen species (ROS) over the time period from administration of BWHE to the development of lameness consistent with Obel grade I laminitis. Individual horses, free of pre-existing musculoskeletal disease, were administered either 6l of BWHE or an equal volume of water at time 0 (T=0). Blood samples were collected prior to dosing and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h after dosing, or until the onset of Obel grade I laminitis. For each sample, total leukocyte counts were determined followed by collection of buffy coats and removal of erythrocytes by hypotonic lysis. Leukocytes were either fixed for flow cytometric assessment of differential counts or maintained in culture to measure endogenous and phorbol ester-induced production of ROS. At each sample time, the number of cells recovered and the flow cytometric differential counts were compared with corresponding total leukocyte counts determined by the Clinical Pathology laboratory. Horses administered BWHE had a significant reduction in circulating leukocytes at 3-4 h relative to values for horses administered the same volume of water. Horses that developed Obel grade I laminitis had a significant reduction in circulating leukocytes when compared to values for horses administered BWHE that did not become lame. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a consistent decrease in the total number of monocytes

  4. The role of shape memory alloy on impact response of glass/epoxy laminates under low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K. W.; Kim, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    The paper aims to evaluate the impact response of glass/epoxy laminates with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) subject to low velocity impact at various temperatures. For the goal, the impact tests were performed by using an instrumented impact-testing machine at three temperatures: 293K, 263K and 233K for the baseline (laminates without SMA wires) and SMA laminates (laminates with embedded SMA wires). And the resultant damages were inspected through the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). Also, based on the impact force history and the damage configuration, the impact resistance parameters were employed to evaluate damage resistance of laminates with embedded SMA wires. As a result, it was observed that the damage resistance of glass/epoxy laminates is influenced by embedded SMA wires and embedding SMA wires into laminates does not compromise the structure any differently to laminates without wires. In fact, it has been shown that under lower temperature, the SMA laminates have a little superior damage resistance compared with the baseline laminates

  5. Field performance of timber bridges. 4, Graves Crossing stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter

    The Graves Crossing bridge was constructed October 1991 in Antrim County, Michigan, as part of the demonstration timber bridge program sponsored by the USDA Forest Service. The bridge is a two-span continuous, stress-laminated deck superstructure and it is 36-ft long and 26-ft wide. The bridge is one of the first stress-laminated deck bridges to be built of sawn lumber...

  6. Osteopathology in the Equine Distal Phalanx Associated With the Development and Progression of Laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engiles, J B; Galantino-Homer, H L; Boston, R; McDonald, D; Dishowitz, M; Hankenson, K D

    2015-09-01

    Although the equine distal phalanx and hoof lamellae are biomechanically and physiologically integrated, bony changes in the distal phalanx are poorly described in laminitis. The aims of this study were (1) to establish a laminitis grading scheme that can be applied to the wide spectrum of lesions seen in naturally occurring cases and (2) to measure and describe changes in the distal phalanx associated with laminitis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histology. Thirty-six laminitic and normal feet from 15 performance and nonperformance horses were evaluated. A laminitis grading scheme based on radiographic, gross, histopathologic, and temporal parameters was developed. Laminitis severity grades generated by this scheme correlated well with clinical severity and coincided with decreased distal phalanx bone volume and density as measured by micro-CT. Laminitic hoof wall changes included progressive ventral rotation and distal displacement of the distal phalanx with increased thickness of the stratum internum-corium tissues with lamellar wedge formation. Histologically, there was epidermal lamellar necrosis with basement membrane separation and dysplastic regeneration, including acanthosis and hyperkeratosis, corresponding to the lamellar wedge. The changes detected by micro-CT corresponded to microscopic findings in the bone, including osteoclastic osteolysis of trabecular and osteonal bone with medullary inflammation and fibrosis. Bone changes were identified in horses with mild/early stages of laminitis as well as severe/chronic stages. The authors conclude that distal phalangeal pathology is a quantifiable and significant component of laminitis pathology and may have important implications for early detection or therapeutic intervention of equine laminitis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Collaboration as a Key Feature of Equine Evidence-Based Research: A Laminitis Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Wylie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIt is widely believed that laminitis poses a threat to the health and welfare of all Equidae; however, there is a paucity of evidence-based research on fundamental aspects of the disease, including how commonly it occurs, its clinical presentation and those animals at greatest risk. Following generous funding from World Horse Welfare, we have produced a programme of work over the last eight years to improve the evidence base regarding the epidemiology of laminitis. This began with systematic reviews regarding the frequency of [1], and risk factors for [2], naturally-occurring laminitis which informed the planning and conduct of prospective veterinary practice-level cohort and nested case-control studies of veterinary-diag­nosed laminitis in British horses. Laminitis research tools, disease frequency estimates [3], potential novel modifiable risk factors [4] and guidelines for the differential diagnosis of laminitis [5] have all resulted from these now published, peer-reviewed studies. Ongoing work gathers further information on owner-report­ed laminitis cases by means of a prospective individual animal-level cohort study design, implemented through the use of web-based data collection (www.careaboutlaminitis.org.uk.Each step of the generation of this evidence-based data has demanded high levels of collaborative effort between charitable bodies, epidemiologists, information technology consultants, public relation officers, laminitis researchers, veterinary practitioners and horse owners. This talk will outline the methods we used to gather evidence-based data in the equine field, highlight the challenges and lessons we have learnt, and emphasise the crucial role the veterinary practitioner can play in both providing and using such evidence-based data.

  8. Microbial ecology of the equine hindgut during oligofructose-induced laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Burrell, Paul C; Pollitt, Christopher C; Klieve, Athol V; Blackall, Linda L; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Woodland, Erika; Trott, Darren J

    2008-11-01

    Alimentary carbohydrate overload is a significant cause of laminitis in horses and is correlated with drastic shifts in the composition of hindgut microbiota. Equine hindgut streptococcal species (EHSS), predominantly Streptococcus lutetiensis, have been shown to be the most common microorganisms culturable from the equine caecum prior to the onset of laminitis. However, the inherent biases of culture-based methods are estimated to preclude up to 70% of the normal caecal microbiota. The objective of this study was to evaluate bacterial population shifts occurring in the equine caecum throughout the course of oligofructose-induced laminitis using several culture-independent techniques and to correlate these with caecal lactate, volatile fatty acid and degrees of polymerization 3-7 fructo-oligosaccharide concentrations. Our data conclusively show that of the total microbiota present in the equine hindgut, the EHSS S. lutetiensis is the predominant microorganism that proliferates prior to the onset of laminitis, utilizing oligofructose to produce large quantities of lactate. Population shifts in lactobacilli and Escherichia coli subpopulations occur secondarily to the EHSS population shifts, thus confirming that lactobacilli and coliforms have no role in laminitis. A large, curved, Gram-negative rod previously observed during the early phases of laminitis induction was most closely related to the Anaerovibrio genus and most likely represents a new, yet to be cultured, genus and species. Correlation of fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that laminitis is associated with the death en masse and rapid cell lysis of EHSS. If EHSS are lysed, liberated cellular components may initiate laminitis.

  9. Field performance of timber bridges. 8, Lynches Woods Park stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter; D. Conger

    The Lynches Woods Park bridge was constructed during the summer of 1990 in Newberry, South Carolina. It is a single-span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that measures approximately 30 ft long, 16 ft wide, and 14 in. deep. The bridge is unique in that is one of the first known stress-laminated deck bridges to be constructed of Southern Pine lumber...

  10. [Laminitis with a high degree of osteitis rarefaciens of the distal phalanx in a Fleckvieh bull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, J; Stanek, C

    1990-06-01

    Chronic laminitis with severe rarefactive osteitis was diagnosed in a nine month old Simmental fattening bull. The condition was observed in all eight weight bearing digits. Clinical, radiological and pathomorphological examinations revealed osteolysis and downward rotation of all the distal phalanges. The condition appears to resemble the several cases of laminitis in Jersey cattle, which have been attributed to hereditary factors. In this case, however, the genetic background was unavailable for evaluation.

