WorldWideScience

Sample records for annual global child

  1. Child Labor: Global Offensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Peter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "An Evil Unbearable to the Human Heart" (Sutcliffe); "Fighting Indifference and Inaction" (Fromont); "Concerted International Action for Children"; "New Shelter for Street Kids of Ankara" (Fromont); "IPEC's International Program for Elimination of Child Labor Challenge to Brazilian…

  2. Partnerships for Global Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhoff, Andrew P; Crouse, Heather L; Lukolyo, Heather; Larson, Charles P; Howard, Cynthia; Mazhani, Loeto; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Niescierenko, Michelle L; Musoke, Philippa; Marshall, Roseda; Soto, Miguel A; Butteris, Sabrina M; Batra, Maneesh

    2017-10-01

    Child mortality remains a global health challenge and has resulted in demand for expanding the global child health (GCH) workforce over the last 3 decades. Institutional partnerships are the cornerstone of sustainable education, research, clinical service, and advocacy for GCH. When successful, partnerships can become self-sustaining and support development of much-needed training programs in resource-constrained settings. Conversely, poorly conceptualized, constructed, or maintained partnerships may inadvertently contribute to the deterioration of health systems. In this comprehensive, literature-based, expert consensus review we present a definition of partnerships for GCH, review their genesis, evolution, and scope, describe participating organizations, and highlight benefits and challenges associated with GCH partnerships. Additionally, we suggest a framework for applying sound ethical and public health principles for GCH that includes 7 guiding principles and 4 core practices along with a structure for evaluating GCH partnerships. Finally, we highlight current knowledge gaps to stimulate further work in these areas. With awareness of the potential benefits and challenges of GCH partnerships, as well as shared dedication to guiding principles and core practices, GCH partnerships hold vast potential to positively impact child health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Reports Form 157 - YR 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  4. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  5. Global Wind Report. Annual market update 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullen, A.; Sawyer, S.

    2011-04-01

    GWEC's annual report is the authoritative source of information on wind power markets around the world. The Global Wind 2010 Report contains installation figures for over 70 countries for the 2010 record year, as well as a five-year forecast up to 2015 and detailed chapters on the key countries.

  6. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  7. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  8. An innovation in child health: Globally reaching out to child health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Jones

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide deaths of children younger than 5 years reduced from 12.7 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013. Much of this decline is attributed to an increase in the knowledge, skills, and abilities of child health professionals. In turn this increase in knowledge, skills, and abilities has been brought about by increased child-health-focused education available to child health professionals. Therefore child-health-focused education must be part of the strategy to eliminate the remaining 6.3 million deaths and to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This article describes a child-health-focused program that was established in 1992 and operates in 20 countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Botswana, Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, Hong Kong, India, Kenya, Malawi, Mongolia, Myanmar, Sierra Leone, the Seychelles, the Solomon Islands, Tanzania, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe. The Diploma in Child Health/International Postgraduate Paediatric Certificate (DCH/IPPC course provides a comprehensive overview of evidence-based current best practice in pediatrics. This includes all subspecialty areas from infectious diseases and emergency medicine through to endocrinology, respiratory medicine, neurology, nutrition, and dietetics. Content is developed and presented by international medical experts in response to global child health needs. Content is provided to students via a combination of learning outcomes, webcasts, lecture notes, personalized study, tutorials, case studies, and clinical practice. One hundred eleven webcasts are provided, and these are updated annually. This article includes a brief discussion of the value and focus of medical education programs; a description of the DCH/IPPC course content, approaches to teaching and learning, course structure and the funding model; the most recent evaluation of the DCH/IPPC course; and recommendations for overcoming the challenges for implementing a multinational child

  9. Global Human Trafficking and Child Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Bodrick, Nia

    2017-12-01

    Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation violates basic human rights and constitutes a major global public health problem. Pediatricians and other health care professionals may encounter victims who present with infections, injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidality, or a variety of other physical or behavioral health conditions. Preventing child trafficking, recognizing victimization, and intervening appropriately require a public health approach that incorporates rigorous research on the risk factors, health impact, and effective treatment options for child exploitation as well as implementation and evaluation of primary prevention programs. Health care professionals need training to recognize possible signs of exploitation and to intervene appropriately. They need to adopt a multidisciplinary, outward-focused approach to service provision, working with nonmedical professionals in the community to assist victims. Pediatricians also need to advocate for legislation and policies that promote child rights and victim services as well as those that address the social determinants of health, which influence the vulnerability to human trafficking. This policy statement outlines major issues regarding public policy, medical education, research, and collaboration in the area of child labor and sex trafficking and provides recommendations for future work. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Empowering the Girl Child, Improving Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Sandra K; Moran, Barbara

