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Sample records for annual ryegrass lolium

  1. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, J.T.; Powles, S.B.; Liljegren, D.R.; Holtum, J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Lolium rigidum Gaud. biotype SLR31 is resistant to the herbicide diclofop-methyl and cross-resistant to several sulfonylurea herbicides. Wheat and the cross-resistant ryegrass exhibit similar patterns of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance may be similar. Cross-resistant ryegrass is also resistant to the wheat-selective imidazolinone herbicide imazamethabenz. The cross-resistant biotype SLR31 metabolized [phenyl-U- 14 C]chlorsulfuron at a faster rate than a biotype which is susceptible to both diclofop-methyl and chlorsulfuron. A third biotype which is resistant to diclofop-methyl but not to chlorsulfuron metabolized chlorsulfuron at the same rate as the susceptible biotype. The increased metabolism of chlorsulfuron observed in the cross-resistant biotype is, therefore, correlated with the patterns of resistance observed in these L. rigidum biotypes. During high performance liquid chromatography analysis the major metabolite of chlorsulfuron in both susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass coeluted with the major metabolite produced in wheat. The major product is clearly different from the major product in the tolerant dicot species, flax (Linium usitatissimum). The elution pattern of metabolites of chlorsulfuron was the same for both the susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass but the cross-resistant ryegrass metabolized chlorsulfuron more rapidly. The investigation of the dose response to sulfonylurea herbicides at the whole plant level and the study of the metabolism of chlorsulfuron provide two independent sets of data which both suggest that the resistance to chlorsulfuron in cross-resistant ryegrass biotype SLR31 involves a wheat-like detoxification system

  2. Allelopathic interference of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes to annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Hasan Muhammad; Pratley, James E; Sandral, G A; Humphries, A

    2017-07-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes at varying densities were investigated for allelopathic impact using annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) as the target species in a laboratory bioassay. Three densities (15, 30, and 50 seedlings/beaker) and 40 alfalfa genotypes were evaluated by the equal compartment agar method (ECAM). Alfalfa genotypes displayed a range of allelopathic interference in ryegrass seedlings, reducing root length from 5 to 65%. The growth of ryegrass decreased in response to increasing density of alfalfa seedlings. At the lowest density, Q75 and Titan9 were the least allelopathic genotypes. An overall inhibition index was calculated to rank each alfalfa genotype. Reduction in seed germination of annual ryegrass occurred in the presence of several alfalfa genotypes including Force 10, Haymaster7 and SARDI Five. A comprehensive metabolomic analysis using Quadruple Time of Flight (Q-TOF), was conducted to compare six alfalfa genotypes. Variation in chemical compounds was found between alfalfa root extracts and exudates and also between genotypes. Further individual compound assessments and quantitative study at greater chemical concentrations are needed to clarify the allelopathic activity. Considerable genetic variation exists among alfalfa genotypes for allelopathic activity creating the opportunity for its use in weed suppression through selection.

  3. Morphological identification of the ryegrass hybrid Lolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological identification of the ryegrass hybrid Lolium multiflorum x Lolium perenne and isolation of the pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum in the Western Cape. ... Knowledge on morphological differences among ryegrass may be important to guide differential weed management of ryegrass. Smother cropping, as ...

  4. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time Reverse-Transcriptase PCR in Annual Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Subjected to Various Abiotic Stresses

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    Qiuxu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To select the most stable reference genes in annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, we studied annual ryegrass leaf tissues exposed to various abiotic stresses by qRT-PCR and selected 11 candidate reference genes, i.e., 18S rRNA, E2, GAPDH, eIF4A, HIS3, SAMDC, TBP-1, Unigene71, Unigene77, Unigene755, and Unigene14912. We then used GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper to analyze the expression stability of these 11 genes, and used RefFinder to comprehensively rank genes according to stability. Under different stress conditions, the most suitable reference genes for studies of leaf tissues of annual ryegrass were different. The expression of the eIF4A gene was the most stable under drought stress. Under saline-alkali stress, Unigene14912 has the highest expression stability. Under acidic aluminum stress, SAMDC expression stability was highest. Under heavy metal stress, Unigene71 expression had the highest stability. According to the software analyses, Unigene14912, HIS3, and eIF4A were the most suitable for analyses of abiotic stress in tissues of annual ryegrass. GAPDH was the least suitable reference gene. In conclusion, selecting appropriate reference genes under abiotic stress not only improves the accuracy of annual ryegrass gene expression analyses, but also provides a theoretical reference for the development of reference genes in plants of the genus Lolium.

  5. Effect of D2O on growth properties and chemical structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Bali, Garima [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Reeves, David T [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Sun, Qining [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Shah, Riddhi S [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    In present paper, we report the production and detailed structural analysis of deuterium-enriched rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) for neutron scattering experiments. An efficient method to produce deuterated biomass was developed by designing hydroponic perfusion chambers. In preliminary studies, the partial deuterated rye samples were grown in increasing levels of D2O to study the seed germination and the level of deuterium incorporation as a function of D2O concentration. Solution NMR method indicated 36.9 % deuterium incorporation in 50 % D2O grown annual rye samples and further significant increase in the deuterium incorporation level was observed by germinating the rye seedlings in H2O and growing in 50 % D2O inside the perfusion chambers. Moreover, in an effort to compare the substrate characteristics related to enzymatic hydrolysis on deuterated and protiated version of biomass, annual rye grown in 50 % D2O was selected for detailed biomass characterization studies. The compositional analyses, degree of polymerization and cellulose crystallinity were compared with its protiated control. The cellulose molecular weight indicated slight variation with deuteration; however, hemicellulose molecular weights and cellulose crystallinity remain unaffected with the deuteration. Besides the minor differences in biomass components, the development of deuterated biomass for neutron scattering application is essential to understand the complex biomass conversion processes.

  6. Agronomic behavior of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum lam.) in Rio Grande do Sul State

    OpenAIRE

    I. F. Conterato; D. B. David; J. K. Da Trindade; J. Maldaner; C. Bremm

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate forage production and number of days to flowering in 15 common ryegrass populations, one population of the KLM 138 (Uruguay) and Fepagro São Gabriel cultivars, and one local population in order to select germplasm with production potential. A randomized block design consisting of three replicates and repeated measures over time (cuts) was adopted. Forage production was evaluated by cutting samples of 2 linear meters per plot. The forage samples of e...

  7. Agronomic behavior of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum lam. in Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Conterato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate forage production and number of days to flowering in 15 common ryegrass populations, one population of the KLM 138 (Uruguay and Fepagro São Gabriel cultivars, and one local population in order to select germplasm with production potential. A randomized block design consisting of three replicates and repeated measures over time (cuts was adopted. Forage production was evaluated by cutting samples of 2 linear meters per plot. The forage samples of each plot were dried and weighed for the determination of total dry matter. A total dry matter subsample of each plot, in each cut, was used to estimate leaf percentage. The data were submitted to analysis of variance using mixed models and means were compared by the Tukey test (P0.05, indicating little variability for this trait in the populations studied during the growth cycle. The populations differed significantly in terms of leaf dry matter percentage (P=0.0002. The highest leaf percentages during the growth cycle were observed for cultivar KLM 138. However, populations of the common Uruguayan, Dom Pedrito and Vacaria cultivars also exhibited good leaf production and may be used for initial selection of new promising materials, considering that a higher percentage of leaves promotes better quality feed offered to animals. The variation in the number of days to flowering permits selection for different maturation cycles of common ryegrass.

  8. Genetic structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum populations estimated by RAPD Estrutura genética de populações de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum estimada por RAPD

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    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual ryegrass is a temperate climate annual foraging grass, grown mostly in the South of Brazil, especially in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Despite its importance, little is known about its genetic diversity, both within and among the populations cultivated. This knowledge is of fundamental importance for developing breeding and conservation strategies. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity and structure of four populations of annual ryegrass. Three of the populations were located in Rio Grande do Sul and the fourth in Uruguay. RAPD markers were used to study the genetic diversity and structure of these populations. Analysis of 375 individuals sampled from the populations, using six RAPD primers, generated a total of 82 amplified bands. They included 73 polymorphic bands (89,02%. The value of the total genetic diversity index obtained, (0,71 was high, indicating the presence of wide genetic diversity in the four populations. Genetic structure analysis revealed that 98% of total diversity is intrapopulational, whereas interpopulational genetic diversity was only 2%. These results suggest that before these populations separated, they had gone through a period of gene exchange and, even after the separation event, gene frequency stayed at levels similar to the original levels, with no differential selection for these genes in the different cultivation areas.O azevém anual é a gramínea anual forrageira de clima temperado de maior utilização no sul do Brasil, particularmente no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Apesar de toda a importância que a espécie apresenta, pouco se conhece a respeito da diversidade genética presente entre e dentro das populações cultivadas. Este conhecimento é de fundamental importância para o estabelecimento das estratégias de melhoramento genético e de conservação destes materiais. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a diversidade genética e a estrutura genética de quatro

  9. Seasonal Variation of Provitamin D2 and Vitamin D2 in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Didion, Thomas; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Ergosterol (provitamin D(2)) is converted to vitamin D(2) in grass by exposure to UV light. Six varieties of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were harvested four times during the season, and the contents of vitamin D(2) and ergosterol were analyzed by a sensitive and selective liquid...

  10. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic...

  11. A transcriptome map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Byrne, Stephen; Nielsen, Rasmus Ory

    2012-01-01

    -assisted breeding, a surprisingly low number of validated SNPs are currently available for perennial ryegrass. Results A perennial ryegrass unigene set representing 9,399 genes was used as a reference for the assembly of 802,156 high quality reads generated by 454 transcriptome sequencing and for in silico SNP...... discovery. Out of more than 15,433 SNPs in 1,778 unigenes fulfilling highly stringent assembly and detection parameters, a total of 768 SNP markers were selected for GoldenGate genotyping in 184 individuals of the perennial ryegrass mapping population VrnA, a population being previously evaluated...... for important agronomic traits. A total of 592 (77%) of the SNPs tested were successfully called with a cluster separation above 0.9. Of these, 509 (86%) genic SNP markers segregated in the VrnA mapping population, out of which 495 were assigned to map positions. The genetic linkage map presented here comprises...

  12. Molecular characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md Shofiqul

    2011-01-01

    to increase biomass yield, improve nutritional value and tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stress. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an efficient tool to control pollination for hybrid seed production. In order to identify the causative polymorphism of the CMS phenotype, a cytoplasmic male sterile plant......Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a key grassland species in temperate climates. As an out breeding crop, ryegrass is currently being bred as population and synthetic families, thereby not fully exploiting the genetically available heterosis. Thus, hybrid breeding has the potential...... using 454 next-generation sequencing technology, resulting in approximately 800,000 high quality single reads. Here we report on the sequencing and the assembly of the mitochondrial genome from perennial ryegrass. Moreover, the assembly and annotation of the male-sterile and fertile mitochondrial...

  13. A transcriptome map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

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    Studer Bruno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are increasingly becoming the DNA marker system of choice due to their prevalence in the genome and their ability to be used in highly multiplexed genotyping assays. Although needed in high numbers for genome-wide marker profiles and genomics-assisted breeding, a surprisingly low number of validated SNPs are currently available for perennial ryegrass. Results A perennial ryegrass unigene set representing 9,399 genes was used as a reference for the assembly of 802,156 high quality reads generated by 454 transcriptome sequencing and for in silico SNP discovery. Out of more than 15,433 SNPs in 1,778 unigenes fulfilling highly stringent assembly and detection parameters, a total of 768 SNP markers were selected for GoldenGate genotyping in 184 individuals of the perennial ryegrass mapping population VrnA, a population being previously evaluated for important agronomic traits. A total of 592 (77% of the SNPs tested were successfully called with a cluster separation above 0.9. Of these, 509 (86% genic SNP markers segregated in the VrnA mapping population, out of which 495 were assigned to map positions. The genetic linkage map presented here comprises a total of 838 DNA markers (767 gene-derived markers and spans 750 centi Mogan (cM with an average marker interval distance of less than 0.9 cM. Moreover, it locates 732 expressed genes involved in a broad range of molecular functions of different biological processes in the perennial ryegrass genome. Conclusions Here, we present an efficient approach of using next generation sequencing (NGS data for SNP discovery, and the successful design of a 768-plex Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay in a complex genome. The ryegrass SNPs along with the corresponding transcribed sequences represent a milestone in the establishment of genetic and genomics resources available for this species and constitute a further step towards molecular breeding

  14. Toxicity and uptake of cyclic nitramine explosives in ryegrass Lolium perenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Lachance, Bernard [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Kuperman, Roman G. [Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 (United States); Hawari, Jalal [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy [Defense Research and Development Canada, 2459 Pie IX Boulevard, Val Belair, Quebec G3J 1X5 (Canada); Sunahara, Geoffrey I. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada)], E-mail: geoffrey.sunahara@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca

    2008-11-15

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) are cyclic nitramines used as explosives. Their ecotoxicities have been characterized incompletely and little is known about their accumulation potential in soil organisms. We assessed the toxicity and uptake of these explosives in perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne L. exposed in a Sassafras sandy loam (SSL) or in a sandy soil (DRDC, CL-20 only) containing contrasting clay contents (11% and 0.3%, respectively). A 21-d exposure to RDX, HMX or CL-20 in either soil had no adverse effects on ryegrass growth. RDX and HMX were translocated to ryegrass shoots, with bioconcentration factors (BCF) of up to 15 and 11, respectively. In contrast, CL-20 was taken up by the roots (BCF up to 19) with no translocation to the shoots. These studies showed that RDX, HMX, and CL-20 can accumulate in plants and may potentially pose a risk of biomagnification across the food chain. - Cyclic nitramine explosives accumulate in perennial ryegrass and exhibit distinct uptake patterns.

  15. First Case of Glufosinate-Resistant Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud. in Greece

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    Ilias S. Travlos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Repeated applications of the same herbicide(s, which are characterized by the same mode of action, increase selection pressure, which in turn favours the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds. Glufosinate is a broad-spectrum non-selective herbicide being used for weed control for many years around the world. Rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud. is an economically important grass weed in Greece. Recent complaints by growers about control failure of rigid ryegrass with glufosinate require further investigation and have been the basis of this study. The objectives of this study were to confirm the existence of glufosinate-resistant L. rigidum in Greece and evaluate the effect of L. rigidum growth stage on glufosinate efficacy. Twenty populations of rigid ryegrass from Greece were sampled from five regions, and whole plant dose–response studies were conducted for five populations under controlled conditions with eight rates of glufosinate (0.0, 0.098, 0.187, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 kg a.i. ha−1. Glufosinate resistance was confirmed in three out of five populations with the level of resistance ranging from three-to seven-fold compared with the susceptible populations based on above-ground biomass reduction. Results also revealed that the level of glufosinate-resistance of rigid ryegrass was dependent on the growth stage at which it was applied.

  16. Allelopathic effect of ryegrass (lolium persicum) and wild mustard (sinapis arvensis) on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baziar, M.R.; Farahvash, F.; Mirshekari, B.; Rashidi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Most crop plants and weeds have allelopathic effects and analysis of these effects on plants in crop alteration and successive planting is very important. In this research the allelopathic ability of different parts and concentrations of two weeds, Lolium Persicum (Ryegrass) and Sinapis arvensis (wild mustered), on growth characteristics of two barley varieties was studied in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. Test factors consisted of two barley varieties (Valfajr and Rehane), three weed organs (root, stalk, leaf) and four concentrations of extracts of weed organs (25, 50, 75 and control or distilled water). After the preparation of extracts of different weed organs with different concentrations, their effect on growth characteristics of barley plant was evaluated. Finally, seedling length, rootlet length caulicle length, wet weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling were measured. Also, the above two seeds had significant effects on the two strains of barley and could influence growth characteristics of barley. Based on the results of present study, one can argue that Ryegrass (Lolium Persicum) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) can strongly affect germination, growth and performance of barley through production of chemical materials with allelopathic properties, leading unfavorable growth and product yield. (author)

  17. Inheritance patterns of the response to in vitro doubled haploid induction in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Begheyn, R. F.; Roulund, N.; Vangsgaard, K.; Kopecký, David; Studer, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 3 (2017), s. 667-679 ISSN 0167-6857 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Androgenesis * Androgenic capacity * Anther culture * Doubled haploid (DH) * Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  18. Effects of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on herbage production, nutritional quality and herbage intake of grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.; Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Tamminga, S.; Elgersma, A.

    2005-01-01

    Four perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars were compared for differences in herbage production, nutritive value and herbage intake of dry matter (DM) during the summers of 2002 and 2003. Two paddocks were sown with pure stands of four cultivars in a randomized block design with three

  19. Sulphate fertilization ameliorates long-term aluminum toxicity symptoms in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff-Zottele, Cristian; Hesse, Holger; Fisahn, Joachim; Bromke, Mariusz; Vera-Villalobos, Hernán; Li, Yan; Frenzel, Falko; Giavalisco, Patrick; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Zunino, Ligia; Caruso, Immcolata; Stohmann, Evelyn; Mora, Maria de la Luz

    2014-10-01

    Effects of the oxanion sulphate on plant aluminum (Al(3+)) detoxification mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, holistic physiological and biochemical modifications induced by progressively increased doses of sulphate fertilization in the presence of long-term Al(3+) stress were investigated in the aluminum sensitive perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cvJumbo). Plant growth inhibition induced by Al(3+) was decreased in response to increasing doses of sulphate supply. Aluminum concentrations measured in roots of perennial ryegrass by atomic absorption spectrometry declined significantly with increasing sulphate concentrations. In parallel, we determined a rise of sulphur in shoots and roots of perennial ryegrass. Inclusion of up to 360 μM of sulphate enhanced cysteine and glutathione biosynthesis in Al(3+) (1.07 μM) treated plants. This increase of thiol-containing compounds favored all modifications in the glutathione redox balance, declining lipid peroxidation, decreasing the activity of superoxide dismutase, and modifying the expression of proteins involved in the diminution of Al(3+) toxicity in roots. In particular, proteome analysis by 1D-SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS allowed to identify up (e.g. vacuolar proton ATPase, proteosome β subunit, etc) and down (Glyoxilase I, Ascorbate peroxidase, etc.) regulated proteins induced by Al(3+) toxicity symptoms in roots. Although, sulphate supply up to 480 μM caused a reduction in Al(3+) toxicity symptoms, it was not as efficient as compared to 360 μM sulphate fertilization. These results suggest that sulphate fertilization ameliorates Al(3+) toxicity responses in an intracellular specific manner within Lolium perenne. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene Cloning and Expression of the Pyrroline-5-carboxylate Reductase Gene of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne

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    Cao Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Salt and drought limit the range of applications of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., which is one of the important turf and forage grasses. Previous studies have suggested that pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR might play a central role in proline accumulation in plants that are responsive to stresses. In the present study, the Lolium perenne L. pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (LpP5CR gene was cloned from leaves of the cultivar ‘Derby’ using the RACE technique. The full-length LpP5CR gene was 1 047 bp in length, which comprised an open reading frame (ORF of 840 bp in size. Sequence alignment revealed that the putative LpP5CR had a 94.3% similarity to TaP5CR. qRT-PCR displayed that the mRNA levels of the LpP5CR gene were almost the same as that in the roots, stems, and leaves of perennial ryegrass seedlings subjected to normal condition or NaCl treatment for 1 h. Moreover, the transcription level of LpP5CR was up- or down-regulated with NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG, cold, or abscisic acid (ABA treatment for 3 to 48 h. In addition, confocal microscopy localized the GFP-LpP5CR fusion protein to the cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. These findings suggest that LpP5CR encodes a cytoplasmic P5CR protein that plays an important role in the response of perennial ryegrass to various stresses.

  1. Selectivity of Some Herbicides to Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., Grown for Seed Production

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    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2008-2010, on the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops – Pleven, on slightly leached chernozem a study was conducted with the purpose to determine the selectivity of some herbicides to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., and theirinfluence on the seed productivity. As a result of the study the following was found: herbicides for broadleaf weeds control – Arat (500 g/l dicamba + 250 g/l tritosulfuron at rate of 100 ml/ha, Korida 75 VDG (750 g/kg tribenuron-methyl – 15 g/ha and Cambio SL (320 g/l bentazone + 90 g/l dicamba – 1250 ml/ha had high selectivity to perennial ryegrass, applied at 2-4 leaf stage during establishing year of the stand and until the stage of the beginning of shooting up in seed production year. Herbicide for grass weeds control: Topik 080EK (80 g/l clodinafop-prop-argyl + antidote at rate of 300 ml/ha, applied at the same stage can be applied in seed production stands of perennial ryegrass. Herbicide for grass weeds control – Grasp 25SK (250 g/l tralkoxydim + Atplus 463 at rate of 1000 + 1000 ml/ha showed phytotoxic effect on L. perenne and caused the reduction of seed and dry biomass productivity. Realization of the biological potential concerning seed and dry mass yield of perennial ryegrass demands application of selective herbicides Arat, Korida 75 VDG and Cambio SL in control of broadleaf weeds and Topik 080EK in control of grass weeds.

  2. THE OCCURRENCE OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN SOILS FROM CULTIVATED PERENNIAL RYEGRASS (LOLIUM PERENNE L.

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    Roman Kolczarek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important role in the agricultural agrocenosis is attributed to entomopathogenic fungi. They limit the occurrence of certain populations of soil pests and insects overwintering in the soil environment, or held in the pupation. Fungi are the only pathogens of arthropods witch have the ability to infect plant pests directly by body. However, bacteria are the largest group of microorganisms inhabiting the soil. The aim of this study was to compare the species composition and the severity of the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soils of monoculture crops perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.. The material consisted of soil samples taken from the experimental research conducted in two experimental stations of the Central Research Centre for Cultivar. The fungi isolated from soil insecticides using a method developed by the selective medium.

  3. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium of nine genes with putative effects on flowering time in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, Alice; Lenk, Ingo; Petersen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of flowering is an important breeding goal in forage and turf grasses, such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Nine floral control genes including Lolium perenne CONSTANS (LpCO), SISTER OF FLOWERING LOCUS T (LpSFT), TERMINAL FLOWER1 (LpTFL1), VERNALIZATION1 (LpVRN1, identical......, one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was present per 127 bp between two randomly sampled sequences for the nine genes (π = 0.00790). Two MADS-box genes, LpMADS1 and LpMADS10, involved in timing of flowering showed high nucleotide diversity and rapid LD decay, whereas MADS-box genes involved...

  4. Comparative study of Cd uptake and tolerance of two Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cultivars

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    Zhigang Fang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is one of the most toxic heavy metals and is difficult to be removed from contaminated soil and water. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, as an energy crop, exhibits a valuable potential to develop Cd polluted sites due to its use as a biofuel rather than as food and forage. Previously, via a screening for Cd-tolerant ryegrass, the two most extreme cultivars (IdyII and Harukaze with high and low Cd tolerance during seed germination, respectively, were selected. However, the underlying mechanism for Cd tolerance was not well investigated. In this study, we comparatively investigated the growth, physiological responses, and Cd uptake and translocation of IdyII and Harukaze when the seedlings were exposed to a Cd (0–100 μM solution for 12 days. As expected, excess Cd inhibited seedling growth and was accompanied by an accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced photosynthetic pigments in both cultivars. The effects of Cd on the uptake and translocation of other nutrient elements (Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were dependent on Cd concentrations, cultivars, plant tissues and elements. Compared with Harukaze, IdyII exhibited better performance with less MDA and higher pigment content. Furthermore, IdyII was less efficient in Cd uptake and translocation compared to Harukaze, which might be explained by the higher non-protein thiols content in its roots. Taken together, our data indicate that IdyII is more tolerant than Harukaze, which partially resulted from the differences in Cd uptake and translocation.

  5. Comportamento agronômico de populações de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum L. para cultivo invernal na região sudeste Agronomic behaviour of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. populations for winter cropping in Southeast Region of Brazil

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    Antonio Vander Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Na Região Sudeste o período do inverno é caracterizado pela escassez e perda de qualidade das pastagens, sendo o azevém anual uma das forrageiras invernais mais recomendadas para suplementação da dieta dos rebanhos leiteiros nesta época do ano. Com este trabalho, buscou-se avaliar o comportamento de populações de azevém resultantes de coleta de germoplasma. Foram avaliadas 30 populações, sendo 22 resultantes de coletas recentes realizadas na Região Sul e oito pertencentes à coleção da Embrapa. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, sendo realizados sete cortes. Foram avaliados: altura da planta, porcentagem e produção de matéria seca, rebrota, número de dias até o florescimento e produção de sementes. Observou-se variação entre as populações para todas as características avaliadas. A estimativa da produção total de matéria seca variou de 3654 kg/ha (população LE 284 a 8544 kg/ha (CNPGL 164. Os resultados demonstraram elevado potencial de produção de forragem entre as populações de azevém coletadas, sendo que algumas delas podem ser recomendadas para cultivo invernal na Região Sudeste.In the Southeast Region of Brazil, the winter season is characterized by poor quality and low availability of the pastures. In that region the annual ryegrass is one of the most recommended winter forage to be used for dairy cattle diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of ryegrass populations under the Mata Atlantica environment. From the 30 evaluated populations, 22 were collected and eight belong to Embrapa's collection. A randomized blocks design with three replications was used, and seven cuts were done. Plant height, percent and dry matter production, regrowth, days to flowering and seed production were recorded. For all these parameters there were differences between populations. Total dry matter production varied from 3654 kg/ha (LE 284 to 8544 kg

  6. Italian ryegrass as a perennial fodder crop. | C.A.H. | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) may be re-established from seedfall if the appropriate management practices are applied, and may thus function as a perennial fodder crop. Annual seedbed preparation and seeding are eliminated in this way. Keywords: botany; fodder; grasses; italian ryegrass; lolium multiflorum; ...

  7. Aploneura lentisci (Homoptera: Aphididae and its interactions with fungal endophytes in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jean Popay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aploneura lentisci Pass. is endemic to the Mediterranean region where it is holocyclic, forming galls on its primary host, Pistacia lentiscus and alternating over a 2 year period between Pistacia and secondary hosts, principally species of Graminae. This aphid is widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand on the roots of the common forage grasses, ryegrass (Lolium spp. and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix where it exists as permanent, anholocyclic, parthenogenetic populations. Previous studies have indicated that infestations of A. lentisci significantly reduce plant growth and may account for differences in field performance of Lolium perenne infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var lolii. These obligate biotrophs protect their host grasses from herbivory via the production of alkaloids. To confirm the hypothesis that growth of L. perenne is associated with the effect of different endophyte strains on aphid populations, herbage and root growth were measured over time in two pot trials that compared three fungal endophyte strains with an endophyte-free control. In both pot trials, aphid numbers were lowest on plants infected with endophyte strain AR37 at all sampling times. In plants infected with a common toxic strain naturalized in New Zealand, aphid numbers overall were lower than on uninfected plants or those infected with strain AR1, but numbers did not always differ significantly from these treatments. Populations on AR1-infected plants were occasionally significantly higher than those on endophyte-free. Cumulative foliar growth was reduced in AR1 and Nil treatments relative to AR37 in association with population differences of A. lentisci in both trials and root dry weight was reduced in one trial. In four Petri dish experiments survival of A. lentisci on plants infected with AR37 declined to low levels after an initial phase of up to 19 days during which time aphids fed and populations were

  8. Controle químico de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. na cultura do trigo Chemical control of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Fleck

    1978-09-01

    relativa seletividade ao trigo, exerceram inadequada atividade de pós-emergência sobre o azevém. O tratamento diuron mostrou comportamento insuficiente tanto em relação ao controle do azevém, quanto ao rendimento do trigo. Os herbicidas cianazina e terbutrina proporcionaram adequado controle do azevém; contudo, suas seletividades à cultura do trigo foram muito reduzidas, além de terem causado diminuição no poder germinativo das sementes de trigo colhidas das parcelas tratadas com estes herbicidas.A field experiment was conducted during 1977 in the Central Depression region of Rio Grande do Sul to evaluate herbicide treatments to selectively control ryegrass (Lolium multif lorum L. in wheat (line E-7414, as well as to establish the competition levels between both grasses. The herbicides chlorbromuron, chlortoluron, cyanazine, diclofop, diuron, metoxuron, and terbutryn were compared with the control treatments: wheat without ryegrass, wheat competing with ryegrass, and ryegrass alone. All the herbicides were applied in postemergence, when wheat plants in the stage of 3-4 leaves, and ryegrass presented 1-3 leaves. It was found that, when ryegrass infestation was not controled by any means, an average reduction of 52% occurred in wheat seed yield. On the other hand, the wheat population which competed with ryegrass plants, caused a decrease in the order of 42% on ryegrass dry matter production. It was observed that all the herbicides presented phytotoxicity, causing from light to very severe injuries to wheat plants, depending on the product used; and that seed yields resulting from the chemical treatments were lower than that of the check plot free of ryegrass. However, all the compounds tested presented significant post-emergence activity, showing potential for ryegrass control. As well as ryegrass dry matter production, also visual evaluation of ryegrass control were appropriate methods to measure the herbicide effect. Among the herbicides evaluated, diclofop was

  9. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig

    2013-01-01

    In the joint project “FORAGESELECT”, we aim to implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), in order to increase genetic response in important agronomic traits such as yield, seed production, stress tolerance and disease resistance, while decreasing...... of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental variance in the training set composed of F2 families selected from a ten year breeding period. Variance components were estimated on 1193 of those families, sown in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in five locations around Europe. Families were tested together...

  10. Expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Asp, Torben; Frei, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    An expressed sequence tag (EST) library of the key grassland species perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) has been exploited as a resource for microsatellite marker development. Out of 955 simple sequence repeat (SSR) containing ESTs, 744 were used for primer design. Primer amplification...... was tested in eight genotypes of L. perenne and L. multiflorum representing (grand-) parents of four mapping populations and resulted in 464 successfully amplified EST-SSRs. Three hundred and six primer pairs successfully amplified products in the mapping population VrnA derived from two of the eight...

  11. Physiological effects of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanhua; Kou, Xiaoming; Pei, Zhiguo; Xiao, John Q; Shan, Xiaoquan; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-03-01

    To date, knowledge gaps and associated uncertainties remain unaddressed on the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on plants. This study was focused on revealing some of the physiological effects of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) NPs on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta cv. white cushaw) plants under hydroponic conditions. This study for the first time reports that Fe(3)O(4) NPs often induced more oxidative stress than Fe(3)O(4) bulk particles in the ryegrass and pumpkin roots and shoots as indicated by significantly increased: (i) superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, and (ii) lipid peroxidation. However, tested Fe(3)O(4) NPs appear unable to be translocated in the ryegrass and pumpkin plants. This was supported by the following data: (i) No magnetization was detected in the shoots of either plant treated with 30, 100 and 500 mg l(-1) Fe(3)O(4) NPs; (ii) Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study confirmed that the coordination environment of Fe in these plant shoots was similar to that of Fe-citrate complexes, but not to that of Fe(3)O(4) NPs; and (iii) total Fe content in the ryegrass and pumpkin shoots treated with Fe(3)O(4) NPs was not significantly increased compared to that in the control shoots.

  12. Comparison of the fatty acid composition of fresh and ensiled perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), affected by cultivar and regrowth interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, A.; Ellen, G.; Horst, van der H.; Muuse, B.G.; Boer, H.; Tamminga, S.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of grass cultivar and regrowth stage on the fatty acid (FA) profile in fresh and ensiled perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The Experiment 1 compared the composition of fresh grass with that of pre-wilted ensiled material of six cultivars,

  13. A statistical mixture model for estimating the proportion of unreduced pollen grains in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) via the size of pollen grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.; Nijs, A.P.M. den

    1993-01-01

    The size of pollen grains is commonly used to indicate the ploidy level of pollen grains. In this paper observations of the diameter of pollen grains are evaluated from one diploid accession of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), which was expected to produce diploid (unreduced) pollen grains in

  14. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland; Muylle, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps...... 284 EST-derived and genomic SSR markers. The total map length was 742 centiMorgan (cM), ranging for individual chromosomes from 70 cM of linkage group (LG) 6 to 171 cM of LG 2. Conclusions The consensus linkage map for ryegrass based on eight mapping populations and constructed using a large set...... of publicly available Lolium EST-SSRs mapped for the first time together with previously mapped SSR markers will allow for consolidating existing mapping and QTL information in ryegrass. Map and markers presented here will prove to be an asset in the development for both molecular breeding of ryegrass as well...

  15. Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies of gene expression in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrush Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. is an important pasture and turf crop. Biotechniques such as gene expression studies are being employed to improve traits in this temperate grass. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is among the best methods available for determining changes in gene expression. Before analysis of target gene expression, it is essential to select an appropriate normalisation strategy to control for non-specific variation between samples. Reference genes that have stable expression at different biological and physiological states can be effectively used for normalisation; however, their expression stability must be validated before use. Results Existing Serial Analysis of Gene Expression data were queried to identify six moderately expressed genes that had relatively stable gene expression throughout the year. These six candidate reference genes (eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha, eEF1A; TAT-binding protein homolog 1, TBP-1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 alpha, eIF4A; YT521-B-like protein family protein, YT521-B; histone 3, H3; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2 were validated for qRT-PCR normalisation in 442 diverse perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. samples sourced from field- and laboratory-grown plants under a wide range of experimental conditions. Eukaryotic EF1A is encoded by members of a multigene family exhibiting differential expression and necessitated the expression analysis of different eEF1A encoding genes; a highly expressed eEF1A (h, a moderately, but stably expressed eEF1A (s, and combined expression of multigene eEF1A (m. NormFinder identified eEF1A (s and YT521-B as the best combination of two genes for normalisation of gene expression data in perennial ryegrass following different defoliation management in the field. Conclusions This study is unique in the magnitude of samples tested with the inclusion of numerous field-grown samples

  16. Interplanting annual ryegrass, wheat, oat, and corn to mitigate iron deficiency in dry beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal.

  17. Forage yield and quality response of annual ryegrass ( Lolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry matter (DM) content, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) were higher in the treatments being irrigated once every two weeks. These results conclude that higher irrigation coupled with high N application significantly improved the dry matter yield, while water ...

  18. Comparative proteomic analyses reveal the proteome response to short-term drought in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Pan

    Full Text Available Drought is a major abiotic stress that impairs growth and productivity of Italian ryegrass. Comparative analysis of drought responsive proteins will provide insight into molecular mechanism in Lolium multiflorum drought tolerance. Using the iTRAQ-based approach, proteomic changes in tolerant and susceptible lines were examined in response to drought condition. A total of 950 differentially accumulated proteins was found to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and signal transduction pathway, such as β-D-xylosidase, β-D-glucan glucohydrolase, glycerate dehydrogenase, Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, glutamine synthetase 1a, Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, diacylglycerol, and inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate, which might contributed to enhance drought tolerance or adaption in Lolium multiflorum. Interestingly, the two specific metabolic pathways, arachidonic acid and inositol phosphate metabolism including differentially accumulated proteins, were observed only in the tolerant lines. Cysteine protease cathepsin B, Cysteine proteinase, lipid transfer protein and Aquaporin were observed as drought-regulated proteins participating in hydrolysis and transmembrane transport. The activities of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, peroxiredoxin, dehydroascorbate reductase, peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase and monodehydroascorbate reductase associated with alleviating the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in stress inducing environments. Our results showed that drought-responsive proteins were closely related to metabolic processes including signal transduction, antioxidant defenses, hydrolysis, and transmembrane transport.

  19. Integrated assessment of air pollution by metals and source apportionment using ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi, Júlia Carolina; Vancetta, Tafael; Alves, Darlan Daniel; Osório, Daniela Montanari Migliavacca; Bianchin, Liane; de Quevedo, Daniela Müller; Juchem, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    One of the biggest environmental problems existing today is air pollution, which is characterized by the presence of toxic gases and metal pollutants, the latter of which is generally associated with emissions of particulate matter (PM) from industries or automotive vehicles. Biomonitoring is a method that can be used to assess air pollution levels because it makes it possible to determine what effects these air pollutants cause in living organisms and their responses. The species Lolium multiflorum Lam., known as ryegrass, is considered a good bioindicator of metals, since it accumulates these substances during exposure. This study proposes to conduct an integrated assessment of air quality using two different monitoring methodologies: biomonitoring with L. multiflorum and active monitoring in areas with different levels of urbanization and industrialization. Concentrations found in ryegrass plants revealed high levels of Pb, Cr, Zn, and Cu, indicating that vehicular and industrial emissions were the main sources of pollution. Analysis of PM also revealed soot and biogenic particles, which can transport metals. Therefore, with the proposed method, the anthropogenic impact on air pollution in the investigated area could be clearly demonstrated.

  20. Genomics-Assisted Exploitation of Heterosis in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul

    ryegrass for the development of improved varieties. During his PhD studies, Mohammad Shofiqul Islam studied the feasibility of developing novel hybrid breeding schemes based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems in perennial ryegrass. He successfully completed the assembly and annotation of a male......-fertile perennial ryegrass mitochondrial genome, and identified candidate genes responsible for the CMS phenotype by comparing male-fertile and male-sterile mitochondrial genomes. His findings constitute a good basis for continuing research to produce hybrid grass varieties to address the future needs......, breeding activities have been carried out to improve the population and develop synthetic varieties. This does not fully exploit the potential of heterosis, however. Hybrid breeding is an alternative strategy and provides opportunities to fully exploit the genetically available heterosis in perennial...

  1. The effect of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on decrease of PAH content in long term contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Jan; Wiesche in der, C.; Macková, M.; Zadrazil, F.; Macek, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 9 (2008), s. 1603-1608 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : biodegradation * phytoremediation * HPLC * Lolium perenne * PAH Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  2. Predicting anthesis date of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) with growing degree-days at heading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Simon; Byrne, Stephen; Asp, Torben

    2018-01-01

    that growing degree-days to heading can be used as a good predictor of anthesis date. Using a broad range of 520 diploid perennial ryegrass accessions, anthesis was found to be highly correlated with growing degree-days to heading, and growing degree-days to heading could be used to predict anthesis date...

  3. Path and correlation analysis of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seed yield components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Simon; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Maximum perennial ryegrass seed production potential is substantially greater than harvested yields with harvested yields representing only 20% of calculated potential. Similar to wheat, maize and other agriculturally important crops, seed yield is highly dependent on a number of interacting seed...

  4. On the relation between tillering, leaf area dynamics and growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennne L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, van E.N.

    1993-01-01

    Modern intensively managed grasslands are subject to sward deterioration as a result of urine scorching, treading, winter mortality and late mowing or grazing. The major species in Dutch grasslands is perennial ryegrass. Deterioration consists of a decreasing presence of this species through death

  5. Physiological constraints to seed growth in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warringa, J.W.

    1997-01-01


    The yield of a seed crop of perennial ryegrass varies between I and 2 Mg/ha. This variation is caused by variation in the number of seeds that reach an adequate dry weight. On average 70 % of the seeds present before harvest and cleaning are not recovered because of their low

  6. Allelopathic Potential of Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) on Perennial Ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Junfeng; An, Yu; Ma, Yongqing; Ichizen, Nobumasa

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated allelopathy and its chemical basis in nine switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) accessions. Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) were used as test species. Undiluted aqueous extracts (5 g plant tissue in 50 ml water) from the shoots and roots of most of the switchgrass accessions inhibited the germination and growth of the test species. However, the allelopathic effect of switchgrass declined when extracts were diluted 5- or 50-fold. Seedling growth was more sensitive than seed germination as an indicator of allelopathic effect. Allelopathic effect was related to switchgrass ecotype but not related to ploidy level. Upland accessions displayed stronger allelopathic potential than lowland accessions. The aqueous extract from one switchgrass accession was separated into phenols, organic acids, neutral chemicals, and alkaloids, and then these fractions were bioassayed to test for allelopathic potential. Alkaloids had the strongest allelopathic effect among the four chemical fractions. In summary, the results indicated that switchgrass has allelopathic potential; however, there is not enough evidence to conclude that allelopathic advantage is the main factor that has contributed to the successful establishment of switchgrass on China’s Loess Plateau.

  7. Componentes morfológicos e produção de forragem de pastagem de aveia e azevém manejada em diferentes alturas Morphological components and forage production of oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica de produção de forragem em pastagem de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diversas alturas de manejo com o objetivo de evidenciar as potencialidades dessa mistura em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de manejo da pastagem (10; 20; 30 e 40 cm, medidas com bastão graduado e avaliadas em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável. Utilizaram-se bezerros de corte mestiços com 10 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 210 kg, respectivamente. As características da pastagem estudadas foram: massa de forragem (MF; taxa de acúmulo de forragem (TAC; produção total de forragem (PTMS; e quantificação dos componentes morfológicos da pastagem (colmo, lâmina e material morto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto, uma vez que, para cada cm de aumento na altura superior a 10 cm, a matéria seca aumentou aproximadamente 90 kg/ha. Não houve efeito das alturas da pastagem sobre a TAC ou sobre a PTMS, cujos valores médios foram de 66,8 kg/ha/dia de MS e 10.721 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. A porcentagem de folhas de azevém foi maior que a de folhas de aveia nos três períodos de avaliação e, na altura de 10 cm, foi superior à obtida nas demais alturas na última avaliação (em torno de 20% da participação total da massa de forragem. A aveia apresenta rápido desenvolvimento inicial e diminuição na produção nos períodos posteriores de desenvolvimento.Forage growth dynamic in an Oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb + Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different grazing heights was evaluated in order to access the mixed-sward potential in a crop-livestock integrated system. Treatments were four sward grazing heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, measured with a sward-stick. The experimental design was a

  8. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Bruno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps of these populations have been aligned with each other using publicly available DNA markers, the number of common markers among genetic maps is still low, limiting the ability to compare candidate gene and QTL locations across germplasm. Results A set of 204 expressed sequence tag (EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers has been assigned to map positions using eight different ryegrass mapping populations. Marker properties of a subset of 64 EST-SSRs were assessed in six to eight individuals of each mapping population and revealed 83% of the markers to be polymorphic in at least one population and an average number of alleles of 4.88. EST-SSR markers polymorphic in multiple populations served as anchor markers and allowed the construction of the first comprehensive consensus map for ryegrass. The integrated map was complemented with 97 SSRs from previously published linkage maps and finally contained 284 EST-derived and genomic SSR markers. The total map length was 742 centiMorgan (cM, ranging for individual chromosomes from 70 cM of linkage group (LG 6 to 171 cM of LG 2. Conclusions The consensus linkage map for ryegrass based on eight mapping populations and constructed using a large set of publicly available Lolium EST-SSRs mapped for the first time together with previously mapped SSR markers will allow for consolidating existing mapping and QTL information in ryegrass. Map and markers presented here will prove to be an asset in the development for both molecular breeding of ryegrass as well as comparative genetics and genomics within grass species.

  9. Nitrous oxide emission factors for urine and dung from sheep fed either fresh forage rape (Brassica napus L.) or fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Sun, X Z; Pacheco, D; Ledgard, S F; Lindsey, S B; Hoogendoorn, C J; Wise, B; Watkins, N L

    2015-03-01

    In New Zealand, agriculture is predominantly based on pastoral grazing systems and animal excreta deposited on soil during grazing have been identified as a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Forage brassicas (Brassica spp.) have been increasingly used to improve lamb performance. Compared with conventional forage perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), a common forage in New Zealand, forage brassicas have faster growth rates, higher dry matter production and higher nutritive value. The aim of this study was to determine the partitioning of dietary nitrogen (N) between urine and dung in the excreta from sheep fed forage brassica rape (B. napus subsp. oleifera L.) or ryegrass, and then to measure N2O emissions when the excreta from the two different feed sources were applied to a pasture soil. A sheep metabolism study was conducted to determine urine and dung-N outputs from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, and N partitioning between urine and dung. Urine and dung were collected and then used in a field plot experiment for measuring N2O emissions. The experimental site contained a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture on a poorly drained silt-loam soil. The treatments included urine from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, dung from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, and a control without dung or urine applied. N2O emission measurements were carried out using a static chamber technique. For each excreta type, the total N2O emissions and emission factor (EF3; N2O-N emitted during the 3- or 8-month measurement period as a per cent of animal urine or dung-N applied, respectively) were calculated. Our results indicate that, in terms of per unit of N intake, a similar amount of N was excreted in urine from sheep fed either forage rape or ryegrass, but less dung N was excreted from sheep fed forage rape than ryegrass. The EF3 for urine from sheep fed forage rape was lower compared with urine from sheep fed ryegrass. This may have been because of plant

  10. Allergenic fragments of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen Lol p IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, K S; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Kisil, F T

    1989-01-01

    To facilitate studies on establishing the nature of structure/function relationships of allergens, ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p IV, was cleaved into smaller fragments by cyanogen bromide (CNBr) and the resulting peptides were further digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were then fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C-18 reverse phase column. The allergenic activity of the HPLC fractions was evaluated in terms of their ability to inhibit the binding of 125I-Lol p IV to serum IgE antibodies of a grass-allergic patient. Many of these fractions inhibited the binding between the native allergen and IgE antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitions were specific, i.e., the fractions did not inhibit the binding between 125I-Lol p I (a group-I ryegrass pollen allergen) and the IgE antibodies present in the allergic human serum. The possibility that the allergenic peptide fractions were contaminated by the native undegraded allergen, which might have accounted for the observed inhibition, was ruled out by the fact that the native allergen could not be detected by SDS-PAGE and the elution profiles of allergenically active peptides did not coincide with that of native allergen. One of the allergenic sites recognized by monoclonal antibody (Mab) 90, i.e., site A, was located in HPLC fractions 90-100 while another allergenic site B (recognized by Mab 12) appeared to be lost following the sequential digestion of Lol p IV with CNBr and trypsin.

  11. Immunological cross-reactivity of the major allergen from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Lol p I, and the cysteine proteinase, bromelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R N; Bagarozzi, D; Travis, J

    1997-04-01

    Antibodies prepared in rabbits against the major allergen from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Lol p I, cross-reacted with the cysteine proteinase bromelain from pineapple and vice versa. Deglycosylation of the proteins showed that the cross-reaction was based on recognition of the carbohydrate moiety of the allergen, but for bromelain the cross-reaction was most likely due to a combination of factors. The results indicate that the carbohydrate residues from these allergens play an important role in cross-reactions found between them and possibly those from other species.

  12. Exogenous classic phytohormones have limited regulatory effects on fructan and primary carbohydrate metabolism in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eGasperl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of both synthesis by fructosyltransferases (FTs and breakdown through fructan exohydrolases (FEHs. The accumulation of fructans can be triggered by high sucrose levels and abiotic stress conditions such as drought and cold stress. However, detailed studies on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of fructan metabolism are scarce. Since different phytohormones, especially abscisic acid (ABA, are known to play an important role in abiotic stress responses, the possible short term regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism by the five classical phytohormones was investigated. Therefore, the activities of enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and breakdown, the expression levels for the corresponding genes and levels for water-soluble carbohydrates were determined following pulse treatments with ABA, auxin (AUX, ethylene (ET, gibberellic acid (GA or kinetin (KIN. The most pronounced fast effects were a transient increase of FT activities by AUX, KIN, ABA and ET, while minor effects were evident for 1-FEH activity with an increased activity in response to KIN and a decrease by GA. Fructan and sucrose levels were not affected. This observed discrepancy demonstrates the importance of determining enzyme activities to obtain insight into the physiological traits and ultimately the plant phenotype. The comparative analyses of activities for seven key enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism revealed no co-regulation between enzymes of the fructan and

  13. Lambs fed fresh winter forage rape (Brassica napus L.) emit less methane than those fed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and possible mechanisms behind the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Molano, German; Harrison, Scott J; Luo, Dongwen; Janssen, Peter H; Pacheco, David

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L.) on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake), and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks). The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems.

  14. Lambs fed fresh winter forage rape (Brassica napus L. emit less methane than those fed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., and possible mechanisms behind the difference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhao Sun

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L. on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake, and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.. The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks. The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems.

  15. Lambs Fed Fresh Winter Forage Rape (Brassica napus L.) Emit Less Methane than Those Fed Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and Possible Mechanisms behind the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Molano, German; Harrison, Scott J.; Luo, Dongwen; Janssen, Peter H.; Pacheco, David

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L.) on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake), and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks). The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems. PMID:25803688

  16. Cultivar identification by means of isoenzymes 2. Genetic variation at 4 enzyme loci in diploid ryegrass lolium-spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G.; Østergaard, H.; Johansen, Henrik

    1985-01-01

    in Italian ryegrass was unsatisfactory at any single locus. By summing the test values for each locus, a combined evaluation of distinctness was obtained. Then cultivars could be pairwise distinguished with 99% confidence in 96% of pairs of perennial ryegrass and in 80% of pairs of Italian ryegrass......Fifteen cultivars of perennial ryegrass (L. perenne) and 6 cultivars of Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) have been scored for four enzyme loci, Pgi-2, Got-3, Pgm-1 and Pgd-1 [phosphoglucoisomerase, glutamate oxalacetate transaminase, phosphoglucomutase and 6-phosphogluconate isomerase] by starch...... gel electrophoresis. Cultivars were pairwise compared by means of allelic frequencies assuming Hardy-Weinberg proportions. At first, the comparisons were carried out for each locus separately. The 2 loci Pgi-2 and Got-3 distinguished perennial ryegrass cultivars fairly well, but the discrimination...

  17. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  18. Herbage Production, Nutritive Value and Grazing Preference of Diploid and Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass Cultivars (Lolium perenne L. Producción de Fitomasa, Calidad Nutritiva y Preferencia de Pastoreo de Cultivares Diploides y Tetraploides de Ballica Perenne (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Balocchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine, under the soil and climatic conditions of Southern Chile, the effect of the ploidy of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cultivars on herbage production, nutritive value, grazing preference and utilization of pasture produced. This study was conducted in southern Chile, Valdivia Province, and was evaluated for 3 years. The tetraploid cultivars used were Quartet (4n, Gwendal (4n, Pastoral (4n and Napoleon (4n. The diploid cultivars were Anita (2n, Jumbo (2n, Aries (2n, and Yatsyn 1 (2n.When the average sward height reached 20 cm, all plots were simultaneously grazed by dairy cows for a period of 24 h. Before and after grazing, sward height, dry matter availability and nutritive value were evaluated. Grazing preference was visually assessed every 5 min for a period of 2.5 h after the afternoon milking. During the 3-year period 20 grazing events were evaluated. A randomized complete block design, with eight cultivars and three replicates, was used. Diploid cultivars showed greater herbage mass accumulation than tetraploid cultivars (P ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were obtained in the annual average crude protein content. Nevertheless, tetraploid cultivars showed a greater D value than diploid cultivars, except during the third year when the difference was not statistically significant. Dairy cows grazed more time on tetraploid cultivars. Considering, additionally, the residual herbage mass after grazing and the percentage of pasture utilization, diploid cultivars were less intensively grazed, suggesting a lower consumption by the cows.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, bajo las condiciones edafoclimáticas del sur de Chile, el efecto de la ploidía de cultivares de ballica perenne (Lolium perenne L. sobre el rendimiento de fitomasa, calidad nutricional, preferencia de pastoreo y porcentaje de utilización del forraje producido. El ensayo se realizó en el sur de Chile, provincia de

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Smith, F Andrew; Wang, Youshan; Chen, Baodong

    2008-09-01

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 microm nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed.

  20. Production potential of Italian and Westerwolds ryegrass established ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fodder flow planning is essential for dairy-pasture systems because its implementation allows fodder to be available throughout the year. Italian and Westerwolds ryegrass varieties (Lolium multiflorum var. italicum and westerwoldicum, respectively) are temperate annuals often planted in the southern Cape region of South ...

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan; Smith, F. Andrew; Wang Youshan; Chen Baodong

    2008-01-01

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 μm nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Wang Youshan [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089 (China); Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 {mu}m nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination.

  3. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L.E.; Krogh, P.H.; Nielsen, T.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After...

  4. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to the red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L. E.; Krogh, P. H.; Nielsen, T.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After...

  5. A Simple and Fast Kinetic Assay for the Determination of Fructan Exohydrolase Activity in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gasperl, A.; Morvan-Bertrand, A.; Prud'homme, M. P.; van der Graaff, E.; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, dec (2015), s. 1154 ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : 1-FEH * enzymaticactivity * fructanexohydrolase * fructandegradation * kinetic assay * perennial ryegrass Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.495, year: 2015

  6. Exogenous Classic Phytohormones Have Limited Regulatory Effects on Fructan and Primary Carbohydrate Metabolism in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gasperl, A.; Morvan-Bertrand, A.; Prud'homme, M. P.; van der Graaff, E.; Roitsch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, jan (2016), s. 1251 ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : enzymatic activity * fructan exohydrolase * fructan metabolism * fructosyltransferase * perennial ryegrass * phytohormones * primary carbohydrate metabolism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  7. Competition between spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. under different water supply conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wanic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment with an additive design and three series was conducted to test competition between spring barley and Italian ryegrass under different soil moisture conditions. The experimental factors were as follows: 1. type of sowing – mixed sowing and pure sowing; 2. water supply – plants supplied with water to meet their full requirements and 50% water supply reduction. The study covered five phenological development stages (BBCH of spring barley: emergence (10–13, tillering (22–25, stem elongation (33–37, heading (52–55, and ripening (87–91. The competitive effects were evaluated based on relative yield (RY, relative yield total (RYT, competitive balance (CB, and relative efficiency index (REI. Spring barley and Italian ryegrass competed for resources throughout the growing season. Competition intensity was found to increase until the heading stage, and it decreased towards the end of the growth cycle. More intense competition was observed under reduced water supply. Spring barley dominated over Italian ryegrass from the tillering stage to the ripening stage. In mixed populations, Italian ryegrass captured the available resources more effectively than spring barley from the stem elongation stage until the end of the growing season, particularly in the treatment with optimal water supply.