  11. THE ART AND TECHNIQUE OF DECORATIVE ARTIFACTS MADE FROM LAMINATED GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAROIU Nicuşor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the way technique and art combine to create laminated glass items, particularly laminated glassware engraved with acids, with reference to artistic reproductions from the Art Nouveau period, Gallé, Daum-Nancy, items with metallic coating such as bronze, brass etc. The paper will highlight aspects concerning glass characteristics, glassblowing methods, techniques of acid engraving, the art of decoration and the technology of mounting auxiliary metallic components.

  12. NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites fabricated by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guodong; Wang Zhi; Liang Jun; Wu Zhanjun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The metal-ceramic laminate composites were fabricated by EB-PVD. → Both metal and ceramic layers consisted of straight columns with banded structures. → Columnar grain size was limited by the periodic layer interfaces in the laminates. → Effect of columns on fracture property was decreased by limiting layer thickness. → Laminates showed greater specific strength than monolithic metal foil. - Abstract: Two NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites (A and B) with different metal-layer thickness (∼35 μm and 14 μm, respectively) were fabricated by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Their microstructure was examined and their mechanical properties were compared with the 289 μm thick NiCoCrAl monolithic foil produced by EB-PVD. Both the YSZ and NiCoCrAl layers of the laminate composites had columnar grain structure. But the periodic layer interfaces limited the columnar grain size. Some pores between the columns were also observed. It was found that the strength of the laminate A was equal approximately to that of the NiCoCrAl monolithic foil, and that laminate B had the greater strength. Moreover, the density of the foils decreased with the increasing thickness ratio of YSZ/NiCoCrAl layers and the increasing the layer number. Thus, comparing with the NiCoCrAl monolithic foil, the NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites not only had the equal or greater strength, but also had the much greater specific strength.

  13. Natural frequencies and an atlas of mode shapes for generally-laminated, thick, skew, trapezoidal plates

    OpenAIRE

    Lovejoy, Andrew Elwyn

    1994-01-01

    Composite materials are increasingly finding use in structures, such as aircraft components, and thus, an accurate method of predicting response is required. Even laminated structures that are considered thin can be significantly affected by transverse shear effects, and as a result, transverse shear should not be neglected. The free vibration response of generally-laminated, thick, skew, trapezoidal plates is investigated as there appears to be a lack of information in this ar...

  14. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Delamination Evolution in Fiber Reinforced Laminated Composites Subject to Flexural Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiawen

    Delamination is a common failure mode in composite (fiber reinforced and layered) structures subject to low-velocity impacts by foreign objects. To maximize the design capacity, it is important to have reliable tools to predict delamination evolution in laminated composites. The focus of this research is to analyze flexural responses and delamination evolution in laminated composites subject to flexural loading. Analytical solutions were derived from linear elasticity theory and structural mechanics of beam and plate configurations. Formulations and evaluations of the proposed analytical approaches were validated by comparing with results of finite element (FE) simulations in similar settings and published experiment data. Two-dimensional (2D) elasticity theory for laminated panels was extended to analyze elastodynamic responses of pristine panels and quasi-static responses of pre-delaminated panels. A highlight of the approach is exact solutions of displacement and stress fields it provides. Further investigations showed that the 2D elasticity theory is not amenable to a closed-form solution for laminates containing off-axis angle plies due to three-dimensional (3D) states of stress. Closed-form solutions of cohesive zone modeling (CZM) were developed for popular delamination toughness tests of laminated beams. A laminate was modeled as an assembly of two sub-laminates connected by a virtual deformable layer with infinitesimal thickness. Comprehensive parametric studies were performed, offering a deeper understanding of CZM. The studies were further simplified so that closed-form expressions can be obtained, serving as a quick estimation of the flexural responses and the process zone lengths. Analytical CZM solutions were extended analyze quasi-static impact tests of laminated composite plates with arbitrary stacking sequences, aiming to predict critical load, critical interfaces and extent of delamination at that interface. The Rayleigh-Ritz method was used to

  15. A Study on Provisional Cements, Cementation Techniques, and Their Effects on Bonding of Porcelain Laminate Veneers

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar, G.; Soorya Poduval, T.; Bipin Reddy; Shesha Reddy, P.

    2013-01-01

    Minimal tooth preparation is required for porcelain laminate veneers, but interim restorations are a must to protect their teeth against thermal insult, chemical irritation, and to provide aesthetics. Cement remaining after the removal of the provisional restoration can impair the etching quality of the tooth surface and fit and final bonding of the porcelain laminate veneer. This in vitro study examined the tooth surface for remaining debris of cement after removal of a provisional restorati...

  16. Comparison of stochastic search optimization algorithms for the laminated composites under mechanical and hygrothermal loadings

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Levent; Artem, Hatice Seçil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to design the stacking sequence of the laminated composites that have low coefficient of thermal expansion and high elastic moduli. In design process, multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization of the carbon fiber laminated composite plates is verified by single objective optimization approach using three different stochastic optimization methods: genetic algorithm, generalized pattern search, and simulated annealing. However, both the multi- and single-obj...

  17. Isoprenylation is required for the processing of the lamin A precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.A.; Hosick, T.J.; Sinensky, M.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear lamina proteins, prelamin A, lamin B, and a 70-kD lamina-associated protein, are posttranslationally modified by a metabolite derived from mevalonate. This modification can be inhibited by treatment with (3-R,S)-3-fluoromevalonate, demonstrating that it is isoprenoid in nature. We have examined the association between isoprenoid metabolism and processing of the lamin A precursor in human and hamster cells. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase by mevinolin (lovastatin) specifically depletes endogenous isoprenoid pools and inhibits the conversion of prelamin A to lamin A. Prelamin A processing is also blocked by mevalonate starvation of Mev-1, a CHO cell line auxotrophic for mevalonate. Moreover, inhibition of prelamin A processing by mevinolin treatment is rapidly reversed by the addition of exogenous mevalonate. Processing of prelamin A is, therefore, dependent on isoprenoid metabolism. Analysis of the conversion of prelamin A to lamin A by two independent methods, immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gel electrophoresis, demonstrates that a precursor-product relationship exists between prelamin A and lamin A. Analysis of R,S-[5-3H(N)]mevalonate-labeled cells shows that the rate of turnover of the isoprenoid group from prelamin A is comparable to the rate of conversion of prelamin A to lamin A. These results suggest that during the proteolytic maturation of prelamin A, the isoprenylated moiety is lost. A significant difference between prelamin A processing, and that of p21ras and the B-type lamins that undergo isoprenylation-dependent proteolytic maturation, is that the mature form of lamin A is no longer isoprenylated

  18. Effect of stacking angles on mechanical properties and damage propagation of plain woven carbon fiber laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Weimin; Ao, Wenhong

    2018-03-01

    Damage propagation induced failure is a predominant damage mechanism. This study is aimed at assessing the damage state and damage propagation induced failure with different stacking angles, of woven carbon fiber/epoxy laminates subjected to quasi-static tensile and bending load. Different stages of damage processing and damage behavior under the bending load are investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The woven carbon fiber/epoxy laminates which are stacked at six different angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°) with eight plies have been analyzed: [0]8, [15]8, [30]8, [45]8, [60]8, [75]8. Three-point bending test and quasi-static tensile test are used in validating the woven carbon fiber/epoxy laminates’ mechanical properties. Furthermore, the damage propagation and failure modes observed under flexural loading is correlated with flexural force and load-displacement behaviour respectively for the laminates. The experimental results have indicated that [45]8 laminate exhibits the best flexural performance in terms of energy absorption duo to its pseudo-ductile behaviour but the tensile strength and flexural strength drastically decreased compared to [0]8 laminate. Finally, SEM micrographs of specimens and fracture surfaces are used to reveal the different types of damage of the laminates with different stacking angles.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the initial active stage of equine laminitis at 4.7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, Jason B; Mattoon, John S; Drost, Wm Tod; Weisbrode, Steven E; Wassenaar, Peter A; Pan, Xueliang; Hunt, Robert J; Belknap, James K

    2009-01-01

    Equine laminitis is a severely debilitating disease. There is a poor understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, and traditional imaging modalities have limited diagnostic capacity. High field strength magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows direct visualization of the laminae, which other modalities do not. This would prove useful both in assessment of clinical patients and in further investigation into the pathophysiology of the disease. The objective of this study was to characterize the anatomic changes within the equine foot associated with the initial active stage of laminitis. Images obtained using a 4.7 T magnet were compared with digital radiographs using histologic diagnosis as the reference standard. Objective measurements and subjective evaluation for both modalities were evaluated for the ability to predict the histologic diagnosis in horses with clinical signs of laminitis as well as in clinically normal horses and horses that were in a population at risk for developing laminitis. Signal intensity and architectural changes within the corium and laminae were readily seen at 4.7 T, and there was a strong association with the histologic diagnosis of active laminitis. Measurements obtained with MR imaging were more sensitive and specific predictors of laminitis than those obtained radiographically. Subjective evaluation with MR imaging was more sensitive than with radiography and should become more specific with greater understanding of normal anatomy.

