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Sample records for annual ryegrass lolium

  1. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher, J.T.; Powles, S.B.; Liljegren, D.R.; Holtum, J.A.M. (Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia))

    1991-04-01

    Lolium rigidum Gaud. biotype SLR31 is resistant to the herbicide diclofop-methyl and cross-resistant to several sulfonylurea herbicides. Wheat and the cross-resistant ryegrass exhibit similar patterns of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance may be similar. Cross-resistant ryegrass is also resistant to the wheat-selective imidazolinone herbicide imazamethabenz. The cross-resistant biotype SLR31 metabolized (phenyl-U-{sup 14}C)chlorsulfuron at a faster rate than a biotype which is susceptible to both diclofop-methyl and chlorsulfuron. A third biotype which is resistant to diclofop-methyl but not to chlorsulfuron metabolized chlorsulfuron at the same rate as the susceptible biotype. The increased metabolism of chlorsulfuron observed in the cross-resistant biotype is, therefore, correlated with the patterns of resistance observed in these L. rigidum biotypes. During high performance liquid chromatography analysis the major metabolite of chlorsulfuron in both susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass coeluted with the major metabolite produced in wheat. The major product is clearly different from the major product in the tolerant dicot species, flax (Linium usitatissimum). The elution pattern of metabolites of chlorsulfuron was the same for both the susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass but the cross-resistant ryegrass metabolized chlorsulfuron more rapidly. The investigation of the dose response to sulfonylurea herbicides at the whole plant level and the study of the metabolism of chlorsulfuron provide two independent sets of data which both suggest that the resistance to chlorsulfuron in cross-resistant ryegrass biotype SLR31 involves a wheat-like detoxification system.

  2. Identification of Anguina funesta from annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed lots in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, seed galls containing Anguina sp. were isolated from 14 annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed lots submitted for phytosanitary testing. To identify the species present, the ITS1 region of the ribosomal DNA of the nematodes from the seed lots was analyzed using a PCR-RFLP method (11). ...

  3. Effect of D2O on growth properties and chemical structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Bali, Garima [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Reeves, David T [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Sun, Qining [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Shah, Riddhi S [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    In present paper, we report the production and detailed structural analysis of deuterium-enriched rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) for neutron scattering experiments. An efficient method to produce deuterated biomass was developed by designing hydroponic perfusion chambers. In preliminary studies, the partial deuterated rye samples were grown in increasing levels of D2O to study the seed germination and the level of deuterium incorporation as a function of D2O concentration. Solution NMR method indicated 36.9 % deuterium incorporation in 50 % D2O grown annual rye samples and further significant increase in the deuterium incorporation level was observed by germinating the rye seedlings in H2O and growing in 50 % D2O inside the perfusion chambers. Moreover, in an effort to compare the substrate characteristics related to enzymatic hydrolysis on deuterated and protiated version of biomass, annual rye grown in 50 % D2O was selected for detailed biomass characterization studies. The compositional analyses, degree of polymerization and cellulose crystallinity were compared with its protiated control. The cellulose molecular weight indicated slight variation with deuteration; however, hemicellulose molecular weights and cellulose crystallinity remain unaffected with the deuteration. Besides the minor differences in biomass components, the development of deuterated biomass for neutron scattering application is essential to understand the complex biomass conversion processes.

  4. Enhancement of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophic water by economic plant annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) with ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Sheng, Guo-ping; Wu, Yue-jin; Yu, Zeng-liang; Bañuelos, Gary S; Yu, Han-qing

    2014-01-01

    Severe eutrophication of surface water has been a major problem of increasing environmental concern worldwide. In the present study, economic plant annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in floating mats as an economic plant-based treatment system to evaluate its potential after ion implantation for removing nutrients in simulated eutrophic water. The specific weight growth rate of L. multiflorum with ion implantation was significantly greater than that of the control, and the peroxidase, nitrate reductase, and acid phosphatase activities of the irradiated L. multiflorum were found to be greater than those plants without ion implantation. Higher total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were obtained for the L. multiflorum irradiated with 25 keV 5.2 × 10(16) N(+) ions/cm(2) and 30 keV 4.16 × 10(16) N(+) ions/cm(2), respectively (p phosphorus contents in the plant biomass with ion implantation were also greater than those in the control and were positively correlated with TN and TP supplied. L. multiflorum itself was directly responsible for 39-49 and 47-58 % of the overall N and P removal in the experiment, respectively. The research results suggested that ion implantation could become a promising approach for increasing phytoremediation efficiency of nutrients from eutrophic water by L. multiflorum.

  5. Agronomic behavior of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum lam. in Rio Grande do Sul State

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    I. F. Conterato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate forage production and number of days to flowering in 15 common ryegrass populations, one population of the KLM 138 (Uruguay and Fepagro São Gabriel cultivars, and one local population in order to select germplasm with production potential. A randomized block design consisting of three replicates and repeated measures over time (cuts was adopted. Forage production was evaluated by cutting samples of 2 linear meters per plot. The forage samples of each plot were dried and weighed for the determination of total dry matter. A total dry matter subsample of each plot, in each cut, was used to estimate leaf percentage. The data were submitted to analysis of variance using mixed models and means were compared by the Tukey test (P0.05, indicating little variability for this trait in the populations studied during the growth cycle. The populations differed significantly in terms of leaf dry matter percentage (P=0.0002. The highest leaf percentages during the growth cycle were observed for cultivar KLM 138. However, populations of the common Uruguayan, Dom Pedrito and Vacaria cultivars also exhibited good leaf production and may be used for initial selection of new promising materials, considering that a higher percentage of leaves promotes better quality feed offered to animals. The variation in the number of days to flowering permits selection for different maturation cycles of common ryegrass.

  6. Effects of accelerated aging on italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a productive, high quality cool-season forage that is overseeded in warm-season pastures for winter and early spring grazing. However, in some pastures and croplands it can be a serious weed. Italian ryegrass does not form an extensive seed bank and the see...

  7. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Seed Germination and Seedling Physiological Characteristics of Annual Ryegrass Lolium Multifolorum%模拟酸雨对黑麦草种子萌发及生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 邵辉; 吴坤胜; 柯健; 高素权; 李刚; 吴胜

    2011-01-01

    以一年生黑麦草(Annual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum)种子为材料,研究不同pH值的模拟硫酸型酸雨作用下,种子的萌发及幼苗生理特性发生的变化.实验分别测定了种子发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数及幼苗鲜重、叶片导电率等指标.结果表明,一年生黑麦草种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数整体变化趋势比较一致,随着模拟酸雨pH值的增大而减小.幼苗叶片的生长量变化差异比较大,单株幼苗的平均鲜重随模拟酸雨酸性的减弱而增大,所测幼苗叶片的相对电导率值随模拟酸雨pH值的升高而减小,与对照相比差异显著,表明幼苗叶片受到了酸雨的破坏.试验表明,一年生黑麦草种子在pH≥3.09的弱酸条件下能够正常萌发和生长,具有一定的耐酸性,但是在pH≤2.03的强酸条件下,种子的萌发和幼苗的生长受到了显著的抑制.%Using Annual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum seed as material to study the effect of different pH simulated acid rain on the seed germination and seedling physiological characteristics. The experiment tested the gemination power, germination rate, germination index,seedling fresh weight and permeability of plasma membrane etc indexes. The results indicated that the germination power, gemination rate and germination indexes all decreased with the simulated acid rain density increasing. There were great changes among the indexes of seedling growth increment: seedling fresh weight increased with simulated acid rain pH rising. And permeability of plasma membrane decreased with the acid rain pH increasing, which showed that seedling leaves were destroyed by the acid rain. The study indicated that the seed of nnual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum could sprout and grow normally under the condition of weak acid ( pH ≥3.09), and had certain acidtolerance. But seed germination and seedling growth were seriously restrained under the condition of strong acid (pH ≤2.03 ).

  8. Self-Reseeding Potential and Herbage Production of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum Lam.) Affected by Date and Intensity of Initial Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annually-sown cool-season small grain cereals can provide a valuable source of cool-season feeding for livestock in the southern Great Plains of the USA, but for many farmers limited access to field equipment for cultivation and planting is an obstacle to their use. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflo...

  9. Genetic structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum populations estimated by RAPD Estrutura genética de populações de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum estimada por RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual ryegrass is a temperate climate annual foraging grass, grown mostly in the South of Brazil, especially in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Despite its importance, little is known about its genetic diversity, both within and among the populations cultivated. This knowledge is of fundamental importance for developing breeding and conservation strategies. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity and structure of four populations of annual ryegrass. Three of the populations were located in Rio Grande do Sul and the fourth in Uruguay. RAPD markers were used to study the genetic diversity and structure of these populations. Analysis of 375 individuals sampled from the populations, using six RAPD primers, generated a total of 82 amplified bands. They included 73 polymorphic bands (89,02%. The value of the total genetic diversity index obtained, (0,71 was high, indicating the presence of wide genetic diversity in the four populations. Genetic structure analysis revealed that 98% of total diversity is intrapopulational, whereas interpopulational genetic diversity was only 2%. These results suggest that before these populations separated, they had gone through a period of gene exchange and, even after the separation event, gene frequency stayed at levels similar to the original levels, with no differential selection for these genes in the different cultivation areas.O azevém anual é a gramínea anual forrageira de clima temperado de maior utilização no sul do Brasil, particularmente no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Apesar de toda a importância que a espécie apresenta, pouco se conhece a respeito da diversidade genética presente entre e dentro das populações cultivadas. Este conhecimento é de fundamental importância para o estabelecimento das estratégias de melhoramento genético e de conservação destes materiais. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a diversidade genética e a estrutura genética de quatro

  10. Selectivity of some herbicides to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), grown for seed production

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova; Aneliya Katova

    2011-01-01

    During the period 2008-2010, on the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops - Pleven, on slightly leached chernozem a study was conducted with the purpose to determine the selectivity of some herbicides to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and their influence on the seed productivity. As a result of the study the following was found: herbicides for broadleaf weeds control - Arat (500 g/l dicamba + 250 g/l tritosulfuron) at rate of 100 ml/h...

  11. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic...

  12. A transcriptome map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

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    Studer Bruno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are increasingly becoming the DNA marker system of choice due to their prevalence in the genome and their ability to be used in highly multiplexed genotyping assays. Although needed in high numbers for genome-wide marker profiles and genomics-assisted breeding, a surprisingly low number of validated SNPs are currently available for perennial ryegrass. Results A perennial ryegrass unigene set representing 9,399 genes was used as a reference for the assembly of 802,156 high quality reads generated by 454 transcriptome sequencing and for in silico SNP discovery. Out of more than 15,433 SNPs in 1,778 unigenes fulfilling highly stringent assembly and detection parameters, a total of 768 SNP markers were selected for GoldenGate genotyping in 184 individuals of the perennial ryegrass mapping population VrnA, a population being previously evaluated for important agronomic traits. A total of 592 (77% of the SNPs tested were successfully called with a cluster separation above 0.9. Of these, 509 (86% genic SNP markers segregated in the VrnA mapping population, out of which 495 were assigned to map positions. The genetic linkage map presented here comprises a total of 838 DNA markers (767 gene-derived markers and spans 750 centi Mogan (cM with an average marker interval distance of less than 0.9 cM. Moreover, it locates 732 expressed genes involved in a broad range of molecular functions of different biological processes in the perennial ryegrass genome. Conclusions Here, we present an efficient approach of using next generation sequencing (NGS data for SNP discovery, and the successful design of a 768-plex Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay in a complex genome. The ryegrass SNPs along with the corresponding transcribed sequences represent a milestone in the establishment of genetic and genomics resources available for this species and constitute a further step towards molecular breeding

  13. Molecular characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Møller, Ian Max; Studer, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    to increase biomass yield, improve nutritional value and tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stress. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an efficient tool to control pollination for hybrid seed production. In order to identify the causative polymorphism of the CMS phenotype, a cytoplasmic male sterile plant...... using 454 next-generation sequencing technology, resulting in approximately 800,000 high quality single reads. Here we report on the sequencing and the assembly of the mitochondrial genome from perennial ryegrass. Moreover, the assembly and annotation of the male-sterile and fertile mitochondrial......Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a key grassland species in temperate climates. As an out breeding crop, ryegrass is currently being bred as population and synthetic families, thereby not fully exploiting the genetically available heterosis. Thus, hybrid breeding has the potential...

  14. Responses of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) Grown in Mudflats to Sewage Sludge Amendment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yan-chao; GU Chuan-hui; TAO Tian-yun; ZHU Xiao-wen; XU Yi-ran; SHAN Yu-hua; FENG Ke

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge amendment (SSA) is an alternative waste disposal technique and a potential way to increase fertility of mudflats for crop growth. The present study aimed to assess the suitability of SSA by assessing the nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) uptakes, heavy metal accumulation, growth, biomass, and yield response of ryegrass (Lolium perenneL.) at 0, 30, 75, 150, and 300 t ha-1 SSA rates at various growth stages. The results showed that the highest biomass of ryegrass at seedling and vegetative stages were at 300 and 150 t ha-1 SSA rate, respectively. The increments of ryegrass yield at reproductive stage at 30, 75, 150, and 300 t ha-1 SSA rates were 98.0, 122.6, 88.1, and 61.2%, compared to unamended soil. N and P concentrations in ryegrass increased with increasing SSA rates at all stages except N and P in roots dropped signiifcantly at 300 t ha-1 rate at vegetative stage. The metal concentration for Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb in shoot of ryegrass at 300 t ha-1 SSA rate increased by 0.63-, 2.34-, 15.02-, 0.97-, 10.00-, 0.01- and 1.13-fold, respectively, compared to unamended soil. However, heavy metal concentrations in shoot of ryegrass were lower than the standard for forage products in China. The study suggested that sewage sludge amendment in mudlfat soils might be feasible. However, the impacts of sludge application on edible crop plants and soil environment need further investigations.

  15. Seasonal Variation of Provitamin D2 and Vitamin D2 in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Didion, Thomas; Smedsgaard, Jørn;

    2011-01-01

    Ergosterol (provitamin D(2)) is converted to vitamin D(2) in grass by exposure to UV light. Six varieties of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were harvested four times during the season, and the contents of vitamin D(2) and ergosterol were analyzed by a sensitive and selective liquid...... and vitamin D(2) change more than a factor of 10 during the season. These results demonstrate that grass potentially can be a significant source of vitamin D for grazing animals and animals fed on silage and hay....

  16. Differential susceptibility and resistance to glyphosate in annual ryegrass and wavy-leaved fleabane

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Regina da Costa; Humberto Henrique Ansolin; Leonardo Bianco Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and wavy-leaved fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) were tested, aiming to investigate the dose-response of biotypes of both species to glyphosate. Glyphosate herbicide at doses varying from 0 up to 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 was sprayed onto annual ryegrass plants showed four leaves and wavy-leaved fleabane showed three pair of leaves. The fresh weight of shoot was obtained at 21 days after herbicide application. The response of biotypes of L. multiflorum and C. bonarie...

  17. Expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Asp, Torben; Frei, Ursula;

    2008-01-01

    An expressed sequence tag (EST) library of the key grassland species perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) has been exploited as a resource for microsatellite marker development. Out of 955 simple sequence repeat (SSR) containing ESTs, 744 were used for primer design. Primer amplification was te...

  18. Uptake and accumulation of phenanthrene and pyrene in spiked soils by Ryegrass( Lolium perenne L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sheng-you; CHEN Ying-xu; LIN Qi; WU Wei-xiang; XUE Sheng-guo; SHEN Chao-feng

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation has long been recognized as a cost-effective method for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil. A study was conducted to investigate the uptake and accumulation of PAHs in root and shoot of Lolium perenne L. Pot experiments were conducted with series of concentrations of 3.31-378.37 mg/kg for phenanthrene and those of 4.22-365.38 mg/kg for pyrene in a greenhouse. The results showed that both ryegrass roots and shoots did take up PAHs from spiked soils, and generally increased with increasing concentrations of PAH in soil. Bioconcentration factors(BCFs) of phenanthrene by shoots and roots were 0.24-4.25 and 0.17-2.12 for the same treatment. BCFs of pyrene by shoots were 0.20-1.5, except for 4.06 in 4.32 mg/kg treatment, much lower than BCFs of pyrene by roots (0.58-2.28). BCFs of phenanthrene and pyrene tended to decrease with increasing concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene in soil. Direct uptake and accumulation of these compounds by Lolium perenne L. was very low compared with the other loss pathways, which meant that plant-promoted microbial biodegradation might be the main contribution to plant-enhanced removal of phenanthrene and pyrene in soil. However, the presence of Lolium perenne L. significantly enhanced the removal of phenanthrene and pyrene in spiked soil. At the end of 60 d experiment, the extractable concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene were lower in planted soil than in non-planted soil, about 83.24%-91.98% of phenanthrene and 68.53%-84.10% of pyrene were removed from soils, respectively. The results indicated that the removal of PAHs in contaminated soils was a feasible approach by using Lolium perenne L.

  19. Selectivity of Some Herbicides to Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., Grown for Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2008-2010, on the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops – Pleven, on slightly leached chernozem a study was conducted with the purpose to determine the selectivity of some herbicides to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., and theirinfluence on the seed productivity. As a result of the study the following was found: herbicides for broadleaf weeds control – Arat (500 g/l dicamba + 250 g/l tritosulfuron at rate of 100 ml/ha, Korida 75 VDG (750 g/kg tribenuron-methyl – 15 g/ha and Cambio SL (320 g/l bentazone + 90 g/l dicamba – 1250 ml/ha had high selectivity to perennial ryegrass, applied at 2-4 leaf stage during establishing year of the stand and until the stage of the beginning of shooting up in seed production year. Herbicide for grass weeds control: Topik 080EK (80 g/l clodinafop-prop-argyl + antidote at rate of 300 ml/ha, applied at the same stage can be applied in seed production stands of perennial ryegrass. Herbicide for grass weeds control – Grasp 25SK (250 g/l tralkoxydim + Atplus 463 at rate of 1000 + 1000 ml/ha showed phytotoxic effect on L. perenne and caused the reduction of seed and dry biomass productivity. Realization of the biological potential concerning seed and dry mass yield of perennial ryegrass demands application of selective herbicides Arat, Korida 75 VDG and Cambio SL in control of broadleaf weeds and Topik 080EK in control of grass weeds.

  20. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig

    In the joint project “FORAGESELECT”, we aim to implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), in order to increase genetic response in important agronomic traits such as yield, seed production, stress tolerance and disease resistance, while decreasing...... programs based on GWS. Future work will focus on developing association models based on tailored phenotype data and genotype-by-sequencing-derived allele frequencies...

  1. Bale Location Effects on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristics of Annual Ryegrass Bale Stored in In-line Wrapping Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K. J.; McCormick, M. E.; Derouen, S. M.; Blouin, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    In southeastern regions of the US, herbage systems are primarily based on grazing or hay feeding with low nutritive value warm-season perennial grasses. Nutritious herbage such as annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) may be more suitable for preserving as baleage for winter feeding even with more intensive production inputs. Emerging in-line wrapped baleage storage systems featuring rapid wrapping and low polyethylene film requirements need to be tested for consistency of storing nutritive value of a range of annual ryegrass herbage. A ryegrass storage trial was conducted with 24-h wilted ‘Marshall’ annual ryegrass harvested at booting, heading and anthesis stages using three replicated in-line wrapped tubes containing ten round bales per tube. After a six-month storage period, nutritive value changes and fermentation end products differed significantly by harvest stage but not by bale location. Although wilted annual ryegrass exhibited a restricted fermentation across harvest stages characterized by high pH and low fermentation end product concentrations, butyric acid concentrations were less than 1 g/kg dry matter, and lactic acid was the major organic acid in the bales. Mold coverage and bale aroma did not differ substantially with harvest stage or bale location. Booting and heading stage-harvested ryegrass baleage were superior in nutritive value to anthesis stage-harvested herbage. Based on the investigated nutritive value and fermentation characteristics, individual bale location within in-line tubes did not significantly affect preservation quality of ryegrass round bale silages. PMID:25178371

  2. Effect of humic acid and mycorrhiza fungi on some characteristics of “Speedy green” perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kafi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of humic acid and mycorrhiza fungi on visual quality, some characteristics of roots and chlorophyll changes of ryegrass, an experiment was carried out in Research Greenhouses of Department of Horticultural Science, University of Tehran, in spring and summer of 2009. The ryegrass was “Speedy green” perennial ryegrass, which is composed of three lolium (Lolium perenne L. cultivars. After autoclave of the soil, addition of inoculums of mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices to pots and sowing of the seeds, plants were given enough time to grow. After establishment, humic acid was sprayed on leaves at concentrations of 0 (as control, 100, 400 and 1000 mg/L, and the above-mentioned characteristics were measured until the 9th week after starting the treatments. The results showed that humic acid was significantly effective on chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll content, root length and fresh and dry weights of roots; but had no effect on visual quality, root volume and colonization percentage. Mycorrhiza fungi were effective on all characteristics. Among the mycorrhiza fungi, G. mosseae was better than G. intraradices on root factors, while had no positive effect on aerial parts. Colonization percentage was almost equal in both fungi. The effect of mycorrhiza fungi on the above-mentioned characteristics, with respect to the inoculums solution, was probably due to the production of hormone-like effects and enhanced hypha density in soil.

  3. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig;

    2013-01-01

    In the joint project “FORAGESELECT”, we aim to implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), in order to increase genetic response in important agronomic traits such as yield, seed production, stress tolerance and disease resistance, while decreasing...... programs based on GWS. Future work will focus on developing association models based on tailored phenotype data and genotype-by-sequencing-derived allele frequencies....... greenhouse emissions and nitrogen loss. GWS model building includes 1) development of a robust quantitative genotyping method for an outcrossing species, 2) tailoring of multi-locational, multi-annual phenotype data, 3) association analysis and development of prediction models. As part of (2) the aim...... with commercial varieties used as checks. The first analyses focused on yield (green and dry matter) and the data were analyzed using a mixed model including fixed effect of experiment, effect of check variety, and random effects within experiment effects to recover interblock information, effects of pedigree...

  4. Isolation and characterisation of laccase cDNAs from meristematic and stem tissues of ryegrassLolium perenne¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, B.; Larsen, K.; Rasmussen, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Plant laccases are believed to be involved in dehydrogenative polymerisation of lignin. We report here the first cloning of monocot laccases. Five different laccase-encoding cDNA sequences were identified from ryegrass (Lolium perenne); four from stem and one from meristematic tissue. Three c...

  5. Resistência de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ao herbicida glyphosate Resistance of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum to glyphosate

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    E.S. Roman

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O azevém é uma gramínea de ciclo anual, constituindo-se com freqüência em planta infestante em lavouras de trigo do Rio Grande do Sul. Em experimentos realizados em casa de vegetação e no campo, foi avaliada a suscetibilidade de dois biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate, bem como a eficiência de herbicidas de ação total na dessecação de Lolium multiflorum para a semeadura direta de trigo. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado em casa de vegetação e de blocos ao acaso em campo, com três e quatro repetições, respectivamente. Foram avaliados herbicidas com mecanismos de ação distintos em diferentes doses: glyphosate, glufosinate, clethodim, haloxyfop-r e diclofop, paraquat e paraquat + diuron. Os resultados, em casa de vegetação, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é totalmente controlado com glyphosate na dose de 360 g e.a. ha-1 e que doses de até 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 não afetam significativamente o acúmulo de matéria seca do biótipo resistente e produzem toxicidade inferior a 15% sobre este. Já as doses entre 1.440 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate reduzem significativamente a produção de matéria seca e resultam em toxicidade inferior a 45%. Em campo, os melhores controles de azevém foram propiciados pelos tratamentos clethodim (79,2 g ha-1 e diuron + paraquat (300 + 600 g ha-1, que não diferiram entre si. Assim, evidencia-se que a população de Lolium multiflorum avaliada neste trabalho é constituída predominantemente de um biótipo resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima EPSPs.Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is cultivated as forage and/or cover crop in no-till system. However, it is also a serious weed in wheat and other winter cereals in Southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted at greenhouse and field conditions to evaluate the susceptibility of two ryegrass biotype to glyphosate as well as the efficacy of other herbicides on the post-emergence control of the species

  6. A transcriptome map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Byrne, Stephen; Nielsen, Rasmus Ory;

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusions Here, we present an efficient approach of using next generation sequencing (NGS) data for SNP discovery, and the successful design of a 768-plex Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay in a complex genome. The ryegrass SNPs along with the corresponding transcribed sequences represent a milestone...... to QTL, functional genomics and the integration of genetic and physical maps in perennial ryegrass, one of the most important temperate grassland species....

  7. Genotyping by RAD sequencing enables mapping of fatty acid composition traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne (L.)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Matthew; Yadav, Rattan; Lee, Michael; Armstead, Ian; Sanderson, Ruth; Scollan, Nigel; Powell, Wayne; Skøt, Leif

    2013-06-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the most important forage crop in temperate livestock agriculture. Its nutritional quality has significant impact on the quality of meat and milk for human consumption. Evidence suggests that higher energy content in forage can assist in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants. Increasing the fatty acid content (especially α-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid) may thus contribute to better forage, but little is known about the genetic basis of variation for this trait. To this end, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified associated with major fatty acid content in perennial ryegrass using a population derived from a cross between the heterozygous and outbreeding high-sugar grass variety AberMagic and an older variety, Aurora. A genetic map with 434 restriction-associated DNA (RAD) and SSR markers was generated. Significant QTLs for the content of palmitic (C16:0) on linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 7; stearic (C18:0) on LGs 3, 4 and 7; linoleic (C18:2n-6) on LGs 2 and 5; and α-linolenic acids (C18:3n-3) on LG 1 were identified. Two candidate genes (a lipase and a beta-ketoacyl CoA synthase), both associated with C16:0, and separately with C18:2n-6 and C18:0 contents, were identified. The physical positions of these genes in rice and their genetic positions in perennial ryegrass were consistent with established syntenic relationships between these two species. Validation of these associations is required, but the utility of RAD markers for rapid generation of genetic maps and QTL analysis has been demonstrated for fatty acid composition in a global forage crop. PMID:23331642

  8. Genomics-Assisted Exploitation of Heterosis in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul

    ryegrass for the development of improved varieties. During his PhD studies, Mohammad Shofiqul Islam studied the feasibility of developing novel hybrid breeding schemes based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems in perennial ryegrass. He successfully completed the assembly and annotation of a male......-fertile perennial ryegrass mitochondrial genome, and identified candidate genes responsible for the CMS phenotype by comparing male-fertile and male-sterile mitochondrial genomes. His findings constitute a good basis for continuing research to produce hybrid grass varieties to address the future needs......, breeding activities have been carried out to improve the population and develop synthetic varieties. This does not fully exploit the potential of heterosis, however. Hybrid breeding is an alternative strategy and provides opportunities to fully exploit the genetically available heterosis in perennial...

  9. Investigating the Mechanism of Glyphosate Resistance in Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that has been used extensively for more than 20 yr. The first glyphosate-resistant weed biotype appeared in 1996; it involved a rigid ryegrass population from Australia that exhibited an LD50 value approximately 10-fold higher than that of sensitive biotypes....

  10. Plant growth regulation in seed crops of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Lemaire, Charles; Abel, Simon;

    2016-01-01

    Seed yield components were recorded in plants of perennial ryegrass cv. Calibra a medium late, forage type (4n) in a two factorial block design with Nitrogen (N) and plant growth regulator (PGR) application in 2014 and 2015 at Aarhus University (AU), Flakkebjerg. For each plant, reproductive...

  11. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  12. Differential susceptibility and resistance to glyphosate in annual ryegrass and wavy-leaved fleabane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina da Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and wavy-leaved fleabane (Conyza bonariensis were tested, aiming to investigate the dose-response of biotypes of both species to glyphosate. Glyphosate herbicide at doses varying from 0 up to 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 was sprayed onto annual ryegrass plants showed four leaves and wavy-leaved fleabane showed three pair of leaves. The fresh weight of shoot was obtained at 21 days after herbicide application. The response of biotypes of L. multiflorum and C. bonariensis to glyphosate was clearly different. For L. multiflorum, the S2, R1, and R3 biotypes supported glyphosate doses 1.5, 3.0, and 8.3 times higher than the biotype S1. For C. bonariensis, the S2 and R biotypes supported glyphosate doses 2.0 and 15.5 times higher than the biotype S1. We found a low glyphosate-resistant (R1 and a high glyphosate-resistant (R2 biotypes of L. multiflorum, in agricultural regions where other biotypes had been found. In addition, a high glyphosate-resistant (R biotype of C. bonariensis was identified in an agricultural area of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, where weed resistant was not previously found.

  13. Characterization of a family of ice-active proteins from the Ryegrass, Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumble, Krishnanand D; Demmer, Jerome; Fish, Steven; Hall, Claire; Corrales, Sofia; DeAth, Angela; Elton, Clare; Prestidge, Ross; Luxmanan, Selvanesan; Marshall, Craig J; Wharton, David A

    2008-12-01

    Five genes coding for ice-active proteins were identified from an expressed sequence tag database of Lolium perenne cDNA libraries. Each of the five genes were characterized by the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide, a region enriched in hydrophilic amino acids and a leucine-rich region in four of the five genes that is homologous with the receptor domain of receptor-like protein kinases of plants. The C-terminal region of all five genes contains sequence homologous with Lolium and Triticum ice-active proteins. Of the four ice-active proteins (IAP1, IAP2, IAP3 and IAP5) cloned, three could be expressed in Escherichia coli and recovered in a functional form in order to study their ice activity. All three ice-active proteins had recrystallization inhibition activity but showed no detectable antifreeze or ice nucleation activity at the concentration tested. IAP2 and IAP5 formed distinct hexagonal-shaped crystals in the nanolitre osmometer as compared to the weakly hexagonal crystals produced by IAP3. PMID:18835384

  14. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Bruno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps of these populations have been aligned with each other using publicly available DNA markers, the number of common markers among genetic maps is still low, limiting the ability to compare candidate gene and QTL locations across germplasm. Results A set of 204 expressed sequence tag (EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers has been assigned to map positions using eight different ryegrass mapping populations. Marker properties of a subset of 64 EST-SSRs were assessed in six to eight individuals of each mapping population and revealed 83% of the markers to be polymorphic in at least one population and an average number of alleles of 4.88. EST-SSR markers polymorphic in multiple populations served as anchor markers and allowed the construction of the first comprehensive consensus map for ryegrass. The integrated map was complemented with 97 SSRs from previously published linkage maps and finally contained 284 EST-derived and genomic SSR markers. The total map length was 742 centiMorgan (cM, ranging for individual chromosomes from 70 cM of linkage group (LG 6 to 171 cM of LG 2. Conclusions The consensus linkage map for ryegrass based on eight mapping populations and constructed using a large set of publicly available Lolium EST-SSRs mapped for the first time together with previously mapped SSR markers will allow for consolidating existing mapping and QTL information in ryegrass. Map and markers presented here will prove to be an asset in the development for both molecular breeding of ryegrass as well as comparative genetics and genomics within grass species.

  15. Vacuolar glyphosate-sequestration correlates with glyphosate resistance in ryegrass (Lolium spp.) from Australia, South America, and Europe: a 31P NMR investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xia; d'Avignon, D André; Ackerman, Joseph J H; Collavo, Alberto; Sattin, Maurizio; Ostrander, Elizabeth L; Hall, Erin L; Sammons, R Douglas; Preston, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Lolium spp., ryegrass, variants from Australia, Brazil, Chile, and Italy showing differing levels of glyphosate resistance were examined by (31)P NMR. Extents of glyphosate (i) resistance (LD(50)), (ii) inhibition of 5-enopyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity (IC(50)), and (iii) translocation were quantified for glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-sensitive (GS) Lolium multiflorum Lam. variants from Chile and Brazil. For comparison, LD(50) and IC(50) data for Lolium rigidum Gaudin variants from Italy were also analyzed. All variants showed similar cellular uptake of glyphosate by (31)P NMR. All GR variants showed glyphosate sequestration within the cell vacuole, whereas there was minimal or no vacuole sequestration in the GS variants. The extent of vacuole sequestration correlated qualitatively with the level of resistance. Previous (31)P NMR studies of horseweed ( Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist) revealed that glyphosate sequestration imparted glyphosate resistance. Data presented herein suggest that glyphosate vacuolar sequestration is strongly contributing, if not the major contributing, resistance mechanism in ryegrass as well.

  16. Componentes morfológicos e produção de forragem de pastagem de aveia e azevém manejada em diferentes alturas Morphological components and forage production of oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica de produção de forragem em pastagem de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diversas alturas de manejo com o objetivo de evidenciar as potencialidades dessa mistura em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de manejo da pastagem (10; 20; 30 e 40 cm, medidas com bastão graduado e avaliadas em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável. Utilizaram-se bezerros de corte mestiços com 10 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 210 kg, respectivamente. As características da pastagem estudadas foram: massa de forragem (MF; taxa de acúmulo de forragem (TAC; produção total de forragem (PTMS; e quantificação dos componentes morfológicos da pastagem (colmo, lâmina e material morto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto, uma vez que, para cada cm de aumento na altura superior a 10 cm, a matéria seca aumentou aproximadamente 90 kg/ha. Não houve efeito das alturas da pastagem sobre a TAC ou sobre a PTMS, cujos valores médios foram de 66,8 kg/ha/dia de MS e 10.721 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. A porcentagem de folhas de azevém foi maior que a de folhas de aveia nos três períodos de avaliação e, na altura de 10 cm, foi superior à obtida nas demais alturas na última avaliação (em torno de 20% da participação total da massa de forragem. A aveia apresenta rápido desenvolvimento inicial e diminuição na produção nos períodos posteriores de desenvolvimento.Forage growth dynamic in an Oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb + Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different grazing heights was evaluated in order to access the mixed-sward potential in a crop-livestock integrated system. Treatments were four sward grazing heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, measured with a sward-stick. The experimental design was a

  17. Exogenous Classic Phytohormones Have Limited Regulatory Effects on Fructan and Primary Carbohydrate Metabolism in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperl, Anna; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of both synthesis by fructosyltransferases (FTs) and breakdown through fructan exohydrolases (FEHs). The accumulation of fructans can be triggered by high sucrose levels and abiotic stress conditions such as drought and cold stress. However, detailed studies on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of fructan metabolism are scarce. Since different phytohormones, especially abscisic acid (ABA), are known to play an important role in abiotic stress responses, the possible short term regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism by the five classical phytohormones was investigated. Therefore, the activities of enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and breakdown, the expression levels for the corresponding genes and levels for water-soluble carbohydrates were determined following pulse treatments with ABA, auxin (AUX), ethylene (ET), gibberellic acid (GA), or kinetin (KIN). The most pronounced fast effects were a transient increase of FT activities by AUX, KIN, ABA, and ET, while minor effects were evident for 1-FEH activity with an increased activity in response to KIN and a decrease by GA. Fructan and sucrose levels were not affected. This observed discrepancy demonstrates the importance of determining enzyme activities to obtain insight into the physiological traits and ultimately the plant phenotype. The comparative analyses of activities for seven key enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism revealed no co-regulation between enzymes of the fructan and sucrose pool

  18. Exogenous classic phytohormones have limited regulatory effects on fructan and primary carbohydrate metabolism in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eGasperl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of both synthesis by fructosyltransferases (FTs and breakdown through fructan exohydrolases (FEHs. The accumulation of fructans can be triggered by high sucrose levels and abiotic stress conditions such as drought and cold stress. However, detailed studies on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of fructan metabolism are scarce. Since different phytohormones, especially abscisic acid (ABA, are known to play an important role in abiotic stress responses, the possible short term regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism by the five classical phytohormones was investigated. Therefore, the activities of enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and breakdown, the expression levels for the corresponding genes and levels for water-soluble carbohydrates were determined following pulse treatments with ABA, auxin (AUX, ethylene (ET, gibberellic acid (GA or kinetin (KIN. The most pronounced fast effects were a transient increase of FT activities by AUX, KIN, ABA and ET, while minor effects were evident for 1-FEH activity with an increased activity in response to KIN and a decrease by GA. Fructan and sucrose levels were not affected. This observed discrepancy demonstrates the importance of determining enzyme activities to obtain insight into the physiological traits and ultimately the plant phenotype. The comparative analyses of activities for seven key enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism revealed no co-regulation between enzymes of the fructan and

  19. Lambs fed fresh winter forage rape (Brassica napus L. emit less methane than those fed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., and possible mechanisms behind the difference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhao Sun

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L. on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake, and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.. The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks. The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems.

  20. Windrow burning eliminates Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) seed viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burning of crop residues that have been concentrated behind the harvest combine (windrowed) is one of several harvest weed seed control strategies that have been developed and evaluated in Australia to address the widespread evolution of multiple herbicide resistance in annual weeds. Herbicide-resis...

  1. Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Seeds of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Karl; Collette, Vern; Hancock, Kerry R

    2016-09-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) are forage species of the grass family (Poaceae) that are key components of temperate pasture-based agricultural systems. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are oligomeric flavonoids that, when provided as part of a farm animal's diet, have been reported to improve animal production and health. Up to now, forage grasses have been deemed not to produce PAs. This paper reports for the first time the detection of polymerized PAs in aqueous methanolic extracts of seed tissue of both perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, using LC-MS/MS. We have determined the structure of the PAs to be trans-flavan-3-ol-based, consisting predominately of afzelechin and catechin and linked primarily by B-type bonds. Investigations into the leaf tissue of both species failed to detect any PAs. This discovery opens the possibility of using genetic engineering tools to achieve tannin accumulation in leaf tissue of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. PMID:27532250

  2. Herbage Production, Nutritive Value and Grazing Preference of Diploid and Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass Cultivars (Lolium perenne L. Producción de Fitomasa, Calidad Nutritiva y Preferencia de Pastoreo de Cultivares Diploides y Tetraploides de Ballica Perenne (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Balocchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine, under the soil and climatic conditions of Southern Chile, the effect of the ploidy of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cultivars on herbage production, nutritive value, grazing preference and utilization of pasture produced. This study was conducted in southern Chile, Valdivia Province, and was evaluated for 3 years. The tetraploid cultivars used were Quartet (4n, Gwendal (4n, Pastoral (4n and Napoleon (4n. The diploid cultivars were Anita (2n, Jumbo (2n, Aries (2n, and Yatsyn 1 (2n.When the average sward height reached 20 cm, all plots were simultaneously grazed by dairy cows for a period of 24 h. Before and after grazing, sward height, dry matter availability and nutritive value were evaluated. Grazing preference was visually assessed every 5 min for a period of 2.5 h after the afternoon milking. During the 3-year period 20 grazing events were evaluated. A randomized complete block design, with eight cultivars and three replicates, was used. Diploid cultivars showed greater herbage mass accumulation than tetraploid cultivars (P ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were obtained in the annual average crude protein content. Nevertheless, tetraploid cultivars showed a greater D value than diploid cultivars, except during the third year when the difference was not statistically significant. Dairy cows grazed more time on tetraploid cultivars. Considering, additionally, the residual herbage mass after grazing and the percentage of pasture utilization, diploid cultivars were less intensively grazed, suggesting a lower consumption by the cows.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, bajo las condiciones edafoclimáticas del sur de Chile, el efecto de la ploidía de cultivares de ballica perenne (Lolium perenne L. sobre el rendimiento de fitomasa, calidad nutricional, preferencia de pastoreo y porcentaje de utilización del forraje producido. El ensayo se realizó en el sur de Chile, provincia de

  3. Large-scale development of gene-associated SNP markers for linkage mapping in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Nielsen, Rasmus Ory; Panitz, Frank;

    2011-01-01

    assays. A reference set of 9,399 Lolium perenne L. genes was assembled with 802,156 high quality cDNA reads sequenced with the Roche 454FLX Titanium sequencing system and used for in silico SNP discovery. Out of more than 1,200 SNPs fulfilling highly stringent assembly and detection parameters, a total......Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are increasingly becoming the DNA maker system of choice due to their extensive occurrence in the genome and the ability to be used in highly multiplexed genotyping assays. Although needed in high numbers for genome-wide marker profiles and genomics......-assisted breeding strategies, a surprisingly low number of validated SNPs are currently available in perennial ryegrass. The advent of next generation sequencing opened up the opportunity for efficient and high throughput in silico SNP discovery in absence of a reference genome sequence. However, the percentages...

  4. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Wang Youshan [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089 (China); Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 {mu}m nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination.

  6. Effect of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) roots inoculation using different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species on sorption of iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Soils and groundwater on sites of the former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) are contaminated with various complex iron-cyanides (Fe-CN). Phytoremediation is a promising tool in stabilization and remediation of Fe-CN affected soils, however, it can be a challenging task due to extreme adverse and toxic conditions. Phytoremediation may be enhanced via rhizosphere microbial activity, which can cooperate on the degradation, transformation and uptake of the contaminants. Recently, increasing number of scientist reports improved plants performance in the removal of toxic compounds with the support of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF). Series of batch experiments using potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) solutions, in varying concentrations, were used to study the effect of ryegrass roots (Lolium perenne L.) inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis and a mixture of Rhizophagus irregularis, Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus aggregatus, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum on Fe-CN sorption. Results indicated significantly higher colonization of R. irregularis than for the mixture of AMF species on ryegrass roots. Sorption experiments revealed significantly higher reduction of total CN and free CN content in the mycorrhizal roots, indicating greater cyanide decrease in the treatment inoculated with R. irregularis. Our study indicates contribution of AM fungi in phytoremediation of Fe-CN contaminated soil.

  7. Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) Glyphosate translocation in Italian ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum)

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Ferreira; J.B. Santos; Silva, A. A.; de Oliveira, J. A.; Vargas, L.

    2006-01-01

    Foram avaliadas neste trabalho a absorção foliar e a translocação do glyphosate por biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) sensíveis e resistentes a esse herbicida. Para isso, aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível, quando as plantas de azevém se apresentavam com três perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido e translocado foi avaliada em intervalos de temp...

  8. EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant in Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) populations from Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas, USA in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations was studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify altern...

  9. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to the red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L. E.; Krogh, P. H.; Nielsen, T.;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After...... three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were veri.ed with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (.uoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and .uorene), the N-, S-, and O...

  10. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L.E.; Krogh, P.H.; Nielsen, T.;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After...... three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were verified with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene), the N-, S-, and O...

  11. Effect of in situ soil amendments on arsenic uptake in successive harvests of ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv Elka) grown in amended As-polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, L3 3AF Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: biewhart@livjm.ac.uk; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, L3 3AF Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Several iron-bearing additives, selected for their potential ability to adsorb anions, were evaluated for their effectiveness in attenuation of arsenic (As) in three soils with different sources of contamination. Amendments used were lime, goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) (crystallised iron oxide) and three iron-bearing additives, iron grit, Fe{sup II} and Fe{sup III} sulphates plus lime, applied at 1% w/w. Sequential extraction schemes conducted on amended soils determined As, Cu, Zn and Ni fractionation. Plant growth trials using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne var. Elka) assessed shoot As uptake. This was grown in the contaminated soils for 4 months, during which time grass shoots were successively harvested every 3 weeks. Goethite increased biomass yields, but clear differences were observed in As transfer rates with the various iron oxides. In conclusion, whilst Fe-oxides may be effective in situ amendments, reducing As bioavailability, their effects on plant growth require careful consideration. Soil-plant transfer of As was not completely halted by any amendment. - Arsenic attenuation is illustrated using Fe-based amendments, their efficacy providing different indicators of success.

  12. In-vitro assessment of the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-24 isolated from Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Kim, Da Hye; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Priya, Kannappan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the probiotic potential of the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-24 (L. plantarum KCC-24), that was isolated and characterized from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) forage. The following experiments were performed to assess the probiotic characteristics such as antifungal activity, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to low pH, stimulated gastric juice and bile salts, proteolytic activity, auto-aggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and in vitro antioxidant property. The isolated L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited significant antifungal activity against the various fungal strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (73.43%), Penicillium chrysogenum (59.04%), Penicillium roqueforti (56.67%), Botrytis elliptica (40.23%), Fusarium oxysporum (52.47%) and it was susceptible to numerous antibiotics, survived in low pH, was resistant to stimulated gastric juices and bile salts (0.3% w/v). Moreover, L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited good proteolytic activity. In addition L. plantarum KCC-24 showed potent antioxidant and hydrogen peroxide resistant property. In conclusion, the isolated L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited several characteristics to prove it's excellent as a potential probiotic candidate for developing quality food for ruminant animals and human.

  13. Nuclear changes induced by the nematodes Xiphinema diversicaudatum and Longidorus elongatus in root-tips of perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B S; Robertson, W M; Trudgill, D L

    1982-09-01

    The DNA content and size of individual nuclei from galls of perennial ryegrass root-tips induced by X. diversicaudatum and L. elongatus were measured. Feeding by X. diversicaudatum increased the DNA content of the nuclei by varying amounts. No regular doubling pattern of the DNA content was discernible. The DNA values varied up to between 32-64C. Generally the size of the nuclei was not increased, although some were larger than control nuclei. The modified nuclei probably have an altered metabolic function, which increases the food value of the gall to the nematode. Some bi-nucleate cells were also observed, which probably result from mitosis without cytokinesis. A preliminary examination of nuclei from galls induced by L. elongatus revealed similar nuclear changes, but no bi-nucleate cells were found.