    The health and productivity of a global society is dependent upon the elimination of gender inequities that prevent girls from achieving their full potential. Although some progress has been made in reducing social, economic, and health disparities between men and women, gender equality continues to be an elusive goal. The Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015) and the Sustainable Development Goals (2015-2030) include intergovernmental aspirations to empower women and stress that change must begin with the girl child. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  12. Are child eating patterns being transformed globally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M

    2005-07-01

    To examine the extent to which child dietary patterns and trends are changing globally. Diets of children 2 to 19 years of age were studied with nationally representative data from Russia and the United States, nationwide data from China, and regional data from metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were examined at several points in time to examine trends in calories consumed away from home, snacking behavior, and soft drink and modern fast food consumption. Urban-rural trends were compared. U.S. and Cebu youth consume more than one-third of their daily calories and a higher proportion of snack calories from foods prepared away from home. In contrast, away from home food consumption is minimal in Chinese and Russian children. U.S. and Cebu youth consume about one-fifth of their total daily energy from snacks, but snacks provide a much lower proportion of energy in Russia ( approximately 16%) and China (where snacks provide only approximately 1% of energy). Fast food plays a much more dominant role in the American diet ( approximately 20% of energy vs. 2% to 7% in the other countries), but as yet does not contribute substantially to children's diets in the other countries. Urban-rural differences were found to be important, but narrowing over time, for China and Cebu, whereas they are widening for Russia. This research suggests that globalization of the fast food and other modern food sectors is beginning to affect child eating patterns in several countries undergoing nutrition transition. However, the contribution of fast food and soft drinks to the diet of children remains relatively small in China, Russia, and Cebu, Philippines, relative to the United States.

  13. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 – YR 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  14. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Poverty Mapping Project: Global Subnational Prevalence of Child Malnutrition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Prevalence of Child Malnutrition dataset consists of estimates of the percentage of children with weight-for-age z-scores that are more than...

  16. Teaching corner: child family health international : the ethics of asset-based global health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.

  17. Annual report on global environmental monitoring - 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades, scientific evidence from long-term monitoring has revealed the creeping destruction of ecosystems upon which human existence depends. Recognition of this destruction is changing the international policies used to manage our planet. Vast quantities of information regarding the status of the global environment is necessary in order to achieve a solid consensus among nations for environmental policies. To detect global change early, systematic monitoring with coverage of the entire surface of the earth should be implemented under close coordination among countries and researchers from different disciplines. The resulting precise and accurate measurements should be integrated in a timely fashion into an internationally coordinated database which will be available to the decision makers. In view of this concept, the Center for Global Environmental Research was established in 1990 and started work on monitoring, data management, modeling and their integration. CGER's field of monitoring covers the stratosphere, troposphere, fresh water, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Groups of researchers are organized to design and conduct the monitoring. After intensive examination by these researchers, the resulting data are compiled into this report to be used in academic society as well as to serve decision makers. In 1993 two series of monitoring data reached this stage of publishing. This report contains the results of the Ozone Lidar Monitoring Program and the Japan-Korea Marine Biogeochemical Monitoring Program. The Center for Global Environmental Research very much appreciates both the research staff of these programs for their long-term and patient measurements and the advisory members for their valuable recommendations to the staffs. Those researchers who wish to examine and utilize the raw or primary data are strongly encouraged to contact the Monitoring Section of the center

  18. Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Brunke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of the Earth’s annual cycle and its trends have utilized surface temperature data sets. Here we introduce a new analysis of the global and hemispheric annual cycle using a satellite remote sensing derived data set during the period 1979–2009, as determined from the lower tropospheric (LT channel of the MSU satellite. While the surface annual cycle is tied directly to the heating and cooling of the land areas, the tropospheric annual cycle involves additionally the gain or loss of heat between the surface and atmosphere. The peak in the global tropospheric temperature in the 30 year period occurs on 10 July and the minimum on 9 February in response to the larger land mass in the Northern Hemisphere. The actual dates of the hemispheric maxima and minima are a complex function of many variables which can change from year to year thereby altering these dates.Here we examine the time of occurrence of the global and hemispheric maxima and minima lower tropospheric temperatures, the values of the annual maxima and minima, and the slopes and significance of the changes in these metrics.  The statistically significant trends are all relatively small. The values of the global annual maximum and minimum showed a small, but significant trend. Northern and Southern Hemisphere maxima and minima show a slight trend toward occurring later in the year. Most recent analyses of trends in the global annual cycle using observed surface data have indicated a trend toward earlier maxima and minima.