  20. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of hindgut bacteria associated with the development of equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Trott, Darren J; Burrell, Paul C; Croser, Emma L; Al Jassim, Rafat A M; Morton, John M; van Eps, Andrew W; Pollitt, Christopher C

    2007-08-01

    Carbohydrate-induced laminitis in horses is characterized by marked changes in the composition of the hindgut microbiota, from a predominantly Gram-negative population to one dominated by Gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this study was to monitor changes in the relative abundance of selected hindgut bacteria that have previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of equine laminitis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Caecal cannulae were surgically implanted in five Standardbred horses and laminitis induced by oral administration of a bolus dose of oligofructose. Caecal fluid and faecal specimens were collected over a 48 h period at 2 to 4 h intervals post-oligofructose administration and subjected to FISH using probes specific for nine bacterial groups to determine changes in their relative abundance compared with total bacteria hybridizing to the generic EUBMIX probe. Additionally, hoof biopsies were taken over the course of the experiment at 6 h intervals and evaluated for histopathological changes consistent with laminitis, allowing changes in hindgut microbiota to be correlated with the onset of lesions in the foot. Of the microorganisms specifically targeted, streptococci of the Streptococcus bovis/equinus complex were the only bacteria that consistently proliferated in both caecal fluid and faeces immediately before the onset of histological signs of laminitis. Furthermore, lactobacilli, Enterobacteriaceae, Allisonella histaminiformans, enterococci, Bacteroides fragilis, Mitsuokella jalaludinii and Clostridium difficile did not establish significant populations in the hindgut before the onset of equine laminitis.

  1. The timeline of lamellar basement membrane changes during equine laminitis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M B; Pollitt, C C

    2011-07-01

    The timing of lamellar basement membrane (BM) changes occurring during laminitis development is incompletely understood. To determine the temporal progression of lamellar BM changes and whether laminin-332 (Ln-332) γ2 cleavage products are generated during laminitis development. Eight clinically normal Standardbred horses were allocated into treatment (n = 5) or sham (n = 3) groups. The treatment group received, via nasogastric intubation, an oligofructose (OF) bolus (10 g/kg bwt) while the sham group was given water. Laminitis induction proceeded for 48 h followed by euthanasia. Lamellar biopsies were obtained prior to dosing and at intervals during the treatment period for analysis (at 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h and at 48 h following euthanasia). Changes in lamellar collagen type IV and Ln-332 were first observed at 12 h post dosing. A unique pattern of reactivity for the Ln-332 γ2 antibody D4B5 occurred, in which reactivity was observed only in lamellar tissue affected by laminitis. No bioactive Ln-332 γ2 proteolytic fragments were detected in lamellar samples. Basement membrane changes occurred early during the laminitis process. Direct Ln-332 γ2 cleavage to release biologically active products did not appear to occur. Thus loss of stability or protein interaction of the BM is probably responsible for the γ2 specific reactivity observed. Basement membrane changes may a first step in lamellar failure occurring prior to detection with conventional methods. Thus, more sensitive detection methods of BM changes are required to study laminitis development. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  2. The timeline of metalloprotease events during oligofructose induced equine laminitis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M B; Pollitt, C C

    2012-01-01

    The role of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and the timeline of proteolysis during laminitis development are incompletely understood. To determine the temporal progression of selected MMPs and protease regulators during laminitis development. Five clinically normal Standardbred horses received, via nasogastric intubation, an oligofructose (OF) bolus (10 g/kg bwt). Laminitis induction proceeded for 48 h followed by euthanasia. Lamellar biopsies were obtained prior to dosing and at intervals during the treatment period for analysis (12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h and at 48 h following euthanasia). Tissue samples were analysed by real-time PCR, zymography and western blotting. Activation of proMMP-2 occurs either simultaneously or at least 12 h following lamellar basement membrane (BM) damage, while no activation of proMMP-9 is seen during OF laminitis induction. Aggrecanase gene expression increased initially at 12-18 h post OF dosing, similar to BM changes. Gene expression of TIMP-2, a MMP regulator, decreases during laminitis development. The MMP-2/MT1-MMP complex may not play a major role in initiating lamellar BM damage. Aggrecanase and TIMP-2 gene expression appear related to BM lamellar changes. MMPs, historically thought to cause laminitis, do not appear to play an initiating role in the lamellar lesion. Other host derived proteases and degradation of alternative lamellar matrix components need to be considered. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Smart damping of laminated fuzzy fiber reinforced composite shells using 1–3 piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundalwal, S I; Suresh Kumar, R; Ray, M C

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of smart laminated continuous fuzzy fiber reinforced composite (FFRC) shells. The distinct constructional feature of a novel FFRC is that the uniformly spaced short carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are radially grown on the circumferential surfaces of the continuous carbon fiber reinforcements. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of vertically/obliquely reinforced 1–3 piezoelectric composite materials. A finite element (FE) model is developed for the laminated FFRC shells integrated with the two patches of the ACLD treatment to investigate the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells. The effect of variation of the orientation angle of the piezoelectric fibers on the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells has been studied when the piezoelectric fibers are coplanar with either of the two mutually orthogonal vertical planes of the piezoelectric composite layer. It is revealed that radial growth of CNTs on the circumferential surfaces of the carbon fibers enhances the attenuation of the amplitude of vibrations and the natural frequencies of the laminated FFRC shells over those of laminated base composite shells without CNTs. (paper)

  4. A Study of Failure Strength for Fiber-Reinforced Composite Laminates with Consideration of Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite laminates can exhibit the nonlinear properties due to the fiber/matrix interface debonding and matrix plastic deformation. In this paper, by incorporating the interface stress-displacement relations between fibers and matrix, as well as the viscoplastic constitutive model for describing plastic behaviors of matrix materials, a micromechanical model is used to investigate the failure strength of the composites with imperfect interface bonding. Meanwhile, the classic laminate theory, which provides the relation between micro- and macroscale responses for composite laminates, is employed. Theory results show good consistency with the experimental data under unidirectional tensile conditions at both 23°C and 650°C. On this basis, the interface debonding influences on the failure strength of the [0/90]s and [0/±45/90]s composite laminates are studied. The numerical results show that all of the unidirectional (UD laminates with imperfect interface bonding provide a sharp decrease in failure strength in the σxx-σyy plane at 23°C. However, the decreasing is restricted in some specific region. In addition, for [0/90]s and [0/±45/90]s composite laminates, the debonding interface influences on the failure envelope can be ignored when the working temperature is increased to 650°C.

  5. Deflection of Cross-Ply Composite Laminates Induced by Piezoelectric Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupling effects between the mechanical and electric properties of piezoelectric materials have drawn significant attention for their potential applications as sensors and actuators. In this investigation, two piezoelectric actuators are symmetrically surface bonded on a cross-ply composite laminate. Electric voltages with the same amplitude and opposite sign are applied to the two symmetric piezoelectric actuators, resulting in the bending effect on the laminated plate. The bending moment is derived by using the classical laminate theory and piezoelectricity. The analytical solution of the flexural displacement of the simply supported composite plate subjected to the bending moment is solved by using the plate theory. The analytical solution is compared with the finite element solution to show the validation of present approach. The effects of the size and location of the piezoelectric actuators on the response of the composite laminate are presented through a parametric study. A simple model incorporating the classical laminate theory and plate theory is presented to predict the deformed shape of the simply supported laminate plate.