  14. Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2004-12-01

    geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas pós-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estádio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o biótipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto.Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is a common weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1 plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate

  15. The photosynthetic response of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in its fifth year of free-air CO(sub 2) enrichment (FACE) at Eschikon, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.P.; Long, S.P.; Williams, J.

    1998-12-31

    Stands of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv.Bastion) were grown in the field at ambient or elevated (600 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}) [CO{sub 2}], high (560 kg Ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1}) or low (140 kg Ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1}) nitrogen addition and were harvested five times a year during the growing season. The plants were sown during 1992, additional plots being sown during 1995. These were in their fifth year and second year of growth respectively. Exposure to elevated [CO{sub 2}] was carried out with a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) system which provides the most realistic system of fumigation currently available. Elevated [CO{sub 2}] increased diurnal CO{sub 2} uptake by between 40 to 83% while reducing stomatal conductance by between 1 and 38% in all of the 1992 grown plants measured at high [CO{sub 2}]. Analysis of the A/c{sub i} response of 1992 grown plants showed no acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated [CO{sub 2}] - both V{sub c,max} (a measure of the maximum in vivo rate of carboxylation) and J{sub max} (a measure of the maximum capacity for the regeneration of RuBP) showed no significant change during any of the periods of regrowth. In contrast the leaves of 1995 grown plants, appeared to be experiencing an acclimatory change in their photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated [CO{sub 2}]. However, this negative response seemed to be removed directly after a harvest when the source:sink balance had increased. The apparent lack of an acclimatory response after almost 5 years of growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}], suggests that L. perenne may be close to achieving the appropriate photosynthetic adjustments which would allow it to attain a significantly higher photosynthetic potential.

  16. EPSPS Gene Amplification in Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) Populations from Arkansas (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Scott, Robert C; Dayan, Franck E; Burgos, Nilda R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas (United States) in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations were studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify alternative management approaches. Dose-response bioassays, glyphosate absorption and translocation experiments, herbicide target (EPSPS) gene sequence analysis, and gene amplification assays were conducted. The dose causing 50% growth reduction (GR50) was 7-19 times higher for the resistant population than for the susceptible standard. Uptake and translocation of (14)C-glyphosate were similar in resistant and susceptible plants, and no mutation in the EPSPS gene known to be associated with resistance to glyphosate was detected. Resistant plants contained from 11- to >100-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants, whereas the susceptible plants had only one copy of EPSPS. Plants surviving the recommended dose of glyphosate contained at least 10 copies. The EPSPS copy number was positively related to glyphosate resistance level (r = 80). Therefore, resistance to glyphosate in these populations is due to multiplication of the target site. Resistance mechanisms could be location-specific. Suppressing the mechanism for gene amplification may overcome resistance.

  17. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium of nine genes with putative effects on flowering time in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, Alice; Lenk, Ingo; Petersen, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    in floral organ identity were found to be highly conserved and showed extended LD. For LpMADS4, LpMADS5, LpCO, LpSFT and LpTFL1, LD extended over the entire region analyzed. The results are compared to previously published results on resistance genes within the same collection of genotypes and the prospects...... to LpMADS1) and five additional MADS-box genes, were analyzed for nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD). For each gene, about 1 kb genomic fragments were isolated from 10 to 20 genotypes of perennial ryegrass of diverse origin. Four to twelve haplotypes per gene were observed. On average......, one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was present per 127 bp between two randomly sampled sequences for the nine genes (π = 0.00790). Two MADS-box genes, LpMADS1 and LpMADS10, involved in timing of flowering showed high nucleotide diversity and rapid LD decay, whereas MADS-box genes involved...

  18. Spring nitrogen fertilization of ryegrass-bermudagrass for phytoremediation of phosphorus-enriched soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilization of forage grasses is critical for optimizing biomass and utilization of manure soil nutrients. Field studies were conducted in 2007-09 to determine the effects of spring N fertilization on amelioration of high soil P when cool-season, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) is...

  19. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity of separation of the species. Stebbins (1956) found the differences between Lolium and Festuca not sufficient to...

  20. Radiological impact of applying phosphogypsum to tilled land cropped to annual ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of phosphoric acid by acidulation of rock phosphate with sulfuric acid produces phosphogypsum (PG) as a byproduct. Phosphogypsum is primarily CaSO4.2H2O and is a potential source of S and Ca for crops. Because of the presence of small amounts of 226Ra, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has imposed severe restrictions on the use of PG. The objective of the study was to evaluate the radiological impact of applying phosphogypsum to tilled land. The experimental land spanned over two soils (Myakka-sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Aeric Haplaquods and Pomona-sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Ultic Haplaquods) tilled and cropped to annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) for 3 crop-years. The PG with 792 226Ra, 836 210Pb, and 744 210Po Bq kg-1 was applied all at once at the start of the study at 2 and 4 Mg ha-1, with no PG as control, and harrowed into the top 15-cm layer of the soil. This layer initially contained 15.9, 28.1, and 14.1 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po, respectively. The 4 Mg PG ha-1 would have increased the initial soil 226Ra and 210Po by 9% each and 210Pb by 5%, assuming a soil bulk density of 1500 kg m-3. The results, averaged over crop-year and over the 3-crop-year period, showed no measurable increases in 226Ra, 210Pb, or 210Po in soil down to 90 cm sampled in layers of 15 cm, in groundwater sampled at 90 to 120 cm depth, in regrowth and mature forages, and in gamma radiation and airborne 222Rn both measured 1 m above the plots. However, 222Rn flux measured at the soil surface increased by 0.74 x 10-4 Bq m-2 s-1 per Mg PG ha-1. Thus, yearly application of 0.675 Mg ha-1 (upper level of annual application rates for gypsum as S or Ca source for crops) over a 100-year period of PG used in the study could increase 222Rn flux from the experimental land from 8.14 X 10-4 to 58.09 x 10-4 Bq m-2 s-1 at the end of said period, assuming no loss of 226Ra, the source of 222Rn in soil and PG. This 100-year-end value, however, would still

  1. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the

  2. Influence of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. as intercrop with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. on the diversity of weed communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Orzech

    2014-09-01

    Spring barley weeding was significantly higher in case of cultivating it in mixed stand with Italian ryegrass (without chemical control, than in pure stand (with control. In the plots with mixed crop, lower diversity and homogeneity of weeds’ communities were recorded than in pure stand. Barley in mixed crop sown after spring barley, during both times of evaluation (spring and before harvest, increased the value of the index of dominance according to the number of species the most. As concerns the composition of species, number and biomass, the communities of pure stand and mixed crop with Italian ryegrass on the plot after potato were the most similar.

  3. Transcriptional Profiles of Drought-Related Genes in Modulating Metabolic Processes and Antioxidant Defenses in Lolium multiflorum

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Ling; Zhang, Xinquan; Wang, Jianping; Ma, Xiao; Zhou, Meiliang; Huang, Linkai; Nie, Gang; Wang, Pengxi; Yang, Zhongfu; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental stress that limits growth and development of cool-season annual grasses. Drought transcriptional profiles of resistant and susceptible lines were studied to understand the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). A total of 4718 genes exhibited significantly differential expression in two L. multiflorum lines. Additionally, up-regulated genes associated with drought response in the resistant lines were compared with...

  4. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland; Muylle, Hilde;

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage ma...

  5. Effect of sewage sludge and sawdust in association with hybrid ryegrass (Lolium x hybrydum Hausskin. on soil macroaggregates and water content Efectos de lodos urbanos y aserrín en asociación con ballica (Lolium x hybrydum Hausskn. sobre los microagregados y contenido de agua del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sandoval E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean soils degradation is a serious problem affecting directly the productivity of most of the crops. Some evidence indicates sewage sludge can improve soil physical properties, especially when combined with sawdust. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different mixtures of sewage sludge (LU and sawdust (RA on water-stable aggregates and available water content of a degraded Alfisol cropped with hybrid ryegrass (Lolium x hybridum Hausskn., under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a completely randomized with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 9 (ryegrass x rates of sludge and sawdust. Treatments were 25 and 50 Mg LU ha-1 mixed with 10, 25, and 50 Mg RA ha-1. Ratio mixtures of LU/RA were set in pots with hybrid ryegrass. Soil available water content (AW, percentage of macroaggregates (MA and water-stable aggregates (AWD were evaluated. Ryegrass aboveground biomass was also measured. Mixtures of LU/RA amended to the soil increased MA and AWD, an effect that was most evident at 50 Mg ha-1. The AW value was greater when LU was amended to 50 Mg ha-1 mixed with RA at doses of 10, 25, and 50 Mg ha-1. There was greater aboveground biomass of hybrid ryegrass, directly related to increasing doses of LU and RA in the mixtures. The addition to soil of both organic residues combined, LU and RA, improved the physical parameters studied, especially in the presence of hybrid ryegrass.La degradation de los suelos chilenos es un serio problema que afecta directamente la productividad de la mayoría de los cultivos. Los lodos urbanos pueden mejorar las propiedades físicas del suelo, sobre todo si van acompanadas con aserrín. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de distintas mezclas de lodo urbano (LU y aserrín (RA sobre los agregados estables al agua y el contenido de agua disponible en un Alfisol degradado y cultivado con ballica híbrida (Lolium x hybridum Hausskn., bajo invernadero. El diseno experimental fue completamente al

  6. Effect of Polyamine Priming on Chilling Tolerance of Lolium perenne during Seed Imbibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingfen WANG; Puchang WANG; Jiahai WU; Lili ZHAO; Bentian MO; Jun LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effect of potyamine priming on physiological and biochemical variations of Lolium perenne embryos and seed germination. [Method] With annual Lolium perenne (Diamond T and Grazing-8000) as experimental materials, after priming with 0.5 mmol/L putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) for 24 h and chilling imbibition at 5 ℃ for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h, the effect of Put, Spd and Spm priming on chilling tolerance and germination ability of annual Lolium perenne seeds during imbibition was investigated. [Result] Put, Spd and Spm priming improved the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and content of soluble protein content under low temperature stress, significantly in-creased the germination rate, and shortened the average germination duration. After chilling imbibition for 48 h, compared with the control, the average germination rate of annual Lolium perenne seeds was improved by 15.5% and 12.0% after Put, Spd and Spm priming, and the average germination duration was shortened by 1.21 and 1.14 d. During seed imbibition, the chilling tolerance of Grazing-8000 was stronger than that of Diamond T. Overall, Put, Spd and Spm treatment could increase the chilling tolerance of annual Lolium perenne seeds during imbibition, and improve the germination ability of seeds under low temperature stress. [Conclusion] Results of this study provided theoretical basis for the application of seed priming technology in the production of annual ryegrass.

  7. Bioaccumulation of metals in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) following the application of lime stabilised, thermally dried and anaerobically digested sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M G; Ryan, P C; Fenton, O; Peyton, D P; Wall, D P; Morrison, L

    2016-08-01

    The uptake and accumulation of metals in plants is a potential pathway for the transfer of environmental contaminants in the food chain, and poses potential health and environmental risks. In light of increased population growth and urbanisation, the safe disposal of sewage sludge, which can contain significant levels of toxic contaminants, remains an environmental challenge globally. The aims of this experiment were to apply municipal sludge, having undergone treatment by thermal drying, anaerobic digestion, and lime stabilisation, to permanent grassland in order to assess the bioaccumulation of metals (B, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Nb, Mo, Sb, Ba, W, Pb, Fe, Cd) by perennial ryegrass over a period of up to 18 weeks after application. The legislation currently prohibits use of grassland for fodder or grazing for at least three weeks after application of treated sewage sludge (biosolids). Five treatments were used: thermally dried (TD), anaerobically digested (AD) and lime stabilised (LS) sludge all from one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), AD sludge from another WWTP, and a study control (grassland only, without application of biosolids). In general, there was no significant difference in metal content of the ryegrass between micro-plots that received treated municipal sludge and the control over the study duration. The metal content of the ryegrass was below the levels at which phytotoxicity occurs and below the maximum levels specified for animal feeds. PMID:27174047

  8. Exogenous Melatonin Suppresses Dark-Induced Leaf Senescence by Activating the Superoxide Dismutase-Catalase Antioxidant Pathway and Down-Regulating Chlorophyll Degradation in Excised Leaves of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Huibin; Xu, Bin; Li, Jing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Pinnacle’) leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5.8) supplemented with melatonin or water (control) and exposed to dark treatment for 8 days. Leaves treated with melatonin maintained significantly higher endogenous melatonin level, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and cell membrane stability expressed by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to the control. Exogenous melatonin treatment also reduced the transcript level of chlorophyll degradation-associated genes and senescence marker genes (LpSAG12.1, Lph36, and Lpl69) during the dark treatment. The endogenous O2- production rate and H2O2 content were significantly lower in these excised leaves treated with melatonin compared to the water control. Exogenous melatonin treatment caused increases in enzymatic activity and transcript levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase but had no significant effects on ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, were decreased by melatonin treatment, while the content of glutathione and oxidized glutathione was not affected by melatonin. These results suggest that the suppression of dark-induced leaf senescence by exogenous melatonin may be associated with its roles in regulating ROS scavenging through activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase enzymatic antioxidant pathway and

  9. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: effects of cultivar on herbage intake during grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne , sward morphology, sward cutting, n-alkanes, herbage intake, selection, preference.Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) is the most important species for feeding dairy cows. The majority of the farmers in the Netherlands graze their d

  10. Aspectos morfofisiológicos de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum sensíveis e resistentes ao glyphosate Morphophysiological aspects of ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum sensitive and resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galvan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O azevém é uma gramínea com elevado potencial de infestação em lavouras e pomares, e seu controle com glyphosate tem sido limitado devido à existência de biótipos resistentes a esse herbicida. Objetivou-se comparar quatro biótipos de azevém coletados em diferentes regiões do Rio Grande do Sul, com o intuito de testar a hipótese de que aspectos morfofisiológicos e fenológicos estejam vinculados à resistência. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde um biótipo suscetível (B1S, Passo Fundo e três resistentes ao glyphosate (B2R, Santa Maria; B3R, Júlio de Castilhos; e B4R, Vacaria foram colhidos aos 126, 147, 168 e 189 dias de idade. O biótipo B1S mostrou 21 dias de antecipação no florescimento em relação aos demais biótipos. O biótipo B4R produziu significativamente mais folhas (43 por planta, afilhos (14 por planta, espigas (14 por planta, sementes (3.484 por planta e matéria seca total (raízes + parte aérea = 13,8 g por planta. Conclui-se que biótipos sensíveis não podem ser diferidos de biótipos resistentes apenas por aspectos morfológicos relacionados ao vigor.Ryegrass has a high potential for infestation in crops and orchads and its control with glyphosate has been limited due to the existence of herbicide-resistant biotypes. The objective of this work was to compare four ryegrass biotypes collected from different regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to test the hypothesis that morphophysiological aspects and phenology are linked to resistance. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where four biotypes, one susceptible (B1S, Passo Fundo and three resistant to glyphosate (B2R, Santa Maria; B3R, Julio de Castillos; B4R, Vacaria were collected at 126, 147, 168 and 189 days of age. Biotype B1S showed 21 days in advance of flowering in relation to the other biotypes. Biotype B4R produced significantly more leaves (43 per plant, tillers (14 per plant, ears (14 per plant, seeds

  11. In vitro and in vivo enhancement of adipogenesis by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum in 3T3-L1 cells and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariadhas Valan Arasu

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis is very much important in improving the quality of meat in animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo adipogenesis regulation properties of Lolium multiflorum on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mice. Chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of L. multiflorum (PET-LM confirmed the presence of fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, docosatetraenoic acid, and caprylic acid, as the major compounds. PET-LM treatment increased viability, lipid accumulation, lipolysis, cell cycle progression, and DNA synthesis in the cells. PET-LM treatment also augmented peroxysome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, adiponectin, adipocyte binding protein, glucose transporter-4, fatty acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in differentiated adipocytes. In addition, mice administered with 200 mg/kg body weight PET-LM for 8 weeks showed greater body weight than control mice. These findings suggest that PET-LM facilitates adipogenesis by stimulating PPARγ-mediated signaling cascades in adipocytes which could be useful for quality meat development in animals.

  12. Detection of favorable alleles for plant height and crown rust tolerance in three connected populations of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Laurence; Flajoulot, Sandrine; Garon, Jérôme; Julier, Bernadette; Béguier, Vincent; Barre, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Plant height, which is an estimator of vegetative yield, and crown rust tolerance are major criteria for perennial ryegrass breeding. Genetic improvement has been achieved through phenotypic selection but it should be speeded up using marker-assisted selection, especially in this heterozygous species suffering from inbreeding depression. Using connected multiparental populations should increase the diversity studied and could substantially increase the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection. The objective of this study was to detect the best alleles for plant height and rust tolerance among three connected populations derived from elite material by comparing an analysis per parent and a multipopulation connected analysis. For the studied traits, 17 QTL were detected with the analysis per parent while the additive and dominance models of the multipopulation connected analysis made it possible to detect 33 and 21 QTL, respectively. Favorable alleles have been detected in all parents. Only a few dominance effects were detected and they generally had lower values than the additive effects. The additive model of the multipopulation connected analysis was the most powerful as it made it possible to detect most of the QTL identified in the other analyses and 11 additional QTL. Using this model, plant growth QTL and rust tolerance QTL explained up to 19 and 38.6% of phenotypic variance, respectively. This example involving three connected populations is promising for an application on polycross progenies, traditionally used in breeding programs. Indeed, polycross progenies actually are a set of several connected populations.

  13. Uso da água em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum em condição de competição Water use in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes under competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características associadas à eficiência de uso da água em biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, em diferentes níveis de competição. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com os dois biótipos de azevém, suscetível e resistente, em planta única no centro da parcela, competindo com 0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 plantas do biótipo oposto. Todas as características matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, condutância estomática (Gs, pressão de vapor na câmara subestomática (Ean, gradiente entre temperatura da folha e do ar (deltaT e taxa de transpiração (E foram avaliadas 50 dias após a emergência das plantas, sendo calculada também a eficiência do uso da água (WUE pela relação entre a quantidade de CO2 fixado pela fotossíntese e a quantidade de água transpirada. Foi elaborada ainda uma matriz de correlação entre as variáveis. O biótipo suscetível apresentou maior acúmulo de MSPA, comparado ao biótipo resistente ao glyphosate, quando cultivado livre ou em competição, porém foi menos eficiente quanto ao uso da água.The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics associated to water use efficiency in ryegrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate, under different competition levels. The trial was installed in factorial scheme (2 x 5, with one plant of the studied biotype alone at the center of the plot, under competition against 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 plants of the opposite biotype. The variables (shoot dry matter (MSPA, water vapor stomatal conductance (Gs, water vapor pressure from the leaf chamber (Ean, leaf and air temperature difference (deltaT and transpiration rate (E were evaluated 50 days after emergence, with water use efficiency (WUE being obtained by the relation between the amount of CO2 fixed by photosynthesis and the corresponding transpired water. A correlation table was built between all evaluated variables. The

  14. 配方施肥对一年生黑麦草产草量及品质的影响%Effect of fertilization on the yield and forage quality of annual ryegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小坤; 鲁剑巍; 刘晓伟; 刘威; 潘福霞; 魏云霞

    2011-01-01

    通过大田试验研究了施肥对一年生黑麦草(Lolium multiftorum)“特高”的产草量及营养品质的影响,并运用概略养分分析法评价了其饲用营养价值。结果表明,配方施肥1(N450P45K90)和配方施肥2(N540P180K360)均可显著提高黑麦草鲜草产量,与不施肥处理(CK)相比分别增加了2.6倍和3.1倍;配方施肥2处理的产量比配方施肥1处理显著增产12.0%。黑麦草干物质积累速率呈先增加后降低的趋势,播种后130d左右,日积累速率达最大值,为223.9kg/(hm^2·d)。施肥提高了黑麦草磷、钙、粗蛋白(CP)和粗脂肪(EE)含量,降低了无氮浸出物(NFE)含量。配方施肥2与配方施肥1相比,3次收获的黑麦草CP、EE和粗灰分(CA)含量均有所提高,而粗纤维(CF)和NFE含量则略有降低。两种施肥措施均可显著提高黑麦草CP、EE、CA、CF、NFE及总能量(GE)的产出,且配方施肥2对其影响程度要大于配方施肥1处理。%A field trial was carried out in Hubei province, central area of China to determine the effect of fertilization on the yield and forage quality of annual ryegrassLolium multiflorum) by comparing crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid crude fiber (CF), crude ash (CA) and gross energy (GE). The results of this study showed that fertilizer recommendation 1 (N450P45 K90) and fertilizer recommendation 2 (N540P180K360) significantly improved the fresh forage yield of ryegrass, which were 2.6 times and 3.1 times higher than that of CK, respectively. The amount of dry matter accumulation per day firstly increased, and then decreased with the growth of ryegrass, and achieved the maximum with 223.9 kg/(hm^2 · d) at the 130 d after sowing. The yield of fertilizer recommendation 2 increased by 12.0% compared to that of fertilizer recommendation 1. Fertilization

  15. Ganho de peso e características da carcaça de cordeiros terminados em pastagem natural suplementada, pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e confinamento Weight gain and carcass characteristics of lambs finished in a natural supplemented pasture, ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber José Tonetto

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho e as características da carcaça de cordeiros, em três sistemas de alimentação. Foram utilizados 16 cordeiros, distribuídos aleatoriamente com suas mães, 24 horas após o nascimento, em três tratamentos: PNS: pastagem natural suplementada; PC: pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; e CON: confinamento. O ganho médio diário de 0,404 kg dos cordeiros da PC foi superior aos demais tratamentos, enquanto o ganho de 0,325 kg/dia dos animais da PNS foi superior aos ganhos de 0,213 kg/dia dos animais do CON. O abate ocorreu quando os cordeiros atingiram em torno de 31 kg. O peso da carcaça quente dos animais da PNS (15,7 kg foi semelhante ao dos animais da PC (16,8 kg e superior ao confinamento (14,3 kg. Os animais da PNS, PC e CON apresentaram resultados semelhantes para o índice de quebra ao resfriamento com valores de 2,3, 2,1 e 2,5%, respectivamente. Os rendimentos da carcaça quente dos animais de PNS (50,2% e PC (53,7% foram semelhantes e superiores aos rendimentos dos animais do CON (45,9%. A compacidade das carcaças não mostrou diferença entre PNS e PC, com valores de 0,287 e 0,307, respectivamente, os quais, porém, foram superiores aos animais do CON (0,253. As carcaças dos animais da PNS e CON não diferiram quanto à espessura de gordura com valores de 1,6 e 1,0 mm, respectivamente. Estes valores foram inferiores aos obtidos na PC (3,3 mm. Ganhos médios diários acima de 0,400 kg/dia e rendimento de carcaça quente acima de 52% podem ser obtidos com cordeiros alimentados com suas mães em pastagem cultivada de azevém, com peso de abate em torno dos 31 kg.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of lambs under three feeding systems. Sixteen lambs, 24 hours after birth, and their mothers were randomly assigned to three treatments: NSP: natural supplemented pasture; RP: ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum lam

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  17. Produção e qualidade de azevém-anual submetido a adubação nitrogenada sob pastejo por cordeiros Production and quality of annual ryegrass submitted to nitrogen fertilization under grazing by lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Giovani de Pellegrini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi verificar como a adubação nitrogenada pode afetar a produção e a qualidade da massa de forragem em pastagem de azevém-anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sob lotação contínua de cordeiros de corte. O azevém foi implantado em 6 de junho de 2006, em sistema de plantio direto com densidade de semeadura de 45 kg de sementes/ha. A adubação de base foi de 300 kg/ha, sem nitrogênio, com 60 kg/ha P2O5 e 60 kg/ha K2O. As adubações corresponderam a quatro doses de nitrogênio (N na forma de ureia (45% de N em aplicação de cobertura após 35 dias do plantio: 0; 75; 150; ou 225 kg/ha de N. O período de avaliação foi de 84 dias. Para cada kg de nitrogênio aplicado na pastagem de azevém, verificaram-se aumentos lineares de 2,82 kg/ha de massa de forragem, 1,28 kg/ha de massa seca de folhas verdes, 2,47 perfilhos/m² e 15,84 kg/ha de massa de forragem total. As doses de nitrogênio aplicadas não influenciaram os teores de proteína bruta (21,21%, fibra detergente ácido (25,90% e fibra detergente neutro (54,93% da forragem colhida por meio da simulação do pastejo. O aumento nas doses de nitrogênio interferem positivamente na taxa de acúmulo, o que proporciona maior massa de forragem total.The aim of this work was to evaluate how nitrogen fertilization can affect forage mass production and quality on annual Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture under continuous stocking of beef lambs. Ryegrass was established on June 6th, 2006, on no-tillage cropping system with seed density of 45 kg seeds/ha. Base fertilization was 300 kg/ha without N, with 60 kg/ha P2O5 and 60 kg/ha K2O. Fertilization consisted on four doses of nitrogen (N using urea fertilizer (45% de N in covering application 35 days after seeding: 0; 75; 150; or 225 kg/ha N. Periods of evaluations lasted 84 days. For each kg of nitrogen applied on ryegrass pasture, it was observed linear increases of 2.82 kg/ha of forage mass, 1.28 kg/ha of

  18. Production performance evaluation of different annual ryegrass germplasms%多花黑麦草不同种质资源的生产性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞珍; 何光武; 杨成勇; 王元清; 何丕阳

    2012-01-01

    为了系统地了解多花黑麦草不同种质资源的生产性能,采用田间小区试验的方法,在达州、广元和洪雅3个试验点对16份多花黑麦草种质资源的茎叶比、分蘖数和生产性能进行了观察测定。结果表明:同一资源材料在不同试验点生长的株高、分蘖数和产量差异较大,同一个试验点不同资源材料的草产量也有差异,且效益不同。%In order to evaluate the production performance of different annual ryegrass germplasms, we used field experiment methods in Dazhou, Guangyuan and Hongya to observe and determine the stems and leaves, tiller number and production performance of these 16 ryegrasses. The results showed that the plant height, tiller number and yield of the same ryegrass were quite different at different test points, and the grass output of different ryegrasses at the same point were ,different, their benefits were different also.

  19. Optimizing the number of consecutive seed harvests in red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) for yield, yield components and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Kristensen, Kristian; Gislum, René;

    2013-01-01

    . The diploid amenity cv. Allegro and forage type cv. Borvi of perennial ryegrass can be harvested in five consecutive years without a significant yield reduction. The tetraploid type cv. Tivoli had the highest thousand seed weight and a significant yield decrease from the first to the second year of seed...

  20. 几种有机硅助剂对草甘膦在单子叶植物体内吸收、转移和分布的影响%Influence of Organosilicone Surfactants on Uptake,Translocation and Distribution of Glyphosate on Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武菊英; Dastgheib,F

    2001-01-01

    采用14C-草甘膦同位素标记法研究了4种有机硅助剂Silwet L-77、Silwet 800、Freeway 和Boost 在体积分数0.1%用量下对草甘膦在黑麦草(Lolium perenne L. cv.Grasslands Greenstone)体内吸收、转移和分布的影响。结果表明:与单用草甘膦相比,4种助剂的加入显著地降低了草甘膦在黑麦草体内的吸收和转移量,助剂之间无显著性差异。处理后24和72 h测定,草甘膦主要分布在幼嫩组织中,其次是根部,在老叶片中的转移量最少。无论转移量高低,草甘膦在植物体内的分布总是表现为地上部的比例高于地下部。有机硅助剂对草甘膦在各组织中的分布比例没有影响。%Radiolabelled glyphosate was used to investigate the effects of organosilicone surfactants Silwet L-77, Silwet 800, Freeway and Boost on the foliar uptake, translocation and distribution of the formulated glyphosate Roundup○ R in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L cv. Grasslands Greenstone) over a 72 h time-course. Results indicated that addition of organosilicone surfactants significantly decreased the amount of uptake and translocation of glyphosate into ryegrass 24 and 72 h after treatment. Four organosilicone surfactants showed similar antagonism of foliar uptake. The amount of glyphosate translocation varied according to plant parts, the highest one was in young tissues, and the least one was in leaf 1. Distribution of glyphosate with or without organosilicone surfactants to shoots was much higher than that of to roots 24 and 72 h after treatment. Addition of organosilicone surfactants had no effect on the distribution rate to shoots and roots.

  1. Antagonismo das associações de clodinafop-propargyl com metsulfuron-methyl e 2,4-D no controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Antagonistic action of clodinafop-propargyl associated with Metsulfuron-methyl and 2,4-D in the control of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Trezzi

    2007-12-01

    determine the existence of antagonistic effects of clodinafop-propargyl associated with metsulfuron methyl or 2,4-D to control Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum. In the greenhouse experiment, 21 treatments were tested, composed by clodynafop(0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 g ha-1 alone or tank-mixed with metsulfuron (2 and 4 g ha-1 or 2,4-D (470 g ha-1. In the field experiment, twelve treatments were set up in a factorial 6 x 2, composed by clodinafop (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 g ha-1 alone or tank-mixed with metsulfuron (2 g ha-1. In the greenhouse experiment, the control (visual evaluation, I50 from the mixtures with metsulfuron (2 and 4 g ha-1 or 2,4-D (470 g ha-1 were 33, 84 and 151% higher than clodinafop applied alone. The I50 from the rye live matter from the mixtures cited above were, respectively, 119, 244 and 72% higher than clodinafop applied alone. In the field experiment, rye live matter reduction was observed with increase of the levels of clodinafop applied alone, but rye live matter did not decrease, changing the levels of clodinafop tank-mixed with metsulfuron. The results reveal the antagonistic effect of tank-mixtures of clodinafop and metsulfuron or 2,4-D. We did make some considerations on the advantages of applying herbicides in more than one control operation, in comparison to graminicide and latifolicide mixtures.

  2. Effects of Cattle Barnyard Compost and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Yield and Chemical Composition of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in Double Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Ahmad Darobin; Kumagai, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cattle barnyard compost (CBC) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on soil and on yield and quality of maize (MZ) and italian ryegrass (IR) in double cropping system. The experiment used 4 rates of CBC and N fertilizer, respectively, i.e. CBC at rate of 0, 3, 6, 9 ton/10a and N fertilizer at rate of 0, 18, 36, 54 kg N/10a for MZ and 0, 10, 20, 30 kg N/10a for IR. Cattle barnyard compost increased organic matter and total N in soil. There was n...

  3. Expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes by plant-associated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) grown in diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants have to host an efficiently degrading microflora. To assess the role of endophytes in alkane degradation, Italian ryegrass was grown in sterile soil with 0, 1 or 2% diesel and inoculated either with an alkane degrading bacterial strain originally derived from the rhizosphere of Italian ryegrass or with an endophyte. We studied plant colonization of these strains as well as the abundance and expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes in the rhizosphere, shoot and root interior. Results showed that the endophyte strain better colonized the plant, particularly the plant interior, and also showed higher expression of alkB genes suggesting a more efficient degradation of the pollutant. Furthermore, plants inoculated with the endophyte were better able to grow in the presence of diesel. The rhizosphere strain colonized primarily the rhizosphere and showed low alkB gene expression in the plant interior. - Bacterial alkane degradation genes are expressed in the rhizosphere and in the plant interior.

  4. Expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes by plant-associated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) grown in diesel contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andria, Verania [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Unit of Environmental Resources and Technologies, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.a [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    For phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants have to host an efficiently degrading microflora. To assess the role of endophytes in alkane degradation, Italian ryegrass was grown in sterile soil with 0, 1 or 2% diesel and inoculated either with an alkane degrading bacterial strain originally derived from the rhizosphere of Italian ryegrass or with an endophyte. We studied plant colonization of these strains as well as the abundance and expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes in the rhizosphere, shoot and root interior. Results showed that the endophyte strain better colonized the plant, particularly the plant interior, and also showed higher expression of alkB genes suggesting a more efficient degradation of the pollutant. Furthermore, plants inoculated with the endophyte were better able to grow in the presence of diesel. The rhizosphere strain colonized primarily the rhizosphere and showed low alkB gene expression in the plant interior. - Bacterial alkane degradation genes are expressed in the rhizosphere and in the plant interior.

  5. Effects of Glomus intraradices on Growth and Cd Enrichment of Ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)%Glomus intraradices对黑麦草生长和富集镉的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茵

    2011-01-01

    采用盆栽方法模拟不同镉污染状况,研究接种丛枝菌根真菌(AM)Glomus intraradices对黑麦草生长和富集、运转镉的影响.结果表明,土壤镉水平增加明显提高了黑麦草菌根侵染率,而显著降低了黑麦草的生长量,但对磷浓度无显著影响,表明Glomus intraradices对镉胁迫具有一定的耐性,并对黑麦草的磷营养和生长未表现出促进作用.Glomus intraradices的存在明显促进了黑麦草对镉的富集,菌根形成强化镉在根系的固持作用,减少镉向地上部运转,进而降低黑麦草地上部的镉浓度,减轻了镉对地上部的毒害,表现在根富集系数均大于1,运转系数远远小于1.这一结果对镉污染农田修复以及草坪草和牧草品质的改善都有重要意义.%To investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) on the bioremediation of Cd contaminated soils, pot experiments were conducted to adopt simulating contaminations on sandyloam soil. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal(Clomus in-traradices) on plant growth and Cd enrichment and translocation were determined at three Cd application levels (0,15,45 mg/kg). Cd in soil significantly increased the infection rate of ryegrass by G. Intraradices while decreased dry weight of rye-grass. P concentration of ryegrass plant was not significantly affected by inoculation of AM fungi. These results implied that G. Intraradices had some endurance to Cd contamination in soil, while no promotion on P uptake and the growth of ryegrass. Cd enrichment in ryegrass was stimulated by inoculation with G. Intraradices. AM fungi strengthened the bio-fixing of Cd in root and reduced Cd translocation from root to shoot, thus decreased Cd concentration in shoot, which were explained by the fact that the enrichment coefficient of Cd in root was above 1 while the translocation coefficient was below 1. AM fungus could adjust the distribution proportion of Cd in host plant and protect host plants against heavy metal

  6. Improved fructan accumulation in perennial ryegrass transformed with the onion fructosyltransferase genes 1-SST and 6G-FFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Gitte; Didion, Thomas; Foiling, Marianne;

    2008-01-01

    value of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) by increasing the fructan content through expression of heterologous fructan biosynthetic genes. We developed perennial ryegrass Lines expressing sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase genes from onion (Allium cepa) which...

  7. Cultivar by environment effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars selected for high water soluble carbohydrates managed under differing precipitation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic results of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) breeding include improved disease resistance, biomass, and nutritional quality. Yet, lack of tolerance to water stress limits its wise use. Recent efforts to increase water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in perennial ryegrass may incre...

  8. Transcriptional responses of Italian ryegrass during interaction with Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis reveal novel candidate genes for bacterial wilt resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franko;

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) causes bacterial wilt, a severe disease of forage grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). In order to gain a more detailed understanding of the genetic control of resistance mechanisms and to provide prerequisites for marker assisted...... selection, the partial transcriptomes of two Italian ryegrass genotypes, one resistant and one susceptible to bacterial wilt were compared at four time points after Xtg infection. A cDNA microarray developed from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) expressed sequence tag set consisting of 9,990 unique...... genes was used for transcriptome analysis in Italian ryegrass. An average of 4,487 (45%) of the perennial ryegrass sequences spotted on the cDNA microarray were detected by cross-hybridisation to Italian ryegrass. Transcriptome analyses of the resistant versus the susceptible genotype revealed...

  9. Efeito de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos na produção de Azevém (Lolium multiflorum L.: produção de matéria seca e azoto aparentemente recuperado Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers in the ryegrass yield (Lolium multiflorum L.: Dry matter yield and apparent N recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arrobas

    2009-01-01

    fertilizing materials were: chestnut fruit bark (CC, with 0.6% N, farmyard manure (EB, with 2.3% N, Beira Adubo (BA, a commercial organic amendment with 3% N; ammonium nitrate (NA, with 20.5% N; Entec (En, a fertiliser with a nitrification inhibitor, with 26% N; Fertigafsa (Fg a 4-16-12 compound fertiliser, and control (T without N fertilisation. All the fertilisers were applied at a rate equivalent to 200 mg N per kg of soil (< 2mm. A silt-loam soil with pH(H2O 5.2 and 27 g kg-1 of organic matter was used in the soil/fertiliser mixtures. A nutrient solution without N was added to all the pots. The crop was sown on the 1st October, 2004. After crop emergence, the plants were thinned to 50 plants per pot. Six harvests of ryegrass were taken between November 9, 2004 and August 4, 2005. Nitrogen uptake and apparent N recovery (NAR were also estimated after the determination of tissue N content. Total dry matter yields (6 cuts were significantly different between treatments. Extreme values ranged between 1.7 g/pot (T and 4.1 g/pot (NA. The higher N uptake was recorded in the NA treatment (167 mg N/pot, as well as the higher NAR (64%. Entec produced the lowest NAR (45% among the mineral fertilisers. The organic amendments BA and EB showed similar NAR, 24 and 22%, respectively. The N released from BA, EB and En during the growing season was very low. The results stress the difficulties in properly managing this kind of fertilisers in annual crops with short growing cycles, where a N shortage could occur during important phases of crop development.

  10. Effects of a compost made from the solid by-product ("alperujo") of the two-phase centrifugation system for olive oil extraction and cotton gin waste on growth and nutrient content of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburquerque, J A; Gonzálvez, J; García, D; Cegarra, J

    2007-03-01

    A pot experiment was conducted on a low-fertility calcareous soil in order to evaluate the effect on ryegrass growth and nutrient uptake of an organic fertiliser obtained by composting "alperujo" and cotton gin waste. Compost, alone and combined with nitrogen fertilisation, was added to the soil at three rates and three harvests were obtained. The compost application enhanced plant growth in the first and third harvest. However, the additional nitrogen fertilisation clearly improved soil productivity due to the scarce availability of this nutrient in the compost. Also, a general increase in the plant contents of phosphorus and potassium in the first two harvests was recorded, whereas treatments with the maximum compost rate showed the highest plant content of copper in the last two harvests. Decreases in calcium in the last two harvests, in magnesium in all of them and in iron and manganese in the last harvest were also observed. PMID:16762544

  11. Effect of fungal endophytes against rust disease of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on growth and physiological indices%内生真菌对感染锈病黑麦草生长和生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏芝; 南志标

    2011-01-01

    The biological, photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Neotyphodium endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) perennial ryegrass (fairway cultivar) with Puccinia spp. Infections were studied in a field experiment. The height and biomass of E+ plants were significantly higher than those of E -plants, and the loss of diseased leaves of E+ plants was significantly lower than that of E- plants irrespective of whether they were slightly or severely infected. The same response also occurred in the dwarf diseased leaves. For slight and severely affected plants, the contents of leaf relative water, soluble sugar, chlorophyll, pro-line, and net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance as well as the activities of super-oxide dismutase and peroxidase of E+ plants were significantly greater than those of E- plants. However, the malondialdehyde content of E+ plants was significantly lower than that of E- plants. In conclusion, endo-phyte infection improved rust disease resistance of perennial ryegrass under field conditions.%在田间条件下对带内生真菌和不带内生真菌球道黑麦草品种被锈菌不同程度感染后的生长、光合特性和生理指标进行测定.结果表明,带内生真菌的植株无论感病轻重,其病叶损失率和植株矮化程度均显著低于不带内生真菌的植株(P<0.05).并且在轻度和重度病株中,内生真菌可提高黑麦草叶片相对含水量、可溶性糖含量、叶绿素含量,净光合速率、蒸腾速率、气孔导度,叶内游离脯氨酸含量、超氧化物歧化酶与过氧化物酶的活性;同时有效地降低了丙二醛的含量,说明内生真菌的存在可提高寄主黑麦草在田间条件下的抗锈病能力.

  12. Identification of glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum Gaudin

    OpenAIRE

    Danijela Pavlović; Charlie Reinhardt; Igor Elezović; Sava Vrbničanin

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate resistance was found in Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Rigid ryegrass, LOLRI) in South Africa. Suspected glyphosate-resistant L. rigidum populations were collected and grown under greenhouse conditions. The plants were sprayed with a range of doses of glyphosate 35 days after planting and shoot dry biomass was determined 17 days after herbicide treatment. Based on the dose-response experiment conducted in the greenhouse, one population of L. rigidum susp...

  13. Residual da mistura formulada dos herbicidas imazethapyr e imazapic em solo de várzea sobre azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cultivado em sucessão ao arroz tolerante Carryover of the formulated mixture of the herbicides imazethapyr and imazapic in lowland soils, affecting ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Grohs

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas, como imazethapyr e imazapic, podem persistir no solo e afetar culturas não-tolerantes cultivadas em sucessão. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito residual da mistura formulada de imazethapyr+imazapic sobre azevém semeado e conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação. Para isso, inicialmente foi conduzido um experimento em campo, em que aplicou-se sobre a cultivar tolerante de arroz ("IRGA 422 CL" diferentes doses da mistura formulada de imazethapyr+imazapic, representadas por: 0L ha-1 (testemunha; 0,7L ha-1 em pré-emergência (PRE seguido da aplicação de 0,7L ha-1 em pós-emergência (POS; 1,0L ha-1 em PRE; e 1,0L ha-1 em POS. Posteriormente, aos 194 dias após a aplicação das doses, foram coletadas amostras intactas de solo na camada de 0-10cm, as quais foram utilizadas na condução de um bioensaio com azevém. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de plantas emergidas aos três e 22 DAE (dias após a emergência e a matéria seca do azevém aos 40 DAE. Verificou-se que a aplicação dos herbicidas na cultura do arroz no verão não ocasiona danos ao azevém semeado 194 dias após a aplicação do produto.Imidazolinone herbicides, such as imazethapyr and imazapic, may persist in the soil and carryover to non-tolerant crops. This work aimed at evaluating the field carryover of the formulated mixture of imazethapyr+imazapic affecting ryegrass. For this reason, a field experiment was carried out, in which different rates of the formulated mixture of imazethapyr and imazapic were applied on a tolerant rice cultivar (';IRGA 422 CL';: 0L ha-1 (check plot; 0.7L ha-1 preemergence (PRE followed by 0.7L ha-1 postemergence (POS; 1.0L ha-1 PRE; 1.0L ha-1 POS. Later, 194 days after herbicide application, intact soils cores samples were collected at 0 to 10cm depth to carry out a bioassay in greenhouse, sowing ryegrass. It was evaluated the percentage of plants established at three and 22 DAE (days after

  14. Comparison of herbage yield, nutritive value and ensilability traits of three ryegrass species evaluated for the Irish Recommended List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 169 of the newest varieties of three ryegrass species, perennial (Lolium perenne L., Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and hybrid (Lolium boucheanum Kunth, from Recommended List trials in Ireland. The traits examined were yield, dry matter concentration, three nutritive value traits (in vitro dry matter digestibility, water-soluble carbohydrate on a dry matter basis and crude protein concentration and two ensilability traits (buffering capacity and water soluble carbohydrate concentration on an aqueous phase basis. Varietal monocultures of each species underwent a six cut combined simulated grazing and silage management in each of two years following sowing. Perennial ryegrass yielded less than both other species in one-year-old swards, but less than only Italian ryegrass in two-year-old swards, but generally had the higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein values. Italian ryegrass displayed the most favourable ensilability characteristics of the three species with perennial ryegrass less favourable and hybrid ryegrass intermediate. Overall, despite the high yields and favourable nutritive value and ensilability traits recorded, the general differences between the three ryegrass species studied were in line with industry expectations. These findings justify assessing the nutritive value and ensilability of ryegrass species, in addition to yield, to allow farmers select species that match farming enterprise requirements.

  15. A ¤Terminal Flower-1¤-like gene from perennial ryegrass involved in floral transition and axillary meristem identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C.S.; Salchert, K.; Nielsen, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    . To investigate the regulation of meristem identity and the control of floral transition in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) we isolated a ryegrass TERMINAL FLOWER1-like gene, LpTFL1, and characterized it for its function in ryegrass flower development. Perennial ryegrass requires a cold treatment of at least...... spikelets. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing LpTFL1 were significantly delayed in flowering and exhibited dramatic changes in architecture such as extensive lateral branching, increased growth of all vegetative organs, and a highly increased trichome production. Furthermore, overexpression of LpTFL1...... and a controller of axillary meristem identity in ryegrass....

  16. Genetic markers for flowering in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paina, Cristiana; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan;

    2011-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the principal forage grass utilized in Danish agriculture and underpins the beef and dairy sectors. It is characterized as having high digestibility, high nutritional value, and high productivity during vegetative growth. However, at the reproductive growth...... genes will be converted to molecular markers and mapped in an existing mapping population previously characterized for flowering time and vernalization response. References: Amasino, R.M., Michaels S.D. (2010). The Timing of Flowering. Plant Physiology 154: 516–520 Greenup, A., W. Peacock, W.J., Dennis...