  19. Bringing global cancer leaders together at the 4th Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research held in April 2016 was developed with a special focus on innovative and low-cost technologies in global cancer control, and brought inspiring keynote speakers such as John Seffrin, Former CEO of the American Cancer Society, and Tom Bollyky, Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations.

  20. Child Prostitution: Global Health Burden, Research Needs, and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Brian M.; Levy, Barry S.

    2002-01-01

    Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other form...

  1. [Global child health--interventions that work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathne, K O; Bøhler, E

    2001-09-20

    Over the last decades, better drinking water and hygiene, improved nutrition and vaccines and antibiotics have greatly reduced child mortality and morbidity. Still, 11 million children under the age of five die every year, many of them from diseases that could have been prevented or treated, given existing knowledge and technology. On the basis of a review of recent literature, this paper discusses current strategies to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Sufficient knowledge and technology exist to further improve the health of the worlds' children. Poverty and its consequences--weak implementation and organisation of health services--is a major obstacle. In order to improve health services in developing countries, additional resources are needed. There is also a need for better quality of service. This will require increased efforts in the field of health policy and systems research.

  2. Global inter-annual gravity changes from GRACE: Early results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Hinderer, J.

    2005-01-01

    with an accuracy of 0.4 muGal corresponding to 9 mm water thickness on spatial scales longer than 1300 km. Four of the most widely used global hydrological models have been investigated for their spatial comparison with GRACE observations of inter-annual gravity field variations due to changes in continental water...... storage. The Global Land Data Assimilation System model has a spatial correlation coefficient with GRACE observations of 0.65 over the northern hemisphere. This demonstrates that the observed gravity field changes on these scales are largely related to changes in continental water storage.......Fifteen monthly gravity field solutions from the GRACE twin satellites launched more than two years ago have been studied to estimate gravity field changes between 2002 and 2003. The results demonstrate that GRACE is capable of capturing the changes in ground water on inter-annual scales...

  3. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A – 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  4. Decadal Changes in Global Ocean Annual Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson; Conkright, Margarita E.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Ginoux, Paul; Casey, Nancy W.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) has produced the first multi-year time series of global ocean chlorophyll observations since the demise of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) in 1986. Global observations from 1997-present from SeaWiFS combined with observations from 1979-1986 from the CZCS should in principle provide an opportunity to observe decadal changes in global ocean annual primary production, since chlorophyll is the primary driver for estimates of primary production. However, incompatibilities between algorithms have so far precluded quantitative analysis. We have developed and applied compatible processing methods for the CZCS, using modern advances in atmospheric correction and consistent bio-optical algorithms to advance the CZCS archive to comparable quality with SeaWiFS. We applied blending methodologies, where in situ data observations are incorporated into the CZCS and SeaWiFS data records, to provide improvement of the residuals. These re-analyzed, blended data records provide maximum compatibility and permit, for the first time, a quantitative analysis of the changes in global ocean primary production in the early-to-mid 1980's and the present, using synoptic satellite observations. An intercomparison of the global and regional primary production from these blended satellite observations is important to understand global climate change and the effects on ocean biota. Photosynthesis by chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton is responsible for biotic uptake of carbon in the oceans and potentially ultimately from the atmosphere. Global ocean annual primary decreased from the CZCS record to SeaWiFS, by nearly 6% from the early 1980s to the present. Annual primary production in the high latitudes was responsible for most of the decadal change. Conversely, primary production in the low latitudes generally increased, with the exception of the tropical Pacific. The differences and similarities of the two data records provide evidence