  6. Laser irradiation-induced laminated graphene/MoS2 composites with synergistically improved tribological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Chen, Xinchun; Li, Peisheng; Wang, Ping; Li, Cuncheng; Cao, Bingqiang; Luo, Jianbin; Yang, Shikuan

    2018-04-10

    Engineering lubricant additives that have extraordinary friction-reduction and anti-wear performance is critical to almost any modern mechanical machines. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of laminated lubricant additives that can combine the advantages of zero-dimensional nanospheres and two-dimensional nanosheets. A simple in-situ laser irradiation method is developed to prepare the laminated composite structure composed of ideally ultrasmooth MoS2 sub-microspheres embedded within multiple layers of graphene. These ultrasmooth MoS2 spheres within the laminated structure can change sliding friction into rolling friction under strong shear force created by moving contact surfaces to significantly reduce the friction. Meantime, the graphene layers can behave as "protection pads" to efficiently avoid the formation of scars on the metal-to-metal contact surfaces. Overall, the laminated composites as lubricant additives synergistically improve the friction reduction and anti-wear properties. Additionally, due to the unique loosely packed laminated structure, the composites can stably disperse in the lubricant for more than 15 days and work under high temperatures without being oxidized. Such constructed laminated composites with outstanding tribological properties by an in-situ laser irradiation method supply a new concept in designing lubricant additives that can combine the advantages of 0D and 2D structures. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Subclinical laminitis and its association with pO2 and faecal alterations: Isikli, Aydin experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Akin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. The aim of this field trial was to investigate the relationships among subclinical laminitis, hematological, ruminal and faecal alterations. Materials and Methods. To this extent dairy cows presenting subclinical laminitis (n=11 and to those of other healthy cows without laminitis (n=10 were enrolled and assigned into two groups. All animals were receiving the same daily ration formulated to contain 47% cornsilage and 18% hay, mainly. Effects of subclinical laminitis challenges on measurements of feces, and blood samples, were investigated to determine which of these measurements may aid in the diagnosis. pH changes in ruminal fluid collected via rumenocentesis were measured. Besides the following parameters were also measured; blood pH, faecal pH and faecal scoring. Blinded investigators performed the sample collection. Results. No statistical differences between the groups were detected for blood gas values studied regarding pCO2, HCO3, BE, indeed mean that pO2 values decreased statistically (p<0.05 and faecal pH was significantly decreased (p<0.05 in cows with subclinical laminitis in contrast to healthy controls. Conclusions. pO2 values and faecal pH may be valuable as indirect indicators of subclinical laminitis in cattle.

  8. The laminA/NF-Y protein complex reveals an unknown transcriptional mechanism on cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchillitti, Lucia; Manni, Isabella; Mancone, Carmine; Regazzo, Giulia; Spagnuolo, Manuela; Alonzi, Tonino; Carlomosti, Fabrizio; Dell'Anna, Maria Lucia; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Picardo, Mauro; Ciana, Paolo; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Tripodi, Marco; Magenta, Alessandra; Rizzo, Maria Giulia; Gurtner, Aymone; Piaggio, Giulia

    2017-01-10

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear matrix that also controls proliferation by largely unknown mechanisms. NF-Y is a ubiquitous protein involved in cell proliferation composed of three subunits (-YA -YB -YC) all required for the DNA binding and transactivation activity. To get clues on new NF-Y partner(s) we performed a mass spectrometry screening of proteins that co-precipitate with the regulatory subunit of the complex, NF-YA. By this screening we identified lamin A as a novel putative NF-Y interactor. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and confocal analysis confirmed the interaction between the two endogenous proteins. Interestingly, this association occurs on euchromatin regions, too. ChIP experiments demonstrate lamin A enrichment in several promoter regions of cell cycle related genes in a NF-Y dependent manner. Gain and loss of function experiments reveal that lamin A counteracts NF-Y transcriptional activity. Taking advantage of a recently generated transgenic reporter mouse, called MITO-Luc, in which an NF-Y-dependent promoter controls luciferase expression, we demonstrate that lamin A counteracts NF-Y transcriptional activity not only in culture cells but also in living animals. Altogether, our data demonstrate the occurrence of lamin A/NF-Y interaction and suggest a possible role of this protein complex in regulation of NF-Y function in cell proliferation.

  9. Analysis of noncoplanar pressurized laminations in X2 steel pipes by non-linear finite element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alfredo [Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla (Mexico). Dept. de Posgrado; Gonzalez, Jorge L.; Hallen, Jose M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE). Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking is of great interest in the mechanical integrity assessment of sour gas pipelines. Multiple stepwise cracks with internal pressure called laminations are often observed in pipelines and their interaction and coalescence may significantly affect the residual strength of the pipes. In this work, the interacting fields of non coplanar pressurized laminations in the wall of a pipe under pressure are analyzed by non-lineal finite element, considering an isotropic hardening law and the real tensile properties of the X52 steel. The results are presented as the evolution of the stress fields in the interlaminar region as a function of the pressure inside the laminations. It is found that for two approaching stepwise laminations the critical pressure follows a hyperbolic type law, thus the effect of the lamination length is principal for greater lengths and for shorter lengths the effect is minimum. The critical pressure is defined as pressure inside the lamination that causes plastification of the interlaminar region. (author)

  10. Compression Fracture of CFRP Laminates Containing Stress Intensifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Christian; Schütt, Martin; Liebig, Wilfried V; Philipkowski, Timo; Kürten, Jonas; Schulte, Karl; Fiedler, Bodo

    2017-09-05

    For brittle fracture behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) under compression, several approaches exist, which describe different mechanisms during failure, especially at stress intensifications. The failure process is not only initiated by the buckling fibres, but a shear driven fibre compressive failure beneficiaries or initiates the formation of fibres into a kink-band. Starting from this kink-band further damage can be detected, which leads to the final failure. The subject of this work is an experimental investigation on the influence of ply thickness and stacking sequence in quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates containing stress intensifications under compression loading. Different effects that influence the compression failure and the role the stacking sequence has on damage development and the resulting compressive strength are identified and discussed. The influence of stress intensifications is investigated in detail at a hole in open hole compression (OHC) tests. A proposed interrupted test approach allows identifying the mechanisms of damage initiation and propagation from the free edge of the hole by causing a distinct damage state and examine it at a precise instant of time during fracture process. Compression after impact (CAI) tests are executed in order to compare the OHC results to a different type of stress intensifications. Unnotched compression tests are carried out for comparison as a reference. With this approach, a more detailed description of the failure mechanisms during the sudden compression failure of CFRP is achieved. By microscopic examination of single plies from various specimens, the different effects that influence the compression failure are identified. First damage of fibres occurs always in 0°-ply. Fibre shear failure leads to local microbuckling and the formation and growth of a kink-band as final failure mechanisms. The formation of a kink-band and finally steady state kinking is shifted to higher compressive strains

  11. Material length scale and nonlocal effects on the wave propagation of composite laminated cylindrical micro/nanoshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeighampour, Hamid; Tadi Beni, Yaghoub; Karimipour, Iman

    2017-12-01

    Wave propagation in composite laminated cylindrical microshell was investigated by accounting for simultaneous effects of two influential parameters resulting from the nonlocal and strain gradient effects. The thin shell model was used for modeling the composite laminated cylindrical microshell, and the nonlocal strain gradient theory was employed as well. Classical governing equations were derived from Hamilton's principle. The results demonstrate that the rigidity of the composite laminated cylindrical microshell in the strain gradient theory is more than that in the classical theory and less than that in the nonlocal theory. Moreover, the effect of fiber angle in layers on phase velocity of the composite laminated cylindrical microshell was investigated, demonstrating that the size parameter, the composite laminated cylindrical microshell thickness, and the circumferential wave number have considerable effects on the phase velocity of the composite laminated cylindrical microshell.