  17. Genotype _ environment interactions for forage yield of Lolium perenne L. sward plots in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass) is by far the most widely sown grass species in Ireland. Genotype by environment (G by E) interactions are a frequent occurrence in forage yield evaluations. The objectives were to determine (i) the nature and relative magnitudes of the pertinent G by E interac...

  18. Genetic diversity and relationships in cultivars of Lolium multiflorum Lam. using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L K; Jiang, X Y; Huang, Q T; Xiao, Y F; Chen, Z H; Zhang, X Q; Miao, J M; Yan, H D

    2014-12-04

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to analyze and estimate the genetic variability, level of diversity, and relationships among 20 cultivars and strains of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Eighteen SRAP primer combinations generated 334 amplification bands, of which 298 were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.4715 (me10 + em1) to 0.5000 (me5 + em7), with an average of 0.4921. The genetic similarity coefficient ranged from 0.4304 to 0.8529, and coefficients between 0.65 and 0.90 accounted for 90.00%. The cluster analysis separated the accessions into five groups partly according to their germplasm resource origins.

  19. Turnover of microbial biomass in rhizosphere soils of clover and ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The turnover rate of microbial biomass nitrogen in the rhizosphere of clover (Trifolium prafensel) and ryegrass (Lolium perence) was investigated with 15N isotopic technique. The results showed that the activity of soil protease was higher in rhizosphere during the growth period of clover and ryegrass. It also indicated that the activity of soil protease of clover was higher than that of ryegrass. Turnover rate of biomass 15N was in the following order: root zone > 0-2 mm > 15-25 mm > 25-40 mm. It is suggested that the principal function of microbe in rhizosphere is to accelerate the nutrient cycling compared to non-rhizosphere soil

  20. Establishment techniques in under-sown perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Establishment methods have proven to be of major importance for grass-seed production. The objective of this research was to test the effect of different sowing techniques on plant establishment and the subsequent seed yield. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is used as the model grass due to...... ryegrass when placing the grass 2, 6, or 12 cm from the cover-crop row. Placement of the ryegrass seed crop 6 cm from the cereal row showed that a significant yield increase of 34-71 kg ha-1 can be obtained compared with sowing in the cereal row....

  1. Photoperiodic regulation of flowering in perennial ryegrass involving a CONSTANS-like homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, J.; Storgaard, M.; Andersen, C.H.;

    2004-01-01

    Photoperiod and vernalization are the two key environmental factors of the. oral induction of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Transition from vegetative to reproductive growth will only occur after an extended vernalization period, followed by an increase in day length and temperature. Here...

  2. Morphological traits associated with weed-suppressive ability of winter wheat against Italian ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed-suppressive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars have been suggested as a complement to chemical and cultural methods of weed control. The objectives of this study were to assess the range of weed-suppressive ability against Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] ...

  3. Cross-resistance profile of mesosulfuron-methyl-resistant Italian ryegrass in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Yong In; Bugos, Nilda R

    2007-04-01

    Diclofop-resistant Lolium species (ryegrass) is a major weed problem in wheat production worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the resistance pattern of diclofop-resistant ryegrass accessions from the southern United States to mesosulfuron-methyl, a recently commercialized herbicide for ryegrass control in wheat; to determine the cross-resistance pattern of a Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Italian ryegrass) accession, 03-1, to acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors; and to determine the resistance mechanism of Italian ryegrass to mesosulfuron-methyl. Seventeen ryegrass accessions from Arkansas and Louisiana, including standard resistant and susceptible accessions, were used in this experiment. Fourteen of the 17 accessions were more resistant (four- to > 308-fold) to diclofop than the standard susceptible biotype. One accession, 03-1, was resistant to mesosulfuron-methyl as well as to other ALS inhibitor herbicides such as chlorsulfuron, imazamox and sulfometuron. Accession 03-1, however, did not show multiple resistance to the ACCase inhibitor herbicides diclofop, fluazifop, clethodim, sethoxydim and pinoxaden, nor to glyphosate. The in vivo ALS activity of the 03-1 biotype was less affected by mesosulfuron-methyl than the susceptible biotype. This indicates that the resistance mechanism of Italian ryegrass to mesosulfuron-methyl is partly due to an alteration in the target enzyme, ALS. It is concluded that diclofop-resistant ryegrass in the southern United States can be generally controlled by mesosulfuron-methyl. However, mesosulfuron-methyl must be used with caution because not all ryegrass populations are susceptible to it. There is a need for more thorough profiling of ryegrass resistance to herbicides.

  4. Alteração das características biológicas dos biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ocasionada pela resistência ao herbicida glyphosate Change in the biological characteristics of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes caused by resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate está alterando o manejo da vegetação de cobertura do solo em pomares de maçã. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a dose de glyphosate necessária para reduzir 50% do acúmulo de matéria seca (GR50, a resposta do biótipo resistente e sensível a herbicidas graminicidas e o acúmulo de matéria seca destes biótipos durante o ciclo. Para isso, foram conduzidos três experimentos. No primeiro, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate aplicadas sobre plantas dos biótipos resistente e sensível para determinar o GR50. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram de doses dos herbicidas glyphosate, haloxyfop-r, diclofop, fluazifop-p, fenoxaprop-p e paraquat. No terceiro experimento, sementes dos biótipos resistente e sensível foram semeadas em recipientes com capacidade para 10 L e as plantas originadas delas foram colhidas quinzenalmente, para determinação da matéria seca da parte aérea, radicular e total. Como resultados, foi obtido GR50 de 287,5 e de 4.833,5 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate para os biótipos sensível e resistente, respectivamente, e verificou-se que existem diferenças significativas na resposta dos biótipos aos herbicidas graminicidas, dependendo da dose utilizada. Além disso, o biótipo sensível evidenciou maior capacidade de acúmulo de matéria seca e produção de sementes. Constatouse, assim, fator de resistência (FR de 16,8 e que o mecanismo de resistência provoca alterações nas características biológicas do biótipo resistente e afeta a sensibilidade deste aos herbicidas graminicidas.The identification of ryegrass biotypes resistant to glyphosate is causing changes in weed management in apple orchards. Three experiments were carried out to determine the GR50 of the biotypes, to grass herbicides and dry matter accumulation. The first experiment tested different rates of glyphosate. Their effects on GR50 dry matter

  5. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or perennial ryegrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K; Casler, M D

    1998-01-01

    The nutrient contents of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are reasonably similar. Despite similarities, the lactation performance of dairy cows fed perennial ryegrass has not been compared with the lactation performance of dairy cows fed alfalfa. The present study was implemented to compare the performance of lactating cows fed alfalfa or perennial ryegrass silage. Alfalfa and perennial ryegrass were harvested at late bud and boot stages of maturity, respectively, and ensiled in separate 4.9- x 18.3-m concrete silos. The experimental silages were supplemented with a concentrate mix at 31.1% of dietary dry matter and fed to 18 multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation in a crossover experimental design with 28-d periods. Digestibility and rate of passage of experimental diets were also measured using rare earth markers. The perennial ryegrass contained 3.0 percentage units more neutral detergent fiber than did alfalfa, but in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was 8.8 percentage units higher for perennial ryegrass. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was also higher for perennial ryegrass. Cows fed alfalfa silage produced more milk (31.8 kg/d) than did cows fed perennial ryegrass silage (30.2 kg/d). Cows fed perennial ryegrass silage ate less feed (2.2 kg/d) than did cows fed alfalfa. Because dry matter intake was lower, diet digestibilities were higher, and rate of passage was slower, for cows consuming perennial ryegrass. Based on laboratory evaluations, perennial ryegrass silage has high nutritional quality, but performance of lactating cows indicated that the forage was suboptimal for supporting high milk production when compared with alfalfa. The perennial ryegrass silage was suboptimal because it did not stimulate high amounts of dry matter intake in lactating cows. PMID:9493091

  6. EFFICIENCY OF INDIRECT SELECTION FOR DRY MATTER YIELD BASED ON FRESH MATTER YIELD IN LOLIUM PERENNE L. SWARD PLOTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage dry matter yield (DMY) is a high-priority trait in breeding perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). However, determining dry matter concentration is highly labor intensive. Indirect selection based on fresh matter yield (FMY) would be easier, quicker and less expensive and, for a similar leve...

  7. Nitrogen application in amenity-types of Lolium perenne L. grown for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    1998-01-01

    Three amenity-type perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars Elka, Taya and Pippin were undersown in 1991-93 in spring barley at Roskilde and Rnhave, Denmark, and given 0, 30 or 60 kg N ha-1 in autumn combined with 70, 100 or 130 kg N ha-1 in spring. Seed yield did not differ among cultivars...

  8. Use of ryegrass strips to enhance biological control of aphids by ladybirds in wheat fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Ke Dong; Feng-Juan Gao; Run-Zhi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Non-crop habitats may play a vital role in conservation biological control.This study tested the effect of ryegrass (Lolium muitiflorum L.) strips on aphid and ladybird populations in adjacent winter wheat fields.The field experiment was conducted in three ryegrass-margin wheat plots and three control plots in 2010 in North China.In spring,the same aphid species,Sitobion miscanthi (Takahashi),was found in both the ryegrass strips and wheat plots.The population density of ladybirds in the ryegrass strips (3.5±0.9/m2) was significantly higher than in the wheat plots (1.5±0.5/m2).We cut the ryegrass,forcing the ladybirds to migrate to the wheat fields.Three and eight days after cutting the ryegrass,the aphid numbers in the ryegrass-margin wheat plots decreased significantly:they were 19.9% and 53.6%,respectively,lower than in control plots.In the early period of ladybird population development,the percentage of larvae was greater in the ryegrass-margin wheat plots than in controls,and the peak number of pupae in the ryegrass-margin wheat plots occurred 5 days earlier than in the control plots.The results suggest that ryegrass strips may promote the development of ladybird populations.Cutting ryegrass can manipulate ladybirds to enhance biological aphid control in wheat fields.The efficiency of this management approach is discussed.

  9. Effect of soil medium amendment on chemical composition and digestibility of Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of used soil medium amendment on the background of mineral fertilizers and on the chemical composition, and digestibility of dry matter of Lolium multiflorum Lam. (‘Gaza’ variety. Experiment with the cultivation of this species was carried out in the rings of polyurethane, in four replications. For each of the pots, eight ryegrass seeds were sown. After seeds germination when seedlings reached the two-three leaf stage, negative selection was made by removing the four weakest plants and then experimental factors were introduced in the form of the following combinations: NPK – mineral fertilization in annual doses of 0.6 g N, 0.25 g P2O5 and 0.9 g of K2O per ring, B-NPK – without fertilization, UG – soil medium amendment in the form of 0.25% solution and a dose of 3.7 cm3 per ring, B-UG – without soil medium amendment. Nitrogen fertilization (34% ammonium nitrate and potassium (60% potassium salt were used in three doses, and phosphorus (46% TSP in a single dose in spring. The soil medium amendment solution was used for watering plants in a phase of shooting. The full period of this experiment was in 2009-2010. During this time, the analysis of chemical composition of dry matter yield was performed for all cuts at the Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty. The using of soil fertilizer in cultivation of ryegrass led to increase the crude ash content, expand the sugar-protein ratio and slight improvement of dry matter digestibility of the tested plant material.

  10. Effects of chicory/perennial ryegrass swards compared with perennial ryegrass swards on the performance and carcass quality of grazing beef steers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Marley

    Full Text Available An experiment investigated whether the inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus in swards grazed by beef steers altered their performance, carcass characteristics or parasitism when compared to steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne. Triplicate 2-ha plots were established with a chicory/ryegrass mix or ryegrass control. Forty-eight Belgian Blue-cross steers were used in the first grazing season and a core group (n = 36 were retained for finishing in the second grazing season. The experiment comprised of a standardisation and measurement period. During standardisation, steers grazed a ryegrass/white clover pasture as one group. Animals were allocated to treatment on the basis of liveweight, body condition and faecal egg counts (FEC determined 7 days prior to the measurement period. The measurement period ran from 25 May until 28 September 2010 and 12 April until 11 October 2011 in the first and second grazing year. Steers were weighed every 14 days at pasture or 28 days during housing. In the first grazing year, faecal samples were collected for FEC and parasite cultures. At the end of the first grazing year, individual blood samples were taken to determine O. ostertagi antibody and plasma pepsinogen levels. During winter, animals were housed as one group and fed silage. In the second grazing year, steers were slaughtered when deemed to reach fat class 3. Data on steer performance showed no differences in daily live-weight gain which averaged 1.04 kg/day. The conformation, fat grade and killing out proportion of beef steers grazing chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were not found to differ. No differences in FEC, O. ostertagi antibody or plasma pepsinogen levels of beef steers grazing either chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were observed. Overall, there were no detrimental effects of including chicory in swards grazed by beef cattle on their performance, carcass characteristics or helminth parasitism, when compared with steers grazing ryegrass.

  11. Effects of chicory/perennial ryegrass swards compared with perennial ryegrass swards on the performance and carcass quality of grazing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Christina L; Fychan, Rhun; Davies, John W; Scollan, Nigel D; Richardson, R Ian; Theobald, Vince J; Genever, Elizabeth; Forbes, Andy B; Sanderson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An experiment investigated whether the inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus) in swards grazed by beef steers altered their performance, carcass characteristics or parasitism when compared to steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Triplicate 2-ha plots were established with a chicory/ryegrass mix or ryegrass control. Forty-eight Belgian Blue-cross steers were used in the first grazing season and a core group (n = 36) were retained for finishing in the second grazing season. The experiment comprised of a standardisation and measurement period. During standardisation, steers grazed a ryegrass/white clover pasture as one group. Animals were allocated to treatment on the basis of liveweight, body condition and faecal egg counts (FEC) determined 7 days prior to the measurement period. The measurement period ran from 25 May until 28 September 2010 and 12 April until 11 October 2011 in the first and second grazing year. Steers were weighed every 14 days at pasture or 28 days during housing. In the first grazing year, faecal samples were collected for FEC and parasite cultures. At the end of the first grazing year, individual blood samples were taken to determine O. ostertagi antibody and plasma pepsinogen levels. During winter, animals were housed as one group and fed silage. In the second grazing year, steers were slaughtered when deemed to reach fat class 3. Data on steer performance showed no differences in daily live-weight gain which averaged 1.04 kg/day. The conformation, fat grade and killing out proportion of beef steers grazing chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were not found to differ. No differences in FEC, O. ostertagi antibody or plasma pepsinogen levels of beef steers grazing either chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were observed. Overall, there were no detrimental effects of including chicory in swards grazed by beef cattle on their performance, carcass characteristics or helminth parasitism, when compared with steers grazing ryegrass. PMID:24489708

  12. eaf tissue flows in ryegrass managed under different stocking rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônique Foggiato da Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenetic, structural variables and leaf biomass flows of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. were evaluated under two stocking rates: ‘Low’ and ‘High’. These rates were determined by heifers exclusively on pasture or on pasture and supplemented with corn grain. The experimental design was completely randomized following a repeated measure arrangement, two stocking rates, two and four replications of area for the stocking rates ‘low’ and ‘high’, respectively. The morphogenetic variables, the number of green leaves and tiller density were similar in both stocking rates. Leaf senescence rate was higher with low stocking rate. Heifers grazed with similar intensity and frequency in both stocking rates. The increase by 33.6% in the stocking rate caused by the use of supplement does not change the leaf biomass flow of Italian ryegrass, but alters its potential efficiency of use near the reproductive stage of the plant.

  13. Establishing the basis for Genomic Prediction in Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a relatively new technology, which has already revolutionized animal breeding and which is expected to have a high impact on plant breeding. In contrast to traditional marker assisted breeding, which only focuses on specific genes. GS estimates the genetic value...... of individuals/families by using genomic information over the Whole genome. The benefits of GS include reductions in expensive and time-consuming phenotyping operations, higher genetic gains, and simultaneous selection of multiple traits. To date, GS has primarely been tested in species, which are grown...... ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), which is the most cultivated forage grass in temperate regions. Different statistical models were used for predicting the phenotypes of perennial ryegrass families, across diffent environments. Results showed good prospects for GS implementation in forage breeding, due...

  14. Molecular Characterization Of The Vernalization Locus VRN1 In Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Torben; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe R;

    Vernalization, the requirement of a period of low temperature to induce transition from vegetative to reproductive state, is an important trait in grasses. The objective of this study was to identify the causative polymorphism(s) for the variation in vernalization requirement at the VRN1 locus in...... perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Two allelic BAC clones of the VRN1 locus from the two genotypes Veyo and Falster with contrasting vernalization requirements were identified, sequenced, and characterized. The region surrounding the VRN1 locus in perennial ryegrass showed micro-colinearity to the...

  15. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper – Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben;

    2013-01-01

    (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to...... assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The...

  16. Genotype variation of perennial ryegrass grown for seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Simon; Boelt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    There is a large source of untapped variation within perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) populations that may increase seed yields. Understanding this variation starts with the development of potentials seed yield and how the length of this period may change with cultivar. Utilising 53 UPOV...... for the range of cultivars modelled. We show that in later secondary inducing cultivars, there is a reduced period for the development of seed yield potential. The results have wider implications for seed production management systems, with research trials needing to comprehend if the varying inputs...... alter the development of seed yield potential, or the utilisation of seed yield potentials....

  17. Revegetation of Copper Mine Tailings with Ryegrass and Willow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xiu-Zhen; ZHOU Dong-Mei; SI You-Bin

    2004-01-01

    To restore vegetation on metal mine tailings is very difficult because they often contain high concentrations of heavy metals, low nutrient content and low water retention capacity. This study involved 3 experiments that evaluated the effects of 4 treatment amendments: montmorillonite, rice straw, organic manure and chemical fertilizer on the growth of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and willow (Saliz viminalis L.) with Cu and Zn mine tailings from two mining areas. The results showed that ryegrass was the most tolerant of 4 crops to Cu toxicity. Also when organic manure, which contained high concentrations of inorganic salts, was added to the mine tailings, it significantly hindered ryegrass growth (P = 0.05).Meanwhile, with ryegrass organic manure significantly increased (P= 0.05) the extractable Cu concentration in both mine tailings. When montmorillonite was used as a mine tailings amendment with willow, the height and tress number at the 1st cut were significantly greater (P =- 0.05) than a control without montmorillonite. However there was no significant difference for height, tress number, dry weight or root dry weight at the 2nd cut. So, amendment applications to reduce metal toxicity and increase nutrients retention in mine tailings were essential during revegetation of mine tailings.

  18. Understanding Lolium rigidum Seeds: The Key to Managing a Problem Weed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Steadman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 40 million hectare southern Australian winter cropping region suffers from widespread infestation by Lolium rigidum (commonly known as annual or rigid ryegrass, a Mediterranean species initially introduced as a pasture plant. Along with its high competitiveness within crops, rapid adaptability and widespread resistance to herbicides, the dormancy of its seeds means that L. rigidum is the primary weed in southern Australian agriculture. With the individuals within a L. rigidum population exhibiting varying levels of seed dormancy, germination can be staggered across the crop-growing season, making complete weed removal virtually impossible, and ensuring that the weed seed bank is constantly replenished. By understanding the processes involved in induction and release of dormancy in L. rigidum seeds, it may be possible to develop strategies to more effectively manage this pest without further stretching herbicide resources. This review examines L. rigidum seed dormancy and germination from a weed-management perspective and explains how the seed bank can be depleted by control strategies encompassing all stages in the lifecycle of a seed, from development to germination.

  19. Genetic variation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium in European elite germplasm of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazauskas, Gintaras; Lenk, Ingo; Pedersen, Morten Greve;

    2011-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a highly valued temperate climate grass species grown as forage crop and for amenity uses. Due to its outbreeding nature and recent domestication, a high degree of genetic diversity is expected among cultivars. The aim of this study was to assess the extent...... and occurred within 0.4 cM across European varieties, when population structure was taken into consideration. However, an extended LD of up to 6.6 cM was detected within the variety Aberdart. High genetic diversity and rapid LD decay provide means for high resolution association mapping in elite materials...... of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within European elite germplasm and to evaluate the appropriate methodology for genetic association mapping in perennial ryegrass. A high level of genetic diversity was observed in a set of 380 perennial ryegrass elite genotypes when genotyped with 40 SSRs and 2 STS markers...

  20. Ryegrass pasture combined with partial total mixed ration reduces enteric methane emissions and maintains the performance of dairy cows during mid to late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall-Orsoletta, Aline C; Almeida, João Gabriel R; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Savian, Jean V; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M N

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of grazed pasture in dairy feeding systems based on a total mixed ration (TMR) reduces feed costs, benefits herd health, and reduces environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ryegrass pasture combined with a partial TMR on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake (DMI), and performance of dairy cows from mid to late lactation. The experimental treatments included 100% TMR (control), partial TMR + 6h of continuous grazing (0900-1500 h), and partial TMR + 6h of grazing that was divided into 2 periods of 3h each that took place after milking (0900-1200 h; 1530-1830 h). Twelve F1 cows (Holstein × Jersey; 132±44 DIM) were divided into 6 lots and distributed in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 21 d (15 d of adaptation and 6 d of evaluation). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture was used, and the TMR was composed of 80% corn silage, 18% soybean meal, and 2% mineral and vitamin mixture, based on dry matter. The same mixture was used for cows with access to pasture. The total DMI, milk production, and 4% fat-corrected milk were similar for all cows; however, the pasture DMI (7.4 vs. 6.0kg/d) and grazing period (+ 40 min/d) were higher in cows that had access to pasture for 2 periods of 3h compared with those that grazed for a continuous 6-h period. Methane emission was higher (656 vs. 547g/d) in confined cows than in those that received partial TMR + pasture. The inclusion of annual ryegrass pasture in the diet of dairy cows maintained animal performance and reduced enteric methane emissions. The percentage of grazed forage in the cows' diet increased when access to pasture was provided in 2 periods after the morning and afternoon milking. PMID:27016830

  1. Identification of Glyphosate Resistance in Lolium rigidum Gaudin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Pavlović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate resistance was found in Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Rigid ryegrass, LOLRI inSouth Africa. Suspected glyphosate-resistant L. rigidum populations were collected andgrown under greenhouse conditions. The plants were sprayed with a range of doses of glyphosate35 days after planting and shoot dry biomass was determined 17 days after herbicidetreatment. Based on the dose-response experiment conducted in the greenhouse,one population of L. rigidum suspected to be resistant to glyphosate was approximately 5.3fold more resistant than susceptible population. The other population was 2.8 fold moreresistant than susceptible population. Difference between the two suspected resistant populationswas 1.9 fold. All plants were treated with glyphosate (1000 g a.i. ha-1 and shikimicacid was extracted 2, 4 and 6 days after treatment. The plants of susceptible populationsaccumulated more shikimic acid than other two populations.

  2. Morphology and pollen viability of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Morfologia e viabilidade polínica de Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Castro Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de

  3. Exploring an Annotated Sequence Assembly of the Perennial Ryegrass Genome for Genomic Regions Enriched for Trait Associated Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Cericola, Fabio; Janss, Luc;

    2015-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an outbreeding diploid species and one of the most important forage crops used in temperate agriculture. We have developed a draft sequence assembly of the perennial ryegrass genome and annotated it with the aid of RNA-seq data from various genotypes, plant...... components, and treatments. We predicted 39,795 high quality proteins originating from 28,182 genetic loci. We wanted to use the annotated assembly to study if SNPs falling within various annotation classes explain differing proportions of the variance for traits such as heading date and rust resistance...

  4. Comparative analysis of multiple disease resistance in ryegrass and cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Ki; Barker, Reed; Pfender, William; Warnke, Scott; Sim, Sung-Chur; Jung, Geunhwa

    2008-08-01

    Ryegrass (Lolium spp.) is among the most important forage crops in Europe and Australia and is also a popular turfgrass in North America. Previous genetic analysis based on a three-generation interspecific (L. perennexL. multiflorum) ryegrass population identified four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to gray leaf spot (Magneporthe grisea) and four QTLs for resistance to crown rust (Puccinia coronata). The current analysis based on the same mapping population detected seven QTLs for resistance to leaf spot (Bipolaris sorokiniana) and one QTL for resistance to stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in ryegrass for the first time. Three QTLs for leaf spot resistance on linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 4 were in regions of conserved synteny to the positions of resistance to net blotch (Drechslera teres) in barley (Hordeum vulgare). One ryegrass genomic region spanning 19 cM on LG 4, which contained three QTLs for resistance to leaf spot, gray leaf spot, and stem rust, had a syntenic relationship with a segment of rice chromosome 3, which contained QTLs for resistance to multiple diseases. However, at the genome-wide comparison based on 72 common RFLP markers between ryegrass and cereals, coincidence of QTLs for disease resistance to similar fungal pathogens was not statistically significant.

  5. Pollen-Mediated Movement of Herbicide Resistance Genes in Lolium rigidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Loureiro

    Full Text Available The transfer of herbicide resistance genes by pollen is a major concern in cross-pollinated species such as annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum. A two-year study was conducted in the greenhouse, under favorable conditions for pollination, to generate information on potential maximum cross-pollination. This maximum cross-pollination rate was 56.1%. A three-year field trial was also conducted to study the cross-pollination rates in terms of distance and orientation to an herbicide-resistant pollen source. Under field conditions, cross-pollination rates varied from 5.5% to 11.6% in plants adjacent to the pollen source and decreased with increasing distances (1.5 to 8.9% at 15 m distance and up to 4.1% at 25 m in the downwind direction. Environmental conditions influenced the cross-pollination both under greenhouse and field conditions. Data were fit to an exponential decay model to predict gene flow at increasing distances. This model predicted an average gene flow of 7.1% when the pollen donor and recipient plants were at 0 m distance from each other. Pollen-mediated gene flow declined by 50% at 16.7 m from the pollen source, yet under downwind conditions gene flow of 5.2% was predicted at 25 m, the farthest distance studied. Knowledge of cross-pollination rates will be useful for assessing the spread of herbicide resistance genes in L. rigidum and in developing appropriate strategies for its mitigation.

  6. Population structure, genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium in perennial ryegrass populations divergently selected for freezing tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna Rao eKovi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses seriously affecting the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. Understanding the genetic control of freezing tolerance would aid in the development of cultivars of perennial ryegrass with improved adaptation to frost. A total number of 80 individuals (24 of High frost [HF]; 29 of Low frost [LF] and 27 of Unselected [US] from the second generation of the two divergently selected populations and an unselected control population were genotyped using 278 genome-wide SNPs derived from Lolium perenne L. transcriptome sequence. Our studies showed that the HF and LF populations are very divergent after selection for freezing tolerance, whereas the HF and US populations are more similar. Linkage disequilibrium (LD decay varied across the seven chromosomes and the conspicuous pattern of LD between the HF and LF population confirmed their divergence in freezing tolerance. Furthermore, two Fst outlier methods; finite island model (fdist by LOSITAN and hierarchical structure model using ARLEQUIN detected six loci under directional selection. These outlier loci are most probably linked to genes involved in freezing tolerance, cold adaptation and abiotic stress and might be the potential marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved freezing tolerance.

  7. Sementes nocivas que ocorreram em amostras de sementes de azevém (Lolium multiflorum, analisadas no Rio Grande do Sul nos anos de 1978 e 1979 Weed seeds in ryegrass seeds, analysed in Rio Grande do Sul, during 1978 and 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Giaretta

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram levantadas informações sobre a qualidade da semente de azevém utilizadas no Rio Grande do Sul e produzida no próprio Estado ou em outras uni dades da Federação e mesmo em outros Países, nos anos de 1978 e 1979. Estas informações foram obtidas através de fichas e Boletins de Análise de Sementes dos Laboratórios de Análise de Sementes (LAS do Rio Grande do Sul. Em 1978 analisou-se 2.319 t de azevém sendo 74% da semente oriunda do Rio Grande do Sul e 26% introduzida, enquanto que das 4.772 t analisadas em 1979 99,6% são do Rio Grande do Sul e 0,4% são introduzidas. O percentual de sementes de azevém, produzidas no Estado, contaminadas com sementes nocivas foi de 61,5% em 1978 e de 60,0% em 1979; e o de sementes int roduzidas no Estado foi de 45,6% em 1978 e de 29,4%em 1979. Foi observado que ent re as sementes originárias do RS destacaram -se com maior ocorrênci a em 1978 as espécies nocivas de Silene gallica, Setaria geniculata, Anthemis cotula, Digitaria adscendens e Echinochloa spp, enquanto que nas sementes int roduzidas desta caram-se Sida spp e Rumex spp; em 1979, na semente oriunda do Estado desta caram-se Amaranthus spp, Silene gallica e Setaria geniculata, enquanto que nas sementes introduzidas a maior ocorrência foi de Setaria geniculata, Echinochloa spp e Solanum spp.This paper presents a quality record of rye-grass seeds produced in Rio Grande do Sul or imported from other countries. It refers to the presence of weeds in ryegrass during 1978 and 1979. These record were obtained in the Analysis Bulletins at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Agronômicas (IPAGRO Rio Grande do Sul°Brasil and in those from other institutions. This State produced 74% of 2.319 t analysed seeds and 26% come from other places in 1978. In 1979 4.772 t were registred, 99,6% from here and 0,4% from outside. The percentage of ryegrass seeds contaminated with weed seeds produced in the State, in 1978, were 61

  8. Effect of Ryegrasses on Soil Runoff and Sediment Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Living plants and plant roots can reduce runoff and soil erosion.Using a rain simulator,a series of soil erosion experiments were conducted to study the influence of living roots and canopies of ryegrasses(Lolium perenne L.)during the growing season on sediment yields and runoff of a silt loam soil.The results indicated that during the growing season,decrements in runoff and sediment yields increased with time.Sediment yields(r2=0.999)and decrements in runoff (r2=0.946)were closely related to the root surface area density.The contributions of roots and canopies of ryegrasass to the reductions in runoff and sediment yields were different.Canopies usually contributed more to the runoff decrement than the roots,whereas roots contributed up to 96% of the decrease in sediment yields in the late stage of the growing season.

  9. Fructan metabolism and changes in fructan composition during cold acclimation in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abeynayake, Shamila; Etzerodt, Thomas; Jonavičienė, Kristina;

    2015-01-01

    biomass (top) and the roots, and the transcription of candidate genes involved in fructan metabolism during cold acclimation in perennial ryegrass variety ‘Veyo’ and ecotype ‘Falster’ from distinct geographical origins. We observed changes in fructan composition and induction of low-DP fructans......Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) produces high levels of fructans as a mixture of oligomers with different degrees of polymerization (DP). The present study describes the analysis of the compositional changes in the full spectrum of fructan oligomers, fructan distribution between above ground....... The ecotype ‘Falster’, adapted to cold climates, increased total fructan content and produced more fructans (DP˃7) in the roots than the variety ‘Veyo’, adapted to warmer climates suggesting that accumulation of fructans in roots, especially the high-DP fructans as an adaptive trait for plant recovery after...

  10. Nitrogen-salt interaction in ryegrass : implications for soil potassium testing

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Carpio, José Manuel; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús; Cabrera Capitán, Francisco; López Núñez, Rafael

    1998-01-01

    Split additions of NO3-N (irrigation with a solution of 50 mg Nl-1) under saline conditions (irrigation with a 10 mM NaCl solution, which did not negatively affect plant growth) and non-saline conditions (water), enhanced the Na uptake by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. “Barwoltra”) grown in two soils potentially rich in K. The Mg uptake was also enhanced. This was not observed for split additions of P. After an initial “luxury” K plant uptake, the K supply could be insufficient...

  11. Produção de novilhos superprecoces em pastagem de aveia e azevém submetida a diferentes alturas de manejo Production of beef steers grazing oat plus annual ryegrass pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a produção e as características de carcaças de novilhos jovens mantidos em pastagem cultivada de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diferentes alturas. Os tratamentos impostos foram quatro diferentes alturas de manejo da pastagem (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm, obtidas por meio da aplicação de diferentes cargas animais. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Utilizaram-se animais jovens de aproximadamente dez meses de idade, machos castrados sem padrão racial definido, com peso médio inicial de 210 kg. O aumento no ganho médio diário (GMD foi condicionado pelo incremento na qualidade e/ou na quantidade de forragem disponível, visto que as ofertas de forragem para os tratamentos de 10, 20, 30 e 40 cm de altura foram de 6, 10, 23 e 51 kg de MS/100 kg de PV/dia, respectivamente. Portanto, o modelo de resposta do GMD em relação às alturas de pastejo resultou em valores de 0,73 e 1,14 kg/animal/dia nos tratamentos de menor e maior GMD, respectivamente, que foram de 10 e 30 cm de altura. Como a variação no GMD foi baixa, o maior ganho por área observado no tratamento 10 cm pode ser atribuído à maior carga animal, ambas com respostas lineares decrescendo com o aumento da altura de pastejo. O peso vivo dos animais antes do abate e o peso de carcaça quente elevaram com o aumento da altura da pastagem, reduzindo apenas no tratamento 40 cm com a redução da qualidade da pastagem. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para o rendimento de carcaça, pois todos os valores mantiveram-se em torno de 51%. O escore de condição corporal e o grau de acabamento apresentaram tendência muito similar à evolução do ganho médio diário dos animais.The objective of this trial was to evaluate production and carcass characteristics of young steers grazing a mixture of black oat and Italian ryegrass pasture. Treatments were four different pasture heights (10, 20

  12. Compostagem da fracção sólida do chorume com palha de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. ou tojo (Ulex europaeus L. Composting cattle slurry solid fraction with Italian ryegrass straw (Lo­lium multiflorum Lam. or gorse (Ulex europaeus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A fracção sólida do chorume (FSC de uma exploração de pecuária leiteira intensi­va foi compostada com adição de doses crescentes de palha de azevém ou de tojo, em pilhas estáticas com três revolvimentos. A temperatura aumentou na FSC até 65 ºC após o primeiro revolvimento mas as tempe­raturas máximas registaram-se mais cedo e foram mais elevadas nas pilhas com adição de palha ou de tojo. Estes materiais aumen­taram as taxas de mineralização da matéria orgânica (MO em todas as pilhas. No entanto, a MO potencialmente mineralizável e o teor de N orgânico nos compostos finais foram inferiores. A razão C/N diminuiu de forma semelhante para todas as pilhas de 32-38 no início do processo para 13-17 no final da compostagem. A baixa temperatura, a baixa razão C/N e a baixa concentração de NH4+, em combinação com o aumento da concentração de NO 3-dos compostos finais, indicaram que estes estavam estabilizados. O elevado teor de MO (784-832 g kg-1 MS e de N total (28-35 g kg-1 MS e a baixa condutividade eléctrica (0,72-1,16 dS m-1 sugerem que os compostados da FSC podem ser utilizados como correctivos orgânicos do solo. A utilização de palha ou de tojo contribuiu para melhor garantir a higienização do composto.Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF was col­lected from a dairy farm (SF and com­posted with increasing rates of Italian rye-grass straw or gorse, in static piles turned only three times. Temperatures increased to a maximum of 65 ºC after the first turn in the pile only with SF. In contrast, higher temperatures were registered much sooner in piles mixed with straw or gorse. The ad­dition of these bulking agents to SF in­creased temperatures and also the initial rates of organic matter (OM mineralisation. In contrast, potential OM mineralisation and organic N content decreased. The C/N ratio declined following a similar pattern for all compost treatments, from 32-38 at the beginning of the proc­ess, to a

  13. A new member of the LIR family from perennial ryegrass is cold-responsive, and promotes vegetative growth in ¤Arabidopsis¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciannamea, S.; Jensen, Christian Sig; Agerskov, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    A cold-regulated gene Lolium perenne LIR1 (LpLIR1) was isolated from perennial ryegrass using a subtractive approach. The gene has strong homology to the Light Induced Rice1 (LIR1) gene and is regulated at the transcriptional level by cold, and by a diurnal rhythm. Expression of LpLIR1 in perenni...... a minor but significant delay of flowering in the transgenic lines compared to wildtype plants. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Effects of Earthworms and Ryegrass on the Removal of Fluoranthene from Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Yong-Ping; LIU Man-Qiang; YIN Qi-Peng; LI Hui-Xin; HU Feng

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms can promote the bioremediation of contaminated soils through enhancing plant growth and microorganism development.The individual and combined effects of earthworms and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) on the removal of fluoranthene from a sandy-loam alluvial soil were investigated in a 70-d microcosm experiment.The experiment was set up in a complete factorial design with treatments in four replicates:without earthworms or ryegrass (control,CK),with earthworms only (E),with ryegrass only (P),and with both earthworms and ryegrass (EP).The residual fluoranthene,microbial biomass C,and polyphenol oxidase activity in the soil changed significantly (P < 0.01) with time.In general,the residual concentration of fluoranthene in the soil decreased sharply from 71.8-88.7 to 31.7-37.4 mg kg-1 in 14 d,and then decreased gradually to 19.7-30.5 mg kg-1 on the 70th d.The fluoranthene concentration left in the soil was the least with both earthworms and ryegrass,compared to the other treatments at the end of the experiment.Half-life times of fluoranthene in the E,P,and EP treatments were 17.8%-36.3% smaller than that of CK.More fluoranthene was absorbed by earthworms than ryegrass.However,the total amounts of fluoranthene accumulated in both the ryegrass and earthworms were small,only accounting for 0.01%-1.20% of the lost fluoranthene.Therefore,we assumed that microbial degradation would play a dominant functional role in fluoranthene removal from soil.We found that earthworms significantly increased microbial biomass C and polyphenol oxidase activity (P < 0.01) in the presence of ryegrass at the end of the experiment.Furthermore,microbial biomass C and polyphenol oxidase activity were significantly (P < 0.05) and negatively related to the residual fluoranthene concentration.This implied that earthworms might promote the removal of fluoranthene from soil via stimulating microbial biomass C and polyphenol oxidase activity.

  15. Effects of the invasive annual grass Lolium multiflorum Lam. on the growth and physiology of a Southern African Mediterranean-climate geophyte Tritonia crocata (L.) Ker. Gawl. under different resource conditions / J.L. Arnolds

    OpenAIRE

    Arnolds, Judith Lize

    2007-01-01

    Little is known of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying competitive interactions between alien invasive grasses and native taxa, and how these are affected by resource supply. Consequently, this study compared photosystem II (PS II) function, photosynthetic gas and water exchange, enzyme and pigment concentrations, flowering and biomass accumulation in an indigenous geophyte, Tritonia crocata (L.) Ker. Gawl., grown in monoculture and admixed with the alien grass, Lolium mul...

  16. Candidate gene association mapping for winter survival and spring regrowth in perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqing; Pijut, Paula M; Byrne, Stephen; Asp, Torben; Bai, Guihua; Jiang, Yiwei

    2015-06-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a widely cultivated cool-season grass species because of its high quality for forage and turf. Susceptibility to freezing damage limits its further use in temperate zones. The objective of this study was to identify candidate genes significantly associated with winter survival and spring regrowth in a global collection of 192 perennial ryegrass accessions. Significant differences in winter survival (WS), percentage of canopy green cover (CGC), chlorophyll index (Chl), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were found among accessions. After controlling population structure, LpLEA3 encoding a late embryogenesis abundant group 3 protein and LpCAT encoding a catalase were associated with CGC and Chl, while LpMnSOD encoding a magnesium superoxide dismutase and LpChl Cu-ZnSOD encoding a chlorophyll copper-zinc superoxide dismutase were associated with NDVI or Chl. Significant association was also discovered between C-repeat binding factor LpCBF1b and WS. Three sequence variations identified in LpCAT, LpMnSOD, and LpChl Cu-ZnSOD were synonymous substitutions, whereas one pair of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LpLEA3 and one SNP in LpCBF1b resulted in amino acid change. The results demonstrated that allelic variation in LpLEA3 and LpCBF1b was closely related to winter survival and spring regrowth in perennial ryegrass. PMID:25900564

  17. Infestation and natural parasitism of aphids in single and mixed pastures of black oats and ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Soares Sturza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some species of aphids are major pests on cereal crops and grass pastures. Usually these pests are not adequately controlled in pasture lands that become sources of aphid infestations to cereal crops. The dynamics of aphids and the incidence of natural enemies are less known in pasture systems than in cereal fields. The objective of this work was to assess the aphid infestation and natural aphid parasitism in different pasture composition. Three hypotheses were tested: 1- the aphid species composition in pastures may vary according to the cereal species in the field; 2- the mixture of two plant species can modify the amount and diversity of aphids; 3- the plant species composition of pasture fields influences the parasitism of aphids. Empirical data were obtained from three Poaceae fields: black oats (Avena strigosa L., ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L., and a mixed field of black oats and ryegrass. The most abundant aphid species was Rhopalosiphum padi followed by Sitobion avenae. Plant species composition increases the amount and the parasitism rates of aphids. The mixture of heavily infested black oats with a poorly infested ryegrass resulted in reduction of aphid infestation in comparison with heavily-infested single plant species field. This is possible because the conditions are favorable for the development of parasitoid populations. Aphidius colemani was the main parasitoid found in these areas.

  18. Protecting effect of recycled urban wastes (sewage sludge and wastewater) on ryegrass against the toxicity of pesticides at high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmán, Ignacio; Sánchez, Lourdes; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J; Valdés, Benito; Rossini-Oliva, Sabina

    2014-09-01

    Degraded landscapes, like those from abandoned mine areas, could be restored by revegetating them with appropriate plant species, after correction for acidity and improvement by adding exogenous organic material. Application of urban wastes to large areas of derelict land helps in the sustainable development of this landscape. However, the development of plant species in these soils could require in the future the management of possible pests or diseases by pesticide applications which could also affect plant yield. Therefore, ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was planted in a limed soil from the mining area of Riotinto (SW Spain), using an indoor pot experiment and the effects of amendment with sewage sludge, as well as irrigation with urban wastewater on plant uptake of the insecticide thiacloprid and the fungicide fenarimol were examined. Ryegrass biomass was reduced up to 3-fold by pesticide application. Fenarimol residues were the highest in soil, while those of thiacloprid were lower in soil and higher in ryegrass. Addition of sewage sludge and irrigation with wastewater led to a reduction of pesticide translocation to the aerial plant parts, representing a lower hazard to ryegrass quality grown in this mine soil.

  19. Correlations between productivity elements in Lolium perenne L. species for new varieties resistant to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass is considered the most important perennial gramineous plant due to the many possibilities of use (grass and fodder [6, 9, 15].With the increasing emphasis put on increasing the area of green space, obtaining new biological forms - varieties of the main species of gramineous plants for turf, with increased resistance to drought and land during the summer, may represent an important objective of the research companies producing such seed [6, 7].In the present study, are given researches on correlations between productivity elements, obtained in an experiment that simulates conditions of severe drought soil, to different genotypes of the species Lolium perenne L., which is an ideal partner for simple and complex mixtures of turf.Establishment of correlations between key elements of productivity show to the breeder, in the selection work, choice of valuable genotypes consistent with the objectives of its program.

  20. The photosynthetic acclimation of Lolium perenne growing in a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.B. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom)]|[Writtle Coll. (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Stands of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Bastion) were grown in the field at ambient or elevated (600{mu}mol/mol) CO{sub 2} concentration, high (560Kg/ha) or low (140Kg/ha) nitrogen addition and with a frequent (every 4 weeks) or infrequent (every 8 weeks) cutting regime. Plants were in the second year of a 3 year experiment. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} was carried out with a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) system which provides the most {open_quote}realistic{close_quote} system of CO{sub 2} fumigation currently available. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased diurnal CO{sub 2} assimilation by between 34 and 88% whilst reducing rates of stomatal conductance by between 1 and 42%. However, analysis of the A vs. Ci response showed considerable acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated CO{sub 2} - Vc{sub max} as an in vivo measure of RubisCO activity, decreased by between 29 and 35% in high CO{sub 2}, whilst J{sub max}, as a measure of the RubP regeneration capacity, showed no significant change. Two out of three additional perennial grassland species studied showed similar acclamatory behavior to Ryegrass. Diurnal assimilation rate, J{sub max} and, in most cases, Vc{sub max}, increased significantly directly after cutting of Ryegrass stands, but nitrogen treatment had little effect on any of these parameters. Neither stomatal density, stomatal index nor stomatal pore length of Ryegrass were significantly altered by growth in elevated CO{sub 2}. The results are discussed in terms of the limitation imposed on maximizing photosynthetic and growth responses of Ryegrass at elevated CO{sub 2}, by the ability of perennial species to increase long-term sink capacity under these conditions.