  5. Child organ trafficking: global reality and inadequate international response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    In organ transplantation, the demand for human organs has grown far faster than the supply of organs. This has opened the door for illegal organ trade and trafficking including from children. Organized crime groups and individual organ brokers exploit the situation and, as a result, black markets are becoming more numerous and organized organ trafficking is expanding worldwide. While underprivileged and vulnerable men and women in developing countries are a major source of trafficked organs, and may themselves be trafficked for the purpose of illegal organ removal and trade, children are at especial risk of exploitation. With the confirmed cases of children being trafficked for their organs, child organ trafficking, which once called a "modern urban legend", is a sad reality in today's world. By presenting a global picture of child organ trafficking, this paper emphasizes that child organ trafficking is no longer a myth but a reality which has to be addressed. It argues that the international efforts against organ trafficking and trafficking in human beings for organ removal have failed to address child organ trafficking adequately. This chapter suggests that more orchestrated international collaboration as well as development of preventive measure and legally binding documents are needed to fight child organ trafficking and to support its victims.

  6. Child prostitution: global health burden, research needs, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S

    2002-04-20

    Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health.

  7. Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data set represents a series of annual average grids (2001-2010) of fine particulate matter...

  8. Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data sets represent a series of annual average grids (2001-2010) of fine particulate matter...

  9. Building Partnerships to Promote Global Health Equity: Takeaways from the 6th Annual Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH celebrated yet another successful and inspiring Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research (ASGCR) held in conjunction with the 9th Annual CUGH (Consortium of University on Global Health) Conference on March 15, 2018 in New York, NY. Read more about ASGCR and new global collaborations in cancer research.

  10. Are global and regional improvements in life expectancy and in child, adult and senior survival slowing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Hum

    Full Text Available Improvements in life expectancy have been considerable over the past hundred years. Forecasters have taken to applying historical trends under an assumption of continuing improvements in life expectancy in the future. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the trends in global and regional rates of improvements in life expectancy, child, adult, and senior survival, in 166 countries between 1950 and 2010. Global improvements in life expectancy, including both child and adult survival rates, decelerated significantly over the study period. Overall life expectancy gains were estimated to have declined from 5.9 to 4.0 months per year for a mean deceleration of -0.07 months/year2; annual child survival gains declined from 4.4 to 1.6 deaths averted per 1000 for a mean deceleration of -0.06 deaths/1000/year2; adult survival gains were estimated to decline from 4.8 to 3.7 deaths averted per 1000 per year for a mean deceleration of -0.08 deaths/1000/year2. Senior survival gains however increased from 2.4 to 4.2 deaths averted per 1000 per year for an acceleration of 0.03 deaths/1000/year2. Regional variation in the four measures was substantial. The rates of global improvements in life expectancy, child survival, and adult survival have declined since 1950 despite an increase in the rate of improvements among seniors. We postulate that low-cost innovation, related to the last half-century progress in health-primarily devoted to children and middle age, is reaping diminishing returns on its investments. Trends are uneven across regions and measures, which may be due in part to the state of epidemiological transition between countries and regions and disparities in the diffusion of innovation, accessible only in high-income countries where life expectancy is already highest.

  11. Annual Variation and Global Structures of The DE3 Tide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ze-Yu, Chen; Da-Ren, Lu

    2008-01-01

    The SABER/TIMED temperatures taken in 2002–2006 are used to delineate the tidal signals in the middle and upper atmosphere. Then the Hough mode decomposition is applied with the DE3 tide, and the overall features of the seasonal variations and the complete global structures of the tide are observed. Investigation results show that the tide is most prominent at 110 km with the maximal amplitude of > 9K, and exhibits significant seasonal variation with its maximum amplitude always occurring in July every year. Results from the Hough mode decomposition reveal that the tide is composed primarily of two leading propagating Hough modes, i.e., the (−3,3) and the (−3,4) modes, thus is equatorially trapped. Estimation of the mean amplitude of the Hough modes show that the (−3,3) mode and (−3,4) mode exhibit maxima at 110km and 90 km, respectively. The (−3,3) mode plays a predominant role in shaping the global latitude-height structure of the tide, e.g., the vertical scale of > 50km at the equator, and the annual course. Significant influence of the (−3,4) mode is found below 90km, where the tide exhibits anti-symmetric structure about the equator; meanwhile the tide at northern tropical latitudes exhibits smaller vertical wavelength of about 30 km. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  12. Global burden of maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Muttaquina; Sanin, Kazi Istiaque