  12. Refined Zigzag Theory for Laminated Composite and Sandwich Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Alexander; DiSciuva, Marco; Gherlone, Marco

    2009-01-01

    A refined zigzag theory is presented for laminated-composite and sandwich plates that includes the kinematics of first-order shear deformation theory as its baseline. The theory is variationally consistent and is derived from the virtual work principle. Novel piecewise-linear zigzag functions that provide a more realistic representation of the deformation states of transverse-shear-flexible plates than other similar theories are used. The formulation does not enforce full continuity of the transverse shear stresses across the plate s thickness, yet is robust. Transverse-shear correction factors are not required to yield accurate results. The theory is devoid of the shortcomings inherent in the previous zigzag theories including shear-force inconsistency and difficulties in simulating clamped boundary conditions, which have greatly limited the accuracy of these theories. This new theory requires only C(sup 0)-continuous kinematic approximations and is perfectly suited for developing computationally efficient finite elements. The theory should be useful for obtaining relatively efficient, accurate estimates of structural response needed to design high-performance load-bearing aerospace structures.

  13. Bioinspired Transparent Laminated Composite Film for Flexible Green Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daewon; Lim, Young-Woo; Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Jeong, Seonju; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Gwang-Mun; Park, Jang-Ung; Lee, Jung-Yong; Jin, Jungho; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2017-07-19

    Herein, we report a new version of a bioinspired chitin nanofiber (ChNF) transparent laminated composite film (HCLaminate) made of siloxane hybrid materials (hybrimers) reinforced with ChNFs, which mimics the nanofiber-matrix structure of hierarchical biocomposites. Our HCLaminate is produced via vacuum bag compressing and subsequent UV-curing of the matrix resin-impregnated ChNF transparent paper (ChNF paper). It is worthwhile to note that this new type of ChNF-based transparent substrate film retains the strengths of the original ChNF paper and compensates for ChNF paper's drawbacks as a flexible transparent substrate. As a result, compared with high-performance synthetic plastic films, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ether sulfone), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and polyimide, our HCLaminate is characterized to exhibit extremely smooth surface topography, outstanding optical clarity, high elastic modulus, high dimensional stability, etc. To prove our HCLaminate as a substrate film, we use it to fabricate flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel. As far as we know, this work is the first to demonstrate flexible optoelectronics, such as flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel, actually fabricated on a composite film made of ChNF. Given its desirable macroscopic properties, we envision our HCLaminate being utilized as a transparent substrate film for flexible green optoelectronics.

  14. Laminated helmet materials characterization by terahertz kinetics spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K.

    2015-05-01

    High speed acquisition of reflected terahertz energy constitutes a kinetics spectrum that is an effective tool for layered materials' deformation characterization under ballistic impact. Here we describe utilizing the kinetics spectrum for quantifying a deformation event due to impact in material used for Soldier's helmet. The same technique may be utilized for real-time assessment of trauma by measuring the helmet wore by athletes. The deformation of a laminated material (e.g., a helmet) is dependent on the nature of impact and projectile; thus can uniquely characterize the impact condition leading to a diagnostic procedure based on the energy received by an athlete during an impact. We outline the calibration process for a given material under ballistic impact and then utilize the calibration for extracting physical parameters from the measured kinetics spectrum. Measured kinetics spectra are used to outline the method and rationale for extending the concept to a diagnosis tool. In particular, captured kinetics spectra from multilayered plates subjected to ballistic hit under experimental conditions by high speed digital acquisition system. An algorithm was devised to extract deformation and deformation velocity from which the energy received on the skull was estimated via laws of nonrelativistic motion. This energy is assumed to be related to actual injury conditions, thus forming a basis for determining whether the hit would cause concussion, trauma, or stigma. Such quantification may be used for diagnosing a Soldier's trauma condition in the field or that of an athlete's.

  15. Large strain viscoelastic dissipation during interfacial rupture in laminated glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzière, Paul; Dalle-Ferrier, Cécile; Creton, Costantino; Barthel, Étienne; Ciccotti, Matteo

    2017-02-22

    In the dynamic rupture of laminated glass, it is essential to maximize energy dissipation. To investigate the mechanisms of energy dissipation, we have experimentally studied the delamination and stretching of a polymeric viscoelastic interlayer sandwiched between glass plates. We find that there is a velocity and temperature domain in which delamination fronts propagate in a steady state manner. At lower velocities, fronts are unstable, while at higher velocities, the polymer ruptures. Studying the influence of the interlayer thickness, we have shown that the macroscopic work of fracture during the delamination of the interlayer can be divided in two main components: (1) a near crack work of fracture which is related to the interfacial rupture and to the polymer deformation in the crack vicinity. (2) A bulk stretching work, which relates to the stretching of the interlayer behind the delamination front. Digital image correlation measurements showed that the characteristic length scale over which this stretching occurs is of the order of the interlayer thickness. Finally, an estimate of the bulk stretching work was provided, based on a simple uniaxial tensile test.

  16. PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER MANUFACTURED FROM HEAT TREATED VENEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamiyet Sahin KOL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare properties of laminated veneer lumber (LVL panels manufactured from heat treated (212o C, 2h and untreated pine veneer with melamine urea formaldehyde (MUF adhesive. The results showed that, heat treatment considerably decreased all investigated physical properties of LVL. The reductions in density (D, moisture content (MC, and thickness swelling (TS were 8.33%, 33.78% and 14.03%, respectively. The findings of this study demonstrated that heat treatment resulted in adverse effect on bending strength and hardness of LVL panels. Heat treatment caused a decrease in bending strength (MOR by 31.85% and in hardness (HT by 25.44%. However, modulus of elasticity (MOE and compressive strength (CS values of LVL panels were higher than those of untreated groups. Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity (MOE of LVL panels made of heat treated veneer respectively were 11.17% and 7.46% higher than untreated LVLs

  17. Lamin A and microtubules collaborate to maintain nuclear morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Zeshan; Zhang, Haoyue; Chia-Liu, Alexander; Shen, Yang; Gete, Yantenew; Xiong, Zheng-Mei; Tocheny, Claire; Campanello, Leonard; Wu, Di; Losert, Wolfgang; Cao, Kan

    2017-07-04

    Lamin A (LA) is a critical structural component of the nuclear lamina. Mutations within the LA gene (LMNA) lead to several human disorders, most striking of which is Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), a premature aging disorder. HGPS cells are best characterized by an abnormal nuclear morphology known as nuclear blebbing, which arises due to the accumulation of progerin, a dominant mutant form of LA. The microtubule (MT) network is known to mediate changes in nuclear morphology in the context of specific events such as mitosis, cell polarization, nucleus positioning and cellular migration. What is less understood is the role of the microtubule network in determining nuclear morphology during interphase. In this study, we elucidate the role of the cytoskeleton in regulation and misregulation of nuclear morphology through perturbations of both the lamina and the microtubule network. We found that LA knockout cells exhibit a crescent shape morphology associated with the microtubule-organizing center. Furthermore, this crescent shape ameliorates upon treatment with MT drugs, Nocodazole or Taxol. Expression of progerin, in LA knockout cells also rescues the crescent shape, although the response to Nocodazole or Taxol treatment is altered in comparison to cells expressing LA. Together these results describe a collaborative effort between LA and the MT network to maintain nuclear morphology.

  18. POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOUR OF LAMINATED PLATES WITH A CUT-OUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Falkowicz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is the numerical and experimental analysis of a thin-walled plate with the cut-out, made of the laminate and subjected to the axial compression. In order to ensure the stable plate work in the postcritical range, it need to force its work by higher flexural-torsional form of buckling. The scope of the research included the nonlinear numerical analysis with Finite Element Method (FEM and experimental verification of calculation results. For the composite material in numerical calculations, was defined the model of orthotropic material in the flat state of tension. For the mapping of the plate element was applied coating finite elements of type SHELL with shape function of the second order to allowing the mapping of the composite structure for the element thickness. The experimental research was carried out in a special grips providing the articulated support of the upper and lower edges of the plate. The deformation registration of compression structures were carried out with resistance extensometry. This allowed to define of postcritical equilibrium paths of real structure, showing the dependence of the force to displacement. The instrument used was a numerical program ABAQUS®.