  1. Content of Nutritional Elements in Sudangrass and Ryegrass Determined by ICP-AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-xi; LU Jian-wei; Saman P Seneweera; WU Ji; CHEN Fang; LU Jun-ming; LI Xiao-kun

    2011-01-01

    The sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) rotation is a new type of cropping system,which has developed rapidly in recent years in the south of China.The contents of nutritional elements for forage grass in the sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system were determined by ICPAES.The results showed that there were abundant and essential nutritional elements for animals in sudangrass and ryegrass.The contents of P,K,Ca,Mg,S,Fe,B,Cu,Zn and Mn for sudangrass were 0.20% ~0.29%,1.94%~2.57%,0.62% ~0.97%,0.39% ~0.69%,0.12% ~0.18%,108.35~ 180.12,3.04~5.96,6.17~10.02,20.37~31.36 and 46.80~101.29 mg · kg-1,respectively.The contents of P,K,Ca,Mg,S,Fe,B,Cu,Zn,Mn for ryegrass were 0.39%~0.70%,3.77%~5.07%,0.61%~0.84%,0.28%~0.47%,0.32%~0.41%,291.65 ~ 632.20,2.13~3.23,13.29~15.19,30.73 ~ 42.98 and 92.08~156.04 mg · kg-1,respectively,and there were differences between various periods in nutritional elements in the two forage grasses.The application of ICP-AES could reflect fast and efficiently the content of nutritional elements for forage grass as animals feed.

  2. Application of molecular markers for variety protection of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bach; Deneken, Gerhard; Roulund, N;

    2008-01-01

    Before seed of most major agricultural and vegetable varieties can be sold in the EU, the variety must be included on a National List (NL) of a member state or on the Common Catalogue (a compilation of the NLs of the member states). In many countries, particularly in the EU, the controlling......). At the moment, the DUS criteria are assessed in the EU member states mainly using a series of replicated field tests and trials. DUS testing takes a minimum of two years and requires considerable resources. Thus, there is much interest in reducing the time, resources, land use and hence cost, of variety...

  3. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  4. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Stacey A; Whitworth, Whitney A; Montgomery, T Gregory; Beck, Paul A

    2012-07-24

    In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow) that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.)/bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture): 1) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG), 2) wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR), or 3) wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L.) and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW). All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients). The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27) among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17) among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06) to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02) for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  5. Annual maize and perennial grass-clover strip cropping for increased resource use efficiency and productivity using organic farming practice as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann;

    2013-01-01

    A cropping system was designed to fulfill the increasing demand for biomass for food and energy without decreasing long term soil fertility. A field experiment was carried out including alternating strips of annual maize (Zea mays L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – clover (Trifolium...... of the grass to compete for soil mineral N. Maize yields were clearly associated with N fertilizer application. When fertilizer N was applied through slurry or anaerobic digested slurry maize yields was increasing with up to 100% equivalent to 1200g carbon (C) m−2 or 35MJm−2. However, the same relative growth...... reduction was found when grown in close proximity to the grass-clover strip. If slurry is available maize secures an efficient N uptake, however, long-term effects of maize cropping and biomass removal on soil quality is of concern. The present strip cropping system did not possess the right balance of co...

  6. Produção de novilhos superprecoces em pastagem de aveia e azevém submetida a diferentes alturas de manejo Production of beef steers grazing oat plus annual ryegrass pasture managed at different heights

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga; Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho; Ibanor Anghinoni; Davi Teixeira dos Santos; Fabiana Kellermann de Freitas; Marilia Terra Lopes

    2006-01-01

    Foram avaliadas a produção e as características de carcaças de novilhos jovens mantidos em pastagem cultivada de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam) manejada em diferentes alturas. Os tratamentos impostos foram quatro diferentes alturas de manejo da pastagem (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm), obtidas por meio da aplicação de diferentes cargas animais. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Utilizaram-se animais jovens de aproximadamente dez mese...

  7. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Ming [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zhangming@zju.edu.cn

    2008-11-15

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation.

  8. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar 'Fagerlin' based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould. PMID:27346054

  9. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar ‘Fagerlin’ based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould. PMID:27346054

  10. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar 'Fagerlin' based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould.

  11. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lolium-Festuca Complex Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Byrne, Stephen; Sharma, Sapna;

    2015-01-01

    , winter hardiness, drought tolerance and resistance to grazing. In this study we have sequenced and assembled the low copy fraction of the genomes of Lolium westerwoldicum, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca pratensis and Lolium temulentum. We have also generated de-novo transcriptome assemblies for each species......, and these have aided in the annotation of the genomic sequence. Using this data we were able to generate annotated assemblies of the gene rich regions of the four species to complement the already sequenced Lolium perenne genome. Using these gene models we have identified orthologous genes between the species...

  12. Temperature and Plant Genotype Alter Alkaloid Concentrations in Ryegrass Infected with an Epichloë Endophyte and This Affects an Insect Herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Louise M.; Popay, Alison J.; Finch, Sarah C.; Clearwater, Michael J.; Cave, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    Asexual Epichloë endophytes colonize agricultural forage grasses in a relationship which is mutually beneficial and provides the host plant with protection against herbivorous insects. The endophyte strain AR37 (Epichloë festucae var. lolii) produces epoxy-janthitrem alkaloids and is the only endophyte known to provide ryegrass with resistance against porina larvae (Wiseana cervinata (Walker)), a major pasture pest in cooler areas of New Zealand. This study examined the effect of temperature on concentrations of epoxy-janthitrems in AR37-infected ryegrass and determined how the resulting variations in concentration affected consumption, growth and survival of porina larvae. Twenty replicate pairs of perennial (Lolium perenne L.) and Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum Lam.) plants with and without endophyte were prepared by cloning, with one of each pair grown at either high (20°C) or low (7°C) temperature. After 10 weeks, herbage on each plant was harvested, divided into leaf and pseudostem, then freeze dried and ground. Leaf and pseudostem material was then incorporated separately into semi-synthetic diets which were fed to porina larvae in a bioassay over 3 weeks. Epoxy-janthitrem concentrations within the plant materials and the semi-synthetic diets were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. AR37-infected ryegrass grown at high temperature contained high in planta concentrations of epoxy-janthitrem (30.6 μg/g in leaves and 83.9 μg/g in pseudostems) that had a strong anti-feedant effect on porina larvae when incorporated into their diets, reducing their survival by 25–42% on pseudostems. In comparison, in planta epoxy-janthitrem concentrations in AR37-infected ryegrass grown at low temperature were very low (0.67 μg/g in leaves and 7.4 μg/g in pseudostems) resulting in a small anti-feedant effect in perennial but not in Italian ryegrass. Although alkaloid concentrations were greatly reduced by low temperature this reduction did not occur

  13. Validity of accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves in perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives were to test if accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves (NDCs) in rapeseed, pea, alfalfa, tall fescue, wheat, annual ryegrass and linseed could be used in grass species for seed production and to develop a critical NDC especially in grass species for seed production. The...... production than the NDCs in tall fescue, alfalfa, pea and rapeseed. These findings should be used to continue the interesting and necessary work on developing a NDC in grass species for seed production....

  14. Differential responses of CO2 assimilation, carbohydrate allocation and gene expression to NaCl stress in perennial ryegrass with different salt tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Hu

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of NaCl stress on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. photosynthesis and carbohydrate flux. The objective of this study was to understand the carbohydrate metabolism and identify the gene expression affected by salinity stress. Seventy-four days old seedlings of two perennial ryegrass accessions (salt-sensitive 'PI 538976' and salt-tolerant 'Overdrive' were subjected to three levels of salinity stress for 5 days. Turf quality in all tissues (leaves, stems and roots of both grass accessions negatively and significantly correlated with GFS (Glu+Fru+Suc content, except for 'Overdrive' stems. Relative growth rate (RGR in leaves negatively and significantly correlated with GFS content in 'Overdrive' (P0.05 for turf quality. A greater up-regulation in the expression of SPS, SS, SI, 6-SFT gene was observed in 'Overdrive' than 'PI 538976'. A higher level of SPS and SS expression in leaves was found in 'PI 538976' relative to 'Overdrive'. Accumulation of hexoses in roots, stems and leaves can induce a feedback repression to photosynthesis in salt-stressed perennial ryegrass and the salt tolerance may be changed with the carbohydrate allocation in leaves and stems.

  15. Differentiating glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-sensitive Italian ryegrass using hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew A.; Huang, Yanbo; Nandula, Vijay K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2014-05-01

    Glyphosate based herbicide programs are most preferred in current row crop weed control practices. With the increased use of glyphosate, weeds, including Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), have developed resistance to glyphosate. The identification of glyphosate resistant weeds in crop fields is critical because they must be controlled before they reduce the crop yield. Conventionally, the method for the identification with whole plant or leaf segment/disc shikimate assays is tedious and labor-intensive. In this research, we investigated the use of high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery to extract spectral curves derived from the whole plant of Italian ryegrass to determine if the plant is glyphosate resistant (GR) or glyphosate sensitive (GS), which provides a way for rapid, non-contact measurement for differentiation between GR and GS weeds for effective site-specific weed management. The data set consists of 226 greenhouse grown plants (119 GR, 107 GS), which were imaged at three and four weeks after emergence. In image preprocessing, the spectral curves are normalized to remove lighting artifacts caused by height variation in the plants. In image analysis, a subset of hyperspectral bands is chosen using a forward selection algorithm to optimize the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) between GR and GS plants. Then, the dimensionality of selected bands is reduced using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Finally, the maximum likelihood classification was conducted for plant sample differentiation. The results show that the overall classification accuracy is between 75% and 80% depending on the age of the plants. Further refinement of the described methodology is needed to correlate better with plant age.

  16. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Wade; Lunn, Kristy; Lloyd-West, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g. the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection) while others are detrimental to the wellbeing of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g. ergovaline), produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl alanine, ergovaline) produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. ‘Grasslands Samson’) infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii). Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers) as well as between plants. The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested.

  17. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Jeffray Mace

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g. the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection while others are detrimental to the wellbeing of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g. ergovaline, produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl alanine, ergovaline produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. ‘Grasslands Samson’ infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii. Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers as well as between plants.The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested.

  18. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  19. Grazing and nitrogen on the growth of roots in the mixture of oat and ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo von Linsingen Piazzetta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of grazing and its absence, and the nitrogen on the morphology of roots of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. mixed with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. The experimental design was a randomized block design in split-split, the main portion was study the effects of grazing and its absence, in the subplots the nitrogen doses of 75 and 150 kg ha-1 and in the sub-subplots were at sampling period. There was used the cylinder method to collect the root, being measured the length, surface area, mean diameter and volume by image analysis system Win / MacRizho (4.1c. Determined the dry mass of roots and shoot, and estimated the density of the root tissue and shoot:root ratio. From these results we determined the rate of root growth relative (RGR, relative root expansion rate (RRER and rate of accumulation of dry matter daily (RADM. In the first period, was higher RGR, RRER, the second period there was a reduction of the same, probably due to the period of drought and plant senescence. There was also reduced due to grazing RADM. With grazing, the length, surface area, mean diameter and root volume were higher, indicating that there was greater root growth of plants grazed compared to ungrazed. The systems studied had no effect on the dry weight of roots. There were found greater specific mass and shot:root ratio in the system without grazing. There was no significant difference between the nitrogen studied. At mixed of black oat and ryegrass, the grazing and nitrogen dose until 150 kg ha-1 little affect root growth. The nitrogen dose changed a little the growth rates and expansion of the roots. On the other hand, the grazing favored the length, area, volume and root diameter.

  20. Isolation of prostrate turfgrass mutants via screening of dwarf phenotype and characterization of a perennial ryegrass prostrate mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junmei; Thammina, Chandra; Li, Wei; Yu, Hao; Yer, Huseyin; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Marron, Manon; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Chen, Yongqin; Inguagiato, John; McAvoy, Richard J; Guillard, Karl; Zhang, Xian; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Prostrate turf varieties are desirable because of their increased low mowing tolerance, heat resistance, traffic resistance and ground coverage compared with upright varieties. Mutation breeding may provide a powerful tool to create prostrate varieties, but there are no simple, straightforward methods to screen for such mutants. Elucidation of the molecular basis of the major 'green revolution' traits, dwarfism and semi-dwarfism, guided us to design a simple strategy for isolating dwarf mutants of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). We have shown that gamma-ray-mediated dominant dwarf mutants can be easily screened for at the three-leaf stage. About 10% of dwarf mutant lines also displayed a prostrate phenotype at mature stages (>10 tillers). One prostrate line, Lowboy I, has been characterized in detail. Lowboy I had significantly shorter canopy, leaf blade and internode lengths compared with wild type. Lowboy I also exhibited greater tolerance to low mowing stress than wild type. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA) restored Lowboy I to a wild-type phenotype, indicating that the dwarf and prostrate phenotypes were both due to GA deficiency. We further showed that phenotypes of Lowboy I were dominant and stably inherited through sexual reproduction. Prostrate turfgrass mutants are difficult to screen for because the phenotype is not observed at young seedling stages, therefore our method represents a simple strategy for easily isolating prostrate mutants. Furthermore, Lowboy I may provide an outstanding germplasm for breeding novel prostrate perennial ryegrass cultivars. PMID:26955481

  1. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoux, Agnes Y. [Sanexen Environmental Services Inc., 1471 Lionel-Boulet Boulevard, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1P7 (Canada)]. E-mail: arenoux@sanexen.com; Rocheleau, Sylvie [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Sarrazin, Manon [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Sunahara, Geoffrey I. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada)]. E-mail: geoffrey.sunahara@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca; Blais, Jean-Francois [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS-ETE), Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne street, Quebec, Quebec G1K 9A9 (Canada)]. E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca

    2007-01-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45 {+-} 0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79 {+-} 0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82 {+-} 1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls. - Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on metal bioavailability as measured by metal speciation, toxicity and bioaccumulation.

  2. Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Endophyte Infection on Ecophysiological Parameters and Mineral Element Content of Perennial Ryegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Zhi Ren; Yu-Bao Gao; Wei Wang; Jin-Long Wang; Nian-Xi Zhao

    2009-01-01

    An expedment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyfe infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations In the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants.

  3. Functional characterization and hormonal regulation of the PHEOPHYTINASE gene LpPPH controlling leaf senescence in perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yu, Guohui; Wen, Wuwu; Ma, Xiqing; Xu, Bin; Huang, Bingru

    2016-02-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) degradation occurs naturally during leaf maturation and senescence, and can be induced by stresses, both processes involving the regulation of plant hormones. The objective of this study was to determine the functional roles and hormonal regulation of a gene encoding pheophytin pheophorbide hydrolyase (PPH) that catabolizes Chl degradation during leaf senescence in perennial grass species. A PPH gene, LpPPH, was cloned from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). LpPPH was localized in the chloroplast. Overexpressing LpPPH accelerated Chl degradation in wild tobacco, and rescued the stay-green phenotype of the Arabidopsis pph null mutant. The expression level of LpPPH was positively related to the extent of leaf senescence. Exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon (an ethylene-releasing agent) accelerated the decline in Chl content in leaves of perennial ryegrass, whereas cytokinin (CK) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG; an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor) treatments suppressed leaf senescence, corresponding to the up- or down-regulation of LpPPH expression. The promoters of five orthologous PPH genes were predicted to share conserved cis-elements potentially recognized by transcription factors in the ABA and CK pathways. Taken together, the results suggested that LpPPH-mediated Chl breakdown could be regulated positively by ABA and ethylene, and negatively by CK, and LpPPH could be a direct downstream target gene of transcription factors in the ABA and CK signaling pathways. PMID:26643195

  4. The genome and transcriptome of perennial ryegrass mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Studer, Bruno; Byrne, Stephen;

    2013-01-01

    and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome from perennial ryegrass. Results: Intact mitochondria from perennial ryegrass leaves were isolated and used for mtDNA extraction. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced to a 167-fold coverage using the Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium platform, and assembled...... of the mitochondrial genome from perennial ryegrass presented here constitutes an important tool for future attempts to compare mitochondrial genomes within and between grass species. Our results also demonstrate that mitochondria of perennial ryegrass contain genes crucial for energy production that are well...

  5. 7 CFR 201.61 - Fluorescence percentages in ryegrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluorescence percentages in ryegrasses. 201.61 Section... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.61 Fluorescence percentages in ryegrasses. Tolerances for 400-seed fluorescence tests shall be those set forth in the following table plus one-half...

  6. Differential regulation of two sucrose transporters by defoliation and light conditions in perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furet, Pierre-Maxime; Berthier, Alexandre; Decau, Marie-Laure; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Meuriot, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Sucrose transport between source and sink tissues is supposed to be a key-step for an efficient regrowth of perennial rye-grass after defoliation and might be altered by light conditions. We assessed the effect of different light regimes (high vs low light applied before or after defoliation) on growth, fructans and sucrose mobilization, as well as on sucrose transporter expression during 14 days of regrowth. Our results reported that defoliation led to a mobilization of C reserves (first sucrose and then fructans), which was parallel to an induction of LpSUT1 sucrose transporter expression in source and sink tissues (i.e. leaf sheaths and elongating leaf bases, respectively) irrespective to light conditions. Light regime (high or low light) had little effects on regrowth and on C reserves mobilization during the first 48 h of regrowth after defoliation. Thereafter, low light conditions, delaying the recovery of photosynthetic capacities, had a negative effect on C reserves re-accumulation (especially sucrose). Surprisingly, high light did not enhance sucrose transporter expression. Indeed, while light conditions had no effect on LpSUT1 expression, LpSUT2 transcripts levels were enhanced for low light grown plants. These results indicate that two sucrose transporter currently identified in Lolium perenne L. are differentially regulated by light and sucrose.

  7. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  8. Solubilization of beta-glucan synthases from the membranes of cultured ryegrass endosperm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R J; Stone, B A

    1982-06-01

    beta-Glucan synthases were solubilized by treating membrane preparations from suspension-cultured ryegrass (lolium multiflorum) endosperm cells with detergents. Of the seven detergents tested only digitonin and octyl glucoside dissociated active synthases from the membranes. The digitonin-solubilized enzymes produced 1,4-beta-glucans and 1,3:1,4-beta-glucans, whereas the digitonin-insoluble enzymes produced, in addition, 1,3-beta-glucans. Chromatography of the digitonin-solubilized beta-glucan synthases on DEAE-Sepharose resulted in their partial purification. The octyl glucoside-solubilized enzymes produced more 1,3-beta-glucans than did the membrane-bound preparations. These results suggest that the 1,3-beta-glucan synthase is a separate enzyme and is not involved in 1,3:1,4-beta-glucan synthesis. Digitonin not only dissociated synthases from the membranes, but also stimulated synthase activity. This effect may be related to the inhibition by digitonin of glucosyl transfer from UDP-glucose to form steryl glucosides. PMID:6214254

  9. Chromosome duplication in Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial chromosome duplication of diploid genotypes of Lolium multiflorum (2n=2x=14 is worthy to breeding, and aims to increase the expression of traits with agronomic interest. The purpose of this study was to obtain polyploid plants of L. multiflorum from local diploid populations in order to exploit adaptation and future verification of the effects of polyploidy in agronomic traits. Seedlings were immersed in different colchicine solutions for an exposure time of 3h and 24h. Ploidy determination was made by the DNA content and certified by chromosomes counts. The plants confirmed as tetraploids were placed in a greenhouse, and, at flowering, pollen viability was evaluated, and seeds were harvested to assess the stability of the progenies. The percentage of polyploids obtained was 20%. Pollen viability of the tetraploids generated ranged from 58% to 69%. The tetraploid plants obtained in the experiment generated 164 progenies, of which 109 presented DNA content compatible with the tetraploid level, showing stability of chromosome duplication in the filial generation.

  10. Effects of post-harvest treatments on concentrations and profile of fatty acids in fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Wever, A.C.; Elgersma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant lipids are complex, polar and highly unsaturated constituents of membranes. During collection and/or handling of a plant sample, the membrane integrity gets lost due to plant injury and losses of fatty acids (FA) can occur as a result of oxidative or enzymatic processes. Quantitative and quali

  11. Genetic characterisation of seed yield and fertility traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Hentrup, Stephan;

    2008-01-01

    replications over 2 years. The traits heading date, plant height, length of panicles, number of panicles per plant, seed yield per panicle, flag leaf length, flag leaf width and seed yield per plant revealed repeatabilities ranging from 41 to 76% and a considerable amount of genetic variation in the Vrn...

  12. Fragments of the key flowering gene GIGANTEA are associated with helitron-type sequences in the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langdon Tim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helitrons are a class of transposable elements which have been identified in a number of species of plants, animals and fungi. They are unique in their proposed rolling-circle mode of replication, have a highly variable copy-number and have been implicated in the restructuring of coding sequences both by their insertion into existing genes and by their incorporation of transcriptionally competent gene fragments. Helitron discovery depends on identifying associated DNA signature sequences and comprehensive evaluation of helitron contribution to a particular genome requires detailed computational analysis of whole genome sequence. Therefore, the role which helitrons have played in modelling non-model plant genomes is largely unknown. Results Cloning of the flowering gene GIGANTEA (GI from a BAC library of the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass identified the target gene and several GI pseudogene fragments spanning the first five exons. Analysis of genomic sequence 5' and 3' of one these GI fragments revealed motifs consistent with helitron-type transposon insertion, specifically a putative 5'-A↓T-3' insertion site containing 5'-TC and CTAG-3' borders with a sub-terminal 16 bp hairpin. Screening of a BAC library of the closely related grass species Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue indicated similar helitron-associated GI fragments present in this genome, as well as non-helitron associated GI fragments derived from the same region of GI. In order to investigate the possible extent of ancestral helitron-activity in L. perenne, a methylation-filtered GeneThresher® genomic library developed from this species was screened for potential helitron 3' hairpin sequences associated with a 3'-CTRR motif. This identified 7 potential helitron hairpin-types present between at least 9 and 51 times within the L. perenne methylation-filtered library. Conclusion This represents evidence for a possible ancestral role for helitrons

  13. Factors Influencing beta-Glucan Synthesis by Particulate Enzymes from Suspension-Cultured Lolium multiflorum Endosperm Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R J; Stone, B A

    1982-03-01

    Particulate enzymes from suspension-cultured ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) endosperm cells incorporated glucosyl residues from UDP-glucose and GDP-glucose into beta-glucans. Three types of beta-glucans were produced from UDP-glucose: 1,3-beta-glucan; 1,4-beta-glucan; and mixed-linkage 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan. As in other systems, relatively more 1,4-beta-glucan was produced from a low (10 micromolar) UDP-glucose concentration, and relatively more 1,3-beta-glucan was produced from a high (1 millimolar) UDP-glucose concentration. However, in ryegrass, 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan represented a major proportion of the products at both low and high UDP-glucose concentrations. The arrangement of linkages in the 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan was different at the two concentrations; at the low UDP-glucose concentration, more sequences of three consecutive 1,4-linkages were produced.The effects of pH, temperature, and metal ion concentrations on incorporation were dependent on the UDP-glucose concentration. At the low UDP-glucose concentration, incorporation into all three types of beta-glucan increased with increasing pH. At the high UDP-glucose concentration, 1,3-beta-glucan was the major product at pH 7 and below; 1,4-beta-glucan synthesis was optimal at pH 8; and synthesis of 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan was greatest above pH 8.With 10 micromolar GDP-glucose as substrate, 1,4-beta-glucan, but no 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan, was produced. Incorporation from either UDP-glucose or GDP-glucose was not influenced by the presence of the other. PMID:16662263

  14. Plants modify biological processes to ensure survival following carbon depletion: a Lolium perenne model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants, due to their immobility, have evolved mechanisms allowing them to adapt to multiple environmental and management conditions. Short-term undesirable conditions (e.g. moisture deficit, cold temperatures generally reduce photosynthetic carbon supply while increasing soluble carbohydrate accumulation. It is not known, however, what strategies plants may use in the long-term to adapt to situations resulting in net carbon depletion (i.e. reduced photosynthetic carbon supply and carbohydrate accumulation. In addition, many transcriptomic experiments have typically been undertaken under laboratory conditions; therefore, long-term acclimation strategies that plants use in natural environments are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. was used as a model plant to define whether plants adapt to repetitive carbon depletion and to further elucidate their long-term acclimation mechanisms. Transcriptome changes in both lamina and stubble tissues of field-grown plants with depleted carbon reserves were characterised using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. The RT-qPCR data for select key genes indicated that plants reduced fructan degradation, and increased photosynthesis and fructan synthesis capacities following carbon depletion. This acclimatory response was not sufficient to prevent a reduction (P<0.001 in net biomass accumulation, but ensured that the plant survived. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptations of plants with depleted carbon reserves resulted in reduced post-defoliation carbon mobilization and earlier replenishment of carbon reserves, thereby ensuring survival and continued growth. These findings will help pave the way to improve plant biomass production, for either grazing livestock or biofuel purposes.

  15. Dynamics of ryegrass P in red soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiHai-Fu; ZhangQin-Zheng; 等

    1998-01-01

    An investigation on the dynamics of transformation of P from 32P-labelled ryegrass in red soils was conducted in laboratory.The results showed thast the rapid increase in flush 32P related with biomass P was accompanied with the decrease in extractable 32P on the first 3d of incubation in both sandy and clayey soils,and afterwards,itdisplayed great fluctuation in sandy soil,but hadlittle fluctuaston in clayey soil during 3-20d of incubation.At the later stage of incubation,the increase in extractable 32P was accompanied with decrease in flush 32P.The opposite changes in content of extractable 32P and flush 32P suggested transformation of ryegrass P was clkosely related to its utilization and its release from microorganisms in red soils.It can be concluded that addition of organic matter accelerated the release of soil native P according to the changes in the extractable soil P during incubation.

  16. Allelic Variation in the Perennial Ryegrass FLOWERING LOCUS T Gene is Associated with Changes in Flowering Time across a Range of Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif; Sanderson, Ruth; Thomas, Ann;

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene and its orthologs in other plant species (e.g. rice [Oryza sativa] OsFTL2/Hd3a) have an established role in the photoperiodic induction of flowering response. The genomic and phenotypic variations associated with the perennial...... ryegrass (Lolium perenne) ortholog of FT, designated LpFT3, was assessed in a diverse collection of nine European germplasm populations, which together constituted an association panel of 864 plants. Sequencing and genotyping of a series of amplicons derived from the nine populations, containing the...... complete exon and intron sequences as well as 5' and 3' noncoding sequences of LpFT3, identified a total of seven haplotypes. Genotyping assays designed to detect the genomic variation showed that three haplotypes were present in approximately equal proportions and represented 84% of the total, with a...

  17. Anatomia foliar de Lolium multiflorum sensível e resistente ao glyphosate Leaf anatomy of Lolium multiflorum sensitive and resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Galvani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de contribuir para o conhecimento anatômico da espécie Lolium multiflorum e, a partir disso, observar possíveis alterações que possam elucidar o mecanismo que confere resistência ao herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, realizou-se um experimento com quatro biótipos dessa espécie com distinta sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate, sendo um sensível (B1S e três resistentes (B2R, B3R e B4R. As análises ocorreram a partir de secções transversais e longitudinais dos órgãos vegetativos de plantas no estádio de afilhamento. Anatomicamente, o azevém caracteriza-se por apresentar grande quantidade de estômatos e de células buliformes, bem como mesofilo homogêneo constituído apenas de células paliçádicas compactamente distribuídas. Comparativamente, não ocorrem diferenças morfológicas evidentes que possam ser usadas para diferir biótipos sensíveis de resistentes, no entanto, nota-se que biótipos resistentes, especialmente B3R e B4R, apresentaram maior densidade estomática em relação aos demais. Ainda, os biótipos resistentes apresentaram maior quantidade de espaços intercelulares no mesofilo e feixes vasculares com menor quantidade de floema em relação ao xilema, o que, por suas funções na planta, pode colaborar para a menor sensibilidade ao herbicida.This work aimed to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of the species Lolium multiflorum and to observe possible changes that may elucidate the mechanism that confers its resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. Thus, an experiment was conducted using four biotypes of this species with distinct sensitivities to the herbicide glyphosate: one susceptible (B1S and three resistant biotypes (B2R, B3R and B4R. Analyses were conducted on the transverse and longitudinal sections of the vegetative organs of the plants at the tillering stage. Anatomically, ryegrass is characterized as having a large number of stomata and buliform cells

  18. Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L F; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason

    2011-09-01

    Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed.

  19. Root Exudates, Rhizosphere Zn Fractions, and Zn Accumulation of Ryegrass at Different Soil Zn Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Hong; LIU Huai; MA Qi-Fu; XIONG Zhi-Ting

    2007-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted using a root-bag technique to study the root exudates, rhizosphere Zn fractions, and Zn concentrations and accumulations of two ryegrass cultivars (Lolium perenne L. cvs. Airs and Tede) at different soil Zn levels (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mmol kg-1 soil). Results indicated that plant growth of the two cultivars was not adversely affected at soil Zn level≤8 mmol kg-1. Plants accumulated more Zn as soil Zn levels increased, and Zn concentrations of shoots were about 540 /μg g-1 in Aris and 583.9μg g-1 in Tede in response to 16 mmol Zn kg-1 soil. Zn ratios of shoots to roots across the soil Zn levels were higher in Tede than in Airs, corresponding with higher rhizosphere available Zn fractions (exchangeable, bound to manganese oxides, and bound to organic matter) in Airs than in Tede. Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids (oxalic, tartaric, malic, and succinic acids) and amino acids (proline, threonine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid, etc.) were detected in root exudates, and the concentrations of LMW organic acids and amino acids increased with addition of 4 mmol Zn kg-1 soil compared with zero Zn addition. Higher rhizosphere concentrations of oxalic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, phenylalanine, leucine, and proline in Tede than in Airs likely resulted in increased Zn uptake from the soil by Tede than by Airs. The results suggested that genotypic differences in Zn accumulations were mainly because of different root exudates and rhizosphere Zn fractions.

  20. Animal performance and economic comparison of novel and toxic endophyte tall fescues to cool-season annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P A; Gunter, S A; Lusby, K S; West, C P; Watkins, K B; Hubbell, D S

    2008-08-01

    Increased costs of annual establishment of small grain pasture associated with fuel, machinery, and labor are eroding the profitability of stocker cattle enterprises. Interest has therefore increased in development of cool-season perennial grasses that are persistent and high quality. This study occurred on 24 ha (divided into thirty 0.81-ha paddocks) located at the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Livestock and Forestry Branch Station, near Batesville. Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars infected with novel endophytes (NE), Jesup infected with AR542 endophyte (Jesup AR542), and HiMag infected with Number 11 endophyte (HM11) were established in September 2002. Jesup AR542 and HM11 were compared with endemic endophyte Kentucky 31 (KY-31) tall fescue; wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and cereal rye (WR, Secale cereale L.) planted in September 2003, 2004, and 2005; and annual ryegrass [RG, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] planted in September 2004 and 2005. Each year, 3 steers (3.7 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for fall and winter grazing, and 5 steers (6.2 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for spring grazing. Animal performance is presented by year in the presence of a year x treatment interaction (P or = 0.14). Body weight gain per hectare was least (P < 0.01) for steers grazing KY-31. Average net return of NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than KY-31, but profitability of NE did not consistently differ from cool-season annuals. Across the 3-yr study, NE tall fescue produced net returns per hectare of $219; this level of profitability would require 4 yr for a new planting of NE tall fescue to break even. Novel endophyte tall fescues offer potential benefits related to decreased risk of stand establishment of annual forage crops, longer growing season, and acceptable animal performance.

  1. Dynamics of nitrogen concentration on intercropped ryegrass - 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i1.12661

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mossate Gabbi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of nitrogen (N in ryegrass intercropped with different forage species with regard to dry matter (DM accumulation within an agroecological transition system was evaluated. Annual ryegrass was intercropped with black oats (RY + BO, white clover (RY + WC and forage peanut (RY + FP. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three replications. The study applied the N dilution model for plant tissue which comparatively uses modifiable factors of the environment at optimal levels. The model shows decline in N concentration due to the DM accumulation of temperate grass pastures. Data were compared to model by the root mean square deviation analysis. Dilution coefficient (β, used in all pasture samples, was lower than -0.60. Highest N concentration decline in plant tissues, due to DM accumulation, occurred in RY + WC pastures (β = -0.94, followed by RY + FP (β = - 0.86 and RY + BO (β = - 0.67, respectively. Ryegrass intercropped with white clover showed the highest N content in plant tissue, with a nitrogen nutrition index close to the proposed model.

  2. Production of tifton 85 hay overseeded with white oats or ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Abbado Neres

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to estimate the curve of dehydration, chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and crude protein digestibility (IVCPD of tifton 85 hay, produced single or overseeded with ryegrass or white oat IPR 126. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in a 3 × 10 factorial arrangement, with three cropping systems and ten evaluation times (0, 4, 8, 24, 28, 32, 48, 52 and 56 and 71 hours after harvest during the dehydration process. For chemical composition and in vitro DM and CP digestibility, the experimental design was in randomized blocks with three cropping systems and three evaluation times (before cutting, before baling and 100 days after of storage. It was found that tifton 85 intercropped with white oat kept its higher nutritional value after storage, with 19.78% crude protein and 70.03% of in vitro dry matter digestibility. The participation of white oat in tifton 85 area was 57.04% and for ryegrass, it was 38.52%, but the dry matter yield of single tifton 85 was higher than other intercrops. Thus, it is recommended an oversowing of winter annual species on Tifton 85, without moisture restriction, because of the benefits obtained in the hay nutritional value.

  3. Adaptability of Alfalfa and Ryegrass to New Reclamation Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZHAO-FENG; ZHANG Lei-na; FENG Yong-jun; KANG Jing-tao

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the adaptability of the alfalfa and ryegrass to the new artificial soil that was composed of fly ash and furfural residue. The potted experiments were taken to compare the growth conditions, yields, and qualities of both grasses. Some pots were covered with wheat stalks and others without. The medium Fluvo-aquic soil was taken as control. The results indicated that the growth of two grasses in the mixture were inferior to their growth in the control in initial period. With the leaching of rain and irrigation, the two grasses improved gradually. The alfalfa and ryegrass both could grow in the new mixture, and the ryegrass would be better to plant in no covered material and the alfalfa in covered. This will be a new way to reclaim subsided land and to improve the environment in mining area.

  4. INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR OF GOATS IN RYEGRASS AND BLACK OAT PASTURES IN PURE OR MIXTURE CULTURE COMPORTAMENTO INGESTIVO DE CAPRINOS EM PASTAGEM DE AZEVÉM E AVEIA PRETA EM CULTIVO PURO E CONSORCIADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Lúcia Gomes Monteiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was realized in Campo Largo, PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by preference and ingestion rate. The averages of pastures height was higher (p>0.05 in ryegrass and mixture, and in other pastures evaluations ryegrass was superior (p<0.05 to the others treatments. The grazing time of goats in ryegrass and black oat was superior (p<0.05 to the mixture. The bite rate per minute was higher (p<0.05 in black oat. The goats demonstrated preference for ryegrass and black oat in pure culture.
     
    KEY WORDS: Avena strigosa Schreb, bite, goats, Lolium multiflorum Lam, preference. The experiment was realized in Campo Largo – PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by

  5. Composição química de sementes de azevém em resposta ao retardamento da secagem e ao armazenamento Chemical composition of ryegrass seeds in response to drying delay and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eichelberger

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações na composição química de sementes de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam., cultivar Comum-RS, em resposta ao retardamento da secagem (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 e 48 horas e ao armazenamento (zero, quatro e oito meses, e correlacionar tais alterações com a qualidade fisiológica. A secagem foi retardada por meio do acondicionamento das sementes em caixas de poliestireno, contendo cada uma 24 kg de sementes, e realizada sobre piso de concreto, à sombra, por 12 horas, completando-a em estufa com circulação de ar. O retardamento da secagem por até 14 horas não comprometeu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Quando as sementes foram armazenadas por quatro e oito meses, os teores de proteína solúvel apresentaram correlação positiva com a germinação. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes correlacionou-se de forma negativa com o teor de aminoácidos e positiva com o teor de açúcares solúveis. O retardamento da secagem aumentou o teor de aminoácidos e reduziu açúcares solúveis, amido solúvel, proteína solúvel e peso de mil sementes. Durante o armazenamento houve aumento dos teores de aminoácidos, amido solúvel e proteína solúvel, e a redução de açúcares solúveis e peso de mil sementes.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate changes in the chemical composition of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. Comum-RS, seeds, in response to drying delay (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 e 48 hours and storage (zero, four and eight months and to correlate these changes with physiological quality. Drying was delayed by conditioning seeds in polystyrene boxes, containing 24 kg of seeds each one, and was done on a shadowy concrete floor for 12 hours, being completed in an oven with circulation of forced air. Drying delay up to 14 hours did not compromise physiological quality of seeds. When seeds were stored for four and eight months, contents of soluble protein showed

  6. Composição botânica e estrutural e valor nutricional de pastagens de azevém consorciadas Botanic and structural composition and nutritional value on intercropped ryegrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a influência de espécies em consórcio com azevém sobre a composição botânica e estrutural e o valor nutritivo dos pastos em um sistema de transição agroecológica. Foi avaliada a cultura do azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. consorciada com aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb., trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L. e amendoim-forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & Gregory. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e três repetições. O primeiro pastejo foi realizado 21 dias após a emergência das plantas nas pastagens de azevém + aveia-preta e azevém + amendoim-forrageiro e 28 dias após a emergência na pastagem de azevém + trevo-branco. O segundo pastejo na pastagem de azevém + aveia-preta ocorreu 30 dias após o primeiro pastejo, enquanto nas demais pastagens ocorreu 37 dias depois. As taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca (MS do início do período de exclusão até o pico de produção de MS foram de 77,7; 75,0 e 71,3 kg/ha/dia de MS para as pastagens consorciadas com trevo-branco, amendoim-forrageiro e aveia-preta, respectivamente. A razão folha/colmo até o segundo pastejo foi elevada em todas as pastagens. A redução dos teores de PB conforme os dias de exclusão no pasto de azevém + aveia-preta é menor que nos pastos de azevém consorciado com trevo-branco ou amendoim-forrageiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of species intercropped with ryegrass on the botanical and structural composition and the nutritional values of pastures in an agroecological transition system. It was evaluated ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. intercropped with black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb., white clover (Trifolium repens L. and forage peanut (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & Gregory. It was used a complete random design with three treatments and three repetitions. The first grazing was done 21 days after emergence of the plants on the pastures with ryegrass

  7. Produção animal e retorno econômico em misturas de gramíneas anuais de estação fria Animal production and economic return in mixtures of annual temperate grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho e a produtividade animal em misturas de gramíneas anuais de estação fria sob pastejo contínuo foram avaliados. As misturas MTA - Triticale (X Triticosecale + azevém (Lolium multiflorum, MAA - Aveia preta (Avena strigosa + azevém, MTAA - Triticale + aveia preta + azevém foram usadas. A semeadura a lanço foi realizada em 21/04/95, sendo adubada com 200 kg/ha (05-30-15, sendo a adubação de cobertura de 175 kg/ha de nitrogênio. O início do pastejo ocorreu em 10/06/95, estendendo-se até 14/11/95. O ganho de peso médio diário foi similar entre as misturas, sendo de 693, 685 e 665 g, para MTA, MAA e MTAA, respectivamente. A carga animal média foi superior na mistura MTA em relação às demais, sendo de 1210, 1055 e 1116 kg de PV/ha. A mistura MTA apresentou o maior ganho de peso vivo/ha (650,7 kg/ha, seguida pela MTAA (592,4 kg/ha e MAA (568,8 kg/ha. O custo/ha foi superior na MTA (R$ 320,42, seguido pela MTAA (R$ 316,47 e MAA (R$ 312,69; a receita líquida foi também superior na MTA (R$ 167,60, seguida pela MTAA (R$ 127,83 e MAA (R$ 113,91. A mistura de triticale mais azevém foi a mais indicada, pois apresentou o maior ganho de peso por unidade de área, resultando em maior retorno econômico.The animal performance and productivity in mixtures of annual temperate grasses under continuous grazing condition were evaluated. The mixtures MTR - Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack plus ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., MOR - Oat (Avena strigosa Schreb plus ryegrass, MTOR - Triticale plus oat plus ryegrass, were used. The broadcasting sowing was realized at 04/21/95, being fertilized with 200 kg/ha (05-30-15, being the broadcasting fertilization of 175 kg/ha of nitrogen. The beginning of the grazing occurred at 06/10/95, and was extended until 11/14/95. The average daily weight gain was similar among the mixtures, being 693, 685 and 665 g, for MTR, MOR and MTOR, respectively. The average stocking rate was superior in the MTR

  8. Flowering does not decrease vegetative competitiveness of Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2009-01-01

    as reduced flowering could free resources and increase productivity. But if so, less-flowering cultivars might be more competitive and invade natural swards. We tested for costs of sexual reproduction on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of the perennial grass Lolium perenne, one of the most...... important forage and turf grasses worldwide. We used the differences in vernalisation requirement between northern and southern European provenances to manipulate the degree of flowering. Over three growing seasons, we counted the number of flower stems and measured the clone diameter. The vernalisation...

  9. Design of an F1 hybrid breeding strategy for ryegrasses based on selection of self-incompatibility locus-specific alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembleton, Luke W; Shinozuka, Hiroshi; Wang, Junping; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W; Cogan, Noel O I

    2015-01-01

    Relatively modest levels of genetic gain have been achieved in conventional ryegrass breeding when compared to cereal crops such as maize, current estimates indicating an annual improvement of 0.25-0.6% in dry matter production. This property is partially due to an inability to effectively exploit heterosis through the formation of F1 hybrids. Controlled crossing of ryegrass lines from geographically distant origins has demonstrated the occurrence of heterosis, which can result in increases of dry matter production in the order of 25%. Although capture of hybrid vigor offers obvious advantages for ryegrass cultivar production, to date there have been no effective and commercially suitable methods for obtaining high proportions of F1 hybrid seed. Continued advances in fine-scale genetic and physical mapping of the gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) loci (S and Z) of ryegrasses are likely in the near future to permit the identification of closely linked genetic markers that define locus-specific haplotypes, allowing prediction of allelic variants and hence compatibility between different plant genotypes. Given the availability of such information, a strategy for efficient generation of ryegrass cultivars with a high proportion of F1 hybrid individuals has been simulated, which is suitable for commercial implementation. Through development of two parental pools with restricted diversity at the SI loci, relative crossing compatibility between pools is increased. Based on simulation of various levels of SI allele diversity restriction, the most effective scheme will generate 83.33% F1 hybrids. Results from the study, including the impact of varying flowering time, are discussed along with a proposed breeding design for commercial application. PMID:26442077

  10. Rumen degradation characteristics of ryegrass herbage and ryegrass silage are affected by interactions between stage of maturity and nitrogen fertilisation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeren, J.A.H.; Podesta, S.C.; Hatew, B.; Klop, G.; Laar, van H.; Bannink, A.; Warner, D.; Jonge, de L.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate interaction effects between stage of maturity and N fertilization rate on rumen degradation characteristics determined with nylon bag incubations of ryegrass herbages and ryegrass silage. Grass herbage (n = 4) was cut after 3 or 5 weeks of regrowth an

  11. STUDY ON PHYTO-EXTRACTION BALANCE OF ZN, CD AND PB FROM MINE-WASTE POLLUTED SOILS BY USING FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA AND LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through the cultivation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea and of perennial ryegrass for two years on a chernozem type of soil, in the Banat's plain area we investigated the phyto-extraction potential of Zn, Cd and Pb. In the experimental plot it has been incorporated a quantity of 20 kg of mine-waste per square meter, in a mass ratio of 1:2,5. The mine-waste polluting "contribution" was of 1209 mg Zn / kg d.s., 4.70 mg Cd / kg d.s. and 188.2 mg Pb / kg d.s. The metals content in the soil was determined at the two moments of biomass harvesting, and through balance calculations we could establish the phyto-extraction efficiency of the two foragegrasses species. The obtained results indicate that Festuca arundinacea has an average phyto-extraction yield of 50% for Zn and Cd in the soil; in the case of an ionic excess of 3,5 to 4 times, the phyto-extraction efficiency is reduced, more obvious in the case of Pb (lead ions. The species Lolium perenne registers a yield of almost 92% in the process of phyto-extraction of Zn. The yield values for Cd si Pb are lower, but comparable with the control plot. Unlike Festuca arundinacea, the Lollium perenne species tolerates better the Cd and Pb ionic excess.