  8. Leaf Rubisco turnover in a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) mapping population: genetic variation, identification of associated QTL, and correlation with plant morphology and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaembah, Edith N; Irving, Louis J; Thom, Errol R; Faville, Marty J; Easton, H Sydney; Matthew, Cory

    2013-03-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that: (i) genetic variation in Rubisco turnover may exist in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.); (ii) such variation might affect nitrogen use efficiency and plant yield; and (iii) genetic control of Rubisco turnover might be amenable to identification by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. A set of 135 full-sib F1 perennial ryegrass plants derived from a pair cross between genotypes from the cultivars 'Grasslands Impact' and 'Grasslands Samson' was studied to test these hypotheses. Leaf Rubisco concentration at different leaf ages was measured and modelled as a log-normal curve described by three mathematical parameters: D (peak Rubisco concentration), G (time of D), and F (curve standard deviation). Herbage dry matter (DM) yield and morphological traits (tiller weight (TW), tiller number (TN), leaf lamina length (LL), and an index of competitive ability (PI)) were also measured. The progeny exhibited continuous variation for all traits. Simple correlation and principal component analyses indicated that plant productivity was associated with peak Rubisco concentration and not Rubisco turnover. Lower DM was associated with higher leaf Rubisco concentration indicating that Rubisco turnover effects on plant productivity may relate to energy cost of Rubisco synthesis rather than photosynthetic capacity. QTL detection by a multiple QTL model identified seven significant QTL for Rubisco turnover and nine QTL for DM and morphological traits. An indication of the genetic interdependence of DM and the measures of Rubisco turnover was the support interval overlap involving QTL for D and QTL for TN on linkage group 5 in a cluster involving QTL for DM and PI. In this region, alleles associated with increased TN, DM, and PI were associated with decreased D, indicating that this region may regulate Rubisco concentration and plant productivity via increased tillering. A second cluster involving QTL for LL, TN, PI and DM was found on

  9. Effect of in situ soil amendments on arsenic uptake in successive harvests of ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv Elka) grown in amended As-polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, William; Lepp, Nicholas W.

    2008-01-01

    Several iron-bearing additives, selected for their potential ability to adsorb anions, were evaluated for their effectiveness in attenuation of arsenic (As) in three soils with different sources of contamination. Amendments used were lime, goethite (α-FeOOH) (crystallised iron oxide) and three iron-bearing additives, iron grit, Fe II and Fe III sulphates plus lime, applied at 1% w/w. Sequential extraction schemes conducted on amended soils determined As, Cu, Zn and Ni fractionation. Plant growth trials using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne var. Elka) assessed shoot As uptake. This was grown in the contaminated soils for 4 months, during which time grass shoots were successively harvested every 3 weeks. Goethite increased biomass yields, but clear differences were observed in As transfer rates with the various iron oxides. In conclusion, whilst Fe-oxides may be effective in situ amendments, reducing As bioavailability, their effects on plant growth require careful consideration. Soil-plant transfer of As was not completely halted by any amendment. - Arsenic attenuation is illustrated using Fe-based amendments, their efficacy providing different indicators of success

  10. Effect of in situ soil amendments on arsenic uptake in successive harvests of ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv Elka) grown in amended As-polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, L3 3AF Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: biewhart@livjm.ac.uk; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, L3 3AF Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Several iron-bearing additives, selected for their potential ability to adsorb anions, were evaluated for their effectiveness in attenuation of arsenic (As) in three soils with different sources of contamination. Amendments used were lime, goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) (crystallised iron oxide) and three iron-bearing additives, iron grit, Fe{sup II} and Fe{sup III} sulphates plus lime, applied at 1% w/w. Sequential extraction schemes conducted on amended soils determined As, Cu, Zn and Ni fractionation. Plant growth trials using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne var. Elka) assessed shoot As uptake. This was grown in the contaminated soils for 4 months, during which time grass shoots were successively harvested every 3 weeks. Goethite increased biomass yields, but clear differences were observed in As transfer rates with the various iron oxides. In conclusion, whilst Fe-oxides may be effective in situ amendments, reducing As bioavailability, their effects on plant growth require careful consideration. Soil-plant transfer of As was not completely halted by any amendment. - Arsenic attenuation is illustrated using Fe-based amendments, their efficacy providing different indicators of success.

  11. Identification of T-cell epitopes of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaher, B; Suphioglu, C; Knox, R B; Singh, M B; McCluskey, J; Rolland, J M

    1996-07-01

    T-cell recognition of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass pollen, was investigated by using a T-cell line and T-cell clones generated from the peripheral blood of an atopic donor. The T-cell line reacted with purified Lol p 9, as well as with crude ryegrass pollen extract, but failed to cross-react with Bermuda grass pollen extract. All of six T-cell clones generated from this line proliferated in response to Lol p 9. Epitope mapping was carried out with a panel of 34 overlapping synthetic peptides, which spanned the entire sequence of the Lol p 9 12R isoform. The T-cell line responded to two of the peptides, Lol p 9 (105-116) and Lol p 9 (193-204), whereas reactivity with one or other of these peptides was shown by five T-cell clones. These two peptides contained sequences consistent with motifs previously reported for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted peptides. HLA antibody blocking studies showed that presentation of peptide Lol p 9 (105-116) to one T-cell clone was HLA-DR-restricted; this clone expressed a T helper cell phenotype (CD3+, CD4+) and the T-cell receptor alpha beta. The identification of immunodominant T-cell epitope(s) on allergens is essential for devising safer and more effective immunotherapy strategies, which can interrupt the chain of events leading to allergic disease.

  12. Stress memory induced transcriptional and metabolic changes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Jin, Yupei; Li, Huiying; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-01-01

    Preexposure to a stress could induce stable signals and reactions on plant physiology and gene expression during future encounters as a 'stress memory'. In this study, we found that two trainable genes, BPSP encoding putative brown plant hopper susceptibility protein and sucs encoding sucrose synthase displayed transcriptional memory for their considerably higher transcript levels during two or more subsequent stresses (S3, S4) relative to the initial stress (S0), and their expression returning to basal transcript levels (non-stressed) during the recovery states (R1, R2 and R3). Removing the repetitive stress/recovery exercise, activated transcriptional memory from two trainable genes persisted for at least 4 days in perennial ryegrass. The pretrainable genes with stress memory effort had higher response to the subsequent elevated NaCl concentration treatment than the non-trainable plants, which was confirmed by lower electrolyte leakage and minimum H2 O2 and O2 (-) accumulation. Salt stress elevated the content of 41 metabolites in perennial ryegrass leaves, and sugars and sugar alcohol accounted for more than 74.1% of the total metabolite content. The salt stress memory was associated with higher contents of 11 sugars and 1 sugar alcohol in the pretrainable grass leaves. Similarly, six sugars showed greater content in the pretrainable grass roots. These novel phenomena associated with transcriptional memory and metabolite profiles could lead to new insights into improving plant salinity acclimation process. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Nutritive value and dry matter yield of Annual Ryegrass 121c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Nutritive value and dry matter yield of Annual Ryegrass 121c. J.P. Marais. 1# and D.C.W. Goodenough. 2. 1KwaZulu-Natal Dept of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs, P Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, 3200. 2ARC-Range and Forage Institute, Cedara, P.O. Box 1055, Hilton, 3245. #e-mail:maraisj@cedara.kzntl.gov.za.

  14. Nutritive value and dry matter yield of Annual Ryegrass 121c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive value and dry matter yield of Annual Ryegrass 121c. J.P. Marais, D.C.W. Goodenough. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science, 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 74-75). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Kikuyu over-sown with ryegrass and clover: dry matter production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seasonality of growth and low nutritional value of kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) pasture restrict milk production. The aim of the study was to determine the dry matter yield, botanical composition and nutritional value of irrigated kikuyu over-sown with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum), white ...

  16. Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2004-12-01

    geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas pós-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estádio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o biótipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto.Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is a common weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1 plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance both absorption and stabilization of Cd by Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in a Cd-contaminated acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Shengchun; Wu, Fuyong; Leung, Ho Man; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the phytoextraction efficiencies of Cd by hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and fast-growing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) from a Cd-contaminated (1.6 mg kg(-1)) acidic soil, and their responses to the inoculations of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal strains, Glomus caledonium 90036 (Gc) and Glomus mosseae M47V (Gm). Ryegrass and stonecrop were harvested after growing for 9 and 27 wk, respectively. Without AM fungal inoculation, the weekly Cd extraction by stonecrop (8.0 μg pot(-1)) was 4.3 times higher than that by ryegrass (1.5 μg pot(-1)). Both Gc and Gm significantly increased (P soil acid phosphatase activities, and available P concentrations, and thereby plant P absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated ryegrass), shoot biomasses, and Cd absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated stonecrop), while only Gc-inoculated stonecrop significantly accelerated (P soil pH. The results suggested the potential application of hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop associated with AM fungi (notably Gc) for both extraction and stabilization of Cd in the in situ treatment of Cd-contaminated acidic soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC RESPONSE OF THE PERENNIAL RYEGRASS (LOLIUM PERENNE) IN ITS FIFTH YEAR OF FREE-AIR CO{sub 2} ENRICHMENT (FACE) AT ESCHIKON, SWITZERLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,J.P.; LONG,STEPHEN,P.; WILLIAMS,J.

    1998-12-31

    Stands of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv.Bastion) were grown in the field at ambient or elevated (600 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}) [CO{sub 2}], high (560 kg Ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1}) or low (140 kg Ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1}) nitrogen addition and were harvested five times a year during the growing season. The plants were sown during 1992, additional plots being sown during 1995. These were in their fifth year and second year of growth respectively. Exposure to elevated [CO{sub 2}] was carried out with a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) system which provides the most realistic system of fumigation currently available. Elevated [CO{sub 2}] increased diurnal CO{sub 2} uptake by between 40 to 83% while reducing stomatal conductance by between 1 and 38% in all of the 1992 grown plants measured at high [CO{sub 2}]. Analysis of the A/c{sub i} response of 1992 grown plants showed no acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated [CO{sub 2}]--both V{sub c,max} (a measure of the maximum in vivo rate of carboxylation) and J{sub max} (a measure of the maximum capacity for the regeneration of RuBP) showed no significant change during any of the periods of regrowth. In contrast the leaves of 1995 grown plants, appeared to be experiencing an acclimatory change in their photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated [CO{sub 2}]. However, this negative response seemed to be removed directly after a harvest when the source:sink balance had increased. The apparent lack of an acclimatory response after almost 5 years of growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}], suggests that L. perenne may be close to achieving the appropriate photosynthetic adjustments which would allow it to attain a significantly higher photosynthetic potential.

  19. The photosynthetic response of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in its fifth year of free-air CO(sub 2) enrichment (FACE) at Eschikon, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.P.; Long, S.P.; Williams, J.

    1998-12-31

    Stands of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv.Bastion) were grown in the field at ambient or elevated (600 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}) [CO{sub 2}], high (560 kg Ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1}) or low (140 kg Ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1}) nitrogen addition and were harvested five times a year during the growing season. The plants were sown during 1992, additional plots being sown during 1995. These were in their fifth year and second year of growth respectively. Exposure to elevated [CO{sub 2}] was carried out with a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) system which provides the most realistic system of fumigation currently available. Elevated [CO{sub 2}] increased diurnal CO{sub 2} uptake by between 40 to 83% while reducing stomatal conductance by between 1 and 38% in all of the 1992 grown plants measured at high [CO{sub 2}]. Analysis of the A/c{sub i} response of 1992 grown plants showed no acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated [CO{sub 2}] - both V{sub c,max} (a measure of the maximum in vivo rate of carboxylation) and J{sub max} (a measure of the maximum capacity for the regeneration of RuBP) showed no significant change during any of the periods of regrowth. In contrast the leaves of 1995 grown plants, appeared to be experiencing an acclimatory change in their photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated [CO{sub 2}]. However, this negative response seemed to be removed directly after a harvest when the source:sink balance had increased. The apparent lack of an acclimatory response after almost 5 years of growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}], suggests that L. perenne may be close to achieving the appropriate photosynthetic adjustments which would allow it to attain a significantly higher photosynthetic potential.

  20. Field-Scale Evaluation of Biosolids-Derived Organomineral Fertilisers Applied to Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogenes L. Antille

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A field-scale experiment was conducted to compare the suitability of two organomineral fertiliser (OMF formulations (OMF10—10 : 4 : 4 and OMF15—15 : 4 : 4 with urea and biosolids granules applied to perennial ryegrass. Results showed a 25% to 30% increase in dry matter yield (DMY with application of OMF compared with biosolids granules but about 5% lower than urea. For OMF, an average input of yielded which was similar to that of urea; whereas, for biosolids, a yield of required an input of but DMY was lower (. Agronomic efficiencies with OMF were in the range of 26 to 35 kg , approximately double those of biosolids but about 5% to 10% lower than urea. Soil extractable P levels remained close to constant; therefore, soil P Index was not affected by OMF application. This result supported the reasons for the proposed OMF formulations and demonstrated the advantage of the products compared with biosolids which induced an increase (, in soil extractable P. The application of OMF at rates which do not exceed the optimum N rate for the grass crop should not induce significant changes in soil P Index including application to soils with satisfactory P levels. OMF application strategies are discussed which will enable minimising environmental concerns and maximising fertiliser use efficiency.

  1. Comportamento ingestivo e desempenho de ovinos em pastagem de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. com diferentes massas de forragem Ingestive behaviour and performance of sheep grazing Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture with different herbage masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Roman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo e o desempenho de ovinos em pastagem de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sob pastejo contínuo e com diferentes massas de forragem: baixa: 1.000 a 1.200 kg/ha MS; intermediária: 1.400 a 1.600 kg/ha MS; alta = 1.800 a 2.000 kg/ha MS. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e duas repetições de área. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão polinomial em função das massas de forragem observadas nas unidades experimentais: 1.136,8; 1.190,9; 1.359,2; 1.375; 1.556 e 1.739,1 kg/ha MS. Os valores de massa de lâminas foliares e de pseudocolmo, de oferta de forragem e de lâminas foliares, de altura de dossel e de pseudocolmo, de profundidade de lâminas foliares e de ganho médio diário ajustaram-se ao modelo linear de regressão, relacionando-se positivamente com a massa de forragem. Os valores de taxa de lotação e de taxa de bocados diminuíram linearmente com o aumento da massa de forragem. O consumo de forragem, os tempos de pastejo, de ruminação e de ócio, o número diário de bocados, a massa de bocado, o ganho de escore de condição corporal, o ganho de peso vivo por área e a eficiência de conversão de forragem em peso vivo foram similares entre as massas de forragem avaliadas. As amplitudes de massas de forragem avaliadas não promovem diferenças no ganho de peso vivo por hectare, pois proporcionaram similar eficiência de transformação da forragem em produto animal. O principal fator determinante do desempenho individual dos animais é a profundidade da camada de lâminas foliares.The objective of this trial was to evaluate ingestive behaviour and performance of sheep grazing Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture with different herbage mass (HM: low HM: 1,000 - 1,200 kg/ha of DM (LHM; medium HM: 1,400-1,600 kg/ha DM (MHM; high HM 1,800-2,000 kg/ha DM (HHM. A completely randomized design with three treatments and

  2. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of

  3. Evaluación agronómica y nutricional del pasto Ryegrass perenne tetraploide (Lolium perenne producido en lecherías de las zonas altas de Costa Rica. II. Valor nutricional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Villalobos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el valor nutricional del pasto ryegrass perenne tetraploide (Lolium perenne en 4 fincas comerciales de ganado lechero ubicadas en Chicuá de Oreamuno (latitud 09°59', longitud 83°52', altitud 3090 msnm, provincia de Cartago. Las muestras se tomaron cada 2 meses a una altura de cosecha de 10 cm sobre el suelo, simulando el pastoreo que realizan los animales durante un período de un año. La composición nutricional promedio anual fue de 25,21% PC, 46,26% FDN, 25,57% FDA, 3,29% lignina, 15,40% CNF y 77,95% DIVMS y su contenido energético, expresado como TND, ED, EM, ENL (3X y ENG, fue 61,95%, 2,92, 2,45, 1,53 y 0,92 Mcal.kg-1 de MS, respectivamente. El valor nutricional del pasto ryegrass perenne varió (p¿0,05 según la época del año y el manejo en finca, especialmente en lo referente al período de recuperación de las pasturas. Este pasto tiene un contenido alto de PC y CNF, que permite a nivel ruminal la producción de proteína microbial, la cual es la mejor proteína que puede consumir un rumiante. En general, el valor nutricional del pasto Ryegrass perenne producido a altitudes superiores a los 2500 msnm en Costa Rica es similar, al producido en zonas de clima templado de donde es originario.

  4. Effect of sewage sludge and sawdust in association with hybrid ryegrass (Lolium x hybrydum Hausskin. on soil macroaggregates and water content Efectos de lodos urbanos y aserrín en asociación con ballica (Lolium x hybrydum Hausskn. sobre los microagregados y contenido de agua del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sandoval E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean soils degradation is a serious problem affecting directly the productivity of most of the crops. Some evidence indicates sewage sludge can improve soil physical properties, especially when combined with sawdust. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different mixtures of sewage sludge (LU and sawdust (RA on water-stable aggregates and available water content of a degraded Alfisol cropped with hybrid ryegrass (Lolium x hybridum Hausskn., under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a completely randomized with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 9 (ryegrass x rates of sludge and sawdust. Treatments were 25 and 50 Mg LU ha-1 mixed with 10, 25, and 50 Mg RA ha-1. Ratio mixtures of LU/RA were set in pots with hybrid ryegrass. Soil available water content (AW, percentage of macroaggregates (MA and water-stable aggregates (AWD were evaluated. Ryegrass aboveground biomass was also measured. Mixtures of LU/RA amended to the soil increased MA and AWD, an effect that was most evident at 50 Mg ha-1. The AW value was greater when LU was amended to 50 Mg ha-1 mixed with RA at doses of 10, 25, and 50 Mg ha-1. There was greater aboveground biomass of hybrid ryegrass, directly related to increasing doses of LU and RA in the mixtures. The addition to soil of both organic residues combined, LU and RA, improved the physical parameters studied, especially in the presence of hybrid ryegrass.La degradation de los suelos chilenos es un serio problema que afecta directamente la productividad de la mayoría de los cultivos. Los lodos urbanos pueden mejorar las propiedades físicas del suelo, sobre todo si van acompanadas con aserrín. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de distintas mezclas de lodo urbano (LU y aserrín (RA sobre los agregados estables al agua y el contenido de agua disponible en un Alfisol degradado y cultivado con ballica híbrida (Lolium x hybridum Hausskn., bajo invernadero. El diseno experimental fue completamente al

  5. Effects of coal spoil amendment on heavy metal accumulation and physiological aspects of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growing in copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Xingming; Wang, Yunmin; Liu, Guijian; Dong, Zhongbing; Lu, Xianwen; Chen, Guangzhou; Zha, Fugeng

    2017-12-21

    Copper mine tailings pose many threats to the surrounding environment and human health, and thus, their remediation is fundamental. Coal spoil is the waste by-product of coal mining and characterized by low levels of metals, high content of organic matter, and many essential microelements. This study was designed to evaluate the role of coal spoil on heavy uptake and physiological responses of Lolium perenne L. grown in copper mine tailings amended with coal spoil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20%. The results showed that applying coal spoil to copper mine tailings decreased the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents in tailings and reduced those metal contents in both roots and shoots of the plant. However, application of coal spoil increased the DTPA-extractable Cr concentration in tailings and also increased Cr uptake and accumulation by Lolium perenne L. The statistical analysis of physiological parameters indicated that chlorophyll and carotenoid increased at the lower amendments of coal spoil followed by a decrease compared to their respective controls. Protein content was enhanced at all the coal spoil amendments. When treated with coal spoil, the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) responded differently. CAT activity was inhibited, but POD activity was increased with increasing amendment ratio of coal spoil. SOD activity increased up to 1% coal spoil followed by a decrease. Overall, the addition of coal spoil decreased the oxidative stress in Lolium perenne L., reflected by the reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the plant. It is concluded that coal spoil has the potential to stabilize most metals studied in copper mine tailings and ameliorate the harmful effects in Lolium perenne L. through changing the physiological attributes of the plant grown in copper mine tailings.

  6. Exogenous Melatonin Suppresses Dark-Induced Leaf Senescence by Activating the Superoxide Dismutase-Catalase Antioxidant Pathway and Down-Regulating Chlorophyll Degradation in Excised Leaves of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenneL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Huibin; Xu, Bin; Li, Jing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L. cv. 'Pinnacle') leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5.8) supplemented with melatonin or water (control) and exposed to dark treatment for 8 days. Leaves treated with melatonin maintained significantly higher endogenous melatonin level, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and cell membrane stability expressed by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to the control. Exogenous melatonin treatment also reduced the transcript level of chlorophyll degradation-associated genes and senescence marker genes ( LpSAG12.1 , Lph36 , and Lpl69 ) during the dark treatment. The endogenous O 2 - production rate and H 2 O 2 content were significantly lower in these excised leaves treated with melatonin compared to the water control. Exogenous melatonin treatment caused increases in enzymatic activity and transcript levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase but had no significant effects on ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, were decreased by melatonin treatment, while the content of glutathione and oxidized glutathione was not affected by melatonin. These results suggest that the suppression of dark-induced leaf senescence by exogenous melatonin may be associated with its roles in regulating ROS scavenging through activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase enzymatic antioxidant pathway

  7. Exogenous melatonin suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence by activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase antioxidant pathway and down-regulating chlorophyll degradation in excised leaves of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Pinnacle’ leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5.8 supplemented with melatonin or water (control and exposed to dark treatment for 8 d. Leaves treated with melatonin maintained significantly higher endogenous melatonin level, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and cell membrane stability expressed by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA content compared to the control. Exogenous melatonin treatment also reduced the transcript level of chlorophyll degradation-associated genes and senescence marker genes (LpSAG12.1, Lph36, and Lpl69 during the dark treatment. The endogenous O2- production rate and H2O2 content were significantly lower in these excised leaves treated with melatonin compared to the water control. Exogenous melatonin treatment caused increases in enzymatic activity and transcript levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase but had no significant effects on ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, were decreased by melatonin treatment, while the content of glutathione and oxidized glutathione was not affected by melatonin. These results suggest that the suppression of dark-induced leaf senescence by exogenous melatonin may be associated with its roles in regulating ROS scavenging through activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase enzymatic antioxidant

  8. Vernalization mediated changes in the Lolium perenne transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paina, Cristiana; Byrne, Stephen; Asp, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Vernalization is a key requirement for the induction of flowering in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The transcriptome of two genotypes with contrasting vernalization requirement was studied during primary (vernalization and short day conditions) and secondary induction (higher temperature...

  9. Habilidade competitiva relativa do trigo (Triticum aestivum em convivência com azevém (Lolium multiflorum ou nabo (Raphanus raphanistrum Relative competitive ability of wheat (Triticum aestivum intercropped with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum or wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Rigoli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos em série de substituição possibilitam o estudo da competição inter e intra-específica. A premissa desses experimentos é de que as produtividades das misturas podem ser determinadas pela comparação com a produtividade da monocultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a habilidade competitiva relativa de cultivar de trigo com as espécies daninhas azevém ou nabo. Foram realizados três experimentos em casa de vegetação na UFPel, no ano de 2006. O delineamento utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em série de substituição. As proporções de plantas de trigo e dos competidores azevém ou nabo foram: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 e 0/100, com população total de 900 plantas m-2. A análise estatística da competitividade foi realizada através de diagramas aplicados aos experimentos substitutivos e interpretações dos índices de competitividade. As relações competitivas entre plantas de trigo e azevém ou entre trigo e nabo são alteradas pela proporção de plantas que compõem a associação; a cultura do trigo apresenta habilidade competitiva superior à do azevém, mas inferior à do nabo, quando as espécies ocorrem em proporções iguais de plantas nas associações, e essas espécies ocupam o mesmo nicho ecológico.Replacement series experiments make possible the study of inter and intraspecific competition, based on the fact that the yield of the species under competition can be determined by comparing with plants in monoculture. The objective of this work was to investigate the relative competitive ability of wheat crop with the weeds Italian ryegrass or wild radish. Three experiments were conducted under greenhouse at UFPel, in 2006. The treatments were conducted in a completely randomized design, with four replications, with the treatments arranged in replacement series. The proportions of wheat plants and competitors Italian ryegrass or

  10. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: effects of cultivar on herbage intake during grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne , sward morphology, sward cutting, n-alkanes, herbage intake, selection, preference.Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) is the most important species for feeding dairy cows. The majority of the farmers in the Netherlands graze their

  11. In vitro and in vivo enhancement of adipogenesis by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum in 3T3-L1 cells and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariadhas Valan Arasu

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis is very much important in improving the quality of meat in animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo adipogenesis regulation properties of Lolium multiflorum on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mice. Chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of L. multiflorum (PET-LM confirmed the presence of fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, docosatetraenoic acid, and caprylic acid, as the major compounds. PET-LM treatment increased viability, lipid accumulation, lipolysis, cell cycle progression, and DNA synthesis in the cells. PET-LM treatment also augmented peroxysome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, adiponectin, adipocyte binding protein, glucose transporter-4, fatty acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in differentiated adipocytes. In addition, mice administered with 200 mg/kg body weight PET-LM for 8 weeks showed greater body weight than control mice. These findings suggest that PET-LM facilitates adipogenesis by stimulating PPARγ-mediated signaling cascades in adipocytes which could be useful for quality meat development in animals.

  12. Isolation and characterisation of laccase cDNAs from meristematic and stem tissues of ryegrassLolium perenne¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, B.; Larsen, K.; Rasmussen, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    DNA's contained entire coding sequences; LpLAC5-4 and LpLAC5-6 from stem, and LpLAC2-1 from meristem. LpLAC5-4 encodes a polypeptide of 610 amino acids with 14 potential N-glycosylation sites, and a calculated pI value of 5.0. Lack of an N-terminal signal peptide in LpLAC5-4 suggests that the mature protein...... is located intracellularly. A genomic clone, gLpLAC5-4, has been isolated and represents the first exon-intron structure and promoter sequence of a plant laccase gene. LpLAC5-6 cDNA encodes a protein of 579 amino acids with an N-terminal signal peptide characteristic of secreted proteins, 13 potential N......-glycosylation sites, and a pI value of 9.0. LpLAC2-1 was the only laccase found in a meristematic library. The cDNA encodes a protein of 578 amino acids with a predicted pI of 5.8, 9 putative N-glycosylation sites, and an N-terminal signal peptide. Ryegrass laccases are differentially expressed and are under tight...

  13. Identification of companion legumes for Midmar Italian ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a preliminary investigation seven legumes were planted alone and in combination with Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar. The pure stands of legumes were harvested at either four, five of six week cutting intervals, while the pure stands of Lolium multiflorum and the ryegrass/legume mixtures received in addition to the cutting ...

  14. Establishing the basis for Genomic Prediction in Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario

    2015-01-01

    ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), which is the most cultivated forage grass in temperate regions. Different statistical models were used for predicting the phenotypes of perennial ryegrass families, across diffent environments. Results showed good prospects for GS implementation in forage breeding, due...

  15. Milk production potential of two ryegrass cultivars with different total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare a new Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivar (Enhancer), bred to contain a high total non-structural carbohydrate content, with the cultivar, Dargle, in terms of dry matter (DM) production, nutritional value, carrying capacity and milk production. The ryegrass cultivars were sown (25 ...

  16. De novo Transcriptome Analysis in Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Jacqueline Danielle; Byrne, Stephen; Asp, Torben

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an important grass species for both forage and amenity purposes for temperate regions worldwide. It is envisaged that breeding efforts may be enhanced with the assistance of new breeding technologies such as genomic selection. A major step towards genomic...... of functional markers for improved ryegrass breeding. Therefore, the goal of this study is to analyze a de novo assembly of the perennial ryegrass transcriptome from the same inbred genotype being used for de novo genome assembly. Furthermore, we also conducted de novo transcriptome assembly with other...

  17. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig

    2013-01-01

    greenhouse emissions and nitrogen loss. GWS model building includes 1) development of a robust quantitative genotyping method for an outcrossing species, 2) tailoring of multi-locational, multi-annual phenotype data, 3) association analysis and development of prediction models. As part of (2) the aim...... (parents), repeated effect of the same family and residual error. Results showed the presence of a significant genetic variance among the random factors, indicating the existence of a considerably high variance in the commercial population. This will provide good opportunities for future improvement...... programs based on GWS. Future work will focus on developing association models based on tailored phenotype data and genotype-by-sequencing-derived allele frequencies....

  18. Annual maize and perennial grass-clover strip cropping for increased resource use efficiency and productivity using organic farming practice as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2013-01-01

    A cropping system was designed to fulfill the increasing demand for biomass for food and energy without decreasing long term soil fertility. A field experiment was carried out including alternating strips of annual maize (Zea mays L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – clover (Trifolium...

  19. Rearing of lambs under different grazing methods on annual ryegrass in succession to crops

    OpenAIRE

    Macari, Stefani; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar de Faccio; Oliveira, Lisandre de; Devincenzi, Thais; Albuquerque, Caetano Pereira Pedroso de; Moraes, Anibal de

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a recria de borregas em pastagem de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum) em sucessão a lavouras de milho ou soja, manejadas em intensidades de pastejo moderada ou baixa, com métodos de pastoreio rotativo ou contínuo. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2 intensidades x 2 métodos de pastoreio, com quatro repetições. Não houve interação entre os métodos e as intensidades de pastejo. A intensidade de pastejo baixa dete...

  20. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper – Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lo...

  1. Timing of nitrogen fertilizer application for annual ryegrass overseeded into unimproved perennial warm-season pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southern Great Plains fall overseeding of annual forages can increase herbage production early in the following year, but competition between cool- and warm-season components of mixed pasture may result in only small net benefit in total annual yield. Increased seasonal separation of pasture ...

  2. Effect of grazing frequency and intensity on Lolium perenne L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cellulase dry matter disappearance (CDMD) and herbage nitrogen (N) of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) were evaluated for pastures grown under subtropical conditions for two years, under five combinations of grazing frequency and intensity, each applied in a rotational grazing system. These quality factors were ...

  3. Responses of Italian ryegrass to phosphorus in highly-weathered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar) responses to fertilizer P were studied in field experiments under irrigation on highly-weathered ferrallitic soils at two localities in Natal. Each experiment was conducted over two seasons (1985 and 1986), the pasture being re-established after the first season. Large dry matter ...

  4. Response of Italian ryegrass seed crop to spring nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cv. Tetraflorum was sown with different nitrogen application rates and it was tested under the agroecological conditions of Western Serbia. Four-year field experiments were carried out from 2002 to 2006 and the biometric characteristics of generative tillers, seed yield and shoot dry ...

  5. Experimental evidence for an alkali ecotype of Lolium multiflorum, an exotic invasive annual grass in the Central Valley, CA, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, K.; Veblen, Kari E.; Young, T. P.

    2007-01-01

    One of the characteristics of highly invaded ecosystems is that invasive species are often poor invaders of edaphically severe sites, which become refuges for native flora. To investigate the invasive potential of Lolium multiflorum (Hick.) into alkali sites in California, an ex-situ reciprocal transfer experiment was carried out using seeds from populations of L. multiflorum taken from three sites differing in alkalinity (and inundation), including alkali sink soils (pH 8.5) and sink-edge so...

  6. Cultivar by environment effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars selected for high water soluble carbohydrates managed under differing precipitation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic results of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) breeding include improved disease resistance, biomass, and nutritional quality. Yet, lack of tolerance to water stress limits its wise use. Recent efforts to increase water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in perennial ryegrass may incre...

  7. Improved fructan accumulation in perennial ryegrass transformed with the onion fructosyltransferase genes 1-SST and 6G-FFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Gitte; Didion, Thomas; Foiling, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    value of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) by increasing the fructan content through expression of heterologous fructan biosynthetic genes. We developed perennial ryegrass Lines expressing sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase genes from onion (Allium cepa) which...

  8. Transcriptional responses of Italian ryegrass during interaction with Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis reveal novel candidate genes for bacterial wilt resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franko

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) causes bacterial wilt, a severe disease of forage grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). In order to gain a more detailed understanding of the genetic control of resistance mechanisms and to provide prerequisites for marker assisted...... selection, the partial transcriptomes of two Italian ryegrass genotypes, one resistant and one susceptible to bacterial wilt were compared at four time points after Xtg infection. A cDNA microarray developed from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) expressed sequence tag set consisting of 9,990 unique...... genes was used for transcriptome analysis in Italian ryegrass. An average of 4,487 (45%) of the perennial ryegrass sequences spotted on the cDNA microarray were detected by cross-hybridisation to Italian ryegrass. Transcriptome analyses of the resistant versus the susceptible genotype revealed...

  9. Optimizing the number of consecutive seed harvests in red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) for yield, yield components and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Kristensen, Kristian; Gislum, René

    2013-01-01

    Crop production must continuously be adjusted according to economic return and fluctuating prices on inputs versus harvested plant products and calls for continuous revision of the crop rotation and flexible management systems. This study describes grass seed production of three different types....... The diploid amenity cv. Allegro and forage type cv. Borvi of perennial ryegrass can be harvested in five consecutive years without a significant yield reduction. The tetraploid type cv. Tivoli had the highest thousand seed weight and a significant yield decrease from the first to the second year of seed...

  10. Expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes by plant-associated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) grown in diesel contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andria, Verania [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Unit of Environmental Resources and Technologies, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.a [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    For phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants have to host an efficiently degrading microflora. To assess the role of endophytes in alkane degradation, Italian ryegrass was grown in sterile soil with 0, 1 or 2% diesel and inoculated either with an alkane degrading bacterial strain originally derived from the rhizosphere of Italian ryegrass or with an endophyte. We studied plant colonization of these strains as well as the abundance and expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes in the rhizosphere, shoot and root interior. Results showed that the endophyte strain better colonized the plant, particularly the plant interior, and also showed higher expression of alkB genes suggesting a more efficient degradation of the pollutant. Furthermore, plants inoculated with the endophyte were better able to grow in the presence of diesel. The rhizosphere strain colonized primarily the rhizosphere and showed low alkB gene expression in the plant interior. - Bacterial alkane degradation genes are expressed in the rhizosphere and in the plant interior.

  11. Measured and simulated nitrous oxide emissions from ryegrass- and ryegrass/white clover-based grasslands in a moist temperate climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Li

    Full Text Available There is uncertainty about the potential reduction of soil nitrous oxide (N(2O emission when fertilizer nitrogen (FN is partially or completely replaced by biological N fixation (BNF in temperate grassland. The objectives of this study were to 1 investigate the changes in N(2O emissions when BNF is used to replace FN in permanent grassland, and 2 evaluate the applicability of the process-based model DNDC to simulate N(2O emissions from Irish grasslands. Three grazing treatments were: (i ryegrass (Lolium perenne grasslands receiving 226 kg FN ha(-1 yr(-1 (GG+FN, (ii ryegrass/white clover (Trifolium repens grasslands receiving 58 kg FN ha(-1 yr(-1 (GWC+FN applied in spring, and (iii ryegrass/white clover grasslands receiving no FN (GWC-FN. Two background treatments, un-grazed swards with ryegrass only (G-B or ryegrass/white clover (WC-B, did not receive slurry or FN and the herbage was harvested by mowing. There was no significant difference in annual N(2O emissions between G-B (2.38±0.12 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 (mean±SE and WC-B (2.45±0.85 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, indicating that N(2O emission due to BNF itself and clover residual decomposition from permanent ryegrass/clover grassland was negligible. N(2O emissions were 7.82±1.67, 6.35±1.14 and 6.54±1.70 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, respectively, from GG+FN, GWC+FN and GWC-FN. N(2O fluxes simulated by DNDC agreed well with the measured values with significant correlation between simulated and measured daily fluxes for the three grazing treatments, but the simulation did not agree very well for the background treatments. DNDC overestimated annual emission by 61% for GG+FN, and underestimated by 45% for GWC-FN, but simulated very well for GWC+FN. Both the measured and simulated results supported that there was a clear reduction of N(2O emissions when FN was replaced by BNF.

  12. Comparison of herbage yield, nutritive value and ensilability traits of three ryegrass species evaluated for the Irish Recommended List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 169 of the newest varieties of three ryegrass species, perennial (Lolium perenne L., Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and hybrid (Lolium boucheanum Kunth, from Recommended List trials in Ireland. The traits examined were yield, dry matter concentration, three nutritive value traits (in vitro dry matter digestibility, water-soluble carbohydrate on a dry matter basis and crude protein concentration and two ensilability traits (buffering capacity and water soluble carbohydrate concentration on an aqueous phase basis. Varietal monocultures of each species underwent a six cut combined simulated grazing and silage management in each of two years following sowing. Perennial ryegrass yielded less than both other species in one-year-old swards, but less than only Italian ryegrass in two-year-old swards, but generally had the higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein values. Italian ryegrass displayed the most favourable ensilability characteristics of the three species with perennial ryegrass less favourable and hybrid ryegrass intermediate. Overall, despite the high yields and favourable nutritive value and ensilability traits recorded, the general differences between the three ryegrass species studied were in line with industry expectations. These findings justify assessing the nutritive value and ensilability of ryegrass species, in addition to yield, to allow farmers select species that match farming enterprise requirements.

  13. Tetraploid Lolium perenne genotypes identified in Danish semi-natural habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Simonsen, Vibeke; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2014-01-01

    The ploidy of perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, was studied in order to assess the potential of tetraploidity as a means of preventing transgenes from spreading to natural populations.In contradiction to earlier observations, we found that tetraploid L. perenne genotypes was present in a semi...

  14. Efeito de métodos e intensidades de pastejo sobre a ressemeadura natural de azevém anual = Effect of grazing methods and intensities on annual ryegrass under natural reseedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Pacheco Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na E.E.A da UFRGS/RS (30°05’S e 51°39’W com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de métodos e intensidades de pastejo na dinâmica populacional de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. em ressemeadura natural. Conduziu-se a pastagem em dois métodos de pastejo (lotação contínua e rotacionada e duas intensidades de pastejo (moderada e baixa, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial com três repetições (2x2x3. No ano seguinte, após um ciclo de lavoura de soja no verão, foi contado o número de perfilhos de azevém estabelecidos via essemeadura natural. Os resultados demonstraram não ter havido interação (p > 0,05 entre os métodos e as intensidades de pastejo, e seus efeitos foram analisados de forma independente. Enquanto os diferentes métodos de pastejo não afetaram a ressemeadura do azevém (p = 0,4636, asdiferentes intensidades de pastejo a influenciaram significativamente (p = 0,0003. O número de perfilhos de azevém estabelecidos via ressemeadura natural, na intensidade de pastejo baixa, foi maior (6.776 perfilhos m-2 do que na intensidade de pastejo moderada(211 perfilhos m-2. O controle da intensidade de pastejo é um fator determinante para a manutenção do azevém em sistemas de produção baseados na persistência dessa forrageira via ressemeadura natural.This work was conducted at EEA/UFRGS, in Eldorado do Sul, RioGrande do Sul state, Brazil (30°05’S e 51°39’W, to evaluate the effects of different grazing intensities and methods on the population dynamics of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. under natural reseedling. Two grazing intensities (moderate and low were used, under continuous and rotational grazing. The experimental design included randomized blocks with 2x2x3 factorial arrangements (2 grazing intensities x 2 grazing methods x 3 replicates.The following year, the fields were desiccated with herbicides and a soybean plant crop cycle was established during the

  15. The response of Italian ryegrass to applied nitrogen in the Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer was applied to irrigated Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv Midmar) pastures at varying rates over two seasons on three sites. Soils series on these sites were Metz, Griffin and Katspruit. Total N application rates ranged from zero to 1 080 kg N/ha/yr. Maximum yields of 11, 8, 13, 5 and 15, 4 t/ha/yr ...

  16. Effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars on intake, digestibility, and milk yield in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of 8 diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on dry matter (DM) intake, DM digestibility, and milk yield (MY) of dairy cows were evaluated in the summer of 2000 and 2001. Each summer, herbage was harvested daily and stall-fed to 12 dairy cows during six 2-wk periods. Six

  17. Genetic variation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium in European elite germplasm of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazauskas, Gintaras; Lenk, Ingo; Pedersen, Morten Greve

    2011-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a highly valued temperate climate grass species grown as forage crop and for amenity uses. Due to its outbreeding nature and recent domestication, a high degree of genetic diversity is expected among cultivars. The aim of this study was to assess the extent...

  18. Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomaszewski, C.; Byrne, S. L.; Foito, A.; Kildea, S.; Kopecký, David; Doležel, Jaroslav; Heslop-Harrison, J. S.; Stewart, D.; Barth, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 2 (2012), s. 345-349 ISSN 0179-9541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Lolium perenne * perennial ryegrass * genetic map Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2012

  19. Behavior Performance of Diuraphis noxia (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Fungal Endophyte-Infected and Uninfected Perennial Ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Clement; D.G. Lester; A. Dan Wilson; K.S. Pike

    1992-01-01

    The behavior and performance of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), on fungal endophyte-infected and endophyte-free perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., was investigated in the laboratory and field. Aphids did not select endophyte-free over endophyte-infected leaf sheaths and stem segments in petri dish preference tests....

  20. Midmar - a new diploid Italian ryegrass cultivar. | J.M.L.C. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Midmar - a new diploid Italian ryegrass cultivar. Rhind J.M.L.C., Goodenough D.C.W.. Abstract. A new diploid cultivar of Lolium multiflorum Lam., South Africa's most important temperate forage grass species, has recently been released by the Department of Agricultural Technical Services (Natal Region). Named Midmar ...

  1. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos no período diurno em pastagem de azevém anual em diferentes estádios fenológicos Diurnal ingestive behavior of sheep grazing annual ryegrass at different phenological growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Borges de Medeiros

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento ingestivo no período diurno de ovelhas Corriedale em final de gestação e início de lactação sob pastejo em uma área de 1,3 ha de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. nos estádios vegetativo, pré-florescimento e de florescimento. Foram determinados o tempo de pastejo, a taxa de bocado, o tamanho de bocado, o teor de PB da forragem e os consumos de MS e PB. Os maiores tempos de pastejo e de consumo de MS e PB, para os três estádios do azevém, foram observados ao final da tarde. Nos estádios vegetativo e pré-florescimento, os tempos de pastejo e os consumos de MS e PB registrados no início da manhã (7 às 7h50 foram semelhantes aos verificados no final da tarde. No estádio pré-florescimento, registraram-se ainda nestes horários de pico de pastejo as maiores taxas de bocado e peso de bocado, as quais, associadas ao maior tempo de pastejo, determinaram os maiores consumos de forragem ao longo do dia. Os menores tempos de pastejo ocorreram das 8 às 9h50 durante o estádio vegetativo; das 8 às 8h50 e das 12 às 12h50 durante o pré-florescimento; e das 7 às 8h50 durante o florescimento. Conseqüentemente, nesses mesmos horários foram verificados os menores consumos de MS e PB para os três estádios fenológicos estudados.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the diurnal ingestive behavior of late pregnant-early lactating Corriedale ewes grazing annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. at different phenological growth stages (vegetative, pre-flowering and flowering. Animals were maintained in paddocks of 1.3 ha from July 21 to November 11 of 2000. Grazing time, bite rate, bite weight, crude protein (CP content per bite, and forage dry matter (DM and CP intakes were measured. The longest grazing time and the greatest forage DM and CP intakes were observed at late afternoon on all three phenological growth stages of annual ryegrass. Grazing time and

  2. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lolium-Festuca Complex Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Byrne, Stephen; Sharma, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf Fescues. Plants belonging to this complex exhibit significant phenotypic plasticity for agriculturally important traits, such as annuality/perenniality, establishment potential, growth speed, nutritional value......, winter hardiness, drought tolerance and resistance to grazing. In this study we have sequenced and assembled the low copy fraction of the genomes of Lolium westerwoldicum, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca pratensis and Lolium temulentum. We have also generated de-novo transcriptome assemblies for each species....... Our dataset enabled us to perform comparative gene family analysis for CBF (C-Repeat Binding Factor) proteins, which are key regulators of cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in plants....

  3. Alteração das características biológicas dos biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ocasionada pela resistência ao herbicida glyphosate Change in the biological characteristics of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes caused by resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate está alterando o manejo da vegetação de cobertura do solo em pomares de maçã. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a dose de glyphosate necessária para reduzir 50% do acúmulo de matéria seca (GR50, a resposta do biótipo resistente e sensível a herbicidas graminicidas e o acúmulo de matéria seca destes biótipos durante o ciclo. Para isso, foram conduzidos três experimentos. No primeiro, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate aplicadas sobre plantas dos biótipos resistente e sensível para determinar o GR50. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram de doses dos herbicidas glyphosate, haloxyfop-r, diclofop, fluazifop-p, fenoxaprop-p e paraquat. No terceiro experimento, sementes dos biótipos resistente e sensível foram semeadas em recipientes com capacidade para 10 L e as plantas originadas delas foram colhidas quinzenalmente, para determinação da matéria seca da parte aérea, radicular e total. Como resultados, foi obtido GR50 de 287,5 e de 4.833,5 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate para os biótipos sensível e resistente, respectivamente, e verificou-se que existem diferenças significativas na resposta dos biótipos aos herbicidas graminicidas, dependendo da dose utilizada. Além disso, o biótipo sensível evidenciou maior capacidade de acúmulo de matéria seca e produção de sementes. Constatouse, assim, fator de resistência (FR de 16,8 e que o mecanismo de resistência provoca alterações nas características biológicas do biótipo resistente e afeta a sensibilidade deste aos herbicidas graminicidas.The identification of ryegrass biotypes resistant to glyphosate is causing changes in weed management in apple orchards. Three experiments were carried out to determine the GR50 of the biotypes, to grass herbicides and dry matter accumulation. The first experiment tested different rates of glyphosate. Their effects on GR50 dry matter

  4. Seasonal and annual variations of metal uptake, bioaccumulation, and toxicity in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne growing in a heavy metal-contaminated field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidar, Géraldine; Pruvot, Christelle; Garçon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Shirali, Pirouz; Douay, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The reclamation of nonferrous metal-polluted soil by phytoremediation requires an overall and permanent plant cover. To select the most suitable plant species, it is necessary to study metal effects on plants over the time, thereby checking that metals remain stored in root systems and not transferred to aerial parts. In this purpose, the seasonal and annual variations of metal bioaccumulation, transfer, and phytotoxicity in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne grown in a Cd-, Pb-, and Zn-contaminated soil were also studied. The experimental site was located near a closed smelter. In spring 2004, two areas were sown with T. repens and L. perenne, respectively. Thereafter, the samplings of plant roots and shoots and surrounding soils were realized in autumn 2004 and spring and autumn 2005. The soil agronomic characteristics, the Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the surrounded soils and plant organs, as well as the oxidative alterations (superoxide dismutase [SOD], malondialdehyde [MDA], and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) in plant organs were carried out. Whatever the sampling period, metal concentrations in soils and plants were higher than background values. Contrary to the soils, the fluctuations of metal concentrations were observed in plant organs over the time. Bioaccumulation and transfer factors confirmed that metals were preferentially accumulated in the roots as follows: Cd>Zn>Pb, and their transfer to shoots was limited. Foliar metal deposition was also observed. The results showed that there were seasonal and annual variations of metal accumulation in the two studied plant species. These variations differed according to the organs and followed nearly the same pattern for the two species. Oxidative alterations were observed in plant organs with regard to SOD antioxidant activities, MDA, and 8-OHdG concentrations. These alterations vary according to the temporal variations of metal concentrations. Metal concentrations in surrounded soils and plant

  5. A comparison of ltalian ryegrass (Lolium multillorum) cultivars Bxalta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H.H. Meissner". Department of Animal and Wldlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Rceived l7 August 1995; accepted 20 .... lamb per day. Oesophageal samples were obtained at the beginning and end of every faecal collection period, i.e. four collection periods times two samples ...

  6. Assessing genetic diversity of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to compare genetic diversity between commercial cultivars and natural germplasm which were obtained from Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America. There was a relatively high genetic variation in the whole collection judged by the polymorphism rate ...

  7. A comparison of ltalian ryegrass (Lolium multillorum) cultivars Bxalta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    icantly in any comparison (Tables I and 2). In general, the compositional results confirm that selection for TNSC has not affected cell wall contents and grass digestibility negatively. (Marais et al., 1995). In fact, some aspects may be more favourable in Exalta than in Midmar. TNSC contents did not differ significantly between ...

  8. Nutrients can enhance the abundance and expression of alkane hydroxylase CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass planted in hydrocarbon-polluted soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arslan

    Full Text Available Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination.

  9. Effects of chicory/perennial ryegrass swards compared with perennial ryegrass swards on the performance and carcass quality of grazing beef steers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Marley

    Full Text Available An experiment investigated whether the inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus in swards grazed by beef steers altered their performance, carcass characteristics or parasitism when compared to steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne. Triplicate 2-ha plots were established with a chicory/ryegrass mix or ryegrass control. Forty-eight Belgian Blue-cross steers were used in the first grazing season and a core group (n = 36 were retained for finishing in the second grazing season. The experiment comprised of a standardisation and measurement period. During standardisation, steers grazed a ryegrass/white clover pasture as one group. Animals were allocated to treatment on the basis of liveweight, body condition and faecal egg counts (FEC determined 7 days prior to the measurement period. The measurement period ran from 25 May until 28 September 2010 and 12 April until 11 October 2011 in the first and second grazing year. Steers were weighed every 14 days at pasture or 28 days during housing. In the first grazing year, faecal samples were collected for FEC and parasite cultures. At the end of the first grazing year, individual blood samples were taken to determine O. ostertagi antibody and plasma pepsinogen levels. During winter, animals were housed as one group and fed silage. In the second grazing year, steers were slaughtered when deemed to reach fat class 3. Data on steer performance showed no differences in daily live-weight gain which averaged 1.04 kg/day. The conformation, fat grade and killing out proportion of beef steers grazing chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were not found to differ. No differences in FEC, O. ostertagi antibody or plasma pepsinogen levels of beef steers grazing either chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were observed. Overall, there were no detrimental effects of including chicory in swards grazed by beef cattle on their performance, carcass characteristics or helminth parasitism, when compared with steers grazing ryegrass.

  10. Demonstration of pathotype specificity in stem rust of perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, W

    2009-10-01

    Rust diseases cause significant damage in forage and seed crops of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), which is highly heterozygous and heterogeneous and thus presents difficulty in genetic analysis. There has been no definitive demonstration of the existence of pathotypes for stem rust or other rusts of perennial ryegrass, although experiments with crown rust (Puccinia coronata) of this host are strongly suggestive of pathotype specificity. We made single-pustule isolates of P. graminis subsp. graminicola, and applied them individually to a set of genetically diverse, clonally propagated individuals of L. perenne. There were clear examples of different patterns of virulence among isolates across the different plant clones, including qualitative and quantitative differences in resistance. These data demonstrate the existence of pathotype specificity in stem rust of L. perenne, information which will be useful in breeding for disease resistance.

  11. Depletion of carbohydrate reserves limits nitrate uptake during early regrowth in Lolium perenne L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guo, Q.; Turnbull, M.; Song, J.; Roche, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Späth, J.; Jameson, P. E.; Love, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2017), s. 1569-1583 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06613S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate * Carbon * Cytokinin * Fructan * Lolium perenne * Nitrate transporter (NRT) * Nitrate uptake * Nitrogen * Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) * Perennial ryegrass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  12. Understanding Lolium rigidum Seeds: The Key to Managing a Problem Weed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Steadman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 40 million hectare southern Australian winter cropping region suffers from widespread infestation by Lolium rigidum (commonly known as annual or rigid ryegrass, a Mediterranean species initially introduced as a pasture plant. Along with its high competitiveness within crops, rapid adaptability and widespread resistance to herbicides, the dormancy of its seeds means that L. rigidum is the primary weed in southern Australian agriculture. With the individuals within a L. rigidum population exhibiting varying levels of seed dormancy, germination can be staggered across the crop-growing season, making complete weed removal virtually impossible, and ensuring that the weed seed bank is constantly replenished. By understanding the processes involved in induction and release of dormancy in L. rigidum seeds, it may be possible to develop strategies to more effectively manage this pest without further stretching herbicide resources. This review examines L. rigidum seed dormancy and germination from a weed-management perspective and explains how the seed bank can be depleted by control strategies encompassing all stages in the lifecycle of a seed, from development to germination.

  13. Paraquat resistance in a Lolium rigidum population is governed by one major nuclear gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Han, Heping; Nguyen, Linh; Forster, John W; Powles, Stephen B

    2009-05-01

    Paraquat resistance in an annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) population (AFLR1) has been attributed to reduced paraquat translocation. Genetic inheritance of paraquat resistance in this population was investigated in the present study. The paraquat dose response of progeny from 8 F(1) families was more similar to that of the resistant than the susceptible parent, while the equivalent data for a further three families were intermediate compared to those of the parental populations. No significant differences in dose response were observed between reciprocal crosses of specific F(1) families. These results suggest that paraquat resistance in AFLR1 is inherited as a dominant or partially dominant nuclear-encoded trait. Pseudo-F(2) (psi-F(2)) generation seedlings were treated with multiple dose rates sufficient to control the susceptible parental population, and observed segregation ratios in all instances conformed to a 3:1 (resistant:susceptible) segregation ratio, and this ratio was further confirmed by individual phenotyping of cloned plant genotypes. A single major nuclear gene is hence apparently responsible for evolved paraquat resistance in AFLR1.