  19. Cross-laminated timber made of Hungarian raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, G.; Bejo, L.; Takats, P.

    2016-04-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT), generally made out of softwood, enjoys increasing popularity throughout Europe. This material offers a versatile, eco-friendly technology to create strong, lightweight and energy-efficient buildings. Unfortunately, the sites and climatic conditions in Hungary are not suitable for growing high-quality coniferous trees. Transporting raw materials from other countries (sometimes thousands of kilometres away) negates the environmental advantages of wood-based construction. Local options are definitely preferable from an ecological aspect. Poplar wood (populus spp.) is of great economic importance in Hungary. There are several relatively high density, high strength varieties growing in large quantities in Hungary, that may be used as alternatives to softwood, with comparable properties. There is an increasing interest in using poplar as a construction material, especially in regions were there is a shortage of traditional construction timber. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation to create CLT using poplar lumber. Laboratory-scale CLT specimens were created in a hot press, and tested for their loadbearing capacity. The MOR values of poplar CLT are comparable to, albeit somewhat lowerthan those of softwood CLT. Further investigations are required to establish the economic viability and technological conditions for the commercial production of poplar CLT.

  20. Quasi-Static Indentation Analysis of Carbon-Fiber Laminates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); English, Shawn Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nelson, Stacy Michelle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A series of quasi - static indentation experiments are conducted on carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates with a systematic variation of thicknesses and fixture boundary conditions. Different deformation mechanisms and their resulting damage mechanisms are activated b y changing the thickn ess and boundary conditions. The quasi - static indentation experiments have been shown to achieve damage mechanisms similar to impact and penetration, however without strain rate effects. The low rate allows for the detailed analysis on the load response. Moreover, interrupted tests allow for the incremental analysis of various damage mechanisms and pr ogressions. The experimentally tested specimens are non - destructively evaluated (NDE) with optical imaging, ultrasonics and computed tomography. The load displacement responses and the NDE are then utilized in numerical simulations for the purpose of model validation and vetting. The accompanying numerical simulation work serves two purposes. First, the results further reveal the time sequence of events and the meaning behind load dro ps not clear from NDE . Second, the simulations demonstrate insufficiencies in the code and can then direct future efforts for development.

  1. Mechanically programmed shape change in laminated elastomeric composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jaimee M; Torbati, Amir H; Rodriguez, Erika D; Mao, Yiqi; Baker, Richard M; Qi, H Jerry; Mather, Patrick T

    2015-07-28

    Soft, anisotropic materials, such as myocardium in the heart and the extracellular matrix surrounding cells, are commonly found in nature. This anisotropy leads to specialized responses and is imperative to material functionality, yet few soft materials exhibiting similar anisotropy have been developed. Our group introduced an anisotropic shape memory elastomeric composite (A-SMEC) composed of non-woven, aligned polymer fibers embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The composite exhibited shape memory (SM) behavior with significant anisotropy in room-temperature shape fixing. Here, we exploit this anisotropy by bonding together laminates with oblique anisotropy such that tensile deformation at room temperature - mechanical programming - results in coiling. This response is a breakthrough in mechanical programming, since non-affine shape change is achieved by simply stretching the layered A-SMECs at room temperature. We will show that pitch and curvature of curled geometries depend on fiber orientations and the degree of strain programmed into the material. To validate experimental results, a model was developed that captures the viscoplastic response of A-SMECs. Theoretical results correlated well with experimental data, supporting our conclusions and ensuring attainability of predictable curling geometries. We envision these smart, soft, shape changing materials will have aerospace and medical applications.

  2. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, L. M.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.; Byun, T. S.; Reiser, J.; Rieth, M.

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten-copper laminate composite has shown promise as a structural plasma-facing component as compared to tungsten rod or plate. The present study evaluated the tungsten-copper composite after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at temperatures of 410-780 °C and fast neutron fluences of 0.02-9.0 × 1025 n/m2, E > 0.1 MeV, 0.0039-1.76 displacements per atom (dpa) in tungsten. Tensile tests were performed on the composites, and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Before irradiation, the tungsten layers had brittle cleavage failure, but the overall composite had 15.5% elongation at 22 °C. After only 0.0039 dpa this was reduced to 7.7% elongation, and no ductility was observed after 0.2 dpa at all irradiation temperatures when tensile tested at 22 °C. For elevated temperature tensile tests after irradiation, the composite only had ductile failure at temperatures where the tungsten was delaminating or ductile.

  3. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, L. M.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.; Byun, T. S.; Reiser, J.; Rieth, M.

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten-copper laminate composite has shown promise as a structural plasma-facing component as compared to tungsten rod or plate. The present study evaluated the tungsten-copper composite after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at temperatures of 410-780°C and fast neutron fluences of 0.02-9.0×1025 n/m2, E>0.1 MeV, 0.0039-1.76 displacements per atom (dpa) in tungsten. Tensile tests were performed on the composites, and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Before irradiation, the tungsten layers had brittle cleavage failure, but the overall composite had 15.5% elongation at 22°C. After only 0.0039 dpa this was reduced to 7.7% elongation, and no ductility was observed after 0.2 dpa at all irradiation temperatures when tensile tested at 22°C. For elevated temperature tensile tests after irradiation, the composite only had ductile failure at temperatures where the tungsten was delaminating or ductile.

  4. Plasma proteomics shows an elevation of the anti-inflammatory protein APOA-IV in chronic equine laminitis

    OpenAIRE

    Steelman, Samantha M; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Equine laminitis is a devastating disease that causes severe pain in afflicted horses and places a major economic burden on the horse industry. In acute laminitis, the disintegration of the dermal-epidermal junction can cause the third phalanx to detach from the hoof wall, leaving the horse unable to bear weight on the affected limbs. Horses that survive the acute phase transition into a chronic form of laminitis, which is often termed “founder”. Some evidence suggests tha...

  5. The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on the strength of carbon/epoxy laminates of different stacking geometry

    OpenAIRE

    MOMCILO STEVANOVIC; MILAN GORDIC; DANIELA SEKULIC; ISIDOR DJORDJEVIC

    2006-01-01

    The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on strength of carbon/epoxy laminates of different stacking geometry: cross-ply, quasi-isotropic and angle-ply laminates with additional 0º and 90º ply was studied. Coupons with two widths of laminates with an inverse stacking sequence were tested in static tensile tests. The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on strength was studied, by comparing the values of the tensile strength of laminate coupons of the same width with an inverse stacking sequen...

  6. Risk factors for equine laminitis: a systematic review with quality appraisal of published evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Claire E; Collins, Simon N; Verheyen, Kristien L P; Newton, J Richard

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiological studies into the risk factors for naturally-occurring equine laminitis are limited. There are a small number of such studies, although the results are inconsistent and remain disputed. The reasons for the conflicting results remain unclear. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate previous research in order to identify publications which provide the best evidence of risk factors for naturally-occurring equine laminitis. A systematic review of English language publications was conducted using MEDLINE (1950-2010), CAB Direct (1910-2010) and IVIS (1997-2010). Additional publications were included by searching bibliographies. Search terms included laminitis, equine, risk factors and epidemiology. Publications which compared a case population to a control population and made inferences about parameters as risk factors for naturally-occurring equine laminitis were included. Information was extracted using predefined data fields, including 18 study quality indicators. In total, 17 publications were fully appraised. Six were considered to provide the most reliable information about risk factors for naturally-occurring laminitis. Information on signalment was well researched and there was good evidence for an association with chronic laminitis and increasing age. There remain inconsistent results for many other horse-level risk factors including gender, breed and bodyweight. Previous publications estimating risk factors for equine laminitis were of reasonable quality, although they were limited in the number and scope of the risk factors studied. High-quality, evidence-based studies are needed to identify further risk factors and to establish consensus over previously identified risk factors for different equine populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathology of Natural Cases of Equine Endocrinopathic Laminitis Associated With Hyperinsulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikoski, N P; McGowan, C M; Singer, E R; Asplin, K E; Tulamo, R-M; Patterson-Kane, J C