  12. Comparação entre dois correctivos orgânicos quanto à disponibilidade do fósforo para o azevém Comparison between two organic amendments on phosphorus availability for ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2007-07-01

    , apenas se registaram valores de absorção total de P superiores ao da testemunha com 60 t/ha de ambos os correctivos, similares (P ?0,001, o que está de acordo com os muito maiores valores de P Riehm, face à testemunha, registados em ambas as séries (sem e com planta, com o mesmo nível dos correctivos. Infere-se que a aplicação do maior nível de LRU foi similar ou superior à de igual nível de composto de RSU no aumento de disponibilidade do P nestes solos, em parte pelo seu maior teor de P total. Outros estudos específicos de P, nomeadamente os que incluam a evolução do pH e da capacidade de retenção de P com a aplicação dos resíduos, poderão vir a esclarecer melhor as diferenças de comportamento dos solos.Municipal solid waste compost (MSW and urban sewage sludge (SS applied to soils, containing phosphorus (P in organic and inorganic forms, can affect the element dynamics in soil, with subsequent reflexes on plant nutrition. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of a MSW and a biologically treated SS on P uptake by a test plant and soil “available” P concentration as determined by the Egnér-Riehm method (Riehm-P. The study fell upon soil and plant samples deriving from a pot trial with multiple aims. It had two pot series, one maintained with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum during approximately seven months, and the other one without plants until the end of the same period. The treatments of each series, in triplicate, referring to the combinations of two soils and four MSW and SS rates (equivalent to 0, 15, 30, and 60 t/ha were compared. Topsoil samples of a Haplic Podzol (PZha and of a Calcic Vertisol (VRcc, with low Riehm-P concentrations, were used. A basal fertilisation including P was applied at the beginning of the trial, in the series cropped with annual ryegrass. Total P uptake, evaluated in six harvests of the aboveground biomass, and soil Riehm-P contents at the last harvest were determined. A single P

  13. Produção e qualidade de forragem da mistura de aveia e azevém sob dois métodos de estabelecimento Forage production and quality of oats and ryegrass mixture under two establishment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, comparou-se a sobre-semeadura de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. em pastagem de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. ao cultivo estreme como métodos de implantação de pastagens de inverno em sistema de pastejo rotacionado com vacas holandesas em lactação. Foram avaliados a produção total de MS (PTF, a massa de forragem de entrada (MFE, o resíduo (RES, as perdas de forragem (PD, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS (TAD, a carga animal (CA, a oferta de forragem (OF e a biomassa de lâminas foliares (BLF. Para determinação da composição botânica, foram separados em cada espécie (aveia, azevém e coastcross os componentes estruturais folha, colmo e material senescente. Na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem, foram colhidas amostras por simulação de pastejo para determinação dos teores de PB e FDN. Não houve diferença entre tratamentos para PTF, MFE, RES, PD, TAD, OF e CA. A oferta média de lâminas foliares foi de 1,3±0,67 kg LF/100 kg PV. A sobre-semeadura proporcionou maior biomassa de lâminas foliares disponibilizando forragem com maior teor de PB e menor de FDN na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem.The oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sodseeding in pasture of coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. was compared to oats and ryegrass in extreme tillage, as establishment methods of winter pastures under rotational stocking with lactating Holstein dairy cows. The total DM production (DMP, pre-grazed herbage mass, residue (RES, forage losses (FL, daily DM accumulation rate (DAR, stocking rate (SR, forage on offer (FO and leaf blade biomass (LBB were evaluated. For botanical composition, oats, ryegrass and coastcross were separated in the structural components: leaves, stems and dead material. Hand plucking samples for CP and NDF determinations were collected during pre- and post-grazing. The DMP, HM, RES, FL, DAR, SR and FO were not

  14. Transfer DREB into Lolium perenne L. To improve its drought tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xinrong; Sun Zhenyuan; Jiang Changshun; Dong Zhaoyong; Zhang Yizheng

    2006-01-01

    A method of Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation for perennial ryegrass was developed using the calli of ryegrass derived from mature embryos. The calli were inoculated with a disarmed A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring binary vector p2328. Vector p2328 contained transcription factor DREB1B and neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) genes which were driven by promoters of rd29B and CaMV35S, respectively. The inoculated calli were selected on paromomycin- or kanamycin-containing media till the established plants being transferred to soil. Six transgenic plants with DREB1B had been obtained from perennial ryegrass strain Tove. PCR and Southern-blotting showed that npt II and DREB1B genes were integrated in perennial ryegrass genome. Stress treatment confirmed that transgenic plants with higher drought tolerance were obtained.

  15. Seed Germination Differences Between Glyphosate-Resistant and -Susceptible Italian Ryegrass Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian ryegrass tolerant to glyphosate is becoming a major weed problem in glyphosate-resistant crops. The effects of temperature, light, pH, salt and osmotic stress, shikimic acid, and planting depth on germination of glyphosate-tolerant (T) and susceptible (S) Italian ryegrass populations were st...

  16. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Dairy cows, Perennial ryegrass, Rumen fill, Clearance, Degradation, Grazing behaviour.In temperate environments, perennial ryegrass is the most widely used species for feeding dairy cows. That is because of its high productivity, palatability, digestibility and nutritive

  17. Effect of Different Amendments on Ryegrass Growth in Copper Mine Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xiu-Zhen; ZHOU Dong-Mei; WANG Yu-Jun; CANG Long; CHEN Huai-Man

    2003-01-01

    Montmorillonite, rice straw, organic manure and chemical fertilizer were used as amendment materials for copper mine tailings, and their effects on mine tailing pH, nutrients and metal availability to ryegrass were investigated. Chemical fertilization was the most effective one in improving ryegrass growth in mine tailings among the amendment materials examined. It was found that montmorillonite raised biomass of ryegrass at the 1st and 2nd cuts, but it did not give further positive effects at the 3rd and 4th cuts. The effect of organic materials on ryegrass growth was not so good as expected, mainly due to their slow decomposition in mine tailings with less soil microorganisms. Available Cu and Zn contents in mine tailings decreased in the presence of montmorillonite but increased when rice straw and organic manure were used as amendments. Cu and Zn contents in ryegrass decreased with increasing the rate of montmorillonite application but increased with the rate of rice straw. Zn showed much stronger mobility from soil to ryegrass than Cu, and almost all the available N and P in mine tailings, except for the treatments with organic manure, were completely consumed after ryegrass had grown in mine tailings for more than four months and been harvested for four times. Owing to its large biomass and high metal uptake, ryegrass is a potential plant for remediation of metal contaminated soils in practice.

  18. Uso da água em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) em condição de competição Water use in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) biotypes under competition

    OpenAIRE

    G. Concenço; E.A. Ferreira; A.A. Silva; F.A. Ferreira; R.G. Viana; L. d'Antonino; L. Vargas; C.M.T. Fialho

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características associadas à eficiência de uso da água em biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, em diferentes níveis de competição. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com os dois biótipos de azevém, suscetível e resistente, em planta única no centro da parcela, competindo com 0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 plantas do biótipo oposto. Todas as características matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA), condutância estomática (Gs), pressã...

  19. Ação do anidrido naftálico na seletividade de herbicidas aplicados para controle de azevém em aveia-branca Action of naphthalic anhydride on herbicide selected for ryegrass control in oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rizzardi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em Passo Fundo-RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do tratamento de sementes de aveia-branca (Avena sativa com o antídoto anidrido naftálico (AN na seletividade de herbicidas utilizados para controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em parcelas subdivididas, em blocos casualizados, repetidos quatro vezes. As parcelas principais foram constituídas pela ausência ou presença do AN (5 g kg-1 no tratamento das sementes de aveia, e nas subparcelas foram alocados cinco tratamentos herbicidas, uma testemunha sem azevém e sem aplicação de herbicida e uma testemunha sem controle de azevém. Os tratamentos herbicidas utilizados foram diclofop (284 e 426 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1, isoxaflutole (52,5 g ha-1 e clomazone (1.000 g ha-1. Foram avaliados o percentual de controle de azevém, a fitotoxicidade visual dos herbicidas e as características associadas à cultura da aveia, como massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, número de plantas e de panículas por área, peso de 1.000 grãos e rendimento de grãos. Os resultados evidenciaram que o tratamento de sementes de aveia com AN não aumentou a seletividade dos herbicidas aplicados, com exceção para massa seca da parte aérea, no caso de sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas que propiciaram os melhores níveis de controle de azevém foram os que ocasionaram maiores danos fitotóxicos à cultura da aveia-branca.An experiment was conducted in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of treatment of oat seeds (Avena sativa with naphthalic anhydride safener (AN on the herbicide selectivity used for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum control. The experimental design used was a split-plot one, in randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments consisted of oat seed treated or not with AN (5 g kg-1 seed as main plots, and of five herbicide treatments, one check without ryegrass and herbicide and

  20. Genomic prediction in a breeding program of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    We present a genomic selection study performed on 1918 rye grass families (Lolium perenne L.), which were derived from a commercial breeding program at DLF-Trifolium, Denmark. Phenotypes were recorded on standard plots, across 13 years and in 6 different countries. Variants were identified by......) and between 0.46 and 0.91 for scheme (ii), depending on the trait. Incorporation of information on parent populations (PPs), performed by using a genomic relationship matrix based on PPs estimated frequencies, led to an increase in accuracy up to 0.07 when leaving out a parent combination at the time...... in utilizing genomic selection in rye grass....

  1. Transpiration flow controls Zn transport in Brassica napus and Lolium multiflorum under toxic levels as evidenced from isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couder, Eléonore; Mattielli, Nadine; Drouet, Thomas; Smolders, Erik; Delvaux, Bruno; Iserentant, Anne; Meeus, Coralie; Maerschalk, Claude; Opfergelt, Sophie; Houben, David

    2015-11-01

    Stable zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation between soil and plant has been used to suggest the mechanisms affecting Zn uptake under toxic conditions. Here, changes in Zn isotope composition in soil, soil solution, root and shoot were studied for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on three distinct metal-contaminated soils collected near Zn smelters (total Zn 0.7-7.5%, pH 4.8-7.3). The Zn concentrations in plants reflected a toxic Zn supply. The Zn isotopic fingerprint of total soil Zn varied from -0.05‰ to +0.26 ± 0.02‰ (δ66Zn values relative to the JMC 3-0749L standard) among soils, but the soil solution Zn was depleted in 66Zn, with a constant Zn isotope fractionation of about -0.1‰ δ66Zn unit compared to the bulk soil. Roots were enriched with 66Zn relative to soil solution (δ66Znroot - δ66Znsoil solution = Δ66Znroot-soil solution = +0.05 to +0.2 ‰) and shoots were strongly depleted in 66Zn relative to roots (Δ66Znshoot-root = -0.40 to -0.04 ‰). The overall δ66Zn values in shoots reflected that of the bulk soil, but were lowered by 0.1-0.3 ‰ units as compared to the latter. The isotope fractionation between root and shoot exhibited a markedly strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.83) with transpiration per unit of plant weight. Thus, the enrichment with light Zn isotopes in shoot progressed with increasing water flux per unit plant biomass dry weight, showing a passive mode of Zn transport by transpiration. Besides, the light isotope enrichment in shoots compared to roots was larger for rape than for rye grass, which may be related to the higher Zn retention in rape roots. This in turn may be related to the higher cation exchange capacity of rape roots. Our finding can be of use to trace the biogeochemical cycles of Zn and evidence the tolerance strategies developed by plants in Zn-excess conditions.

  2. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  3. Carbon allocation to roots, rhizodeposits and soil after pulse labelling: a comparison of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, A.; Neergaard, de A.

    2004-01-01

    Organically managed farm areas in Denmark are expanding and typically contain clover-grass leys that are known to stimulate accumulation of organic matter in arable soils. We compared the C allocation to roots and soil from clover and grass, and determined for how long assimilated C remained mobile

  4. Identification of extracellular siderophores and a related peptide from the endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae in culture and endophyte-infected Lolium perenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulman, Albert; Lee, T. Verne; Fraser, Karl; Johnson, Linda; Arcus, Vickery; Lott, J. Shaun; Rasmussen, Susanne; Lane, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    A number of genes encoding non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) have been identified in fungi of Epichloë/Neotyphodium species, endophytes of Pooid grasses, including sidN, putatively encoding a ferrichrome siderophore-synthesizing NRPS. Targeted gene replacement and complementation of sidN in Epichloë festucae has established that extracellular siderophore epichloënin A is the major product of the SidN enzyme complex (Johnson et al., 2007a). We report here high resolution mass spectrometric fragmentation experiments and NMR analysis of an isolated fraction establishing that epichloënin A is a siderophore of the ferrichrome family, comprising a cyclic sequence of four glycines, a glutamine and three Nδ-trans-anhydromevalonyl–Nδ-hydroxyornithine (AMHO) moieties. Epichloënin A is unusual among ferrichrome siderophores in comprising an octapeptide rather than hexapeptide sequence, and in incorporating a glutamine residue. During this investigation we have established that desferrichrome siderophores with pendant trans-AMHO groups can be distinguished from those with pendant cis-AMHO groups by the characteristic neutral loss of an hydroxyornithine moiety in the MS/MS spectrum. A minor component, epichloënin B, has been characterized as the triglycine variant by mass spectrometry. A peptide characterized by mass spectrometry as the putative deoxygenation product, epichloëamide has been detected together with ferriepichloënin A in guttation fluid from ryegrass (Lolium perenne) plants infected with wild-type E. festucae, but not in plants infected with the ΔsidN mutant strain, and also detected at trace levels in wild-type E. festucae fungal culture. PMID:22196939

  5. The photosynthetic acclimation of Lolium perenne in response to three years growth in a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hymus, G.J. [Univ. of Essex (United Kingdom)]|[Univ. of Writtle College (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01

    Pure stands of Ryegrass were in their third year of growth in the field, exposed to either ambient (355 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}), or elevated (600 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. A Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) system was used to maintain the elevated CO{sub 2} concentration whilst limiting experimental constraints on the field conditions. The theoretically predicted increase in the net rates of CO{sub 2} uptake per unit leaf area (A {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) as a consequence, primarily, of the suppression of photorespiration by CO{sub 2} a competitive inhibitor of RubP oxygenation by Rubisco, was observed for the Lolium perenne studied. Also observed was a general decline in leaf evapotranspiration (E) consistent with observations of increased water use efficiency of crops grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. Enhancement of leaf A in the FACE grown L. perenne ranged from 26.5 1 % to 44.95% over the course of a diurnal set of measurements. Whilst reductions in leaf E reached a maximum of 16.61% over the same diurnal course of-measurements. The increase in A was reconciled with an absence of the commonly observed decline in V{sub c}{sub max} as a measure of the maximum in vivo carboxylation capacity of the primary carboxylasing enzyme Rubisco and J{sub max} a measure of the maximum rate of electron transport. The manipulation of the source sink balance of the crop, stage of canopy regrowth or height in the canopy had no effect on the observation of a lack of response. The findings of this study will be interpreted with respect to the long term implications of C{sub 3} crops being able to adapt physiologically to maximize the potential benefits conferred by growth in elevated CO{sub 2}.

  6. Antisense-mediated silencing of a gene encoding a major ryegrass pollen allergen

    OpenAIRE

    Prem L Bhalla; Swoboda, Ines; Singh, Mohan B.

    1999-01-01

    Type 1 allergic reactions, such as hay fever and allergic asthma, triggered by grass pollen allergens are a global health problem that affects ≈20% of the population in cool, temperate climates. Ryegrass is the dominant source of allergens because of its prodigious production of airborne pollen. Lol p 5 is the major allergenic protein of ryegrass pollen, judging from the fact that almost all of the individuals allergic to grass pollen show presence of serum IgE antibodies against this protein...

  7. Produção de forragem em pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém Forage production on bermudagrass sod seeding with oat and ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Elgalise Techio Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar dois sistemas forrageiros manejados com vacas da raça Holandesa. Os sistemas foram constituídos por pastagem de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. "Coastcross" sobre-semeada com aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. "Comum" e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. "Comum" e aveia e azevém em cultivo estreme. Foram conduzidos oito pastejos (de 09/06/04 a 13/10/04 e de 02/08/05 a 29/10/05, sendo avaliada a massa de forragem pré e pós-pastejo, a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (MS, a produção total de forragem, a oferta de forragem, a composição botânica, a biomassa total de lâminas foliares e carga animal. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P>0,05 para os referidos parâmetros. A produção total de MS, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS e a carga animal foram de 8467,9; 7105,7kg de MS ha-1; 54,1 e 69,2kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 1050,8 e 925,5kg de peso vivo ha-1, para a pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém e para a pastagem anual, respectivamente. Houve maior participação de lâminas foliares de aveia na pastagem constituída por aveia e azevém (P0,05 entre os sistemas forrageiros quanto à produção total de biomassa de lâminas foliares. Estes resultados indicam que o sistema forrageiro constituído por bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém, utilizada no período hibernal, pode ser usada em condições climáticas similares às do presente estudo.This study was aimed at comparing two pasture-based systems grazed by Holstein cows. The systems were sod seeding of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. Common and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Common in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. Coastcross and oat and ryegrass mixture in extreme cultivation. From 06/09/04 to 10/13/04 and 08/02/05 to 10/29/05, in eight grazing periods, the pregraze and postgraze herbage mass, dry matter (DM daily acumulation rate, total dry matter production

  8. Diferentes massas de forragem sobre as variáveis morfogênicas e estruturais de azevém anual Different herbage masses on morphogenetic and structural traits of Italian ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Características morfogênicas e estruturais de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. foram avaliadas sob pastejo de borregas, em diferentes massas de forragem (MF: "Alta", "Média" e "Baixa", correspondentes a 1800-2000; 1400-1600 e 1000-1200kg ha-1 de matéria seca (MS, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e duas repetições de área. O método de pastejo foi de lotação contínua, com número variável de animais. Os dados foram submetidos a análises de correlação e regressão polinomial. A altura do pseudocolmo, o comprimento de lâminas intactas e desfolhadas e o número de folhas em senescência de azevém aumentaram linearmente com a elevação dos valores das massas de forragem. O número de folhas verdes ajustou-se ao modelo de regressão quadrático; o número de folhas em expansão e a densidade populacional de perfilhos não se ajustaram a nenhum modelo de regressão. Em pastagem de azevém, o manejo com massas de forragem dentro da faixa compreendida entre 1.100 e 1.800kg ha-1de MS não provoca alterações nas características morfogênicas dessa gramínea, mas causa diferenças nas características estruturais do dossel. Quando o azevém é manejado com 1.460kg ha-1de MS, seus perfilhos mantêm maior número de folhas verdes e com 1.800kg ha-1 de MS existe maior número de lâminas foliares em senescência e com maior comprimento.Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., utilized by female lambs and managed with different forage masses (FM were studied. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two area replications and three treatments, consisting of forage masses: "High", "Mean" and "Low", corresponding to 1,800-2,000; 1,400-1,600 and 1,000-1,200kg ha-1 of dry matter (DM, respectively. The grazing method was continuous with variable stocking rate. Data were subjected to correlation analysis and polynomial

  9. Desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte sob alternativas de mineralização em pastagem de azevém Development of beef heifers under mineralization alternatives, on Italian ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pötter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desenvolvimento corporal de bezerras de corte em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., recebendo diferentes alternativas de suplementação mineral, associadas ou não à adição de ionóforo. Os tratamentos testados foram: "Sal comum": mineralização com cloreto de sódio; "Sal 40P": mineralização com sal mineral contendo 40g de fósforo por kg de produto; "Sal 40P + ionóforo": mineralização com 40g de fósforo + 2.000mg de lasalocida sódica por kg de produto. Os valores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, Ca e P na forragem aparentemente consumida, consumo de sal, escore de condição corporal, relação peso: altura e GMD foram semelhantes (P>0,05 entre animais que receberam "Sal comum", "Sal 40P" e "Sal 40P + ionóforo". Em pastagem de azevém, sem restrição ao consumo voluntário, a lasalocida sódica adicionada ao sal mineral proporciona maior peso vivo de bezerras aos 12 meses de idade e um retorno financeiro positivo.Body development of beef heifers grazing Italian ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was evaluated. The animals received different alternatives of mineral supplement: associated or not to ionophore addition and the treatments were: 'Common salt': mineralization with sodium chloride; '40P salt': mineralization with mineral salt plus 40g of phosphorus per kilo of product; 40P salt + ionophore: mineralization with 40g of phosphorus plus 2000mg of lasalocid per kg of product. The values of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and Ca and P of the apparently consumed forage, salt intake, body condition and body weight:height relation were similar (P>0.05 between animals receiving 'common salt', '40P salt' and '40P salt+ionophor'. For beef heifers grazing ryegrass pasture without intake restriction, the lasalocid associated to mineral salt provides a greater body weight at twelve months age and a positive financial.

  10. Uptake of phosphorus by ryegrass and effect of adding organic matter on inorganic P absorption in red soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeQing-Fu; HeZhen-Li; 等

    1998-01-01

    32-Plabelled KH2PO4 with or without unlabelled ryegrass and 32P-labelled ryegrass with unlabelled KH2PO4 were respectively applied to red soil,and ryegrass was grown in the fertilized oil and harvested one month after sowing and then the radioactivities and total P content in ryegrass were measured.Results show that addition of organic matter to red soil can significantly stimulate the uptake of P by ryegrass seedlings from inorganic P applied to red soil;absorption of P from inorgain source is much greater than that from organic source;at the same application level of P,larger proportion of P derived from labelled inorganic phosphate was distributed in shoots than that from the labelled ryegrass.

  11. Productivity and quality, competition and facilitation of chicory in ryegrass/legume-based pastures under various nitrogen supply levels

    OpenAIRE

    Høgh-Jensen, Henning; Nielsen, Bea; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2006-01-01

    Traditional perennial ryegrass-white clover mixtures have limitations in combined productivity and quality that herbs like chicory may alleviate. This study examined the consequences on productivity and quality of as well as competition and facilitation after introducing chicory into varies ryegrass-legume-based pastures in a field study over 3 consecutive growing seasons. A cultivar of chicory, suitable for grazing, in pure stand was found to out-yield a pure stand ryegrass in terms of dry m...

  12. Transcriptome response of Lolium arundinaceum to the fungal endophyte Epichloe coenophiala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is one of the principal cool-season species used as a forage and turf within the USA. A number of benefits associated with the persistence of tall fescue have been attributed to the presence of its seed-transmissible symbiont, the fungal endophyte Epichloë coenophi...

  13. Cytogenetic studies of Lolium multiflorum Lam., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., their hybrids and amphidiploids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijer, G.

    1982-01-01

    Plant breeders intercross Lolium multiflorum and Festuca arundinacea with the purpose of obtaining hybrids which combine agronomically interesting characters of the parent species. The end result can be an amphidiploid, or the transfer of a limited number of genes from one species to the other. Espe

  14. Genetic differences in root mass of Lolium perenne varieties under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deru, J.G.C.; Schilder, H.; Schoot, van der J.R.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Although grasses have dense rooting systems, nutrient uptake and productivity can be increased, and N-leaching reduced, if rooting is further improved. The variation in root mass of 16 varieties of Lolium perenne was studied under field conditions in two experiments on sandy soil in The Netherlands.

  15. Características da pastagem de azevém e produtividade de cordeiros em pastejo Ryegrass pasture characteristics and lamb productivity in grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiany Maria Dias Ribeiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção da pastagem de azevém, a qualidade da forragem e a produtividade animal por área em três sistemas de produção: cordeiros desmamados precocemente, aos 40 dias de idade, e mantidos em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. até o abate; cordeiros sem desmame, mantidos na mesma pastagem de azevém até o abate; cordeiros sem desmame recebendo suplemento (1% do peso vivo em creep feeding a partir dos 40 dias de idade. O sistema de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua com carga animal variável, mantendo-se a oferta de massa de lâminas foliares em 1.000 kg de MS/ha. A produção média de massa seca da pastagem foi 3.236,6 kg MS/ha, a de lâminas foliares, de 1.008,7 kg MS/ha, e a taxa de crescimento do pasto, de 58,38 kg MS/ha/dia. Com cordeiros desmamados, a altura média da pastagem foi de 20,95 cm, significativamente maior que a daquela com cordeiros sem desmame. A massa de inflorescências nas pastagens dos cordeiros desmamados foi superior (61,7 kg/ha quando comparado aos outros sistemas. O sistema de terminação de cordeiros desmamados permitiu maior carga animal (929,74 kg PV/ha em comparação aos demais, considerando apenas os cordeiros sem suplementação (259,9 kgPV/ha ou com suplementação em creep feeding (254,3 kgPV/ha. A qualidade da forragem não diferiu entre os sistemas de terminação. A estrutura da pastagem sofreu alterações na ausência das ovelhas, devido à maior seletividade dos cordeiros. O sistema de terminação em pastagem com desmame precoce foi o menos produtivo, em razão do baixo desempenho individual dos cordeiros, por isso, não deve ser recomendado a ovinocultores.The objective of this study was to evaluate the ryegrass pasture production, forage quality and animal productivity in three sheep production systems: lambs weaned at 40 days of age and finished in ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. until slaughter; lambs kept with their dams in the same pasture

  16. Effects of humic acid and competing cations on metal uptake by Lolium perenne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, E.J.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Weng, L.P.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Within the biotic ligand model, which describes relationships between chemical speciation and metal binding at an organism's surface, multicomponent (long-term) metal uptake by plants has seldom been studied. In the present work, we exposed perennial ryegrass to nutrient solutions with two levels of

  17. Effect of anionic-nonionic mixed surfactant on ryegrass uptake of phenanthrene and pyrene from water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lu; ZHU LiZhong

    2009-01-01

    The effect of anionic-nonionic mixed surfactant (SDBS-TX100) on the uptake of phenanthrene and pyrene by ryegrass in a hydroponic system was studied, and the influence factors including the com-positions and concentrations of mixed surfactants and the compounds properties were also discussed. The results showed that SDBS-TX100 mixtures with certain compositions and concentrations could enhance the uptake of phenanthrene and pyrene by ryegrass, which could be attributed to the im-proved uptake capacity of ryegrass roots for phenanthrene and pyrene. SDBS-TX100 can enhance the uptake of phenanthrene and pyrene by ryegrass in a wider range of surfactant concentrations (0-0.8 mmol/L) in comparison with corresponding single surfactants, and the maximal contents of phenan-threne and pyrene in ryegrass roots were obtained with the concentrations of SDBS-TX100 around the corresponding critical micelle concentrations. The uptake of phenanthrene and pyrene by ryegrass increased with the increasing mole fraction of SDBS in mixed surfactant solutions, and SDBS-TX100 mixture with a mole ratio of SDBS to TX100 at 9:1 had the greatest capacity in enhancing the uptake of phenanthrene and pyrene, at which the corresponding maximal concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene in ryegrass roots were 216 and 8.16 times those without surfactants, respectively. Results from this study indicate that the anionic-nonionic mixed surfactants (SDBS-TX100) would be a preferred selection for the application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation technology to contaminated soils.

  18. Seed germination and seedling vigour of italian ryegrass, cocksfoot and timothy following harvest and storage Germinação de sementes e o vigor de plantas jovens de azevem italiano, dactilis e timóteo após a colheita e o armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stanisavljevic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During post-harvest maturation, different species vary in the length of dormancy breaking or germination increases. Seed dormancy and slow seedling development often limit establishment of forage grass stands. Seed germination and seedling vigour of Italian ryegrass (Lolium italicum A. Braun, Synonym Lolium multiflorum L., cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. and timothy (Phleum pretense L. were observed after harvest and storage. After harvest in June, seeds were stored under standard storage conditions and sampled every 30 days after harvest (DAH, up to 270 DAH, and then every 60 days up to 990 DAH. At each date, seeds were tested for final germination percentage and for seedling vigour traits. Timothy seeds had a maximum germination (88% and the best seedlings vigour at 90 DAH, which implies that early autumn (September-October is the best sowing period for freshly harvested seeds of timothy. Timothy seed germination was poor from 270 DAH (73%. The best germination and vigour of Italian ryegrass and cocksfoot seedlings were between 270 and 330 DAH, which equates to spring sowing time (March-April in the succeeding year. Cocksfoot and Italian ryegrass seeds maintained satisfactory germination levels up to 630 DAH (81% and 810 DAH (81%, respectively. The data can serve for the determination of a proper storage duration management between harvest and sowing of the tested species under ambient conditions of south-eastern Europe.Durante o armazenamento, diferentes espécies comportam-se diferentemente quanto à dormência e crescimento de plântulas. A dormência o desenvolvimento lento das plântulas limitam a época do plantio das gramíneas forrageiras plurianuais. A germinação de sementes e o crescimento das plântulas de azevem italiano (Lolium italicum A. Braun sin. Lolium multiflorum L., Dactilis (Dactilis glomerata L. e de timoteo (Phleum pratense L. foi pesquisada durante a maturação pós-colheita e a silagem. Após a colheita, em junho

  19. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  20. Potencial competitivo de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Competitive potential of ryegras (Lolium multiflorum biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a capacidade competitiva entre biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, bem como a interferência deles, em diferentes densidades, sobre o crescimento de plantas de trigo. No momento da colheita, aos 50 dias após a emergência do azevém, avaliaram-se o número de perfilhos, a altura de plantas e a área foliar. Nessa mesma ocasião, coletou-se a parte aérea e as raízes das plantas de trigo e de azevém resistente e suscetível, determinando-se a seguir a massa seca desse material em partes separadas (raiz, caule e folhas. Com base nos dados avaliados, as seguintes variáveis para o trigo e para os biótipos de azevém foram calculadas: taxa de crescimento da cultura (TCC = MS A/Ndias, em que MS A é a massa seca da parte aérea e Ndias é o período em dias entre a emergência e a colheita das plantas; área foliar específica (SLA = Af/MSf, em que Af é a área foliar e MSf é a massa seca foliar; e o índice de área (IAF = Af/St, sendo St a superfície de solo, indicando qual a área de folhas por m² de solo. As características avaliadas altura de planta, massa seca e área foliar dos biótipos de azevém suscetível apresentaram menor tendência de redução e maior plasticidade fenotípica, com o incremento da densidade de plantas por área em relação aos biótipos resistentes. Com relação à competição dos biótipos de azevém com plantas de trigo, efeito negativo sobre a cultura também foi observado quando esta se encontrava sob interferência do biótipo suscetível. Conclui-se que o biótipo suscetível de azevém é mais competitivo que o resistente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness of ryegrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate, as well as their interference in wheat growth at different densities. At harvesting, 50 days after emergence, tillering, height, and leaf area of ryegrass plants were evaluated and shoot and roots

  1. Genomic prediction in families of perennial ryegrass based on genotyping-by-sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Bilal

    In this thesis we investigate the potential for genomic prediction in perennial ryegrass using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. Association method based on family-based breeding systems was developed, genomic heritabilities, genomic prediction accurancies and effects of some key factors wer e...... prediction. Overall, GBS allows for genomic prediction in breeding families of perennial ryegrass and holds good potential to expedite genetic gain and encourage the application of genomic prediction......In this thesis we investigate the potential for genomic prediction in perennial ryegrass using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. Association method based on family-based breeding systems was developed, genomic heritabilities, genomic prediction accurancies and effects of some key factors wer...

  2. QTL analysis of crown rust resistance in perennial ryegrass under conditions of natural and artificial infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schejbel, Britt; Jensen, Louise Friis Bach; Xing, Yongzhong;

    2007-01-01

    Crown rust is an economically devastating disease of perennial ryegrass. Both artificial crown rust inoculations, with the possibility of several selection cycles in one year, as well as marker-assisted selection can be used for more efficient breeding of new resistant cultivars. The objective...... of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for response to crown rust infection in perennial ryegrass. In order to identify relevant markers for response to crown rust infection, QTL mapping was performed on a ryegrass mapping population which was evaluated for resistance in the field for two years...... as well as by artificial pathogen inoculations using a detached leaf assessment. The broad sense heritability values for the field, detached leaf and combined assays were 0.42, 0.56, and 0.64, respectively, indicating a good potential for selection for crown rust resistance. A total of six QTLs were...

  3. Structural and morphogenical characteristics of black oats and Italian ryegrass on pasture submitted to two grazing intensities Características estruturais e morfogênicas de aveia-preta e azevém-anual em pastagem submetida a duas intensidades de pastejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenical and structural characteristics of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. on pastures managed under two grazing intensities were quantified by using marked tiller technique. The expected intensities of disappearance of forage mass initial value were 35% (low and 65% (high. Experimental animals were sheep and interval among grazing was determined through 300 degree-day thermal sum. The experimental design was completely randomized with two grazing intensities and two replicates. Leaf blades of oats and ryegrass were removed at an average proportion of 57.5% of their initial length for both grazing intensities. Among the morphogenical characteristics of oats, only elongation rate of defoliate leaf differed between grazing intensities, with values of 0.059 and 0.081 cm/degree-day for low and high intensities, respectively. Grazing intensities did not alter structural characteristics of oats mixed with ryegrass and red clover. High grazing intensity enables maintenance of a higher number of ryegrass expanding leaves (1.7 leaves/tiller, thus it is suggested for management of pastures with oats mixed with Italian ryegrass and red-clover on intermittent grazing.As características morfogênicas e estruturais de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., em pastagem manejada sob duas intensidades de pastejo, foram quantificadas por meio da técnica de perfilhos marcados. As intensidades pretendidas de desaparecimento do valor da massa de forragem inicial foram 35% (baixa e 65% (alta. Os animais experimentais foram ovinos e o intervalo entre pastejos foi determinado pela soma térmica de 300 graus-dia. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com duas intensidades de pastejo e duas repetições. As lâminas foliares de aveia e azevém foram removidas na proporção média de 57,5% do seu comprimento inicial em ambas as intensidades de pastejo. Entre as

  4. Silicon induced systemic defense responses in perennial ryegrass against Magnaporthe oryzae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable integrated disease management for gray leaf spot of perennial ryegrass may involve use of plant defense elicitors with compatible traditional fungicides to reduce disease incidence and severity. Silicon (Si) is a potential inducer or modulator of plant defenses against different pathogen...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pediococcus lolii NGRI 0510QT Isolated from Ryegrass Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Nagayoshi, Yuko; Hayashi, Yoshiharu; Kuhara, Satoru; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Pediococcus lolii NGRI 0510QT was isolated from ryegrass silage produced on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Here we present a draft genome sequence for this strain, consisting of 103 contigs for a total of 2,047,078 bp, 2,154 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 42.1%. PMID:23405350

  6. Temporal dynamics of the metabolically active rumen bacteria colonizing fresh perennial ryegrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huws, Sharon A.; Edwards, Joan E.; Creevey, Christopher J.; Stevens, Pauline Rees; Lin, Wanchang; Girdwood, Susan E.; Pachebat, Justin A.; Kingston-Smith, Alison H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated successional colonization of fresh perennial ryegrass (PRG) by the rumen microbiota over time. Fresh PRG was incubated in sacco in the rumens of three Holstein × Friesian cows over a period of 8 h, with samples recovered at various times. The diversity of attached bacteria

  7. Removal of nitrogen from wastewater with perennial ryegrass/artificial aquatic mats biofilm combined system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjun Chen; Rui Zhang; Liang Wang; Weixiang Wu; Yingxu Chen

    2013-01-01

    To develop a cost-effective combined phytoremediation and biological process,a combined perennial ryegrass/artificial aquatic mat biofilm reactor was used to treat synthetic wastewater.Influent ammonium loading,reflux ratio,hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature all had significant effects on the treatment efficiency.The results indicated that the effluent concentration of ammonium increased with increasing influent ammonium loading.The reactor temperature played an important role in the nitrification process.The ammonium removal efficiency significantly decreased from 80% to 30%-50% when the reactor temperature dropped to below 10℃.In addition,the optimal nitrogen removal condition was a reflux ratio of 2.The nitrate and ammonium concentration of the effluent were consistent with the HRT of the combined system.The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was at a high level during the whole experiment,being almost 80% after the start-up,and then mostly above 90%.The direct uptake of N by the perennial ryegrass accounted for 18.17% of the total N removal by the whole system.The perennial ryegrass absorption was a significant contributor to nitrogen removal in the combined system.The result-illustrated that the combined perennial ryegrass/artificial aquatic mat biofilm reactor demonstrated good performance in ammonium,total N and COD removal.

  8. Cultivar effects of perennial ryegrass on herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the most abundant grass species in temperate climates. An increased herbage intake of dairy cows by breeding new cultivars could have a large potential impact on agriculture. The effects of cultivars on sward structure, nutritive value, physical characteristics and disease resi

  9. IMPACT OF GROWTH INHIBITOR BERCEMA ON SHOOTS REGROWTH OF PERENNIAL RYEGRASS AND COCKSFOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Wiśniewska-Kadżajan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse, the effect of CCC Bercema growth inhibitor to reduce vegetative shoot growth of perennial ryegrass and cocksfoot was studded. The experiment was set up in triplicate. Growth regulator was applied once, in a form of an aqueous solution. The following experimental objects were specified: control object, Bercema with a concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Ten measurements were performed every 3 days. The study was conducted under conditions of 12-hour artificial light daily. The results were statistically analyzed using two-factorial variance analysis . It was found that the greatest shoot growth reduction of ryegrass due to the highest inhibitor concentration (B- 30%, but for cocksfoot under the influence of the minimal concentration (B- 10%, compared to the control object. It has been noted that cocksfoot is more sensitive to the applied growth regulator, resulted in significantly greater inhibition of shoot regrowth than for ryegrass. In the experiment with the perennial ryegrass significant differences in the growth of shoots were found under the influence of inhibitor application at a concentration of 30%, compared to the control object. In the case of cocksfoot, all the concentration increases of Bercema inhibitor significantly differentiated the shoots regrowth.

  10. Anaerobic Digestion of Saline Creeping Wild Ryegrass for Biogas Production and Pretreatment of Particleboard Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to develop an integrated process to produce biogas and high-quality particleboard using saline creeping wild ryegrass (CWR), Leymus triticoides through anaerobic digestion (AD). Besides producing biogas, AD also serves as a pretreatment method to remove the wax la...

  11. The effects of perennial ryegrass and alfalfa on microbial abundance and diversity in petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced rhizosphere degradation uses plants to stimulate the rhizosphere microbial community to degrade organic contaminants. We measured changes in microbial communities caused by the addition of two species of plants in a soil contaminated with 31,000 ppm of total petroleum hydrocarbons. Perennial ryegrass and/or alfalfa increased the number of rhizosphere bacteria in the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. These plants also increased the number of bacteria capable of petroleum degradation as estimated by the most probable number (MPN) method. Eco-Biolog plates did not detect changes in metabolic diversity between bulk and rhizosphere samples but denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rDNA sequences indicated a shift in the bacterial community in the rhizosphere samples. Dice coefficient matrices derived from DGGE profiles showed similarities between the rhizospheres of alfalfa and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture in the contaminated soil at week seven. Perennial ryegrass and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture caused the greatest change in the rhizosphere bacterial community as determined by DGGE analysis. We concluded that plants altered the microbial population; these changes were plant-specific and could contribute to degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil. - Plant-specific changes in microbial populations on roots affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil

  12. The effect of glyphosate, paraquat and paclobutrazol on lolitrem B levels in endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestidge, R A; Sprosen, J M

    1995-08-01

    Two herbicides (glyphosate and paraquat) and a plant growth regulator (paclobutrazol) were applied to endophyteinfected (Acremonium lolii) perennial ryegrass swards. Subsamples of these swards were then chemically analysed at intervals up to 28 days later for lolitrem B, the compound responsible for perennial ryegrass staggers in domestic livestock. Glyphosate and paclobutrazol had no effect on lolitrem B concentrations. Paraquat applications decreased lolitrem B concentrations in the herbage. Because none of the chemicals tested increased the concentration of lolitrem B in the herbage, they are unlikely to be directly implicated in perennial ryegrass staggers in grazing animals.

  13. Plant uptake of selenium, arsenic and molybdenum from soil treated with coal combustion byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codling, E.E.; Wright, R.J. [US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service, Environmental Chemistry Dept.

    1998-01-01

    Three coal combustion byproducts, flyash (FA), scrubber sludge (SS) and gypsum (G), added to soil at rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg only limited annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) growth at the 80 g/kg rate. FA and SS increased selenium (Se), arsenic (As) and molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in ryegrass but only Se from FA would present a potential food chain risk. G did not significantly increase ryegrass concentrations of Se, As and Mo and should not produce elevated trace element levels in plant material or the environment when added to soil at high rates.

  14. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Sewage River Sediment by Lolium perenne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to restore heavy metal pollution of urban sewage river sediment by using Lolium perenne.[Method] Through cultivation test,the phytoremediation of heavy metal pollution in river sediment by L.perenne was analyzed from the aspects of removal effect,optimal removal time and the changes of sucrase activity,urease activity and microbe quantity.[Result] After planting L.perenne for three months,Ni content in sediment was basically stable,while the removal effect of Cr and Mn in sediment wa...

  15. Grazing ecology of female lambs on Italian ryegrass plus red clover pasture under different defoliation intensities Ecologia do pastejo por cordeiras em pastagem de azevém e trevo-vermelho sob diversas intensidades de desfolha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Lisete Glienke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between pasture dynamics and ingestive behavior of female lambs was studied on Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. plus red clover (Trifolium pratense L. mixture under a range of defoliation intensities. Rotational grazing was used and the grazing interval was determined by the thermal sum of 313 degree days. The initial pre-grazing canopy height disappearance values were 65 (very high, 58 (high, 47 (medium and 37% (low. The sward vertical structure was similar among defoliation intensities. The forage allowance decreased linearly as defoliation intensities increased, with 0.35 bite/minute reduction for each 1% increase in forage allowance. The bite rate and number of bites/feeding station decreased with reduced contribution of leaves in the sward structure. It was associated, respectively, with an increase and a decrease of NDF and CP levels in forage as grazed by female lambs. The pasture cycle proves to be more important than defoliation intensities as a source for changes in feeding stations and displacement patterns of female lambs.Estudou-se a relação entre a dinâmica do pasto e o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiras em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L. em diferentes intensidades de desfolha. O pastejo foi rotacionado e o intervalo entre pastejos foi determinado pela soma térmica de 313 graus-dia. Os valores de desaparecimento da altura do dossel no pré-pastejo foram de 65 (muito alta, 58 (alta, 47 (média e 37% (baixa, respectivamente. A estrutura vertical do pasto foi semelhante entre as intensidades de desfolha testadas. A oferta de forragem diminuiu linearmente com o aumento da intensidade de desfolha, com redução de 0,35 bocado/minuto a cada 1% a mais na oferta de forragem. A taxa de bocados e o número de bocados/estação alimentar reduziram com a diminuição da contribuição de folhas na estrutura da pastagem, acompanhada do aumento do teor de FDN e

  16. Desempenho animal em pasto de aveia e azevém com distintas biomassas de lâminas foliares Animal performance in oat and Italian ryegrass pastures under leaf lamina biomass levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Guerra Bandinelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de biomassas de lâminas foliares no desempenho animal. Utilizou-se mistura de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., para determinar quantidades adequadas de sua biomassa no manejo da pastagem. Foram realizados dois experimentos, na estação fria de 2002 e 2003. Na avaliação de 2002, os valores de biomassa de lâminas foliares foram de 360 kg ha-1 (baixa e 630 kg ha-1 (alta. Em 2003, foram obtidas biomassas de 352, 422 e 507 kg ha-1, classificadas como baixa, média e alta, respectivamente. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variada; os animais utilizados foram terneiros da raça Charolês e cruzados com Nelore, com idade inicial de nove meses. As variáveis de produção animal avaliadas, nos dois anos, foram: ganho médio diário, carga animal e ganho de peso vivo por área. As distintas biomassas de lâminas foliares mantidas não são fatores limitantes ao desempenho animal.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different leaf lamina biomass over animal performance. A mixture of oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was used to determine adequate levels of leaf lamina biomass for pasture management. Two trials were made, in 2002 and 2003 cool seasons. In 2002 evaluation, leaf lamina biomass values were of 360 kg ha-1 (low and 630 kg ha-1 (high. In 2003, values obtained for leaf lamina biomasses were of 352, 422 and 507 kg ha-1, being classified as low, medium and high, respectively. Grazing method was continuous, with variable stocking rate; testing animals were calves of Charolais breed and its crosses with Nelore breed, with initial age of nine months. Evaluated variables in animal production, in both years, were: average daily gain, stocking rate and live weight gain per area. Leaf lamina biomasses evaluated are not limiting factors to animal performance.

  17. Impacts of endophyte infection of ryegrass on rhizosphere metabolome and microbial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakelin, S.; Harrison, Scott James; Mander, C.;

    2015-01-01

    The use of grasses such as ryegrass and fescues infected with endophytic fungi of the Epichloë genus is widespread in New Zealand's pastoral systems. Each endophyte-cultivar combination represents a distinctive genome-genome association, resulting in unique biological outcomes. The wider influence...... of these interactions on rhizosphere microbiology are not well characterised. This is important, because there may be opportunities or risks associated with selective disruption of the rhizosphere microbiota. We explored the interaction of two commercially used endophyte fungi, E. festucae var. lolii strains AR1 and AR......-infested ryegrass strains (P=0.06). These were attributed to shifts in various n-alkane hydrocarbon compounds. The endophyte-associated alteration in rhizosphere metabolome was linked to changes in the total bacterial (P

  18. High-Throughput SNP Discovery And Genetic Mapping In Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Torben; Studer, Bruno; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    Gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are of major interest for genome analysis and breeding applications in the key grassland species perennial ryegrass. High-throughput 454 Titanium transcriptome sequencing was performed on two genotypes, which previously have been used...... to establish the VrnA F2 mapping population. The sequences were assembled and used for in-silico SNP discovery. SNPs supported by a minimum number of eight reads, within candidate genes for important agronomic traits, were selected for Illumina GoldenGate genotyping and used to map 768 expressed genes...... in the VrnA mapping population. Here we report on large-scale SNP discovery, and the construction of a genetic map enabling QTL fine mapping, map-based cloning, and comparative genomics in perennial ryegrass....