  14. Comportamento de ovinos em gestação e lactação sob pastejo em diferentes estádios fenológicos de azevém anual Sheep behavior at the pregnancy and at the lactation grazing on different phenological stages of annual ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Pedroso

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado a campo com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de pastejo de ovinos conduzidos em azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. nos estádios vegetativo, pré-florescimento e florescimento. Ovelhas ao final da gestação e início de lactação foram mantidas em um potreiro de 1,3 ha, onde foram avaliados o tempo de pastejo, taxa de bocados, peso de bocados e a relação folha:caule da forragem disponível e da forragem ingerida, estimada por coleta manual. Foram observados tempos de pastejo diário de 9,65; 10,97 e 10,68 h, taxas de bocados de 52,65; 51,93 e 40,63 bocados/min e pesos de bocados de 0,064; 0,055 e 0,048 g/bocado, que resultaram em taxas de consumo de forragem de 4,48; 3,91 e 2,72% do peso vivo/dia, nos estádios vegetativo, pré-florescimento e florescimento, respectivamente. Estas evoluções foram acompanhadas por diminuições das relações folha:caule da forragem disponível (3,6:1; 1,44:1 e 0,56:1, evidenciando a limitação qualitativa da forragem no estádio de florescimento. Estes dados demonstraram que, até o estádio de pré-florescimento, as estratégias desenvolvidas pelos animais permitiram adequado consumo de forragem, enquanto, no estádio de florescimento, a baixa qualidade da pastagem determinou queda no consumo, considerado insuficiente para atender as necessidades nutricionais de ovelhas lactantes com seus respectivos cordeiros.This work was carried out at the field to evaluate the grazing sheep behavior conducted in annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. on vegetative, pre-flowering and flowering stages. Ewes at the end of pregnancy and at the beginning of lactation maintained in a 1.3 ha paddock were evaluated in terms of grazing time, bite rate, bite size, leaf:stem ratio of ingested pasture estimated by hand-plucking method. Daily grazing time/h of 9.65, 10.97 and 10.68, bite rates/min of 52.65, 51.93 and 40.63 and the bite weight g/bite of 0.064, 0.055 and 0.048 were observed

  15. Effect of annually repeated undersowing on cereal grain yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KÄNKÄNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can be used to reduce leaching and erosion, introduce variability into crop rotation and fix nitrogen (N for use by the main crops. In Finland, undersowing is a suitable method for establishing cover crops in cereal cropping. The effect of annual undersowing on cereal grain yield and soil mineral N content in spring was studied at two sites. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L., white clover (Trifolium repens L., a mixture of red clover and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds., and westerwold ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. var. westerwoldicum were undersown in spring cereals in the same plots in six successive seasons, and their effects on cereal yield were estimated. Annual undersowing with clovers increased, and undersowing with westerwold ryegrass decreased cereal grain yields. The grain yield was only slightly lower with a mixture of red clover and meadow fescue than with red clover alone. Westerwold ryegrass did not affect soil mineral N content in spring and the increase attributable to clovers was small. The mixture of red clover and meadow fescue affected similarly to pure red clover. Soil fertility was not notably improved during six years of undersowing according to grain yield two years later.

  16. Effects of the application rate and time of the growth regulator trinexapac-ethyl in seed crops of Lolium perenne L. in relation to spring nitrogen rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.E.L.; Berg, van den W.

    2008-01-01

    To test the effects of the growth regulator trinexapac-ethyl (Moddus 250 EC) in the main seed crop of grasses in the Netherlands, 10 field trials were conducted in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). These field trials were carried out in first and second seed harvest crops during 1999¿2002.

  17. Transcriptional Profiling and Identification of Heat-Responsive Genes in Perennial Ryegrass by RNA-Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehua Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne is one of the most widely used forage and turf grasses in the world due to its desirable agronomic qualities. However, as a cool-season perennial grass species, high temperature is a major factor limiting its performance in warmer and transition regions. In this study, a de novo transcriptome was generated using a cDNA library constructed from perennial ryegrass leaves subjected to short-term heat stress treatment. Then the expression profiling and identification of perennial ryegrass heat response genes by digital gene expression analyses was performed. The goal of this work was to produce expression profiles of high temperature stress responsive genes in perennial ryegrass leaves and further identify the potentially important candidate genes with altered levels of transcript, such as those genes involved in transcriptional regulation, antioxidant responses, plant hormones and signal transduction, and cellular metabolism. The de novo assembly of perennial ryegrass transcriptome in this study obtained more total and annotated unigenes compared to previously published ones. Many DEGs identified were genes that are known to respond to heat stress in plants, including HSFs, HSPs, and antioxidant related genes. In the meanwhile, we also identified four gene candidates mainly involved in C4 carbon fixation, and one TOR gene. Their exact roles in plant heat stress response need to dissect further. This study would be important by providing the gene resources for improving heat stress tolerance in both perennial ryegrass and other cool-season perennial grass plants.

  18. Establishment techniques in under-sown perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Establishment methods have proven to be of major importance for grass-seed production. The objective of this research was to test the effect of different sowing techniques on plant establishment and the subsequent seed yield. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is used as the model grass due...... to its large importance in Danish agriculture. In a three-year trial six different methods of under-sowing of perennial ryegrass in a spring barley cover crop were employed. Perennial ryegrass was either sown directly at different depths within the spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rows or placed 2, 6......, or 12 cm from the spring barley rows. Results of dry-matter yield indicate that the best establishment of the grass occurred when placing the grass 6 or 12 cm from the cover-crop row, and this is of importance in less vigorous grasses. Overall, no seed-yield difference has been observed for perennial...

  19. Recria de novilhas de corte com diferentes níveis de suplementação energética em pastagem de aveia preta e azevém Rearing of beef heifers with different energy supplementation levels on oat and annual ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Pilau

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a recria de novilhas de corte, sob diferentes níveis de suplementação de farelo de trigo, em pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb + azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. Foram utilizadas 109 novilhas da raça Charolês e suas cruzas com Nelore com peso vivo (PV no início do pastejo de 158 kg. Os níveis de suplementação foram: SS - animais exclusivamente em pastejo; S-0,5 - animais em pastejo recebendo suplemento na proporção de 0,5% do PV; S-1,0 - animais em pastejo recebendo suplemento na proporção de 1,0% do PV; S-1,5 - animais em pastejo recebendo suplemento na proporção de 1,5% do PV. O período de pastejo foi de 10 de julho a 02 de novembro. O sistema de pastejo foi contínuo com lotação variável, visando manter oferta de forragem de 10 kg de matéria seca/100kg de PV. Ganho de peso médio diário (GMD, condição corporal (CC, carga animal (CA e ganho de peso por área (GPA foram avaliados. Os níveis de suplementação afetaram o GMD de maneira distinta durante o ciclo da pastagem. O GMD médio das novilhas SS, S-0,5, S-1,0 e S-1,5, durante o período de pastejo, foi de 0,751; 0,894; 0,809 e 0,936 kg/animal/dia, respectivamente. O ganho de CC foi maior nas novilhas suplementadas, 0,8 pontos contra 0,5 pontos das novilhas exclusivamente em pastejo. A CA aumentou linearmente durante o período de pastejo no S-1,5, possibilitando, neste nível de suplementação, GPA superior ao SS e S-0,5. A taxa de substituição no consumo de forragem pelo consumo de suplemento e a adição no consumo total de MS foram determinantes sobre o desempenho das novilhas suplementadas.An experiment was conducted to evaluate the rearing of beef heifers with different levels of wheat bran supplementation, on oat (Avena strigosa Schreb + annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam pasture. One hundred nine Charolais and Charolais crossbreed Nellore heifers, with initial weight (LW of 158 kg

  20. Evaluación agronómica y nutricional del pasto Ryegrass perenne tetraploide (Lolium perenne producido en lecherías de las zonas altas de Costa Rica. I. Producción de biomasa y fenología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Villalobos

    2010-01-01

    3090 msnm, provincia de Cartago. La disponibilidad de materia seca pre y pos-pastoreo, el aprovechamiento por hectárea y su porcentaje de utilización promedio para todas las fincas fueron 4110, 2276 y 1833 kg.ha-1 por corte y 44,82%, respectivamente. La edad fenológica y la relación hoja: tallo promedio de las pasturas de ryegrass perenne fueron 2,84 hojas verdes por rebrote, 56:44. Asimismo, la composición promedio de la pradera fue 76,09% ryegrass, 13,76% otras gramíneas (principalmente pasto kikuyo, 6,02% trébol, 1,25% malezas y 2,88% material senescente, respectivamente. La mayor producción de biomasa durante marzo y abril puede conservarse para utilizarse durante las épocas críticas de disponibilidad de forraje o cuando por razones climatológicas se reduce el número de horas efectivas de pastoreo. La evaluación de la edad fenológica en que se pastorea el pasto ryegrass perenne, indica que las fincas en la zona de estudio utilizan esta gramínea en un estado en el que sus reservas de carbohidratos se han recuperado, lo que permite obtener una producción de biomasa y valor nutricional adecuados para satisfacer las necesidades del ganado lechero de la zona.

  1. Ergovaline does not alter the severity of ryegrass staggers induced by lolitrem B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, S C; Vlaming, J B; Sutherland, B L; van Koten, C; Mace, W J; Fletcher, L R

    2018-03-01

    To investigate a possible interaction between lolitrem B and ergovaline by comparing the incidence and severity of ryegrass staggers in sheep grazing ryegrass (Lolium perenne) containing lolitrem B or ryegrass containing both lolitrem B and ergovaline. Ninety lambs, aged approximately 6 months, were grazed on plots of perennial ryegrass infected with either AR98 endophyte (containing lolitrem B), standard endophyte (containing lolitrem B and ergovaline) or no endophyte, for up to 42 days from 2 February 2010. Ten lambs were grazed on three replicate plots per cultivar. Herbage samples were collected for alkaloid analysis and lambs were scored for ryegrass staggers (scores from 0-5) weekly during the study. Any animal which was scored ≥4 was removed from the study. Concentrations of lolitrem B did not differ between AR98 and standard endophyte-infected pastures during the study period (p=0.26), and ergovaline was present only in standard endophyte pastures. Ryegrass staggers was observed in sheep grazing both the AR98 and standard endophyte plots, with median scores increasing in the third week of the study. Prior to the end of the 42-day grazing period, 22 and 17 animals were removed from the standard endophyte and AR98 plots, respectively, because their staggers scores were ≥4. The cumulative probability of lambs having scores ≥4 did not differ between animals grazing the two pasture types (p=0.41). There was no evidence for ergovaline increasing the severity of ryegrass staggers induced by lolitrem B. In situations where the severity of ryegrass staggers appears to be greater than that predicted on the basis of concentrations of lolitrem B, the presence of other tremorgenic alkaloids should be investigated.

  2. Decomposition of 15N-labelled ryegrass in soils from a long-term field experiment with different manuring strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.K.; Jensen, E.S.; Magid, J.

    1995-01-01

    The cycling of nitrogen in agroecosystems is influenced by the amount and quality of organic matter applied to soils. The N-mineralization of N-15-labelled ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was significantly slightly higher in a soil with long-term application of a high amount of farmyard manure (FYM......) than in soils receiving either mineral fertilizer, a low amount of FYM or no manure. However, in general the decomposition of ryegrass in the selected soils varied only slightly. The microbial decomposition processes differed somewhat in the soil manured with a low amount of FYM from those receiving...

  3. Differential Resistance Mechanisms to Glyphosate Result in Fitness Cost for Lolium perenne and L. multiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo T. Fernández-Moreno

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate are exhibited by populations of Lolium spp. worldwide. Association of resistance with growth and reproductive fitness is an important predictor for long-term success of glyphosate-resistant (R versus glyphosate-susceptible (S biotypes. Numerous studies were conducted on R- and S-biotypes of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and perennial ryegrass (L. perenne to characterize the underlying mechanism(s of glyphosate resistance and associate this with growth and reproductive fitness. L. perenne expressed both altered uptake and translocation as well as a genetic change at 106-Pro to –Ser, This pattern for two resistance mechanisms is unique. L. multiflorum also exhibited altered uptake and translocation as well as duplication of EPSPS gene copies. Reduced plant biomass and height for R-versus S-biotypes of both species was evident over two growing seasons. This resulted in S- versus R- L. multiflorum producing up to 47 and 38% more seeds in 2014 and 2015, respectively. S- L. perenne produced up to 20 and 30% more seeds in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Both non-target site and target-site mechanisms of glyphosate resistance can render Lolium spp. at a competitive disadvantage. This has long-term implications for the success of glyphosate-resistant plants in the absence of selection pressure.

  4. Morphology and pollen viability of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Morfologia e viabilidade polínica de Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Castro Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de

  5. Phenotypic and molecular genetic characterization indicate no major race-specific interactions between Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis and Lolium multiflorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, F; Hug, B Müller; Widmer, F

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial wilt of forage grasses, caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg), is a major disease of forage grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). The plant genotype-bacterial isolate interaction was analysed to elucidate the existence of race-specific respon...

  6. Population structure, genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium in perennial ryegrass populations divergently selected for freezing tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna Rao eKovi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses seriously affecting the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. Understanding the genetic control of freezing tolerance would aid in the development of cultivars of perennial ryegrass with improved adaptation to frost. A total number of 80 individuals (24 of High frost [HF]; 29 of Low frost [LF] and 27 of Unselected [US] from the second generation of the two divergently selected populations and an unselected control population were genotyped using 278 genome-wide SNPs derived from Lolium perenne L. transcriptome sequence. Our studies showed that the HF and LF populations are very divergent after selection for freezing tolerance, whereas the HF and US populations are more similar. Linkage disequilibrium (LD decay varied across the seven chromosomes and the conspicuous pattern of LD between the HF and LF population confirmed their divergence in freezing tolerance. Furthermore, two Fst outlier methods; finite island model (fdist by LOSITAN and hierarchical structure model using ARLEQUIN detected six loci under directional selection. These outlier loci are most probably linked to genes involved in freezing tolerance, cold adaptation and abiotic stress and might be the potential marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved freezing tolerance.

  7. Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

    2013-05-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Lolium Species Surveyed on Nuclear Simple Sequence Repeat and Cytoplasmic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Cai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the genetic diversity and population structure of Lolium species, we used 32 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR markers and 7 cytoplasmic gene markers to analyze a total of 357 individuals from 162 accessions of 9 Lolium species. This survey revealed a high level of polymorphism, with an average number of alleles per locus of 23.59 and 5.29 and an average PIC-value of 0.83 and 0.54 for nuclear SSR markers and cytoplasmic gene markers, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that 16.27 and 16.53% of the total variation was due to differences among species, with the remaining 56.35 and 83.47% due to differences within species and 27.39 and 0% due to differences within individuals in 32 nuclear SSR markers set and 6 chloroplast gene markers set, respectively. The 32 nuclear SSR markers detected three subpopulations among 357 individuals, whereas the 6 chloroplast gene markers revealed three subpopulations among 160 accessions in the STRUCTURE analysis. In the clustering analysis, the three inbred species clustered into a single group, whereas the outbreeding species were clearly divided, especially according to nuclear SSR markers. In addition, almost all Lolium multiflorum populations were clustered into group C4, which could be further divided into three subgroups, whereas Lolium perenne populations primarily clustered into two groups (C2 and C3, with a few lines that instead grouped with L. multiflorum (C4 or Lolium rigidum (C6. Together, these results will useful for the use of Lolium germplasm for improvement and increase the effectiveness of ryegrass breeding.

  9. Pollen-Mediated Movement of Herbicide Resistance Genes in Lolium rigidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Loureiro

    Full Text Available The transfer of herbicide resistance genes by pollen is a major concern in cross-pollinated species such as annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum. A two-year study was conducted in the greenhouse, under favorable conditions for pollination, to generate information on potential maximum cross-pollination. This maximum cross-pollination rate was 56.1%. A three-year field trial was also conducted to study the cross-pollination rates in terms of distance and orientation to an herbicide-resistant pollen source. Under field conditions, cross-pollination rates varied from 5.5% to 11.6% in plants adjacent to the pollen source and decreased with increasing distances (1.5 to 8.9% at 15 m distance and up to 4.1% at 25 m in the downwind direction. Environmental conditions influenced the cross-pollination both under greenhouse and field conditions. Data were fit to an exponential decay model to predict gene flow at increasing distances. This model predicted an average gene flow of 7.1% when the pollen donor and recipient plants were at 0 m distance from each other. Pollen-mediated gene flow declined by 50% at 16.7 m from the pollen source, yet under downwind conditions gene flow of 5.2% was predicted at 25 m, the farthest distance studied. Knowledge of cross-pollination rates will be useful for assessing the spread of herbicide resistance genes in L. rigidum and in developing appropriate strategies for its mitigation.

  10. Sementes nocivas que ocorreram em amostras de sementes de azevém (Lolium multiflorum, analisadas no Rio Grande do Sul nos anos de 1978 e 1979 Weed seeds in ryegrass seeds, analysed in Rio Grande do Sul, during 1978 and 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Giaretta

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram levantadas informações sobre a qualidade da semente de azevém utilizadas no Rio Grande do Sul e produzida no próprio Estado ou em outras uni dades da Federação e mesmo em outros Países, nos anos de 1978 e 1979. Estas informações foram obtidas através de fichas e Boletins de Análise de Sementes dos Laboratórios de Análise de Sementes (LAS do Rio Grande do Sul. Em 1978 analisou-se 2.319 t de azevém sendo 74% da semente oriunda do Rio Grande do Sul e 26% introduzida, enquanto que das 4.772 t analisadas em 1979 99,6% são do Rio Grande do Sul e 0,4% são introduzidas. O percentual de sementes de azevém, produzidas no Estado, contaminadas com sementes nocivas foi de 61,5% em 1978 e de 60,0% em 1979; e o de sementes int roduzidas no Estado foi de 45,6% em 1978 e de 29,4%em 1979. Foi observado que ent re as sementes originárias do RS destacaram -se com maior ocorrênci a em 1978 as espécies nocivas de Silene gallica, Setaria geniculata, Anthemis cotula, Digitaria adscendens e Echinochloa spp, enquanto que nas sementes int roduzidas desta caram-se Sida spp e Rumex spp; em 1979, na semente oriunda do Estado desta caram-se Amaranthus spp, Silene gallica e Setaria geniculata, enquanto que nas sementes introduzidas a maior ocorrência foi de Setaria geniculata, Echinochloa spp e Solanum spp.This paper presents a quality record of rye-grass seeds produced in Rio Grande do Sul or imported from other countries. It refers to the presence of weeds in ryegrass during 1978 and 1979. These record were obtained in the Analysis Bulletins at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Agronômicas (IPAGRO Rio Grande do Sul°Brasil and in those from other institutions. This State produced 74% of 2.319 t analysed seeds and 26% come from other places in 1978. In 1979 4.772 t were registred, 99,6% from here and 0,4% from outside. The percentage of ryegrass seeds contaminated with weed seeds produced in the State, in 1978, were 61

  11. Impacts of endophyte infection of ryegrass on rhizosphere metabolome and microbial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakelin, S.; Harrison, Scott James; Mander, C.

    2015-01-01

    of these interactions on rhizosphere microbiology are not well characterised. This is important, because there may be opportunities or risks associated with selective disruption of the rhizosphere microbiota. We explored the interaction of two commercially used endophyte fungi, E. festucae var. lolii strains AR1 and AR......37, within a genetically uniform breeding line of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Samson 11104) on the rhizosphere metabolome and the composition of the fungal, bacterial, and Pseudomonas communities. There were strong differences in the rhizosphere metabolomes between infested and non......-infested ryegrass strains (P=0.06). These were attributed to shifts in various n-alkane hydrocarbon compounds. The endophyte-associated alteration in rhizosphere metabolome was linked to changes in the total bacterial (Pcommunities. Furthermore, there was varying levels...

  12. Fructan metabolism and changes in fructan composition during cold acclimation in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abeynayake, Shamila; Etzerodt, Thomas; Jonavičienė, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    . The ecotype ‘Falster’, adapted to cold climates, increased total fructan content and produced more fructans (DP˃7) in the roots than the variety ‘Veyo’, adapted to warmer climates suggesting that accumulation of fructans in roots, especially the high-DP fructans as an adaptive trait for plant recovery after......Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) produces high levels of fructans as a mixture of oligomers with different degrees of polymerization (DP). The present study describes the analysis of the compositional changes in the full spectrum of fructan oligomers, fructan distribution between above ground...... biomass (top) and the roots, and the transcription of candidate genes involved in fructan metabolism during cold acclimation in perennial ryegrass variety ‘Veyo’ and ecotype ‘Falster’ from distinct geographical origins. We observed changes in fructan composition and induction of low-DP fructans...

  13. Overseeding endophytic perennial ryegrass into stands of Kentucky bluegrass to manage bluegrass billbug (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, D S; Niemczyk, H D; Shetlar, D J

    2000-12-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the utility of overseeding endophyte enhanced varieties of perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., into existing stands of Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis L., to manage bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus Gyllenhal, larval populations and their damage. Two commercial varieties of endophyte enhanced perennial ryegrass (Repell II and Triple Play) were overseeded at two different rates in the field. S. parvulus larval populations, their damage, and turfgrass composition were monitored over the course of 3 yr. Significantly fewer larvae were found in plots overseeded with Repell II, whereas Triple Play had no significant effect on larval population density. Endophyte infection was confirmed in approximately 58% of all Repell II shoots, whereas only approximately 31% of Triple Play shoots were infected. Regression analysis, using a segmented model, demonstrated that larval populations declined as the proportion of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass increased. However, no additional reductions in larval population density were achieved in stands containing >40% endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass. Visual damage varied with cultivar, seeding rate, and year, but generally decreased as the proportion of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass increased. Although seeding rate had an initial effect on turfgrass composition, these differences were not detected after the first year of the study. Results indicate overseeding existing stands of Kentucky bluegrass with endophytic varieties of perennial ryegrass can reduce S. parvulus larval populations and their damage. However, plant genetic characteristics (i.e., different cultivars) may be overriding determinants of many aspects of plant performance including establishment, tolerance to insect feeding, and expression of endophyte-mediated resistance.

  14. Susceptibility to Rust (Puccinia Sp. in Cultivars of Italian and Perennial Ryegrass Grown in Two Locations of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Russi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A large set of foreign varieties of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and perennial ryegrass (L. perenne were evaluated for their response to natural rust infection in two Italian locations (Lodi in the north; Perugia in the centre of the country at three-year intervals in 2001, 2004 and 2007, to acquire information on novel germplasm for Italy and verify any spatial and temporal variation in the varietal response to the disease. Crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata on Italian ryegrass and stem rust (caused by P. graminis on perennial rygrass were consistently recorded in appreciable amount (average susceptibility score > 2.0 on a 1-9 scale. Vice-versa, crown rust on perennial and stem rust on Italian ryegrass seldom affected appreciably the crop. Strong interactions of variety response (to the prevailing pathogen with locations and years of evaluation were observed in both ryegrasses. Subsequently, the repeatability of results between locations, or between years within locations, as measured by rank correlations of variety scores, was sometimes only moderate or low. However, despite such interactions, a few promising varieties were identified in each species with consistently low susceptibility across evaluation environments, which deserve further investigation for a possible direct utilisation, or as donors of useful genes for breeding purposes.

  15. Susceptibility to Rust (Puccinia Sp. in Cultivars of Italian and Perennial Ryegrass Grown in Two Locations of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pecetti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A large set of foreign varieties of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and perennial ryegrass (L. perenne were evaluated for their response to natural rust infection in two Italian locations (Lodi in the north; Perugia in the centre of the country at three-year intervals in 2001, 2004 and 2007, to acquire information on novel germplasm for Italy and verify any spatial and temporal variation in the varietal response to the disease. Crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata on Italian ryegrass and stem rust (caused by P. graminis on perennial rygrass were consistently recorded in appreciable amount (average susceptibility score > 2.0 on a 1-9 scale. Vice-versa, crown rust on perennial and stem rust on Italian ryegrass seldom affected appreciably the crop. Strong interactions of variety response (to the prevailing pathogen with locations and years of evaluation were observed in both ryegrasses. Subsequently, the repeatability of results between locations, or between years within locations, as measured by rank correlations of variety scores, was sometimes only moderate or low. However, despite such interactions, a few promising varieties were identified in each species with consistently low susceptibility across evaluation environments, which deserve further investigation for a possible direct utilisation, or as donors of useful genes for breeding purposes.

  16. A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Nagy, Istvan; Pfeifer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), an economically important forage and turf grass species that is widely cultivated in temperate regions worldwide. It is classified along with wheat, barley, oats and Brachypodium distachyon in the Pooideae sub...... the pistil of a plant to reject self-pollen and therefore promote out-crossing. We have used the sequence assembly to characterize transcriptional changes in the stigma during pollination with both compatible and incompatible pollen. Characterization of the pollen transcriptome identified homologs to pollen...

  17. A potential role for endogenous microflora in dormancy release, cytokinin metabolism and the response to fluridone in Lolium rigidum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Danica E; Emery, R J Neil; Kurepin, Leonid V; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-02-01

    Dormancy in Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) seeds can be alleviated by warm stratification in the dark or by application of fluridone, an inhibitor of plant abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis via phytoene desaturase. However, germination and absolute ABA concentration are not particularly strongly correlated. The aim of this study was to determine if cytokinins of both plant and bacterial origin are involved in mediating dormancy status and in the response to fluridone. Seeds with normal or greatly decreased (by dry heat pre-treatment) bacterial populations were stratified in the light or dark and in the presence or absence of fluridone in order to modify their dormancy status. Germination was assessed and seed cytokinin concentration and composition were measured in embryo-containing or embryo-free seed portions. Seeds lacking bacteria were no longer able to lose dormancy in the dark unless supplied with exogenous gibberellin or fluridone. Although these seeds showed a dramatic switch from active cytokinin free bases to O-glucosylated storage forms, the concentrations of individual cytokinin species were only weakly correlated to dormancy status. However, cytokinins of apparently bacterial origin were affected by fluridone and light treatment of the seeds. It is probable that resident microflora contribute to dormancy status in L. rigidum seeds via a complex interaction between hormones of both plant and bacterial origin. This interaction needs to be taken into account in studies on endogenous seed hormones or the response of seeds to plant growth regulators. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Defoliation patterns and tillering dynamics in Italian ryegrass under different herbage allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Arnhold Graminho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to generate information on the tillering process and to contribute for the understanding of the defoliation process on Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. grazed by lambs under different herbage allowances: 6, 8 and12 kg  of dry matter  per100 kg of animal live weight  per day. The grazing method was intermittent. The experimental design was completely randomized following a repeated measure arrangement, with three treatments and two area replications. The intensity of defoliation is greater at 6 and 9% herbage allowances. The defoliation interval is higher at 12% herbage allowance, intermediate at 9% and lower at 6%. The rates of tiller emergence, survival and death, stability index the tiller population are similar for the different herbage allowances and differ according to the phenological stage of ryegrass. Structural changes caused by canopy management with low herbage allowance and/or due to the advance in developmental stage of ryegrass alter defoliation strategies, with more intense and frequent grazing.

  19. Identification and Expression Profile of CYPome in Perennial Ryegrass and Tall Fescue in Response to Temperature Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Tao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant cytochrome P450s are involved in a wide range of biosynthetic reactions that generate various biomolecules, including a variety of defensive compounds. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea are two major species of turf and forage grasses that usually experience low temperature below −10°C and high temperature over 38°C around the world. In this study, we re-analyzed transcriptome of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue treated with heat and cold stress. Thus, we can evaluate P450 composition in these species and confirm whether P450 genes response to temperature stress. We identified 277 and 319 P450 transcripts with open reading frames larger than 300 bp, respectively. These P450 transcripts were mainly classed in the CYP71, 51, 94, 89, 72, and 734 families. In perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, a total of 66 and 62 P450 transcripts were up-regulated, and 65 and 117 transcripts were down-regulated when subjected to heat stress, respectively. When exposed to cold stress, 60 and 73 transcripts were up-regulated, and 59 and 77 transcripts were down-regulated in perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. Among these differentially expressed transcripts, 64 and 87 of them showed expression level changes that followed the same trend, and these temperature-responsive genes primarily belong to the CYP71, 72 and 99 families. Besides, heat and cold stress altered phenylalanine and brassinosteroid involved P450 transcripts in perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. P450 transcripts involved in the metabolism of these compounds showed a strong response to heat and/or cold stress, indicating that they likely play important roles in temperature acclimation in these two species. The CYPome provide a genetic base for the future functional studies, as well as genetic studies that may improve stress tolerance for perennial ryegrass and tall fescue to extreme temperature.

  20. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  1. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  2. Characterization of native perennial ryegrasses for persistence in mediterranean rainfed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sanna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Forage varieties of Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass available on the seed market generally show low persistence in rainfed Mediterranean conditions. Eleven native populations of perennial ryegrass from Corsica and Sardinia, previously chosen for their ability to re-grow after summer drought, were grown in a 3-year field experiment in Sardinia (Italy. The objective was to characterize these populations for traits linked with persistence in rainfed conditions under low input management. Their differentiation and stability over time were assessed for some morphological traits (tiller, spike and flag leaf length, number of spikelets spike-1, spikelet and glume length. In addition, some agronomic traits (canopy height, dry matter and seed yield, spike emergence date and physiological traits (canopy temperature and leaf area index were observed to identify, using a multivariate approach, correlations with persistence. A significant variability between accessions was observed for all the morphological traits over the three years of observation; a significant Accession × Year interaction was found for tiller length, flag leaf length and number of spikelet/spike with a plastic adaptation to weather conditions of some populations, these traits being the most important contributors to persistence. The most persistent perennial ryegrass accession proved to be the most vigorous and early flowering one. Some contrasting accessions represent valuable resources to be exploited into breeding programs based on Mediterranean germplasm, in order to provide farmers with perennial ryegrass varieties adapted for different purposes and which are able to survive to more frequent hot and dry summer conditions in a context of climate change.

  3. The photosynthetic acclimation of Lolium perenne growing in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Jonathan B. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Stands of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Bastion) were grown in the field at ambient or elevated (600μmol/mol) CO2 concentration, high (560Kg/ha) or low (140Kg/ha) nitrogen addition and with a frequent (every 4 weeks) or infrequent (every 8 weeks) cutting regime. Plants were in the second year of a 3 year experiment. Exposure to elevated CO2 was carried out with a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) system which provides the most "realistic" system of CO2 fumigation currently available. Elevated CO2 increased diurnal CO2 assimilation by between 34 and 88% whilst reducing rates of stomatal conductance by between 1 and 42%. However, analysis of the A vs. Ci response showed considerable acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated CO2 - Vcmax as an in vivo measure of RubisCO activity, decreased by between 29 and 35% in high CO2, whilst Jmax, as a measure of the RubP regeneration capacity, showed no significant change. Two out of three additional perennial grassland species studied showed similar acclamatory behavior to Ryegrass. Diurnal assimilation rate, Jmax and, in most cases, Vcmax, increased significantly directly after cutting of Ryegrass stands, but nitrogen treatment had little effect on any of these parameters. Neither stomatal density, stomatal index nor stomatal pore length of Ryegrass were significantly altered by growth in elevated CO2. The results are discussed in terms of the limitation imposed on maximizing photosynthetic and growth responses of Ryegrass at elevated CO2, by the ability of perennial species to increase long-term sink capacity under these conditions.

  4. The effect of ozone on pollen development in Lolium perenne L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, K.; Franz, J.-Th.; Masuch, G

    2004-10-01

    Perennial ryegrass plants (Lolium perenne L.) were exposed in 'Closed-Top Chambers' to different ozone concentrations and to charcoal filtered ambient air to study the effect of ozone on the development of pollen. Ozone at ambient (65 nl l{sup -1}, 8 h) and elevated (110 nl l{sup -1}, 4 h) concentrations affected the maturing of pollen by inhibiting starch accumulation in pollen throughout the anther. Affected pollen persisted in the vacuolated state while normal pollen in the same anther were filled with amyloplasts. The percentage of underdeveloped pollen--determined in transversal sections--was significantly higher in exposed plants than in plants grown in filtered air. Results indicate that ozone stress was responsible for the disrupted development of pollen in L. perenne.

  5. Identification of Genes Induced in Lolium multiflorum by Bacterial Wilt Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franco

    2010-01-01

    expressed upon infection will serve as the basis for the identification of key genes involved in bacterial wilt resistance and to develop molecular markers for marker assisted breeding. Fluorescently labelled cDNA prepared from plant leaves collected at four different time points after infection......Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis(Xtg) causes bacterial wilt in many forage grasses including Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam), seriously reducing yield and quality. Breeding for resistance is currently the only practicable means of disease control. Molecular markers closely linked...... to resistance genes or QTL could complement and support phenotypic selection. We used comparative gene expression analysis of a partially resistant L. multiflorum genotype infected and not infected with Xtg to identify genes involved in the control of resistance to bacterial wilt. The genes differentially...

  6. Genomic prediction based on next generation sequencing of 1000 F2-families in Lolium perenne L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The “FORAGESELECT” collaborative project aims to develop and implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding programs for perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The goal is to improve the genetic response in important agronomic traits, such as forage and seed yield and resistance to biotic...... and abiotic stresses. The study is performed on 995 F2 families originated from the DLF breeding program. All families were genotyped by reduced representation sequencing. A total of 1,020,065 SNPs were detected and used for genomic prediction. First analyses, used for model testing, have been carried out...... of each treatment, the percentage of green matter was evaluated by visual scoring and by digital imaging. Preliminary analysis using GBLUP have identified a significant amount of genetic variance (individual heritabilities ranging between 0.20 and 0.40 and family heritabilities up to about 0.15). Genomic...

  7. Correlations between productivity elements in Lolium perenne L. species for new varieties resistant to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass is considered the most important perennial gramineous plant due to the many possibilities of use (grass and fodder [6, 9, 15].With the increasing emphasis put on increasing the area of green space, obtaining new biological forms - varieties of the main species of gramineous plants for turf, with increased resistance to drought and land during the summer, may represent an important objective of the research companies producing such seed [6, 7].In the present study, are given researches on correlations between productivity elements, obtained in an experiment that simulates conditions of severe drought soil, to different genotypes of the species Lolium perenne L., which is an ideal partner for simple and complex mixtures of turf.Establishment of correlations between key elements of productivity show to the breeder, in the selection work, choice of valuable genotypes consistent with the objectives of its program.

  8. Nitrogen application in amenity-types of Lolium perenne L. grown for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    1998-01-01

    Three amenity-type perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars Elka, Taya and Pippin were undersown in 1991-93 in spring barley at Roskilde and Rnhave, Denmark, and given 0, 30 or 60 kg N ha-1 in autumn combined with 70, 100 or 130 kg N ha-1 in spring. Seed yield did not differ among cultivars...... or locations but was significantly increased by autumn N, spring N and their interaction. The application of 30 or 60 kg N ha-1 in autumn increased seed yield, but this increase was lower than that for a single spring application, provided that the N applied in spring was 100 kg ha-1 or greater. Shoot N...... content varied considerably among years but not cultivars. Correlation analysis of N content, yield components and seed yield revealed that autumn N application resulted in an increasing N content in shoots, fertile tiller number and seed weight. However, these two components were negatively correlated...

  9. Desempenho de sementes nuas e revestidas de azevém-anual em condições de estresse salino Performance of loose and coated ryegrass seeds under saline stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Votto Klafke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do revestimento de sementes decorrente do aumento da concentração salina, sementes de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., cultivar "comum", nuas e revestidas, foram expostas a seis concentrações de cloreto de sódio (NaCl: 48, 66, 97, 129 e 145 mM. O material-base empregado no revestimento foi farelo de madeira. Avaliaram-se a emergência de plântulas normais, anormais, sementes dormentes e mortas, o índice de velocidade de emergência, o comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz e o peso fresco da parte aérea das plântulas. A análise dos resultados permitiu concluir que a emergência de sementes nuas e revestidas de azevém-anual decresce com o aumento da salinidade do meio, afetando negativamente o desenvolvimento de plântulas normais. O aumento dos níveis de NaCl faz as sementes entrar em dormência. O revestimento usado nas sementes não é capaz de protegê-las da ação prejudicial da salinidade a partir da concentração de 64 mM de NaCl.With the objective of evaluating the influence of seed coating on seed germination and seedling development under increased saline concentrations, naked and loose seeds of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., "common" cultivar, were exposed to six NaCl concentrations (0, 48, 66, 97, 129 and 145 mM. The basic material for coating was wood bran. Emergence, abnormal seedlings, dormant seeds and percentages of dead seeds, as well as speed emergence index, length of the aerial part and the root and fresh weight of the aerial part were evaluated. Results showed that emergence of both loose and coated annual ryegrass seeds decreases with increase in substrate salinity, negatively affecting seedling development. Increased NaCl concentration leads to seed dormancy. Seed coating is unable to protect seeds from the deleterious effects of salinity from the 64 mM NaCl concentration.

  10. Temperature and Plant Genotype Alter Alkaloid Concentrations in Ryegrass Infected with an Epichloё Endophyte and This Affects an Insect Herbivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Marie Hennessy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Asexual Epichloё endophytes colonise agricultural forage grasses in a relationship which is mutually beneficial and provides the host plant with protection against herbivorous insects. The endophyte strain AR37 (Epichloё festucae var. lolii produces epoxy-janthitrem alkaloids and is the only endophyte known to provide ryegrass with resistance against porina larvae (Wiseana cervinata (Walker, a major pasture pest in cooler areas of New Zealand. This study examined the effect of temperature on concentrations of epoxy-janthitrems in AR37-infected ryegrass and determined how the resulting variations in concentration affected consumption, growth and survival of porina larvae. Twenty replicate pairs of perennial (Lolium perenne L. and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. plants with and without endophyte were prepared by cloning, with one of each pair grown at either high (20°C or low (7°C temperature. After 10 weeks, herbage on each plant was harvested, divided into leaf and pseudostem, then freeze dried and ground. Leaf and pseudostem material was then incorporated separately into semi-synthetic diets which were fed to porina larvae in a bioassay over 3 weeks. Epoxy-janthitrem concentrations within the plant materials and the semi-synthetic diets were analysed by HPLC. AR37-infected ryegrass grown at high temperature contained high in planta concentrations of epoxy-janthitrem (30.6 µg/g in leaves and 83.9 µg/g in pseudostems that had a strong anti-feedant effect on porina larvae when incorporated into their diets, reducing their survival by 25-42% on pseudostems. In comparison, in planta epoxy-janthitrem concentrations in AR37-infected ryegrass grown at low temperature were very low (0.67 µg/g in leaves and 7.4 µg/g in pseudostems resulting in a small anti-feedant effect in perennial but not in Italian ryegrass. Although alkaloid concentrations were greatly reduced by low temperature this reduction did not occur until after 4 weeks of

  11. Application of molecular markers for variety protection of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bach; Deneken, Gerhard; Roulund, N

    2008-01-01

    registration systems. Although DUS testing currently employs mostly visually observable characteristics that are expressions of the phenotype of a variety, there is much interest in the use of molecular markers. The overall objective of this project is to examine the potential use of molecular markers...... with 140 alleles gives the same level of information. Furthermore, number of genotypes per variety can be reduced to 20 compared to the original dataset containing 60 genotypes when using all 18 SSR markers but not when using only six SSR markers. Significant association was found between the molecular...... on the morphological characterization from the DUS trial. 18 SSR markers were selected based on their genome distribution, reproducibility, level of information and ease of scoring. It was found, that for variety discrimination, reducing the number of SSR markers from 18 SSR markers with 262 alleles to six SSR markers...

  12. The Fungus Aspergillus aculeatus Enhances Salt-Stress Tolerance, Metabolite Accumulation, and Improves Forage Quality in Perennial Ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne is an important forage grass with high yield and superior quality in temperate regions which is widely used in parks, sport field, and other places. However, perennial ryegrass is moderately tolerant to salinity stress compared to other commercial cultivars and salt stress reduces their growth and productivity. Aspergillus aculeatus has been documented to participate in alleviating damage induced by salinity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying A. aculeatus-mediated salt tolerance, and forage quality of perennial ryegrass exposed to 0, 200, and 400 mM NaCl concentrations. Physiological markers and forage quality of perennial ryegrass to salt stress were evaluated based on the growth rate, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes activity, lipid peroxidation, ionic homeostasis, the nutritional value of forage, and metabolites. Plants inoculated with A. aculeatus exhibited higher relative growth rate (RGR, turf and forage quality under salt stress than un-inoculated plants. Moreover, in inoculated plants, the fungus remarkably improved plant photosynthetic efficiency, reduced the antioxidant enzymes activity (POD and CAT, and attenuated lipid peroxidation (decreased H2O2 and MDA accumulation induced by salinity, compared to un-inoculated plants. Furthermore, the fungus also acts as an important role in maintaining the lower Na/K ratio and metabolites and lower the amino acids (Alanine, Proline, GABA, and Asparagine, and soluble sugars (Glucose and Fructose for inoculated plants than un-inoculated ones. Our results suggest that A. aculeatus may be involved in modulating perennial ryegrass tolerance to salinity in various ways.

  13. Implementation of genomic prediction in Lolium perenne (L. breeding populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasiya F Grinberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. is one of the most widely grown forage grasses in temperate agriculture. In order to maintain and increase its usage as forage in livestock agriculture, there is a continued need for improvement in biomass yield, quality, disease resistance and seed yield. Genetic gain for traits such as biomass yield has been relatively modest. This has been attributed to its long breeding cycle, and the necessity to use population based breeding methods. Thanks to recent advances in genotyping techniques there is increasing interest in genomic selection from which genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV are derived. In this paper we compare the classical RRBLUP model with state-of-the-art machine learning (ML techniques that should yield themselves easily to use in GS and demonstrate their application to predicting quantitative traits in a breeding population of L. perenne. Prediction accuracies varied from 0 to 0.59 depending on trait, prediction model and composition of the training population. The BLUP model produced the highest prediction accuracies for most traits and training populations. Forage quality traits had the highest accuracies compared to yield related traits. There appeared to be no clear pattern to the effect of the training population composition on the prediction accuracies. The heritability of the forage quality traits was generally higher than for the yield related traits, and could partly explain the difference in accuracy. Some population structure was evident in the breeding populations, and probably contributed to the varying effects of training population on the predictions. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD between adjacent markers ranged from 0.121 to 0.215. Higher marker density and larger training population closely related with the test population are likely to improve the prediction accuracy.

  14. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lizhong; Zhang Ming

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation

  15. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Ming [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zhangming@zju.edu.cn

    2008-11-15

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation.

  16. Fructan metabolism and changes in fructan composition during cold acclimation in perennial ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeynayake, Shamila W.; Etzerodt, Thomas P.; Jonavičienė, Kristina; Byrne, Stephen; Asp, Torben; Boelt, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) produces high levels of fructans as a mixture of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides with different degrees of polymerization (DP). The present study describes the analysis of the compositional changes in the full spectrum of fructans, fructan distribution between above ground biomass (top) and the roots, and the transcription of candidate genes involved in fructan metabolism during cold acclimation in perennial ryegrass variety “Veyo” and ecotype “Falster” from distinct geographical origins. We observed changes in fructan composition and induction of low-DP fructans, especially DP = 4, in both the top and the roots of “Veyo” and “Falster” in response to low-temperature stress. The accumulation of DP > 50 fructans was only apparent in the top tissues where the Lp1-FFT expression is higher compared to the roots in both “Veyo” and “Falster.” Our results also show the accumulation and depolymerization of fructans with different DP, together with the induction of genes encoding fructosyltransferases and fructan exohydrolases in both “Veyo” and “Falster” during cold acclimation, supporting the hypothesis that fructan synthesis and depolymerization occurring simultaneously. The ecotype “Falster,” adapted to cold climates, increased total fructan content and produced more DP > 7 fructans in the roots than the variety “Veyo,” adapted to warmer climates. This indicates that high-DP fructan accumulation in roots may be an adaptive trait for plant recovery after abiotic stresses. PMID:26029229

  17. Investigation the Kinetic Models of Biological Removal of Petroleum Contaminated Soil Around Oil Pipeline Using Ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghaheri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The industrial revolution of the past century has resulted in significant damage to environmental resources such as air, water and soil. Petroleum contamination of soil is a serious problem throughout the oil producer countries. Remediation of petroleum contamination of soils is generally a slow and expensive process. Phytoremediation is a potentially less-damaging, cost-effective, but needs longer-term for remediation of contaminated land compared to the alternative methods. In this study the kinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Khozestan were investigated. For this paper Ryegrass (Lolium perenne plant selected and the decline of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH was analyzed after growth stage, every 10 days up to 90 days. The results of TPH concentration was fitted with zero-order kinetic, first-order kinetic and Higuchi model. The result indicated that degradation of TPH with presence of plants as a function of time was well fitted with the first-order kinetic model. The first-order rate constants (K and half-lives (T1/2 for TPH degradation were 0.0098 1/day and 71 day; respectively. The results of phytoremediation showed that there were 65% decreases in TPH concentration with Ryegrass during the 17 weeks.

  18. Animal physiology and genetic aspects of ryegrass staggers in grazing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C A; Wheeler, T T; Henderson, H V; Towers, N R; Phua, S H

    2017-07-01

    Ryegrass staggers (RGS) is a metabolic disease of herbivores, caused by the ingestion of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) containing a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii) which produces a tremorgenic toxin, lolitrem B. RGS has a major economic impact for agriculture in New Zealand as well as internationally. Management of RGS in grazing sheep can be problematic, and there is an incomplete knowledge of the interaction between the toxin and the grazing animal. This review is focused on recent advances in understanding the molecular physiology of RGS in the affected animal as well as the influence of animal genetics on the degree of susceptibility to RGS. Investigations to date suggest that the primary target for toxin is the large conductance, calcium-activated, potassium (BK) channel, resulting in disruption of neuromuscular junction signalling. Genetic investigation has established the existence of genes influencing resistance to RGS, however their identity has not been confirmed and their impact has not been established. Studies to date suggest that a multi-gene selection approach will be necessary in order to develop an effective selection tool for use in the agricultural industries.

  19. Vacuolar Sequestration of Paraquat Is Involved in the Resistance Mechanism in Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum

    OpenAIRE

    Brunharo, Caio A. C. G.; Hanson, Bradley D.

    2017-01-01

    Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot (LOLMU) is a winter annual weed, common to row crops, orchards and roadsides. Glyphosate-resistant populations of LOLMU are widespread in California. In many situations, growers have switched to paraquat or other postemergence herbicides to manage glyphosate-resistant LOLMU populations. Recently, poor control of LOLMU with paraquat was reported in a prune orchard in California where paraquat has been used several times. We hypothesize that the ...

  20. Validity of accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves in perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives were to test if accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves (NDCs) in rapeseed, pea, alfalfa, tall fescue, wheat, annual ryegrass and linseed could be used in grass species for seed production and to develop a critical NDC especially in grass species for seed production. The criti......The objectives were to test if accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves (NDCs) in rapeseed, pea, alfalfa, tall fescue, wheat, annual ryegrass and linseed could be used in grass species for seed production and to develop a critical NDC especially in grass species for seed production...... the NDCs in tall fescue, alfalfa, pea and rapeseed. These findings should be used to continue the interesting and necessary work on developing a NDC in grass species for seed production....

  1. The allelopathic effect of Taraxacum officinale F.G. Wigg on the seeds germination and initial growth of Lolium westerwoldicum R.Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jankowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg is a perennial plant often found in large concentrations in the sward of natural meadows. This species expands quickly, displacing other species. In literature there is a lack of data relating to the effect of common dandelion on plants growing in its vicinity. It is also not known why this species creates large clusters. Perhaps it competes with different plants through the allelopathic effect. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of water extracts from leaves and roots of common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale as well as soil extracts from the root layer of this species on seed germination and the initial growth of Lolium westerwoldicum R.Br. The investigated material comprised leaves and roots of Taraxacum officinale. The germination biotest most often used in experiments was applied. The seeds germination energy of westerwolds ryegrass was most inhibited by plant extracts prepared from roots and leaves of Taraxacum officinale. The germination ability of seeds of Lolium westerwoldicum was the highest in the treatments in which soil extracts were applied; however, the value of this feature was limited to a larger extent by the plant extracts from leaves of Taraxacum officinale than from roots. Higher concentrations of both soil and plant solutions had an inhibitory effect both on root growth and the growth of the leaf sheath and leaves of westerwolds ryegrass. The results of the tested parameters can confirm the allelopathic effect of Taraxacum officinale on germination and initial growth of Lolium westerwoldicum, and especially that of extracts prepared from leaves.

  2. Pathotype-specific QTL for stem rust resistance in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, W F; Slabaugh, M E

    2013-05-01

    A genetic map populated with RAD and SSR markers was created from F1 progeny of a stem rust-susceptible and stem rust-resistant parent of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The map supplements a previous map of this population by having markers in common with several other Lolium spp. maps including EST-SSR anchor markers from a consensus map published by other researchers. A QTL analysis was conducted with disease severity and infection type data obtained by controlled inoculation of the population with each of two previously characterized pathotypes of Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola that differ in virulence to different host plant genotypes in the F1 population. Each pathotype activated a specific QTL on one linkage group (LG): qLpPg1 on LG7 for pathotype 101, or qLpPg2 on LG1 for pathotype 106. Both pathotypes also activated a third QTL in common, qLpPg3 on LG6. Anchor markers, present on a consensus map, were located in proximity to each of the three QTL. These QTL had been detected also in previous experiments in which a genetically heterogeneous inoculum of the stem rust pathogen activated all three QTL together. The results of this and a previous study are consistent with the involvement of the pathotype-specific QTL in pathogen recognition and the pathotype-nonspecific QTL in a generalized resistance response. By aligning the markers common to other published reports, it appears that two and possibly all three of the stem rust QTL reported here are in the same general genomic regions containing some of the L. perenne QTL reported to be activated in response to the crown rust pathogen (P. coronata).

  3. Diffusive gradient in thin FILMS (DGT) compared with soil solution and labile uranium fraction for predicting uranium bioavailability to ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vandenhove, H., E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.b [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Tack, F. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Hees, M.; Wannijn, J. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-02-15

    The usefulness of uranium concentration in soil solution or recovered by selective extraction as unequivocal bioavailability indices for uranium uptake by plants is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to test if the uranium concentration measured by the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique is a relevant substitute for plant uranium availability in comparison to uranium concentration in the soil solution or uranium recovered by ammonium acetate. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Melvina) is grown in greenhouse on a range of uranium spiked soils. The DGT-recovered uranium concentration (C{sub DGT}) was correlated with uranium concentration in the soil solution or with uranium recovered by ammonium acetate extraction. Plant uptake was better predicted by the summed soil solution concentrations of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, uranyl carbonate complexes and UO{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}. The DGT technique did not provide significant advantages over conventional methods to predict uranium uptake by plants.

  4. Supplementary feeding of lambs grazing Italian ryegrass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DeVilliersJ

    Villiers et al., 1993). Table 1 Number of ewes and lambs used, supplement consumed by lambs, average daily gain (ADG), weaning weight of lambs and pasture height of Italian ryegrass during two seasons. Treatments. Control (no creep feed) Forward creep. Amount supplemented (g/day). 100. 250. Ad lib. Season 1:.

  5. Differential responses of CO2 assimilation, carbohydrate allocation and gene expression to NaCl stress in perennial ryegrass with different salt tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Hu

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of NaCl stress on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. photosynthesis and carbohydrate flux. The objective of this study was to understand the carbohydrate metabolism and identify the gene expression affected by salinity stress. Seventy-four days old seedlings of two perennial ryegrass accessions (salt-sensitive 'PI 538976' and salt-tolerant 'Overdrive' were subjected to three levels of salinity stress for 5 days. Turf quality in all tissues (leaves, stems and roots of both grass accessions negatively and significantly correlated with GFS (Glu+Fru+Suc content, except for 'Overdrive' stems. Relative growth rate (RGR in leaves negatively and significantly correlated with GFS content in 'Overdrive' (P0.05 for turf quality. A greater up-regulation in the expression of SPS, SS, SI, 6-SFT gene was observed in 'Overdrive' than 'PI 538976'. A higher level of SPS and SS expression in leaves was found in 'PI 538976' relative to 'Overdrive'. Accumulation of hexoses in roots, stems and leaves can induce a feedback repression to photosynthesis in salt-stressed perennial ryegrass and the salt tolerance may be changed with the carbohydrate allocation in leaves and stems.