    2012-01-01

    Maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies affect approximately half of the world's population. These conditions include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), low birth weight, protein-energy malnutrition, chronic energy deficit of women, and micronutrient deficiencies. Although the rates of stunting or chronic protein-energy malnutrition are increasing in Africa, the absolute numbers of stunted children are much higher in Asia. The four common micronutrient deficiencies include those of iron, iodine, vitamin A, and zinc. All these conditions are responsible directly or indirectly for more than 50% of all under-5 deaths globally. According to more recent estimates, IUGR, stunting and severe wasting are responsible for one third of under-5 mortality. About 12% of deaths among under-5 children are attributed to the deficiency of the four common micronutrients. Despite tremendous progress in different disciplines and unprecedented improvement with many health indicators, persistently high undernutrition rates are a shame to the society. Human development is not possible without taking care to control undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Poverty, food insecurity, ignorance, lack of appropriate infant and young child feeding practices, heavy burden of infectious illnesses, and poor hygiene and sanitation are factors responsible for the high levels of maternal and child undernutrition in developing countries. These factors can be controlled or removed by scaling up direct nutrition interventions and eliminating the root conditions including female illiteracy, lack of livelihoods, lack of women's empowerment, and poor hygiene and sanitation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Functional Requirements: 2014 No Child Left Behind--Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the Minnesota No Child Left Behind (NCLB) calculation as it relates to measuring Title III districts for Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAO). In 2012, a new assessment was used to measure language proficiency skills for English Learners. New AMAO targets were created, and new values for determining individual…

  14. Research and Clinical Center for Child Development Annual Report, 1995-1996, No. 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kunio, Ed.; Chen, Shing-Jen, Ed.; Furutsuka, Takashi, Ed.; Shirotani, Yukari, Ed.

    This annual report discusses several topics related to the work of the Research and Clinical Center for Child Development at Hokkaido University in Japan. The articles are: (1) "Heart to Heart (Inter "Jo") Resonance: Taking Japanese Concept of Intersubjectivity Out of Everyday Life" (Shigeru Nakano); (2) "Intersubjectivity…

  15. Research and Clinical Center for Child Development Annual Report, 1994-1995, No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kunio, Ed.; Chen, Shing-Jen, Ed.

    This annual report discusses several topics related to the work of the Research and Clinical Center for Child Development. Seven topics are covered in the report. The articles are: (1) "Fathers' Participation in the Lives of Their 4-Month-Old Infants: The United States and Japan" (Marguerite Stevenson Barratt, Koichi Negayama and…

  16. Child & Adolescent Mental Health Services - first annual report 2008

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-10-01

    This Annual Report provides the first comprehensive survey carried out on community CAMHS teams and includes preliminary data collected by The Health Research Board on the admission of young people under the age of 18 years to inpatient mental health facilities. As many measures in this report do not have historic comparators it provides a baseline foundation that will be built upon in subsequent years providing an indication of trends that cannot yet be drawn on the basis of this report. The next report will include day hospital, liaison and inpatient services. Subsequent reports will further extend the mapping of mental health services for young people.

  17. Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

  18. Perspectives on Child Abuse and Labour: Global Ethical Ideals Versus African Cultural Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, A. O.; Torimiro, D. O.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the global and African postures on the issues of child abuse and child labour. The global ethical ideals of the issues are characterized within their various theoretical perspectives while the African cultural realities are explored through the use of focus group discussion sessions, which were organized in six rural…

  19. First-Annual Global Clean Energy Manufacturing Report Shows Strong Domestic Benefits for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EERE Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-02-01

    The Energy Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) commissioned the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center to conduct the first-ever annual assessment of the economic state of global clean energy manufacturing. The report, Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing, makes economic data on clean energy technology widely available.

  20. [Accepted Manuscript] Annual Crop Yield Variation, Child Survival and Nutrition among Subsistence Farmers in Burkina Faso.

    OpenAIRE

    Belesova, K.; Gasparrini, A.; Sié, A.; Sauerborn, R.; Wilkinson, P.

    2017-01-01

    Whether year to year variation in crop yields affects the nutrition, health, and survival of subsistence farming populations is relevant to the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change. However, the empirical evidence is limited. We examined the association of child survival with inter-annual variation in food crop yield and middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) in a subsistence farming population of rural Burkina Faso. The study was of 44,616 children < 5 years of age incl...