  19. De novo assembly of the perennial ryegrass transcriptome using an RNA-Seq strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline D Farrell

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass is a highly heterozygous outbreeding grass species used for turf and forage production. Heterozygosity can affect de-Bruijn graph assembly making de novo transcriptome assembly of species such as perennial ryegrass challenging. Creating a reference transcriptome from a homozygous perennial ryegrass genotype can circumvent the challenge of heterozygosity. The goals of this study were to perform RNA-sequencing on multiple tissues from a highly inbred genotype to develop a reference transcriptome. This was complemented with RNA-sequencing of a highly heterozygous genotype for SNP calling.De novo transcriptome assembly of the inbred genotype created 185,833 transcripts with an average length of 830 base pairs. Within the inbred reference transcriptome 78,560 predicted open reading frames were found of which 24,434 were predicted as complete. Functional annotation found 50,890 transcripts with a BLASTp hit from the Swiss-Prot non-redundant database, 58,941 transcripts with a Pfam protein domain and 1,151 transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides. To evaluate the reference transcriptome we targeted the high-affinity K+ transporter gene family and found multiple orthologs. Using the longest unique open reading frames as the reference sequence, 64,242 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. One thousand sixty one open reading frames from the inbred genotype contained heterozygous sites, confirming the high degree of homozygosity.Our study has developed an annotated, comprehensive transcriptome reference for perennial ryegrass that can aid in determining genetic variation, expression analysis, genome annotation, and gene mapping.

  20. Molecular identification of asymmetric somatic hybrids between wheat and Italian ryegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sexual incompatibility between common wheat and Italian ryegrass was an obstacle for transferring useful traits from italian ryegrass to wheat. In order to use those desirable genetic resources to improve wheat and to create new cytoplasmic germplasm, the protoplasts of wheat and Italian ryegrass were successfully electrofused and the somatic hybrid plants were regenerated. Examination with 6 restriction enzymes, 13 probes including 9 mtDNA probes (H454, Pst24, B30, Pro I, 490, B342, pHJ2-7-1, B376, 7), 3 cpDNA probes (pHvc p1, pHvc p5 and pHvc p8) and one nuclear DNA probe-- pTA71 (rDNA) in total 73 enzyme/ probe combinations revealed rich polymorphism between the fusion partners. RFLP analysis indicated that approximately 93.4% of the regenerated plants were true somatic hybrids. AFLP analysis implied that the somatic hybrids were highly asymmetric. The RFLP analysis using mt- and cpDNA specific probes also demonstrated the non-coexistence of mitochondria and chloroplasts from the fusion partners in the somatic hybrid cells.

  1. Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, David; Bartos, Jan; Lukaszewski, Adam J;

    2009-01-01

    Background Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on Earth. They provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex...

  2. Carbon balance and water use efficiency of frequently cut Lolium perenne L. swards at elevated carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Dijkstra, P.; Groenwold, J.; Pot, C.S.; Geijn, van de S.C.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of doubled atmospheric [CO2] on the carbon balance of regularly cut Lolium perenne L. swards was studied for two years under semi-field conditions in the Wageningen Rhizolab. CO2 and H2O vapour exchange rates of the swards were measured continuously for two years in transparent enclosures

  3. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    OpenAIRE

    Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; TAN, K

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan JIA; Shi-rong TANG; Xue-hai JU; Li-na SHU; Shu-xing TU; Ren-wei FENG; Lorenzino GIUSTI

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multifiorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1 000 μl/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2.Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation.

  5. 黑麦草属DNA条形码鉴定技术研究%Establishment of DNA barcode of common species of Lolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 吴申懋; 陈沁

    2014-01-01

    以毒麦、田毒麦、多花黑麦草、多年生黑麦草、硬直黑麦草、高羊茅与狗牙根等禾本科的7种植物为材料,拟采用 DNA 测序、特异性位点比对、种间遗传距离测定、建立系统树等分析候选 DNA 条形码 psbA-trnH 鉴别黑麦草属常见植物的能力。实验结果表明,以 psbA-trnH 为 DNA 条形码时,建立的系统发育树能较好区分毒麦和田毒麦与其他几种植物。psbA-trnH 序列可以作为黑麦草属植物的潜在条形码。%7 kinds of plants such as Lolium temulentum、Lolium temulentum L.var. arvense Bab.、Lolium multiflorum、Lolium perenne、Lolium rigidum、Festuca、Cynodon are used as materials, which belong to Poaceae, to analyze psbA-trnH candidate DNA barcode’s ability of identifying the common species of Lolium by DNA sequencing, specific loci comparisons and interspecific genetic distance measurement, establishing the system tree and other technical means. The results show that Lolium temulentum and Lolium temulentum L.var. arvense Bab. can be divided well by the established system tree when we use psbA-trnH sequence as a DNA barcode. psbA-trnH could be used as a potential DNA barcode to correctly identify the plants in Lolium.

  6. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: effects of increased carbon input in a Lolium perenne soil on microorganisms and decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van J.H.; Gorissen, A.; Polci, D.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 and 700 μl l-1) on net carbon input into soil, the production of root-derived material and the subsequent microbial transformation were investigated. Perennial ryegrass plants (L. perenne L.) were labelled in a continuously labelled

  7. Stability of Chloropyromorphite in Ryegrass Rhizosphere as Affected by Root-Secreted Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zheng; Han, Ruiming; Li, Shiyin; Wei, Zhenggui; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the stability of chloropyromorphite (CPY) is of considerable benefit for improving risk assessment and remediation strategies in contaminated water and soil. The stability of CPY in the rhizosphere of phosphorus-deficient ryegrass was evaluated to elucidate the role of root-secreted low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the dissolution of CPY. Results showed that CPY treatments significantly reduced the ryegrass biomass and rhizosphere pH. The presence of calcium nitrate extractable lead (Pb) and phosphorus (P) suggested that CPY in the rhizosphere could be bioavailable, because P and Pb uptake by ryegrass potentially provided a significant concentration gradient that would promote CPY dissolution. Pb accumulation and translocation in ryegrass was found to be significantly higher in P-sufficient conditions than in P-deficient conditions. CPY treatments significantly enhanced root exudation of LMWOAs irrigated with P-nutrient solution or P-free nutrient solution. Oxalic acid was the dominant species in root-secreted LMWOAs of ryegrass under P-free nutrient solution treatments, suggesting that root-secreted oxalic acid may be the driving force of root-induced dissolution of CPY. Hence, our work, provides clarifying hints on the role of LMWOAs in controlling the stability of CPY in the rhizosphere. PMID:27494023

  8. Stability of Chloropyromorphite in Ryegrass Rhizosphere as Affected by Root-Secreted Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zheng; Han, Ruiming; Li, Shiyin; Wei, Zhenggui; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the stability of chloropyromorphite (CPY) is of considerable benefit for improving risk assessment and remediation strategies in contaminated water and soil. The stability of CPY in the rhizosphere of phosphorus-deficient ryegrass was evaluated to elucidate the role of root-secreted low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the dissolution of CPY. Results showed that CPY treatments significantly reduced the ryegrass biomass and rhizosphere pH. The presence of calcium nitrate extractable lead (Pb) and phosphorus (P) suggested that CPY in the rhizosphere could be bioavailable, because P and Pb uptake by ryegrass potentially provided a significant concentration gradient that would promote CPY dissolution. Pb accumulation and translocation in ryegrass was found to be significantly higher in P-sufficient conditions than in P-deficient conditions. CPY treatments significantly enhanced root exudation of LMWOAs irrigated with P-nutrient solution or P-free nutrient solution. Oxalic acid was the dominant species in root-secreted LMWOAs of ryegrass under P-free nutrient solution treatments, suggesting that root-secreted oxalic acid may be the driving force of root-induced dissolution of CPY. Hence, our work, provides clarifying hints on the role of LMWOAs in controlling the stability of CPY in the rhizosphere. PMID:27494023

  9. Multiple Herbicide Resistance in Lolium multiflorum and Identification of Conserved Regulatory Elements of Herbicide Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Mathiassen, Solvejg K.; Kristensen, Michael; Kudsk, Per

    2016-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is a ubiquitous challenge to herbicide sustainability and a looming threat to control weeds in crops. Recently four genes were found constituently over-expressed in herbicide resistant individuals of Lolium rigidum, a close relative of Lolium multiflorum. These include two cytochrome P450s, one nitronate monooxygenase and one glycosyl-transferase. Higher expressions of these four herbicide metabolism related (HMR) genes were also observed after herbicides exposure in the gene expression databases, indicating them as reliable markers. In order to get an overview of herbicidal resistance status of L. multiflorum L, 19 field populations were collected. Among these populations, four populations were found to be resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors while three exhibited resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors in our initial screening and dose response study. The genotyping showed the presence of mutations Trp-574-Leu and Ile-2041-Asn in ALS and ACCase, respectively, and qPCR experiments revealed the enhanced expression of HMR genes in individuals of certain resistant populations. Moreover, co-expression networks and promoter analyses of HMR genes in O. sativa and A. thaliana resulted in the identification of a cis-regulatory motif and zinc finger transcription factors. The identified transcription factors were highly expressed similar to HMR genes in response to xenobiotics whereas the identified motif is known to play a vital role in coping with environmental stresses and maintaining genome stability. Overall, our findings provide an important step forward toward a better understanding of metabolism-based herbicide resistance that can be utilized to devise novel strategies of weed management. PMID:27547209

  10. Multiple herbicide resistance in Lolium multiflorum and identification of conserved regulatory elements of herbicide resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmood

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is a ubiquitous challenge to herbicide sustainability and a looming threat to control weeds in crops. Recently four genes were found constituently over-expressed in herbicide resistant individuals of Lolium rigidum, a close relative of L. multiflorum. These include two cytochrome P450s, one nitronate monooxygenase and one glycosyl-transferase. Higher expressions of these four herbicide metabolism related (HMR genes were also observed after herbicides exposure in the gene expression databases, indicating them a reliable marker. In order to get an overview of herbicidal resistance status of Lolium multiflorum L, 19 field populations were collected. Among these populations, four populations were found to be resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors while three exhibited resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase inhibitors in our initial screening and dose response study. The genotyping showed the presence of mutations Trp-574-Leu and Ile-2041-Asn in ALS and ACCase, respectively and qPCR experiments revealed the enhanced expression of HMR genes in individuals of certain resistant populations. Moreover, co-expression networks and promoter analyses of HMR genes in O.sativa and A.thaliana resulted in the identification of a cis-regulatory motif and zinc finger transcription factors. The identified transcription factors were highly expressed similar to HMR genes in response to xenobiotics whereas the identified motif known to play a vital role in coping with environmental stresses and maintaining genome stability. Overall, our findings provide an important step forward towards a better understanding of metabolism-based herbicide resistance that can be utilized to devise novel strategies of weed management.

  11. Medium-term response of microbial community to rhizodeposits of white clover and ryegrass and tracing of active processes induced by 13C and 15N labelled exudates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Rasmussen, Jim; Kuzyakov, Yakov;

    2014-01-01

    and actinomycetes was unaffected by plant species, but pool of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was greater under white clover at the 10 percent significance level. In the short term, microorganisms more actively utilised fresh exudates (13C-labelled) of ryegrass than of white clover. We expected ryegrass...

  12. Genomic prediction based on next generation sequencing of 1000 F2-families in Lolium perenne L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    on salt stress tolerance. Ryegrass families where sown in rockwool blocks (in four replicates) in greenhouse, and allowed to establish over 60 days using standard fertilization and watering. Three consecutive treatments, with increasing salt (NaCl) concentrations, were applied. Ten days after initiation...... and abiotic stresses. The study is performed on 995 F2 families originated from the DLF breeding program. All families were genotyped by reduced representation sequencing. A total of 1,020,065 SNPs were detected and used for genomic prediction. First analyses, used for model testing, have been carried out...... of each treatment, the percentage of green matter was evaluated by visual scoring and by digital imaging. Preliminary analysis using GBLUP have identified a significant amount of genetic variance (individual heritabilities ranging between 0.20 and 0.40 and family heritabilities up to about 0.15). Genomic...

  13. Composição química da cera epicuticular de biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate Chemical composition of the epicuticular wax of Italian ryegrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Guimarães

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a composição química da cera epicuticular dos biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, buscando relações entre suas características e a resistência dos biótipos ao herbicida. A cera epicuticular foi extraída e quantificada e os seus constituintes analisados por cromatografia em fase gasosa, acoplada a espectrômetro de massa (CG-EM. Para determinação da composição química, amostras de lâmina foliar foram retiradas 30 dias após a emergência das plantas, coletando-se a primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível. A quantidade de cera epicuticular extraída não diferiu entre os biótipos. Entre os compostos que constituem a cera epicuticular, os álcoois são os mais abundantes, sendo representados por apenas um composto: o hexacosan-1-ol (46,80% no biótipo resistente e 52,20% no biótipo suscetível. Ao comparar a polaridade da cera epicuticular dos biótipos de azevém, constatou-se que tanto no biótipo resistente quanto no suscetível a cera epicuticular apresentou mais de 50% de componentes polares (álcoois e aldeídos em sua constituição, sendo esse valor igual a 69,80% no biótipo resistente e 64,94% no biótipo suscetível. Por meio da caracterização apresentada, pode-se afirmar que existem pequenas diferenças na cera epicuticular dos biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate; o biótipo resistente apresentou grau de polaridade pouco superior ao do biótipo suscetível, porém essa diferença não pode ser considerada marcante a ponto de determinar maior ou menor tolerância de um biótipo ou outro ao herbicida glyphosate.The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition of epicuticular wax of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate, searching for relationships between their characteristics and the resistance of the biotypes to the product. The

  14. Infestation and natural parasitism of aphids in single and mixed pastures of black oats and ryegrass Infestação e parasitismo natural de afídeos em pastagens com espécie única ou mistura de aveia preta e azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Soares Sturza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some species of aphids are major pests on cereal crops and grass pastures. Usually these pests are not adequately controlled in pasture lands that become sources of aphid infestations to cereal crops. The dynamics of aphids and the incidence of natural enemies are less known in pasture systems than in cereal fields. The objective of this work was to assess the aphid infestation and natural aphid parasitism in different pasture composition. Three hypotheses were tested: 1- the aphid species composition in pastures may vary according to the cereal species in the field; 2- the mixture of two plant species can modify the amount and diversity of aphids; 3- the plant species composition of pasture fields influences the parasitism of aphids. Empirical data were obtained from three Poaceae fields: black oats (Avena strigosa L., ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L., and a mixed field of black oats and ryegrass. The most abundant aphid species was Rhopalosiphum padi followed by Sitobion avenae. Plant species composition increases the amount and the parasitism rates of aphids. The mixture of heavily infested black oats with a poorly infested ryegrass resulted in reduction of aphid infestation in comparison with heavily-infested single plant species field. This is possible because the conditions are favorable for the development of parasitoid populations. Aphidius colemani was the main parasitoid found in these areas.Algumas espécies de pulgões são importantes pragas de cereais, atacando também pastagens de gramíneas. Normalmente, essas pragas não são controladas nas pastagens e podem tornar-se fontes de infestação dos afídeos para os cereais cultivados. A dinâmica dos afídeos e de seus inimigos naturais é pouco conhecida em sistemas de pastagem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a infestação de pulgões e seu parasitismo natural em áreas com diferentes composições de pastagens. Três hipóteses foram testadas: 1 - a composição de esp

  15. Comportamento ingestivo de novilhas de corte submetidas a estratégias de suplementação em pastagens de aveia e azevém Ingestive behavior of beef heifers submitted to strategies of supplementation on oats and ryegrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bremm

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento ingestivo de novilhas de corte recebendo suplemento em pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sob lotação contínua. Como tratamentos, foram avaliadas quatro estratégias de suplementação: sem suplemento - animais em pastagem de aveia (AV e azevém (AZ; crescente - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo níveis crescentes de suplemento (0,3; 0,6 e 0,9% do peso vivo -PV; fixo - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo nível fixo de suplemento (0,9% PV; e decrescente - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo níveis decrescentes (1,5; 1,2 e 0,9% do PV de suplemento. As características estruturais (massa de forragem, massa de forragem verde, oferta de forragem, oferta de lâminas foliares verdes, relação folha:colmo, proporção de lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas de aveia e proporção de lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas de azevém e bromatológicas (proteína bruta, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica, nutrientes digestíveis totais e fibra em detergente neutro do pasto foram semelhantes entre as estratégias de suplementação, mas variaram conforme os períodos de utilização do pasto. Os tempos diários de pastejo, ruminação e ócio e de permanência no cocho (min/dia e a massa de bocado (g MO/boc diferiram entre as estratégias de suplementação e as características do pasto no decorrer do ciclo. A taxa de bocado/minuto foi influenciada apenas pelo ciclo do pasto.It was evaluated the ingestive behavior of beef heifers on black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pastures under different strategies of supplementation and continuous stocking system. The treatments evaluated were: 'no supplement'- animals on black oats (BO and Italian ryegrass (IR pasture; 'increasing' - animals on BO and IR pasture receiving increasing levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% of live weight - LW of supplement; 'fixed' - animals on

  16. Genomic Selection Using Genotyping-By-Sequencing Data with Different Coverage Depth in Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cericola, Fabio; Janss, Luc; Byrne, Stephen;

    2015-01-01

    investigated how this reduction of the coverage depth affects the genomic relationship matrices used to estimated breeding value of F2 family pools in perennial ryegrass. A total of 995 families were genotyped via GBS providing more than 1.8M allele frequency estimates for each family with an average coverage...... depth of 12.6 per marker. Simulated datasets with a progressively reduced depth showed an increasing level of missing values together with an overestimated genetic variance caused by inflated diagonals in the genomic relationship matrix. In order to address these drawbacks we first showed how to correct...

  17. Herbicide resistance in German and Swiss Lolium spp. populations – resistance factors and cross-resistance spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In monitoring trials investigating the occurrence and spread of herbicide resistance in German and Swiss Lolium populations 26 samples could be included since 2008. Biotypes which showed resistance to postemergence herbicides were included into a detailed greenhouse trial in 2014. Based on dose-response experiments, resistance factors and cross resistance patterns for cycloxydim, flufenacet, glyphosate, iodosulfuron, meso- and iodosulfuron, pinoxaden and pyroxsulam could be determined. Resistance to ALS as well as ACCase inhibitors was found. In a few cases also resistance to flufenacet could be detected. In contrast, no resistance to glyphosate was discovered. Resistant populations were found in four German federal states (Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Sachsen and Schleswig-Holstein. Two populations were resistant to all cereal selective post-emergence herbicides and to flufenacet. Some populations from Switzerland indicated presence of ACCase inhibitor resistance. In the future, more problems with herbicide resistant Lolium species as weeds in cereals may arise due to limited amount of available selective herbicides and climatic change with more favourable conditions for Lolium spp. as weeds.

  18. Influence of Variability of Ryegrass Meadow Soil Conditions on their Natural and Utilization Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna KRYSZAK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the findings of research into the effect of the variability of site conditions on their floristic composition providinga basis for the identification of lower phytosociological units. Patches of Arrhenatheretum elatioris described with the assistance ofphytosociological surveys conducted using the Braun-Blanquet method were subjected to multi-criteria evaluation. On their basis, thefollowing parameters were determined: ecological and botanical structure, geographic-historical distribution, the structure of the lifegroupsof the floristic types identified, as well as natural values by the Oświt method and sward fodder value according to Filipek. In orderto determine the causes of the floristic variability observed, the following soil conditions were assessed: moisture content, soil reactionand nitrogen content by Ellenberg’s indicator method, as well as potassium, magnesium and phosphorus content by the appropriatelaboratory methods. Typical forms of Arrhenatheretum elatioris phytocenoses were found to develop on mucky soils in moderately moistsites. Patches of ryegrass occurring in sites with a periodically higher moisture content on organic soils refer to the Alopecuretum pratensisassociation. On the other hand, the sward of ryegrass meadows developed on dryer, mineral soils was characterised by increased numbersof species characteristic for xerothermic swards from the Festuco-Brometea class and sandy plant communities from the Koelerio glauca-Corynephoretea canescentis. More intensive utilization, primarily-fertilisation, was among the causes of the development of species-poorphytocenoses of low natural value but sward of a good fodder value.

  19. Decomposition of 15N-labelled ryegrass in soils from a long-term field experiment with different manuring strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.K.; Jensen, E.S.; Magid, J.

    1995-01-01

    ) than in soils receiving either mineral fertilizer, a low amount of FYM or no manure. However, in general the decomposition of ryegrass in the selected soils varied only slightly. The microbial decomposition processes differed somewhat in the soil manured with a low amount of FYM from those receiving...

  20. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg-1 of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P450 or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P450. Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  1. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merini, Luciano J. [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bobillo, Cecilia [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Cuadrado, Virginia [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Corach, Daniel [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Giulietti, Ana M., E-mail: agiule@ffyb.uba.a [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg{sup -1} of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450} or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450}. Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  2. Phytochelatin synthesis in response to elevated CO2 under cadmium stress in Lolium perenne L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Ju, Xuehai; Liao, Shangqiang; Song, Zhengguo; Li, Zhongyang

    2011-10-15

    The increasing atmospheric CO(2) and heavy metal contamination in soil are two of the major environmental problems. Knowledge of the Cd stress coping mechanisms is needed to understand the regulation of the plants' metabolism under the increasing atmospheric CO(2) levels. Lolium perenne L. was grown hydroponically under two concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) (360 and 1000μLL(-1)) and six concentrations of cadmium (0-160μmolL(-1)) to investigate Cd uptake, Cd transportation, and variations in phytochelatin (PC) concentration. Cd concentrations in roots and shoots were decreased, but transport index (Ti) was increased under elevated CO(2) compared to ambient CO(2). Regardless of CO(2) concentrations, Cd and PC concentrations, especially the concentrations of high molecular weight PCs (PC(4), PC(5), PC(6)) were higher with increasing Cd concentration in growth media and longer Cd exposure time. Under the elevated CO(2), more high molecular weight PCs (PC(4), PC(5), PC(6)) in shoots and roots were synthesized compared to ambient CO(2), with higher SH:Cd ratio in roots as well. These results indicate that under elevated CO(2), L. perenne may be better protected against Cd stress with higher biomass, lower Cd concentration and better detoxification by phytochelatins.

  3. Rendimento de forragem e valor nutritivo de gramíneas anuais de estação fria submetidas a sombreamento por Pinus elliottii e ao sol pleno Forage yield and nutritive value of cool-season annual forage grasses shaded by Pinus elliottii trees and at full-sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Santiago Barro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do sombreamento provocado por duas densidades arbóreas em uma floresta de Pinus elliottii Engelm. com 10 anos de idade sobre o rendimento e o valor nutritivo da forragem de três gramíneas de ciclo hibernal. Como tratamentos, avaliou-se a combinação de dois fatores (3 x 3 em um delineamento experimental de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições, no qual as parcelas foram as condições luminosas (proporcionadas por duas densidades arbóreas: 555 e 333 árvores/ha e luz solar plena e as subparcelas as espécies forrageiras azevém-anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb.; e aveia-branca (A. sativa L. cv. Fapa 2. A semeadura foi realizada entre 25/7/2005 e 5/8/2005 e entre 26 e 27/4/2006. O rendimento de matéria seca foi estimado em avaliações durante o estádio vegetativo (aos 104 dias após a semeadura em 2006 e em pleno florescimento (aos 132 e 170 dias, em 2005 e 2006, respectivamente. O valor nutritivo da forragem foi avaliado considerando os teores médios de proteína bruta (PB e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O sombreamento moderado reduziu em 57% o rendimento médio de forragem dos três genótipos avaliados, mas aumentou em 2,3% o teor de proteína bruta (PB e em 5,5% a digestibilidade in vitro (DIVMO quando as plantas estavam em florescimento pleno. Entre as espécies forrageiras avaliadas, a aveia-branca e a aveia-preta apresentam maior potencial para utilização em sistemas silvipastoris na Região Sul.It was evaluated the shading effect induced by two tree densities of a ten-year-old slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. forest, and at full sun, on forage dry matter yield and nutritive value of three cool-season annual grasses. Treatments were a combination of two main factors: a three light conditions induced by two tree densities (333 e 555 stems/ha and at full sun; b three cool-season annual forage grasses: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam

  4. Residual da mistura formulada dos herbicidas imazethapyr e imazapic em solo de várzea sobre azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cultivado em sucessão ao arroz tolerante Carryover of the formulated mixture of the herbicides imazethapyr and imazapic in lowland soils, affecting ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Grohs; Fernando Machado dos Santos; Enio Marchezan; Paulo Fabrício Sachet Massoni; Diego Rost Arosemena; Luis Antônio de Avila

    2008-01-01

    Herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas, como imazethapyr e imazapic, podem persistir no solo e afetar culturas não-tolerantes cultivadas em sucessão. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito residual da mistura formulada de imazethapyr+imazapic sobre azevém semeado e conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação. Para isso, inicialmente foi conduzido um experimento em campo, em que aplicou-se sobre a cultivar tolerante de arroz ("IRGA 422 CL") diferentes doses da mistura formulada de imazet...

  5. Genetic and environmental variation in a commercial breeding program of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Pedersen, Morten Greve; Jensen, Christian S;

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of genomic selection (GS) for the genetic improvement of forage crops, such as perennial ryegrass, requires the establishment of sufficiently large training populations ith high-quality phenotype and genotype data. This paper presents estimates of genetic and environmental variance...... and location), and random effects (breeding values, pedigree or parents, repeated effects of family or parents within location, and within trial environmental effects, to recover interblock information). Results showed very significant genetic variances for all traits, which provide good opportunities...... for future GSbased breeding programs. Forage yield showed family heritabilities of up to 0.30 across locations and up to 0.60 within a location. Similar or moderately lower values were found for the other traits. In particular, the heritabilities of rust resistance and aftermath heading were very...

  6. Genomic Variance Estimation Based on Genotyping-by-Sequencing with Different Coverage in Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Bilal; Fé, Dario; Jensen, Just;

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has significantly decreased the cost of DNA sequencing enabling increased use of genotyping by sequencing (GBS) in several plant species. In contrast to array-based genotyping GBS also allows for easy estimation of allele frequencies...... at each SNP in family pools or polyploids. There are, however, several statistical challenges associated with this method, including low sequencing depth and missing values. Low sequencing depth results in inaccuracies in estimates of allele frequencies for each SNP. In this work we have focused...... on optimizing methods and models utilizing F2 family phenotype records and NGS information from F2 family pools in perennial ryegrass. Genomic variance was estimated using genomic relationship matrices based on different coverage depths to verify effects of coverage depth. Example traits were seed yield, rust...

  7. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özelçam, H; Kırkpınar, F; Tan, K

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  8. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; Tan, K.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  9. ‘‘Blind'' mapping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms in Lolium perenne L. by high resolution melting curve analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Fiil, Alice;

    2009-01-01

    High resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) measures dissociation of double stranded DNA of a PCR product amplified in the presence of a saturating fluorescence dye. Recently, HRM proved successful to genotype DNA sequence polymorphisms such as SSRs and SNPs based on the shape of the melting...... curves. In this study, HRM was used for simultaneous screening and genotyping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms identified in the Lolium perenne F2 mapping population VrnA. Melting profiles of PCR products amplified from previously published gene loci and from a novel gene putatively involved...

  10. Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on seed germination and reactive oxygen species metabolism of seedling leaves in ryegrass under osmotic stress%外源NO对渗透胁迫下黑麦草种子萌发及活性氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建新; 王金成; 贾海燕; 王凤琴

    2012-01-01

    以黑麦草为试材,研究了一氧化氮(NO)供体硝普钠(SNP)对聚乙二醇6000渗透胁迫下种子萌发、幼苗叶片活性氧代谢和渗透溶质积累的影响,探讨外源NO对渗透胁迫下牧草生理响应的调节作用.结果表明:100μmol/L SNP显著提高了渗透胁迫下黑麦草种子的发芽率、发芽指数和活力指数,缓解了植株鲜重和干重的下降幅度,提高了幼苗叶片SOD、POD、APX、质膜H+-ATPase活性及谷胱甘肽、可溶性糖、游离氨基酸、脯氨酸、K+、Na+含量和植株含水量,降低了O2-.产生速率及H2O2、丙二醛和可溶性蛋白含量.表明外源NO能够促进渗透胁迫下黑麦草种子的萌发,对渗透胁迫引起的黑麦草幼苗膜脂过氧化具有缓解作用.%To discuss the regulating effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on the physiological response of herbage under osmotic stress of simulated by polyethylene glycol, we investigated the effects of exogenous NO donor sodium nitro-prusside (SNP) on the seed germination, reactive oxygen species metabolism and osmotica accumulation in seedling leaves with the experimental materials of ryegrass( Lolium perenne L) . The results showed that under the stress, applying 100 μmol/L SNP increased significantly the seed germination rate, germination index, and vigor index, alleviated the decreases of fresh and dry weights of whole plant, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , guaiacol peroxi-dase (POD) , ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and plasma membrane H+ — ATPase and the contents of glutathione, soluble sugar, free amino acid, proline, K+ , and Na+ as well as plant water content, and decreased O2- production rate and the contents of H2O2, malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves. The results indicated that exogenous NO could promote the seed germination of ryegrass under osmotic stress and alleviate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by osmotic stress in seedling leaves.

  11. Effects of Condensed Tannins from Quebracho Extract on the Kinetic of in vitro Gas Production on Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus and Lolium perenne

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Sandrine C.; Borba, Alfredo Emílio Silveira de

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of condensed tannins (CT) on the kinetic of gas production in vitro, on the three main species of Azorean pasture: Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus and Lolium perenne, using Quebracho extract as the source of CT, and also to calculate total tannins and condensed tannins on the species studied. Lotus corniculatus, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens were tested in vitro with the inclusion of Quebracho extract in doses of 0%, 2.5% and 5% DM. The ...

  12. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    OpenAIRE

    Kerlen, Dirk; Naunheim, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl) is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation), brome grass (Bromus spec.), ryegrass (Lolium spec.), wild oat (Avena fatua), loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L.), annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L.) and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The p...

  13. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer sources and temperature on soil CO2 efflux in Italian ryegrass crop under Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Lai; Giovanna Seddaiu; Luca Gennaro; Pier Paolo Roggero

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study that aimed to assess the dynamics of total and heterotrophic soil respiration and its relationships with soil temperature or soil moisture of an Italian ryegrass haycrop managed with different nitrogen (N) fertilizer sources. The field experiment was carried out in the Nitrate Vulnerable Zone of the dairy district of Arborea, a reclaimed wetland in central-western Sardinia, Italy. This is an area characterized by sandy soils, shallow water table and intensive ...

  14. Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Won Ho; Kang, Suk-Nam; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p

  15. [Effect of Ryegrass and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal on Cd Absorption by Varieties of Tomatoes and Cadmium Forms in Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-qin; Jiang, Ling; Xu, Wei-hong; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu-gen; Xie, Wen-wen; Xiong, Shi- juan; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting

    2015-12-01

    Field trial was carried out to investigate the effects of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhizal single or compound treatment to two varieties of tomato ("Defu mm-8" and "Luobeiqi") on the plant growth, concentrations and accumulations of Cd as well as the impact on microorganisms, enzyme activities, pH and Cd forms in soil when exposed to Cd (5.943 mg · kg⁻¹). The results showed that dry weights of fruit, root, stem, leaf and plant significantly increased by single or compound treatment of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhizal by 14.1%-38.4% and 4.2%-18.3%, 20.9%-31.5% and 8.4%-10.3%, 13.0%-16.8% and 3.0%-9.5%, 10.7%- 16.8% and 2.7%-7.6%, 14.3%-36.6% and 4.5%-16.8%, respectively. The amounts of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes of soil and the activities of urease, invertase, acid phosphatase, catalase in soil were increased by single or compound treatment of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhizal, and the soil microorganism amounts and enzyme activities significantly differed between the two varieties of tomato and treatments (P Cd, CAB-Cd, Fe-Mn-Cd and total Cd in soil were decreased, and the total Cd content was decreased by 16.9%-27.8%. Cadmium concentrations in fruit, leaf, stem and root of both varieties were significantly decreased by 6.9%-40.9%, 5.7%-40.1%, 4.6%-34.7% and 9.8%-42.4%, respectively. Cadmium accumulations in tomato were in order of leaf > stem > root > fruit. Comparing the two tomato varieties, Cd concentrations and Cd accumulations in fruit and plant were in order of "Luobeiqi" < "Defu mm-8" in the presence or absence of single or compound treatment of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhizal.

  16. STUDIES REGARDING THE CHELATE-INDUCED HYPERACCUMULATION OF CU AND FE USING LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES IN MINING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-DIANA PRICOP

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant capacity to absorb high amounts of metal for a short period of time is the major factor that influences the efficiency of phytoextraction. The hyperaccumulating plants uptake high amounts in their tissues correlated to the metal concentrations in soil. Chelating agents have the capacity to induce the metal accumulation in biomass. They increase metal bioavailability for plants by releasing the metal in accessible forms. The present study emphasizes that in the case of EDTA use, the obtained biomass is smaller compared to the other variants, showing a lower tolerance to this chelating agent of Lolium perenne species. Cu and Fe phytoextraction by Lolium perenne species is higher in the case of EDTA use. Cu bioaccumulation has higher values in variants with compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:4 in comparison with Fe. In the case of the best compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:3 the highest biomass is obtained in all the variants, biosolids’ effect being stronger compared to the chelating agent.

  17. Behavior of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in soil: Effects of rhizosphere and mycorrhizal colonization of ryegrass roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rhizobox experiment was conducted to investigate degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in the rhizosphere of ryegrass and the influence of root colonization with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus. BDE-209 dissipation in soil varied with its proximity to the roots and was enhanced by AM inoculation. A negative correlation (P 2 = 0.66) was found between the residual BDE-209 concentration in soil and soil microbial biomass estimated as the total phospholipid fatty acids, suggesting a contribution of microbial degradation to BDE-209 dissipation. Twelve and twenty-four lower brominated PBDEs were detected in soil and plant samples, respectively, with a higher proportion of di- through hepta-BDE congeners in the plant tissues than in the soils, indicating the occurrence of BDE-209 debromination in the soil-plant system. AM inoculation increased the levels of lower brominated PBDEs in ryegrass. These results provide important information about the behavior of BDE-209 in the soil-plant system. - Research highlights: → BDE-209 dissipation in soil was affected by the proximity to the roots. → Microbial degradation contributes greatly to BDE-209 dissipation in the soil. → Twelve and twenty-four lower brominated PBDEs were detected in soil and plant samples. → AM inoculation increased root uptake and accumulation of BDE-209. - BDE-209 dissipation and degradation in soil were affected by both its proximity to ryegrass roots and inoculation with an AM fungus.

  18. Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diez De Ulzurrun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances logrados en el control de las malezas con el uso de herbicidas, el manejo de las mismas no se simplificó, sino que, al contrario, surgieron nuevos desafíos, como la aparición de resistencia a herbicidas. En 2007, se reportó en Lolium multiflorum el segundo caso de resistencia a glifosato detectado en Argentina. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires se registraron fallas de control a campo en poblaciones de Lolium multiflorum debido a su resistencia a distintos herbicidas de las familias de los inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa y al herbicida glifosato. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el nivel de resistencia a ciertos herbicidas inhibidores de la ALS y de la ACCasa y al glifosato en una población de L. multiflorum de Lobería (Bs As, Argentina supuestamente resistente (LmR. Se realizaron bioensayos en cajas de Petri y se determinó la GR50 mediante la variación en la longitud de coleoptile. Las curvas de dosis-respuesta se obtuvieron por medio de la ecuación log-logística. El biotipo LmR presentó resistencia múltiple a herbicidas con tres modos de acción diferentes: glifosato, inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa. Dicho ensayo demostró la aparición de un biotipo de L. multiflorum con resistencia a múltiples principios activos.Despite progress in weed control using herbicides, management has not been simplified, but new challenges such as herbicides resistance have arisen. In 2007, a Lolium multiflorum population resistant to glyphosate was reported, as the second case of glyphosate resistant weeds in Argentina. In the southeast of Buenos Aires province, control failures in populations of L. multiflorum to different families of herbicide such as ALS and ACCase inhibitors and to glyphosate at field level have been registered. The aim of this study was to characterize the level of resistance to certain herbicides inhibitors of ALS, ACCase and glyphosate in a putatively resistant (LmR population of L

  19. Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and milk production of dairy cows offered Lolium perenne containing different levels of water-soluble carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass varieties that were morphologically and chemically similar, but differed in their water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration. Eight multiparous

  20. Comparative sequence analysis of VRN1 alleles of Lolium perenne with the co-linear regions in barley, wheat, and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Torben; Byrne, Stephen; Gundlach, Heidrun;

    2011-01-01

    requirement. The region surrounding the VRN1 locus in perennial ryegrass showed microcolinearity to the corresponding region on chromosome 3 in Oryza sativa with conserved gene order and orientation, while the micro-colinearity to the corresponding region in Triticum monococcum was less conserved. Our study...

  1. Enhancement of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophic water by annual ryegrass bombarded with low energy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water eutrophication and subsequent growth of harmful algal blooms is often the result of the influx of point and non-point sources of excessive nutrients into water bodies. Excessive growth of algae can slowly remove the oxygen from the water and destroy the biological viability of the water source...

  2. Temporal dynamics of the metabolically active rumen bacteria colonizing fresh perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huws, Sharon A; Edwards, Joan E; Creevey, Christopher J; Rees Stevens, Pauline; Lin, Wanchang; Girdwood, Susan E; Pachebat, Justin A; Kingston-Smith, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated successional colonization of fresh perennial ryegrass (PRG) by the rumen microbiota over time. Fresh PRG was incubated in sacco in the rumens of three Holstein × Friesian cows over a period of 8 h, with samples recovered at various times. The diversity of attached bacteria was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA (cDNA). Results showed that plant epiphytic communities either decreased to low relative abundances or disappeared following rumen incubation, and that temporal colonization of the PRG by the rumen bacteria was biphasic with primary (1 and 2 h) and secondary (4-8 h) events evident with the transition period being with 2-4 h. A decrease in sequence reads pertaining to Succinivibrio spp. and increases in Pseudobutyrivibrio, Roseburia and Ruminococcus spp. (the latter all order Clostridiales) were evident during secondary colonization. Irrespective of temporal changes, the continually high abundances of Butyrivibrio, Fibrobacter, Olsenella and Prevotella suggest that they play a major role in the degradation of the plant. It is clear that a temporal understanding of the functional roles of these microbiota within the rumen is now required to unravel the role of these bacteria in the ruminal degradation of fresh PRG.

  3. Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on photosynthetic and bioluminescent characteristics in ryegrass seedlings under osmotic stress%外源一氧化氮对渗透胁迫下黑麦草幼苗光合和生物发光特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建新; 王金成; 王瑞娟; 贾海燕

    2013-01-01

    为了探讨一氧化氮(NO)对渗透胁迫下牧草光合生理响应的调节作用,采用水培方法,研究了外源NO供体硝普钠(SNP)对15% PEG 6000(-0.5 MPa)渗透胁迫下黑麦草幼苗叶片光合色素含量、气体交换参数、叶绿素荧光和生物发光强度的影响.结果表明,在渗透胁迫下,外施100 μmol/L SNP显著提高了黑麦草叶片中光合色素含量、净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔限制值(Ls)、PSⅡ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)和实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ),明显降低了胞间CO2浓度(Ci)、PSⅡ激发压(1-qP)和非光化学猝灭(NPQ)及超弱发光强度、荧光强度和磷光强度.但SNP的这种效应可被NO的清除剂血红蛋白(Hb)所逆转.而100 μmol/L的NOx-(NO的分解产物)或Na3 Fe(CN)6(SNP的相似物或分解产物)对渗透胁迫无显著改善.表明NO可能通过提高光合色素含量和光能利用率,降低生物发光强度,缓解渗透胁迫对黑麦草光合机构的破坏和光合速率的抑制.%The regulating effect of nitric oxide (NO) on photosynthetic physiological response of herbage under osmotic stress, was studied in a hydroponic experiment. The effect of the exogenous NO donor sodium nitro-prusside (SNP) on the photosynthetic pigment content, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and bioluminescence intensity in leaves of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) under osmotic stress simulated by 15% PEG-6000 were investigated. The stress from 100 μmol/L SNP significantly increased photosynthetic pigment contents, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal limited value (Ls), PSⅡ maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSⅡ ), but reduced intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), PS Ⅱ excitation pressure (1-qp), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), ultra-weak luminescence intensity, fluorescence intensity and phosphorescence intensity in ryegrass

  4. The Effect of Applied Organic Fertilizers on the Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Lolium Perenne, Cultivated on Fly Ash Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâşu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to monitor the capacity of certain organic fertilizers (volcanic tuff and municipal sludge, applied as such and mixed with volcanic rocks with a high content in clinoptilolite, to determine the covering with vegetation of fly ash deposits resulted from the combustion of lignite in thermal plants. Both biosolids (20 t/ha and volcanic rock with high clinoptilolite content (5 t/ha determined the installation of a vegetative layer and diminished the soil metal bioavailability to the Lolium prerenne plant biomass. When using the organic-zeolite mixture, a synergistic effect is recorded of the two components of the treatment agent and an increase of the biomass with 448%. Moreover, the resulted biomass shows the highest reductions of metal bioaccumulations, of 38-46% for Zn and Fe, of 62% for Cu and between 82-89% for Cr, Ni and Pb.

  5. Enhanced expression of Rubisco activase splicing variants differentially affects Rubisco activity during low temperature treatment in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczyk, Barbara; Pociecha, Ewa; Grzesiak, Maciej; Kalita, Katarzyna; Rapacz, Marcin

    2016-07-01

    Alternative splicing of the Rubisco activase gene was shown to be a point for optimization of photosynthetic carbon assimilation. It can be expected to be a stress-regulated event that depends on plant freezing tolerance. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among Rubisco activity, the expression of two Rubisco activase splicing variants and photoacclimation to low temperature. The experiment was performed on two Lolium perenne genotypes with contrasting levels of freezing tolerance. The study investigated the effect of pre-hardening (15°C) and cold acclimation (4°C) on net photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemical activity, Rubisco activity and the expression of two splicing variants of the Rubisco activase gene. The results showed an induction of Rubisco activity at both 15°C and 4°C only in a highly freezing-tolerant genotype. The enhanced Rubisco activity after pre-hardening corresponded to increased expression of the splicing variant representing the large isoform, while the increase in Rubisco activity during cold acclimation was due to the activation of both transcript variants. These boosts in Rubisco activity also corresponded to an activation of non-photochemical mechanism of photoacclimation induced at low temperature exclusively in the highly freezing-tolerant genotype. In conclusion, enhanced expression of Rubisco activase splicing variants caused an increase in Rubisco activity during pre-hardening and cold acclimation in the more freezing-tolerant Lolium perenne genotype. The induction of the transcript variant representing the large isoform may be an important element of increasing the carbon assimilation rate supporting the photochemical mechanism of photosynthetic acclimation to cold. PMID:27152456

  6. Selective Deactivation of Gibberellins below the Shoot Apex is Critical to Flowering but Not to Stem Elongation of Lolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rod W.King; Lewis N.Mander; Torben Asp; Colleen P. MacMillan; Cheryl A.Blundell; Lloyd T.Evans

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) cause dramatic increases in plant height and a genetic block in the synthesis of GA1 explains the dwarfing of Mendel's pea.For flowering,it is GAs which is important in the long-day (LD) responsive grass,Lolium.As we show here,GA1 and GA4 are restricted in their effectiveness for flowering because they are deactivated by C-2 hydroxylation below the shoot apex.In contrast,GAs is effective because of its structural protection at C-2.Excised vegetative shoot tips rapidly degrade [14C]GA1,[14C]GA4,and [14C]GA20 (>80% in 6 h),but not [14C]GA5.Coincidentally,genes encoding two 2β-oxidases and a putative 16-17-epoxidase were most expressed just below the shoot apex (4 mm),expression of these GA deactivation genes is reduced,so allowing GA1 and GA4 to promote sub-apical stem elongation.Subsequently,GA degradation declines in florally induced shoot tips and these GAs can become active for floral development.Structural changes which stabilize GA4 confirm the link between florigenicity and restricted GA 2β-hydroxylation (e.g.2α-hydroxylation and C-2 di-methylation).Additionally,a 2-oxidase inhibitor (Trinexapac Ethyl) enhanced the activity of applied GA4,as did limiting C-16,17 epoxidation in 16,17-dihydro GAs or after C-13 hydroxylation.Overall,deactivation of GA1 and GA4 just below the shoot apex effectively restricts their florigenicity in Lolium and,conversely,with GAs,C-2 and C-13 protection against deactivation allows its high florigenicity.Speculatively,such differences in GA access to the shoot apex of grasses may be important for separating floral induction from inflorescence emergence and thus could influence their survival under conditions of herbivore predation.

  7. Effects of ammonium-ferric(III)-hexacyano-ferrate(II) and faeces addition on yield and soil-plant transfer of radiocaesium to rye-grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Van Hees, May; De Brouwer, Simon; Vandecasteele, Christian [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    AFCF [ammonium-ferric (III)-hexacyano-ferrate (II)] was shown to be an effective countermeasure against radiocaesium uptake by domestic animals. Following the addition of AFCF and faeces to a sandy farm soil, we evaluate here radiocaesium transfer to rye-grass as well as grass yield in a pot experiment under greenhouse conditions. Sheep faeces and/or soil were artificially contaminated with {sup 137}Cs or {sup 134}Cs, respectively. Radiocaesium from both soil and faeces was equally absorbed by rye-grass. AFCF, at concentrations of 1 gm{sup -2} soil, was not deleterious for plant growth. AFCF is, furthermore, an effective countermeasure for radiocaesium soil-plant transfer. The AFCF applications at about 1 g AFCF m{sup -2} on the sandy soil resulted in a fourfold reduction of the radiocaesium transfer to rye-grass. (Author).