  6. Accurate Determination of Platinum, Palladium, and Rhodium in Ryegrass using Collision Cell Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with Xenon as Collision Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amr, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with an octupole collision cell was used for determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) which was grown hydroponically. Xenon was used as a collision gas to reduce serious polyatomic interferences formed by combination of matrix elements such as CI, Cu, Hf, Sr, Zn, Zr, Y and REE with O, N, C, and Ar. The detection limits for Pt, Pd and Rh in spiked ryegrass are 1.8, 4.2, and 0.8 ppt, respectively. The results for Pt, Pd and Rh in reference materials (NIST SRM 2557, recycled monolith auto catalyst) are in agreement with the certified values. The bioaccumulation of Pt, Pd and Rh by ryegrass grown hydroponically with nutrient solutions containing Pt, Pd and Rh was studied. The obtained results showed that most of the studied metals were accumulated in roots, and only a small fraction was metabolized and transported to leaves. The highest bioaccumulation factors were obtained for Pd and Rh in roots and for Pt in leaves

  7. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  8. Physiological Mechanism of Enhancing Salt Stress Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass by 24-Epibrassinolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BR regulate plant tolerance to salt stress but the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. This study was to investigate physiological mechanisms of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR's impact on salt stress tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. The grass seedlings were treated with EBR at 0, 10, and 100 nM, and subjected to salt stress (250 mM NaCl. The grass irrigated with regular water without EBR served as the control. Salt stress increased leaf electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced photosynthetic rate (Pn. Exogenous EBR reduced EL and MDA, increased Pn, chlorophyll content, and stomatal conductance (gs. The EBR applications also alleviated decline of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity when compared to salt treatment alone. Salt stress increased leaf abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellin A4 (GA4 content but reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin riboside (ZR, isopentenyl adenosine (iPA, and salicylic acid (SA. Exogenous EBR at 10 nm and 100 nM increased ABA, and iPA content under salt stress. The EBR treatment at 100 nM also increased leaf IAA, ZR, JA, and SA. In addition, EBR treatments increased leaf proline and ions (K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ content, and reduced Na+/K+ in leaf tissues. The results of this study suggest that EBR treatment may improve salt stress tolerance by increasing the level of selected hormones and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT activity, promoting accumulation of proline and ions (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in perennial ryegrass.

  9. Differentiating glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-sensitive Italian ryegrass using hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew A.; Huang, Yanbo; Nandula, Vijay K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2014-05-01

    Glyphosate based herbicide programs are most preferred in current row crop weed control practices. With the increased use of glyphosate, weeds, including Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), have developed resistance to glyphosate. The identification of glyphosate resistant weeds in crop fields is critical because they must be controlled before they reduce the crop yield. Conventionally, the method for the identification with whole plant or leaf segment/disc shikimate assays is tedious and labor-intensive. In this research, we investigated the use of high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery to extract spectral curves derived from the whole plant of Italian ryegrass to determine if the plant is glyphosate resistant (GR) or glyphosate sensitive (GS), which provides a way for rapid, non-contact measurement for differentiation between GR and GS weeds for effective site-specific weed management. The data set consists of 226 greenhouse grown plants (119 GR, 107 GS), which were imaged at three and four weeks after emergence. In image preprocessing, the spectral curves are normalized to remove lighting artifacts caused by height variation in the plants. In image analysis, a subset of hyperspectral bands is chosen using a forward selection algorithm to optimize the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) between GR and GS plants. Then, the dimensionality of selected bands is reduced using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Finally, the maximum likelihood classification was conducted for plant sample differentiation. The results show that the overall classification accuracy is between 75% and 80% depending on the age of the plants. Further refinement of the described methodology is needed to correlate better with plant age.

  10. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Wade; Lunn, Kristy; Lloyd-West, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g. the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection) while others are detrimental to the wellbeing of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g. ergovaline), produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl alanine, ergovaline) produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. ‘Grasslands Samson’) infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii). Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers) as well as between plants. The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested.

  11. [Effects of loess soil stabilization on Lolium perenne L. growth and root activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-mei; Zhang, Xing-chang; Wang, Dan-dan

    2011-10-01

    Taking the loess soils with bulk density 1.2 g cm(-3), 1.3 g cm(-3), and 1.4 g cm(-3) from Ansai, Shaanxi Province as test objects, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different amendment amount of soil stabilizer (EN-1 stabilizer) on the growth and root activity of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Within the range of the bulk densities, the leaf chlorophyll content, root activity, root/shoot ratio, root biomass, and plant biomass of L. perenne all decreased with increasing soil bulk density, and were higher under the amendment of EN-1 stabilizer, as compared with the control. With increasing amendment amount of EN-1 stabilizer, the leaf chlorophyll content, root activity, root/shoot ratio, root biomass, and plant biomass had a trend of increased first and decreased then. Soil bulk density and stabilizer amendment amount had significant interactive effect on the root biomass and plant biomass. Overall, the values of the test indices were the highest under 1.3 g cm(-3) soil bulk density and 0.15% EN-1 stabilizer amendment amount.

  12. Foliar zinc biofortification effects in Lolium rigidum and Trifolium subterraneum grown in cadmium-contaminated soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Poblaciones

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is an important micronutrient that can alleviate cadmium (Cd toxicity to plants and limit Cd entry into the food chain. However, little is known about the Zn-Cd interactions in pasture plants. We characterized the effects of foliar Zn application and Cd uptake by ryegrass (Lolium rigidum L. and clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. grown on Cd-contaminated soils; all combinations of foliar Zn applications (0, 0.25 and 0.5% (w/v ZnSO4·7H2O and soil Cd concentrations (0, 2.5 and 5 mg Cd kg-1 were tested. For both plant species, soil concentrations of DTPA-extractable Cd and Zn increased with an increase in the Cd and Zn treatments, respectively. Compared with L. rigidum, T. subterraneum accumulated, respectively, 3.3- and 4.1-fold more Cd in the 2.5-Cd and 5-Cd treatments and about 1.3-, 2.3- and 2.8-fold more Zn in the No-Zn, 0.25-Zn and 0.5-Zn treatments. Also, DTPA-Zn concentration was higher in soil after T. subterraneum than L. rigidum growth regardless of Zn applications. Foliar application of 0.25% (w/v Zn significantly decreased the total Cd concentration in shoots of both species grown in the Cd-contaminated soil and ameliorated the adverse effects of Cd exposure on root growth, particularly in T. subterraneum.

  13. Foliar zinc biofortification effects in Lolium rigidum and Trifolium subterraneum grown in cadmium-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblaciones, Maria J; Damon, Paul; Rengel, Zed

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an important micronutrient that can alleviate cadmium (Cd) toxicity to plants and limit Cd entry into the food chain. However, little is known about the Zn-Cd interactions in pasture plants. We characterized the effects of foliar Zn application and Cd uptake by ryegrass (Lolium rigidum L.) and clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) grown on Cd-contaminated soils; all combinations of foliar Zn applications (0, 0.25 and 0.5% (w/v) ZnSO4·7H2O) and soil Cd concentrations (0, 2.5 and 5 mg Cd kg-1) were tested. For both plant species, soil concentrations of DTPA-extractable Cd and Zn increased with an increase in the Cd and Zn treatments, respectively. Compared with L. rigidum, T. subterraneum accumulated, respectively, 3.3- and 4.1-fold more Cd in the 2.5-Cd and 5-Cd treatments and about 1.3-, 2.3- and 2.8-fold more Zn in the No-Zn, 0.25-Zn and 0.5-Zn treatments. Also, DTPA-Zn concentration was higher in soil after T. subterraneum than L. rigidum growth regardless of Zn applications. Foliar application of 0.25% (w/v) Zn significantly decreased the total Cd concentration in shoots of both species grown in the Cd-contaminated soil and ameliorated the adverse effects of Cd exposure on root growth, particularly in T. subterraneum.

  14. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoux, Agnes Y. [Sanexen Environmental Services Inc., 1471 Lionel-Boulet Boulevard, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1P7 (Canada)]. E-mail: arenoux@sanexen.com; Rocheleau, Sylvie [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Sarrazin, Manon [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Sunahara, Geoffrey I. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada)]. E-mail: geoffrey.sunahara@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca; Blais, Jean-Francois [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS-ETE), Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne street, Quebec, Quebec G1K 9A9 (Canada)]. E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca

    2007-01-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45 {+-} 0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79 {+-} 0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82 {+-} 1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls. - Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on metal bioavailability as measured by metal speciation, toxicity and bioaccumulation.

  15. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Agnès Y; Rocheleau, Sylvie; Sarrazin, Manon; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Blais, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45+/-0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79+/-0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82+/-1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls.

  16. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Tack, F.; Meers, E. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baeten, J. [Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, Department of Health-Care and Chemistry, Kleinhoefstraat 4, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Wannijn, J. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH{sub 4}-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  17. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, Agnes Y.; Rocheleau, Sylvie; Sarrazin, Manon; Sunahara, Geoffrey I.; Blais, Jean-Francois

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45 ± 0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79 ± 0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82 ± 1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls. - Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on metal bioavailability as measured by metal speciation, toxicity and bioaccumulation

  18. Synergistic Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03) and Water Retaining Agent on Drought Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, An-Yu; Niu, Shu-Qi; Liu, Yuan-Zheng; He, Ao-Lei; Zhao, Qi; Paré, Paul W; Li, Meng-Fei; Han, Qing-Qing; Ali Khan, Sardar; Zhang, Jin-Lin

    2017-12-11

    Water retaining agent (WRA) is widely used for soil erosion control and agricultural water saving. Here, we evaluated the effects of the combination of beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain GB03 and WRA (the compound is super absorbent hydrogels) on drought tolerance of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.). Seedlings were subjected to natural drought for maximum 20 days by stopping watering and then rewatered for seven days. Plant survival rate, biomass, photosynthesis, water status and leaf cell membrane integrity were measured. The results showed that under severe drought stress (20-day natural drought), compared to control, GB03, WRA and GB03+WRA all significantly improved shoot fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll content and decreased leaf relative electric conductivity (REC) and leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content; GB03+WRA significantly enhanced chlorophyll content compared to control and other two treatments. Seven days after rewatering, GB03, WRA and GB03+WRA all significantly enhanced plant survival rate, biomass, RWC and maintained chlorophyll content compared to control; GB03+WRA significantly enhanced plant survival rate, biomass and chlorophyll content compared to control and other two treatments. The results established that GB03 together with water retaining agent promotes ryegrass growth under drought conditions by improving survival rate and maintaining chlorophyll content.

  19. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquène, L; Vandenhove, H; Tack, F; Meers, E; Baeten, J; Wannijn, J

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH4-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg(-1) dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  20. Distribuição de colmo na estrutura vertical de pastos de capim Aruana e azevém anual submetidos a pastejo intermitente por ovinos Distribution of stem in the vertical structure of Aruana guineagrass and Annual ryegrass pastures subjected to rotational grazing by sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Doneda Zanini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a participação relativa de colmo na estrutura vertical de pastos de capim Aruana e azevém anual submetidos a estratégias de pastejo intermitente por ovinos. Os tratamentos para o capim Aruana corresponderam a pastejos realizados quando os pastos atingiam 95 e 98% de interceptação da luz incidente (IL até as alturas pós-pastejo de 10 e 15cm. Para o azevém anual, os tratamentos corresponderam a pastejos realizados quando os pastos atingiam 15 e 25cm de altura pré-pastejo até as alturas pós-pastejo de 4 e 8cm. O delineamento experimental utilizado para as duas espécies foi inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2x2, com três repetições. Para quantificação da massa de colmo na estrutura vertical dos pastos, foram realizadas duas amostragens no pré-pastejo por unidade experimental (piquetes de 196m² utilizando-se um quadrado de 25cm x 25cm de lado, em cada ciclo de pastejo. As amostras foram coletadas de forma estratificada a cada 5cm até o nível do solo. Após o corte estratificado, o material foi separado em colmo, folhas e material morto. Independente da espécie vegetal ou da altura de entrada, aproximadamente 90% de todo o colmo dos pastos encontra-se presente até 50% da altura do pasto, indicando que possíveis reduções em consumo a partir desse momento no rebaixamento podem ser atribuídas a dificuldades em manipulação e apreensão da forragem.The aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of stem in the vertical structure of Aruana guineagrass and annual ryegrass pastures submitted to strategies of rotational grazing by sheep. Treatments for Aruana guineagrass corresponded to grazing when the swards intercepted 95 and 98% of the incident light (LI until the post-grazing heights of 10 and 15cm. For annual ryegrass, treatments corresponded to grazing when the swards reached 15 and 25cm (pre-grazing heights until the post-grazing of 4 and 8cm. The

  1. Effect of different grazing pressure by lambs grazing Lolium perenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    high (HGP), medium (MGP) and low (LGP), corresponding to 30, 50 and 75 g available DM/kg BW/day, respectively] on the quality of herbage consumed by lambs grazing Lolium perenne and Dactylis glomerata pastures in spring.

  2. The genome and transcriptome of perennial ryegrass mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Studer, Bruno; Byrne, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome from perennial ryegrass. Results: Intact mitochondria from perennial ryegrass leaves were isolated and used for mtDNA extraction. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced to a 167-fold coverage using the Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium platform, and assembled...

  3. Crop rotation and tillage system effects on reducing ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the Mediterranean climatic conditions of the Western Cape province, the Swartland region is intensively cropped, producing spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), but due to ryegrass competition, yield is reduced. In addition, ryegrass has developed resistance to herbicides. This necessitates the use of integrated weed ...

  4. Growth patterns of Italian ryegrass cultivars established in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth patterns of Italian ryegrass cultivars established in different seasons. DCW Goodenough, CI Macdonald, ARJ Morrison. Abstract. A comparison is made between various Italian ryegrass cultivars established under irrigation on a well-drained upland site during the traditional autumn months, with plantings of the same ...

  5. Pasture characteristics of Italian ryegrass and milk production under different management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcolino Frederico Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of the sward structure of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, during the first grazing cycle, on its morphological and bromatological characteristics throughout the growing season, and on the performance of dairy cows. The treatments consisted of two structures obtained as a function of canopy-light interception: high-light interception (HLI and low-light interception (LLI, with different pre-grazing heights in the first grazing cycle. Pasture was managed under rotational grazing with a herbage allowance not below 30 kg dry matter (DM per cow per day. Three grazing cycles, with a grazing interval of 30 days, were evaluated. Pre-grazing herbage mass was greater (2,240 vs. 1,656 kg ha-1 DM, but the proportion of leaf blades was smaller (0.35 vs. 0.43 for HLI swards. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF content and organic matter digestibility (OMD were similar between treatments in the first grazing cycle, but in the second and third ones NDF was greater, and OMD lower, for the HLI swards. Milk yields were greater for cows grazing LLI swards (19.4 vs. 21.1 kg per day. Initial grazing with 90% of light interception promotes greater nutritional value in the subsequent cycles.

  6. The influence of nitrilotriacetate on heavy metal uptake of lettuce and ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulli, B.; Balmer, M.; Krebs, R.; Lothenbach, B.; Geiger, G.; Schulin, R.

    1999-12-01

    Metal uptake and removal from the soil by plants may be a useful measure to remediate contaminated soils. These processes can be enhanced by adding metal chelators to soil. The authors investigated the effect of nitrolotriacetate (NTA) and urea on the uptake of Cd, Cu, and Zn by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. ev. Orion) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. ev. Bastion) in pot experiments. Nitric acid-extractable heavy metal concentrations in the contaminated soil were 2 mg Cd, 530 mg Cu, and 700 mg Zn/kg. Three NTA treatments were compared with two urea treatments, and a control. Nitrilotriacetate and urea increased the NaNO{sub 3}-extractable soil concentrations of the three metals. At the highest NTA dose, metal concentrations in the aboveground plant biomass was 4 to 24 times greater than in the control plants. While NTA increased plant metal concentrations, it reduced plant matter production. At lower doses, this effect was small. At the highest NTA dose, plant growth was almost completely inhibited. Severe visual symptoms indicated metal toxicity as the likely cause. The urea treatments generally increased the plant matter production. Total metal uptake was in general larger at the lowest or at the intermediate NTA dose than at the highest doses. Little additional total metal uptake was achieved with NTA treatments than with urea. Compared with the controls, neither NTA nor urea enhanced total uptake under the given conditions by more than threefold.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of endophyte alkaloids in perennial ryegrass using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Barajas, Milton C; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo; González-Martin, Inmaculada; Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R

    2017-11-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used in forage quality control because it is faster, cleaner and less expensive than conventional chemical procedures. In Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass), one of the most important forage grasses, the infection by asymptomatic Epichloë fungal endophytes alters the plant nutritional quality due to the production of alkaloids. In this research, we developed a rapid method based on NIRS to detect and quantify endophyte alkaloids (peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline) using a heterogeneous set of L. perenne plants obtained from wild grasslands and cultivars. NIR spectra from dried grass samples were recorded and classified according to the absence or presence of alkaloids, based on reference methods. The best discriminant equations for detection of alkaloids classified correctly 94.4%, 87.5% and 92.9% of plants containing peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline, respectively. The quantitative NIR equations obtained by modified partial least squares (MPLS) algorithm had coefficients of correlation of 0.93, 0.41, and 0.76 for peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline respectively. NIRS is a suitable tool for qualitative analysis of endophyte alkaloids in grasses and for the accurate quantification of peramine and ergovaline. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Cultivar and row distance interactions in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    To gain information about how widening of the row distance influences seed yields in first-year perennial ryegrass, experiments with four row distances in three types of perennial ryegrass were conducted at the University of Aarhus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. Perennial ryegrass was undersown...... at 12-, 24-, 36-, or 48-cm row distance in a cover crop of spring barley. The seeding rate in perennial ryegrass was 6 kg seeds ha-1 regardless of row distance. Although increasing the row distance from 12 to 48 cm had a negative effect on the yield component number of reproductive tillers, the yield...... was not affected in the first-year seed production in three perennial ryegrass cultivars. Regardless of row distance the seed rate was 6 kg ha-1 and hence in-row plant density in autumn and spring was higher at 48 compared with 12 cm; however, in all three cultivars the highest number of reproductive tillers...

  9. Comprehensive analysis of degradation and accumulation of ametryn in soils and in wheat, maize, ryegrass and alfalfa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ma, Li Ya; Lu, Yi Chen; Jiang, Shuang Shuang; Wu, Hong Jin; Yang, Hong

    2017-06-01

    Ametryn is a selective herbicide belonging to the triazine family and widely used for killing annual grasses or weeds in China and other parts of the world. However, reports on its environmental risk assessment with regard to soil and crop contamination are limited. In this study, accumulation of ametryn in wheat, maize, ryegrass and alfalfa crops along with ametryn residues in the soil planted with the plants were comparatively investigated. Soil enzyme activities and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), as well as antioxidant and degradation enzyme activities in plant tissues were measured. The maximum accumulation of ametryn was found in shoots and roots of wheat and alfalfa. Ryegrass had the maximum ametryn translocation factor (TF) from roots to shoots, with more than three times over the other crops. The ametryn residue in ryegrass-planted soil was much lower than that in soil planted with others. The residual content of ametryn in crop-planted soils was ordered as rhizosphere soilroot were increased by 6.16- and 28.84-fold over the control, respectively. Exudation of organic acids in the crop was induced by ametryn and contributed a lot to the degradation of the herbicide. Thus, ryegrass was shown to have a relatively strong ability to remove ametryn from ametryn-contaminated soil and its plant tissues as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Massive Multivariate NIRS Data in Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian S

    variance and the heritability for each bin were estimated using a mixed model. To use all the information for prediction, since we have 366 bins, a reduction in number of parameters is necessary. The usual method is to combine principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS). Another...... (e.g. dry matter, protein content, etc.) for the next generation. In total 1984 NIRS data from 995 ryegrass families (first cut) were used. The Absorption of radiation in the region of 960 – 1690 nm in every 2 nm distance produced 366 bins to represent the NIRS spectrum. The amount of genetic...

  11. Molecular and physiological responses of Iranian Perennial ryegrass as affected by Trinexapac ethyl, Paclobutrazol and Abscisic acid under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Etemadi, Nematollah; Arab, Mohammad Mehdi; Aalifar, Mostafa; Arab, Mostafa; Pessarakli, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Drought stress is the major limiting factor which affects turfgrass management in area with restricted rainfall or irrigation water supply. Trinexapac ethyl (TE), Paclobutrazol (PAC) and Abscisic acid (ABA) are three plant growth regulators (PGRs) that are commonly used on turf species for increasing their tolerance to different environmental stresses such as drought. However, little is known about the impact of PGRs on stress tolerance of Iranian Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The present study was conducted to examine the visual and physiological changes of Iranian Perennial ryegrass in response to foliar application of TE, PAC, and ABA under drought stress conditions. According to the obtained results, application of all three PGRs considerably restored visual quality of drought exposed plants. TE treatment increased chlorophyll content, proline content and resulted in less malondialdehyde (MDA) in drought stressed Perennial ryegrass. Application of all PGRs enhanced the relative water content (RWC) and decreased the electrolyte leakage (EL) and Hydrogen peroxide contents (H 2 O 2 content) of plants under drought stress, though the impact of TE was more pronounced. Throughout the experiment, TE- and ABA-treated plant showed greater soluble sugar (SSC) content as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes activities of drought exposed plants were considerably increased by PGRs application. Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were greater in TE-treated grasses followed by PAC-treated plants. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly enhanced by TE and ABA application. The results of the present investigation suggest that application of TE, ABA and PAC enhances drought tolerance in Perennial ryegrass. TE, PAC and ABA were all effective in mitigating physiological damages resulting from drought stress, however the beneficial effects of TE were more pronounced. The result obtained of real time

  12. Fragments of the key flowering gene GIGANTEA are associated with helitron-type sequences in the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langdon Tim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helitrons are a class of transposable elements which have been identified in a number of species of plants, animals and fungi. They are unique in their proposed rolling-circle mode of replication, have a highly variable copy-number and have been implicated in the restructuring of coding sequences both by their insertion into existing genes and by their incorporation of transcriptionally competent gene fragments. Helitron discovery depends on identifying associated DNA signature sequences and comprehensive evaluation of helitron contribution to a particular genome requires detailed computational analysis of whole genome sequence. Therefore, the role which helitrons have played in modelling non-model plant genomes is largely unknown. Results Cloning of the flowering gene GIGANTEA (GI from a BAC library of the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass identified the target gene and several GI pseudogene fragments spanning the first five exons. Analysis of genomic sequence 5' and 3' of one these GI fragments revealed motifs consistent with helitron-type transposon insertion, specifically a putative 5'-A↓T-3' insertion site containing 5'-TC and CTAG-3' borders with a sub-terminal 16 bp hairpin. Screening of a BAC library of the closely related grass species Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue indicated similar helitron-associated GI fragments present in this genome, as well as non-helitron associated GI fragments derived from the same region of GI. In order to investigate the possible extent of ancestral helitron-activity in L. perenne, a methylation-filtered GeneThresher® genomic library developed from this species was screened for potential helitron 3' hairpin sequences associated with a 3'-CTRR motif. This identified 7 potential helitron hairpin-types present between at least 9 and 51 times within the L. perenne methylation-filtered library. Conclusion This represents evidence for a possible ancestral role for helitrons

  13. Genetic variation in cultivars of diploid ryegrass,Lolium perenne andL. multiflorum, at five enzyme systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, H.; Nielsen, Gretha; Johansen, H.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of .apprx. 100 plants from each of 22 populations of L. perenne representing 15 cultivars, and from 13 populations of L. multiflorum representing 6 cultivars were scored for isozyme variants in 5 enzyme systems: PGI, GOT, ACP, PGM and 6-PGD [phosphoglucoisomerase, glutamate oxaloacetate...... transaminase, acid phosphatase, phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase]. From the individual banding patterns a genetic interpretation of the variation was formulated and population studies of the resulting 6 polymorphic enzyme loci were performed. No strong indications of partial selfing...

  14. A simple and fast kinetic assay for the determination of fructan exohydrolase activity in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eGasperl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that fructans are the main constituent of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates, little knowledge is available on the regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism. The analysis of enzyme activities involved in this process has been hampered by the low affinity of the fructan enzymes for sucrose and fructans used as fructosyl donor. Further, the analysis of fructan composition and enzyme activities is restricted to specialized labs with access to suited HPLC equipment and appropriate fructan standards. The degradation of fructan polymers with high degree of polymerization (DP by fructan exohydrolases (FEHs to fructosyloligomers is important to liberate energy in the form of fructan, but also under conditions where the generation of low DP polymers is required. Based on published protocols employing enzyme coupled endpoint reactions in single cuvettes, we developed a simple and fast kinetic 1-FEH assay. This assay can be performed in multi-well plate format using plate readers to determine the activity of 1-FEH against 1-kestotriose, resulting in a significant time reduction. Kinetic assays allow an optimal and more precise determination of enzyme activities compared to endpoint assays, and enable to check the quality of any reaction with respect to linearity of the assay. The enzyme coupled kinetic 1-FEH assay was validated in a case study showing the expected increase in 1-FEH activity during cold treatment. This assay is cost effective and could be performed by any lab with access to a plate reader suited for kinetic measurements and readings at 340 nm, and is highly suited to assess temporal changes and relative differences in 1-FEH activities. Thus, this enzyme coupled kinetic 1-FEH assay is of high importance both to the field of basic fructan research and plant breeding.

  15. Effects of post-harvest treatments on concentrations and profile of fatty acids in fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Wever, A.C.; Elgersma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant lipids are complex, polar and highly unsaturated constituents of membranes. During collection and/or handling of a plant sample, the membrane integrity gets lost due to plant injury and losses of fatty acids (FA) can occur as a result of oxidative or enzymatic processes. Quantitative and

  16. The effect of elevated ambient CO2 and temperature increase on rhizosphere of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Elhottová, Dana; Loiseau, P.; Soussana, F.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2000), s. 397-403 ISSN 0370-663X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1410 Grant - others:-(EV) EV5V-CT92-0169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911; CEZ:MSM 123100004 Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.256, year: 2000

  17. Two sides of a leaf blade: Blumeria graminis needs chemical cues in cuticular waxes of Lolium perenne for germination and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelmann, Anna; Riedel, Michael; Riederer, Markus; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    Plant surface characteristics were repeatedly shown to play a pivotal role in plant-pathogen interactions. The abaxial leaf surface of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is extremely glossy and wettable compared to the glaucous and more hydrophobic adaxial surface. Earlier investigations have demonstrated that the abaxial leaf surface was rarely infected by powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis), even when the adaxial surface was densely colonized. This led to the assumption that components of the abaxial epicuticular leaf wax might contribute to the observed impairment of growth and development of B. graminis conidia on abaxial surfaces of L. perenne. To re-assess this hypothesis, we analyzed abundance and chemical composition of L. perenne ab- and adaxial epicuticular wax fractions. While the adaxial epicuticular waxes were dominated by primary alcohols and esters, the abaxial fraction was mainly composed of n-alkanes and aldehydes. However, the major germination and differentiation inducing compound, the C26-aldehyde n-hexacosanal, was not present in the abaxial epicuticular waxes. Spiking of isolated abaxial epicuticular Lolium waxes with synthetically produced n-hexacosanal allowed reconstituting germination and differentiation rates of B. graminis in an in vitro germination assay using wax-coated glass slides. Hence, the absence of the C26-aldehyde from the abaxial surface in combination with a distinctly reduced surface hydrophobicity appears to be primarily responsible for the failure of normal germling development of B. graminis on the abaxial leaf surfaces of L. perenne.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on carbon economy in perennial ryegrass: quantification by 13CO2/12CO2 steady-state labelling and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimoldi, Agustín A; Kavanová, Monika; Lattanzi, Fernando A; Schäufele, Rudi; Schnyder, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus hoi on the carbon economy of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were investigated by comparing nonmycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants of the same size, morphology and phosphorus status. Plants were grown in the presence of CO2 sources with different C isotope composition (delta13C -1 or -44). Relative respiration and gross photosynthesis rates, and belowground allocation of C assimilated during one light period ('new C'), as well as its contribution to respiration, were quantified by the concerted use of 13CO2/12CO2 steady-state labelling and 13CO2/12CO2 gas-exchange techniques. AMF (G. hoi) enhanced the relative respiration rate of the root + soil system by 16%, inducing an extra C flow amounting to 3% of daily gross photosynthesis. Total C flow into AMF growth and respiration was estimated at rates. Therefore the instantaneous relative growth rate was lower in mycorrhizal plants.

  19. The use of linear mixed models for analysis of repeated measurements applied to water-soluble carbohydrates in perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte; Zhang, Xia

    2009-01-01

    Repeated measurements of a response variable in crops or plants receiving different treatments are widely used in agricultural science. In this paper we analyse repeated measurements of the concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates in stem and ear of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L....... The estimates of the water-soluble carbohydrates concentrations within the stem and ear datasets were similar for all three covariance structures, while the smallest standard errors were obtained using the compound symmetry covariance structure. As it was the goal to do parsimonious modelling more weight...... was given to the Bayesian information criteria than to the Akaike information criteria. Accordingly, the compound symmetry structure was chosen for the stem data and the unstructured structure was found to be the best structure for the ear data. A model check of the residuals showed...

  20. 45S rDNA regions are chromosome fragile sites expressed as gaps in vitro on metaphase chromosomes of root-tip meristematic cells in Lolium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, chromosome fragile sites are regions that are especially prone to forming non-staining gaps, constrictions or breaks in one or both of the chromatids on metaphase chromosomes either spontaneously or following partial inhibition of DNA synthesis and have been well identified. So far, no plant chromosome fragile sites similar to those in human chromosomes have been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: During the course of cytological mapping of rDNA on ryegrass chromosomes, we found that the number of chromosomes plus chromosome fragments was often more than the expected 14 in most cells for Lolium perenne L. cv. Player by close cytological examination using a routine chromosome preparation procedure. Further fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH using 45S rDNA as a probe indicated that the root-tip cells having more than a 14-chromosome plus chromosome fragment count were a result of chromosome breakage or gap formation in vitro (referred to as chromosome lesions at 45S rDNA sites, and 86% of the cells exhibited chromosome breaks or gaps and all occurred at the sites of 45S rDNA in Lolium perenne L. cv. Player, as well as in L. multiflorum Lam. cv. Top One. Chromatin depletion or decondensation occurred at various locations within the 45S rDNA regions, suggesting heterogeneity of lesions of 45S rDNA sites with respect to their position within the rDNA region. CONCLUSIONS: The chromosome lesions observed in this study are very similar cytologically to that of fragile sites observed in human chromosomes, and thus we conclude that the high frequency of chromosome lesions in vitro in Lolium species is the result of the expression of 45S rDNA fragile sites. Possible causes for the spontaneous expression of fragile sites and their potential biological significance are discussed.

  1. Identification of companion small grains for Midmar Italian ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secalae cereale), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and triticale (Triticum x secalae) were planted alone and in combination with Lolium multiflorum cv Midmar under irrigation. The dry matter (DM) yield of Midmar was also compared to that of four other ...

  2. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of labile Lolium perenne major allergens in mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irañeta, S G; Acosta, D M; Duran, R; Apicella, C; Orlando, U D; Seoane, M A; Alonso, A; Duschak, V G

    2008-08-01

    It is well known that allergen extracts used for specific therapy of allergic disorders are commonly stored as mixtures, causing an alteration of its stability. The aim of this report is to identify pollen allergens susceptible to degradation during storage of mixtures containing different sources of proteases in the absence of glycerol as a preserving agent. Mixes containing Lolium perenne (Lol p) pollen extract with either Aspergillus fumigatus or Periplaneta americana extracts were prepared and co-incubated for 90 days at 4 degrees C. Samples were taken off at fixed times and comparatively tested by in vitro and in vivo assays with atopic patients. Selected pollinic allergens were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. ELISA inhibition evidenced the loss of potency from ryegrass extract, and immunoblotting assays showed the degradation of specific pollinic allergens during storage of mixtures containing protease-rich sources. An in vivo intradermal skin assay confirmed the gradual loss of the biological activity of L. perenne pollen extract co-incubated with non-related protease-rich extracts in comparison with that of the control pollen extract. MALDI-TOF MS analysis allowed us to determine that Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 are susceptible to proteolysis whereas Lol p 4 was found to be resistant to degradation during storage. Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 degradation is responsible for the loss of the biological activity of L. perenne pollen extract when co-incubated with protease-rich fungal and cockroach extracts in the same vial for months in the absence of glycerol as a preserving agent. The integrity of these major allergens must be preserved to increase the vaccine stability and to assure efficacy when mixes are used for immunotherapy.

  3. Plants modify biological processes to ensure survival following carbon depletion: a Lolium perenne model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants, due to their immobility, have evolved mechanisms allowing them to adapt to multiple environmental and management conditions. Short-term undesirable conditions (e.g. moisture deficit, cold temperatures generally reduce photosynthetic carbon supply while increasing soluble carbohydrate accumulation. It is not known, however, what strategies plants may use in the long-term to adapt to situations resulting in net carbon depletion (i.e. reduced photosynthetic carbon supply and carbohydrate accumulation. In addition, many transcriptomic experiments have typically been undertaken under laboratory conditions; therefore, long-term acclimation strategies that plants use in natural environments are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. was used as a model plant to define whether plants adapt to repetitive carbon depletion and to further elucidate their long-term acclimation mechanisms. Transcriptome changes in both lamina and stubble tissues of field-grown plants with depleted carbon reserves were characterised using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. The RT-qPCR data for select key genes indicated that plants reduced fructan degradation, and increased photosynthesis and fructan synthesis capacities following carbon depletion. This acclimatory response was not sufficient to prevent a reduction (P<0.001 in net biomass accumulation, but ensured that the plant survived. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptations of plants with depleted carbon reserves resulted in reduced post-defoliation carbon mobilization and earlier replenishment of carbon reserves, thereby ensuring survival and continued growth. These findings will help pave the way to improve plant biomass production, for either grazing livestock or biofuel purposes.

  4. The rumen degradation of nitrogen fractions in annual ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2486547

    protein degradability of various feed sources (Erasmus et al., 1990). The methodology used to generate degradability values has a major influence on degradability values published (Michalet-Doreau & Cerneau,. 1991). Standardization of the method is related to a large number of factors causing variation, e.g. the bag.

  5. Effect of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on a soil-biota system: Role of earthworms and ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingbao; He, Qun; Shi, Jiaqi; Qin, Li; Zhang, Xuesheng; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the toxic effect of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), an important brominated fire retardant, on soil was evaluated by amending with different concentrations (0 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg dry wt) for 40 d. The activities of 3 soil enzymes (urease, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase) were measured as the principal assessment endpoints. Meanwhile, the effects of natural environmental factors, such as light conditions and soil biota, on BDE-209 intoxication were studied. For the latter, 30 earthworms (Metaphire guillelmi) with fully matured clitella or ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with fully matured leaves were exposed in soil amended with BDE-209. The activities of the soil enzymes were adversely affected by BDE-209, especially for the high-concentration treatments, with greater adverse effects in the dark than in the light. The presence of earthworms reduced toxicity to BDE-209, whereas ryegrass did not. The calculated integrated biomarker response index, which provides a general indicator of the health status of test species by combining different biomarker signals, further validated these findings. Moreover, the antioxidant status (oxidant-antioxidant balance) of these 2 biota was assessed. Results indicated that BDE-209 significantly affected the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and enhanced the levels of malondialdehyde in both species. The present study may facilitate a better understanding of the toxicity of BDE-209 toward the soil environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1349-1357. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Chemical composition and fatty acid profile in meat from grazing lamb diets supplemented with ryegrass hay, fishmeal and soya bean meal as PUFA sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Romero-Bernal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study examined the characteristics of the fatty acids profile in the meat of lambs fed grazing and supplemented with different PUFA sources. Thirty Suffolk lambs were used (37.2±5.4kg BW, grazing on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne (12h d-1 and supplemented (30g kg-1 BW0.75 with ryegrass hay (RGH, or supplements formulated with fishmeal (FHM or soybean meal (SBM. Lambs were used in a completely randomized design. Results showed an effect on total SFA, with SBM higher than RGH (P=0.033, and SBM and FHM showing higher MUFA content compared with RGH (P=0.001. Total PUFA content was higher for RGH, followed by FHM and with the lowest content for SBM (P=0.001. Concluding that there is a variation in fatty acid content depending on the lipid-protein source used in supplementation in grazing sheep, the content of PUFA was higher for grazing lambs supplemented with RGH compared with those supplemented with FHM or SBM.

  7. Effects of post-fire grass seeding on native vegetation in southern California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan L. Beyers; Carla D. Wakeman; Peter M. Wohlgemuth; Susan G. Conard

    1998-01-01

    For decades, managers have seeded burned slopes with annual grass in an attempt to increase postfire plant cover and reduce the accelerated hillslope erosion, runoff, and debris flows that typically occur during the first winter after fire. In California, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was commonly used for this purpose. Critics argue that ryegrass and other...

  8. Desempenho e características de carcaça de novilhos terminados em pastagem de aveia preta e azevém anual com diferentes níveis de suplementação energética Performance and carcass characteristics of steers supplemented with corn in an oats and annual ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Schuler Medeiros

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da suplementação energética sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de 24 novilhos cruza Aberdeen Angus x Charolês terminados aos 24 meses em pastagem de azevém anual (Lollium multiflorum L. e aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb manejada em condições de oferta de forragem não limitante ao desempenho animal. Os tratamentos foram níveis de 0; 0,4; 0,8 e 1,2% PV de oferta de concentrado à base de milho moído e minerais. Os animais foram abatidos à medida que atingiram um mínimo de 4,5mm de espessura de gordura na garupa (P8, avaliado por meio de ultrassonografia. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas sobre a deposição de gordura, avaliada in vivo por ultrassonografia ao final da etapa de desempenho, e sobre o ganho médio diário, que apresentaram valores médios de 3,9mm e 1,54kg d-1, respectivamente. A avaliação dos parâmetros bioquímicos séricos evidenciou redução linear dos níveis de ureia e aumento linear para os níveis de colesterol, sem que diferenças significativas fossem observadas sobre os níveis de glicose e triglicerídios. A suplementação produziu incremento linear no rendimento de carcaça e no ganho médio diário de carcaça. Entretanto, não foram observadas diferenças significativas sobre a área de olho de lombo, o peso de abate e o peso de carcaça quente, que apresentaram valores médios de 67,85cm², 438,95kg e 227,75kg. Os níveis crescentes de suplementação utilizados produziram incremento no rendimento e ganho médio diário de carcaça, sem alterações significativas sobre os demais parâmetros de desempenho e carcaça avaliados.The impact of energy supplementation on the performance and carcass caracteristics of 24 Aberdeen Angus x Charolais steers grazing an annual ryegrass (Lollium multiflorum L. and Oats (Avena strigosa Schreb pasture managed in order to avoid constrains to animal performance was evaluated. Treatments were levels of supplementation

  9. Effect of different grazing pressures by lambs grazing Lolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    high (HGP), medium (MGP) and low (LGP), corresponding to 30, 50 and 75 g available DM/kg BW/day, respectively] on the performance of lambs grazing Lolium perenne and Dactylis glomerata pastures in spring. Feed intakes and average ...

  10. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    Grass pollen, especially of rye-grass (Lolium perenne). represents an important cause of type I allergy. Identification of IgE-binding (allergenic) epitopes of major grass pollen allergens is essential for understanding the molecular basis of interaction between allergens and human IgE antibodies and therefore facilitates the devising of safer and more effective diagnostic and immunotherapy reagents. The aim of this study was to identify the allergenic epitopes of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen, immunodissect these epitopes further so that the amino acid residues critical for antibody binding can be determined and investigate the conservation and nature of these epitopes within the context of the natural grass pollen allergens. Peptides, 12-13 amino acid residues long and overlapping each other by 4 amino acid residues, based on the entire deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of Lol p 5, were synthesised and assayed for IgE-binding. Two strong IgE-binding epitopes (Lol p 5 (49-60) and (265-276), referred to as peptides 7 and 34, respectively) were identified. These epitopes were further resolved by truncated peptides and amino acid replacement studies and the amino acid residues critical for IgE-binding determined (Lol p 5 (49-60) residue Lys57 and (265-276) residue Lys275). Sequences of these epitopes were conserved in related allergens and may form the conserved allergenic domains responsible for the cross-reactivity observed between pollen allergens of taxonomically related grasses. Furthermore, due to its strong IgE-reactivity, synthetic peptide Lol p 5 (265-276) was used to affinity-purify specific IgE antibodies which recognised proteins of other clinically important grass pollens. further indicating presence of allergenic cross-reactivity at the level of allergenic epitope. Moreover, Lol p 5 (265 276) demonstrated a strong capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to natural rye-grass pollen proteins highlighting the antibody accessibility

  11. Identification of candidate reference genes in perennial ryegrass for quantitative RT-PCR under various abiotic stress conditions.

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    Linkai Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR is an important technique for analyzing differences in gene expression due to its sensitivity, accuracy and specificity. However, the stability of the expression of reference genes is necessary to ensure accurate qRT-PCR assessment of expression in genes of interest. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. is important forage and turf grass species in temperate regions, but the expression stability of its reference genes under various stresses has not been well-studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were evaluated for use as controls in qRT-PCR to quantify gene expression in perennial ryegrass under drought, high salinity, heat, waterlogging, and ABA (abscisic acid treatments. Four approaches--Delta CT, geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder were used to determine the stability of expression in these reference genes. The results are consistent with the idea that the best reference genes depend on the stress treatment under investigation. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4 alpha (eIF4A, Transcription elongation factor 1 (TEF1 and Tat binding protein-1 (TBP-1 were the three most stably expressed genes under drought stress and were also the three best genes for studying salt stress. eIF4A, TBP-1, and Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2 were the most suitable reference genes to study heat stress, while eIF4A, TEF1, and E2 were the three best reference genes for studying the effects of ABA. Finally, Ubiquitin (UBQ, TEF1, and eIF4A were the three best reference genes for waterlogging treatments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results will be helpful in choosing the best reference genes for use in studies related to various abiotic stresses in perennial ryegrass. The stability of expression in these reference genes will enable better normalization and quantification of the transcript levels for studies of gene expression in such studies.

  12. Research note: The use of Lolium multiflorum and uninoculated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The δ15 N values for the15 N natural abundance method and atom% 15N values for the 15N dilution method for plant and soil samples are presented. The ryegrass pastures showed the least variation in δ15N and atom%15N values between experimental plots. This crop appeared to be a more appropriate choice in such ...

  13. Using a Candidate Gene-Based Genetic Linkage Map to Identify QTL for Winter Survival in Perennial Ryegrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Paina

    Full Text Available Important agronomical traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne breeding programs such as winter survival and heading date, are quantitative traits that are generally controlled by multiple loci. Individually, these loci have relatively small effects. The aim of this study was to develop a candidate gene based Illumina GoldenGate 1,536-plex assay, containing single nucleotide polymorphism markers designed from transcripts involved in response to cold acclimation, vernalization, and induction of flowering. The assay was used to genotype a mapping population that we have also phenotyped for winter survival to complement the heading date trait previously mapped in this population. A positive correlation was observed between strong vernalization requirement and winter survival, and some QTL for winter survival and heading date overlapped on the genetic map. Candidate genes were located in clusters along the genetic map, some of which co-localized with QTL for winter survival and heading date. These clusters of candidate genes may be used in candidate gene based association studies to identify alleles associated with winter survival and heading date.

  14. Rye-grass as an energy crop using biogas technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The viability of using rye-grass in the UK as a wet energy crop was investigated in this project. The harvesting of rye-grass, the operation of pilot-scale digesters fed with cut rye-grass, and the operation of a biogas plant are described. Use of the digestate as a fertilizer for the grass was examined and the need for added farm manure or slurry to enrich the nutrient content of the grass and produce better yields is noted. Details are given of the digester design and the design of a commercial-scale biogas plant able to take a variety of liquid and solid feeds. Energy balance, the economics of the commercial design, the ensiling of the grass, and methane yields are considered.

  15. INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR OF GOATS IN RYEGRASS AND BLACK OAT PASTURES IN PURE OR MIXTURE CULTURE COMPORTAMENTO INGESTIVO DE CAPRINOS EM PASTAGEM DE AZEVÉM E AVEIA PRETA EM CULTIVO PURO E CONSORCIADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Lúcia Gomes Monteiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was realized in Campo Largo, PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by preference and ingestion rate. The averages of pastures height was higher (p>0.05 in ryegrass and mixture, and in other pastures evaluations ryegrass was superior (p<0.05 to the others treatments. The grazing time of goats in ryegrass and black oat was superior (p<0.05 to the mixture. The bite rate per minute was higher (p<0.05 in black oat. The goats demonstrated preference for ryegrass and black oat in pure culture.
     
    KEY WORDS: Avena strigosa Schreb, bite, goats, Lolium multiflorum Lam, preference. The experiment was realized in Campo Largo – PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by

  16. Produção animal e retorno econômico em misturas de gramíneas anuais de estação fria Animal production and economic return in mixtures of annual temperate grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho e a produtividade animal em misturas de gramíneas anuais de estação fria sob pastejo contínuo foram avaliados. As misturas MTA - Triticale (X Triticosecale + azevém (Lolium multiflorum, MAA - Aveia preta (Avena strigosa + azevém, MTAA - Triticale + aveia preta + azevém foram usadas. A semeadura a lanço foi realizada em 21/04/95, sendo adubada com 200 kg/ha (05-30-15, sendo a adubação de cobertura de 175 kg/ha de nitrogênio. O início do pastejo ocorreu em 10/06/95, estendendo-se até 14/11/95. O ganho de peso médio diário foi similar entre as misturas, sendo de 693, 685 e 665 g, para MTA, MAA e MTAA, respectivamente. A carga animal média foi superior na mistura MTA em relação às demais, sendo de 1210, 1055 e 1116 kg de PV/ha. A mistura MTA apresentou o maior ganho de peso vivo/ha (650,7 kg/ha, seguida pela MTAA (592,4 kg/ha e MAA (568,8 kg/ha. O custo/ha foi superior na MTA (R$ 320,42, seguido pela MTAA (R$ 316,47 e MAA (R$ 312,69; a receita líquida foi também superior na MTA (R$ 167,60, seguida pela MTAA (R$ 127,83 e MAA (R$ 113,91. A mistura de triticale mais azevém foi a mais indicada, pois apresentou o maior ganho de peso por unidade de área, resultando em maior retorno econômico.The animal performance and productivity in mixtures of annual temperate grasses under continuous grazing condition were evaluated. The mixtures MTR - Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack plus ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., MOR - Oat (Avena strigosa Schreb plus ryegrass, MTOR - Triticale plus oat plus ryegrass, were used. The broadcasting sowing was realized at 04/21/95, being fertilized with 200 kg/ha (05-30-15, being the broadcasting fertilization of 175 kg/ha of nitrogen. The beginning of the grazing occurred at 06/10/95, and was extended until 11/14/95. The average daily weight gain was similar among the mixtures, being 693, 685 and 665 g, for MTR, MOR and MTOR, respectively. The average stocking rate was superior in the MTR

  17. Composição botânica e estrutural e valor nutricional de pastagens de azevém consorciadas Botanic and structural composition and nutritional value on intercropped ryegrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a influência de espécies em consórcio com azevém sobre a composição botânica e estrutural e o valor nutritivo dos pastos em um sistema de transição agroecológica. Foi avaliada a cultura do azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. consorciada com aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb., trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L. e amendoim-forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & Gregory. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e três repetições. O primeiro pastejo foi realizado 21 dias após a emergência das plantas nas pastagens de azevém + aveia-preta e azevém + amendoim-forrageiro e 28 dias após a emergência na pastagem de azevém + trevo-branco. O segundo pastejo na pastagem de azevém + aveia-preta ocorreu 30 dias após o primeiro pastejo, enquanto nas demais pastagens ocorreu 37 dias depois. As taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca (MS do início do período de exclusão até o pico de produção de MS foram de 77,7; 75,0 e 71,3 kg/ha/dia de MS para as pastagens consorciadas com trevo-branco, amendoim-forrageiro e aveia-preta, respectivamente. A razão folha/colmo até o segundo pastejo foi elevada em todas as pastagens. A redução dos teores de PB conforme os dias de exclusão no pasto de azevém + aveia-preta é menor que nos pastos de azevém consorciado com trevo-branco ou amendoim-forrageiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of species intercropped with ryegrass on the botanical and structural composition and the nutritional values of pastures in an agroecological transition system. It was evaluated ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. intercropped with black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb., white clover (Trifolium repens L. and forage peanut (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & Gregory. It was used a complete random design with three treatments and three repetitions. The first grazing was done 21 days after emergence of the plants on the pastures with ryegrass

  18. Composição química de sementes de azevém em resposta ao retardamento da secagem e ao armazenamento Chemical composition of ryegrass seeds in response to drying delay and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eichelberger

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações na composição química de sementes de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam., cultivar Comum-RS, em resposta ao retardamento da secagem (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 e 48 horas e ao armazenamento (zero, quatro e oito meses, e correlacionar tais alterações com a qualidade fisiológica. A secagem foi retardada por meio do acondicionamento das sementes em caixas de poliestireno, contendo cada uma 24 kg de sementes, e realizada sobre piso de concreto, à sombra, por 12 horas, completando-a em estufa com circulação de ar. O retardamento da secagem por até 14 horas não comprometeu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Quando as sementes foram armazenadas por quatro e oito meses, os teores de proteína solúvel apresentaram correlação positiva com a germinação. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes correlacionou-se de forma negativa com o teor de aminoácidos e positiva com o teor de açúcares solúveis. O retardamento da secagem aumentou o teor de aminoácidos e reduziu açúcares solúveis, amido solúvel, proteína solúvel e peso de mil sementes. Durante o armazenamento houve aumento dos teores de aminoácidos, amido solúvel e proteína solúvel, e a redução de açúcares solúveis e peso de mil sementes.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate changes in the chemical composition of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. Comum-RS, seeds, in response to drying delay (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 e 48 hours and storage (zero, four and eight months and to correlate these changes with physiological quality. Drying was delayed by conditioning seeds in polystyrene boxes, containing 24 kg of seeds each one, and was done on a shadowy concrete floor for 12 hours, being completed in an oven with circulation of forced air. Drying delay up to 14 hours did not compromise physiological quality of seeds. When seeds were stored for four and eight months, contents of soluble protein showed

  19. The production of four ryegrass cultivars oversown at various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An irrigated kikuyu pasture was oversown, in late March, with four ryegrass cultivars at four seeding rates at Cedara and n'Tabamhlope. The oversowing procedure shows promise with the cultivars producing well at both sites. There were no significant increases in dry matter yield from seeding rates greater than 30 kg ha-1; ...

  20. The characterization of irrigated Midmar Italian ryegrass in the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to characterize the seasonal growth rate and changes in the quality of herbage, animal production and grazing capacity of Midmar Italian ryegrass in the South Eastern Transvaal Highveld under continuous grazing; Four levels of available dry matter (DM) were maintained on a ...

  1. Rumen degradation characteristics of ryegrass herbage and ryegrass silage are affected by interactions between stage of maturity and nitrogen fertilisation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeren, J.A.H.; Podesta, S.C.; Hatew, B.; Klop, G.; Laar, van H.; Bannink, A.; Warner, D.; Jonge, de L.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate interaction effects between stage of maturity and N fertilization rate on rumen degradation characteristics determined with nylon bag incubations of ryegrass herbages and ryegrass silage. Grass herbage (n = 4) was cut after 3 or 5 weeks of regrowth

  2. Innate type 2 response to Alternaria extract enhances ryegrass-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with A. alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airways compared with ryegrass-only challenges. Type 2 ILC2 and Th2 cell recruitment to the airways was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass-challenged mice. Innate immune challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. A single exposure to Alternaria extract in ryegrass-sensitized and -challenged mice enhances the type 2 lung inflammatory response, including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production, possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposure to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma.

  3. Innate Type-2 Response to Alternaria Extract Enhances Ryegrass-induced Lung Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Methods Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with Alternaria alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of BAL eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), IL-5 and IL-13 as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Results Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airway compared with ryegrass only challenges. Type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and Th2 cell recruitment to the airway was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass challenged mice. Innate challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. Conclusions A single exposure of Alternaria extract in ryegrass sensitized and challenged mice enhances the type-2 lung inflammatory response including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposures to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma. PMID:24296722

  4. STUDY ON PHYTO-EXTRACTION BALANCE OF ZN, CD AND PB FROM MINE-WASTE POLLUTED SOILS BY USING FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA AND LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the cultivation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea and of perennial ryegrass for two years on a chernozem type of soil, in the Banat's plain area we investigated the phyto-extraction potential of Zn, Cd and Pb. In the experimental plot it has been incorporated a quantity of 20 kg of mine-waste per square meter, in a mass ratio of 1:2,5. The mine-waste polluting "contribution" was of 1209 mg Zn / kg d.s., 4.70 mg Cd / kg d.s. and 188.2 mg Pb / kg d.s. The metals content in the soil was determined at the two moments of biomass harvesting, and through balance calculations we could establish the phyto-extraction efficiency of the two foragegrasses species. The obtained results indicate that Festuca arundinacea has an average phyto-extraction yield of 50% for Zn and Cd in the soil; in the case of an ionic excess of 3,5 to 4 times, the phyto-extraction efficiency is reduced, more obvious in the case of Pb (lead ions. The species Lolium perenne registers a yield of almost 92% in the process of phyto-extraction of Zn. The yield values for Cd si Pb are lower, but comparable with the control plot. Unlike Festuca arundinacea, the Lollium perenne species tolerates better the Cd and Pb ionic excess.