    2015-09-01

    Laminitis in equids is a clinical syndrome usually associated with systemic disease. Endocrinopathies recently have been recognized as the most common cause of laminitis, with hyperinsulinemia playing a key role. Descriptions of laminitis-associated lesions have been confusing due to the wide range of experimental models used, failure of adequate clinical documentation for naturally occurring cases, lack of separate analysis of inflammatory and endocrinopathic laminitis, and uncertainty regarding normal morphological variation of lamellae. In this study, lamellar morphology and pathology were described in 14 laminitic horses and ponies that had hyperinsulinemia (>20 mIU/l), with reference to 25 age- and breed-matched controls. The type and severity of lesions noted had no correlation with reported clinical duration and in at least some cases must have preceded it. Lesions were largely localized abaxially within the lamellar tissue and included apoptotic cell death, as well as lamellar fusion, hyperplasia, and partial replacement with aberrant keratin containing nucleated debris and proteinaceous lakes. The lesions resulted in irregular margins between the inner horn and the lamellar tissue. Acute separation originated from the abaxial region, with minimal associated inflammation. Axially, epidermal lamellar tapering was the most frequent morphological observation. The lesions in these chronic cases of laminitis were similar to those described in some inflammatory laminitis models and contained features seen in developmental phases of hyperinsulinemic models. These findings support the theory that repeated episodes of subclinical laminitis occur prior to clinical presentation. In addition, the pathology does not include extensive basement membrane failure seen in some inflammatory models. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. On the preservation of laminated sediments along the western margin of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGeen, A.; Zheng, Yen; Bernhard, J.M.; Cannariato, K.G.; Carriquiry, J.; Dean, W.E.; Eakins, B.W.; Ortiz, J.D.; Pike, J.

    2003-01-01

    Piston, gravity, and multicores as well as hydrographic data were collected along the Pacific margin of Baja California to reconstruct past variations in the intensity of the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ). Gravity cores collected from within the OMZ north of 24??N did not contain laminated surface sediments even though bottom water oxygen (BWO) concentrations were close to 5 ??mol/kg. However, many of the cores collected south of 24??N did contain millimeter- to centimeter-scale, brown to black laminations in Holocene and older sediments but not in sediments deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum. In addition to the dark laminations, Holocene sediments in Soledad Basin, silled at 290 m, also contain white coccolith laminae that probably represent individual blooms. Two open margin cores from 430 and 700 m depth that were selected for detailed radiocarbon dating show distinct transitions from bioturbated glacial sediment to laminated Holocene sediment occurring at 12.9 and 11.5 ka, respectively. The transition is delayed and more gradual (11.3-10.0 ka) in another dated core from Soledad Basin. The observations indicate that bottom-water oxygen concentrations dropped below a threshold for the preservation of laminations at different times or that a synchronous hydrographic change left an asynchronous sedimentary imprint due to local factors. With the caveat that laminated sections should therefore not be correlated without independent age control, the pattern of older sequences of laminations along the North American western margin reported by this and previous studies suggests that multiple patterns of regional productivity and ventilation prevailed over the past 60 kyr. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. C-Anchor for Strengthening the Connection between Adhesively Bonded Laminates and Concrete Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Razaqpur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP anchor is developed and tested to delay debonding in reinforced concrete (RC beams externally strengthened with FRP laminate/sheet. The C-shape anchor is made from a commercially available CFRP grid. The anchors legs are 95 mm long while the spacing between the legs is adjustable, depending on FRP laminate and beam widths. Nine full scale RC beams, 3.0 m long, 250 mm wide and 400 mm deep, were strengthened with CFRP laminate/sheet, with and without the C-anchor. The main test parameters were the type and amount of FRP laminate and the presence/absence of the anchor. Test results showed that beams with the anchor had generally 5%–10% higher debonding and failure load, and they reached higher deflection at failure than the companion beams without anchors. Although complete separation of the FRP laminate from the concrete was not observed in any of the beams with anchors, there was noticeable slip at failure at one end of the laminate. A significant outcome of the study is that anchors are effective in limiting the extent of debonding along the laminate, thus contributing to the flexural stiffness of the beam by reducing the extent of cracking and limiting the crack width along the beam. Finally, the anchor allowed the FRP to reach or exceed its theoretically allowable strain computed based on the American Concrete Institute (ACI Committee 440 recommendation while in none of the beams without anchors, the FRP reached its theoretically allowable strain.

  10. Late Glacial erosion and pedogenesis dynamics: Evidence from high-resolution lacustrine archives and paleosols in south Bohemia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, J.; Pokorný, P.; Prach, J.; Lisá, Lenka; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Knésl, I.; Trubač, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 150, March 2017 (2017), s. 261-278 ISSN 0341-8162 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : Late Pleistocene * landscape evolution * climate * lake geochemistry * soil micromorphology * podzolization Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; DB - Geology ; Mineralogy (UACH-T) OBOR OECD: Climatic research; Geology (UACH-T) Impact factor: 3.191, year: 2016

  11. Vegetation-Mediated Impacts of Climatic Change on Late Glacial and Holocene Fire Regimes in the Southcentral Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, P. E.; Brubaker, L. B.; Anderson, P. M.; Hu, F.; Brown, T.

    2006-12-01

    Direct and indirect impacts of millennial-scale climatic change on fire regimes are examined in the southcentral Brooks Range, Alaska, using four lake-sediment records and existing climatic interpretations. Charcoal accumulation rates (CHARs) provide estimates of fire return intervals (FRIs; the inverse of fire frequency) within each of five vegetation zones described with fossil pollen, stomata, and modern analog techniques at sites across a 120 km transect. During late glaciation and the early Holocene the region was dominated successively by herb tundra, shrub tundra, and deciduous woodland, all novel species assemblages relative to modern North American vegetation. Records from two sites span this interval. CHARs increased and FRIs decreased sharply with post-glacial climatic warming and the transition from herb to shrub tundra c. 13-14 k calendar years before present (AD 1950; ybp). FRIs were short in the shrub tundra period (means c. 140 yr) but increased considerably with the transition to deciduous woodland c. 10.5 k ybp (mean >> 250 yr), despite evidence of warmer- and drier-than-present summer conditions. All four records span the mid and late Holocene and document statistically similar changes in millennial-scale fire regimes across the study region. Despite evidence of climatic cooling and moistening through the mid and late Holocene, FRIs decreased significantly with the development of Picea glauca forest-tundra vegetation c. 8.0 k ybp (means c. 250-350 yr), and again with the development of the modern Picea mariana boreal forests c. 5.5 k ybp (means c. 150-170 yr). Overall these records show a greater correspondence between fire frequency and vegetation characteristics rather than with inferred climate, indicating that vegetation has played a strong role in mediating the direct impacts of climatic change, primarily through modifying landscape flammability. In the context of recent and predicted warming in Alaska and the associated increase in shrub densities in tundra, the short FRIs in shrub tundra during late glaciation and the early Holocene imply that tundra can burn frequently under warmer climatic conditions.

  12. A New Late Glacial Site in the Central Appalachians of Virginia. Preliminary Findings From Paleobotany, Palynology, and Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, B. F.; Upchurch, G. R.; Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Valella, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Thick clay deposits in a recently identified paleo-lake bed in a central Appalachian karst system in Highland County, Virginia have yielded well-preserved pollen and macroflora that provide the opportunity to refine the understanding of Pleistocene climate, vegetation dynamics, and erosion in the region. A radiocarbon date of 22,000 14C yr B.P. on wood fragments near the top of the sequence establishes the age of the sediments. Pollen and plant macrofloras characteristic of modern boreal forests are present in sediments at this site. Pollen assemblages show a dominance of conifers, mostly Pinus banksiana and Picea, with Lycopodium as important ground cover. Leaf fossils sieved from the clay show a dominance of Picea needles and common dicot leaf fragments, suggesting that Pinus is either over-represented in the pollen flora or more distal to the paleo-lake. Macrofossil assemblages sieved from the clay contain a variety of non-leaf remains, including fruits, seeds, mosses, insects, feathers, and fungi. Test augering and geophysical results indicate that these clay deposits are at least 9m and perhaps as much as 15m thick. The amount and temporal distribution of sediment loads to the paleo-lake (a depositional environment) from the surrounding landscape (an erosional environment) will be modeled using analysis of sediment facies in and above (>12m) these clays, combined with sediment volume calculations and drainage basin analysis, and constrained by dates from the sediments themselves. Due to the rare occurrence of still-water depositional environments in the Appalachians, this site provides paleo-climate and sedimentological data that will refine regional models of landscape evolution and incision. This work also has implications for the development and modification of a significant karst system that surrounds and underlies the paleo-lake bed. The same karst system is responsible both for the formation of the paleo-lake (after the drain in a blind valley became plugged), and its later draining and current removal of lake sediments through the underlying karst system.