  8. THE EFFECT OF COMPOST MADE WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN SOIL AND IN LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Malinowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of different doses of sewage sludge compost mixed with wheat straw on heavy metal content in Italian ryegrass and in soil. A two year experiment with the Italian ryegrass was set up in autumn 2012. The experimental design consisted of a control plot, a plot with NPK fertiliser and three plots with three different doses of municipal sewage sludge compost (5, 10 and 15 Mg of fresh matter·ha-1. Those different compost doses contained the amounts of Nitrogen equivalent to 60, 120 and 180 kg N·ha-1. The two lower doses of compost were supplemented with nitrogen fertiliser so that the amount of this chemical element introduced to the soil of all plots with compost stood at 180 kg·ha-1. During 2013 and 2014 seasons the grass was cut three times a year after about a 30-day growing period. After dry mineralisation the content of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd in the plant samples was measured with the ICP-AES method. The fertilisers applied significantly diversified the content of chemical elements in the grass and in the soil. The highest dose of compost resulted in the highest concentration of Zn, Cu and Cd in the grass while the highest concentration of Ni and Pb was in the soil and the grass from the plot where the mid dose of compost had been applied. Cadmium concentration in the soil was the highest in the plot where the mid dose was applied. The experiment proved that compost made with sewage sludge and wheat straw is beneficial for plants.

  9. Oat and ryegrass silage for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Alvarez, Maria Danaee; López-González, Felipe; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of the inclusion of oat-ryegrass silage (ORGS) in combination with maize silage (MSLG) in four treatments: T1 = 100 % ORGS, T2 = 67 % ORGS/33 % MSLG, T3 = 67 % ORGS/33 % MSLG, and T4 = 100 % MSLG to milking cows on continuous grazing with 4.7 kg DM of commercial dairy concentrate 18 % CP. Daily milk yield and composition, live weight, body condition score, and chemical composition of feeds were recorded during the last 4 days of the experimental periods. Feeding costs were calculated by partial budgets. Eight Holstein lactating cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square, with 14-day periods. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.05) for milk yield (mean 15.5 ± 5.0 kg/day/cow) or composition (mean milk fat 34.6 ± 4.4 g/kg, protein 32.4 ± 3.1 g/kg, lactose 46.9 ± 1.6 g/kg), milk urea nitrogen (11.3 ± 2.1 mg/dl), live weight (434 ± 38 kg), or body condition score (2.4 ± 0.15). The silage cost of ORGS was 2.5 times higher than MSLG, so the feeding cost in T1 was 26 % higher per kilogram of milk than for T4, with T2 and T3 as intermediates. ORGS can be a substitute to maize silage in the proportions studied, although feeding costs were higher.

  10. A simulation model for epidemics of stem rust in ryegrass seed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, W F; Upper, D

    2015-01-01

    A simulation model (STEMRUST_G, named for stem rust of grasses) was created for stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola) in perennial ryegrass grown to maturity as a seed crop. The model has a daily time step and is driven by weather data and an initial input of disease severity from field observation. Key aspects of plant growth are modeled. Disease severity is modeled as rust population growth, where individuals are pathogen colonies (pustules) grouped in cohorts defined by date of initiation and plant part infected. Infections due to either aerial spread or within-plant contact spread are modeled. Pathogen cohorts progress through life stages that are modeled as disease cycle components (colony establishment, latent period, infectious period, and sporulation) affected by daily weather variables, plant growth, and fungicide application. Fungicide effects on disease cycle components are modeled for two commonly used active ingredients, applied preinfection or postinfection. Previously validated submodels for certain disease cycle components formed the framework for integrating additional processes, and the complete model was calibrated with field data from 10 stem rust epidemics. Discrepancies between modeled outcomes and the calibration data (log10[modeled]-log10[observed]) had a mean near zero but considerable variance, with 1 standard deviation=0.5 log10 units (3.2-fold). It appears that a large proportion of the modeling error variance may be due to variability in field observations of disease severity. An action threshold for fungicide application was derived empirically, using a constructed weather input file favorable for disease development. The action threshold is a negative threshold, representing a level of disease (latent plus visible) below which damaging levels of disease are unable to develop before the yield-critical crop stage. The model is in the public domain and available on the Internet.

  11. Oat and ryegrass silage for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Alvarez, Maria Danaee; López-González, Felipe; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of the inclusion of oat-ryegrass silage (ORGS) in combination with maize silage (MSLG) in four treatments: T1 = 100 % ORGS, T2 = 67 % ORGS/33 % MSLG, T3 = 67 % ORGS/33 % MSLG, and T4 = 100 % MSLG to milking cows on continuous grazing with 4.7 kg DM of commercial dairy concentrate 18 % CP. Daily milk yield and composition, live weight, body condition score, and chemical composition of feeds were recorded during the last 4 days of the experimental periods. Feeding costs were calculated by partial budgets. Eight Holstein lactating cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square, with 14-day periods. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.05) for milk yield (mean 15.5 ± 5.0 kg/day/cow) or composition (mean milk fat 34.6 ± 4.4 g/kg, protein 32.4 ± 3.1 g/kg, lactose 46.9 ± 1.6 g/kg), milk urea nitrogen (11.3 ± 2.1 mg/dl), live weight (434 ± 38 kg), or body condition score (2.4 ± 0.15). The silage cost of ORGS was 2.5 times higher than MSLG, so the feeding cost in T1 was 26 % higher per kilogram of milk than for T4, with T2 and T3 as intermediates. ORGS can be a substitute to maize silage in the proportions studied, although feeding costs were higher. PMID:27107750

  12. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation.

    OpenAIRE

    Qianhe eLiu; Jones, Chris S; Parsons, Anthony J.; Hong eXue; Susanne eRasmussen

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilised from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilisation of reserve c...

  13. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qianhe; Jones, Chris S; Parsons, Anthony J.; Xue, Hong; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilized from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilization of reserve c...

  14. A Gene Encoding a DUF247 Domain Protein Cosegregates with the S Self-Incompatibility Locus in Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzanares, Chloe; Barth, Susanne; Thorogood, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    genes cosegregating with the S-locus, a highly polymorphic gene encoding for a protein containing a DUF247 was fully predictive of known S-locus genotypes at the amino acid level in the seven mapping populations. Strikingly, this gene showed a frameshift mutation in self-compatible darnel (Lolium...

  15. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum s...

  16. Is the vertical transmission of Neotyphodium lolii in perennial ryegrass the only possible way to the spread of endophytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wiewióra

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi live their whole life within host tissues usually without any visible symptoms. Their vertical transmission (seed-plant-seed has been well described and documented. However, horizontal transmission (plant-plant needs more clarification. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which endophytes move vertically in ecotypes of perennial ryegrass and whether there is evidence for the horizontal transmission of endophytes. Ecotypes from grasslands in Poland were collected in the form of living plants and used for vertical transmission analysis. Plants, the seed collected from these plants and plants grown from this collected seed were tested for endophytic infection. Provided that all produced seeds were viable and able to germinate and produce seedlings, the vertical transmission of Neotyphodium endophytes in perennial ryegrass ecotypes was nearly complete. For the horizontal transmission experiment, endophyte-hosting plants (E+ and endophyte-free plants (E- of four cultivars were planted in the field in close proximity on small plots that were frequently mown. These studies revealed that after 7 months of growth next to E+ plants, the characteristic Neotyphodium spp. mycelia were found in E- plants, which was especially true for plants growing in close proximity to the infected plants. The occurrence of horizontal transmission of endophytes has not been previously demonstrated.

  17. Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA), a Plant Hormone, on the Ryegrass Yield and the Removal of Fluoranthene from Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiming; Xu, Li; Wu, Jun; Ma, Lili; Liu, Manqiang; Jiao, Jiaguo; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A soil culture experiment was conducted to determine whether a plant hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), could influence fluoranthene (Flu) removal from soil. Four treatments were utilized: (i) unplanted soil (CK), (ii) soil planted with ryegrass (P), (iii) soil planted with ryegrass and treated with 0.24 mg kg(-1) IAA (P+0.24), (iv) soil planted with ryegrass and treated with 2.4 mg kg(-1) IAA (P+2.4). The Flu initial concentration was 200 mg kg(-1). After 3 months, the percentage of Flu removal and plant root biomass were significantly increased under the P+2.4 and the removal rate was 35.68%. The total Flu content in plants was higher than that in the other treatments. The Flu concentration was significantly increased in the shoots, but not significantly altered in the roots. The highest translocation factor was observed in the P+2.4. Increase in number of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were observed in the planted treatments, and the amount of fungi was significantly increased in P+2.4. Flu removal was related to the Flu in ryegrass, and was insignificantly correlated with the stimulation of soil microflora, which suggesting that IAA may work mainly on improving plant growth, the Flu uptake, and eventually leading to enhanced remediation of Flu polluted soil. PMID:25495932

  18. Sheep Excreta as Source of Nitrous Oxide in Ryegrass Pasture in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michely Tomazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Livestock urine and dung are important components of the N cycle in pastures, but little information on its effect on soil nitrous oxide (N2O emissions is available. We conducted a short-term (39-day trial to quantify the direct N2O-N emissions from sheep excreta on an experimental area of ryegrass pasture growing on a Typic Paleudult in southern Brazil. Four rates of urine-N (161, 242, 323, and 403 kg ha-1 N and one of dung-N (13 kg ha-1 N were applied, as well as a control plot receiving no excreta. The N2O-N emission factor (EF = % of added N released as N2O-N for urine and dung was calculated, taking into account the N2O fluxes in the field, over a period of 39 days. The EF value of the urine and dung was used to estimate the emissions of N2O-N over a 90-day period of pasture in the winter under two grazing intensities (2.5 or 5.0 times the herbage intake potential of grazing lambs. The soil N2O-N fluxes ranged from 4 to 353 µg m-2h-1. The highest N2O-N fluxes occurred 16 days after application of urine and dung, when the highest soil nitrate content was also recorded and the water-filled pore space exceeded 60 %. The mean EF for urine was 0.25 % of applied N, much higher than that for dung (0.06 %. We found that N2O-N emissions for the 90-day winter pasture period were 0.54 kg ha-1 for low grazing intensity and 0.62 kg ha-1 for moderate grazing intensity. Comparison of the two forms of excreta show that urine was the main contributor to N2O-N emissions (mean of 36 %, whereas dung was responsible for less than 0.1 % of total soil N2O-N emissions.

  19. Target site mutation and reduced translocation are present in a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; Brants, Ivo; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    The resistance mechanism of a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype collected in Córdoba (Southern Spain) was examined. Resistance Factor values at three different growth stages ranged between 4.77 and 4.91. At 96 hours after treatment (HAT) the S biotype had accumulated seven times more shikimic acid than the R biotype. There were significant differences in translocation of (14)C-glyphosate between biotypes, i.e. at 96 HAT, the R biotype accumulated in the treated leaf more than 70% of the absorbed herbicide, in comparison with 59.21% of the S biotype; the R biotype translocated only 14.79% of the absorbed (14)C-glyphosate to roots, while in the S population this value was 24.79%. Visualization of (14)C-glyphosate by phosphor imaging showed a reduced distribution in the R biotype compared with the S. Glyphosate metabolism was not involved in the resistance mechanism due to both biotypes showing similar values of glyphosate at 96 HAT. Comparison of the EPSPS gene sequences between biotypes indicated that the R biotype has a proline 182 to serine amino acid substitution. In short, the resistance mechanism of the L. multiflorum Lam. biotype is due to an impaired translocation of the herbicide and an altered target site.

  20. Glyphosate effects on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of two Lolium perenne L. biotypes with differential herbicide sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanniccari, Marcos; Tambussi, Eduardo; Istilart, Carolina; Castro, Ana María

    2012-08-01

    Despite the extensive use of glyphosate, how it alters the physiology and metabolism of plants is still unclear. Photosynthesis is not regarded to be a primary inhibitory target of glyphosate, but it has been reported to be affected by this herbicide. The aim of the current research was to determine the effects of glyphosate on the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis by comparing glyphosate-susceptible and glyphosate-resistant Lolium perenne biotypes. After glyphosate treatment, accumulation of reduced carbohydrates occurred before a decrease in gas exchange. Stomatal conductance and CO(2) assimilation were reduced earlier than chlorophyll fluorescence and the amount of chlorophyll in susceptible plants. In the glyphosate-resistant biotype, stomatal conductance was the only parameter slightly affected only 5 days post-application. In susceptible plants, the initial glyphosate effects on gas exchange could be a response to a feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Since the herbicide affects actively growing tissues regardless of the inhibition of photosynthesis, the demand of assimilates decreased and consequently induced an accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves. We concluded that stomatal conductance could be a very sensitive parameter to assess both the susceptibility/resistance to glyphosate before the phytotoxic symptoms become evident.

  1. Comparative metabolite fingerprinting of the rumen system during colonisation of three forage grass (Lolium perenne L. varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison H Kingston-Smith

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota enable ruminants to degrade complex ligno-cellulosic compounds to produce high quality protein for human consumption. However, enteric fermentation by domestic ruminants generates negative by-products: greenhouse gases (methane and environmental nitrogen pollution. The current lack of cultured isolates representative of the totality of rumen microbial species creates an information gap about the in vivo function of the rumen microbiota and limits our ability to apply predictive biology for improvement of feed for ruminants. In this work we took a whole ecosystem approach to understanding how the metabolism of the microbial population responds to introduction of its substrate. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectroscopy-based metabolite fingerprinting was used to discriminate differences in the plant-microbial interactome of the rumen when using three forage grass varieties (Lolium perenne L. cv AberDart, AberMagic and Premium as substrates for microbial colonisation and fermentation. Specific examination of spectral regions associated with fatty acids, amides, sugars and alkanes indicated that although the three forages were apparently similar by traditional nutritional analysis, patterns of metabolite flux within the plant-microbial interactome were distinct and plant genotype dependent. Thus, the utilisation pattern of forage nutrients by the rumen microbiota can be influenced by subtleties determined by forage genotypes. These data suggest that our interactomic approach represents an important means to improve forages and ultimately the livestock environment.

  2. Influence of tea saponin on enhancing accessibility of pyrene and cadmium phytoremediated with Lolium multiflorum in co-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Hou, Yunyun; Hu, Xiaoxin; Liang, Xia; Chen, Xueping

    2016-03-01

    Tea saponin (TS), a kind of biodegradable surfactant, was chosen to improve the accessible solubilization of pyrene and cadmium (Cd) in co-contaminated soils cultivated Lolium multiflorum. TS obviously improved the accessibility of pyrene and Cd for L. multiflorum to accelerate the process of accumulation and elimination of the pollutants. The chemical forms of Cd was transformed from Fe-Mn oxides and associated to carbonates fractions into exchangeable fractions by adding TS in single Cd and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. Moreover, the chemical forms of pyrene were transformed from associated fraction into bioaccessible fraction by adding TS in pyrene and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. In pyrene-Cd contaminated soil, the exchangeable fraction of Cd was hindered in the existence of pyrene, and bioaccessible fraction of pyrene was promoted by the cadmium. Besides, in the process of the pyrene degradation and Cd accumulation, the effect could be improved by the elongation of roots with adding TS, and the microorganism activity was stimulated by TS to accelerate the removal of pollutions. Therefore, Planting L. multiflorum combined with adding TS would be an effective method on the phytoremediation of organics and heavy metals co-contaminated soils.

  3. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer sources and temperature on soil CO2 efflux in Italian ryegrass crop under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study that aimed to assess the dynamics of total and heterotrophic soil respiration and its relationships with soil temperature or soil moisture of an Italian ryegrass haycrop managed with different nitrogen (N fertilizer sources. The field experiment was carried out in the Nitrate Vulnerable Zone of the dairy district of Arborea, a reclaimed wetland in central-western Sardinia, Italy. This is an area characterized by sandy soils, shallow water table and intensive dairy cattle farming systems. Italian ryegrass is grown for hay production in the context of a double cropping rotation with silage maize. We analyzed the effects of N fertilizer treatments on soil carbon dioxide (CO2 efflux, soil water content and soil temperature: i farmyard manure; ii cattle slurry; iii mineral fertilizer; iv 70 kg ha-1 from slurry and 60 kg ha-1 from mineral fertilizer that corresponds to the prescriptions of the vulnerable zone management plan. During the monitoring period, soil water content never fell below 8.6% vol., corresponding to approximately -33 kPa matric potential. Total and heterotrophic soil respiration dynamics were both influenced by soil temperature over winter and early spring, reaching a maximum in the first ten days of April in manure and slurry treatments. In the last 30 days of the Italian ryegrass crop cycle, total soil respiration decreased and seemed not to be affected by temperature. The analysis of covariance with soil temperature as covariate showed that average respiration rates were significantly higher under the manure treatment and lower with mineral fertilizer than the slurry and slurry+mineral treatments, but with similar rates of respiration per unit increase of soil temperature for all treatments. The average soil respiration rates were significantly and positively related to the soil carbon (C inputs derived from fertilizers and preceding crop residuals. We concluded that: i the fertilizer source

  4. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  5. Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Nam; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843

  6. Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Ho; Kang, Suk-Nam; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (pgrade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843

  7. Padrões de deslocamento e captura de forragem por novilhos em pastagem de azevém-anual e aveia-preta manejada sob diferentes alturas em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária Displacement patterns and herbage capture by steers in Italian ryegrass and black oat pastures managed under different heights in integrated crop-livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baggio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo avaliaram-se estratégias alimentares de novilhos em pastagem de azevém-anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. em quatro alturas de manejo (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm para investigar se as alturas do pasto podem influenciar os padrões de deslocamento e captura da forragem por animais em pastejo e seus impactos em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. As alturas de manejo foram avaliadas em delineamento de blocos completos casualisados com três repetições. Procedeu-se a três avaliações diurnas, por observação visual direta: duas avaliações de acordo com o estádio vegetativo e a terceira com o estádio reprodutivo. A redução da altura de manejo do pasto esteve relacionada a maior carga animal e resultou em menor massa de forragem e massa de lâminas foliares. Nessa condição de limitação, os animais aumentaram a taxa de bocados, o número de bocado por estação alimentar, o número total de bocados, o número de estação alimentar visitada e reduziram o tempo de permanência na estação alimentar. Esse padrão de resposta resultou em menor deslocamento entre estações alimentares, no entanto, a quantidade de deslocamento total foi maior. Os animais modificam seus padrões de deslocamento e captura de forragem em resposta à altura de manejo do pasto. A limitação de forragem pode ter impacto no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária.This experiment was aimed to evaluate the grazing strategies of steers in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. pastures managed with four sward heights, 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm. The hypothesis that different sward heights could determine variations on the displacement patterns and herbage capture by grazing animals, with potential impacts in a crop-livestock system was tested. The treatments (sward heights were distributed in a randomized block design with three replicates. Diurnal evaluations were performed by

  8. Produção de cordeiros em pastagem de azevém e trevo-branco sob diferentes níveis de resíduos de forragem Lamb production in a mixture of italian ryegrass and white clover under different forage mass levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Weber do Canto

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Na presente pesquisa, objetivou-se analisar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de resíduos de forragem na produção de cordeiros. O experimento foi estabelecido em Tupanciretã, região do Planalto Médio do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em uma pastagem de azevém cv. Estanzuela 284 (Lolium multiflorum Lam + trevo-branco cv. Yi (Trifolium repens L., submetida a diferentes níveis de resíduo de matéria seca (RMS. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, estudando-se os níveis de RMS mantidos na pastagem de 1.119, 1.320, 1.477, 1.695, 2.146, 2.166, 2.410 e 2.483 kg de matéria seca por hectare (MS/ha. O período experimental foi de 30/09 a 08/12/1992 e os animais utilizados foram cordeiros cruza Ile de France x Corriedale desmamados aos 80 dias. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso vivo/ha (GPV/ha, carga animal, animais dia/ha e a eficiência de conversão de MS em kg de peso vivo de cordeiros. Os resultados obtidos mostraram uma relação linear positiva entre o GMD e GPV/ha com o aumento nos níveis de RMS/ha, observando-se nos níveis de RMS superiores a 2.400 kg um GMD de 0,12 kg/cordeiro/dia e um GPV/ha médio de 497 kg. Não houve relação quanto à carga animal e animais.dia/ha; verificou-se uma relação linear negativa entre a eficiência de conversão de MS com os níveis de RMS estudados. Os resultados demonstram o efeito dos níveis de RMS na resposta animal.The objective of this research was to analyse the effects of different forage mass levels on lamb production. The experiment was conducted in Tupanciretã, Planalto Médio region at the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in a mixture of italian ryegrass cv. Estanzuela 284 (Lolium multiflorum Lam. + white clover cv. Yi (Trifolium repens L., under different forage mass (FM levels. The experimental design used was completely randommized, and the FM levels studied were: 1,119, 1,320, 1,477, 1,695, 2,146, 2,166, 2,410 and 2

  9. 多花黑麦草耐盐性及其在盐土条件下饲用品质的研究%A study of salt tolerance and feeding quality of Italian ryegrass varieties under salinized-soil conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许能祥; 顾洪如; 丁成龙; 董臣飞; 程云辉; 张文洁; 王兴刚

    2013-01-01

    The salt tolerance ability of 7 Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflourum) varieties (Wasehope,WasehopeⅢ,Sachiaoba,Musashi,Nioudachi,Shiwasuaoba,and Sumu No.1) and the correlation of their salt tolerance ability with the grass feed quality were investigated.The Na+,K+ and Ca2+ contents in aerial parts and underground parts of the plants,and the ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ were measured at seedling,stem elongation,and heading stages.The seedling emergence rate and the feeding quality related traits such as watersoluble carbohydrate (WSC),crude protein (CP),neutral-detergent fiber (NDF),acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) in stem elongation and heading periods were determined.Na+ content in aerial parts of Nioudachi,Sumu No.1 and Wasehope during different growing periods was lower and K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio were higher than in the other four varieties,showing high salt tolerance ability,compared with Wasehope Ⅲ which was sensitive to salt.Nioudachi,Sumu No.1 and Wasehope also showed high grass yield and good feeding quality such as high WSC content and IVOMD but low NDF and ADF contents,a finding consistent with the results of salt tolerance ability.In conclusion,the salt tolerance ability of Italian ryegrass was positively correlated with the feeding quality of the grass.%通过研究不同多花黑麦草品种耐盐能力的差异及其与饲草产量和品质的相关关系,为选择耐盐和饲草品质优良的多花黑麦草品种提供依据,在江苏沿海滩涂地区种植7个多花黑麦草品种(Wasehope,WasehopeⅢ,Sachiaoba,Musashi,Nioudachi,Shiwasuaoba和苏牧1号),分别测定苗期、拔节期和抽穗期植株地下和地上部分的Na+、K+和Ca2+含量,并计算K+/Na+和Ca2+/Na+,同时测定不同品种的出苗率及拔节期和抽穗期的饲草产量,可溶性碳水化合物(WSC)、粗蛋白(CP)、中性洗涤纤维(NDF)、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)、有机物体外消化率(IVOMD)等指标,并对

  10. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  11. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture.The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter,to maintain acceptable levels of soil,water and air quality.In this study,two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems;recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation Water in local communities with low income.In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation.It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen),90% for NO2--N,64.8% for NO3--N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN,82% for NO2--N and 60.5% for NO3--N.Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well,however,plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming.Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction,the treatment with L.perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality.A.viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge.The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves.

  12. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves. PMID:17966513

  13. Aquaculture Solids Management Using A Combination of Sand/Gravel or Unwoven Fabric Bed With Lolium perenne Lam as A Plant Biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective This work is an evaluation of the efficiency of a sand-gravel or unwoven fabric bed system and Lolium perenne Lam as plant biofiltter in the reduction of solids and nutrients removal from aquaculture discharge water. Methods The first step consisted of the collection of wastewater in the tank and the distribution at three different hydraulic loading regimes (0.5, 1, 1.5L/hour) to the different experimental systems. The second step was to evaluate the performance of the different systems. The first system consisted of a bucket filled with a substrate of sand/gravel (20 cm in depth), on the bottom of which was a 80 mesh/inch2 of nylon (S1); the second was similar, but was planted with Lolium perenne lam (S2); the third was planted with a grass plate consisting of 7 layers of unwoven fabric planted with L. perenne (S3). Results The second system showed the best performance in reducing solids as well as in nutrients (TN, TP, and COD) reduction. The removal rates for TS, TN, and TP were negatively correlated with the loading regimes, with 0.5 L/hour being the most efficient and thus taken as the reference. Conclusions Solids management using a sand/gravel substrate as bed culture and Lolium perenne L. as plant biofilter has proved to be an efficient technique for solids reduction with low operating cost. This grass plays an important role in wastewater eco-treatment by absorbing dissolved pollutants (TAN) as nutrients for its growth.

  14. The influence of Seeding technique for Production Performance of Lolium multiflorum and Feeding effects of Lolium multiflorum%播种技术对多花黑麦草生产性能的影响及多花黑麦草的饲用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠楠; 郝二英; 檀晓萌; 贾淑庚; 陈辉

    2014-01-01

    This paper systematically reviewed the influence of seeding technique on production performance of the Lolium multiflorum and the application on animal husbandry. Respectively elabo-rated the influence of different sowing time, sowing rate and different sowing methods on Lolium multiflorum production performance as well as the effect of feeding cattle, sheep, rabbits, geese, pigs in production. Aims to improve performance, reduce feed costs, improve breeding efficiency by increasing seeding technique of Lolium multiflorum in practical production.%本文系统综述了播种技术对多花黑麦草生产性能的影响以及在畜牧业的上的应用,分别从不同播种期、播种量及不同播种方式对多花黑麦草生产性能的影响以及生产中饲喂牛、羊、兔、鹅、猪等家畜的效果作以简要综述,旨在实际生产中通过提高播种技术提高多花黑麦草生产性能,降低饲养成本,提高养殖效益。

  15. Glyphosate effects on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two Lolium perenne biotypes with different herbicide sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yanniccari; C. Istilart; D.O. Giménez; H. Acciaresi; De Castro, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    El movimiento sistémico del glifosato está determinado por el transporte de fotoasimilados. A su vez, la capacidad de un destino de consumir los asimilados está condicionada por su actividad metabólica. Pese a su importancia, la relación entre el glifosato y la síntesis de azúcares en hojas fuente ha sido poco abordada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los efectos del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y la acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de Lolium perenne de baja y alt...

  16. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Catherine L; Chaney, Rufus L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae) contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50), many of which can achieve 30 g kg(-1) Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu, and Mn uptake. We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg(-1) Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg(-1). A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient phytoremediation and

  17. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer sources and temperature on soil CO2 efflux in Italian ryegrass crop under Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    LAI, Roberto; Seddaiu, Giovanna; Gennaro, Luca; Roggero, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study that aimed to assess the dynamics of total and heterotrophic soil respiration and its relationships with soil temperature or soil moisture of an Italian ryegrass haycrop managed with different nitrogen (N) fertilizer sources. The field experiment was carried out in the Nitrate Vulnerable Zone of the dairy district of Arborea, a reclaimed wetland in central-western Sardinia, Italy. This is an area characterized by sandy soils, shallow water table and intensive ...

  18. [Effects of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhiza on activities of antioxidant enzymes, accumulation and chemical forms of cadmium in different varieties of tomato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Yang, Yun; Xu, Wei-Hong; Wang, Chong-Li; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shi-Juan; Xie, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Wang, Zheng-Yin; Xie, De-Ti

    2014-06-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhiza on the plant growth, malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities of leaf and root, accumulation and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in tow varieties of tomato when exposed to Cd (20 mg x kg(-1)). The results showed that dry weights of fruit and plant, and contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activities of leaf and root, and concentrations and accumulations of Cd significantly differed between two varieties of tomato. Dry weights of fruit, roots, stem, leaf and plant were increased by single or combined remediation of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhiza, while MDA contents and antioxidant enzyme activities of leaf and root reduced. The total extractable Cd, F(E), F(W), F(NaCl), F(HAc), F(HCl), and F(R) in fruit of two varieties of tomato reduced by 19.4% - 52.4%, 31.0% - 75.2%, 19.7% - 59.1%, 3.1% - 48.2%, 20.0% - 65.0%, 40.7% - 100.0% and 15.2% - 50.0%, respectively. Cadmium accumulations in tomato were in the order of leaf > stem > fruit > root. Cadmium concentrations in leaf, stem, root and fruit of both varieties decreased by single or combined remediation of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhiza, and Cd accumulations of stem and plant of two varieties also reduced. Cd accumulations in fruit of two varieties decreased by 42.9% and 43.7% in the combined remediation treatments, respectively. Tolerance and resistance of 'LUO BEI QI' on Cd was more than 'De Fu mm-8', and Cd concentrations and Cd accumulations in fruit and plant were in the order of 'LUO BEI QI' < 'De Fu mm-8' in the presence or absence of single or combined remediation of ryegrass and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

  19. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Leigh Broadhurst

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50, many of which can achieve 30 g kg-1 Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu and Mn uptake.We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg-1 Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg-1. A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient

  20. Selenium bioavailability and uptake as affected by four different plants in a loamy clay soil with particular attention to mycorrhizae inoculated ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of plant species, especially of their rhizosphere soil, and of inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus on the bioavailability of selenium and its transfer in soil-plant systems. A pot experiment was performed with a loamy clay soil and four plant species: maize, lettuce, radish and ryegrass, the last one being inoculated or not with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae). Plant biomass and Se concentration in shoots and roots were estimated at harvest. Se bioavailability in rhizosphere and unplanted soil was evaluated using sequential extractions. Plant biomass and selenium uptake varied with plant species. The quantity of rhizosphere soil also differed between plants and was not proportional to plant biomass. The highest plant biomass, Se concentration in plants, and soil to plant transfer factor were obtained with radish. The lowest Se transfer factors were obtained with ryegrass. For the latter, mycorrhizal inoculation did not significantly affect plant growth, but reduced selenium transfer from soil to plant by 30%. In unplanted soil after 65 days aging, more than 90% of added Se was water-extractable. On the contrary, Se concentration in water extracts of rhizosphere soil represented less than 1% and 20% of added Se for ryegrass and maize, respectively. No correlation was found between the water-extractable fraction and Se concentration in plants. The speciation of selenium in the water extracts indicated that selenate was reduced, may be under organic forms, in the rhizosphere soil

  1. Effects of drought stress on some biochemical indices of four groundcovers (Lolium perenne, Potentilla spp, Trifolium repens and Frankenia spp with potential usage in landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samieiani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, stress management is considered to be very important in landscapes. The present research was conducted to investigate the effects of regulated deficit irrigation at 4 levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% of lawn irrigation requirement on some biochemical indices of four groundcover plants (Lolium perenne, Potentilla spp, Trifolium repens and Frankinia spp to be used in landscapes, with 3 replications. Results showed that Frankinia spp had the highest proline content (0.84 mg/g fresh weight and the lowest chlorophyll content (15.9 mg/g fresh weight, the 75% stress treatment had the highest proline content (0.84 mg/g fresh weight and control treatment had the highest chlorophyll content (32.6 mg/g fresh weight. For total carbohydrates, the highest and the lowest amounts (1.54 and 0.79 mg/g fresh weight belong to Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, respectively. Also, among the species, Trifolium repens showed the highest antioxidant activity (75.05%. In general, regulated deficit irrigation affected different biochemical characteristics of the examined groundcover plants significantly. But, applying it up to the damaging point for landscape plants can be an important management strategy for reduction of water consumption in green spaces.

  2. Classification of images of wheat, ryegrass and brome grass species at early growth stages using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golzarian Mahmood R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important crops in Australia, and the identification of young plants is an important step towards developing an automated system for monitoring crop establishment and also for differentiating crop from weeds. In this paper, a framework to differentiate early narrow-leaf wheat from two common weeds from their digital images is developed. A combination of colour, texture and shape features is used. These features are reduced to three descriptors using Principal Component Analysis. The three components provide an effective and significant means for distinguishing the three grasses. Further analysis enables threshold levels to be set for the discrimination of the plant species. The PCA model was evaluated on an independent data set of plants and the results show accuracy of 88% and 85% in the differentiation of ryegrass and brome grass from wheat, respectively. The outcomes of this study can be integrated into new knowledge in developing computer vision systems used in automated weed management.

  3. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by annual winter legumes on a coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielson, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The winter annuals, crimson clover, rose clover, subterranean clover and hairy vetch, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen on coal surface mine substrates by measuring their ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. The effects of fertilizer, Abruzzi ryegrass, Kentucky 31 fescue grass and a phytotoxic plant Chenopodium album on nitrogen fixation was also assessed. Crimson clover was recommended as the best legume to use on topsoil and shale in the South. Hairy vetch gave good results on shale and subterranean clover did well on topsoil. The use of these species for revegetation is discussed. Overall, no correlation between substrate pH and ethylene levels was found and effects of substrate depended upon the legume species. Super phosphate fertilizer supported less nitrogen fixation than 13-13-13. Abruzzi ryegrass in some unknown way inhibited plant density and nitrogen fixation by legumes but not by free living substrate micro-organisms. Shale from under dead Chenopodium plants in both field and greenhouse experiments did not inhibit nitrogen fixation. 11 references, 7 tables.

  4. Simultaneous enhancement of methane production and methane content in biogas from waste activated sludge and perennial ryegrass anaerobic co-digestion: The effects of pH and C/N ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Li, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Lingling

    2016-09-01

    It is necessary to find an appropriate strategy to simultaneously enhance the methane production and methane content in biogas from waste activated sludge (WAS) and grass co-digestion. In this study an efficient strategy, i.e., adjusting the initial pH 12 and C/N ratio 17/1, for simultaneous enhancement of methane production and methane content in biogas from WAS and perennial ryegrass co-digestion was reported. Experimental results indicated that the maximal methane production was 310mL/gVSadd at the optimum conditions after 30-d anaerobic digestion, which was, respectively, about 1.5- and 3.8-fold of the sole WAS and sole perennial ryegrass anaerobic digestion. Meanwhile, the methane content in biogas was about 74%, which was much higher than that of sole WAS (64%) or sole perennial ryegrass (54%) anaerobic digestion.

  5. Simultaneous enhancement of methane production and methane content in biogas from waste activated sludge and perennial ryegrass anaerobic co-digestion: The effects of pH and C/N ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Li, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Lingling

    2016-09-01

    It is necessary to find an appropriate strategy to simultaneously enhance the methane production and methane content in biogas from waste activated sludge (WAS) and grass co-digestion. In this study an efficient strategy, i.e., adjusting the initial pH 12 and C/N ratio 17/1, for simultaneous enhancement of methane production and methane content in biogas from WAS and perennial ryegrass co-digestion was reported. Experimental results indicated that the maximal methane production was 310mL/gVSadd at the optimum conditions after 30-d anaerobic digestion, which was, respectively, about 1.5- and 3.8-fold of the sole WAS and sole perennial ryegrass anaerobic digestion. Meanwhile, the methane content in biogas was about 74%, which was much higher than that of sole WAS (64%) or sole perennial ryegrass (54%) anaerobic digestion. PMID:27259187

  6. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  7. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  8. Cossack Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cossack Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Cossack Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Cossack Star.

  9. Glicerina bruta no suplemento para cordeiros lactentes em pastejo de azevém Crude glycerin in supplement to suckling lambs on ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de níveis de glicerina bruta sobre o consumo de suplemento e o desempenho de cordeiros lactentes mantidos a pasto, além das características quali-quantitativas do pasto de azevém. Foram utilizados 32 cordeiros lactentes distribuídos nos tratamentos: 0, 10, 20 e 30% de glicerina bruta, em substituição ao milho, no suplemento isoproteico (18% PB fornecido diariamente em quantidade equivalente a 2% do peso corporal. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 dos níveis de glicerina bruta sobre as características qualitativas e quantitativas do pasto, na composição de proteína bruta e fibra detergente neutro e na carga animal suportada pela pastagem, nem no consumo de suplemento, ganho de peso médio diário e o número de dias até o abate dos cordeiros. Níveis de até 30% de glicerina bruta, em substituição ao milho, no suplemento fornecido para cordeiros lactentes pastejando azevém não comprometem o consumo de suplemento, desempenho e período de terminação dos animais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of levels of crude glycerin in the supplement intake and performance of suckling lambs on ryegrass pasture, beyond the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of ryegrass pastures. It was used 32 suckling lambs distributed between the treatments: 0, 10, 20 and 30% of crude glycerin, replacing corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP offered daily in an amount equivalent to 2% of body weight. There was no effect (P>0.05 of the levels of crude glycerin on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of pastures, composition of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, stocking rate supported by ryegrass pasture, neither on supplement intake, average weight gain and number of days to slaughter the lambs. Levels up to 30% of crude glycerin, replacing corn, provided in the supplement to suckling lambs grazing ryegrass didn't compromise the supplement intake, performance and termination period of the

  10. Bicarbonate as tracer for plant assimilated C and homogeneity of 14C and 15N distribution in ryegrass and white clover tissue by alternative labeling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Kusliene, Gedrime; Jacobsen, Ole Stig;

    2013-01-01

    parts with high and low 14C activity were separated and analyzed for 15N enrichment. Results Bicarbonate applied by leaf-labeling efficiently introduced 14C into both white clover and ryegrass, although the 14C activity in particular for white clover was found predominantly in the labeled leaf. Using 14...... that 15N also had a heterogeneous distribution (up to two orders of magnitude). Conclusion Bicarbonate can efficiently be used to introduce 14C or 13C into plant via the leaf-labeling method. Both 14C and 15N showed heterogeneous distribution in the plant, although the distribution of 15N was more even...

  11. Isolation of cDNA encoding a newly identified major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen: intracellular targeting to the amyloplast.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, M. B.; Hough, T.; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; S. Davies; Smith, P. M.; Taylor, P.; Simpson, R. J.; Ward, L. D.; McCluskey, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major allergenic protein from rye-grass pollen, tentatively designated Lol pIb of 31kDa and with pI 9.0. A cDNA clone encoding Lol pIb has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Lol pIb is located mainly in the starch granules. This is a distinct allergen from Lol pI, which is located in the cytosol. Lol pIb is synthesized in pollen as a pre-allergen with a transit peptide targeting the allergen to amyloplasts. Epitope mapping of the fusion protein localized the IgE...

  12. Effect of seed rate and row spacing in seed production of Festulolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Gislum, R; Boelt, B

    2010-01-01

    Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass-type fest......Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass...

  13. Non-ionic Surfactants and Non-Catalytic Protein Treatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Pan, Zhongli; Zhang, Ruihong; Wang, Donghai; Jenkins, Bryan

    Our previous research has shown that saline Creeping Wild Ryegrass (CWR), Leymus triticoides, has a great potential to be used for bioethanol production because of its high fermentable sugar yield, up to 85% cellulose conversion of pretreated CWR. However, the high cost of enzyme is still one of the obstacles making large-scale lignocellulosic bioethanol production economically difficult. It is desirable to use reduced enzyme loading to produce fermentable sugars with high yield and low cost. To reduce the enzyme loading, the effect of addition of non-ionic surfactants and non-catalytic protein on the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated CWR was investigated in this study. Tween 20, Tween 80, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as additives to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute sulfuric-acid-pretreated CWR. Under the loading of 0.1 g additives/g dry solid, Tween 20 was the most effective additive, followed by Tween 80 and BSA. With the addition of Tween 20 mixed with cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g cellulose, the cellulose conversion increased 14% (from 75 to 89%), which was similar to that with cellulase loading of 30 FPU/g cellulose and without additive addition. The results of cellulase and BSA adsorption on the Avicel PH101, pretreated CWR, and lignaceous residue of pretreated CWR support the theory that the primary mechanism behind the additives is prevention of non-productive adsorption of enzymes on lignaceous material of pretreated CWR. The addition of additives could be a promising technology to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis by reducing the enzyme activity loss caused by non-productive adsorption.

  14. Evaluation of the Ryegrass Stem Rust Model STEMRUST_G and Its Implementation as a Decision Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, W F; Coop, L B; Seguin, S G; Mellbye, M E; Gingrich, G A; Silberstein, T B

    2015-01-01

    STEMRUST_G, a simulation model for epidemics of stem rust in perennial ryegrass grown to maturity as a seed crop, was validated for use as a heuristic tool and as a decision aid for disease management with fungicides. Multistage validation had been used in model creation by incorporating previously validated submodels for infection, latent period duration, sporulation, fungicide effects, and plant growth. Validation of the complete model was by comparison of model output with observed disease severities in 35 epidemics at nine location-years in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We judge the model acceptable for its purposes, based on several tests. Graphs of modeled disease progress were generally congruent with plotted disease severity observations. There was negligible average bias in the 570 modeled-versus-observed comparisons across all data, although there was large variance in size of the deviances. Modeled severities were accurate in >80% of the comparisons, where accuracy is defined as the modeled value being within twice the 95% confidence interval of the observed value, within ±1 day of the observation date. An interactive website was created to produce disease estimates by running STEMRUST_G with user-supplied disease scouting information and automated daily weather data inputs from field sites. The model and decision aid supplement disease managers' information by estimating the level of latent (invisible) and expressed disease since the last scouting observation, given season-long weather conditions up to the present, and it estimates effects of fungicides on epidemic development. In additional large-plot experiments conducted in grower fields, the decision aid produced disease management outcomes (management cost and seed yield) as good as or better than the growers' standard practice. In future, STEMRUST_G could be modified to create similar models and decision aids for stem rust of wheat and barley, after additional experiments to

  15. 四川省攀枝花市冬春季黑麦草补饲羔羊效果研究%Study on the Supplementary Feeding Effect of Lamb with Ryegrass in Winter and Spring in Panzhihua City of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童俊青; 杨鹰; 黄秀君; 韦雷飞; 文建国

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the supplementary feeding effect of grazing lamb with ryegrass planted by goat raising households in grass-withering period,the supplementary feeding test with ryegrass was conducted on 1.5-2.5 month-old grazing lambs to observe the weight gain difference with the lamb without supplementing ryegrass.The results showed that the weight gain of lamb with supplementing ryegrass increased by 43% than that without supplementing ryegrass.When 667 m2 of ryegrass was planted,the comparative benefit of 14 810.64 yuan could be achieved by supplementing lamb with ryegrass.%为了研究枯草期山羊养殖户种植黑麦草补饲放牧羔羊的效果,选用1.5~2.5月龄的放牧羔羊进行黑麦草补饲试验,观察其与未补饲黑麦草羔羊增重的差异。结果表明,补饲黑麦草羔羊比未补饲对照组羔羊增重高43%;种植667m2黑麦草,通过补饲羔羊能取得14810.64元的比较效益。

  16. Use efficiency and residual effect of 15N-labelled ryegrass green manure over a 9-year field micro-plot experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 9-year field micro-plot experiment was conducted to investigate the use efficiency, residual effect, and fate of 15N-labelled ryegrass green manure in soil-crop system, so as to offer useful information for reasonable application of green manures on meadow burozem. Results showed that high application rate (600g per plot) of 15N-labelled ryegrass green manure resulted in reduction of percent recovery (PR)15Nplant and PR15Nsoil by 25.0% and 12.8%, respectively, and elevation of percent loss (PL)15N by 31.2%, as compared with low application rate. The 15N utilization and loss could be divided into three phases, i.e., high uptake and fast loss in the first and second growth seasons, low uptake and slow loss in the following four growth seasons, and little change in the last three growth seasons. This suggested that the green manure N had a long residual effect but its loss was faster at early phase, and thus, rational application of green manure was of considerable importance to reduce its N loss while improve its N use efficiency

  17. Compostagem da fracção sólida do chorume com palha de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) ou tojo (Ulex europaeus L.) Composting cattle slurry solid fraction with Italian ryegrass straw (Lo­lium multiflorum Lam.) or gorse (Ulex europaeus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. Brito; A. L. Amaro; I. Mourão; Coutinho, J.

    2010-01-01

    A fracção sólida do chorume (FSC) de uma exploração de pecuária leiteira intensi­va foi compostada com adição de doses crescentes de palha de azevém ou de tojo, em pilhas estáticas com três revolvimentos. A temperatura aumentou na FSC até 65 ºC após o primeiro revolvimento mas as tempe­raturas máximas registaram-se mais cedo e foram mais elevadas nas pilhas com adição de palha ou de tojo. Estes materiais aumen­taram as taxas de mineralização da matéria orgânica (MO) em todas as pilhas. No ent...