  5. Effectiveness of Five Biosolids as Nitrogen Sources to Produce Single and Cumulative Ryegrass Harvests in Two Australian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biosolids have been produced by various stabilization processes of sewage sludge, but little attention has been given to the effects of such treatments on their effectiveness to supply nitrogen for plant growth. Here, we investigated these effects by cultivating Lolium perenne (ryegrass in two Australian soils, a sandy Spodosol and a clayey Oxisol. Biosolids stabilized by either aerobic digestion, composting, CaO-liming, 250 oC heat-drying or solar irradiation of domestic sewage sludge were applied to soils at 10 increasing rates (0.25-8.0 dry Mg ha-1, and chemically fertilized soils were used as reference. Results showed that the stabilization processes affected biosolids-N agronomic rates and effectiveness to yield plant biomass, which was a function of organic-N contents mineralized in soils. In the short term, biosolids were from 1/5 (digested biosolids in Oxisol to over twice (solar-irradiated biosolids in Spodosol as effective as chemical fertilizer to produce a first single harvest. As long-term N-sources, they significantly increased the effectiveness to produce plant biomass, being from 2.0 to 4.1 times more effective than chemical fertilizer in Spodosol and 1.5-2.4 times in Oxisol. Biosolids could substitute for N fertilizer with similar or higher effectiveness to yield plant biomass, depending on the sewage sludge stabilization process, soil type and cultivation term considered. Therefore, the sound management of sewage products as N sources for crop production should consider the interaction among these factors rather than solely their N content.

  6. Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaszewski, Céline; Byrne, Stephen; Foito, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    T markers, and a DArT array has recently been developed for the Lolium-Festuca complex. In this study, we report the first use of the DArTFest array to generate a genetic linkage map based on 326 markers in a Lolium perenne F2 population, consisting of 325 genotypes. For proof of concept, the map was used...

  7. Epidemiology of ryegrass mosaic virus in South Africa. | S.N. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and seasonal occurrence of ryegrass mosaic virus in South Africa was determined. Italian ryegrass plants were collected from eight different research stations twice during the growing season in 1990 and 1991. Samples were tested for the presence of RMV by means of symptomology, electron microscopy, ...

  8. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Dairy cows, Perennial ryegrass, Rumen fill, Clearance, Degradation, Grazing behaviour.In temperate environments, perennial ryegrass is the most widely used species for feeding dairy cows. That is because of its high productivity, palatability, digestibility and nutritive

  9. Effect of Repeated Application of Manure on Herbage Yield, Quality and Wintering Ability during Cropping of Dwarf Napiergrass with Italian Ryegrass in Hilly Southern Kyushu, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Fatmyah Utamy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two levels of manure application (184 and 275 kg N ha−1 year−1 on herbage yield, quality, and wintering ability during the cropping of a dwarf genotype of late-heading (DL Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach oversown with Italian ryegrass (IR; Lolium multiflorum Lam. were examined and compared with chemical fertilizer application (234 kg N ha−1 year−1 for 4 years to determine a sustainable and environmentally harmonized herbage production in a hilly area (340 m above sea level. No significant (p > 0.05 differences in growth attributes of plant height, tiller density, percentage of leaf blade, or dry matter yield appeared in either DL Napiergrass or IR among moderate levels (184–275 kg N ha−1 year−1 of manure and chemical fertilizer treatments. IR exhibited no significant detrimental effect on spring regrowth of DL Napiergrass, which showed a high wintering ability in all treatments. In vitro dry matter digestibility of DL Napiergrass tended to increase with increasing manure application, especially at the first defoliation in the first three years. Manure application improved soil chemical properties and total nitrogen and carbon content. The results suggested that the lower rate of manure application of 184 kg nitrogen ha−1 year−1 would be suitable, which would be a good substitute for chemical fertilizer application with an equilibrium nitrogen budget for sustainable DL Napiergrass and IR cropping in the hilly region of southern Kyushu.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    -Festuca complex show very diverse phenotypes, including for many agronomically important traits. Analysis of sequenced transcriptomes of these non-model species may shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic diversity. Results We have generated de novo transcriptome assemblies for four......Background The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf fescues, both belonging to the subfamily Pooideae. This subfamily also includes wheat, barley, oat and rye, making it extremely important to world agriculture. Species within the Lolium...... species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, ranging from 52,166 to 72,133 transcripts per assembly. We have also predicted a set of proteins and validated it with a high-confidence protein database from three closely related species (H. vulgare, B. distachyon and O. sativa). We have obtained gene family...

  11. Flowering does not decrease vegetative competitiveness of Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2009-01-01

    The theory of life-history evolution commonly assumes a trade-off between sexual and vegetative reproduction. Hence, production of flowers and fruits should have measurable costs in terms of reduced vegetative growth. This trade-off may be meaningful for breeding of forage and turf grasses...... as reduced flowering could free resources and increase productivity. But if so, less-flowering cultivars might be more competitive and invade natural swards. We tested for costs of sexual reproduction on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of the perennial grass Lolium perenne, one of the most...... provenances the response of clone diameter to flowering was positive or neutral. We conclude that investment of resources into flowering has no measurable costs on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of L. perenne. The apparent lack of costs of sexual reproduction could be explained by bet...

  12. Ação do anidrido naftálico na seletividade de herbicidas aplicados para controle de azevém em aveia-branca Action of naphthalic anhydride on herbicide selected for ryegrass control in oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rizzardi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em Passo Fundo-RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do tratamento de sementes de aveia-branca (Avena sativa com o antídoto anidrido naftálico (AN na seletividade de herbicidas utilizados para controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em parcelas subdivididas, em blocos casualizados, repetidos quatro vezes. As parcelas principais foram constituídas pela ausência ou presença do AN (5 g kg-1 no tratamento das sementes de aveia, e nas subparcelas foram alocados cinco tratamentos herbicidas, uma testemunha sem azevém e sem aplicação de herbicida e uma testemunha sem controle de azevém. Os tratamentos herbicidas utilizados foram diclofop (284 e 426 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1, isoxaflutole (52,5 g ha-1 e clomazone (1.000 g ha-1. Foram avaliados o percentual de controle de azevém, a fitotoxicidade visual dos herbicidas e as características associadas à cultura da aveia, como massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, número de plantas e de panículas por área, peso de 1.000 grãos e rendimento de grãos. Os resultados evidenciaram que o tratamento de sementes de aveia com AN não aumentou a seletividade dos herbicidas aplicados, com exceção para massa seca da parte aérea, no caso de sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas que propiciaram os melhores níveis de controle de azevém foram os que ocasionaram maiores danos fitotóxicos à cultura da aveia-branca.An experiment was conducted in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of treatment of oat seeds (Avena sativa with naphthalic anhydride safener (AN on the herbicide selectivity used for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum control. The experimental design used was a split-plot one, in randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments consisted of oat seed treated or not with AN (5 g kg-1 seed as main plots, and of five herbicide treatments, one check without ryegrass and herbicide and

  13. Desempenho de cordeiras em pastagens de azevém e de milheto sob suplementação Performance of female lambs on Italian ryegrass and pearl millet pastures under supplement levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Adelaide Gomes Elejalde

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de cordeiras em pastagens de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e de milheto (Pennisetum americanum L. Leeke como alimento exclusivo ou com suplementação diária com ração comercial na proporção de 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5% do peso corporal (PC. O método de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua com taxa de lotação variável. As cordeiras em pastagem de azevém com suplementação nos níveis de 0,5 e 1,5% do PC apresentaram maior ganho médio diário. Independentemente do nível, a suplementação em pastagem de azevém promoveu o maior ganho de peso por área. Na pastagem de milheto, o ganho médio diário, o ganho de peso por área e o escore de condição corporal foram maiores nas cordeiras sob suplementação. A estrutura de pastagens de azevém e de milheto não é influenciada pela oferta de suplemento aos animais. A utilização da pastagem de azevém nos períodos pré e pós-desmama, associada à suplementação nos níveis de 0,5 a 1,5% do peso vivo em pastagem de milheto, permite que cordeiras apresentem peso e escore de condição corporal adequados para o acasalamento aos 9 meses de idade.It was evaluated the performance of female lambs on cultivated pastures of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke as exclusive food or as daily supplementation with commercial feed at the ratio of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the body weight. The used grazing method was continuous with variable stocking. Female lambs on Italian ryegrass pasture supplemented with 0.5 and 1.5% of body weight presented greater average daily gain. Regardless to the level, supplementation on Italian ryegrass pasture promoted the highest weight gain per area. In pearl millet pasture, the daily weight gain, the weight gain per area and body condition score were higher for the lambs under supplementation. The structure of Italian ryegrass and pearl millet pastures is not affected by the offer of

  14. Genomic prediction in a breeding program of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We present a genomic selection study performed on 1918 rye grass families (Lolium perenne L.), which were derived from a commercial breeding program at DLF-Trifolium, Denmark. Phenotypes were recorded on standard plots, across 13 years and in 6 different countries. Variants were identified...... in utilizing genomic selection in rye grass....... this set. Estimated Breeding Value and prediction accuracies were calculated trough two different cross-validation schemes: (i) k-fold (k=10); (ii) leaving out one parent combination at the time, in order to test for accuracy of predicting new families. Accuracies ranged between 0.56 and 0.97 for scheme (i...

  15. Estimated metabolizable energy yields of perennial and annual grass swards compared with those of spring barley and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. NIEMELÄINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The dry matter yields of cultivar trials (from 1976 to 1998 at 15 sites in Finland of perennial grass sward (meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis cv. Boris, annual grass sward (Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, cv. Barmultra and Mitos, spring barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Otra, Arra, Arve and oat (Avena sativa cv. Veli were used to estimate metabolisable energy yields (MEY by using the feeds metabolisable energy concentration values (MJ/kg DM from ruminant feed tables. Harvest index (HI of barley and oat was set to 50%, and straw yields and whole crop cereal silage (WCCS yields were generated from grain yields accordingly. The MEY in the third year of perennial grass (81.4 GJ/ha was significantly lower than that in the first (90.0 GJ/ha and second years (90.7 GJ/ha. However, on average, the one to three year old perennial grass-swards had significantly higher MEY than the annual grass swards (87.7 vs. 83.3 GJ/ha, respectively. The MEYs of perennial and annual grass swards were substantially higher than the MEY of barley grain (52.7 GJ/ha and oat grain (47. 8 GJ/ha. When the total herbage of cereals, i.e. straw and grain, was used in the calculations, at a ME value of 6.0 MJ/ kg dry matter (DM for straw, the MEY of barley rose to 75.8 GJ/ha and that of oat to 72.6 GJ/ha. Additionally, the MEY of barley was estimated in the WCCS production situation by converting total herbage to MEY by using ME value 9.9 MJ/kg DM. The MEY of barley in the WCCS calculations was 77.4 GJ/ha, which was significantly lower than the MEY of annual and perennial grass swards. The MEY of barley was a 60%, b 86%, and c 88% of the average MEY of one to three year old perennial grass sward when the MEY of barley was calculated according to a grain, b grain + straw, and c whole crop cereal silage. Perennial grass sward was the most productive of the studied crops in metabolisable energy production for ruminants.

  16. Effect of application of fertilizer nitrogen, zinc and selenium on zinc nutrition of ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dongpu; Bai Lingyu; Yao Yunyin; Hua Luo

    2001-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of zinc or selenium fertilizer applied alone, combined application of nitrogen, zinc and selenium fertilizer on zinc nutrition of ryegrass in mono culture or in mixed culture in mountain yellow-brown earth of Hubei province. The results showed that: 1) Zn content was enhanced by mixed culture (white clover: ryegrass = 1:4), at the same time, Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was increased with increasing of Zn fertilizer. 2) The main reason of Zn content of ryegrass decreased in mixed culture was dilution effect due to the increase of dry weight. 3) In mono-Se treatment, Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was decreased with increasing of Se fertilizer. 4) In 9 treatment of combined applications of N, Zn and Se fertilizer, treatment of the highest Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was N46Zn25Se1; treatment of the highest Zn content of ryegrass in mono culture was N30Zn25Se5

  17. Transpiration flow controls Zn transport in Brassica napus and Lolium multiflorum under toxic levels as evidenced from isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couder, Eléonore; Mattielli, Nadine; Drouet, Thomas; Smolders, Erik; Delvaux, Bruno; Iserentant, Anne; Meeus, Coralie; Maerschalk, Claude; Opfergelt, Sophie; Houben, David

    2015-11-01

    Stable zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation between soil and plant has been used to suggest the mechanisms affecting Zn uptake under toxic conditions. Here, changes in Zn isotope composition in soil, soil solution, root and shoot were studied for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on three distinct metal-contaminated soils collected near Zn smelters (total Zn 0.7-7.5%, pH 4.8-7.3). The Zn concentrations in plants reflected a toxic Zn supply. The Zn isotopic fingerprint of total soil Zn varied from -0.05‰ to +0.26 ± 0.02‰ (δ66Zn values relative to the JMC 3-0749L standard) among soils, but the soil solution Zn was depleted in 66Zn, with a constant Zn isotope fractionation of about -0.1‰ δ66Zn unit compared to the bulk soil. Roots were enriched with 66Zn relative to soil solution (δ66Znroot - δ66Znsoil solution = Δ66Znroot-soil solution = +0.05 to +0.2 ‰) and shoots were strongly depleted in 66Zn relative to roots (Δ66Znshoot-root = -0.40 to -0.04 ‰). The overall δ66Zn values in shoots reflected that of the bulk soil, but were lowered by 0.1-0.3 ‰ units as compared to the latter. The isotope fractionation between root and shoot exhibited a markedly strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.83) with transpiration per unit of plant weight. Thus, the enrichment with light Zn isotopes in shoot progressed with increasing water flux per unit plant biomass dry weight, showing a passive mode of Zn transport by transpiration. Besides, the light isotope enrichment in shoots compared to roots was larger for rape than for rye grass, which may be related to the higher Zn retention in rape roots. This in turn may be related to the higher cation exchange capacity of rape roots. Our finding can be of use to trace the biogeochemical cycles of Zn and evidence the tolerance strategies developed by plants in Zn-excess conditions.

  18. Chromosome pairing of individual genomes in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), its progenitors, and hybrids with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, David; Bartoš, Jan; Zwierzykowski, Z.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 2 (2009), s. 170-178 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/07/P479 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : IN-SITU-HYBRIDIZATION * GENETIC-CONTROL * VAR. GLAUCESCENS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.729, year: 2009

  19. QTL analysis of crown rust resistance in perennial ryegrass under conditions of natural and artificial infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schejbel, Britt; Jensen, Louise Friis Bach; Xing, Yongzhong

    2007-01-01

    Crown rust is an economically devastating disease of perennial ryegrass. Both artificial crown rust inoculations, with the possibility of several selection cycles in one year, as well as marker-assisted selection can be used for more efficient breeding of new resistant cultivars. The objective...... of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for response to crown rust infection in perennial ryegrass. In order to identify relevant markers for response to crown rust infection, QTL mapping was performed on a ryegrass mapping population which was evaluated for resistance in the field for two years...

  20. A Novel W1999S Mutation and Non-Target Site Resistance Impact on Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Inhibiting Herbicides to Varying Degrees in a UK Lolium multiflorum Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaundun, Shiv Shankhar; Bailly, Geraldine C.; Dale, Richard P.; Hutchings, Sarah-Jane; McIndoe, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    Background Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicides are important products for the post-emergence control of grass weed species in small grain cereal crops. However, the appearance of resistance to ACCase herbicides over time has resulted in limited options for effective weed control of key species such as Lolium spp. In this study, we have used an integrated biological and molecular biology approach to investigate the mechanism of resistance to ACCase herbicides in a Lolium multiflorum Lam. from the UK (UK21). Methodology/Principal Findings The study revealed a novel tryptophan to serine mutation at ACCase codon position 1999 impacting on ACCase inhibiting herbicides to varying degrees. The W1999S mutation confers dominant resistance to pinoxaden and partially recessive resistance to cycloxydim and sethoxydim. On the other hand, plants containing the W1999S mutation were sensitive to clethodim and tepraloxydim. Additionally population UK21 is characterised by other resistance mechanisms, very likely non non-target site based, affecting several aryloxyphenoxyproprionate (FOP) herbicides but not the practical field rate of pinoxaden. The positive identification of wild type tryptophan and mutant serine alleles at ACCase position 1999 could be readily achieved with an original DNA based derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) assay that uses the same PCR product but two different enzymes for positively identifying the wild type tryptophan and mutant serine alleles identified here. Conclusion/Significance This paper highlights intrinsic differences between ACCase inhibiting herbicides that could be exploited for controlling ryegrass populations such as UK21 characterised by compound-specific target site and non-target site resistance. PMID:23469130

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen L; Spannagl, Manuel; Mayer, Klaus F X; Asp, Torben

    2015-03-28

    The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf fescues, both belonging to the subfamily Pooideae. This subfamily also includes wheat, barley, oat and rye, making it extremely important to world agriculture. Species within the Lolium-Festuca complex show very diverse phenotypes, and many of them are related to agronomically important traits. Analysis of sequenced transcriptomes of these non-model species may shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic diversity. We have generated de novo transcriptome assemblies for four species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, ranging from 52,166 to 72,133 transcripts per assembly. We have also predicted a set of proteins and validated it with a high-confidence protein database from three closely related species (H. vulgare, B. distachyon and O. sativa). We have obtained gene family clusters for the four species using OrthoMCL and analyzed their inferred phylogenetic relationships. Our results indicate that VRN2 is a candidate gene for differentiating vernalization and non-vernalization types in the Lolium-Festuca complex. Grouping of the gene families based on their BLAST identity enabled us to divide ortholog groups into those that are very conserved and those that are more evolutionarily relaxed. The ratio of the non-synonumous to synonymous substitutions enabled us to pinpoint protein sequences evolving in response to positive selection. These proteins may explain some of the differences between the more stress tolerant Festuca, and the less stress tolerant Lolium species. Our data presents a comprehensive transcriptome sequence comparison between species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, with the identification of potential candidate genes underlying some important phenotypical differences within the complex (such as VRN2). The orthologous genes between the species have a very high %id (91,61%) and the majority of gene families were shared for all of them. It is

  2. A risk calculator for glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum (Gaud.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rex A; Pratley, James E; Hudson, David; Dill, Gerald M

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate resistance has been confirmed in 58 populations of Lolium rigidum (Gaud.), a major weed of crops in southern Australia. Extensive use of glyphosate in conjunction with minimal soil disturbance has been identified as high risk for resistance to that herbicide. Land managers need a simple method for rapid assessment of the risk of resistance occurring as a result of past and proposed future management practices. Modelled on risk assessment nomographs, a simple calculator for indicating the risk of evolved glyphosate resistance in L. rigidum is described. The calculator uses the generations since first use and the frequency of use of glyphosate in combination with historical cultivation levels as critical factors for determining the risk of glyphosate resistance evolution. Based on the management history of a field, a land manager can graphically determine a glyphosate resistance risk for that field. The calculator enables the farmer or the advisor to assess the risk of a weed's population becoming resistant and modify practices accordingly to manage for sustainable glyphosate use. The risk calculator could be modified for other herbicides and different weed species. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Mechanism of Resistance to Glyphosate in Lolium perenne from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Yanniccari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina, glyphosate resistance was reported in a Lolium perenne population after 12 years of successful herbicide use. The aim of the current paper was to put in evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate resistance of this weed. Susceptible leaves treated with different doses of glyphosate and incubated in vitro showed an accumulation of shikimic acid of around three to five times the basal level, while no changes were detected in leaves of glyphosate-resistant plants. The resistance mechanism prevents shikimate accumulation in leaves, even under such tissue-isolation conditions. The activity of the glyphosate target enzyme (EPSPS: 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase was quantified at different herbicide concentrations. EPSPS from resistant plants showed no difference in glyphosate-sensitivity compared to EPSPS from susceptible plants, and, accordingly, no amino acid substitution causing mutations associated with resistance were found. While the glyphosate target enzymes were equally sensitive, the basal EPSPS activity in glyphosate resistant plants was approximately 3-fold higher than the EPSPS activity in susceptible plants. This increased EPSPS activity in glyphosate resistant plants was associated with a 15-fold higher expression of EPSPS compared with susceptible plants. Therefore, the over-expression of EPSPS appears to be the main mechanism responsible for resistance to glyphosate. This mechanism has a constitutive character and has important effects on plant fitness, as recently reported.

  4. Vacuolar Sequestration of Paraquat Is Involved in the Resistance Mechanism in Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunharo, Caio A. C. G.; Hanson, Bradley D.

    2017-01-01

    Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot (LOLMU) is a winter annual weed, common to row crops, orchards and roadsides. Glyphosate-resistant populations of LOLMU are widespread in California. In many situations, growers have switched to paraquat or other postemergence herbicides to manage glyphosate-resistant LOLMU populations. Recently, poor control of LOLMU with paraquat was reported in a prune orchard in California where paraquat has been used several times. We hypothesize that the low efficacy observed is due to the selection of a paraquat-resistant biotype of LOLMU. Greenhouse dose-response experiments conducted with a susceptible (S) and the putative paraquat-resistant biotype (PRHC) confirmed paraquat resistance in PRHC. Herbicide absorption studies indicated that paraquat is absorbed faster in S than PRHC, although the maximum absorption estimates were similar for the two biotypes. Conversely, translocation of 14C-paraquat under light-manipulated conditions was restricted to the treated leaf of PRHC, whereas herbicide translocation out of the treated leaf was nearly 20 times greater in S. To determine whether paraquat was active within the plant cells, the photosynthetic performance was assessed after paraquat application using the parameter maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). Paraquat reaches the chloroplasts of PRHC, since there was a transitory inhibition of photosynthetic activity in PRHC leaves. However, PRHC Fv/Fm recovered to initial levels by 48 h after paraquat treatment. No paraquat metabolites were found, indicating that resistance is not due to paraquat degradation. LOLMU leaf segments were exposed to paraquat following pretreatments with inhibitors of plasma membrane- and tonoplast-localized transporter systems to selectively block paraquat intracellular movement. Subsequent evaluation of membrane integrity indicated that pre-exposure to putrescine resulted in the resistant biotype responding to paraquat similarly to S

  5. Remodeling of Leaf Cellular Glycerolipid Composition under Drought and Re-hydration Conditions in Grasses from the Lolium-Festuca Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Kierszniowska, Sylwia; Sawikowska, Aneta; Krajewski, Paweł; Rapacz, Marcin; Eckhardt, Änne; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Drought tolerant plant genotypes are able to maintain stability and integrity of cellular membranes in unfavorable conditions, and to regenerate damaged membranes after stress cessation. The profiling of cellular glycerolipids during drought stress performed on model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana does not fully cover the picture of lipidome in monocots, including grasses. Herein, two closely related introgression genotypes of Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) × Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) were used as a model for other grass species to describe lipid rearrangements during drought and re-hydration. The genotypes differed in their level of photosynthetic capacity during drought, and in their capacity for membrane regeneration after stress cessation. A total of 120 lipids, comprising the classes of monogalactosyldiacyloglycerol, digalactosyldiacyloglycerol, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, diacylglicerol, and triacylglicerol, were analyzed. The results clearly showed that water deficit had a significant impact on lipid metabolism in studied forage grasses. It was revealed that structural and metabolic lipid species changed their abundance during drought and re-watering periods and some crucial genotype-dependent differences were also observed. The introgression genotype characterized by an ability to regenerate membranes after re-hydration demonstrated a higher accumulation level of most chloroplast and numerous extra-chloroplast membrane lipid species at the beginning of drought. Furthermore, this genotype also revealed a significant reduction in the accumulation of most chloroplast lipids after re-hydration, compared with the other introgression genotype without the capacity for membrane regeneration. The potential influence of observed lipidomic alterations on a cellular membrane stability and photosynthetic capacity, are discussed

  6. Remodeling of leaf cellular glycerolipid composition under drought and re-hydration conditions in grasses from the Lolium-Festuca complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Perlikowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerant plant genotypes are able to maintain stability and integrity of cellular membranes in unfavorable conditions, and to regenerate damaged membranes after stress cessation. The profiling of cellular glycerolipids during drought stress performed on model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana does not fully cover the picture of lipidome in monocots, including grasses. Herein, two closely related introgression genotypes of Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass × Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue were used as a model for other grass species to describe lipid rearrangements during drought and re-hydration. The genotypes differed in their level of photosynthetic capacity during drought, and in their capacity for membrane regeneration after stress cessation. A total of 120 lipids, comprising the classes of monogalactosyldiacyloglycerol, digalactosyldiacyloglycerol, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, diacylglicerol and triacylglicerol, were analyzed. The results clearly showed that water deficit had a significant impact on lipid metabolism in studied forage grasses. It was revealed that structural and metabolic lipid species changed their abundance during drought and re-watering periods and some crucial genotype-dependent differences were also observed. The introgression genotype characterized by an ability to regenerate membranes after re-hydration demonstrated a higher accumulation level of most chloroplast and numerous extra-chloroplast membrane lipid species at the beginning of drought. Furthermore, this genotype also revealed a significant reduction in the accumulation of most chloroplast lipids after re-hydration, compared with the other introgression genotype without the capacity for membrane regeneration. The potential influence of observed lipidomic alterations on a cellular membrane stability and photosynthetic capacity, are

  7. Diferentes massas de forragem sobre as variáveis morfogênicas e estruturais de azevém anual Different herbage masses on morphogenetic and structural traits of Italian ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Características morfogênicas e estruturais de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. foram avaliadas sob pastejo de borregas, em diferentes massas de forragem (MF: "Alta", "Média" e "Baixa", correspondentes a 1800-2000; 1400-1600 e 1000-1200kg ha-1 de matéria seca (MS, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e duas repetições de área. O método de pastejo foi de lotação contínua, com número variável de animais. Os dados foram submetidos a análises de correlação e regressão polinomial. A altura do pseudocolmo, o comprimento de lâminas intactas e desfolhadas e o número de folhas em senescência de azevém aumentaram linearmente com a elevação dos valores das massas de forragem. O número de folhas verdes ajustou-se ao modelo de regressão quadrático; o número de folhas em expansão e a densidade populacional de perfilhos não se ajustaram a nenhum modelo de regressão. Em pastagem de azevém, o manejo com massas de forragem dentro da faixa compreendida entre 1.100 e 1.800kg ha-1de MS não provoca alterações nas características morfogênicas dessa gramínea, mas causa diferenças nas características estruturais do dossel. Quando o azevém é manejado com 1.460kg ha-1de MS, seus perfilhos mantêm maior número de folhas verdes e com 1.800kg ha-1 de MS existe maior número de lâminas foliares em senescência e com maior comprimento.Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., utilized by female lambs and managed with different forage masses (FM were studied. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two area replications and three treatments, consisting of forage masses: "High", "Mean" and "Low", corresponding to 1,800-2,000; 1,400-1,600 and 1,000-1,200kg ha-1 of dry matter (DM, respectively. The grazing method was continuous with variable stocking rate. Data were subjected to correlation analysis and polynomial

  8. Genomic prediction in families of perennial ryegrass based on genotyping-by-sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Bilal

    In this thesis we investigate the potential for genomic prediction in perennial ryegrass using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. Association method based on family-based breeding systems was developed, genomic heritabilities, genomic prediction accurancies and effects of some key factors wer...... prediction. Overall, GBS allows for genomic prediction in breeding families of perennial ryegrass and holds good potential to expedite genetic gain and encourage the application of genomic prediction...

  9. Potencial alelopático de extratos aquosos foliares de aveia sobre azevém e amendoim-bravo Effect of extracts from the above-ground part of oat genotypes on ryegrass and wild poinsettia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Raquel Hagemann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de cinco cultivares de aveia branca (Avena sativa L. e quatro de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, nas concentrações de 0, 25%, 50% e 100%, sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L.. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado distribuído em um trifatorial (genótipos de aveia x plantas infestantes x concentrações do extrato. Utilizaram-se placas de Petri contendo 25 sementes de plantas infestantes que foram umedecidas com extrato da parte aérea dos genótipos de aveia. As variáveis observadas foram: percentual de germinação, comprimento de radícula e de hipocótilo, avaliados aos 14 dias após a instalação do experimento. Os extratos aquosos das cultivares de aveia branca e preta inibiram o potencial alelopático sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas testadas, e os genótipos de aveia branca 'IPR 126', 'UTF Iguaçu' e 'Fundacep FAPA 43' e de aveia preta 'UPFA 21 Moreninha' e 'UTG 9715' foram mais efetivos na inibição da germinação e no desenvolvimento do azevém e amendoim-bravo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts from five common oat (Avena sativa L. and four black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cultivars, at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, and 100%, on the germination and development of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L. plantlets. A completely randomized design was adopted, distributed as a triple factorial arrangement (oat genotypes × weeds × concentrations. The experiment consisted of Petri dishes containing 25 weed seeds moistened with extract from the above-ground part of the oat genotypes. The following variables were observed: germination percentage, radicle length, and hypocotyl length, evaluated at 14 days after the

  10. Desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte sob alternativas de mineralização em pastagem de azevém Development of beef heifers under mineralization alternatives, on Italian ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pötter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desenvolvimento corporal de bezerras de corte em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., recebendo diferentes alternativas de suplementação mineral, associadas ou não à adição de ionóforo. Os tratamentos testados foram: "Sal comum": mineralização com cloreto de sódio; "Sal 40P": mineralização com sal mineral contendo 40g de fósforo por kg de produto; "Sal 40P + ionóforo": mineralização com 40g de fósforo + 2.000mg de lasalocida sódica por kg de produto. Os valores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, Ca e P na forragem aparentemente consumida, consumo de sal, escore de condição corporal, relação peso: altura e GMD foram semelhantes (P>0,05 entre animais que receberam "Sal comum", "Sal 40P" e "Sal 40P + ionóforo". Em pastagem de azevém, sem restrição ao consumo voluntário, a lasalocida sódica adicionada ao sal mineral proporciona maior peso vivo de bezerras aos 12 meses de idade e um retorno financeiro positivo.Body development of beef heifers grazing Italian ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was evaluated. The animals received different alternatives of mineral supplement: associated or not to ionophore addition and the treatments were: 'Common salt': mineralization with sodium chloride; '40P salt': mineralization with mineral salt plus 40g of phosphorus per kilo of product; 40P salt + ionophore: mineralization with 40g of phosphorus plus 2000mg of lasalocid per kg of product. The values of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and Ca and P of the apparently consumed forage, salt intake, body condition and body weight:height relation were similar (P>0.05 between animals receiving 'common salt', '40P salt' and '40P salt+ionophor'. For beef heifers grazing ryegrass pasture without intake restriction, the lasalocid associated to mineral salt provides a greater body weight at twelve months age and a positive financial.

  11. Recria de bezerras de corte em pastagem de azevém sob frequências de suplementação Rearing of beef heifers on Italian ryegrass pasture under supplementation frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Tatiane Nunes da Rosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado, em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam, o desempenho de bezerras de corte em diferentes frequências de suplementação: pastagem exclusiva de azevém, recebendo suplemento sete ou cinco dias por semana (de segunda à sexta-feira. A quantidade semanal de suplemento (17% PB; 71% NDT foi similar para as novilhas suplementadas diariamente e suplementadas cinco dias por semana. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e duas repetições de área. O fornecimento de suplemento aos animais em pastejo, independentemente da frequência, aumenta a taxa de lotação. O ganho médio diário, o escore de condição corporal e o ganho de peso por área foram similares para as estratégias de suplementação. A redução na frequência de suplementação não exerce efeito negativo no desempenho de terneiras de corte e pode ser uma opção no manejo alimentar do rebanho.This research aimed to evaluate the performance of beef heifers submitted to Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam pasture and under differents supplementation frequencies: exclusively on Italian ryegrass pasture; supplemented seven days/week and supplemented five days/week (Monday to Friday. The weekly amount of supplement (17% CP, 71% TDN was similar for heifers daily supplemented and supplemented five days a week. The method used was of continuous grazing with variable stocking rate in a complet randomized design with three treatments and two area replication. The stocking rate is greater when animals are supplemented, regardless of supplementation frequency. The average daily weight gain, body condition score and live weight gain per area were similar among supplementation strategies. The reducion of supplementation frequency has no negative effects on animal performance and may be an option for feed management of herd.

  12. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of the ribosomal RNA genes (5S and 35S in the genus Lolium: Lolium canariense, the missing link with Festuca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda, Luis A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of taxa can be distinguished within the genus Lolium L. based on the pollination system, chromosome size, chromosomal location of nrDNA (5S and 35S (18S-5.8S-26S] and nrDNA phylogeny. The first group includes self-pollinated taxa (L. temulentum, L. persicum and L. remotum, whereas the second group comprises cross-pollinated species (L. perenne, L. multiflorum and L. rigidum. Here we describe that the autogamous species have two 5S sites and four 35S sites in their genome. Two of the 35S sites are present in the chromosomes containing the 5S regions. The allogamous taxa possess two 5S rDNA sites and 6-10 35S sites per genome, depending on the species. Two of these regions (35S may also be present in the chromosomes bearing 5S sites. Our study also demonstrates that Lolium canariense shows a distinctive pattern. It has two 5S and four 35S sites. In this case, the 35S loci are located in different chromosomes than the 5S. This cytogenetic pattern is consistent with that of Festuca pratensis. Thus, despite being allogamous, Lolium canariense does not entirely fit in either of the groups defined for the genus Lolium. The physical mapping of the nrDNA regions in L. canariense is different, and resembles that of F. pratensis, suggesting that this Macaronesian Lolium could be intermediate between Festuca and Lolium.En trabajos previos se ha descrito que el género Lolium L. está formado por dos grupos de taxones basados en el tipo de polinización, tamaño de los cromosomas, localización cromosómica de los loci del ADN ribosómico [5S y 35S (18S-5.8S-26S] y filogenia molecular basada en secuencias de ADN ribosómico. Los dos grupos son: especies autógamas (L. temulentum, L. persicum y L. remotum y especies alógamas (L. perenne, L. multiflorum y L. rigidum. Aquí describimos que según la localización cromosómica de los loci ribosómicos, las especies autógamas tienen dos sitios 5S y cuatro sitios 35S; dos de las cuales coinciden en

  13. Regulation of levels of serum antibodies to ryegrass pollen allergen Lol pIV by an internal image anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-03-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated B1/1, was produced against an idiotope of a murine antibody (mAb91), which recognizes the epitope, site A, of allergen Lol pIV, one of the major groups of allergens in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen. The ability of B1/1 to modulate the antibody responses to Lol pIV was investigated in murine model systems. In the first system, B1/1-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) conjugate was administered to treat three different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H). In the second and third model systems, a solution of B1/1 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used to treat syngeneic BALB/c mice at various doses and time intervals, respectively. The treatment with either form of B1/1, administered at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms mouse, resulted in a reduction of the levels of the antibodies to Lol pIV. In particular, the level of IgE antibodies to Lol pIV was greatly reduced. The administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of a solution of B1/1 8 weeks prior to the challenge with Lol pIV was still effective in reducing the level of antibodies to the allergen. Moreover, the level of antibodies to Lol pIV that expressed the idiotope mAb91 was also markedly decreased. By contrast, it was observed that the level of antibodies to Lol pIV in mice pretreated with B1/1 in PBS at a dose of 10 ng/mouse increased (albeit slightly) compared to that in mice treated with control mAb. These experimental models lend themselves for investigating the mechanism(s) by which an anti-Id modulates antibody responses to a grass pollen allergen.

  14. Seed germination and seedling vigour of italian ryegrass, cocksfoot and timothy following harvest and storage Germinação de sementes e o vigor de plantas jovens de azevem italiano, dactilis e timóteo após a colheita e o armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stanisavljevic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During post-harvest maturation, different species vary in the length of dormancy breaking or germination increases. Seed dormancy and slow seedling development often limit establishment of forage grass stands. Seed germination and seedling vigour of Italian ryegrass (Lolium italicum A. Braun, Synonym Lolium multiflorum L., cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. and timothy (Phleum pretense L. were observed after harvest and storage. After harvest in June, seeds were stored under standard storage conditions and sampled every 30 days after harvest (DAH, up to 270 DAH, and then every 60 days up to 990 DAH. At each date, seeds were tested for final germination percentage and for seedling vigour traits. Timothy seeds had a maximum germination (88% and the best seedlings vigour at 90 DAH, which implies that early autumn (September-October is the best sowing period for freshly harvested seeds of timothy. Timothy seed germination was poor from 270 DAH (73%. The best germination and vigour of Italian ryegrass and cocksfoot seedlings were between 270 and 330 DAH, which equates to spring sowing time (March-April in the succeeding year. Cocksfoot and Italian ryegrass seeds maintained satisfactory germination levels up to 630 DAH (81% and 810 DAH (81%, respectively. The data can serve for the determination of a proper storage duration management between harvest and sowing of the tested species under ambient conditions of south-eastern Europe.Durante o armazenamento, diferentes espécies comportam-se diferentemente quanto à dormência e crescimento de plântulas. A dormência o desenvolvimento lento das plântulas limitam a época do plantio das gramíneas forrageiras plurianuais. A germinação de sementes e o crescimento das plântulas de azevem italiano (Lolium italicum A. Braun sin. Lolium multiflorum L., Dactilis (Dactilis glomerata L. e de timoteo (Phleum pratense L. foi pesquisada durante a maturação pós-colheita e a silagem. Após a colheita, em junho

  15. Cross-species amplification of 105 Lolium perenne SSR loci in 23 species within the Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bach; Holm, Preben Bach; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Amplification of 105 Lolium perenne SSR markers was studied in 23 grass species representing seven tribes from three subfamilies of Poaceae. Twelve of the SSR markers are published for the first time. Between 2% and 96% of the SSR markers could be amplified within a given species. A subset of eight...

  16. Survey and Detection of Endophytic Fungi in Lolium Germ Plasm by Direct Staining and Aphid Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; Stephen L. Clement; Walter J. Kaiser

    1991-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes were detected in 28 of 85 accessions from five of eight species in a collection of Lolium germ plasm. Comparative descriptions of endophytic mycelium in seeds of L. multiflorum, L. perenne, L. persicum, L. rigidum, and L. temulentum revealed morphological characteristics...

  17. Meiotic behaviour of individual chromosomes of Festuca pratensis in tetraploid Lolium multiflorum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, David; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2008), s. 987-998 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/07/P479 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Chromosome pairing * Festuca * Lolium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.405, year: 2008

  18. Stability of Genome Composition and Recombination between Homoeologous Chromosomes in Festulolium (Festuca × Lolium) Cultivars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, David; Šimoníková, Denisa; Ghesquière, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 2 (2017), s. 106-114 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Festulolium * Genome composition * Genomic in situ hybridization * Grass hybrids * Homoeologous recombination * Lolium × Festuca Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.354, year: 2016

  19. Cytogenetic studies of Lolium multiflorum Lam., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., their hybrids and amphidiploids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijer, G.

    1982-01-01

    Plant breeders intercross Lolium multiflorum and Festuca arundinacea with the purpose of obtaining hybrids which combine agronomically interesting characters of the parent species. The end result can be an amphidiploid, or the transfer of a limited number of

  20. Utilization of Lolium multiflorum by sheep: 1: Influence of dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Midmar (ryegrass) with dry matter (DM) contents of between 10.2% and 20.5% was studied. Intake was measured on pasture, while at the same time herbage was cut and fed either fresh or dry indoors. Additional variables were sward height at pasture and chop length indoors. Quality parameters did not change much ...

  1. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in 11 expressed resistance candidate genes in Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asp Torben

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association analysis is an alternative way for QTL mapping in ryegrass. So far, knowledge on nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in ryegrass is lacking, which is essential for the efficiency of association analyses. Results 11 expressed disease resistance candidate (R genes including 6 nucleotide binding site and leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR like genes and 5 non-NBS-LRR genes were analyzed for nucleotide diversity. For each of the genes about 1 kb genomic fragments were isolated from 20 heterozygous genotypes in ryegrass. The number of haplotypes per gene ranged from 9 to 27. On average, one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was present per 33 bp between two randomly sampled sequences for the 11 genes. NBS-LRR like gene fragments showed a high degree of nucleotide diversity, with one SNP every 22 bp between two randomly sampled sequences. NBS-LRR like gene fragments showed very high non-synonymous mutation rates, leading to altered amino acid sequences. Particularly LRR regions showed very high diversity with on average one SNP every 10 bp between two sequences. In contrast, non-NBS LRR resistance candidate genes showed a lower degree of nucleotide diversity, with one SNP every 112 bp. 78% of haplotypes occurred at low frequency ( Conclusion Substantial LD decay was found within a distance of 500 bp for most resistance candidate genes in this study. Hence, LD based association analysis is feasible and promising for QTL fine mapping of resistance traits in ryegrass.

  2. Effects of ewes grazing sulla or ryegrass pasture for different daily durations on forage intake, milk production and fatty acid composition of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Mazza, F; De Pasquale, C; Giosuè, C; Vitale, F; Alabiso, M

    2016-12-01

    Sulla (Sulla coronarium L.) forage is valued for its positive impact on ruminant production, in part due to its moderate content of condensed tannin (CT). The duration of daily grazing is a factor affecting the feed intake and milk production of ewes. In this study, the effects of grazing sulla pasture compared with annual ryegrass, and the extension of grazing from 8 to 22 h/day, were evaluated with regard to ewe forage intake and milk production, as well as the physicochemical properties and fatty acid (FA) composition of cheese. During 42 days in the spring, 28 ewes of the Comisana breed were divided into four groups (S8, S22, R8 and R22) that grazed sulla (S) or ryegrass (R) for 8 (0800 to 1600 h) or 22 h/day, and received no feeding supplement. In six cheese-making sessions, cheeses were manufactured from the 48 h bulk milk of each group. Compared with ewes grazing ryegrass, those grazing sulla had higher dry matter (DM) intake, intake rate and milk yield, and produced milk that was lower in fat and higher in casein. Ewes grazing for 22 h spent more time eating, which reduced the intake rate, increased DM and nutrient intake and milk yield, and reduced milk fat. Due to the ability of CT to inhibit the complete ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the FA composition of sulla cheese was more beneficial for consumer health compared with ryegrass cheese, having lower levels of saturated fatty acids and higher levels of PUFA and n-3 FA. The FA profile of S8 cheese was better than that of S22 cheese, as it was higher in branched-chain FA, monounsaturated FA, PUFA, rumenic acid (c9,t11-C18:2), and had a greater health-promoting index. The effect of short grazing time on sulla was attributed to major inhibition of PUFA biohydrogenating ruminal bacteria, presumably stimulated by the higher accumulation of sulla CT in the rumen, which is related to a higher intake rate over a shorter eating time. Thus, grazing sulla improved the performance of

  3. Structural and morphogenical characteristics of black oats and Italian ryegrass on pasture submitted to two grazing intensities Características estruturais e morfogênicas de aveia-preta e azevém-anual em pastagem submetida a duas intensidades de pastejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenical and structural characteristics of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. on pastures managed under two grazing intensities were quantified by using marked tiller technique. The expected intensities of disappearance of forage mass initial value were 35% (low and 65% (high. Experimental animals were sheep and interval among grazing was determined through 300 degree-day thermal sum. The experimental design was completely randomized with two grazing intensities and two replicates. Leaf blades of oats and ryegrass were removed at an average proportion of 57.5% of their initial length for both grazing intensities. Among the morphogenical characteristics of oats, only elongation rate of defoliate leaf differed between grazing intensities, with values of 0.059 and 0.081 cm/degree-day for low and high intensities, respectively. Grazing intensities did not alter structural characteristics of oats mixed with ryegrass and red clover. High grazing intensity enables maintenance of a higher number of ryegrass expanding leaves (1.7 leaves/tiller, thus it is suggested for management of pastures with oats mixed with Italian ryegrass and red-clover on intermittent grazing.As características morfogênicas e estruturais de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., em pastagem manejada sob duas intensidades de pastejo, foram quantificadas por meio da técnica de perfilhos marcados. As intensidades pretendidas de desaparecimento do valor da massa de forragem inicial foram 35% (baixa e 65% (alta. Os animais experimentais foram ovinos e o intervalo entre pastejos foi determinado pela soma térmica de 300 graus-dia. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com duas intensidades de pastejo e duas repetições. As lâminas foliares de aveia e azevém foram removidas na proporção média de 57,5% do seu comprimento inicial em ambas as intensidades de pastejo. Entre as

  4. Morfogênese e estrutura de azevém anual submetido a três intensidades de pastejo - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.8657 Morphogenesis and structure of Italian ryegrass submitted to three grazing intensities - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.8657

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Lisete Glienke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se características morfogênicas e estruturais de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sob intensidades de pastejo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições (transectas e três tratamentos constituídos por intensidades de pastejo: “Alta”, “Média”, “Baixa”, correspondentes ao desaparecimento de 61,0; 43,3 e 21,1% do valor da massa de forragem inicial, respectivamente. O pastejo foi intermitente, com borregas, e o intervalo entre pastejos correspondeu à soma térmica de 313 graus-dia. As intensidades de pastejo afetaram a morfogênese e estrutura de azevém apenas no primeiro período de avaliação, quando o azevém na intensidade “Média” apresentou as menores taxas de aparecimento e elongação foliar e os maiores valores de duração de vida das folhas. A altura do pseudocolmo, o comprimento de lâmina intacta e desfolhada, o número de folhas intactas e em senescência foram superiores na intensidade “Baixa”, sem diferir entre “Média” e “Alta”. A adoção das intensidades de pastejo de 43,3 e 61,0% do desaparecimento do valor da massa de forragem inicial possibilita estender o estádio vegetativo do azevém anual. Para o manejo de azevém anual, recomenda-se o uso da intensidade de pastejo de 61,0%, que apresenta características estruturais semelhantes às observadas na intensidade 43,3% e proporciona taxa de lotação 24,1% superior.Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam under grazing intensities were studied. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four repetitions (transects and three treatments consisting of grazing intensities: ‘High’, ‘Mean’ and ‘Low’, corresponding to the disappearance of 61.0, 43.3 and 21.1% the value of initial forage mass, respectively. Intermittent grazing was used, with ewe lambs, and the interval among grazing corresponded to thermal sum of 313 degree

  5. Complementary effects of red clover inclusion in ryegrass-white clover swards for grazing and cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Søegaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Increasing plant species diversity in grasslands may improve productivity and stability of yields. In a field experiment, we investigated the herbage dry-matter (DM) yield and crude protein content of two-species swards of perennial ryegrass–white clover (Lolium perenne L.–Trifolium repens L...

  6. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation of forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the current study was to determine nutrient digestibility, VFA production, N metabolism, and CH4 production of canola (Brassica napus L.), rapeseed (B. napus L.), turnip (B. rapa L.), and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) fed with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in continuous...

  7. Anaerobic Digestion of Saline Creeping Wild Ryegrass for Biogas Production and Pretreatment of Particleboard Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to develop an integrated process to produce biogas and high-quality particleboard using saline creeping wild ryegrass (CWR), Leymus triticoides through anaerobic digestion (AD). Besides producing biogas, AD also serves as a pretreatment method to remove the wax la...

  8. Silicon induced systemic defense responses in perennial ryegrass against Magnaporthe oryzae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable integrated disease management for gray leaf spot of perennial ryegrass may involve use of plant defense elicitors with compatible traditional fungicides to reduce disease incidence and severity. Silicon (Si) is a potential inducer or modulator of plant defenses against different pathogen...

  9. Dry matter production curves of Ariki ryegrass pastures at Pretoria | J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigated Ariki ryegrass produced 13,7 and 9,2 m t/ha green dry matter during the first and second growing seasons respectively. It was most productive in spring, because the growth rate decreased throughout the growing season. This necessitated increasingly long periods of absence of 23, 39, 39 and 48 days under ...

  10. Cultivar effects of perennial ryegrass on herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the most abundant grass species in temperate climates. An increased herbage intake of dairy cows by breeding new cultivars could have a large potential impact on agriculture. The effects of cultivars on sward structure, nutritive value, physical characteristics and disease

  11. Rumen degradation characteristics of perennial ryegrass cultivars during the growing season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of sward characteristics and chemical composition of eight diploid perennial ryegrass cultivars during the growing season on degradation characteristics in the rumen of dairy cows. As part of an indoor-feeding experiment with dairy cows,

  12. The effects of perennial ryegrass and alfalfa on microbial abundance and diversity in petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Jennifer L.; Klironomos, John N.; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T.

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced rhizosphere degradation uses plants to stimulate the rhizosphere microbial community to degrade organic contaminants. We measured changes in microbial communities caused by the addition of two species of plants in a soil contaminated with 31,000 ppm of total petroleum hydrocarbons. Perennial ryegrass and/or alfalfa increased the number of rhizosphere bacteria in the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. These plants also increased the number of bacteria capable of petroleum degradation as estimated by the most probable number (MPN) method. Eco-Biolog plates did not detect changes in metabolic diversity between bulk and rhizosphere samples but denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rDNA sequences indicated a shift in the bacterial community in the rhizosphere samples. Dice coefficient matrices derived from DGGE profiles showed similarities between the rhizospheres of alfalfa and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture in the contaminated soil at week seven. Perennial ryegrass and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture caused the greatest change in the rhizosphere bacterial community as determined by DGGE analysis. We concluded that plants altered the microbial population; these changes were plant-specific and could contribute to degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil. - Plant-specific changes in microbial populations on roots affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil

  13. Effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars on milk yield and nitrogen utilization in grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of 4 diploid perennial ryegrass cultivars that differed in water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations on milk yield and nitrogen (N) utilization in dairy cows were evaluated in a 2-yr grazing experiment. Twelve lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 cultivar for a 2-wk period in a

  14. Coordinated nitrogen and carbon remobilization for nitrate assimilation in leaf, sheath and root and associated cytokinin signals during early regrowth of Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jessica; Turnbull, Matthew H; Guo, Qianqian; Novák, Ondrej; Späth, Jana; Gieseg, Steven P; Jameson, Paula E; Love, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of N assimilation in response to defoliation is a critical component of plant regrowth and forage production. The aim of this research was to test the effect of the internal C/N balance on NO3- assimilation and to estimate the associated cytokinin signals following defoliation of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L. 'Grasslands Nui') plants. Plants, manipulated to have contrasting internal N content and contrasting availability of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), were obtained by exposure to either continuous light or short days (8:16 h light-dark), and watered with modified N-free Hoagland medium containing either high (5 m m ) or low (50 μ m ) NO3- as sole N source. Half of the plants were defoliated and the root, sheath and leaf tissue were harvested at 8, 24 and 168 h after cutting. The spatiotemporal changes in WSCs, synthesis of amino acids and associated cytokinin content were recorded after cutting. Leaf regrowth following defoliation involved changes in the low- and high-molecular weight WSCs. The extent of the changes and the partitioning of the WSC following defoliation were dependant on the initial WSC levels and the C and N availability. Cytokinin levels varied in the sheath and root as early as 8 h following defoliation and preceded an overall increase in amino acids at 24 h. Subsequently, negative feedback brought the amino acid response back towards pre-defoliation levels within 168 h after cutting, a response that was under control of the C/N ratio. WSC remobilization in the leaf is coordinated with N availability to the root, potentially via a systemic cytokinin signal, leading to efficient N assimilation in the leaf and the sheath tissues and to early leaf regrowth following defoliation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca-Lolium complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, David; Bartoš, Jan; Lukaszewski, A.; Baird, J. H.; Černoch, V.; Koelliker, R.; Rognli, O. A.; Blois, H.; Caig, V.; Luebberstedt, T.; Studer, B.; Shaw, P.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Kilian, A.

    Roč. 10, Art _No_473 (2009), s. 1-11 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71267; GA ČR GP521/07/P479 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : DIVERSITY ARRAYS TECHNOLOGY * GENETIC-LINKAGE MAP * PERENNIAL RYEGRASS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.759, year: 2009

  16. Seasonal Variations in Sugar Contents and Microbial Community Behavior in a Ryegrass Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, P. M.; Fernandes, M. F.; Dick, R. P.; Simoneit, B. R.

    2004-12-01

    Soil is a complex mixture of numerous inorganic and organic constituents that vary in size, shape, chemical constitution and reactivity, and hosts numerous organisms. Total sugars have been estimated to constitute 10% (average) of soil organic matter, occurring in living and decaying organisms, as well as in extracellular materials. The role of sugars in soils is attributed to their influence on soil structure, chemical processes, plant nutrition and microbial activity. The sources of sugars in soils are: a) plants (the primary source); b) animals (the minor source), and c) microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, algae), which decompose the primary plant and animal material, and synthesize the major part of soil carbohydrates. A particular soil sample provides a momentary glimpse into a dynamic system (continuous addition, degradation and synthesis) that might, except for seasonal variations, be in equilibrium. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the major sugars in a grass soil and characterize the relationship between their concentration variations and soil microbial behavior over an annual cycle. Soil samples were collected monthly in a ryegrass field close to Corvallis, Oregon, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as total silylated extracts for sugar composition, and by gas chromatography-flame ionization as fatty acid methyl esters derived from phospholipids and neutral lipids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively). The preliminary results of the first six-month experiment (from January to June, 2004) show that as the ambient temperatures increase the sugar concentrations (glucose, fructose, sucrose and trehalose) also tend to increase in the soil. A decrease is observed in March when precipitation was low during the whole month. The same trend is observed for the active biomass of fungi and bacteria estimated by their fatty acids derived from phospholipids. Fatty acids 18:2ω 6c and 18:3ω 6c are used as fungal biomarkers. Branched (15:0i

  17. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...... (Pbutyrate did not differ between HA and HR, but molar proportions...