  13. Late-glacial and Holocene records of fire and vegetation from Cradle Mountain National Park, Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, Laura N.; Chin, Hahjung; Haberle, Simon; Whitlock, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    Fire activity was reconstructed at five sites and vegetation history at three sites in northwest Tasmania, Australia in order to examine the climate and human drivers of environmental change in the region. Watershed-scale reconstructions of fire were compared to regional vegetation history. Fire activity was very low until ca. 12,000 cal yr BP. An early-Holocene fire maximum, ca. 11,800-9800 cal yr BP, occurred during the warmest interval of the Holocene as recorded by regional paleoclimate proxy records. This period of elevated burning was also coincident with an increase in arboreal sclerophyll plant taxa. A maximum in rainforest taxa occurred at ca. 8500-5800 cal yr BP concurrent with sharply diminished biomass burning compared with the early Holocene. The increase in rainforest taxa is attributed to elevated effective moisture during this period. Conditions were drier and variable in the late Holocene as compared with earlier periods. A rise in fire activity at ca. 4800-3200 cal yr BP was accompanied by an increase in sclerophyll taxa and decline of rainforest and subalpine taxa. Elevated palynological richness during the late Holocene co-occurred with high levels of charcoal suggesting that fires promoted high floristic diversity. At Cradle Mountain, there is no clear evidence that fire regimes or vegetation were extensively modified by humans prior to European settlement. Climate was the primary driver of fire activity over millennial timescales as explained by the close relationship between charcoal and climate proxy data.

  14. Paleoecology of late-glacial peats from the bering land bridge, Chukchi Sea shelf region, northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, S.A.; Short, S.K.; Phillips, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Insect fossils and pollen from late Pleistocene nonmarine peat layers were recovered from cores from the shelf region of the Chukchi Sea at depths of about 50 m below sea level. The peats date to 11,300-11,000 yr B.P. and provide a limiting age for the regional Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgression. The insect fossils are indicative of arctic coastal habitats like those of the Mackenzie Delta region (mean July temperatures = 10.6-14??C) suggesting that 11,000 yr ago the exposed Chukchi Sea shelf had a climate substantially warmer than modern coastal regions of the Alaskan north slope. The pollen spectra are consistent with the age assignment to the Birch Interval (14,000-9000 yr B.P.). The data suggest a meadow-like graminoid tundra with birch shrubs and some willow shrubs growing in sheltered areas. ?? 1992.

  15. Differential subsidence within a coastal prism : late-Glacial - Holocene tectonics In The Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Rhine-Meuse river system has been studied extensively over the past few decades. The Netherlands' coastal prism formed in response to Holocene sea level rise and buried the Weichselian (OIS-2) Rhine-Meuse valley. Although the geological-geomorphological evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system since

  16. Development of the Late Glacial and Holocene forest vegetation in Lithuania, according to LRA (Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm) modelling data

    OpenAIRE

    Balakauskas, Lauras

    2012-01-01

    Plačiausiai naudojami kiekybinio praeities augalijos taksonominės sudėties atkūrimo pagal žiedadukių duomenis metodai remiasi žiedadulkių-augalijos priklausomybės funkcijomis. Norint atlikti detalų augalijos sudėties atkūrimą šiuo metodu, reikalingos itin didelės apimties geografinių duomenų apdorojimo procedūros, todėl stambiu masteliu augalijos sudėtis atkūriama itin retai. Šiame darbe duomenų apdorojimas atliekamas automatizuotomis GIS priemonėmis. GIS panaudojimas leido tiksliai ir detali...

  17. Evidence for slow late-glacial ice retreat in the upper Rangitata Valley, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulmeister, J.; Fink, D.; Winkler, S.; Thackray, G. D.; Borsellino, R.; Hemmingsen, M.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2018-04-01

    A suite of cosmogenic radionuclide ages taken from boulders on lateral and latero-terminal moraines in the Rangitata Valley, eastern South Island, New Zealand demonstrates that relatively thick ice occupied valley reaches inland of the Rangitata Gorge until c. 21 ka. Thereafter ice began to thin, and by c. 17 ka it had retreated 33 km up-valley of the Rangitata Gorge to the Butler-Brabazon Downs, a structurally created basin in the upper Rangitata Valley. Despite its magnitude, this retreat represents a minor ice volume reduction from 21 ka to 17 ka, and numerous lateral moraines preserved suggest a relatively gradual retreat over that 4 ka period. In contrast to records from adjacent valleys, there is no evidence for an ice-collapse at c. 18 ka. We argue that the Rangitata record constitutes a more direct record of glacial response to deglacial climate than other records where glacial dynamics were influenced by proglacial lake development, such as the Rakaia Valley to the North and the major valleys in the Mackenzie Basin to the south-west. Our data supports the concept of a gradual warming during the early deglaciation in the South Island New Zealand.

  18. Pleistocene mitochondrial genomes suggest a single major dispersal of non-Africans and a Late Glacial population turnover in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Posth, C.; Renaud, G.; Mittnik, A.; Drucker, D. G.; Rougier, H.; Cupillard, Ch.; Valentin, F.; Thevenet, C.; Furtwängler, A.; Wissing, Ch.; Francken, M.; Malina, M.; Bolus, M.; Lari, M.; Gigli, E.; Capecchi, G.; Crevecoeur, I.; Beauval, C.; Flas, D.; Germonpré, M.; Plicht van der, J.; Cottiaux, R.; Gély, B.; Ronchitelli, A.; Wehrberger, K.; Grigorescu, D.; Svoboda, Jiří; Semal, P.; Caramelli, D.; Bocherens, H.; Harvati, K.; Conard, N. J.; Haak, W.; Powell, A.; Krause, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, March 21 (2016), s. 827-833 ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : mitochondrial genome * Pleistocene * Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 8.851, year: 2016

  19. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  20. Estimation of adhesive bond strength in laminated safety glass using guided mechanical waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shihong

    Laminated safety glass is used in the automobile industry and in architectural applications. Laminated safety glass consists of a plastic interlayer, such as a layer of poly vinyl butyral (PVB) or Butacite, surrounded by two adjacent glass plates. The glass can be float glass, plate glass, tempered glass, or sheet glass, and the plastic interlayer is made of a viscoelastic material with relatively high damping. The level of adhesive bond strength between the plastic interlayer and the two adjacent glass plates has a significant role in the penetration resistance against flying objects and is a critical parameter towards ensuring the proper performance of safety glass. Therefore, estimation and control of adhesive bond levels in laminated safety glass is a critical issue. There are several destructive testing procedures used to quantify the adhesion level in laminated safety glass. These tests include the tension test, the peel test, the impact test, and the pummel test. All these tests have drawbacks including the pummel test method, which has been the most widely used in industry for over 80 years. The primary drawbacks of the pummel test method are that it is destructive and subjective (i.e., involves individual human judgment), which precludes this method for use as an on-line test method for quality control. Consequently, a quantitative nondestructive testing method to evaluate adhesion levels would be an asset to the laminated safety glass industry. In this study, adhesion levels in laminated safety glass samples, i.e., windshields, have been assessed using the guided mechanical wave method. To study the adhesive bond strength analytically, the imperfect interfaces between the plastic interlayer and the two adjacent glass plates in laminated safety glass are modeled using a bed of longitudinal and shear springs, and their stiffness characteristics are estimated using fracture mechanics and atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface measurements. The atomic force