  18. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  19. A novel P106L mutation in EPSPS and an unknown mechanism(s) act additively to confer resistance to glyphosate in a South African Lolium rigidum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaundun, Shiv S; Dale, Richard P; Zelaya, Ian A; Dinelli, Giovanni; Marotti, Ilaria; McIndoe, Eddie; Cairns, Andrew

    2011-04-13

    Glyphosate resistance evolution in weeds is a growing problem in world agriculture. Here, we have investigated the mechanism(s) of glyphosate resistance in a Lolium rigidum population (DAG1) from South Africa. Nucleotide sequencing revealed the existence of at least three EPSPS homologues in the L. rigidum genome and identified a novel proline 106 to leucine substitution (P106L) in 52% DAG1 individuals. This mutation conferred a 1.7-fold resistance increase to glyphosate at the whole plant level. Additionally, a 3.1-fold resistance increase, not linked to metabolism or translocation, was estimated between wild-type P106-DAG1 and P106-STDS sensitive plants. Point accepted mutation analysis suggested that other amino acid substitutions at EPSPS position 106 are likely to be found in nature besides the P106/S/A/T/L point mutations reported to date. This study highlights the importance of minor mechanisms acting additively to confer significant levels of resistance to commercial field rates of glyphosate in weed populations subjected to high selection pressure.

  20. The photosynthetic acclimation response of Lolium perenne to four years growth in a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creasey, R. [Univ. of Essex (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    In this study, the photosynthetic responses of field grown Lolium perenne to ambient (354 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) and elevated (600 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) C{sub a} were measured. The experiment utilized the FACE facility at Eschikon, Switzerland; here the L. Perenne swards had been grown at two nitrogen treatments, with six cuts per year, for 4 years. The study revealed a significant decrease in Rubisco activity (Vcmax) in the low nitrogen FACE plots; this is consistent with the theories of source-sink imbalance resulting in feedback inhibition and down-regulation. Such negative acclimation was not wholly supported by diurnal investigations which revealed an average stimulation of 53.38% and 52.78% in the low and high nitrogen, respectively. However, light response curves and AI investigations also suggested down-regulation, especially in the low nitrogen. SI is expected to decrease in response to elevated C{sub a}, if any change is seen. This was indeed observed in the high nitrogen plots but for the low nitrogen a significant increase was found. Conclusions drawn from this project center around the implications of negative acclimation to future crop productivity. For instance, inter-specific differences in response to elevated C{sub a} may result in ecosystem changes and new management techniques may be necessary. However, real predictions cannot be made from leaf level studies alone as these may not represent the overall changes at the whole plant level.

  1. Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz [Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br

    2008-12-15

    This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in Sao Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. - Particulate matter and air temperature increased non-structural carbohydrates in the standardized biomonitor grass in Sao Paulo.

  2. Wood pellet fly ash and bottom ash as an effective liming agent and nutrient source for rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) and oats (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nathan D; Michael Rutherford, P; Thring, Ronald W; Helle, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) from a softwood pellet boiler were characterized and evaluated as soil amendments. In a greenhouse study, two plant species (rye grass, Lolium perenne L. and oats, Avena sativa) were grown in three different treatments (1% FA, 1% BA, non-amended control) of a silty loam soil. Total concentrations of plant nutrients Ca, K, Mg, P and Zn in both ashes were elevated compared to conventional wood ash. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, Se and Zn were found to be elevated in the FA relative to BA and the non-amended soil. At 28 d, oat above-ground biomass was found to be significantly greater in soil amended with FA. Potassium and Mo plant tissue concentrations were significantly increased by addition of either ash, and FA significantly increased Zn tissue concentrations. Cadmium and Hg tissue concentrations were elevated in some cases. As soil amendments, either pellet ash is an effective liming agent and nutrient source, but high concentrations of Cd and Zn in FA may preclude its use as an agricultural soil amendment in some jurisdictions. Lower ash application rates than those used in this study (i.e. <1%) may still provide sufficient nutrients and effective neutralization of soil acidity.

  3. De novo assembly of the perennial ryegrass transcriptome using an RNA-seq strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Jacqueline Danielle; Byrne, Stephen; Paina, Cristiana;

    2014-01-01

    for SNP calling. Result De novo transcriptome assembly of the inbred genotype created 185,833 transcripts with an average length of 830 base pairs. Within the inbred reference transcriptome 78,560 predicted open reading frames were found of which 24,434 were predicted as complete. Functional annotation...... multiple orthologs. Using the longest unique open reading frames as the reference sequence, 64,242 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. One thousand sixty one open reading frames from the inbred genotype contained heterozygous sites, confirming the high degree of homozygosity. Conclusion Our study...... has developed an annotated, comprehensive transcriptome reference for perennial ryegrass that can aid in determining genetic variation, expression analysis, genome annotation, and gene mapping....

  4. Teste de envelhecimento precoce para sementes de azevém, aveia preta e milheto Accelerated aging test for ryegrass black oat grass and pearl millet seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danton Camacho Garcia

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade da aplicação e da padronização do teste de envelhecimento precoce em sementes de azevém, aveia preta e milheto foi verificada em três lotes, para cada espécie, com valores iniciais de germinação semelhantes. As sementes de cada lote foram submetidas ao teste por períodos de 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas, à temperatura de 41°C e 100% de umidade relativa do ar. Em aveia preta, o período de 24 horas estratifica lotes de sementes pelo vigor. Para milheto e azevém, o período de envelhecimento para estratificar lotes de sementes pelo vigor pode ser de 24 a 48 horas. Períodos de 72 a 120 horas são muito drásticos para as três espécies e impedem a estratificação de lotes de sementes pelo vigor.Accelerated aging test standardization for seeds of ryegrass, black oat grass and pearl millet was cheked in three lots, of each specie, with similar initial values of germination. The seeds of each lot were submited to periods of 24, 48, 96 and 120 hours of temperature of 41°C and air relative humidity of 100%. In black oat grass the 24h period stratifies seed vigor among lots. However, for pearl millet and ryegrass the period can be of 24 to 48h. Periods of 72 to 120 hours are very severe to the three species and prevent the seed vigor lots stratification.

  5. Doppler ultrasonography for evaluating vascular responses to ergopeptine alkaloids in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids are produced by non-spore producing fungal endophytes that infect certain species of grasses, most notably tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and the spore producing Claviceps spp. that infect seed heads of certain grasses...

  6. Advanced analysis of dry-weight-rank data to discriminate direct and indirect interactions between white clover and grasses in a multi-species pasture under a range of management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, R.P.O.; Neuteboom, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Infestations of pastures by species, such as creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), may compromise the white clover (Trifolium repens) content in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) mixtures. However, the interactions between white clover and species other than perennial ryegrass are not well un

  7. 北方地区多年生黑麦草品种抗寒性比较较研究%Studies on Winter Hardiness of Perennial Ryegrass Varieties in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕祥金; 王莹; 张晶红; 孙玉刚

    2011-01-01

    The winter hardiness of four ryegrass varieties commonly used in Northern China was studied, EL, MDA content, SOD activity and proline content were determined after cold stress.The results showed that hardiness of four ryegrass varieties was Taya> Pickwich>Ascend>Barday.%以北方地区常用的4个多年生黑麦草品种为试验材料,进行抗寒性比较试验.低温胁迫处理后,分别测定电解质渗透率(EL)、丙二醛(MDA)含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、脯氨酸含量的变化,结果表明各品种抗寒能力依次为:托亚>匹克威>爱森特>百客来.

  8. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhe eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose have to be mobilised from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilisation of reserve carbohydrates requires a substantial change in the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we tested the hypothesis that gibberellins (GA are at the core of the processes regulating the expression of these genes. Thus, we examined the transcript profiles of genes involved in carbohydrate and GA metabolic pathways across a time course regrowth experiment. Our results show that following defoliation, the immediate reduction of carbohydrate concentrations in growing tissues is associated with a concomitant increase in the expression of genes encoding carbohydrate mobilising invertases, and was also associated with a strong decrease in the expression of fructan synthesising fructosyltransferase genes. We also show that the decrease in fructan levels is preceded by increased expression of the GA activating gene GA3-oxidase and decreased expression of the GA inactivating gene GA2-oxidase in sheaths. GA3-oxidase expression was negatively, while GA2-oxidase positively linked to sucrose concentrations. This study provides indicative evidence that gibberellins might play a role in L. perenne regrowth following defoliation and we hypothesise that there is a link between gibberellin regulation and sugar metabolism in L. perenne.

  9. Photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic products of endophyte-infected and endophyte-free Lolium perenne L.under drought strees conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren'Anzhi; Gao Yubao; Wang Wei; Wang Jinlong

    2006-01-01

    Endophyte-infected fED seeds of Lolium perenne L.were used to attain endophyte-free fED population by heating the seeds at 43℃ for 15 min and then 57℃ for 25 min.Relative water content(RWC),chlorophyll,soluble sugar and starch content of EI and EF populations under normal and drought stress conditions were compared to investigate the effect of endophyte infection on the host plant.Under severe stress.RWC of EI leaf was significantly higher than that Of EF leaf,i.e.EI plants took more advantages over EF plants in water-holding ability.Under mild stress,endophytc could enhance soluble sugars in host plants to improve their osmotic ability.With stress intensification,the improvement of endophyte no longer existed,and more photosynthetic products(such as starch)accumulated in EI plants to survive through the undesirable condidons.In the next spring,EI populations will recover more rapidly than EF populations.The biomass of a population is closely related to its photosynthesis.Under severe stress,EI population significantly accumulated more biomass than EF population.As far as photosynthetic pigments were concerned,contents of Chla,Chlb and Car of EI plants were close to those of EF plants,which suggested that endophyte infection didn't alleviate photosynthetic pigments from being destroyed by drought stress,and endophyte might improve photosynthesis ability of its host plant in other ways.

  10. Controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L., e gorga (Spergula arvensis L. e seletividade de herbicidas as culturas de trigo, cevada e centeio Control of rye grass (Lolium multiforum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L., and selectivity of herbicides to wheat, barley, and rye crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. R. O. Velloso

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos a campo em 1980, no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS, visando conhecer o comportamento dos herbicidas diclofop, dicamba, a associação 2,4 D com dicamba e a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba, no controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. e gorga (Spergula arvensis L.. Ao mesmo tempo foi avaliada a seletividade que estes herbicidas apresentam às culturas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. e centeio (Secale cereale L.. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostra ram que o dicamba causou o maior grau de injúria para as três culturas. Cevada mostrou ser a cultura mais sensível ao dicamba na fase inicial. Trigo, cevada e centeio foram tolerantes ao diclofop. A mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba não controlou o azevém nas três culturas. Esta mistura apresentou ainda redução no controle de gorga, nas culturas de cevada e centeio. Dicamba ocasionou redução no rendimento de grãos das culturas, mostrando ser pouco seletivo na dose testada. Centeio sofreu uma redução no rendimento de grãos causada por diclofop, enquanto que a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba foi seletiva para todas as culturas.Three field experiments were carried out, in 1980, at the National Wheat Research Center/ EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS. They aimed at testnig the responses of herbicides diclofop, dicamba, the association 2,4 D with dicamba, and the mixture diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba in the control of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. Simultaneously, the selectivity of these herbicides to wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and rye (Secale cereale L. was evaluated. The results of visual evaluation of phytotoxicity showed that dicamba caused the greatest degree of injury to the three crops studied. Barley was the most sensitive crop to dicamba in the initial growth stage. Wheat, barley, and rye were

  11. Ameliorating Effects of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Ryegrass Seedlings under Cadmium Stress%外源NO对镉胁迫下黑麦草生长的缓解效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全辉; 梁雪; 董元杰; 张秀玮; 刘春生

    2012-01-01

    为研究外源NO对Cd胁迫下黑麦草生长的缓解效应,采用营养液培养,研究了不同浓度硝普钠对100μmol/L CdCl2胁迫下黑麦草生理特性的影响.结果表明,SNP能显著缓解Cd胁迫对黑麦草植株造成的伤害,可明显提高黑麦草的生长量、叶绿素含量、脯氨酸( Pro)含量、净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs),降低过氧化氢(H2O2)含量、超氧阴离子(O2-)产生速率、胞间CO2浓度(Ci);抑制了Cd向地上部的转运,与100 μmol/L SNP处理相比,50、200和400μmol/L SNP处理对黑麦草Cd胁迫的缓解作用明显降低.说明适宜浓度的外源NO作为化学诱抗剂,可以诱导黑麦草的抗逆性的增强,减轻和缓解Cd胁迫的伤害.%The aim of the experiment was to study the ameliorating effects of exogenous nitric oxide on growth of ryegrass seedlings under cadmium stress. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, on physiological characteristics of ryegrass under 100 fimol/L CdCU stress. The results showed that exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) significantly alleviated the stress damage to ryegrass under 100 /*mol/L CdCl2 stress, and increased the growth amount, the contents of chlorophyll and proline, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), the transpiration rate (Tr), the stomata conductance (Gs), reduced H2O2 content, O2 ? - generation rate, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), significantly inhibit the transportation of Cd from root to shoot. When treated with 50 or 200 or 400 fxmol/L of SNP, ameliorating effects on ryegrass were obviously decreased compared with 100 jJtmol/L of SNP treatment. It is proposed that exogenous NO as chemical activator could induce stress resistance, and alleviate damage degree of Cd stress to ryegrass seedlings.

  12. Annual Check-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Annual Check-Up Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 January 2015. + ... I get ready for my annual medical check-up? If this is your first visit to your ...

  13. Forage yield and nutritive value of Elephant grass, Italian ryegrass and spontaneous growing species mixed with forage peanut or red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Schalemberg Diehl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate of three grazing systems (GS with elephant grass (EG, Italian ryegrass (IR + spontaneous growing species (SGS; EG + IR + SGS + forage peanut (FP; and EG + IR + SGS + red clover (RC, during the winter and summer periods in rotational grazing with dairy cattle. Experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments, two replicates with repeated measures. Lactating Holstein cows receiving 1% BW-daily feed supplement with concentrate were used in the evaluation. Eight grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period. The values of pre forage mass and stocking rate were 2.52, 2.60 and 2.99 t ha-1 and 2.64, 2.77 and 3.14 animal unit ha-1, respectively for GS. Samples of forage were collected by hand-plucking technique to analyze the crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, in situ dry matter digestibility (ISDMD, in situ organic matter digestibility (ISOMD of forage present between rows of elephant grass, in the rows of elephant grass and the legumes. Higher value of CP, ISOMD and lower of NDF were observed for the grazing systems mixed with legumes forage.

  14. Short-term effects of a dung pat on N2 fixation and total N uptake in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F.V.; Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The short-term effects of a simulated cattle dung pat on N-2 fixation and total uptake of N in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture was studied in a container experiment using sheep faeces mixed with water to a DM content of 13%. We used a new N-15 cross-labelling technique to determine the...... herbage, 78% was recovered from the soil and the residual dung, and 18% was not accounted for. It is concluded that N-2 fixation in the dung patch border area in grass/clover mixtures is not influenced directly by the release of N from dung pats in the short term. However the amount of N-2 fixed may be...... influence of dung-pat N on N-2 fixation in a grass/clover mixture and the uptake of dung N in grass and clover. The proportion of N in clover derived from N-2 fixation (%Ndfa) varied between 88-99% during the 16 weeks following application of the dung. There was no effect of dung on the %Ndfa in clover...

  15. RNA-Seq analysis of rye-grass transcriptomic response to an herbicide inhibiting acetolactate-synthase identifies transcripts linked to non-target-site-based resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoux, Arnaud; Carrère, Sébastien; Gouzy, Jérôme; Bonin, Ludovic; Délye, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    Non-target-site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides that disrupts agricultural weed control is a worldwide concern for food security. NTSR is considered a polygenic adaptive trait driven by differential gene regulation in resistant plants. Little is known about its genetic determinism, which precludes NTSR diagnosis and evolutionary studies. We used Illumina RNA-sequencing to investigate transcriptomic differences between plants from the global major weed rye-grass sensitive or resistant to the acetolactate-synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicide pyroxsulam. Plants were collected before and along a time-course after herbicide application. De novo transcriptome assembly yielded a resource (LOLbase) including 92,381 contigs representing potentially active transcripts that were assigned putative annotations. Early effects of ALS inhibition consistent with the literature were observed in resistant and sensitive plants, proving LOLbase data were relevant to study herbicide response. Comparison of resistant and sensitive plants identified 30 candidate NTSR contigs. Further validation using 212 plants resistant or sensitive to pyroxsulam and/or to the ALS inhibitors iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron confirmed four contigs (two cytochromes P450, one glycosyl-transferase and one glutathione-S-transferase) were NTSR markers which combined expression levels could reliably identify resistant plants. This work confirmed that NTSR is driven by differential gene expression and involves different mechanisms. It provided tools and foundation for subsequent NTSR investigations.

  16. Efecto del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de lolium perenne de distinta sensibilidad al herbicida Glyphosate effects on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two lolium perenn e biotypes with different herbicide sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yanniccari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento sistémico del glifosato está determinado por el transporte de fotoasimilados. A su vez, la capacidad de un destino de consumir los asimilados está condicionada por su actividad metabólica. Pese a su importancia, la relación entre el glifosato y la síntesis de azúcares en hojas fuente ha sido poco abordada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los efectos del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y la acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de Lolium perenne de baja y alta sensibilidad al herbicida. Se trabajó con clones de ambos tipos de plantas, en macollaje, tratados con 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glifosato y sin tratamiento herbicida como controles. Se evaluó periódicamente el efecto del glifosato sobre el rebrote de hojas hasta las 50 horas post-aplicación y sobre los niveles de azúcares libres totales, reductores y no reductores en hojas a 1, 2, 3 y 5 días post-aplicación. A partir de las 25 horas post-aplicación, el glifosato provocó una disminución del crecimiento del 58% en el biotipo susceptible, con una acumulación de azúcares libres superior al 90% con relación al control, desde el primer día post-aplicación en adelante. La inhibición del crecimiento, inducida por el glifosato en plantas susceptibles, no depende de la limitación del traslado de fotoasimilados desde la parte aérea. Por tanto, la acumulación de azúcares libres en hojas podría explicarse por la caída en la tasa de crecimiento. En el biotipo de baja sensibilidad, en el que no se detectó inhibición del crecimiento, estos efectos fueron limitados.The systemic movement of glyphosate is determined by the transport of photoassimilates. In turn, the capacity of a destination to consume assimilates is conditioned by their metabolic activity. Despite its importance, the relationship between the glyphosate and the sugar synthesis from source leaves has been little studied. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of

  17. 不同物料对喀斯特山区黑麦草抗旱效果的影响%Effect of Materials on the Drought Resistance of Perennial Ryegrass in Karst Mountain Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀; 张雷一; 刘方; 姚斌

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote the sustainable development of animal husbandry and prataculture ,perennial ryegrass was planted in the soil applying compound fertilizer ,water retention agent ,earthworm manure and straw charcoal ,the effect various kinds of modifier on perennial ryegrass growth ,soil moisture content as well as the drought resistance were explored in extremely dry weather conditions .The results showed that after the application of compound fertilizer in the soil ,water retention agent ,earthworm manure and straw charcoal ,the average plant height (60 days) of perennial ryegrass were increased by 20 .78% ,16 .13% ,51 .16% and 43 .46% than conditioner treatment ,and the above ground biomass of perennial ryegrass was increased by 42 .75% ,33 .70% ,76 .09% and 60 .14% .After the application of compound fertilizer ,water retention agent , earthworm manure and straw charcoal ,soil effective water increased by 16 .75% ,13 .68% ,30 .63% and 20 .65% than giving conditioner respectively .Under the condition of continuous drought ,the permanent time of perennial ryegrass delayed 5 d significantly applied the earthworm dung and straw charcoal ,the drought resist‐ance coefficient was 11 .5 and 9 .2 percent point higher than conditioner processing ,which improved the drought‐resistant ability of perennial ryegrass significantly .%为了促进畜牧业及草业的可持续发展,在施用复合肥、保水剂、蚯蚓粪及秸秆炭的土壤中,种植多年生黑麦草,探究在极端干旱天气条件下,各种物料对黑麦草生长、土壤含水率及其抗旱效果的影响。结果表明:在土壤中施用复合肥、保水剂、蚯蚓粪、秸秆炭后,黑麦草的平均株高(60 d后)分别比未施物料处理增加了20.78%、16.13%、51.16%和43.46%,而黑麦草的地上生物量则提高了42.75%、33.70%、76.09%和60.14%。施用复合肥、保水剂、蚯蚓粪、秸秆炭后土壤有效水分别

  18. Effect of Materials on the Drought Resistance of Perennial Ryegrass in Karst Mountain Areas%不同物料对喀斯特山区黑麦草抗旱效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀; 张雷一; 刘方; 姚斌

    2015-01-01

    为了促进畜牧业及草业的可持续发展,在施用复合肥、保水剂、蚯蚓粪及秸秆炭的土壤中,种植多年生黑麦草,探究在极端干旱天气条件下,各种物料对黑麦草生长、土壤含水率及其抗旱效果的影响。结果表明:在土壤中施用复合肥、保水剂、蚯蚓粪、秸秆炭后,黑麦草的平均株高(60 d后)分别比未施物料处理增加了20.78%、16.13%、51.16%和43.46%,而黑麦草的地上生物量则提高了42.75%、33.70%、76.09%和60.14%。施用复合肥、保水剂、蚯蚓粪、秸秆炭后土壤有效水分别比未施物料处理提高了16.75%、13.68%、30.63%和20.65%。在持续干旱条件下,蚯蚓粪及秸秆炭施用使黑麦草植株出现永久性枯萎的时间明显推迟了5d,其抗旱系数比未施物料处理高11.5和9.2百分点,明显地提高了黑麦草的抗旱能力。%In order to promote the sustainable development of animal husbandry and prataculture ,perennial ryegrass was planted in the soil applying compound fertilizer ,water retention agent ,earthworm manure and straw charcoal ,the effect various kinds of modifier on perennial ryegrass growth ,soil moisture content as well as the drought resistance were explored in extremely dry weather conditions .The results showed that after the application of compound fertilizer in the soil ,water retention agent ,earthworm manure and straw charcoal ,the average plant height (60 days) of perennial ryegrass were increased by 20 .78% ,16 .13% ,51 .16% and 43 .46% than conditioner treatment ,and the above ground biomass of perennial ryegrass was increased by 42 .75% ,33 .70% ,76 .09% and 60 .14% .After the application of compound fertilizer ,water retention agent , earthworm manure and straw charcoal ,soil effective water increased by 16 .75% ,13 .68% ,30 .63% and 20 .65% than giving conditioner respectively .Under the condition of continuous drought

  19. Combined impact of heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+ and salinity on the condition of Lolium perenne long-term assimilation apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bessonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil and atmosphere by heavy metals negatively affects physiological and biochemical processes in plants. The objective of this study is to analyze the combined impact of heavy metals Pb2+ and Cd2+ on the background of salinity on the surface of assimilation and the state of stomata device and the content of plastid pigments in leaves of Lolium perenne L. Decrease in the area of plant leaves on the background of the impact of pollutants has been determined. By the degree of increase of negative impact on this index, variants of the experience can be arranged as follows: Pb2+ + Cd2+ < NaCl < Pb2+ + Cd2+ + NaCl. The investigated factors have the strongest impact on the area of assimilation surface. The reason for its significant decrease in plants of studied variants compared to the control is that both suppression of growth and reduction of leaves area occurs, along with the inhibition of their formation. The damaging effect of sodium chloride is also traced in drying of leaf tips, the latter become lighter in color and some of them get yellow. Under the action of heavy metals and salinity decrease in the leaf index for L. perenne is observed, especially in case of combined actions of toxins, and this rate varies more significantly than the other ones. Salinization of growing substrate significantly reduces the number of stomata on the underside of the leaf epidermis. On the contrary, under the influence of heavy metals their number increases, and under the action of Pb2+ + Cd2+ on the background of chloride salinity it becomes even higher compared with the variant where heavy metals only affect the plants. The length of guard cells of the stomata in the variants with metals in NaCl remains practically unchanged compared with the control, but at joint action it is reduced. The width of stomatal pore in the variants differs insignificantly. The same is applied to the length, except for variants where the plants were exposed

  20. Uptake of phenanthrene and pyrene by ryegrass from water%植物对水中菲和芘的吸收

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌婉婷; 高彦征; 李秋玲; 谢正苗; 熊巍

    2006-01-01

    以菲和芘为多环芳烃(PAHs)代表物,采用水培体系研究了黑麦草(Lolium multiflorum Lam)对水中PAHs的吸收作用,重点研究了植物吸收菲和芘的时间动态.水中菲和芘起始浓度分别为1.00mg/L和0.12mg/L.0~288h内,黑麦草根和茎叶中菲和芘含量均先快速增加而后降低,积累量不断增大,植物根系和茎叶富集系数则先快速升高而后趋于稳定.茎叶中菲和芘含量、茎叶对菲和芘的富集系数比根低1~3数量级,积累量也明显小于根系.黑麦草根系对水中芘有更强的富集能力,其根系富集系数比菲大85%~179%;而其茎叶对菲的富集作用则略强.菲和芘在植物体内有明显的传导作用.0~288h,传导系数(TF)先显著升高而后趋于恒定;但实验条件下,菲和芘的TF值均很小,分别不高于0.031和0.009,且芘的TF值明显小于菲,表明供试植物对芘的传导能力更弱.

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

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  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

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  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

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  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

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    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

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  15. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  16. Annual Report 2001

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    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  17. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  18. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  19. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  20. Annually laminated speleotherms : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Andy; Smith, Claire; Jex, Catherine; Fairchild, I. J.; Genty, Dominique; Fuller, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This review of annually laminated speleothems firstly considers the four types of annual laminae found within speleothems: fluorescent laminae formed by annual variations in organic matter flux; visible or petrographic laminae, formed by annual variations in calcite texture or fabric; calcite-aragonite couplets; and finally trace element laminae. The methods available to confirm the annual nature, or otherwise, of lamina deposition are reviewed. We consider the use of annual laminae ...

  1. Annual report 1980

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    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI)

  2. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

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    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

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    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

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    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  5. Annual General Meeting

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    2014-01-01

      STAFF ASSOCIATION Our next annual general meeting will take place on : Thursday 22 May 2014 at 11:00 AM Building 40-S2-D01 For further information visit our website : https://indico.cern.ch/event/313124/

  6. Annual report 1990

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    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

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    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Annual Data Report Comprehensive statistics on chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal diseases in the United States...

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Trapping Plan for the 1984-1985 trapping season at Clarence Cannon NWR outlines rules and regulations for the trapping of beaver and muskrat on the...

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  14. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

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    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

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    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2002 is reported. Structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  16. Annual report 2005

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    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  17. 2010 Annual Report

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    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  18. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  19. Natural gas annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  20. Annual report 2003

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    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  1. Natural gas annual 1993

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    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  2. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  3. Annually Laminated Speleothems: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Andy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This review of annually laminated speleothems firstly considers the four types of annual laminae found within speleothems: fluorescentlaminae formed by annual variations in organic matter flux; visible or petrographic laminae, formed by annual variations in calcitetexture or fabric; calcite-aragonite couplets; and finally trace element laminae. The methods available to confirm the annual nature, or otherwise, of lamina deposition are reviewed. We consider the use of annual laminae in chronology building, with particular relevanceto palaeoclimate reconstructions. Finally, the use of annual lamina width as a palaeoclimate proxy is reviewed.

  4. Effect of species of cool-season annual grass interseeded into Bermudagrass sod on the performance of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P A; Stewart, C B; Phillips, J M; Watkins, K B; Gunter, S A

    2007-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of species of cool-season annual grass on the growth of stocker cattle over 3 yr. In Exp. 1, the small grains (SG) oat (O), rye (R), and wheat (W), or combinations of SG and annual ryegrass (RG), were interseeded into Bermudagrass sod in a completely randomized design with a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 2, RG was planted alone or with O, R, triticale (T), or W in a completely randomized design. Pastures were planted in late October of each year, and seeding rates were 134.4 and 22.4 kg/ha for SG and RG, respectively. In Exp. 1, grazing was initiated on December 18. In Exp. 2, grazing was initiated on December 23 for SG pastures and January 21 or February 16 for RG pastures in yr 1 and on December 8 for all pastures in yr 2. Grazing was managed using the put-and-take method, in which additional calves were added as needed to maintain equal grazing pressure among pastures. In Exp. 1, no interactions (P > or = 0.28) were detected, so the main effects of SG species and RG addition are discussed. From December 18 to March 12, there were no differences in ADG (P > or = 0.17), whereas during the spring (from March 12 to May 7), addition of RG increased (P = 0.05) ADG. Using RG increased (P or = 0.44) in ADG, BW gain/hectare, or grazing-days/hectare. In conclusion, the choice of cool-season annual to establish is highly weather-dependent, but R and W are generally superior to other small grains, and RG is a necessary complement to SG when interseeding cool-season annuals into Bermudagrass sod.

  5. Grain feeding coordinately alters expression patterns of transcription factor and metabolic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue of crossbred heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, C N; Perkins, S D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to improve meat quality and production efficiency in cattle is limited by an inability to enhance marbling and simultaneously limit undesirable adipose tissue accretion. The objective of this study was to examine expression of regulatory genes in subcutaneous (SCF) adipose tissue of heifers in response to increasing days on feed (DOF) and finishing strategy. Crossbred heifers (n = 24) were allotted as follows: Group 1 = 0 d, Group 2 = 99 d on winter annual ryegrass (grass; Lolium multiflorum Lam.), Group 3 = 218 g on grass, Group 4 = 99 d on grass followed by 119 d on grain. Adipose tissue samples were collected at time of harvest and frozen. Carcass characteristics were measured 24 h postharvest. As expected, HCW (P grade increased (P grade (P meat quality whereas gene expression studies suggest several novel genes are associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue development in growing and finishing cattle. PMID:23482578

  6. Estratégias de manejo da palha de azevém para cultivo do arroz irrigado em sucessão Management strategies of ryegrass straw for rice crop grown in succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara da Luz Correia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A adoção de sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas é um dos pré-requisitos fundamentais para sustentabilidade dos sistemas de produção agrícola. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de época de dessecação do azevém e de dose de adubação nitrogenada, aplicada na semeadura do arroz irrigado em sucessão, como estratégias para viabilizar o uso dessa sucessão em áreas de cultivo de arroz irrigado. O experimento foi conduzido no campo em dois anos agrícolas (2008/09 e 2009/10, em Cachoeirinha, RS, em um Gleissolo Háplico Ta distrófico típico. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro épocas de dessecação do azevém (90, 70, 50 e 30 dias antes da semeadura do arroz, no primeiro ano; e 49, 34, 19 e 6, no segundo ano, de cinco sistemas de manejo da adubação nitrogenada no arroz irrigado, obtidos pela combinação de quatro doses de N na semeadura (0, 10, 20 e 40 kg ha-1 e de quatro doses de N em cobertura (150, 140, 130 e 110 kg ha-1, totalizando 150 kg ha-1, e de uma testemunha sem aplicação de N, durante todo o ciclo da cultura. A presença de palha de azevém com as plantas mantidas de pé não prejudica o estabelecimento inicial de plantas de arroz cultivado em sucessão. O rendimento de grãos de arroz irrigado cultivado em sucessão ao azevém não é influenciado pela época de dessecação de azevém e pela dose de N aplicada em semeadura.The adoption of crop rotation and crop sequence systems is one of the fundamental prerequisites for the sustainability of agricultural production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ryegrass desiccation time and nitrogen fertilizer applied at sowing of irrigated rice, in succession, as a management strategy in irrigated rice cultivation. The field experiment was carried out in two growing seasons (2008/09 and 2009

  7. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  8. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  9. The endophytic symbiont Epichloë festucae establishes an epiphyllous net on the surface of Lolium perenne leaves by development of an expressorium, an appressorium-like leaf exit structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthias; Becker, Yvonne; Green, Kimberly; Scott, Barry

    2016-07-01

    Epichloë festucae forms a mutualistic symbiotic association with Lolium perenne. This biotrophic fungus systemically colonizes the intercellular spaces of aerial tissues to form an endophytic hyphal network. E. festucae also grows as an epiphyte, but the mechanism for leaf surface colonization is not known. Here we identify an appressorium-like structure, which we call an expressorium that allows endophytic hyphae to penetrate the cuticle from the inside of the leaf to establish an epiphytic hyphal net on the surface of the leaf. We used a combination of scanning electron, transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy to characterize this novel fungal structure and determine the composition of the hyphal cell wall using aniline blue and wheat germ agglutinin labelled with Alexafluor-488. Expressoria differentiate immediately below the cuticle in the leaf blade and leaf sheath intercalary cell division zones where the hyphae grow by tip growth. Differentiation of this structure requires components of both the NoxA and NoxB NADPH oxidase complexes. Major remodelling of the hyphal cell wall occurs following exit from the leaf. These results establish that the symbiotic association of E. festucae with L. perenne involves an interconnected hyphal network of both endophytic and epiphytic hyphae. PMID:26991322

  10. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  11. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2004. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and monitoring of environment; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers is presented

  12. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  13. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  14. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  15. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 145 refs.; 20 figs.; 4 fotos; 2 tabs

  16. KVI Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report offers 93 informative descriptions of the current research projects at the KVI cyclotron during 1982. The projects are classed under the following heads: elastic and inelastic scattering; giant resonances; transfer and charge exchange reactions; breakup reactions; heavy ion reactions; electromagnetic and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; atomic physics; nuclear solid state physics; cyclotron, computers and instrumentation; nuclear medicine; environmental studies. (Auth.)

  17. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  18. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2006. The document consist of four parts: 'Laboratory Overview', 'Experiments and Experimental Set-ups', 'Experiments Using the Outside Facilities' and 'General Information on HIL Activities'. An 'Introduction' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  19. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  20. ELETRONUCLEAR - Annual report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual activities report of 1997 of ELETRONUCLEAR - Brazilian company responsible by the electric power generation from the nuclear technology - introduces the next main topics: company vision and mission; energy production and commercialization; investments in the electric power generation; economic and financial situation; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  1. Annual report 1982. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the scientific annual report 1982 of the ILL on R and D activities of the different colleges: fundamental and nuclear physics, inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry, theory. Abstracts of the publications published during the year are presented

  2. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  3. Annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    SaskPower`s mission is to meet the electrical needs of Saskatchewan residents in a reliable, safe, efficient and environmentally responsible manner. This annual report of the Corporation discusses new business focus; operations highlights; quality of life; management discussion and analysis; financial ratios; and a report of management. Financial information is also included.

  4. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains short descriptions of the work done at the named institute. These concern the study of hyperfine interactions, experiments with synchroton radiation, experiments at storage rings, and experiments at CERN. Furthermore, a list of publications, contributions to conferences and these is presented. (HSI)

  5. Annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The annual report from IKU (Continental Shelf Institute) in Norway deals with the market adjustment of research activities at the institute as a result of offshore cost-cutting policy in the petroleum industry. The market is about to shift focus from volume to competence. In practice, that means buying competence instead of project ideas or proposals

  6. Annual report 1981, annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume entitled ''Annex to the annual report'' deals in more detail with the scientific works of the I.L.L.: the scientific activity of theoricians; experimental reports on inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry

  7. Annual report - ESCELSA - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of 1999 of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power company - introduces the next main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; customers; quality; electric system; investments; people; resources; synergies; awards; outlook; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  8. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2007. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  9. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  10. BAM - Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report contains progress and activity reports of the presidential department, the departments metals and metal construction, civil engineering and building activities, organic matter, chemical safety engineering, special fields of materials testing, techniques independent of the type of material, an index, as well as general and statistic statements. (HK)

  11. NRCC annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer

  12. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2005. The document consist of four parts: Laboratory Overview, Experiments and Experimental Set-ups, Experiments Using the Outside Facilities and General Information on HIL Activities. An Introduction written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  13. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, David B.

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 issue of "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Give Me That Old Time Religion?: A Study of Religious Themes in the Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan" (John S. Seiter); "The Three Stooges versus the Third Reich" (Roy Schwartzman); "Interdisciplinary Team Teaching: Implementing Collaborative Instruction in an…

  14. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  15. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  16. PTB annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report presents general information on the institution's activities and the various departments, and reports on scientific work in the field of metrology and safety engineering. Brief scientific accounts refer to work in the domains of mechanics and acoustics, electricity, heat, optics, industrial metrology, atomic physics, technical and scientific services, collection and disposal of radioactive waste. (DG)

  17. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  18. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  19. HASYLAB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at HASYLAB together with a list of publications, speeches, and theses. The work concerns technical developments, the study of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and liquids, X-ray structure studies of solids and interfaces, molecular biology, further applications of synchrotron radiation, and experimental developments. (HSI)

  20. Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2010. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments at HIL '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' Appendices '' where general information on HIL activities are described. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Heavy Ion Laboratory prof. K. Rusek is also given.

  1. Annual HR Salary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    A trainers' salary survey collected data on 1,091 companies, 31,615 employees, and 97 human resource jobs. Results show pay for human resource professionals is continuing to rise. The survey contains information on base salaries, annual bonuses and incentives, and long-term eligibility incentives. (JOW)

  2. 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French union of the petroleum industry (UFIP). It summarizes the highlights of the petroleum industry activity in France in 2001 and gives some additional information about the production, refining and distribution of petroleum products in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  3. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  4. Annual report SNET 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the SNET (National Society of Electricity and thermic) presents the society activities and the financial report for the year 2003. The society position in the market, the environmental policy, the performance, the workers and financial data are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  5. IKF annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of 1988 gives a survey of the following category of themes: nuclear physics, atom physics, nuclear methods, nuclear solid-state physics and developments of machines. Apart from the use of its own Van de Graaff accelerators the institute takes part in joint ventures in research, for example with the GSI (Association for Heavy-Ion Research) in Darmstadt. (DG)

  6. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  7. Uranium industry annual 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  8. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary and detailed reports are presented of current research during 1987 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics. (H.W.). 61 refs.; 13 figs.; 14 tabs

  9. Annual General Meetings

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We have produced this information booklet to explain why companies must – by law – hold an Annual General Meeting (AGM). The laws which cover AGMs are known as the Companies Acts. This guide gives only a summary of the rules for AGMs. If you have a concern about the AGM of a particular company, you should get independent legal advice.

  10. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  11. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 299 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  12. Annual report - ENERSUL - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of ENERSUL - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: Outlook for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sold; capacity increases; customers; customers; energy balance; performance and quality; electric system; investments; people; human resources; synergies; awards; workplace safety; social balance; and patrimonial balance

  13. NIKHEF Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report 1982, the NIKHEF research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry is described in a wide context. Next, the reports of the individual projects of section-H and section-K are described in detail. Finally, the report gives some statistical information of publications, colloquia and co-workers. (Auth.)

  14. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2000

  15. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules (Ed.), John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  16. Annual report 1987

    OpenAIRE

    Machena, C.

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 Annual Report of the Lake Kariba Fisheries Research Institute details the various research projects conducted during the year, which covered the following topics: ecology of the submerged vascular vegetation; biology and population dynamics of the butter catfish; post-harvest fish technology and management; sardine population structure; and analysis of the inshore fish.

  17. TIARA annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2005. The 126 of the presented papers are indexed individually. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  18. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  19. Herbage yield and botanical composition of grass-legume mixture at different time of establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Simić A.; Vasiljević S.; Vučković S.; Tomić Z.; Bjelić Z.; Mandić V.

    2011-01-01

    For comparative testing of the total productivity of mixtures (intercrops) of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), a trial was carried out during the 2007-2009 growing seasons at experimental fields of the Institute for Animal Husbandry, Belgrade-Zemun. Intercrops included two red clover varieties (К-17 and Una) and tetraploid Italian ryegrass (К-29t) in different proportional ratios (100:0%, 75:25%, 50:50%, 25:75...

  20. 1988 Annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1987 Annual Water Management Report 1988 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes 1987 weather summary, water availability forecast, summary of 1987...

  1. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  2. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  3. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  4. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  5. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  6. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud). Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys). Questions from members and beneficiaries. Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer). As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  7. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  8. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  9. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  10. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  11. 1986 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes the reasearch activity carried out during 1986 by the Fusion Department of the Italian Commision for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA). The report outlines the main results obtained by the three major projects of the Fusion Department (Fusion Physics, Frascati Tokamak Upgrade, and Fusion Reactor Engineering), plus the divisional project Inertial Confinement mentioned separately because of its particular scientific content. Most of the research work was performed by the Fusion Department at its location at the ENEA Frascati Energy Research Center, but some work was also done elsewhere, or with recourse to other ENEA departments. The research activity described in this annual report was carried out with the frame of the Association Euratom-ENEA on Fusion, with the exception of some minor activities

  12. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  13. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  14. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year 2000 annual report of the CEA (atomic energy commissariat) gives a general overview of the CEA activities and organization in the domains of the defence, the nuclear energy the technological research and the fundamental research. It is presented in seven main parts: contribution to national defence, civil nuclear research, technological research for the industry, pushing back the frontiers of scientific knowledge in physics and life science, mastery of installations; institute for protection and nuclear safety, research resources. (A.L.B.)

  15. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  16. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes the activities of the Institute in 2005. The document consist of four parts: (1) Radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies; (2) Radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, general chemistry; (3) Radiobiology; (4) Nuclear technologies and methods. In total - 73 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity and the international cooperation is also listed

  17. Risoe annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explanation of Risoe National Laboratory's function within the Danish research system is followed by brief accounts of research activities at Risoe during 1987. Energy resources, technology and policy are discussed, the annual accounts are presented, a guide to the National Laboratory and a list of its publications are given. Some of the research activities that took place in 1987 described in more detail are within the fields of chemistry and the environment, superconductivity, new aspects of powdery mildew, polymers and robotics. (AB)

  18. TIARA annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Itoh, Hisayoshi [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-10-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. Summary reports of 106 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  19. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  20. Uranium industry annual, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data on US uranium raw materials and marketing activities of the domestic uranium industry. It contains aggregated data reported by US companies on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (1988), Form EIA-858, and historical data from prior data collections and other pertinent sources. The report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent agency for data collection and analysis with the US Department of Energy

  1. TIARA annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Saido, Masahiro; Nashiyama, Isamu [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-10-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998. Summary reports of 90 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  2. 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2002 provides information on financial highlights, corporate governance, organization of the Group, share, sustainable development policy (integration into the management practices, financial and environmental responsibility, responsibility to the employees and to the society), nuclear power (front end division, reactors and services division, back end division), connectors division, equity interests and financial report. (A.L.B.)

  3. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In part 1, the annual report informs of the organizational and administrative development of the Bundesanstalt, in its 2nd part it presents a survey of scientific activities in 1976, examinations carried out, measuring devices and operational equipment given permission to, and cooperation in national and international bodies. The 3rd part contains scientific summaries of activities published and not published, which were either concluded in the year under review or which came to some interim results. (orig.)

  4. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Annual Report 2005'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2005. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute prof. Ziemowit Sujkowski is also given

  5. Annual report ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the 1988 Annual Report for ISIS (United Kingdom). A description is given of the accelerator and target station. The capability of ISIS is described including the facilities available and the type of science carried out using the instruments. The development and support activities are outlined, along with the ISIS organisation and user interaction. The appendix contains experimental reports on research work conducted at ISIS. (U.K.)

  6. TIARA annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2004. Summary reports of 115 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  7. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Annual Report 2006'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2006. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  8. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report gives the activities during the year 2000 and information about the General Direction of the Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) in France. The highlights of the year are discussed in the main following topics: public utilities, the Erika oil slick, the petroleum products prices increase, the energy efficiency national program, Eole 2005, the nuclear industry management. The french energy accounting, the publications and the organization of the DGEMP are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Annual Report 2007'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2007. Report consists of two parts. First one consist of of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  10. TIARA annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. Summary reports of 88 papers and 4 brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  11. NERSC 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John (ed.)

    1999-03-01

    This 1998 annual report from the National Scientific Energy Research Computing Center (NERSC) presents the year in review of the following categories: Computational Science; Computer Science and Applied Mathematics; and Systems and Services. Also presented are science highlights in the following categories: Basic Energy Sciences; Biological and Environmental Research; Fusion Energy Sciences; High Energy and Nuclear Physics; and Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Other Projects.

  12. Annual Pension Fund Update

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2011-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual Pension Fund Update to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Tuesday 20 September 2011 from 10-00 to 12-00 a.m. Copies of the 2010 Financial Statements are available from departmental secretariats. Coffee and croissants will be served prior to the meeting as of 9-30 a.m.

  13. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areva is a world energy expert on technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. This 2005 annual report provides information on the Group results in the following domains: information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operations, new developments and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and outlook. (A.L.B.)

  14. TIARA annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Namba, Hideki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. Summary reports of 103 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  15. Annual Report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report from the Netherlands Centre for Energy Research, includes the progress made in the five main research areas: fission energy, nuclear fusion and superconductivity, combustion energy (including environmental research), current energy and non-energetic applications of nuclear fission. Studies performed by the Energy Study Centrum, a department within ECN, and the Bureau for Energy Research Projects are described. A financial report is presented and a list of publications included. (C.F.)

  16. TIARA annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002. Summary reports of 109 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  17. TIARA annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. Summary reports of 88 papers and 4 brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  18. TIARA annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. Summary reports of 106 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  19. TIARA annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998. Summary reports of 90 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  20. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author)