  18. Desempenho animal em pasto de aveia e azevém com distintas biomassas de lâminas foliares Animal performance in oat and Italian ryegrass pastures under leaf lamina biomass levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Guerra Bandinelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de biomassas de lâminas foliares no desempenho animal. Utilizou-se mistura de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., para determinar quantidades adequadas de sua biomassa no manejo da pastagem. Foram realizados dois experimentos, na estação fria de 2002 e 2003. Na avaliação de 2002, os valores de biomassa de lâminas foliares foram de 360 kg ha-1 (baixa e 630 kg ha-1 (alta. Em 2003, foram obtidas biomassas de 352, 422 e 507 kg ha-1, classificadas como baixa, média e alta, respectivamente. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variada; os animais utilizados foram terneiros da raça Charolês e cruzados com Nelore, com idade inicial de nove meses. As variáveis de produção animal avaliadas, nos dois anos, foram: ganho médio diário, carga animal e ganho de peso vivo por área. As distintas biomassas de lâminas foliares mantidas não são fatores limitantes ao desempenho animal.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different leaf lamina biomass over animal performance. A mixture of oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was used to determine adequate levels of leaf lamina biomass for pasture management. Two trials were made, in 2002 and 2003 cool seasons. In 2002 evaluation, leaf lamina biomass values were of 360 kg ha-1 (low and 630 kg ha-1 (high. In 2003, values obtained for leaf lamina biomasses were of 352, 422 and 507 kg ha-1, being classified as low, medium and high, respectively. Grazing method was continuous, with variable stocking rate; testing animals were calves of Charolais breed and its crosses with Nelore breed, with initial age of nine months. Evaluated variables in animal production, in both years, were: average daily gain, stocking rate and live weight gain per area. Leaf lamina biomasses evaluated are not limiting factors to animal performance.

  19. Efficiency of five biosolids to supply nitrogen and phosphorus to ryegrass Eficiência de cinco biossólidos em suprir nitrogênio e fósforo para azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids have been considered satisfactory to supply crops and plant nutrients. The ideal biosolids application rate should result in high crop yields and nutrient uptake, and leave low concentrations of nutrients in soils to avoid environmental problems. The objective of this study was to estimate the capacity of five biosolids to supply N and P to ryegrass (Lolium perenne after a single application of either fertilizers or biosolids to a Spodosol and an Oxisol. Results showed that 6% - 36% of N and 3% - 7% of P applied as biosolids were recovered in plants grown on the Spodosol, while the range on the Oxisol was 26%-75% for N and 1.2%-3.7% for phosphorus. Biosolids' efficiency on supplying N and P to plants was similar to fertilizer on the Spodosol, but on the Oxisol it refrained to 65%-67% fertilizer's efficiency. After a single application of biosolids followed by six consecutive harvests, 25%-94% of the N and 93%-99% of the P were not used by plants and remain in the soils.Biossólidos têm sido considerados eficientes em suprir nutrientes às culturas. A dose ideal deve resultar em alta produtividade e absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas e em baixas concentrações de elementos químicos nos solos, a fim de se evitar problemas ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a capacidade de cinco biossólidos em suprir N e P para o azevém (Lolium perenne após a aplicação de dose única de fertilizantes ou de biossólidos num Espodossolo e num Latossolo. Os resultados mostram que entre 6%-36% do N e 3%-7% do P aplicado como biossólidos foram recuperados nas plantas cultivadas no Espodossolo, ao passo que no Latossolo os valores variaram de 26%-75% quanto ao N e 1,2%-3,7% quanto ao fósforo. A eficiência de biossólidos em suprir N e P para as plantas foi similar ao fertilizante no Espodossolo, mas no Latossolo alcançou o limite de 65%-67%, medida com a aplicação de fertilizantes. Após uma única aplicação de bioss

  20. Grazing ecology of female lambs on Italian ryegrass plus red clover pasture under different defoliation intensities Ecologia do pastejo por cordeiras em pastagem de azevém e trevo-vermelho sob diversas intensidades de desfolha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Lisete Glienke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between pasture dynamics and ingestive behavior of female lambs was studied on Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. plus red clover (Trifolium pratense L. mixture under a range of defoliation intensities. Rotational grazing was used and the grazing interval was determined by the thermal sum of 313 degree days. The initial pre-grazing canopy height disappearance values were 65 (very high, 58 (high, 47 (medium and 37% (low. The sward vertical structure was similar among defoliation intensities. The forage allowance decreased linearly as defoliation intensities increased, with 0.35 bite/minute reduction for each 1% increase in forage allowance. The bite rate and number of bites/feeding station decreased with reduced contribution of leaves in the sward structure. It was associated, respectively, with an increase and a decrease of NDF and CP levels in forage as grazed by female lambs. The pasture cycle proves to be more important than defoliation intensities as a source for changes in feeding stations and displacement patterns of female lambs.Estudou-se a relação entre a dinâmica do pasto e o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiras em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L. em diferentes intensidades de desfolha. O pastejo foi rotacionado e o intervalo entre pastejos foi determinado pela soma térmica de 313 graus-dia. Os valores de desaparecimento da altura do dossel no pré-pastejo foram de 65 (muito alta, 58 (alta, 47 (média e 37% (baixa, respectivamente. A estrutura vertical do pasto foi semelhante entre as intensidades de desfolha testadas. A oferta de forragem diminuiu linearmente com o aumento da intensidade de desfolha, com redução de 0,35 bocado/minuto a cada 1% a mais na oferta de forragem. A taxa de bocados e o número de bocados/estação alimentar reduziram com a diminuição da contribuição de folhas na estrutura da pastagem, acompanhada do aumento do teor de FDN e

  1. Orthology Guided Transcriptome Assembly of Italian Ryegrass and Meadow Fescue for Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stočes, Štěpán; Ruttink, T.; Bartoš, Jan; Studer, B.; Yates, S.; Zwierzykowski, Z.; Abrouk, Michael; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Książczyk, T.; Rey, Elodie; Doležel, Jaroslav; Kopecký, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016) ISSN 1940-3372 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/11/05043; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : festuca-pratensis huds. * dna- sequencing data * lolium-perenne l. * rna-seq data * genome * cultivars * festulolium * multiflorum * hybrid * recombination Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.736, year: 2016

  2. Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Bruno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on Earth. They provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex predominate, especially in temperate regions. To facilitate high-throughput genome profiling and genetic mapping within the complex, we have developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT array for five grass species: F. pratensis, F. arundinacea, F. glaucescens, L. perenne and L. multiflorum. Results The DArTFest array contains 7680 probes derived from methyl-filtered genomic representations. In a first marker discovery experiment performed on 40 genotypes from each species (with the exception of F. glaucescens for which only 7 genotypes were used, we identified 3884 polymorphic markers. The number of DArT markers identified in every single genotype varied from 821 to 1852. To test the usefulness of DArTFest array for physical mapping, DArT markers were assigned to each of the seven chromosomes of F. pratensis using single chromosome substitution lines while recombinants of F. pratensis chromosome 3 were used to allocate the markers to seven chromosome bins. Conclusion The resources developed in this project will facilitate the development of genetic maps in Festuca and Lolium, the analysis on genetic diversity, and the monitoring of the genomic constitution of the Festuca × Lolium hybrids. They will also enable marker-assisted selection for multiple traits or for specific genome regions.

  3. Potential mineralization of nitrogen from organic wastes to ryegrass and wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovil, Claudia M D S; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João

    2007-12-01

    Two-pot experiments with ryegrass and wheat plants were conducted in a Cambic Arenosol to test the reliability of N fate predicted by incubation experiments previously performed, with the same soil, to assess potentially mineralizable nitrogen from six organic wastes (municipal solid waste compost, secondary pulp mill sludge, horn meal, poultry manure, solid phase from pig slurry and composted pig manure). Two treatments, corresponding to 80 and 160 kgN/ha were tested, with or without mineral N fertilization. Experimental data obtained in the pot trials was consistent with nitrogen net mineralization trend observed in the aerobic incubations with all the wastes tested. Values of potentially mineralizable nitrogen (N(0)) from the equations obtained by model fitting, to the incubation data, were well correlated to ryegrass and wheat N uptake. Poultry manure was the most efficient N supplier to crops.

  4. De novo assembly of the perennial ryegrass transcriptome using an RNA-Seq strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline D Farrell

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass is a highly heterozygous outbreeding grass species used for turf and forage production. Heterozygosity can affect de-Bruijn graph assembly making de novo transcriptome assembly of species such as perennial ryegrass challenging. Creating a reference transcriptome from a homozygous perennial ryegrass genotype can circumvent the challenge of heterozygosity. The goals of this study were to perform RNA-sequencing on multiple tissues from a highly inbred genotype to develop a reference transcriptome. This was complemented with RNA-sequencing of a highly heterozygous genotype for SNP calling.De novo transcriptome assembly of the inbred genotype created 185,833 transcripts with an average length of 830 base pairs. Within the inbred reference transcriptome 78,560 predicted open reading frames were found of which 24,434 were predicted as complete. Functional annotation found 50,890 transcripts with a BLASTp hit from the Swiss-Prot non-redundant database, 58,941 transcripts with a Pfam protein domain and 1,151 transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides. To evaluate the reference transcriptome we targeted the high-affinity K+ transporter gene family and found multiple orthologs. Using the longest unique open reading frames as the reference sequence, 64,242 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. One thousand sixty one open reading frames from the inbred genotype contained heterozygous sites, confirming the high degree of homozygosity.Our study has developed an annotated, comprehensive transcriptome reference for perennial ryegrass that can aid in determining genetic variation, expression analysis, genome annotation, and gene mapping.

  5. In situ carbon and nitrogen dynamics in ryegrass-clover mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.; Eriksen, J.; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2007-01-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in a third production year ryegrass–clover mixture were investigated in the field. Cylinders (diameter 29.7 cm) were installed to depths of 20, 40 and 60 cm and equipped with suction cups to collect percolating pore water. Ryegrass and clover leaves were cross...... on the ratio between dry matter accumulated in the donating and receiving species, the 14C-allocation within the receiving species and the root turnover rate in the soil....

  6. Distribution of copper and other elements in ryegrass roots, determined with a scanning proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A scanning proton microprobe has been used to determine the distribution of Cu and other elements in Wimmera ryegrass roots grown in solution cultures. Cu was found to be localized on or near the surface of the roots in randomly distributed discrete zones. The distribution of Cu was partially correlated with those of Fe, P and Ca and possibly indicates some form of association; co-precipitation in a precipitate of ferric phosphate or hydroxy-oxide is favoured

  7. Multiple resistance to glyphosate, paraquat and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in Italian ryegrass populations from California: confirmation and mechanisms of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranchian, Parsa; Nandula, Vijay; Jugulam, Mithila; Putta, Karthik; Jasieniuk, Marie

    2018-04-01

    Glyphosate, paraquat and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides are widely used in California annual and perennial cropping systems. Recently, glyphosate, paraquat, and ACCase- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor resistance was confirmed in several Italian ryegrass populations from the Central Valley of California. This research characterized the possible mechanisms of resistance. Multiple-resistant populations (MR1, MR2) are resistant to several herbicides from at least three modes of action. Dose-response experiments revealed that the MR1 population was 45.9-, 122.7- and 20.5-fold, and the MR2 population was 24.8-, 93.9- and 4.0-fold less susceptible to glyphosate, sethoxydim and paraquat, respectively, than the susceptible (Sus) population. Accumulation of shikimate in Sus plants was significantly greater than in MR plants 32 h after light pretreatments. Glyphosate resistance in MR plants was at least partially due to Pro106-to-Ala and Pro106-to-Thr substitutions at site 106 of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). EPSPS gene copy number and expression level were similar in plants from the Sus and MR populations. An Ile1781-to-Leu substitution in ACCase gene of MR plants conferred a high level of resistance to sethoxydim and cross-resistance to other ACCase-inhibitors. Radiolabeled herbicide studies and phosphorimaging indicated that MR plants had restricted translocation of 14 C-paraquat to untreated leaves compared to Sus plants. This study shows that multiple herbicide resistance in Italian ryegrass populations in California, USA, is due to both target-site and non-target-site resistance mechanisms. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Ingestive behavior and displacement patterns of beef heifers on Italian ryegrass pasture Comportamento ingestivo e padrões de deslocamento de bezerras de corte em pastagem de azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Lisete Glienke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation on ingestive behavior and displacement patterns of beef heifers grazing on Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture was evaluated. The grazing method was continuous with variable stocking rate. The experimental design was completely randomized with repeated measures on time. The supplement utilized was a commercial ration (17% CP, 21.4% NDF, daily supplied at 2 pm, in the proportion of 1% of body weight. The evaluations were made through visual observations, in four continuous periods of 24 hours. There was no difference in the bite rate between heifers with and without supplement and bite rate was higher at the end of the period of pasture utilization. Supplemented animals increased bite mass. The number of stations/minute, bites/station and the displacement patterns was influenced by forage changes along the occupation period. The ingestive behavior and displacement patterns of heifers are modified by supplementation and structural variation of the grass along its biological cycle. In the reproductive stage of Italian ryegrass, grazing time, daily number of bites and, feeding stations and time for station are similar between not supplemented and supplemented heifers.Avaliou-se a influência da suplementação no comportamento ingestivo e nos padrões de deslocamento de bezerras de corte em pastagem exclusiva de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Utilizou-se o método de pastejo com lotação contínua e número variável de animais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com medidas repetidas no tempo. Os animais receberam ração comercial (17% PB, 21,4% FDN na proporção de 1% do PV, fornecida diariamente às 14 h. As avaliações foram feitas por meio de observação visual, em quatro períodos contínuos de 24 horas. A taxa de bocados não diferiu entre bezerras com e sem suplementação, mas foi maior no período final de utilização da pastagem. Animais sob suplementação realizaram bocados

  9. Forward selection for multiple resistance across the non-selective glyphosate, glufosinate and oxyfluorfen herbicides in Lolium weed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pablo; Alcántara, Ricardo; Osuna, María D; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Prado, Rafael De

    2017-05-01

    In the Mediterranean area, Lolium species have evolved resistance to glyphosate after decades of continual use without other alternative chemicals in perennial crops (olive, citrus and vineyards). In recent years, oxyfluorfen alone or mixed with glyphosate and glufosinate has been introduced as a chemical option to control dicot and grass weeds. Dose-response studies confirmed that three glyphosate-resistant Lolium weed species (L. rigidum, L. perenne, L. multiflorum) collected from perennial crops in the Iberian Peninsula have also evolved resistance to glufosinate and oxyfluorfen herbicides, despite their recent introduction. Based on the LD 50 resistance parameter, the resistance factor was similar among Lolium species and ranged from 14- to 21-fold and from ten- to 12-fold for oxyfluorfen and glufosinate respectively. Similarly, about 14-fold resistance to both oxyfluorfen and glufosinate was estimated on average for the three Lolium species when growth reduction (GR 50 ) was assessed. This study identified oxyfluorfen resistance in a grass species for the first time. A major threat to sustainability of perennial crops in the Iberian Peninsula is evident, as multiple resistance to non-selective glyphosate, glufosinate and oxyfluorfen herbicides has evolved in L. rigidum, L. perenne and L. multiflorum weeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Strategic timing of nitrogen fertilization to increase root biomass and nitrogen-use efficiency of Lolium perenne L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.C.; Deru, J.G.C.; Hoekstra, N.J.; Eekeren, van N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: During the first days after harvest of Lolium perenne L., N remobilized from roots and stubble forms the main N source for regrowth. Low N uptake from the soil during this period may lead to N loss if N fertilizer is applied too soon. Furthermore, temporary N deprivation has been found to

  11. Comparison of growth performance of Lolium perenne L., Dactylis glomerata L. and Agropyron elongatum (Host.) P. Beauv. for erosion control in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökbulak, Ferhat

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out in plastic containers to compare growth performances of perennial ryegrass, orchardgrass and tall wheatgrass to be given priority in revegetation studies in Turkey. Three pre-germinated seeds of each grass species were planted separately into the soil in the black plastic containers. Seedlings were harvested 2, 4 and 6 months after planting pre-germinated seeds and measured for percentage of seedling emergence, rooting depth, height growth, leaf and tiller development and shoot and root weights. Germination percentage was 97.8% for perennial ryegrass, 64.1% for orchardgrass and 11.6% for tall wheatgrass and perennial ryegrass had the greatest whereas tall wheatgrass had the lowest seedling emergence. Two months old rooting depth was 25.66 cm for perennial ryegrass, 20.56 cm for orchardgrass and 30.10 cm for tall wheatgrass. At the end of the study, perennial ryegrass developed about 104 tillers per plant while they were 21.4 and 36.6 tillers per plant for orchardgrass and tall wheatgrass, respectively. Orchardgrass produced greater shoot and root biomasses than tall wheatgrass and similar to perennial ryegrass. All these meant that perennial ryegrass had a better growth performance than orchardgrass and tall wheatgrass to be used for erosion control.

  12. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: effects of increased carbon input in a Lolium perenne soil on microorganisms and decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van J.H.; Gorissen, A.; Polci, D.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 and 700 μl l-1) on net carbon input into soil, the production of root-derived material and the subsequent microbial transformation were investigated. Perennial ryegrass plants (L. perenne L.) were labelled in a continuously labelled

  13. Enzymatic production of wheat and ryegrass derived xylooligosaccharides and evaluation of their in vitro effect on pig gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Meyer, Anne S.; Canibe, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    This study examines enzymatic production of linear xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and branched arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) from monocotyledonous biomass, wheat straw and ryegrass, and compares the in vitro effects of these XOS and AXOS on pig gut microbiota. XOS and AXOS were obtained from...... the biomass by treatment with different endo-1,4-β-xylanases. XOS of DP2-6 from wheat straw, obtained after treatment with Aspergillus niger endo GH11, suppressed growth of Clostridium perfringens and resulted in a high level of lactic acid production when fermented in vitro by pig fecal microbiota....... Analogously, XOS ryegrass produced in the same way also suppressed Cl. perfringens growth, and more so than the corresponding ryegrass AXOS, but AXOS exhibited a more pronounced stimulation of lactic acid bacteria growth than XOS. The prebiotic potential, i.e., suppression of Cl. perfringens and stimulation...

  14. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100......-chemicals production. The PBD, expressed as Potentially Disappeared Fraction (PDF) showed the highest adverse impact to biodiversity in maize, followed by straw, whereas the results showed relatively lower impact for ryegrass and grass-clover. The PFWTox (CTUe/t DM), at farm level was highest for straw, followed...... by maize, whereas the values were significantly lower for grass-clover and ryegrass. These variations in ranking of the different biomasses productions using different impact categories for environmental performance showed that it is important to consider a wider range of impact categories for assessing...

  15. Feasibility of Pb phytoextraction using nano-materials assisted ryegrass: Results of a one-year field-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shu-Xuan; Jin, Yu; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiliang; Shen, Shi-Gang; Ding, Ling

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the combined application of nano-hydroxyapatite (NHAP) or nano-carbon black (NCB) on the phytoextraction of Pb by ryegrass was investigated as an enhanced remediation technique for soils by field-scale experiment. After the addition of 0.2% NHAP or NCB to the soil, temporal variation of the uptake of Pb in aboveground parts and roots were observed. Ryegrass shoot concentrations of Pb were lower with nano-materials application than without nano-materials for the first month. However, the shoot concentrations of Pb were significantly increased with nano-materials application, in particular NHAP groups. The ryegrass root concentrations of Pb were lower with nano-materials application for the first month. These results indicated that nano-materials had significant effects on stabilization of lead, especially at the beginning of the experiment. Along with the experimental proceeding, phytotoxicity was alleviated after the incorporation of nano-materials. The ryegrass biomass was significantly higher with nano-materials application. Consequently, the Pb phytoextraction potential of ryegrass significantly increased with nano-materials application compared to the gounps without nano-materials application. The total removal rates of soil Pb were higher after combined application of NHAP than NCB. NHAP is more suitable than NCB for in-situ remediation of Pb-contaminated soils. The ryegrass translocation factor exhibited a marked increase with time. It was thought that the major role of NHP and NBA might be to alleviate the Pb phytotoxicity and increase biomass of plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comportamento ingestivo de novilhas de corte submetidas a estratégias de suplementação em pastagens de aveia e azevém Ingestive behavior of beef heifers submitted to strategies of supplementation on oats and ryegrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bremm

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento ingestivo de novilhas de corte recebendo suplemento em pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sob lotação contínua. Como tratamentos, foram avaliadas quatro estratégias de suplementação: sem suplemento - animais em pastagem de aveia (AV e azevém (AZ; crescente - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo níveis crescentes de suplemento (0,3; 0,6 e 0,9% do peso vivo -PV; fixo - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo nível fixo de suplemento (0,9% PV; e decrescente - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo níveis decrescentes (1,5; 1,2 e 0,9% do PV de suplemento. As características estruturais (massa de forragem, massa de forragem verde, oferta de forragem, oferta de lâminas foliares verdes, relação folha:colmo, proporção de lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas de aveia e proporção de lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas de azevém e bromatológicas (proteína bruta, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica, nutrientes digestíveis totais e fibra em detergente neutro do pasto foram semelhantes entre as estratégias de suplementação, mas variaram conforme os períodos de utilização do pasto. Os tempos diários de pastejo, ruminação e ócio e de permanência no cocho (min/dia e a massa de bocado (g MO/boc diferiram entre as estratégias de suplementação e as características do pasto no decorrer do ciclo. A taxa de bocado/minuto foi influenciada apenas pelo ciclo do pasto.It was evaluated the ingestive behavior of beef heifers on black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pastures under different strategies of supplementation and continuous stocking system. The treatments evaluated were: 'no supplement'- animals on black oats (BO and Italian ryegrass (IR pasture; 'increasing' - animals on BO and IR pasture receiving increasing levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% of live weight - LW of supplement; 'fixed' - animals on

  17. High-Throughput SNP Discovery And Genetic Mapping In Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Torben; Studer, Bruno; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    to establish the VrnA F2 mapping population. The sequences were assembled and used for in-silico SNP discovery. SNPs supported by a minimum number of eight reads, within candidate genes for important agronomic traits, were selected for Illumina GoldenGate genotyping and used to map 768 expressed genes...... in the VrnA mapping population. Here we report on large-scale SNP discovery, and the construction of a genetic map enabling QTL fine mapping, map-based cloning, and comparative genomics in perennial ryegrass....

  18. Life cycle inventory and risk assessment of genetic modified perennial ryegrass in a technology foresight perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Rasmussen, B.; Schleisner, L.

    2000-01-01

    , a methodological approach is suggested to analyse the uncertainties that the biotech industry and the authorities face when implementing genetically modified (GM) crops. These uncertainties embracescientific rationality regarding technological development and risk assessments, as well as ethic political and social...... important and uncertain fac-tors for the future direction of GM crops: 1) publicparticipation in regulation, 2) utility value for the consumers, 3) being first to market GM-ryegrass, and 4) an efficient professional network. Based on the identified drivers several scenar-ios were constructed, of which two...

  19. Lolium multiflorum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    200, 400, 600 or 800 kg N/ha were applied to the pastures in order to produce herbage containing varying ... (1982) regarded the reduced supply of absorbed protein as a major limitation to the nutritional value of fresh or .... all weaner lambs except those of the low N-fertilization level treatment was in excess of requirements.

  20. Multiple herbicide resistance in Lolium multiflorum and identification of conserved regulatory elements of herbicide resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmood

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is a ubiquitous challenge to herbicide sustainability and a looming threat to control weeds in crops. Recently four genes were found constituently over-expressed in herbicide resistant individuals of Lolium rigidum, a close relative of L. multiflorum. These include two cytochrome P450s, one nitronate monooxygenase and one glycosyl-transferase. Higher expressions of these four herbicide metabolism related (HMR genes were also observed after herbicides exposure in the gene expression databases, indicating them a reliable marker. In order to get an overview of herbicidal resistance status of Lolium multiflorum L, 19 field populations were collected. Among these populations, four populations were found to be resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors while three exhibited resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase inhibitors in our initial screening and dose response study. The genotyping showed the presence of mutations Trp-574-Leu and Ile-2041-Asn in ALS and ACCase, respectively and qPCR experiments revealed the enhanced expression of HMR genes in individuals of certain resistant populations. Moreover, co-expression networks and promoter analyses of HMR genes in O.sativa and A.thaliana resulted in the identification of a cis-regulatory motif and zinc finger transcription factors. The identified transcription factors were highly expressed similar to HMR genes in response to xenobiotics whereas the identified motif known to play a vital role in coping with environmental stresses and maintaining genome stability. Overall, our findings provide an important step forward towards a better understanding of metabolism-based herbicide resistance that can be utilized to devise novel strategies of weed management.

  1. Seedling Establishment and Forage Accumulation of ‘Ceres Tonic’ Plantain in Pure Stands and in Grass Mixtures Implantación y Acumulación de Forraje de Plantago ‘Ceres Tonic’ Puro y en Mezcla con Gramíneas

    OpenAIRE

    M. Silvia Cid; Miguel A Brizuela; Analía Mendiburu; Juan M Gariglio

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the balance of species 2 mo after sowing, its effects on seasonal and annual dry matter accumulation of Plantago lanceolata L. ‘Ceres Tonic’ sown in pure stands, in binary mixtures with three grasses, and different initial growth rates: annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Plantain monocultures were sown at three densities (4, 8, and 12 kg seed ha-1), while halved densities were us...

  2. Evaluation of Turf-type Interspecific Hybrids of Meadow Fescue with Perennial Ryegrass for Improved Stress Tolerance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barnes, B.D.; Kopecký, David; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Baird, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2014), s. 355-365 ISSN 0011-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : LOLIUM-FESTUCA COMPLEX * TALL FESCUE * INTERGENERIC HYBRIDS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.575, year: 2014

  3. Rendimento de forragem e valor nutritivo de gramíneas anuais de estação fria submetidas a sombreamento por Pinus elliottii e ao sol pleno Forage yield and nutritive value of cool-season annual forage grasses shaded by Pinus elliottii trees and at full-sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Santiago Barro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do sombreamento provocado por duas densidades arbóreas em uma floresta de Pinus elliottii Engelm. com 10 anos de idade sobre o rendimento e o valor nutritivo da forragem de três gramíneas de ciclo hibernal. Como tratamentos, avaliou-se a combinação de dois fatores (3 x 3 em um delineamento experimental de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições, no qual as parcelas foram as condições luminosas (proporcionadas por duas densidades arbóreas: 555 e 333 árvores/ha e luz solar plena e as subparcelas as espécies forrageiras azevém-anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb.; e aveia-branca (A. sativa L. cv. Fapa 2. A semeadura foi realizada entre 25/7/2005 e 5/8/2005 e entre 26 e 27/4/2006. O rendimento de matéria seca foi estimado em avaliações durante o estádio vegetativo (aos 104 dias após a semeadura em 2006 e em pleno florescimento (aos 132 e 170 dias, em 2005 e 2006, respectivamente. O valor nutritivo da forragem foi avaliado considerando os teores médios de proteína bruta (PB e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O sombreamento moderado reduziu em 57% o rendimento médio de forragem dos três genótipos avaliados, mas aumentou em 2,3% o teor de proteína bruta (PB e em 5,5% a digestibilidade in vitro (DIVMO quando as plantas estavam em florescimento pleno. Entre as espécies forrageiras avaliadas, a aveia-branca e a aveia-preta apresentam maior potencial para utilização em sistemas silvipastoris na Região Sul.It was evaluated the shading effect induced by two tree densities of a ten-year-old slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. forest, and at full sun, on forage dry matter yield and nutritive value of three cool-season annual grasses. Treatments were a combination of two main factors: a three light conditions induced by two tree densities (333 e 555 stems/ha and at full sun; b three cool-season annual forage grasses: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam

  4. Accuracy of Genomic Prediction in a Commercial Perennial Ryegrass Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Fè

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of genomic selection (GS in plant breeding, so far, has been mainly evaluated in crops farmed as homogeneous varieties, and the results have been generally positive. Fewer results are available for species, such as forage grasses, that are grown as heterogenous families (developed from multiparent crosses in which the control of the genetic variation is far more complex. Here we test the potential for implementing GS in the breeding of perennial ryegrass ( L. using empirical data from a commercial forage breeding program. Biparental F and multiparental synthetic (SYN families of diploid perennial ryegrass were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing, and phenotypes for five different traits were analyzed. Genotypes were expressed as family allele frequencies, and phenotypes were recorded as family means. Different models for genomic prediction were compared by using practically relevant cross-validation strategies. All traits showed a highly significant level of genetic variance, which could be traced using the genotyping assay. While there was significant genotype × environment (G × E interaction for some traits, accuracies were high among F families and between biparental F and multiparental SYN families. We have demonstrated that the implementation of GS in grass breeding is now possible and presents an opportunity to make significant gains for various traits.

  5. Tritium forms discrimination in ryegrass under constant tritium exposure: From seed germination to seedling autotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, H; Maro, D; Le Dizès, S; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A; Voiseux, C; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Rozet, M; Cossonnet, C; Barillot, R

    2017-10-01

    Uncertainties remain regarding the fate of atmospheric tritium after it has been assimilated in grasslands (ryegrass) in the form of TFWT (Tissue Free Water Tritium) or OBT (Organically Bound Tritium). One such uncertainty relates to the tritium forms discrimination during transfer from TFWT to OBT resulting from photosynthesis (OBT photo ), corresponding to the OBT photo /TFWT ratio. In this study, the OBT/TFWT ratio is determined by experiments in the laboratory using a ryegrass model and hydroponic cultures, with constant activity of tritium in the form of tritiated water (denoted as HTO) in the "water" compartment (liquid HTO) and "air" compartment (HTO vapour in the air). The OBT photo /TFWT ratio and the exchangeable OBT fraction are measured for three parts of the plant: the leaf, seed and root. Plant growth is modelled using dehydrated biomass measurements taken over time in the laboratory and integrating physiological functions of the plant during the first ten days after germination. The results suggest that there is no measurable discrimination of tritium in the plant organic matter produced by photosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of environmental factors related to Claviceps purpurea ascospore production in perennial ryegrass seed fields and development of predictive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claviceps purpurea, the causal agent of ergot of perennial ryegrass seed crops, overwinters as sclerotia in the soil and releases airborne ascospores in the spring that infect flower ovaries and replace seed with sclerotia. Burkard spore traps were used to quantify the dispersal phenology and concen...

  7. Co-fermentation of sewage sludge with ryegrass for enhancing hydrogen production: Performance evaluation and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-11-01

    The low C/N ratio and low carbohydrate content of sewage sludge limit its application for fermentative hydrogen production. In this study, perennial ryegrass was added as the co-substrate into sludge hydrogen fermentation with different mixing ratios for enhancing hydrogen production. The results showed that the highest hydrogen yield of 60mL/g-volatile solids (VS) added was achieved when sludge/perennial ryegrass ratio was 30:70, which was 5 times higher than that from sole sludge. The highest VS removal of 21.8% was also achieved when sludge/perennial ryegrass ratio was 30:70, whereas VS removal from sole sludge was only 0.7%. Meanwhile, the co-fermentation system simultaneously improved hydrogen production efficiency and organics utilization of ryegrass. Kinetic analysis showed that the Cone model fitted hydrogen evolution better than the modified Gompertz model. Furthermore, hydrogen yield and VS removal increased with the increase of dehydrogenase activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Resistance of Endophyte-Infected Plants of Tall Fescue and Perennial Ryegrass to the Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Clement; K.S. Pike; W.J. Kaiser; A. Dan Wilson

    1991-01-01

    Fewer aphids of the Russian wheat aphid, (Mordvilko), were found on tall fescue and perennial ryegrass plants harboring systemic fungal endophytes than on endophyte-free plants in laboratory tests. These results indicate that enhanced resistance in some perennial grasses to D. noxia is associated with the presence of endophytic fungi.

  9. Decondensation of chromosomal 45S rDNA sites in Lolium and Festuca genotypes does not result in karyotype instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Laiane Corsini; Jankowska, Maja; Fuchs, Joerg; Mittelmann, Andréa; Techio, Vânia Helena; Houben, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Fragile sites (FSs) in plants have been described for species like Lolium and other grasses. Whereas in humans FSs were shown to be involved in genome instabilities; the consequences of FSs expression in plants are not known yet. To evaluate whether FSs cause karyotype instabilities, we assessed the frequency of micronuclei and lagging chromosomes in meristematic cells, the stability of the DNA content, and the occurrence of neocentromeres in the presumed chromosomal fragments of Lolium perenne, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca arrundinacea, and two Festulolium hybrids. The cell cycle analysis along with flow cytometric genome size measurements showed high stability in all genomes evaluated. Neocentromeric activity was neither observed in the presumed fragments nor in any other chromosomal region, then this is not the mechanism responsible by the stability. However, Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probe in combination with YOYO staining of metaphasic chromosomes showed that many extended nucleolus organizing region (NOR) form very thin YOYO-positive chromatin fibers connecting the acentric 'fragment' with the centromere-containing chromosome region. The obtained data indicate that the expression of FSs does not result in genome instabilities or neocentromere formation. The FS-containing 45S rDNA carrying chromatin fibers undergo a cell cycle and gene activity-dependent dynamic decondensation process.

  10. Phenetic relationships among Lolium s.l. (Poaceae in Iran based on flavonoids spot profiles and quantitative morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Raeisi Chehrazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between species of Lolium and Festuca have long been an interesting subject in taxonomy of the subtribe Loliineae. This study was concerned with the phenetic relationships of Lolium s.l. (including Festuca subgen. Schedonorus using flavonoids spot profiles and quantitative morphological characters. Measurement of morphological characters and densitometry of flavonoids spots and their profile plots were performed by using calibrated digital images and ImageJ software package. Multivariate analyses (clustering and ordination performed by using NTSYS-pc software package. Each species was described based on its flavonoid spot profile, and Rf values and percentage of each spot in the corresponding profile were reported. Variation in flavonoid spot profiles of Lolium rigidum, L. perenne and Festuca pratensis revealed that flavonoids spot profiles revealed that they may be useful characters for further studying the variations within the species level. Cluster analysis of quantitative morphological characters separated the species in well defined groups and further separated L. persicum population Ardabil from other L. persicum populations. Separation of F. arundinacea populations into two distinct groups was also interesting which suggested that the existence of two forms of this species in Iran is probable.

  11. Produção de novilhos de corte com suplementação em pastagem de azevém submetida a doses de nitrogênio Supplementation of beef steers on ryegrass pastures submitted to different nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson dos Santos Difante

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em várzea sistematizada com o objetivo de comparar os efeitos do uso de doses de N em cobertura, associadas a níveis de suplementação energética, sobre o desempenho animal e a qualidade e produção de forragem. Os tratamentos foram: 300N+0,8S = adubação com 300 kg de N/ha + suplementação com grão de milho moído (0,8% do PV/dia; 200N+0,4S = adubação com 200 kg de N/ha + suplementação com grão de milho moído (0,4% do PV/dia; e 100N = adubação com 100 kg de N/ha, sem suplementação. Foram utilizados novilhos de corte da raça Charolês e suas cruzas com Nelore com idade inicial de 8 a 10 meses. A pastagem foi manejada sob lotação contínua e carga variável, no período de 15/07 a 03/11/2000, totalizando 110 dias de utilização. O teor de PB, a digestibilidade in vitro da MO (DIVMO e a oferta de forragem (OF foram maiores no início do período de pastejo e apenas a OF diferiu entre os tratamentos. As doses de N em cobertura, associadas a níveis de suplementação energética em pastagem de azevém, não alteraram o ganho médio diário dos animais, mas resultaram em maior carga animal e maior ganho de peso vivo por hectare.The experiment was carried out in a leveled lowland area cultivated with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. The objective was to compare the effect of nitrogen (N and different energy supplementation levels on the following parameters: herbage quality, herbage yield, and animal production. The treatments were: 300N + 0.8S - Italian ryegrass pasture plus 300 kg.ha-1 of N and supplementation with ground corn (0.8% LW/day, 200N + 0.4S - Italian ryegrass pasture plus 200 kg.ha-1 of N and supplementation with ground corn (0.4% LW/day and 100N - Italian ryegrass pasture plus 100 kg.ha-1 of N without supplementation. Beef steers averaging eight to ten months old were used in the beginning of the experiment and allotted to continuous stocking with fixed stocking rate. Crude

  12. Differences in rate of ruminal hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids in clover and ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonklev, J; Storm, A C; Larsen, M K; Mortensen, G; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-10-01

    Biohydrogenation of C18 fatty acids in the rumen of cows, from polyunsaturated and monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids, is lower on clover than on grass-based diets, which might result in increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the milk from clover-based diets affecting its nutritional properties. The effect of forage type on ruminal hydrogenation was investigated by in vitro incubation of feed samples in rumen fluid. Silages of red clover, white clover and perennial ryegrass harvested in spring growth and in third regrowth were used, resulting in six silages. Fatty acid content was analysed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h of incubation to study the rate of hydrogenation of unsaturated C18 fatty acids. A dynamic mechanistic model was constructed and used to estimate the rate constants (k, h) of the hydrogenation assuming mass action-driven fluxes between the following pools of C18 fatty acids: C18:3 (linolenic acid), C18:2 (linoleic acid), C18:1 (mainly vaccenic acid) and C18:0 (stearic acid) as the end point. For k(C18:1,C18:2) the estimated rate constants were 0.0685 (red clover), 0.0706 (white clover) and 0.0868 (ryegrass), and for k(C18:1,C18:3) it was 0.0805 (red clover), 0.0765 (white clover) and 0.1022 (ryegrass). Type of forage had a significant effect on k(C18:1,C18:2) (P C18:1,C18:3) (P C18:1,C18:2) or k(C18:1,C18:3) (P > 0.10). Neither forage nor growth significantly affected k(C18:0,C18:1), which was estimated to be 0.0504. Similar, but slightly higher, results were observed when calculating the rate of disappearance for linolenic and linoleic acid. This effect persists regardless of the harvest time and may be because of the presence of plant secondary metabolites that are able to inhibit lipolysis, which is required before hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can begin.

  13. De novo assembly of the perennial ryegrass transcriptome using an RNA-seq strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Jacqueline Danielle; Byrne, Stephen; Paina, Cristiana

    2014-01-01

    Background Perennial ryegrass is a highly heterozygous outbreeding grass species used for turf and forage production. Heterozygosity can affect de-Bruijn graph assembly making de novo transcriptome assembly of species such as perennial ryegrass challenging. Creating a reference transcriptome from...... has developed an annotated, comprehensive transcriptome reference for perennial ryegrass that can aid in determining genetic variation, expression analysis, genome annotation, and gene mapping....... a homozygous perennial ryegrass genotype can circumvent the challenge of heterozygosity. The goals of this study were to perform RNA-sequencing on multiple tissues from a highly inbred genotype to develop a reference transcriptome. This was complemented with RNA-sequencing of a highly heterozygous genotype...... for SNP calling. Result De novo transcriptome assembly of the inbred genotype created 185,833 transcripts with an average length of 830 base pairs. Within the inbred reference transcriptome 78,560 predicted open reading frames were found of which 24,434 were predicted as complete. Functional annotation...

  14. Genomic Variance Estimation Based on Genotyping-by-Sequencing with Different Coverage in Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Bilal; Fé, Dario; Jensen, Just

    2014-01-01

    on optimizing methods and models utilizing F2 family phenotype records and NGS information from F2 family pools in perennial ryegrass. Genomic variance was estimated using genomic relationship matrices based on different coverage depths to verify effects of coverage depth. Example traits were seed yield, rust......Advancement in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has significantly decreased the cost of DNA sequencing enabling increased use of genotyping by sequencing (GBS) in several plant species. In contrast to array-based genotyping GBS also allows for easy estimation of allele frequencies...... at each SNP in family pools or polyploids. There are, however, several statistical challenges associated with this method, including low sequencing depth and missing values. Low sequencing depth results in inaccuracies in estimates of allele frequencies for each SNP. In this work we have focused...

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  16. Complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-07-05

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II was determined by automated Edman degradation of the protein and selected fragments. Cleavage of the protein by enzymatic and chemical techniques established an unambiguous sequence for the protein. Lol p II contains 97 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 10,882. The protein lacks cysteine and glutamine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. Theoretical predictions by Fraga's (Fraga, S. (1982) Can. J. Chem. 60, 2606-2610) and Hopp and Woods' (Hopp, T. P., and Woods, K. R. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 3824-3828) methods indicate the presence of four hydrophilic regions, which may contribute to sequential or parts of conformational B-cell epitopes. Analysis of amphipathic regions by Berzofsky's method indicates the presence of a highly amphipathic region, which may contain, or contribute to, an Ia/T-cell epitope. This latter segment of Lol p II was found to be highly homologous with an antibody-binding segment of the major rye allergen Lol p I and may explain why immune responsiveness to both the allergens is associated with HLA-DR3.

  17. A phenetic study of the genus Lolium from Poaceae family in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Oshib nataj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 66 quantitative and qualitative morphological characters from vegetative and reproductive parts were considered and evaluated in 33 populations from different localities in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the species relationships in Iran. To evaluate the species relationships, qualitative and quantitative morphological characters were statistically analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17. Cluster analysis by WARD method and ordination based on principal component analysis and factor analysis were done. Statistical analysis indicated that qualitative characters as glume and spikelet position, caryopsis shape and quantitative features such as floret length , pedicel to upper glume length, length of upper lemma to upper glume and length of upper lemma had the most important role as diagnostic characters in inter-genus variation. Three outbreeder species: L. perenne, L. multiflorum and L. rigidum were closely related and had similar features although there were some differentiations between them but two inbreeder species: L. temulentum and L. persicum showed more differences. Based on statistical results and diagnostic characters, an identification key is provided for Lolium species in Iran.

  18. Effects of Modifiers on Physiological Metabolism of Lolium perenne Seedlings in Diesel-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pot experiment for single-factor with diesel oil polluted soil and the pot experiment for three-factor orthogonal with sawdust-ammonium nitrate-monopotassium phosphate under diesel oil polluted soil with salt stress, were performed to analyze the activity of antioxidant enzymes and chlorophyll content in Lolium perenne seedlings, and to explore the physiological response of L. perenne seedlings under diesel oil polluted soil and its regulations. The results showed that, soil diesel pollution significantly decreased the biomass. Compared with control, activity of superoxide dismutases(SOD in leaf decreased significantly at 0.3% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution, peroxidases (POD and catalase(CAT in leaf decreased significantly at 0.6% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution, the root SOD activity increased significantly at 0.9% diesel concentration while the root POD activity decreased significantly at 0.6% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution. As for the salinity soil polluted by diesel oil, the activity of POD and CAT in leaf increased significantly at 10% volume fraction of sawdust, and the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b increased significantly as well. Meanwhile, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content increased significantly at 0.3 g·kg-1 amount of ammonium nitrate. Thereby, sawdust and ammonium nitrate addition could effectively improve physiological metabolic of L. perenne seedlings.

  19. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merini, Luciano J. [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bobillo, Cecilia [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Cuadrado, Virginia [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Corach, Daniel [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Giulietti, Ana M., E-mail: agiule@ffyb.uba.a [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg{sup -1} of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450} or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450}. Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  20. Novel α-Tubulin Mutations Conferring Resistance to Dinitroaniline Herbicides in Lolium rigidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhan Chu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dinitroaniline herbicides (particularly trifluralin have been globally used in many crops for selective grass weed control. Consequently, trifluralin resistance has been documented in several important crop weed species and has recently reached a level of concern in Australian Lolium rigidum populations. Here, we report novel mutations in the L. rigidum α-tubulin gene which confer resistance to trifluralin and other dinitroaniline herbicides. Nucleotide mutations at the highly conserved codon Arg-243 resulted in amino acid substitutions of Met or Lys. Rice calli transformed with the mutant 243-Met or 243-Lys α-tubulin genes were 4- to 8-fold more resistant to trifluralin and other dinitroaniline herbicides (e.g., ethalfluralin and pendimethalin compared to calli transformed with the wild type α-tubulin gene from L. rigidum. Comprehensive modeling of molecular docking predicts that Arg-243 is close to the trifluralin binding site on the α-tubulin surface and that replacement of Arg-243 by Met/Lys-243 results in a spatial shift of the trifluralin binding domain, reduction of trifluralin-tubulin contacts, and unfavorable interactions. The major effect of these substitutions is a significant rise of free interaction energy between α-tubulin and trifluralin, as well as between trifluralin and its whole molecular environment. These results demonstrate that the Arg-243 residue in α-tubulin is a determinant for trifluralin sensitivity, and the novel Arg-243-Met/Lys mutations may confer trifluralin resistance in L. rigidum.

  1. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merini, Luciano J.; Bobillo, Cecilia; Cuadrado, Virginia; Corach, Daniel; Giulietti, Ana M.

    2009-01-01

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg -1 of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P 450 or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P 450 . Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  2. Effects of biochars on the availability of heavy metals to ryegrass in an alkaline contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guixiang; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Zhihua; He, Qiusheng; Wang, Shuifeng; Zhu, Yuen; Yan, Yulong; Liu, Xitao; Sun, Ke; Zhao, Ye; Qian, Tianwei

    2016-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochars on the availability of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) to ryegrass in an alkaline contaminated soil. Biochars only slightly decreased or even increased the availability of heavy metals assesses by chemical extractant (a mixture of 0.05 mol L -1 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium, 0.01 mol L -1 CaCl 2 , and 0.1 mol L -1 triethanolamine). The significantly positive correlation between most chemical-extractable heavy metals and the ash content in biochars indicated the positive role of ash in this extraction. Biochars significantly reduced the plant uptake of heavy metals, excluding Mn. The absence of a positive correlation between the chemical-extractable heavy metals and the plant uptake counterparts (except for Mn) indicates that chemical extractability is probably not a reliable indicator to predict the phytoavailability of most heavy metals in alkaline soils treated with biochars. The obviously negative correlation between the plant uptake of heavy metals (except for Mn) and the (O + N)/C and H/C indicates that biochars with more polar groups, which were produced at lower temperatures, had higher efficiency for reducing the phytoavailability of heavy metals. The significantly negative correlations between the plant uptake of Mn and ryegrass biomass indicated the "dilution effect" caused by the improvement of biomass. These observations will be helpful for designing biochars as soil amendments to reduce the availability of heavy metals to plants in soils, especially in alkaline soils. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Produção animal e retorno econômico da suplementação em pastagem de aveia e azevém Animal production and economic return in a supplementated oats/ryegrass mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento avaliou a resposta animal e o retorno econômico do uso da suplementação energética em pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb + azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. Os tratamentos foram: STP - Suplementação, durante todo o período de utilização da pastagem; SAS- Suplementação até final de setembro; SS- Sem suplementação. O sistema de pastejo foi o contínuo com lotação variável. O suplemento utilizado foi o grão de sorgo em quantidade variável para manter a mesma quantidade de massa de forragem em todos os tratamentos. O ganhos de peso médios diários por animal (GMD foram superiores nos tratamentos STP e SAS, 0,716 e 0,710 kg, respectivamente, em relação ao obtido no tratamento SS (0,580 kg. A suplementação possibilitou maior carga animal. A produção animal por hectare foi maior em STP, 627 kg ha-1 de PV, sendo 75% superior aos 359 kg ha-1 de PV do SS. A suplementação não afetou a condição corporal dos animais. O custo total e a receita líquida foram de 775,42/165,08, 605,75/204,25 e 367,35/204,92 R$ ha-1 para STP, SAS e SS, respectivamente. O uso exclusivo da pastagem e a suplementação, até o final de setembro, resultaram em maior retorno financeiro direto.The experiment evaluated the animal response and economic return of energetic supplementation in oat (Avena strigosa Schreb plus Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam pasture. The treatments were: STP- Supplementation during the entire pasture cycle; SAS- Supplementation until the end of September and SS- No supplement. The continuous grazing system with variable stocking rate was used. The supplement utilized, with different quantities, was ground sorghum in order to maintain the same herbage mass for all treatments. Live weight daily gain was higher in STP and SAS, 0.716 and 0.710 kg, respectively than 0.580 kg in SS. The stocking rate was greater with supplements. The higher weight gain per hectare was at STP (627 kg, 75% higher

  4. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (Rye I and Rye II). II. Longitudinal variation of antibody levels in relation to symptomatology and pollen exposure and correction of seasonally elevated antibody levels to basal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1987-11-01

    This study used a standardized, dialyzed, Lolium perenne (ryegrass) pollen extract and two of its well-characterized components, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II), to characterize the longitudinal variation of both IgE and IgG antibody (Ab) levels, as well as total serum IgE levels, in 20 grass-allergic subjects followed for 13 months. Ab levels declined toward a basal level just before, and increased just after, the grass-pollination season, returning to the same basal level just before the next grass-pollination season. The least complex allergen, Lol II, demonstrated the most uniform pattern of variation in both IgE and IgG Ab levels. Total serum IgE levels demonstrated the least regular pattern of variation. Grass-pollen counts were strongly correlated with symptom-medication scores for these subjects (rs = 0.87). Initial values were correlated with the rise in total IgE and IgE Ab to Lol II across the grass-pollen season. Skin test results were correlated with initial IgE Ab levels for L. perenne pollen extract and Lol II. Finally, a procedure for correcting IgE Ab levels to basal values was proposed and tested. The correction procedure, for each IgE Ab, was based on the average rise during the grass-pollination season (or average decline after the grass-pollination season) observed for all subjects with that IgE Ab.

  5. Silicon-Mediated Alleviation of Aluminum Toxicity by Modulation of Al/Si Uptake and Antioxidant Performance in Ryegrass Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cartes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si has been well documented to alleviate aluminum (Al toxicity in vascular plants. However, the mechanisms underlying these responses remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the effect of Si on the modulation of Si/Al uptake and the antioxidant performance of ryegrass plants hydroponically cultivated with Al (0 and 0.2 mM in combination with Si (0, 0.5, and 2.0 mM. Exposure to Al significantly increased Al concentration, mainly in the roots, with a consequent reduction in root growth. However, Si applied to the culture media steadily diminished the Al concentration in ryegrass, which was accompanied by an enhancement in root dry matter production. A reduced concentration of Si in plant tissues was also observed when plants were simultaneously supplied with Al and Si. Interestingly, Si transporter genes (Lsi1 and Lsi2 were down-regulated in roots after Si or Al was applied alone; however, both Lsi1 and Lsi2 were up-regulated as a consequence of Si application to Al-treated plants, denoting that there is an increase in Si requirement in order to cope with Al stress in ryegrass. Whereas Al addition triggered lipid peroxidation, Si contributed to an attenuation of Al-induced oxidative stress by increasing phenols concentration and modulating the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase antioxidant enzymes. Differential changes in gene expression of SOD isoforms (Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, and Fe-SOD and the profile of peroxide (H2O2 generation were also induced by Si in Al-stressed plants. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first study to present biochemical and molecular evidence supporting the effect of Si on the alleviation of Al toxicity in ryegrass plants.

  6. Behavior of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in soil: Effects of rhizosphere and mycorrhizal colonization of ryegrass roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Sen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Huang, Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    A rhizobox experiment was conducted to investigate degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in the rhizosphere of ryegrass and the influence of root colonization with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus. BDE-209 dissipation in soil varied with its proximity to the roots and was enhanced by AM inoculation. A negative correlation (P < 0.001, R{sup 2} = 0.66) was found between the residual BDE-209 concentration in soil and soil microbial biomass estimated as the total phospholipid fatty acids, suggesting a contribution of microbial degradation to BDE-209 dissipation. Twelve and twenty-four lower brominated PBDEs were detected in soil and plant samples, respectively, with a higher proportion of di- through hepta-BDE congeners in the plant tissues than in the soils, indicating the occurrence of BDE-209 debromination in the soil-plant system. AM inoculation increased the levels of lower brominated PBDEs in ryegrass. These results provide important information about the behavior of BDE-209 in the soil-plant system. - Research highlights: > BDE-209 dissipation in soil was affected by the proximity to the roots. > Microbial degradation contributes greatly to BDE-209 dissipation in the soil. > Twelve and twenty-four lower brominated PBDEs were detected in soil and plant samples. > AM inoculation increased root uptake and accumulation of BDE-209. - BDE-209 dissipation and degradation in soil were affected by both its proximity to ryegrass roots and inoculation with an AM fungus.

  7. Update On The Development Of DArT Markers And 454-Sequencing In Festuca/Lolium And Phleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandve, Simen R; Bartos, Jan; Kopecky, David

    Development of genomic resources in perennial grasses for high-throughput applications in genomic research and plant breeding has lagged behind most other crops. The predicted climate changes create novel patterns of biotic and abiotic stresses. Efficient characterization and utilization of genetic...... resources for developing improved cultivars adapted to the future climates depend on modern genomic resources. We will describe our recent activity in developing genomic resources for Festuca/Lolium and Phleum. These resources include the development and mapping of DArT-markers in Festuca pratensis...

  8. Dinitroaniline herbicide resistance in a multiple-resistant Lolium rigidum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyi; Yu, Qin; Owen, Mechelle; Han, Heping; Powles, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    The pre-emergence dinitroaniline herbicides (such as trifluralin and pendimethalin) are vital to Australian no-till farming systems. A Lolium rigidum population collected from the Western Australian grain belt with a 12-year trifluralin use history was characterised for resistance to dinitroaniline, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Target-site resistance mechanisms were investigated. This L. rigidum population exhibited 32-fold resistance to trifluralin, as compared with the susceptible population. It also displayed 12- to 30-fold cross-resistance to other dinitroaniline herbicides (pendimethalin, ethalfluralin and oryzalin). In addition, this population showed multiple resistance to commonly used post-emergence ACCase- and ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Two target-site α-tubulin gene mutations (Val-202-Phe and Thr-239-Ile) previously documented in other dinitroaniline-resistant weed species were identified, and some known target-site mutations in ACCase (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly and Cys-2088-Arg) and ALS (Pro-197-Gln/Ser) were found in the same population. An agar-based Petri dish screening method was established for the rapid diagnosis of resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides. Evolution of target-site resistance to both pre- and post-emergence herbicides was confirmed in a single L. rigidum population. The α-tubulin mutations Val-202-Phe and Thr-239-Ile, documented here for the first time in L. rigidum, are likely to be responsible for dinitroaniline resistance in this population. Early detection of dinitroaniline herbicide resistance and integrated weed management strategies are needed to maintain the effectiveness of dinitroaniline herbicides. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Recycling of biological sludge for the fertilizing of soils cultivated with Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been elaborated with the aim of justifying the high efficiency of in-situ slaughterhouse sludge recycling and its usage in Lolium perenne cultures. Stabilized slaughterhouse sludge was used to complete the high deficiency in nutrients of the poor terrains. Slaughterhouse sludge represents an excessive, final by product from a meat-processing unit in Western Romania. It contains 59.78-90.77% easily bio-degradable organic substances. Moreover, it has compounds containing nitrogen and phosphorus, total N=1.922-3.318%, total P=1107-1126mg•kg-1D.M. The experimental variants have been prepared, having the following characteristics: control variants of non-fertilized soils and variants of soils fertilized with slaughterhouse sludge, 50t•ha-1. The experimental variants used were arranged in a completely randomized block design, with three replicates each. The efficiency of fertilization with slaughterhouse sludge was a 30-35% rise in the quantity of grass harvested vs. the quantities harvested from the control variants. The quantity of Cd and Pb has been determined from the aerial parts of the harvested plants and they were below the maximum limit admitted by the sanitary regulations in Romania. Cr didn’t bio-accumulate in plants at a detection limit. The quantity of other metals determined from the aerial parts of the plants was low: i.e. <10mg•kg-1D.M. for Cu or Ni <50mg•kg-1D.M. for Zn, <150mg•kg-1D.M.for Mn. Green feed harvested from fields fertilized with slaughterhouse sludge can be part of animal nutrition.

  10. Immunochemical studies of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Kihara, T K; Marsh, D G

    1987-12-15

    It was reported earlier that human immune responses to three perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III, are associated with histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3. Rye-allergic people are often concordantly sensitive to all three of these allergens. Since earlier studies suggested that these antigens are non-cross-reactive, their immunologic relatedness by double antibody radioimmunoassay (DARIA) was studied in order to understand further the immunochemical basis for the concordant recognition of the three allergens. Direct binding DARIA studies were performed with human sera from 189 allergic subjects. Inhibition DARIA studies were carried out with 17 human sera from grass-allergic patients who were on grass immunotherapy, one goat anti-serum, and six rabbit antisera. None of the sera detected any significant degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p I and II, or between Lol p I and III. However, the degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III exhibited by individual human and animal antisera varied between undetectable and 100%. In general, the degree of cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III was higher among human sera than among animal sera. Taken together with earlier findings that antibody responses to Lol p I, II and III are associated with HLA-HDR3, and that most Lol p II and III responders are also Lol p I responders, but not vice versa, our present results suggest the following: the HLA-DR3-encoded Ia molecule recognizes a similar immunodominant Ia recognition site (agretope) shared between Lol p I and Lol p II and/or III; in addition, Lol p I appears to contain unique Ia recognition site(s) not present in Lol p II and III. However, further epitope analyses are required to investigate these possibilities.

  11. Molecular genetics of human immune responsiveness to Lolium perenne (rye) allergen, Lol p III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Freidhoff, L R; Marsh, D G

    1989-01-01

    Lol p II and III are each about 11-kD protein allergens from the pollen of Lolium perenne (rye grass). We have found that human immune responses (IgE and IgG antibodies) to both proteins are significantly associated with HLA-DR3. In addition, the two proteins are cross-reactive with the antibodies in many human sera (about 84% human sera showed the cross-reactivity). We have determined greater than 90% of the amino acid sequences of the two proteins and found that they are at least 54% homologous. Berzofsky found that 75% of the 23 known T cell sites in various proteins had an amphipathic structure. Our analysis by the same method showed that both Lol p II and III have a major region of amphipathicity (at residues 61-67, Lol p III numbering) which might contain sites for binding to an Ia molecule and a T cell receptor. This region is identical between Lol p II and III, except for an Arg-Lys substitution, and could account, in part, for the DR3 association with responsiveness to both molecules. An interesting difference between the two proteins is that immune response to Lol p III is associated with DR5 (in addition to DR3), whereas no DR5 association is found in the case of Lol p II. One possibility is that Lol p III has an additional site which binds to the DR5 Ia molecule. Lol p III indeed has a second highly amphiphathic peptide, 24-30 (Lol p III 24 R P G D T L A 30), which is different and not amphipathic in Lol p II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Cloning, expression, and immunological characterization of recombinant Lolium perenne allergen Lol p II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoli, A; Tamborini, E; Giuntini, I; Levi, S; Volonté, G; Paini, C; De Lalla, C; Siccardi, A G; Baralle, F E; Galliani, S

    1993-10-15

    The molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding for an isoallergenic form of Lol p II, a major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification on mRNA extracted from pollen. The amino acid sequence derived from the cDNA was truncated by 4 and 5 residues at the NH2- and COOH-terminal ends, respectively, and differed only in one position from that previously reported. This cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion to the carboxyl terminus of the human ferritin H-chain. The molecule was produced in high yields as a soluble protein and was easily purified. The protein retains the multimeric quaternary structure of ferritin, and it exposes on the surface the allergenic moiety, which can be recognized in Western blotting and in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments by specific IgE from allergic patients. The recombinant allergen was used to analyze the sera of 26 patients allergic to L. perenne compared with control sera. The results were in good agreement with the values obtained with the radioallergosorbent test assay. In addition, histamine release experiments in whole blood from an allergic patient and skin prick tests showed that the recombinant allergen retains some of the biological properties of the natural compound. These findings indicate that the availability of homogeneous recombinant allergens may be useful for the development of more specific diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Moreover, this expression system may be of more general interest for producing large amounts of soluble protein domains in E. coli.

  13. Persistence of endophytic fungi in cultivars ofLolium perennegrown from seeds stored for 22 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheplick, Gregory P

    2017-04-01

    Genetic resources for forage crops often consist of seeds of specific species and cultivars in cold storage for future use in breeding and selection programs. Temperate grasses such as Lolium perenne , used worldwide for forage and turf, produce seeds commonly infected by hyphae of an endophytic fungus ( Epichloë festucae var. lolii ). This research determined whether endophytes could persist and infect seedlings of L. perenne emerging from seeds stored for over two decades. Endophyte-infected seeds (>90% infected) of four cultivars were obtained in 1994 and stored dry in plastic bags at 4°C. Seed germination was tested after 12 yr (for two cultivars) and after 18 and 22 yr (for all cultivars). Seedling leaf sheaths were excised, stained, and examined at 400× for endophytic hyphae to quantify infection frequency (% plants infected) and intensity (mean number of endophytic hyphae per field of view). Seed germination after 22 yr depended on cultivar, ranging from 53 to 78%. Between 58 and 73% of plants grown from seeds stored for 22 yr still contained viable endophytic hyphae. Infection intensity remained at original levels for 18 yr in one cultivar; however, in all cultivars, infection intensity declined significantly between 18 and 22 yr. Persistence of the grass seed-endophyte symbiosis for over 20 yr surpasses all prior records of endophyte longevity within stored seeds. Storage of germplasm of cool-season grass cultivars that contain potentially beneficial fungal endophytes should be possible for several decades under dry, cold conditions. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Behavior of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne growing in a heavy metal contaminated field: Plant metal concentration and phytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidar, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Garcon, G. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, C. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Dewaele, D. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Cazier, F. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Douay, F. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, P. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)]. E-mail: pirouz.shirali@univ-littoral.fr

    2007-06-15

    The use of a vegetation cover for the management of heavy metal contaminated soils needs prior investigations on the plant species the best sustainable. In this work, behaviors of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne, growing in a metal-polluted field located near a closed lead smelter, were investigated through Cd, Pb and Zn-plant metal concentrations and their phytotoxicity. In these plant species, metals were preferentially accumulated in roots than in shoots, as follow: Cd > Zn > Pb. Plant exposure to such metals induced oxidative stress in the considered organs as revealed by the variations in malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activities. These oxidative changes were closely related to metal levels, plant species and organs. Accordingly, L. perenne seemed to be more affected by metal-induced oxidative stress than T. repens. Taken together, these findings allow us to conclude that both the plant species could be suitable for the phytomanagement of metal-polluted soils. - Usefulness of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne for the phytomanagement of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  15. THE EFFECT OF SOIL CONDITIONERS ON CELLULOSE, HEMICELLULOSE, AND THE ADL FIBRE FRACTION CONCENTRATION IN DACTYLIS GLOMERATA AND LOLIUM PERENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Truba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Replicated three times, the research was conducted in the experimental field between 2011 and 2014. Three soil conditioners with the following trade names: UGmax, Eko-Użyźniacz, and Humus Active Papka were used in the experiment, separately or together with NPK fertilisers. They were all used on plots sown with two species of grass, Dactylis glomerata of the Bora variety and Lolium perenne of the Info variety. The plant material from both grass species was tested for the concentration of ADL fraction (% DM, cellulose (% DM, and hemicellulose (% DM. It was found that the concentration of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and the ADL fraction was significantly higher in the biomass of Dactylis glomerata than in the biomass of Lolium perenne. The grass from the plot with the UGmax soil conditioner applied had the highest amount of cellulose and hemicellulose. The lowest amount of those organic compounds was found in the grass treated with UGmax together with mineral fertilisers and in plants treated with Humus Active, together with mineral fertilisers. However, the fertilisers and conditioners did not increase the ADL content in both grass species.

  16. STUDIES REGARDING THE CHELATE-INDUCED HYPERACCUMULATION OF CU AND FE USING LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES IN MINING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-DIANA PRICOP

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The plant capacity to absorb high amounts of metal for a short period of time is the major factor that influences the efficiency of phytoextraction. The hyperaccumulating plants uptake high amounts in their tissues correlated to the metal concentrations in soil. Chelating agents have the capacity to induce the metal accumulation in biomass. They increase metal bioavailability for plants by releasing the metal in accessible forms. The present study emphasizes that in the case of EDTA use, the obtained biomass is smaller compared to the other variants, showing a lower tolerance to this chelating agent of Lolium perenne species. Cu and Fe phytoextraction by Lolium perenne species is higher in the case of EDTA use. Cu bioaccumulation has higher values in variants with compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:4 in comparison with Fe. In the case of the best compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:3 the highest biomass is obtained in all the variants, biosolids’ effect being stronger compared to the chelating agent.

  17. Seed yield response to N fertilization and potential of proximal sensing in Italian ryegrass seed crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vleugels, Tim; Rijckaert, Georges; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    . The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the seed yield response to N fertilization, and (2) to evaluate if NDVI values can reliably predict the N status in Italian ryegrass seed crops. During eight years, field trials were conducted with two cultivars ‘Melclips’ and ‘Melquatro’, and seven N strategies...... applied after the forage cut as single or split application: 0, 60, 60 + 30, 90, 90 + 30, 120 and 150 kg N ha−1. NDVI values were obtained with a ‘GreenSeeker’ optical sensor. Maximum seed yield was attained at 141 kg N ha−1 total available N (92 kg N ha−1 fertilized). Higher fertilizations only increased...... at NNI values of 0.86 in the 2–3 node stage, 0.72 at the beginning of heading, and 0.59 at full ear emergence. NDVI values were correlated with NNI values, but were also heavily influenced by trial year. Therefore, is it impossible to establish NDVI thresholds to decide on remedial N fertilization....

  18. Identification of two distinct allergenic sites on ryegrass-pollen allergen, Lol p IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, K S; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Kisil, F T; Dzuba-Fischer, J M; Rector, E S; Sehon, A H

    1989-04-01

    Lol p IV is an important allergen of ryegrass pollen. For the immunochemical identification of antigenic and/or allergenic site(s), murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against Lol p IV. The hybridoma cell-culture supernatants were screened for anti-Lol p IV antibodies by a combination of ELISA and Western immunoblot analyses. The MAbs were finally purified from ascites on a Mono Q ion-exchange column. In a competitive radioimmunoassay with Lol p IV as the solid phase and 125I-labeled MAbs, it was established that MAbs 90, 91, 92, 93, and 94, although they differed in their relative affinities, recognized in common with one another an epitope designated as antigenic site A, whereas MAb 12 recognized a different epitope referred to as site B. Sites A and B were also demonstrated to constitute allergenic determinants of Lol p IV. Differences in the repertoire of specificities of the human IgE antibodies directed to Lol p IV were also demonstrated. Interestingly, it was found that sera from both allergic as well as from nonatopic individuals had IgG antibodies to sites A and/or B.

  19. The transfer of radionuclides from contaminated groundwater into perennial ryegrass and winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadey, P.; Shaw, G.; Butler, A. P.; Tompkins, J. A.; Wheater, H. S.

    1996-01-01

    Lysimeter studies of the migration of radionuclides from a contaminated water table and their subsequent uptake by plant roots have been undertaken using two distinct soil types and varying crop regimes. An eight year multi-disciplinary research project (funded by Nirex) has concentrated on the upward migration of contaminants from near-surface water tables, and their uptake by winter wheat and perennial ryegrass crops. Experimental data are presented for the movement and uptake of radiocaesium 137 Cs. These data show significant movement in the unsaturated zone during the first year of dosing, followed by progressively reduced availability in subsequent years. A suite of physically based hydrological and solute transport models has been developed to model radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone. Model simulations, based on a conventional advection-dispersion representation incorporating linear sorption processes, were unable to describe adequately the distribution of radiocaesium within the soil profile. However, the introduction of root storage and translocation processes provided significantly improved results. (author)

  20. Evaluation of fecal contamination indicators (fecal coliforms, somatic phages, and helminth eggs) in ryegrass sward farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Martha; Moreno, Gerardo; Campos, Claudia

    2009-02-15

    The effect of soil supplementation with biosolids at various ratios on fecal-origin microorganism activity was evaluated in a ryegrass sward farm. Fifteen plots with 3 different soil and biosolid mixture ratios were assessed. Soil and grass were sampled over a period of 4 months (days 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 120) for soil and on days 75 and 120 for grass, corresponding to first and second grass harvest periods. We analyzed fecal coliforms, somatic phages, helminth eggs, and environmental factors, such as rainfall, temperature, and moisture. The fecal coliforms decreased by 2 logarithmic units (LU) in all soils containing biosolids and by 1 LU in the soil alone and in biosolid control plots alone. The concentration of somatic phages decreased to 2 to 3 LU in the soil containing biosolids and to 1 to 2 LU in the control plots. In contrast, however, there was a noticeable increase in helminth eggs on days 75 ad 120, but not in the soil control alone. Maximum concentrations (10(2) CFU/g TS; colony forming units per gram total solids) of fecal coliforms were found on the grass and in other samples, but the concentrations of phages and helminth eggs were below detection limits. Environmental factors did not significantly influence the results, and grass production increased from 35 to 50 Ton/Ha (tons per hectare) with biosolid supplementation, as compared with controls (14 Ton/Ha).

  1. Coordinated nitrogen and carbon remobilization for nitrate assimilation in leaf, sheath and root and associated cytokinin signals during early regrowth of Lolium perenne

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roche, J.; Turnbull, M. H.; Guo, Q.; Novák, Ondřej; Späth, J.; Gieseg, S. P.; Jameson, P. E.; Love, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 8 (2017), s. 1353-1364 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : assimilation * cytokinin * defoliation * Lolium perenne * nitrate * Nitrogen * regrowth * water-soluble carbohydrates Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  2. Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diez De Ulzurrun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances logrados en el control de las malezas con el uso de herbicidas, el manejo de las mismas no se simplificó, sino que, al contrario, surgieron nuevos desafíos, como la aparición de resistencia a herbicidas. En 2007, se reportó en Lolium multiflorum el segundo caso de resistencia a glifosato detectado en Argentina. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires se registraron fallas de control a campo en poblaciones de Lolium multiflorum debido a su resistencia a distintos herbicidas de las familias de los inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa y al herbicida glifosato. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el nivel de resistencia a ciertos herbicidas inhibidores de la ALS y de la ACCasa y al glifosato en una población de L. multiflorum de Lobería (Bs As, Argentina supuestamente resistente (LmR. Se realizaron bioensayos en cajas de Petri y se determinó la GR50 mediante la variación en la longitud de coleoptile. Las curvas de dosis-respuesta se obtuvieron por medio de la ecuación log-logística. El biotipo LmR presentó resistencia múltiple a herbicidas con tres modos de acción diferentes: glifosato, inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa. Dicho ensayo demostró la aparición de un biotipo de L. multiflorum con resistencia a múltiples principios activos.Despite progress in weed control using herbicides, management has not been simplified, but new challenges such as herbicides resistance have arisen. In 2007, a Lolium multiflorum population resistant to glyphosate was reported, as the second case of glyphosate resistant weeds in Argentina. In the southeast of Buenos Aires province, control failures in populations of L. multiflorum to different families of herbicide such as ALS and ACCase inhibitors and to glyphosate at field level have been registered. The aim of this study was to characterize the level of resistance to certain herbicides inhibitors of ALS, ACCase and glyphosate in a putatively resistant (LmR population of L

  3. Overwintering and growing season dynamics of Trifolium repens L. in mixture with Lolium perenne L. : A model approach to plant-environment interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachendorf, M.; Collins, R.P.; Elgersma, A.; Fothergill, M.; Frankow-Lindberg, B.E.; Ghesquiere, A.; Guckert, A.; Guinchard, M.P.; Helgadottir, A.; Lüscher, A.; Nolan, T.; Nykänen-Kurki, P.

    2001-01-01

    In attempting to increase the reliability of clover contribution in clover/ryegrass systems it is important to understand the roles of (1) specific traits of the clover genotype (2) climate and (3) their interactions in determining clover behaviour in swards. Overwintering and spring growth of white

  4. Ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma biomonitoring suitability for estimating nutritional contamination risks under seasonal climate in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Domingos, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    The risks posed by nutrient deposition due to air pollution on ecosystems and their respective services to human beings can be appropriately estimated by bioindicator plants when they are well acclimated to the study region environmental conditions. This assumption encouraged us to comparatively evaluate the accumulation potential of ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma macro and micronutrients. We also indicated the most appropriate species for biomonitoring nutrient contamination risks in tropical areas of Southeastern Brazil, which are characterized by marked dry and wet seasons and complex mixtures of air pollutants from different sources (industries, vehicle traffic and agriculture). The study was conducted in 14 sites with different neighboring land uses, within the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, central-eastern region of São Paulo State. The exposure experiments with ryegrass and guava were consecutively repeated 40 (28 days each) and 12 (84 days each) times, respectively, from Oct/2010 to Sept/2013. Macro and micronutrients were analyzed and background concentrations and enrichment ratios (ER) were estimated to classify the contamination risk within the study region. Significantly higher ER suggested that ryegrass were the most appropriate accumulator species for N, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn deposition and guava for K, Ca, P and B deposition. Based on these biomonitoring adjustments, we concluded that the nutrient deposition was spatially homogeneous in the study area, but clear seasonality in the contamination risk by nutritional inputs was evidenced. Significantly higher contamination risk by S, Fe, K and B occurred during the dry season and enhanced contamination risk by Mn, Cu and Zn were highlighted during the wet season. Distinctly high contamination risk was estimated for S, Fe and Mn in several exposure experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rhizome Fragmentation by Vertical Disks Reduces Elymus repens Growth and Benefits Italian Ryegrass-White Clover Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Ringselle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tillage controls perennial weeds, such as Elymus repens, partly because it fragments their underground storage organs. However, tillage is difficult to combine with a growing crop, which limits its application. The aim of this study was to evaluate how soil vertical cutting with minimum soil disturbance and mowing affect the growth and competitive ability of E. repens in a grass–clover crop. A tractor-drawn prototype with vertical disks was used to fragment E. repens rhizomes with minimal soil and crop disturbance. In experiments performed in 2014 and 2015 at a field site close to Uppsala, Sweden, the rhizomes were fragmented before crop sowing (ERF, during crop growth (LRF, or both (ERF+LRF. Fragmentation was combined with repeated mowing (yes/no and four companion crop treatments (none, Italian ryegrass, white clover, and grass/clover mixture. The results showed that in the grass–clover crop, rhizome fragmentation reduced E. repens rhizome biomass production and increased Italian ryegrass shoot biomass. ERF and LRF both reduced E. repens rhizome biomass by about 38% compared with the control, while ERF+LRF reduced it by 63%. Italian ryegrass shoot biomass was increased by 78% by ERF, 170% by LRF and 200% by ERF+LRF. Repeated mowing throughout the experiment reduced E. repens rhizome biomass by about 75%. Combining repeated mowing with rhizome fragmentation did not significantly increase the control effect compared to mowing alone. We concluded that rhizome fragmentation using vertical disks can be used both before sowing and during crop growth to enhance the controlling effect of grass–clover crops on E. repens.

  6. Effect of herbicides on desiccation of Lolium multiflorum L. plants and seed germinationEfeito de herbicidas na dessecação e germinação de sementes remanescentes de Lolium multiflorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Ferraz de Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out to evaluate efficacy of different herbicides and spray volumes when sprayed to ryegrass for chemical management and control of remaining seeds. The treatments were: three formulations of glyphosate at 1080 g ha-1 (Original Round up, Round up Transorb, WG Round Up, paraquat + diuron at 300+500 and 150+250 g ha-1 and glufosinate ammonium at 400 and 600 g ha-1. All treatments were used in spray volumes of 200 and 400 l ha-1. The effectiveness of the desiccation of ryegrass plants was assessed at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after application. At the last evaluation samples were collected for dry mass production analysis, and also panicles with seeds for germination test. Glyphosate in different formulations and volumes and glufosinate ammonium at 600 g ha-1 when sprayed with into 400 l ha-1 provided the best controls regarding ryegrass chemical management. Treatments with gliphosate (Roundup Original and paraquat + diuron (300 +150 g ha-1 in volumes of 400 and 200 L ha-1, respectively, were the ones that showed the lowest values of dry matter, differing from the control. All the ryegrass seeds were killed by treatments with herbicides (paraquat + diuron at 500 +250 g ha-1 and glufosinate-ammonium at 600 g ha-1 when used 200 l ha-1. O objetivo desse trabalho foi o de avaliar a eficácia de diferentes herbicidas aplicados em pósemergência na dessecação de plantas de azevém e viabilidade de sementes remanescentes do controle, com diferentes volumes de calda de aplicação. Os tratamentos testados foram: três formulações de glyphosate na dose de 1.080g ha-1 (Roundup Original, Roundup Transorb, Roundup WG, paraquat + diuron nas doses de 300 + 150 e 500 + 250g ha-1 e amônio-glufosinate nas doses de 400 e 600g ha-1. Em todos os tratamentos foram utilizados os volumes de aplicação de 200 e 400L ha-1. A eficácia na dessecação de plantas de azevém foram avaliados aos 1, 3, 7, 14 e 21 dias após aplicação, sendo que nesta

  7. A simulation model for epidemics of stem rust in ryegrass seed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, W F; Upper, D

    2015-01-01

    A simulation model (STEMRUST_G, named for stem rust of grasses) was created for stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola) in perennial ryegrass grown to maturity as a seed crop. The model has a daily time step and is driven by weather data and an initial input of disease severity from field observation. Key aspects of plant growth are modeled. Disease severity is modeled as rust population growth, where individuals are pathogen colonies (pustules) grouped in cohorts defined by date of initiation and plant part infected. Infections due to either aerial spread or within-plant contact spread are modeled. Pathogen cohorts progress through life stages that are modeled as disease cycle components (colony establishment, latent period, infectious period, and sporulation) affected by daily weather variables, plant growth, and fungicide application. Fungicide effects on disease cycle components are modeled for two commonly used active ingredients, applied preinfection or postinfection. Previously validated submodels for certain disease cycle components formed the framework for integrating additional processes, and the complete model was calibrated with field data from 10 stem rust epidemics. Discrepancies between modeled outcomes and the calibration data (log10[modeled]-log10[observed]) had a mean near zero but considerable variance, with 1 standard deviation=0.5 log10 units (3.2-fold). It appears that a large proportion of the modeling error variance may be due to variability in field observations of disease severity. An action threshold for fungicide application was derived empirically, using a constructed weather input file favorable for disease development. The action threshold is a negative threshold, representing a level of disease (latent plus visible) below which damaging levels of disease are unable to develop before the yield-critical crop stage. The model is in the public domain and available on the Internet.

  8. Genetic Gain and Inbreeding from Genomic Selection in a Simulated Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zibei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS provides an attractive option for accelerating genetic gain in perennial ryegrass ( improvement given the long cycle times of most current breeding programs. The present study used simulation to investigate the level of genetic gain and inbreeding obtained from GS breeding strategies compared with traditional breeding strategies for key traits (persistency, yield, and flowering time. Base population genomes were simulated through random mating for 60,000 generations at an effective population size of 10,000. The degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD in the resulting population was compared with that obtained from empirical studies. Initial parental varieties were simulated to match diversity of current commercial cultivars. Genomic selection was designed to fit into a company breeding program at two selection points in the breeding cycle (spaced plants and miniplot. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs for productivity traits were trained with phenotypes and genotypes from plots. Accuracy of GEBVs was 0.24 for persistency and 0.36 for yield for single plants, while for plots it was lower (0.17 and 0.19, respectively. Higher accuracy of GEBVs was obtained for flowering time (up to 0.7, partially as a result of the larger reference population size that was available from the clonal row stage. The availability of GEBVs permit a 4-yr reduction in cycle time, which led to at least a doubling and trebling genetic gain for persistency and yield, respectively, than the traditional program. However, a higher rate of inbreeding per cycle among varieties was also observed for the GS strategy.

  9. A damage function for stem rust of perennial ryegrass seed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, W

    2009-05-01

    Observations of naturally occurring stem rust epidemics and seed yields in perennial ryegrass were taken in 19 field experiments conducted over the course of 9 years. Epidemic severity differed among years and also among experimental treatments (fungicide regimes) within years. In each experiment, attainable yield was represented by the nondiseased treatment, and yields of other treatments were expressed as relative yield (a proportion of the attainable yield). Yield loss (difference between attainable and actual yield) in the nonprotected treatments was 0 to 98% due to yearly differences in epidemic conditions. Fungicides were effective in reducing stem rust injury and damage when properly timed. Disease severity in the upper canopy was estimated at approximately weekly intervals and converted to proportion of the plant area diseased. The complementary value, proportion of area healthy, and its integral over time, healthy area duration (HAD), were calculated. Regression analyses were conducted using various phenological time intervals of HAD as the independent variable. The best intervals of HAD for predicting relative yield were centered on the midpoint time between anthesis and harvest. The regression equation (r2=0.89) for relative yield as a function of HAD during the 3-week interval was selected and rearranged to produce a quadratic damage function. This damage function estimates yield loss at 5, 22, and 42% for critical-interval diseased proportions of 1, 5, and 10%, respectively. Yield data collected from field experiments not used in model development correlated well (r2=0.9) with yields predicted by the damage function from their observed disease severity.

  10. Evolution of floral meristem identity genes. Analysis of Lolium temulentum genes related to APETALA1 and LEAFY of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gocal, G.F.W.; King, R.W.; Blundell, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Flowering (inflorescence formation) of the grass Lolium temulentum is strictly regulated, occurring rapidly on exposure to a single long day (LD). During floral induction, L. temulentum differs significantly from dicot species such as Arabidopsis in the expression, at the shoot apex, of two APETALA......1 (AP1)-like genes, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2, and of L. temulentum LEAFY (LtLFY). As shown by in situ hybridization, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2 are expressed in the vegetative shoot apical meristem, but expression increases strongly within 30 h of LD floral induction. Later in floral development, LtMADS1 and Lt......MADS2 are expressed within spikelet and floret meristems and in the glume and lemma primordia. It is interesting that LtLFY is detected quite late (about 12 d after LD induction) within the spikelet meristems, glumes, and lemma primordia. These patterns contrast with Arabidopsis, where LFY and AP1...

  11. The Effect of Applied Organic Fertilizers on the Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Lolium Perenne, Cultivated on Fly Ash Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâşu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to monitor the capacity of certain organic fertilizers (volcanic tuff and municipal sludge, applied as such and mixed with volcanic rocks with a high content in clinoptilolite, to determine the covering with vegetation of fly ash deposits resulted from the combustion of lignite in thermal plants. Both biosolids (20 t/ha and volcanic rock with high clinoptilolite content (5 t/ha determined the installation of a vegetative layer and diminished the soil metal bioavailability to the Lolium prerenne plant biomass. When using the organic-zeolite mixture, a synergistic effect is recorded of the two components of the treatment agent and an increase of the biomass with 448%. Moreover, the resulted biomass shows the highest reductions of metal bioaccumulations, of 38-46% for Zn and Fe, of 62% for Cu and between 82-89% for Cr, Ni and Pb.

  12. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum...

  13. Replacing Stipa trichotoma Nees (nasella) in the Eastern Cape | le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most effective grasses were Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot), Phalaris tuberosa, Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass), Lolium hybridum (Ariki ryegrass), Agrostis tenuis and Festuca arundinacea (Tall fescue). The most effective legumes were Vicia villosa (hairy vetch) and Trifolium pratense (red clover) Overseeding and ...

  14. THE EFFECT OF COMPOST MADE WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN SOIL AND IN LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Malinowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of different doses of sewage sludge compost mixed with wheat straw on heavy metal content in Italian ryegrass and in soil. A two year experiment with the Italian ryegrass was set up in autumn 2012. The experimental design consisted of a control plot, a plot with NPK fertiliser and three plots with three different doses of municipal sewage sludge compost (5, 10 and 15 Mg of fresh matter·ha-1. Those different compost doses contained the amounts of Nitrogen equivalent to 60, 120 and 180 kg N·ha-1. The two lower doses of compost were supplemented with nitrogen fertiliser so that the amount of this chemical element introduced to the soil of all plots with compost stood at 180 kg·ha-1. During 2013 and 2014 seasons the grass was cut three times a year after about a 30-day growing period. After dry mineralisation the content of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd in the plant samples was measured with the ICP-AES method. The fertilisers applied significantly diversified the content of chemical elements in the grass and in the soil. The highest dose of compost resulted in the highest concentration of Zn, Cu and Cd in the grass while the highest concentration of Ni and Pb was in the soil and the grass from the plot where the mid dose of compost had been applied. Cadmium concentration in the soil was the highest in the plot where the mid dose was applied. The experiment proved that compost made with sewage sludge and wheat straw is beneficial for plants.

  15. N transfer in three species grass-clover mixtures with chicory, ribwort plantain or caraway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Rasmussen, Jim; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aimsThere is substantial evidence that legume-derived Nitrogen (N) is transferred to neighboring non-legumes in grassland mixtures. However, there is sparse information about how deep rooted non-legume forage herbs (forbs) influence N transfer in multi-species grasslands. Methodology......Red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) was grown together with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and one of three forb species: chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) or caraway (Carum carvi L.) in a field experiment. During the first year after the establishment, red...... clover leaves were labeled with 15N-urea to determine the N transfer from red clover to companion ryegrass and forbs. ResultsOn an annual basis, up to 15 % of red clover N was transferred to the companion ryegrass and forbs, but predominantly to the grass. The forb species did not differ in their ability...

  16. Is the vertical transmission of Neotyphodium lolii in perennial ryegrass the only possible way to the spread of endophytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wiewióra

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi live their whole life within host tissues usually without any visible symptoms. Their vertical transmission (seed-plant-seed has been well described and documented. However, horizontal transmission (plant-plant needs more clarification. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which endophytes move vertically in ecotypes of perennial ryegrass and whether there is evidence for the horizontal transmission of endophytes. Ecotypes from grasslands in Poland were collected in the form of living plants and used for vertical transmission analysis. Plants, the seed collected from these plants and plants grown from this collected seed were tested for endophytic infection. Provided that all produced seeds were viable and able to germinate and produce seedlings, the vertical transmission of Neotyphodium endophytes in perennial ryegrass ecotypes was nearly complete. For the horizontal transmission experiment, endophyte-hosting plants (E+ and endophyte-free plants (E- of four cultivars were planted in the field in close proximity on small plots that were frequently mown. These studies revealed that after 7 months of growth next to E+ plants, the characteristic Neotyphodium spp. mycelia were found in E- plants, which was especially true for plants growing in close proximity to the infected plants. The occurrence of horizontal transmission of endophytes has not been previously demonstrated.

  17. Is the Vertical Transmission of Neotyphodium lolii in Perennial Ryegrass the Only Possible Way to the Spread of Endophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewióra, Barbara; Żurek, Grzegorz; Pańka, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi live their whole life within host tissues usually without any visible symptoms. Their vertical transmission (seed-plant-seed) has been well described and documented. However, horizontal transmission (plant-plant) needs more clarification. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which endophytes move vertically in ecotypes of perennial ryegrass and whether there is evidence for the horizontal transmission of endophytes. Ecotypes from grasslands in Poland were collected in the form of living plants and used for vertical transmission analysis. Plants, the seed collected from these plants and plants grown from this collected seed were tested for endophytic infection. Provided that all produced seeds were viable and able to germinate and produce seedlings, the vertical transmission of Neotyphodium endophytes in perennial ryegrass ecotypes was nearly complete. For the horizontal transmission experiment, endophyte-hosting plants (E+) and endophyte-free plants (E-) of four cultivars were planted in the field in close proximity on small plots that were frequently mown. These studies revealed that after 7 months of growth next to E+ plants, the characteristic Neotyphodium spp. mycelia were found in E- plants, which was especially true for plants growing in close proximity to the infected plants. The occurrence of horizontal transmission of endophytes has not been previously demonstrated. PMID:25680199

  18. Medium-term response of microbial community to rhizodeposits of white clover and ryegrass and tracing of active processes induced by 13C and 15N labelled exudates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Rasmussen, Jim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    exudates initially to be incorporated into bacterial PLFA and into fungi over time, but surprisingly fungi had the highest utilisation of ryegrass-derived C over the week. At 0–5 cm soil depth, white clover exudates were utilised only by bacteria, whereas fungi dominated at 5–15 cm. This reflects...

  19. Effects of feeding perennial ryegrass with an elevated concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates on intake, rumen function and performance of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated effects of feeding perennial ryegrass with an elevated concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) on dry matter intake (DMI), rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid lactation were stall-fed with fresh

  20. A new member of the LIR family from perennial ryegrass is cold-responsive, and promotes vegetative growth in ¤Arabidopsis¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciannamea, S.; Jensen, Christian Sig; Agerskov, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    ryegrass was upregulated by vernalization but did not follow a standard vernalization-responsive expression pattern. LpLIR1 expression was restricted to vegetative tissues and absent in apices during floral induction and in flowers. LpLIR1 mRNA levels displayed diurnal fluctuations, which peaked before...

  1. Bicarbonate as tracer for plant assimilated C and homogeneity of 14C and 15N distribution in ryegrass and white clover tissue by alternative labeling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Kusliene, Gedrime; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2013-01-01

    if bicarbonate can be used to introduce 14C (or 13C) into white clover and ryegrass, and (ii) compared the patterns of 14C and 15N allocation in white clover and ryegrass to evaluate the homogeneity of tracer distribution after two alternative labeling approaches. Methods Perennial ryegrass and white clover were...... pulse labeled with 15N urea via leaf-labeling and 14C either via a 14CO2 atm or with 14C bicarbonate through leaf-labeling. Plants were sampled 4 days after labeling and prepared for bulk isotope analysis and for 14C imaging to identify plant parts with high and low 14C activity. Subsequently, plant...... parts with high and low 14C activity were separated and analyzed for 15N enrichment. Results Bicarbonate applied by leaf-labeling efficiently introduced 14C into both white clover and ryegrass, although the 14C activity in particular for white clover was found predominantly in the labeled leaf. Using 14...

  2. Influence of Nano-Hydroxyapatite on the Metal Bioavailability, Plant Metal Accumulation and Root Exudates of Ryegrass for Phytoremediation in Lead-Polluted Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Li, Jianbing; Liu, Wei; Zuo, Qingqing; Liang, Shu-xuan

    2017-01-01

    Lead is recognized as one of the most widespread toxic metal contaminants and pervasive environmental health concerns in the environment. In this paper, the effects of nano-hydroxyapatite (NHAP) on remediation in artificially Pb-contaminated soils and ryegrass were studied in a pot experiment. The addition of NHAP decreased the water- and acid-soluble, exchangeable, and reducible fractions of Pb, extracted using the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) method, whilst greatly increasing the residual fraction of Pb. Oxidizable Pb was increased slightly. No significant increase in soil pH was caused by the application of NHAP. Compared to conditions without NHAP, the addition of NHAP decreased the Pb content in ryegrass shoots and roots by 13.19–20.3% and 2.86–21.1%, respectively. Therefore, the application of NHAP reduced the mobility and bioavailability of Pb in the soil. In addition, the application of NHAP improved the fresh weight of shoots and roots, and promoted the growth of ryegrass. NHAP played a positive role in stimulating ryegrass to secrete tartaric acid. PMID:28509844

  3. Effect of Weather on the Occurrence of Puccinia Graminis Subsp. Graminicola and Puccinia Coronata F. Sp. Lolii at Lolium Perenne L. and Deschampsia Caespitosa (L. P. B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Novotná

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola and Puccinia coronata f. sp. lolii was carried out in Plant breeding station called Větrov. The pathogens were estimated on turf grass (Lolium perenne L., Deschampsia caespitosa (L. P. B. from 2009 to 2014. Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola was detected in the increased level in 2009 and 2012. The highest amount of mixed infections was determined in 2014 because of the warmest winter from all monitored years and low precipitations. Significant differences were found out in the resistance of similar plant materials grown in different fields. Significant effect of weather conditions and supposed effect of different infectious pressure on various fields were reflected in these facts. At evaluated grasses, the highest (P < 0.05 occurence of Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola. Lolium perenne L. was observed and the infection of Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola (P < 0.05 was determined higher than in Deschampsia caespitosa (L. P. B.

  4. Sheep Excreta as Source of Nitrous Oxide in Ryegrass Pasture in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michely Tomazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Livestock urine and dung are important components of the N cycle in pastures, but little information on its effect on soil nitrous oxide (N2O emissions is available. We conducted a short-term (39-day trial to quantify the direct N2O-N emissions from sheep excreta on an experimental area of ryegrass pasture growing on a Typic Paleudult in southern Brazil. Four rates of urine-N (161, 242, 323, and 403 kg ha-1 N and one of dung-N (13 kg ha-1 N were applied, as well as a control plot receiving no excreta. The N2O-N emission factor (EF = % of added N released as N2O-N for urine and dung was calculated, taking into account the N2O fluxes in the field, over a period of 39 days. The EF value of the urine and dung was used to estimate the emissions of N2O-N over a 90-day period of pasture in the winter under two grazing intensities (2.5 or 5.0 times the herbage intake potential of grazing lambs. The soil N2O-N fluxes ranged from 4 to 353 µg m-2h-1. The highest N2O-N fluxes occurred 16 days after application of urine and dung, when the highest soil nitrate content was also recorded and the water-filled pore space exceeded 60 %. The mean EF for urine was 0.25 % of applied N, much higher than that for dung (0.06 %. We found that N2O-N emissions for the 90-day winter pasture period were 0.54 kg ha-1 for low grazing intensity and 0.62 kg ha-1 for moderate grazing intensity. Comparison of the two forms of excreta show that urine was the main contributor to N2O-N emissions (mean of 36 %, whereas dung was responsible for less than 0.1 % of total soil N2O-N emissions.

  5. Temporal metagenomic and metabolomic characterisation of fresh perennial ryegrass degradation by rumen bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mayorga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between ingested plant material and the attached microbiome is essential for developing methodologies to improve ruminant nutrient use efficiency. We have previously shown that perennial ryegrass (PRG rumen bacterial colonisation events follow a primary (up to 4 h and secondary (after 4 h pattern based on the differences in diversity of the attached bacteria. In this study we investigated temporal niche specialisation of primary and secondary populations of attached rumen microbiota using metagenomic shotgun sequencing as well as monitoring changes in the plant chemistry using mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Metagenomic Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (MG-RAST taxonomical analysis of shotgun metagenomic sequences showed that the genera Butyrivibrio, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Prevotella and Selenomonas dominated the attached microbiome irrespective of time. MG-RAST also showed that Acidaminococcus, Bacillus, Butyrivibrio and Prevotella rDNA increased in read abundance during secondary colonisation, whilst Blautia decreased in read abundance. MG-RAST Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG functional analysis also showed that the primary function of the attached microbiome was categorised broadly within ‘metabolism’; predominantly amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism and transport. Most sequence read abundances (51.6, 43.8, and 50.0% of COG families pertaining to amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, respectively within these categories were higher in abundance during secondary colonisation. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathways analysis confirmed that the PRG- attached microbiota present at 1 and 4 h of rumen incubation possess a similar functional capacity, with only a few pathways being uniquely found in only one incubation time point only. FT-IR data for the plant residues also showed that the main changes in plant chemistry between primary and secondary

  6. Phosphorous extractability and ryegrass availability from bio-waste composts in a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigatti, Marco; Boanini, Elisa; Mancarella, Silvia; Simoni, Andrea; Centemero, Massimo; Veeken, Adrie H M

    2017-05-01

    In this work four stable bio-waste composts (C1, C2, C3, C4) were selected on the basis of their increasing water soluble P (H 2 O-P). The P speciation was assessed via sequential chemical extraction (SCE) on the same products. Moreover, the plant-available P was assessed via apparent recovery fraction approach (ARF) in a pot test on ryegrass over 21 weeks at 15 mg P kg - 1 of soil. An inorganic P source (P-chem) was added as a reference at the same P rate in addition to a non-fertilized control (Control). SCE showed that the sparingly soluble P (HCl-P) was the most important fraction in all composts: C1 (HCl 65% > NaHCO 3 17% = NaOH 17% > H 2 O 1%); C2: (HCl 51% > NaOH 23% > NaHCO 3 18% > H 2 O 7%); C3: (HCl 58% > NaOH 21% > NaHCO 3 12% > H 2 O 9%); C4: (HCl 39% > NaOH 23% > NaHCO 3 22% > H 2 O 16%). The plant test showed that the different treatments had a different ARF (%) at the first harvest: P-chem (14.7)> C4 (14.4)> C3 (14.1)> C2 (3.4)>C1 (3.1), compared to the cumulated ARF (%) of the six harvests: C4 (50.1)> C3 (35.0)> C1 (21.1)> C2 (18.3)> P-chem (17.4). Data showed a good correlation of H 2 O-P vs. plant ARF at the first harvest and a good correlation of labile P (H 2 O-P + NaHCO 3 -P) vs. total plant ARF over 21 weeks. The free and labile P forms from SCE can be a valuable tool in the assessment of fast and middle term plant-available P from stable bio-waste composts in calcareous soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efecto fitotóxico de Baccharis ulicina sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Tucat, Guillermo; Bentivegna, Diego; Fernández, Osvaldo; Busso, Carlos; Brevedan, Roberto; Mujica, María de la Merced; Torres, Yanina; Daddario, Juan; Ithurrart, Leticia; Giorgetti, Hugo; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Montenegro, Oscar; Baioni, Sandra; Entío, José; Fioretti, María Nélida

    2013-01-01

    Baccharis ulicina es una maleza ampliamente distribuida en los pastizales de la zona semiárida argentina. A fin de evaluar sus posibles efectos alelopáticos, se utilizaron extractos acuosos de B. ulicina (hoja, tallo, raíz y planta entera) a dos concentraciones (50 y 150 g tejido/L agua) sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus. Para cada especie se regaron 100 ...

  8. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer sources and temperature on soil CO2 efflux in Italian ryegrass crop under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study that aimed to assess the dynamics of total and heterotrophic soil respiration and its relationships with soil temperature or soil moisture of an Italian ryegrass haycrop managed with different nitrogen (N fertilizer sources. The field experiment was carried out in the Nitrate Vulnerable Zone of the dairy district of Arborea, a reclaimed wetland in central-western Sardinia, Italy. This is an area characterized by sandy soils, shallow water table and intensive dairy cattle farming systems. Italian ryegrass is grown for hay production in the context of a double cropping rotation with silage maize. We analyzed the effects of N fertilizer treatments on soil carbon dioxide (CO2 efflux, soil water content and soil temperature: i farmyard manure; ii cattle slurry; iii mineral fertilizer; iv 70 kg ha-1 from slurry and 60 kg ha-1 from mineral fertilizer that corresponds to the prescriptions of the vulnerable zone management plan. During the monitoring period, soil water content never fell below 8.6% vol., corresponding to approximately -33 kPa matric potential. Total and heterotrophic soil respiration dynamics were both influenced by soil temperature over winter and early spring, reaching a maximum in the first ten days of April in manure and slurry treatments. In the last 30 days of the Italian ryegrass crop cycle, total soil respiration decreased and seemed not to be affected by temperature. The analysis of covariance with soil temperature as covariate showed that average respiration rates were significantly higher under the manure treatment and lower with mineral fertilizer than the slurry and slurry+mineral treatments, but with similar rates of respiration per unit increase of soil temperature for all treatments. The average soil respiration rates were significantly and positively related to the soil carbon (C inputs derived from fertilizers and preceding crop residuals. We concluded that: i the fertilizer source

  9. Meta-analysis of the effect of white clover inclusion in perennial ryegrass swards on milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, M; Delaby, L; Gilliland, T; McCarthy, B

    2018-02-01

    There is increased demand for dairy products worldwide, which is coupled with the realization that consumers want dairy products that are produced in a sustainable and environmentally benign manner. Forage legumes, and white clover (Trifolium repens L.; WC) in particular, have the potential to positively influence the sustainability of pasture-based ruminant production systems. Therefore, there is increased interest in the use of forage legumes because they offer opportunities for sustainable pasture-based production systems. A meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify the milk production response associated with the introduction of WC into perennial ryegrass swards and to investigate the optimal WC content of dairy pastures to increase milk production. Two separate databases were created. In the grass-WC database, papers were selected if they compared milk production of lactating dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass-WC (GC) swards with that of cows grazing perennial ryegrass-only swards (GO). In the WC-only database, papers were selected if they contained milk production from lactating dairy cows grazing on GC swards with varying levels of WC content. Data from both databases were analyzed using mixed models (PROC MIXED) in SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Within the grass-WC database, where mean sward WC content was 31.6%, mean daily milk and milk solids yield per cow were increased by 1.4 and 0.12 kg, respectively, whereas milk and milk solids yield per hectare were unaffected when cows grazed GC compared with GO swards. Stocking rate and nitrogen fertilizer application were reduced by 0.25 cows/ha and 81 kg/ha, respectively, on GC swards compared with GO swards. These results highlight the potential of GC production systems to achieve similar levels of production to GO systems but with reduced fertilizer nitrogen inputs, which is beneficial from both an economic and environmental point of view. In the context of increased demand for dairy products, there may be

  10. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Alan V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb. Darbysh. is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN], the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first

  11. Cloning and sequencing of Lol pI, the major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, I J; Smith, P M; Pollock, J; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Hough, T; Singh, M B; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D

    1991-02-25

    We have isolated a full length cDNA clone encoding the major glycoprotein allergen Lol pI. The clone was selected using a combination of immunological screening of a cDNA expression library and PCR amplification of Lol pI-specific transcripts. Lol pI expressed in bacteria as a fusion protein shows recognition by specific IgE antibodies present in sera of grass pollen-allergic subjects. Northern analysis has shown that the Lol pI transcripts are expressed only in pollen of rye-grass. Molecular cloning of Lol pI provides a molecular genetic approach to study the structure-function relationship of allergens.

  12. Característica produtiva e estrutural de pastos mistos de aveia e azevém manejados em quatro alturas sob lotação contínua Structural and productive characteristic of oat and ryegrass mixed pastures managed in four intensities with variable stocking rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoraram-se variáveis relacionadas à produção e à estrutura de pastos de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum, Lam manejados em quatro alturas (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm, em pastejo contínuo com lotação variável (put and take. Utilizaram-se novilhos de corte mestiços de aproximadamente 10 meses de idade com peso médio inicial de 190 kg, em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. Investigou-se o tipo de distribuição das frequências de altura em seis datas, bem como o potencial de predição da massa seca de forragem por meio da altura do pasto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto: cada 1 cm de aumento na altura acima de 10 cm correspondeu a um acréscimo de cerca de 107 kg de MS/ha na massa de forragem. Não houve efeito da altura do pasto na taxa de acúmulo (55,8 kg de MS/ha.dia nem na produção total de matéria seca (8.210 kg de MS/ha. A distribuição das frequências ajustou ao modelo normal em apenas uma das 96 séries analisadas. A distribuição tipo Gamma foi a que mais frequentemente se ajustou aos dados de altura do pasto, porém, uma vez iniciado o pastejo, a heterogeneidade no pasto foi tão alta que a distribuição das alturas não se ajustou a nenhum dos modelos estudados. É possível estimar a massa seca de forragem existente no pasto por meio de sua altura média, assim, sugere-se estabelecer alturas variáveis ao longo do ciclo de pastejo, com o intuito de se administrar a heterogeneidade causada pelo animal.It was monitored variables related to production and structure of oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam pastures managed at four sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm on continuous grazing with variable stocking (put and take. It was used crossbred beef steers at approximately 10 months of age and an average initial weight 190 kg in a complete random block design with three replicates

  13. Effects of different fertilizers on growth and nutrient uptake of Lolium multiflorum grown in Cd-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mohan; Li, Yang; Che, Yeye; Deng, Shaojun; Xiao, Yan

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of different fertilizers and their combinations on growth and nutrient and Cd uptake of Lolium multiflorum. Compared with control treatment, chemical fertilizer, organic manure, and their conjunctions with biofertilizer increased shoot biomass. Biofertilizers were found to cause significant reductions in shoot biomass of plants grown in organic manure-treated and control soil. Decreased soil-available N and P and shoot N and K concentrations in biofertilizer amendment treatments indicated that plant growth and nutrient absorption might be negatively affected under nutrient deficiency conditions. Elevated shoot biomasses contributed to the highest shoot Cd contents in chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer + biofertilizer treatments among all treatments. But the maximum translocation efficiency occurred in biofertilizer + chemical fertilizer + organic manure treatment, followed by organic manure and chemical fertilizer + organic manure treatments. Based on the results, we can conclude that the application of only the biofertilizer Bacillus subtilis should be avoided in nutrient-limited soils. Chemical fertilizer application could benefit the amount of Cd in shoots, and organic manure application and its combinations could result in the higher translocation efficiency.

  14. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and root interaction on the competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that alter competitive interactions and coexistence between plants is a key issue in ecological research. A pot experiment was conducted to test the effects of root interaction and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation on the interspecies competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne under different proportions of mixed sowing by the combination treatment of two levels of AMF inoculation (inoculation and non-inoculation and two levels of root interaction (root interaction and non-root interaction. Overall, the aboveground and belowground biomass of T. repens and L. perenne were not altered by AMF inoculation across planting ratios, probably because the fertile soil reduced the positive effect of AMF on plant growth. Both inter- and intraspecies root interaction significantly decreased the aboveground biomass of T. repens, but tended to increase the aboveground biomass of L. perenne across planting ratios, and thus peaked at the 4:4 polyculture. These results showed that T. repens competed poorly with L. perenne because of inter and intraspecies root interaction. Our results indicate that interspecies root interaction regulates the competitive ability of grass L. perenne and legume T. repens in mixtures and further makes great contribution for overyielding. Furthermore, AMF may not be involved in plant–plant interaction in fertile condition.

  15. Glyphosate effects on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of two Lolium perenne L. biotypes with differential herbicide sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanniccari, Marcos; Tambussi, Eduardo; Istilart, Carolina; Castro, Ana María

    2012-08-01

    Despite the extensive use of glyphosate, how it alters the physiology and metabolism of plants is still unclear. Photosynthesis is not regarded to be a primary inhibitory target of glyphosate, but it has been reported to be affected by this herbicide. The aim of the current research was to determine the effects of glyphosate on the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis by comparing glyphosate-susceptible and glyphosate-resistant Lolium perenne biotypes. After glyphosate treatment, accumulation of reduced carbohydrates occurred before a decrease in gas exchange. Stomatal conductance and CO(2) assimilation were reduced earlier than chlorophyll fluorescence and the amount of chlorophyll in susceptible plants. In the glyphosate-resistant biotype, stomatal conductance was the only parameter slightly affected only 5 days post-application. In susceptible plants, the initial glyphosate effects on gas exchange could be a response to a feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Since the herbicide affects actively growing tissues regardless of the inhibition of photosynthesis, the demand of assimilates decreased and consequently induced an accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves. We concluded that stomatal conductance could be a very sensitive parameter to assess both the susceptibility/resistance to glyphosate before the phytotoxic symptoms become evident. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of ozone on inter- and intra-species competition and photosynthesis in mesocosms of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, F. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: fhay@ceh.ac.uk; Mills, G. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Ashmore, M. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne were exposed as both monocultures and two-species mixtures to an episodic rural ozone regime in large, well-watered containers within solardomes for 12 weeks. There were reductions in biomass for T. repens, but not L. perenne, and the proportion of T. repens decreased in ozone-exposed mixtures compared to the control. In addition, leaf biomass of T. repens was maintained at the expense of biomass partitioning to the stolons. The decreased growth corresponded with decreased photosynthetic capacity for T. repens, however, by the end of the exposure there was also decreased photosynthetic capacity of L. perenne, a species previously considered insensitive to ozone. The observed decreases in photosynthetic efficiency and capacity in elevated ozone indicate that the ability of such ubiquitous vegetation to act as a sink for atmospheric carbon may be reduced in future climates. - Ozone causes changes in biomass partitioning, and photosynthetic efficiency and capacity that could decrease the ability of plants to act as a carbon sink.

  17. Influence of tea saponin on enhancing accessibility of pyrene and cadmium phytoremediated with Lolium multiflorum in co-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Hou, Yunyun; Hu, Xiaoxin; Liang, Xia; Chen, Xueping

    2016-03-01

    Tea saponin (TS), a kind of biodegradable surfactant, was chosen to improve the accessible solubilization of pyrene and cadmium (Cd) in co-contaminated soils cultivated Lolium multiflorum. TS obviously improved the accessibility of pyrene and Cd for L. multiflorum to accelerate the process of accumulation and elimination of the pollutants. The chemical forms of Cd was transformed from Fe-Mn oxides and associated to carbonates fractions into exchangeable fractions by adding TS in single Cd and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. Moreover, the chemical forms of pyrene were transformed from associated fraction into bioaccessible fraction by adding TS in pyrene and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. In pyrene-Cd contaminated soil, the exchangeable fraction of Cd was hindered in the existence of pyrene, and bioaccessible fraction of pyrene was promoted by the cadmium. Besides, in the process of the pyrene degradation and Cd accumulation, the effect could be improved by the elongation of roots with adding TS, and the microorganism activity was stimulated by TS to accelerate the removal of pollutions. Therefore, Planting L. multiflorum combined with adding TS would be an effective method on the phytoremediation of organics and heavy metals co-contaminated soils.

  18. Comparative metabolite fingerprinting of the rumen system during colonisation of three forage grass (Lolium perenne L. varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison H Kingston-Smith

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota enable ruminants to degrade complex ligno-cellulosic compounds to produce high quality protein for human consumption. However, enteric fermentation by domestic ruminants generates negative by-products: greenhouse gases (methane and environmental nitrogen pollution. The current lack of cultured isolates representative of the totality of rumen microbial species creates an information gap about the in vivo function of the rumen microbiota and limits our ability to apply predictive biology for improvement of feed for ruminants. In this work we took a whole ecosystem approach to understanding how the metabolism of the microbial population responds to introduction of its substrate. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectroscopy-based metabolite fingerprinting was used to discriminate differences in the plant-microbial interactome of the rumen when using three forage grass varieties (Lolium perenne L. cv AberDart, AberMagic and Premium as substrates for microbial colonisation and fermentation. Specific examination of spectral regions associated with fatty acids, amides, sugars and alkanes indicated that although the three forages were apparently similar by traditional nutritional analysis, patterns of metabolite flux within the plant-microbial interactome were distinct and plant genotype dependent. Thus, the utilisation pattern of forage nutrients by the rumen microbiota can be influenced by subtleties determined by forage genotypes. These data suggest that our interactomic approach represents an important means to improve forages and ultimately the livestock environment.

  19. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  20. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Leigh Broadhurst

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50, many of which can achieve 30 g kg-1 Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu and Mn uptake.We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg-1 Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg-1. A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient

  1. Selenium bioavailability and uptake as affected by four different plants in a loamy clay soil with particular attention to mycorrhizae inoculated ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier-Lamy, C. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: colette.munier@limos.uhp-nancy.fr; Deneux-Mustin, S. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Mustin, C. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: christian.mustin@limos.uhp-nancy.fr; Merlet, D. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: denis.merlet@limos.uhp-nancy.fr; Berthelin, J. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: jacques.berthelin@limos.uhp-nancy.fr; Leyval, C. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: corinne.leyval@limos.uhp-nancy.fr

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of plant species, especially of their rhizosphere soil, and of inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus on the bioavailability of selenium and its transfer in soil-plant systems. A pot experiment was performed with a loamy clay soil and four plant species: maize, lettuce, radish and ryegrass, the last one being inoculated or not with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae). Plant biomass and Se concentration in shoots and roots were estimated at harvest. Se bioavailability in rhizosphere and unplanted soil was evaluated using sequential extractions. Plant biomass and selenium uptake varied with plant species. The quantity of rhizosphere soil also differed between plants and was not proportional to plant biomass. The highest plant biomass, Se concentration in plants, and soil to plant transfer factor were obtained with radish. The lowest Se transfer factors were obtained with ryegrass. For the latter, mycorrhizal inoculation did not significantly affect plant growth, but reduced selenium transfer from soil to plant by 30%. In unplanted soil after 65 days aging, more than 90% of added Se was water-extractable. On the contrary, Se concentration in water extracts of rhizosphere soil represented less than 1% and 20% of added Se for ryegrass and maize, respectively. No correlation was found between the water-extractable fraction and Se concentration in plants. The speciation of selenium in the water extracts indicated that selenate was reduced, may be under organic forms, in the rhizosphere soil.

  2. Removal and Burial of Weed Seeds by Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) From the Soil Surface of a Cropped Area in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkey, D M; Spafford, H

    2016-10-01

    Although granivorous ants are known to collect weed seeds from cropping areas in Australia, the fate of these seeds has not been adequately investigated. Seeds of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) were placed around the nests of five native ant species (Iridomyrmex greensladei Shattuck, Rhytidoponera metallica Smith, Melophorus turneri Forel, Monomorium rothsteini Forel, and Pheidole hartmeyeri Forel) and tracked continuously over a 24-h period. Removal rates and seed preference of the ant species were evaluated. Ant nests were then excavated to determine the placement of seeds that were taken into each nest. Seed preference, seed removal efficiencies, activity, and seed storage all varied between the ant species. Annual ryegrass seed was collected by three species of ants and was removed from the soil surface more efficiently than wild radish seed. Most ant species stored seed below ground at a depth that is inhibitory to emergence, thereby potentially removing that portion of seed from the seed bank, but some seed was placed at germinable depths. Pheidole hartmeyeri was identified as a likely biological control agent for annual ryegrass seeds and wild radish, while Me. turneri and Mo. rothsteini have potential as biocontrol agents for annual ryegrass, but further research is needed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  4. Evaluación energética de Pennisetum clandestinum y Lolium perenne en diferentes edades de corte para alimentación de bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, L.; Guevara, Paulina; Pazmiño, J.; Universidad de Cuenca; Dirección de Investigación de la Universidad de Cuenca; DIUC

    2015-01-01

    Distintas especies forrajeras, como kikuyo (Penninsetum clandestinum) y rye grass anual (Lolium multiflorum), están ampliamente difundidas en la sierra ecuatoriana. Si bien pueden ser una solución al problema de la alimentación que enfrentan los productores, por ser una fuente nutricional de fácil acceso, en la actualidad estos recursos se están subutilizando al no considerarse su verdadero aporte nutricional. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el valor de la energía, para ganado de c...

  5. Characterization of bio-oils and bio-char obtained from the pyrolysis of a mixture of Lolium perenne, Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Baysal, Mustafa; Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the yield and chemical characterization of products obtained from the pyrolysis of a mixture of Lolium perenne, Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis grasses under an inert atmosphere at 600 degrees C with a heating rate of 50 degrees C/min was studied. Distribution of the products of pyrolysis grass sample was: moisture: 8 +/- 2%, total volatiles: 78 +/- 7%, char: 14 +/- 5%. Bio-oils were acidic and dark brown liquids and they were separated into oils, asphaltenes and ...

  6. Efecto fitotóxico de Baccharis ulicina sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Tucat, Guillermo; Bentivegna, Diego Javier; Fernandez, Osvaldo Alberto; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Brevedan, Roberto; Mujica, Maria de la Merced; Torres, Yanina Alejandra; Daddario, Juan Facundo Fabian; Ithurrart, Leticia Soledad; Giorgetti, Hugo Dosindo; Rodriguez, Gustavo Dionisio; Montenegro, Oscar Alberto; Baioni, Sandra Sonia; Entio, Lisandro Jose; Fioretti, Maria Nelida

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis ulicina es una maleza ampliamente distribuida en los pastizales de la zona semiárida argentina. A fin de evaluar sus posibles efectos alelopáticos, se utilizaron extractos acuosos de B. ulicina (hoja, tallo, raíz y planta entera) a dos concentraciones (50 y 150 g tejido/L agua) sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa , Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus . Para cada especie se regaron 100 semillas y se mantuvieron a 25°C y oscuridad. Se registraron la germina...

  7. Estudio fisiológico y genético de biotipos de Lolium perenne L. resistentes a glifosato

    OpenAIRE

    Yanniccari, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se pretende dar respuesta a ciertas cuestiones que permitan aportar conocimientos de impacto para la actividad productiva, en tanto se buscará responder: ¿El deficiente control de Lolium perenne con glifosato en el sur bonaerense es un caso de resistencia? ¿Cómo afecta el glifosato a los procesos fisiológicos de biotipos presumiblemente resistentes y susceptibles hasta conducir a la muerte de la planta? ¿Por qué las plantas resistentes tolerarían al glifosato? ¿Cuál ...

  8. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress. PMID:26925085

  9. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  10. Metabolic profiling of Lolium perenne shows functional integration of metabolic responses to diverse subtoxic conditions of chemical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Anne-Antonella; Couée, Ivan; Renault, David; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Sulmon, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Plant communities are confronted with a great variety of environmental chemical stresses. Characterization of chemical stress in higher plants has often been focused on single or closely related stressors under acute exposure, or restricted to a selective number of molecular targets. In order to understand plant functioning under chemical stress conditions close to environmental pollution conditions, the C3 grass Lolium perenne was subjected to a panel of different chemical stressors (pesticide, pesticide degradation compound, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and heavy metal) under conditions of seed-level or root-level subtoxic exposure. Physiological and metabolic profiling analysis on roots and shoots revealed that all of these subtoxic chemical stresses resulted in discrete physiological perturbations and complex metabolic shifts. These metabolic shifts involved stressor-specific effects, indicating multilevel mechanisms of action, such as the effects of glyphosate and its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid on quinate levels. They also involved major generic effects that linked all of the subtoxic chemical stresses with major modifications of nitrogen metabolism, especially affecting asparagine, and of photorespiration, especially affecting alanine and glycerate. Stress-related physiological effects and metabolic adjustments were shown to be integrated through a complex network of metabolic correlations converging on Asn, Leu, Ser, and glucose-6-phosphate, which could potentially be modulated by differential dynamics and interconversion of soluble sugars (sucrose, trehalose, fructose, and glucose). Underlying metabolic, regulatory, and signalling mechanisms linking these subtoxic chemical stresses with a generic impact on nitrogen metabolism and photorespiration are discussed in relation to carbohydrate and low-energy sensing. PMID:25618145

  11. Snow mould prevalence on perennial ryegrass (Lolim perenne L. in relation to the light conditions and intensity of turf maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Prończuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of shade, nutrition, height of mowing and density of turf on snow mould (Microdochium nivale prevalence on Lolium perenne under turf maintenance were studied in 2000-2004 at Radzików (central Poland. The materials for studies were cultivars of L. perenne originated from Poland and abroad. The turf experiments were performed in three series of trials where each factor were analysed independently. The cultivars were assessed for: density of turf, the first symptom of disease and snow mould injury in spring. The investigations revealed that shade as well as high nutrition applied in autumn and high mowing of grass influenced significantly snow mould prevalence on L. perenne. The cultivars expressed a wide range of susceptibility to snow mould. The cultivars with high density of turf were the most injured by snow mould. Disease occurred at different periods of autumn and winter, usually before snow fall. Winter weather conditions had a slight effect on changes in snow mould injury of L. perenne in subsequent years.

  12. Efficiency of Opuntia ficus in the phytoremediation of a soil contaminated with used motor oil and lead, compared to that of Lolium perenne and Aloe barbadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Alvarado, Luisa F; Vaca-Mier, Mabel; López-Callejas, Raymundo; Rojas-Valencia, Ma Neftalí

    2018-01-28

    Industrial pollutants such as heavy metals and hydrocarbons in soils represent a serious concern due to their persistence and negative effects on the environment, affecting cellular processes in living organisms and even causing mutations and cancer. The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the efficiency of Opuntia ficus in the phytoremediation of a soil polluted with used motor oil. Two other species, one with different and one with similar characteristics, relatively, were used for comparison purposes: Lolium perenne and Aloe barbadensis. The effect of the plants on lead solubility and bioaccumulation, the biomass production of each specie and the microbial counts and bacterial identification for each experiment was studied. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were measured every 5 weeks throughout the 20-week phytoremediation experiment. At the end of the experiment soluble Pb, Pb extracted by the plant species, microbiological counts, total biomass and bacterial species in soil were analyzed. Even though Lolium perenne showed the highest TPH removal (47%), Opuntia ficus produced the highest biomass and similar removal (46%). Since Opuntia ficus requires low amounts of water and grows fast, it would be a suitable option in the remediation of soils polluted with hydrocarbons and/or heavy metals.

  13. Exploring the potential of phyllosilicate minerals as potassium fertilizers using sodium tetraphenylboron and intensive cropping with perennial ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Huoyan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Zijun; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    In response to addressing potassium (K) deficiency in soil and decreasing agricultural production costs, the potential of K-bearing phyllosilicate minerals that can be directly used as an alternative K source has been investigated using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) extraction and an intensive cropping experiment. The results showed that the critical value of K-release rate and leaf K concentration was 3.30 g kg−1 h−1 and 30.64 g (kg dry matter)−1, respectively under the experimental conditions. According to this critical value, the maximum amount of released K that could be utilized by a plant with no K deficiency symptoms was from biotite (27.80 g kg−1) and vermiculite (5.58 g kg−1), followed by illite, smectite and muscovite with 2.76, 0.88 and 0.49 g kg−1, respectively. Ryegrass grown on phlogopite showed K deficiency symptoms during the overall growth period. It is concluded that biotite and vermiculite can be directly applied as a promising and sustainable alternative to the use of classical K fertilizers, illite can be utilized in combination with soluble K fertilizers, whereas muscovite, phlogopite and smectite may not be suitable for plant growth. Further field experiments are needed to assess the use of these phyllosilicate minerals as sources of K fertilizer. PMID:25782771

  14. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydrates and proteins, and digesta particulate weight in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture either in the morning (04.00 to 08.00 hours) or the evening (16.00 to 20.00 hours). Cows grazed in the evening spent more time (P morning. Higher (P morning. Although cows grazed in the evening ingested more crude protein compared with cows grazed in the morning, no significant difference in NH3 -N concentration in rumen fluid was observed between them. The ratio of purine-derivative concentration to creatinine concentrations was higher (P morning. These results clearly indicated that evening grazing was advantageous for dairy cows compared with morning grazing, in terms of ruminal fermentable energy intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Classification of images of wheat, ryegrass and brome grass species at early growth stages using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golzarian Mahmood R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important crops in Australia, and the identification of young plants is an important step towards developing an automated system for monitoring crop establishment and also for differentiating crop from weeds. In this paper, a framework to differentiate early narrow-leaf wheat from two common weeds from their digital images is developed. A combination of colour, texture and shape features is used. These features are reduced to three descriptors using Principal Component Analysis. The three components provide an effective and significant means for distinguishing the three grasses. Further analysis enables threshold levels to be set for the discrimination of the plant species. The PCA model was evaluated on an independent data set of plants and the results show accuracy of 88% and 85% in the differentiation of ryegrass and brome grass from wheat, respectively. The outcomes of this study can be integrated into new knowledge in developing computer vision systems used in automated weed management.

  16. Field assessment of a model for fungicide effects on intraplant spread of stem rust in perennial ryegrass seed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, W F; Eynard, J

    2009-06-01

    Intraplant spread of stem rust (Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola) in perennial ryegrass during tiller extension is a major determinant of epidemic severity and is dominated by stem extension dynamics. Simple equations for extension of inflorescence and internodes are presented and parameterized. These equations are combined with previously published equations for pathogen latent period and for postinfection efficacy of fungicides to produce a model for effects of fungicide type and timing on intraplant spread. The model is driven by thermal units, calculated from air temperature measurements. Three field experiments, conducted independently from the field experiments that provided data for plant growth model parameterization, were conducted to assess performance of the disease spread model. Either propiconazole or azoxystrobin, the two most commonly used fungicides for stem rust control, was applied to tillers that had stem rust pustules on the flag sheath and in which the inflorescence was partially extended. Intraplant spread of disease to the extending inflorescence (stem and flowerhead) was observed at several dates following treatment and compared with modeled severities. The model estimated accurately the severities of inflorescence infection for most treatments and observation times, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 for modeled versus observed disease severities across the three experiments. The model correctly estimated the rank order of final severities among the treatments (fungicide type and timing). The model can be extended to intraplant spread of stem rust at all internodes and incorporated into decision support tools for fungicide type and timing in management of this disease.

  17. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  18. Simultaneous enhancement of methane production and methane content in biogas from waste activated sludge and perennial ryegrass anaerobic co-digestion: The effects of pH and C/N ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Li, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Lingling

    2016-09-01

    It is necessary to find an appropriate strategy to simultaneously enhance the methane production and methane content in biogas from waste activated sludge (WAS) and grass co-digestion. In this study an efficient strategy, i.e., adjusting the initial pH 12 and C/N ratio 17/1, for simultaneous enhancement of methane production and methane content in biogas from WAS and perennial ryegrass co-digestion was reported. Experimental results indicated that the maximal methane production was 310mL/gVSadd at the optimum conditions after 30-d anaerobic digestion, which was, respectively, about 1.5- and 3.8-fold of the sole WAS and sole perennial ryegrass anaerobic digestion. Meanwhile, the methane content in biogas was about 74%, which was much higher than that of sole WAS (64%) or sole perennial ryegrass (54%) anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  20. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  1. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  2. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  3. Isolation of cDNA encoding a newly identified major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen: intracellular targeting to the amyloplast.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, M B; Hough, T; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Smith, P M; Taylor, P; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D; McCluskey, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major allergenic protein from rye-grass pollen, tentatively designated Lol pIb of 31kDa and with pI 9.0. A cDNA clone encoding Lol pIb has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Lol pIb is located mainly in the starch granules. This is a distinct allergen from Lol pI, which is located in the cytosol. Lol pIb is synthesized in pollen as a pre-allergen with a transit peptide targeting the allergen to amyloplasts. Epitope mapping of the fusion protein localized the IgE...

  4. Evaluation of the Ryegrass Stem Rust Model STEMRUST_G and Its Implementation as a Decision Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, W F; Coop, L B; Seguin, S G; Mellbye, M E; Gingrich, G A; Silberstein, T B

    2015-01-01

    STEMRUST_G, a simulation model for epidemics of stem rust in perennial ryegrass grown to maturity as a seed crop, was validated for use as a heuristic tool and as a decision aid for disease management with fungicides. Multistage validation had been used in model creation by incorporating previously validated submodels for infection, latent period duration, sporulation, fungicide effects, and plant growth. Validation of the complete model was by comparison of model output with observed disease severities in 35 epidemics at nine location-years in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We judge the model acceptable for its purposes, based on several tests. Graphs of modeled disease progress were generally congruent with plotted disease severity observations. There was negligible average bias in the 570 modeled-versus-observed comparisons across all data, although there was large variance in size of the deviances. Modeled severities were accurate in >80% of the comparisons, where accuracy is defined as the modeled value being within twice the 95% confidence interval of the observed value, within ±1 day of the observation date. An interactive website was created to produce disease estimates by running STEMRUST_G with user-supplied disease scouting information and automated daily weather data inputs from field sites. The model and decision aid supplement disease managers' information by estimating the level of latent (invisible) and expressed disease since the last scouting observation, given season-long weather conditions up to the present, and it estimates effects of fungicides on epidemic development. In additional large-plot experiments conducted in grower fields, the decision aid produced disease management outcomes (management cost and seed yield) as good as or better than the growers' standard practice. In future, STEMRUST_G could be modified to create similar models and decision aids for stem rust of wheat and barley, after additional experiments to

  5. Facilitation of a native pest of rice, Stenotus rubrovittatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), by the non-native Lolium multiflorum (Cyperales: Poaceae) in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Akira; Takada, Mayura; Washitani, Izumi

    2011-10-01

    Source populations of polyphagous pests often occur on host plants other than the economically damaged crop. We evaluated the contribution of patches of a non-native meadow grass, Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Poaceae), and other weeds growing in fallow fields or meadows as source hosts of an important native pest of rice, Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Miridae), in an agricultural landscape of northern Japan. Periodical censuses of this mirid bug by using the sweeping method, vegetation surveys, and statistical analysis revealed that L. multiflorum was the only plant species that was positively correlated with the density of adult S. rubrovittatus through two generations and thus may be the most stable and important host of the mirid bug early in the season before the colonization of rice paddies. The risk and cost of such an indirect negative effect on a crop plant through facilitation of a native pest by a non-native plant in the agricultural landscape should not be overlooked.

  6. Influence of fly ash aided phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn highly contaminated soils on Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens metal transfer and physiological stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopareva-Pohu, A.; Verdin, A.; Garcon, G.; Sahraoui, A.L.H.; Pourrut, B.; Debiane, D.; Waterlot, C.; Laruelle, F.; Bidar, G.; Douay, F.; Shirali, P. [University of Lille Nord France, Lille (France)

    2011-06-15

    Due to anthropogenic activities, large extends of soils are highly contaminated by Metal Trace Element (MTE). Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote in situ immobilisation of trace elements by combining the use of metal-tolerant plants and inexpensive mineral or organic soil amendments. Eight years after Coal Fly Ash (CFA) soil amendment, MTE bioavailability and uptake by two plants, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, were evaluated, as some biological markers reflecting physiological stress. Results showed that the two plant species under study were suitable to reduce the mobility and the availability of these elements. Moreover, the plant growth was better on CFA amended MTE-contaminated soils, and the plant sensitivity to MTE-induced physiological stress, as studied through photosynthetic pigment contents and oxidative damage was lower or similar. In conclusion, these results supported the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils.

  7. Comparative sequence analysis of VRN1 alleles of Lolium perenne with the co-linear regions in barley, wheat, and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Torben; Byrne, Stephen; Gundlach, Heidrun

    2011-01-01

    Vernalization, a period of low temperature to induce transition from vegetative to reproductive state, is an important environmental stimulus for many cool season grasses. A key gene in the vernalization pathway in grasses is the VRN1 gene. The objective of this study was to identify causative......, and characterized. Analysis of the allelic sequences identified an 8.6-kb deletion in the first intron of the VRN1 gene in the Veyo genotype which has low vernalization requirement. This deletion was in a divergent recurrent selection experiment confirmed to be associated with genotypes with low vernalization...... requirement. The region surrounding the VRN1 locus in perennial ryegrass showed microcolinearity to the corresponding region on chromosome 3 in Oryza sativa with conserved gene order and orientation, while the micro-colinearity to the corresponding region in Triticum monococcum was less conserved. Our study...

  8. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    dominant on both (Malinowska 1979). ... grassland sites are dominated by perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with swards of white ... (Fraxinus excelsior): other species present include beech (Fagus sylvaticus), oak (Quercus robur), elder ...

  9. Desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte submetidas a diferentes sistemas alimentares Performance of beef heifers submitted at different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de sistemas alimentares sobre o desenvolvimento de fêmeas de corte, dos oito aos 18/20 meses de idade. Foram avaliadas novilhas da raça Charolês e suas cruzas com Nelore. Os sistemas de alimentação foram: 'aveia + azevém + milheto' - pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam, seguida de pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke; 'aveia + azevém + campo' - pastagem de aveia e azevém mais campo nativo ocupado por capim Annoni (Eragrostis planna Nees; 'aveia + azevém + suplementação + milheto' - pastagem de aveia preta e azevém com suplementação energética mais pastagem de milheto; 'aveia + azevém + suplementação + campo'- pastagem de aveia preta e azevém com suplementação mais campo nativo ocupado por capim Annoni. O suplemento foi grão de sorgo moído, 0,7% do peso vivo (PV/dia. Foram tomados registros de PV, escore de condição corporal (ECC, atividade ovariana e manifestação de estro no período dos 18 aos 20 meses de idade das novilhas. Novilhas exclusivamente em pastagem natural durante o verão/outono não atingiram o peso recomendado para acasalamento aos 18/20 meses de idade. Novilhas que apresentaram estro foram mais pesadas e realizaram maior ganho diário médio durante o inverno. Novilhas mantidas em aveia + azevém + milheto apresentaram maior porcentagem de ovários funcionais aos 18/20 meses de idade.The effect of feeding systems on performance of beef heifers, on period of eight to 18/20 months of age. Charolais heifers and their crosses with Nellore were evaluated. The feeding systems were: 'Oat + Annual ryegrass + Pearl millet'- Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam and Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke pasture; 'Oat + Annual ryegrass + natural pasture'- Black oat and annual ryegrass and natural pasture with Annoni grass (Eragrostis planna Nees; 'Oat + Annual ryegrass

  10. Annual Check-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Annual Check-Up Posted under Health Guides . Updated 24 April 2017. + ... I get ready for my annual medical check-up? If this is your first visit to your ...

  11. Isolation of cDNA encoding a newly identified major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen: intracellular targeting to the amyloplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M B; Hough, T; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Smith, P M; Taylor, P; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D; McCluskey, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major allergenic protein from rye-grass pollen, tentatively designated Lol pIb of 31kDa and with pI 9.0. A cDNA clone encoding Lol pIb has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Lol pIb is located mainly in the starch granules. This is a distinct allergen from Lol pI, which is located in the cytosol. Lol pIb is synthesized in pollen as a pre-allergen with a transit peptide targeting the allergen to amyloplasts. Epitope mapping of the fusion protein localized the IgE binding determinant in the C-terminal domain. Images PMID:1671715

  12. Teste de envelhecimento precoce para sementes de azevém, aveia preta e milheto Accelerated aging test for ryegrass black oat grass and pearl millet seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danton Camacho Garcia

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade da aplicação e da padronização do teste de envelhecimento precoce em sementes de azevém, aveia preta e milheto foi verificada em três lotes, para cada espécie, com valores iniciais de germinação semelhantes. As sementes de cada lote foram submetidas ao teste por períodos de 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas, à temperatura de 41°C e 100% de umidade relativa do ar. Em aveia preta, o período de 24 horas estratifica lotes de sementes pelo vigor. Para milheto e azevém, o período de envelhecimento para estratificar lotes de sementes pelo vigor pode ser de 24 a 48 horas. Períodos de 72 a 120 horas são muito drásticos para as três espécies e impedem a estratificação de lotes de sementes pelo vigor.Accelerated aging test standardization for seeds of ryegrass, black oat grass and pearl millet was cheked in three lots, of each specie, with similar initial values of germination. The seeds of each lot were submited to periods of 24, 48, 96 and 120 hours of temperature of 41°C and air relative humidity of 100%. In black oat grass the 24h period stratifies seed vigor among lots. However, for pearl millet and ryegrass the period can be of 24 to 48h. Periods of 72 to 120 hours are very severe to the three species and prevent the seed vigor lots stratification.

  13. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from sheep offered fresh perennial ryegrass () using data measured in indirect open-circuit respiration chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y G; O'Connell, N E; Yan, T

    2016-06-01

    Development of effective methane (CH) mitigation strategies for grazing sheep requires accurate prediction tools. The present study aimed to identify key parameters influencing enteric CH emissions and develop prediction equations for enteric CH emissions from sheep offered fresh grass. The data used were collected from 82 sheep offered fresh perennial ryegrass () as sole diets in 6 metabolism experiments (data from non-grass-only diets were not used). Sheep were from breeds of Highlander, Texel, Scottish Blackface, and Swaledale at the age of 5 to 18 mo and weighing from 24.5 to 62.7 kg. Grass was harvested daily from 6 swards on contrasting harvest dates (May to December). Before the commencement of each study, the experimental sward was harvested at a residual height of 4 cm and allowed to grow for 2 to 4 wk. The feeding trials commenced when the grass sward was suitable to zero grazing (average grass height = 15 cm), thus offering grass of a quality similar to what grazing animals would receive under routine grazing management. Sheep were housed in individual pens for 14 d and then moved to individual calorimeter chambers for 4 d. Feed intake, fecal and urine outputs, and CH emissions were measured during the final 4 d. Data were analyzed using the REML procedure to develop prediction equations for CH emissions. Linear and multiple prediction equations were developed using BW, DMI, GE intake (GEI), and grass chemical concentrations (DM, OM, water-soluble carbohydrates [WSC], NDF, ADF, nitrogen [N], GE, DE, and ME) as explanatory variables. The mean CH production was 21.1 g/kg DMI or 0.062 MJ/MJ GEI. Dry matter intake and GEI were much more accurate predictors for CH emissions than BW ( sheep grazing on ryegrass pasture.

  14. EFECTO DEL PICADO SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS NUTRICIONALES Y FERMENTATIVAS DE ENSILAJES DE PASTOS KIKUYO, RYEGRASS PERENNE Y ALPISTE FORRAJERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Villalobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del picado sobre las características nutricionales y fermentativas de ensilajes elaborados con 3 pastos (kikuyo, rye-grass perenne y alpiste forrajero. Se elaboraron 2 microsilos de cada pasto en bolsas de polieti-leno con capacidad para 1 kg, aplicando 2 trata-mientos (picado y sin picar; se adicionó a cada microsilo 3% de melaza y 0,1% de un inóculo artesanal (hecho de leche agria, suero de queso y melaza. La especie de pasto tuvo el mayor impacto sobre las características nutricionales y fermentativas de los microsilos, mientras que el picado no mostró tendencia clara sobre los parámetros evaluados. El contenido de PC (14,40 a 19,35%, FDN (46,25 a 63,16% y la DIVMS (46,15 a 65,55% en los ensilados es indicador de su potencial para llenar gran parte de los requerimientos nutricionales del ganado lechero. El pasto ryegrass ensilado alcanzó los niveles de pH (4,41 a 4,83 menores y el pasto kikuyo los valores menores de capacidad amor-tiguadora (79,12 a 81,17 mEq NaOH 100 g-1 MS y de nitrógeno amoniacal (1,03 a 1,33%. Los ensilajes elaborados con pastos pueden uti-lizarse como suplementos con valor nutricional superior a los henos utilizados en las raciones de ganado lechero en zonas altas.

  15. Research Note: The influence of applied nitrogen on the root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -1 a-1) on the root development of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was examined at the end of the establishment year. Increasing levels of applied N increased perennial ryegrass root organic matter (OM) content in the top 50mm of the ...

  16. The use of near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The applicability of the NIRS ryegrass calibration to other species was briefly examined by estimating the N content of Kikuyu (Penisetum clandestinum) (r = 0, 97 and SEP = 0, 277). Keywords: italian ryegrass; kikuyu; lolium multiflorum; near infra-red spectroscopy; nitrogen; plant physiology; protein; regression analysis; ...

  17. Effect of energy supplementation on intake and digestion of early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementation of early and mid-season Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar) with maize meal, maize meal with NaHC03 buffer, or maize meal plus combinations of slowly degradable protein was studied. Supplements were administered via a rumen fistula. The effect on intake and digestion of ryegrass was ...

  18. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setup

    Abstract. The aim of the study was to compare a new Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivar (Enhancer), bred to contain a high total non-structural carbohydrate content, with the cultivar, Dargle, in terms of dry matter (DM) production, nutritional value, carrying capacity and milk production. The ryegrass cultivars.

  19. Human immune responsiveness to Lolium perenne pollen allergen Lol p III (rye III) is associated with HLA-DR3 and DR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Freidhoff, L R; Meyers, D A; Bias, W B; Marsh, D G

    1989-05-01

    A well-characterized allergen of Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen, Lol p III, has been used as a model antigen to study the genetic control of the human immune response. Associations between HLA type and IgE or IgG antibody (Ab) responsiveness to Lol p III were studied in two groups of skin-test-positive Caucasoid adults (N = 135 and 67). We found by nonparametric and parametric analyses that immune responsiveness to Lol p III was significantly associated with HLA-DR3 and DR5. No association was found between any DQ type and immune responsiveness to Lol p III. Geometric mean IgE or IgG Ab levels to Lol p III were not different between B8+, DR3+ subjects and B8-, DR3+ subjects, showing that HLA-B8 had no influence on the association. Lol p III IgG Ab data obtained on subjects after grass antigen immunotherapy showed that 100% of DR3 subjects and 100% of DR5 subjects were Ab+. A comparison of all the available protein sequences of DRB gene products showed that the first hypervariable region of DR3 and DR5 (and DRw6), and no other region, contains the sequence Glu9-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Ser13. Our observations are consistent with the possibility that immune responsiveness to the allergen Lol p III is associated with this amino acid sequence in the first hypervariable region of the DR beta 1 polypeptide chain.

  20. Complete primary structure of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III: comparison with known Lol p I and II sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-10-17

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III, determined by the automated Edman degradation of the protein and its selected fragments, is reported in this paper. Cleavage by enzymatic and chemical techniques established unambiguously the sequence for this 97-residue protein (Mr = 10,909), which lacks cysteine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. The sequence of Lol p III is very similar to that of another L. perenne allergen, Lol p II, which was sequenced recently; of the 97 positions in the two proteins, 57 are occupied by identical amino acids (59% identity). In addition, both allergens share a similar structure with an antibody-binding fragment of a third L. perenne allergen, Lol p I. Since human antibody responsiveness to all these three allergens is associated with HLA-DR3, and since the structure common to the three molecules shows high degrees of amphipathicity in Lol p II and III, we speculate that this common segment in the three molecules might contain or contribute to the respectively Ia/T-cell sites.

  1. Visualization by atomic force microscopy and FISH of the 45S rDNA gaps in mitotic chromosomes of Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Ma, Lu; Sundararajan, Sriram; Fei, Shui-zhang; Li, Lijia

    2009-07-01

    The mitotic chromosome structure of 45S rDNA site gaps in Lolium perenne was studied by atomic force microscope (AFM) combining with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis in the present study. FISH on the mitotic chromosomes showed that 45S rDNA gaps were completely broken or local despiralizations of the chromatid which had the appearance of one or a few thin DNA fiber threads. Topography imaging using AFM confirmed these observations. In addition, AFM imaging showed that the broken end of the chromosome fragment lacking the 45S rDNA was sharper, suggesting high condensation. In contrast, the broken ends containing the 45S rDNA or thin 45S rDNA fibers exhibited lower density and were uncompacted. Higher magnification visualization by AFM of the terminals of decondensed 45S rDNA chromatin indicated that both ends containing the 45S rDNA also exhibited lower density zones. The measured height of a decondensed 45S rDNA chromatin as obtained from the AFM image was about 55-65 nm, composed of just two 30-nm single fibers of chromatin. FISH in flow-sorted G2 interphase nuclei showed that 45S rDNA was highly decondensed in more than 90% of the G2/M nuclei. Our results suggested that a failure of the complex folding of the chromatin fibers occurred at 45S rDNA sites, resulting in gap formation or break.

  2. Nitrogen deficiency inhibits leaf blade growth in Lolium perenne by increasing cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanová, Monika; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Schnyder, Hans

    2008-06-01

    Nitrogen deficiency severely inhibits leaf growth. This response was analysed at the cellular level by growing Lolium perenne L. under 7.5 mM (high) or 1 mM (low) nitrate supply, and performing a kinematic analysis to assess the effect of nitrogen status on cell proliferation and cell growth in the leaf blade epidermis. Low nitrogen supply reduced leaf elongation rate (LER) by 43% through a similar decrease in the cell production rate and final cell length. The former was entirely because of a decreased average cell division rate (0.023 versus 0.032 h(-1)) and thus longer cell cycle duration (30 versus 22 h). Nitrogen status did not affect the number of division cycles of the initial cell's progeny (5.7), and accordingly the meristematic cell number (53). Meristematic cell length was unaffected by nitrogen deficiency, implying that the division and mitotic growth rates were equally impaired. The shorter mature cell length arose from a considerably reduced post-mitotic growth rate (0.033 versus 0.049 h(-1)). But, nitrogen stress did not affect the position where elongation stopped, and increased cell elongation duration. In conclusion, nitrogen deficiency limited leaf growth by increasing the cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic elongation rates, delaying cell maturation.

  3. Different Mutations Endowing Resistance to Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Inhibitors Results in Changes in Ecological Fitness of Lolium rigidum Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maor Matzrafi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various mutations altering the herbicide target site (TS, can lead to structural modifications that decrease binding efficiency and results in herbicide resistant weed. In most cases, such a mutation will be associated with ecological fitness penalty under herbicide free environmental conditions. Here we describe the effect of various mutations, endowing resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase inhibitors, on the ecological fitness penalty of Lolium rigidum populations. The TS resistant populations, MH (substitution of isoleucine 1781 to leucine and NO (cysteine 2088 to arginine, were examined and compared to a sensitive population (AL. Grain weight (GW characterization of individual plants from both MH and NO populations, showed that resistant individuals had significantly lower GW compared with sensitive ones. Under high temperatures, both TS resistant populations exhibited lower germination rate as compared with the sensitive (AL population. Likewise, early vigor of plants from both TS resistant populations was significantly lower than the one measured in plants of the sensitive population. Under crop-weed intra-species competition, we found an opposite trend in the response of plants from different populations. Relatively to inter-population competition conditions, plants of MH population were less affected and presented higher reproduction abilities compared to plants from both AL and NO populations. On the basis of our results, a non-chemical approach can be taken to favor the sensitive individuals, eventually leading to a decline in resistant individuals in the population.

  4. Influence of fly ash aided phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn highly contaminated soils on Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens metal transfer and physiological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopareva-Pohu, Alena; Verdin, Anthony; Garcon, Guillaume; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Pourrut, Bertrand; Debiane, Djouher; Waterlot, Christophe; Laruelle, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, large extends of soils are highly contaminated by Metal Trace Element (MTE). Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote in situ immobilisation of trace elements by combining the use of metal-tolerant plants and inexpensive mineral or organic soil amendments. Eight years after Coal Fly Ash (CFA) soil amendment, MTE bioavailability and uptake by two plants, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, were evaluated, as some biological markers reflecting physiological stress. Results showed that the two plant species under study were suitable to reduce the mobility and the availability of these elements. Moreover, the plant growth was better on CFA amended MTE-contaminated soils, and the plant sensitivity to MTE-induced physiological stress, as studied through photosynthetic pigment contents and oxidative damage was lower or similar. In conclusion, these results supported the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. - Highlights: → Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote immobilisation of MTE. → 8 years after the soil amendments, a pot culture study was carried out in greenhouse conditions. → MTE bioavailability and uptake by the two plants was drastically decreased with amendments. → Our results support the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. → CFA addition contributed to the reduction of the MTE mobility and availability for the plants. - Efficiency of Coal Fly Ash amendment for phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn in MTE-highly contaminated soils.

  5. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and metabolic analysis uncover multiple molecular responses of the grass species Lolium perenne under low-intensity xenobiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Antonella eSerra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lolium perenne, which is a major component of pastures, lawns, and grass strips, can be exposed to xenobiotic stresses due to diffuse and residual contaminations of soil. L. perenne was recently shown to undergo metabolic adjustments in response to sub-toxic levels of xenobiotics. To gain insight in such chemical stress responses, a de novo transcriptome analysis was carried out on leaves from plants subjected at the root level to low levels of xenobiotics, glyphosate, tebuconazole, and a combination of the two, leading to no adverse physiological effect. Chemical treatments influenced significantly the relative proportions of functional categories and of transcripts related to carbohydrate processes, to signalling, to protein-kinase cascades, as Serine/Threonine-protein kinases, to transcriptional regulations, to responses to abiotic or biotic stimuli and to responses to phytohormones. Transcriptomics-based expressions of genes encoding different types of SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1-related kinases involved in sugar and stress signalling or encoding key metabolic enzymes were in line with specific qRT-PCR analysis or with the important metabolic and regulatory changes revealed by metabolomic analysis. The effects of pesticide treatments on metabolites and gene expression strongly suggest that pesticides at low levels, as single molecule or as mixture, affect cell signalling and functioning even in the absence of major physiological impact. This global analysis of L. perenne therefore highlighted the interactions between molecular regulation of responses to xenobiotics, and also carbohydrate dynamics, energy dysfunction, phytohormones and calcium signalling.

  6. Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz [Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br

    2008-12-15

    This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in Sao Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. - Particulate matter and air temperature increased non-structural carbohydrates in the standardized biomonitor grass in Sao Paulo.

  7. Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de; Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz; Domingos, Marisa

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in Sao Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. - Particulate matter and air temperature increased non-structural carbohydrates in the standardized biomonitor grass in Sao Paulo

  8. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  6. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  7. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  8. CSIR Annual report 1990

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1990.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 26 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1990.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  10. CSIR Annual report 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1995.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 33 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1995.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  13. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  14. 55th Annual

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1990-01-01

    Jan 1, 1990 ... At the invitation of the Madhya Pradesh. Council of Science and Technology, the. Barkatullah University and the Regional. Research laboratory, Bhopal, the 55th Annual. Meeting of the Academy was held at the. Tagore Bhawan, Bhopal from 10 to 13. November 1989. One of the best organized Annual.

  15. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  16. A rapid and multi-element method for the analysis of major nutrients in grass (Lolium perenne using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly K.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Elemental analysis of grass (Lolium perenne is essential in agriculture to ensure grass quality and animal health. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF spectroscopy is a rapid, multi-element alternative to current methods using acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Percentage phosphorus (P, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg and calcium (Ca, determined from grass samples using EDXRF, were within 0.035, 0.319, 0.025 and 0.061, respectively, of ICP-OES values. Concordance correlation coefficients computed using agreement statistics ranged from 0.4379 to 0.9669 (values close to one indicate excellent agreement; however, the level of agreement for each element depended on the calibrations used in EDXRF. Empirical calibrations gave excellent agreement for percentage P, K and Ca, but moderate agreement for percentage Mg due to a weaker correlation between standards and intensities. Standardless calibration using the fundamental parameters (FP approach exhibited bias, with consistently lower values reported for percentage P and Mg, when compared with ICP-OES methods. The relationship between the methods was plotted as scatter plots with the line of equality included, and although correlation coefficients indicated strong relationships, these statistics masked the effects of consistent bias in the data for percentage P and Mg. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing agreement from correlation when using statistical methods to compare methods of analysis. Agreement estimates improved when a matching library of grass samples was added to the FP method. EDXRF is a comparable alternative to conventional methods for grass analysis when samples of similar matrix type are used as empirical standards or as a matching library.

  17. Study of the epitope structure of purified Dac G I and Lol p I, the major allergens of Dactylis glomerata and Lolium perenne pollens, using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, W; Mécheri, S; Peltre, G; David, B; Hébert, J

    1988-11-15

    The use of mAb allowed us to further analyze the cross-reactivity between purified Dac g I and Lol p I, the major allergens of Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot) and Lolium perenne (Rye grass), respectively. It was first shown, using IEF, followed by immunoprinting, that serum IgE antibodies from most grass-sensitive patients recognize both Dac g I and Lol p I. Second, three different anti-Lol p I mAb, 290A-167, 348A-6, and 539A-6, and one anti-Dac g I mAb, P3B2 were all shown to react with Dac g I and Lol p I, indicating that the two molecules share common epitopes. Epitope specificity of the mAb was determined by competitive binding inhibition of a given labeled mAb to solid phase fixed Dac g I or Lol p I by the mAb. The results indicated that the four mAb are directed against four different and non-overlapping epitopes present on both allergens. Using double-binding RIA, our data strongly suggest that the common epitopes are not repetitive on both molecules. In addition to their similar physicochemical characteristics, such as isolectric points and m.w., Dac g I and Lol p I share four identical epitopes. Binding inhibition of human IgE to Lol p I and Dac g I by the mAb was also assessed. The results indicated that each mAb was able to inhibit such reactions to variable degree but no additive inhibition was observed when two mAb of different specificities were used in combination, suggesting that the human IgE binding site is partially shared by each epitope recognized by the four mAb.

  18. Water deficit affects primary metabolism differently in two Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea introgression forms with a distinct capacity for photosynthesis and membrane regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Perlikowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how plants respond to drought at different levels of cell metabolism is an important aspect of research on the mechanisms involved in stress tolerance. Furthermore, a dissection of drought tolerance into its crucial components by the use of plant introgression forms facilitates to analyze this trait more deeply. The important components of plant drought tolerance are the capacity for photosynthesis under drought conditions, and the ability of cellular membrane regeneration after stress cessation. Two closely related introgression forms of Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea, differing in the level of photosynthetic capacity during stress, and in the ability to regenerate their cellular membranes after stress cessation, were used as forage grass models in a primary metabolome profiling and in an evaluation of chloroplast 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase accumulation level and activity, during 11 days of water deficit, followed by 10 days of rehydration. It was revealed here that the introgression form, characterized by the ability to regenerate membranes after rehydration, contained higher amounts of proline, melibiose, galactaric acid, myo-inositol and myo-inositol-1-phosphate involved in osmoprotection and stress signaling under drought. Moreover, during the rehydration period, this form also maintained elevated accumulation levels of most the primary metabolites, analyzed here. The other introgression form, characterized by the higher capacity for photosynthesis, revealed a higher accumulation level and activity of chloroplast aldolase under drought conditions, and higher accumulation levels of most photosynthetic products during control and drought periods. The potential impact of the observed metabolic alterations on cellular membrane recovery after stress cessation, and on a photosynthetic capacity under drought conditions in grasses, are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of the grass mixture (Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp.) as Sb phyto-stabilizer in tailings and Sb-rich soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora Armienta, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, Margarita; Ruiz-Villalobos, Carlos E.; Labastida, Israel; Ceniceros, Nora; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra

    2017-04-01

    Green house experiments were carried out to evaluate the growth and Sb assimilation of a grass assemblage: Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp, in tailings and Sb-rich soils. Tailings and soil samples were obtained at the Mexican historical mining zone of Zimapán, Central México. More than 6 tailings impoundments are located at the town outskirts and constitute a contamination source from windblown and waterborne deposit on soils, besides acid mine drainage. Four substrates were used in the experiments: 100% tailings, 20% tailings + 80% soil, 50% tailings + 50% soil , and a soil sample far from tailings as a background. Concentrations of Sb ranged from 310 mg/kg to 413 mg/kg in tailings. A pH of 7.43, 1.27% organic matter, and high concentrations of N, K and P indicated adequate conditions for plant growth. The grass assemblage was raised during 21 days as indicated by OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline 208 Terrestrial Plant Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test. The highest Sb concentrations were measured in plants grown on tailings with 139 mg/kg in the aerial part and 883 mg/kg in roots. Concentrations of Sb decreased as the proportion of tailings diminished with 22.1 mg/kg in the aerial part and 10 mg/kg in roots corresponding to the plants grown in the 20 % tailings + 80% soil . Bioaccumulation (BAC) and bioconcentration factors (BF) of plants grown on tailings (BAC= 0.42, BCF=3.93) indicated their suitability as a phyto-stabilization option. The grass mixture may be thus applied to control windblown particulate tailings taking advantage to their tolerance to high Sb levels.

  20. Partitioning SNPs Identified By GBS into Genome Annotation Classes and Calculating SNP-Explained Variances for Heading Date and Disease Resistance from the Resulting Genomic Relationship Matrices - Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Cericola, Fabio; Janss, Luc

    2015-01-01

    A draft sequence assembly of the perennial ryegrass genome was annotated with the aid of RNA-seq data from various genotypes, plant components, and treatments. We predicted 39,795 high quality proteins originating from 28,182 genetic loci. There was an average of 5.9 exons per protein, and an ave......,273 SNPs), genes with NB-ARC domains (9,056 SNPs), intron (168,023 SNPs), and inter-genic (1,420,866 SNPs). Genomic relationship matrices were created for each annotation class and SNP-explained variances for heading date and disease resistance were calculated...

  1. Broad Resistance to ACCase Inhibiting Herbicides in a Ryegrass Population Is Due Only to a Cysteine to Arginine Mutation in the Target Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaundun, Shiv Shankhar; Hutchings, Sarah-Jane; Dale, Richard Paul; McIndoe, Eddie

    2012-01-01

    Background The design of sustainable weed management strategies requires a good understanding of the mechanisms by which weeds evolve resistance to herbicides. Here we have conducted a study on the mechanism of resistance to ACCase inhibiting herbicides in a Lolium multiflorum population (RG3) from the UK. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of plant phenotypes and genotypes showed that all the RG3 plants (72%) that contained the cysteine to arginine mutation at ACCase codon position 2088 were resistant to ACCase inhibiting herbicides. Whole plant dose response tests on predetermined wild and mutant 2088 genotypes from RG3 and a standard sensitive population indicated that the C2088R mutation is the only factor conferring resistance to all ten ACCase herbicides tested. The associated resistance indices ranged from 13 for clethodim to over 358 for diclofop-methyl. Clethodim, the most potent herbicide was significantly affected even when applied on small mutant plants at the peri-emergence and one leaf stages. Conclusion/Significance This study establishes the clear and unambiguous importance of the C2088R target site mutation in conferring broad resistance to ten commonly used ACCase inhibiting herbicides. It also demonstrates that low levels “creeping”, multigenic, non target site resistance, is not always selected before single gene target site resistance appears in grass weed populations subjected to herbicide selection pressure. PMID:22768118

  2. Forage yield and nutritive value of Elephant grass, Italian ryegrass and spontaneous growing species mixed with forage peanut or red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Schalemberg Diehl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate of three grazing systems (GS with elephant grass (EG, Italian ryegrass (IR + spontaneous growing species (SGS; EG + IR + SGS + forage peanut (FP; and EG + IR + SGS + red clover (RC, during the winter and summer periods in rotational grazing with dairy cattle. Experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments, two replicates with repeated measures. Lactating Holstein cows receiving 1% BW-daily feed supplement with concentrate were used in the evaluation. Eight grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period. The values of pre forage mass and stocking rate were 2.52, 2.60 and 2.99 t ha-1 and 2.64, 2.77 and 3.14 animal unit ha-1, respectively for GS. Samples of forage were collected by hand-plucking technique to analyze the crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, in situ dry matter digestibility (ISDMD, in situ organic matter digestibility (ISOMD of forage present between rows of elephant grass, in the rows of elephant grass and the legumes. Higher value of CP, ISOMD and lower of NDF were observed for the grazing systems mixed with legumes forage.

  3. Mutants of the major ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p 5, with reduced IgE-binding capacity: candidates for grass pollen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Ines; De Weerd, Nicole; Bhalla, Prem L; Niederberger, Verena; Sperr, W R; Valent, Peter; Kahlert, Helga; Fiebig, Helmut; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Ebner, Christof; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Singh, Mohan B

    2002-01-01

    More than 400 million individuals are sensitized to grass pollen allergens. Group 5 allergens represent the most potent grass pollen allergens recognized by more than 80 % of grass pollen allergic patients. The aim of our study was to reduce the allergenic activity of group 5 allergens for specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Based on B- and T-cell epitope mapping studies and on sequence comparison of group 5 allergens from different grasses, point mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in highly conserved sequence domains of Lol p 5, the group 5 allergen from ryegrass. We obtained Lol p 5 mutants with low IgE-binding capacity and reduced allergenic activity as determined by basophil histamine release and by skin prick testing in allergic patients. Circular dichroism analysis showed that these mutants exhibited an overall structural fold similar to the recombinant Lol p 5 wild-type allergen. In addition, Lol p 5 mutants retained the ability to induce proliferation of group 5 allergen-specific T cell lines and clones. Our results demonstrate that a few point mutations in the Lol p 5 sequence yield mutants with reduced allergenic activity that represent potential vaccine candidates for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy.

  4. Comparative microbiota assessment of wilted Italian ryegrass, whole crop corn, and wilted alfalfa silage using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuikui; Minh, Tang Thuy; Tu, Tran Thi Minh; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Pang, Huili; Nishino, Naoki

    2017-02-01

    The microbiota of pre-ensiled crop and silage were examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Wilted Italian ryegrass (IR), whole crop corn (WC), and wilted alfalfa (AL) silages stored for 2 months were examined. All silages contained lactic acid as a predominant fermentation product. Across the three crop species, DGGE detected 36 and 28 bands, and NGS identified 253 and 259 genera in the pre-ensiled crops and silages, respectively. The NGS demonstrated that, although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) became prevalent in all silages after 2 months of storage, the major groups were different between crops: Leuconostoc spp. and Pediococcus spp. for IR silage, Lactobacillus spp. for WC silage, and Enterococcus spp. for AL silage. The predominant silage LAB genera were also detected by DGGE, but the presence of diverse non-LAB species in pre-ensiled crops was far better detected by NGS. Likewise, good survival of Agrobacterium spp., Methylobacterium spp., and Sphingomonas spp. in IR and AL silages was demonstrated by NGS. The diversity of the microbiota described by principal coordinate analysis was similar between DGGE and NGS. Our finding that analysis of pre-ensiled crop microbiota did not help predict silage microbiota was true for both DGGE and NGS.

  5. Short-term effects of a dung pat on N2 fixation and total N uptake in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F.V.; Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The short-term effects of a simulated cattle dung pat on N-2 fixation and total uptake of N in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture was studied in a container experiment using sheep faeces mixed with water to a DM content of 13%. We used a new N-15 cross-labelling technique to determine...... the influence of dung-pat N on N-2 fixation in a grass/clover mixture and the uptake of dung N in grass and clover. The proportion of N in clover derived from N-2 fixation (%Ndfa) varied between 88-99% during the 16 weeks following application of the dung. There was no effect of dung on the %Ndfa in clover...... herbage, 78% was recovered from the soil and the residual dung, and 18% was not accounted for. It is concluded that N-2 fixation in the dung patch border area in grass/clover mixtures is not influenced directly by the release of N from dung pats in the short term. However the amount of N-2 fixed may...

  6. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  7. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  8. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  9. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  10. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  11. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  12. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  13. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  14. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  15. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  16. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  17. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  18. USRDS - Annual Data Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Annual Data Report Comprehensive statistics on chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal diseases in the United States...

  19. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  20. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...