  1. Century-scale variability in global annual runoff examined using a water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    A monthly water balance model (WB model) is used with CRUTS2.1 monthly temperature and precipitation data to generate time series of monthly runoff for all land areas of the globe for the period 1905 through 2002. Even though annual precipitation accounts for most of the temporal and spatial variability in annual runoff, increases in temperature have had an increasingly negative effect on annual runoff after 1980. Although the effects of increasing temperature on runoff became more apparent after 1980, the relative magnitude of these effects are small compared to the effects of precipitation on global runoff. ?? 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.

  2. Seven Global Goals. 2013 annual report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    For over 70 years, Southwestern has marketed and delivered reliable, renewable, and affordable hydropower, partnering with Federal power stakeholders and others in the industry to make sure the lights stay on. This kind of effective, efficient, and cost conscious operation is made possible only by hard work and dedication. Southwestern employees work individually and as a team to meet seven comprehensive agency goals that touch on all aspects of the agency’s operations. Dubbed the “Seven Global Goals” by Administrator Chris Turner, these objectives identify specific, measurable targets that support Southwestern’s mission and reinforce its responsibilities toward its customers and the Nation.

  3. Global child health: challenges and goals in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, R S

    1994-01-01

    The UNICEF message to the pediatricians and child health experts attending the Regional Pediatric Congress of the Union of National Pediatric Societies of Turkish Republics is that the way children are conceptualized in the development process has a major impact on poverty. UNICEF argues that human resource development is the safest way out of population pressure, vanishing forests, and despoiled rivers. Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are examples of countries that "sacrificed, deferred consumer gratification of the elites, and disciplined themselves" in order to provide better care for their children in terms of good nutrition, good health care, and rigorous primary and secondary education for all children. Family planning was available to all parents. The emphasis was on hygiene, immunization, clean water supplies, and sanitation. Lower infant and child mortality created confidence in child survival and parental willingness to have fewer children. The working population is healthier due to the state nutrition programs and a better skilled labor force due to education and training. These countries are no longer underdeveloped because of the priority on children for over a generation and a half. Robert Heilbroner has described this strategy for development as based on social development, human development, and protection of children aged under 5 years. The Alma Ata conference in 1976 was instrumental in focusing on the health of the child by setting a standard of health for all by the year 2000. Many countries are moving in the direction proposed in these agendas. The result has been a 33% reduction in child mortality within 10 years and greater immunization in some developing countries than in Europe and North America. Immunization rates in Ankara, Turkey; Calcutta, India; Lagos, Nigeria; and Mexico City are higher than in Washington, D.C. or New York City. The 1990 World Summit for Children found that the following rules are applicable to

  4. Inter-annual Variability in Global Suspended Particulate Inorganic Carbon Inventory Using Space-based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, J.; Balch, W. M.; Henson, S.; Poulton, A. J.; Drapeau, D.; Bowler, B.; Lubelczyk, L.

    2016-02-01

    Coccolithophores, the single celled phytoplankton that produce an outer covering of calcium carbonate coccoliths, are considered to be the greatest contributors to the global oceanic particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) pool. The reflective coccoliths scatter light back out from the ocean surface, enabling PIC concentration to be quantitatively estimated from ocean color satellites. Here we use datasets of AQUA MODIS PIC concentration from 2003-2014 (using the recently-revised PIC algorithm), as well as statistics on coccolithophore vertical distribution derived from cruises throughout the world ocean, to estimate the average global (surface and integrated) PIC standing stock and its associated inter-annual variability. In addition, we divide the global ocean into Longhurst biogeochemical provinces, update the PIC biomass statistics and identify those regions that have the greatest inter-annual variability and thus may exert the greatest influence on global PIC standing stock and the alkalinity pump.

  5. 19th Annual conference ampersand exposition: Global strategies for environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The 19th Annual conference and exposition on Global Strategies for Environmental Issues was held June 12-15, 1994 in New Orleans, Louisiana. This volume contains abstracts of the oral presentations. They are organized into the following sections: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable Development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental Ethics/Equity; NEPA Symposium; International Environmental Issues; Global Environmental Effects; and, Risk Assessment. Abstracts of poster sessions are also included

  6. Global drivers effect in multi-annual variability of runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fendeková Miriam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in runoff parameters are very important for Slovakia, where stream-flow discharges, being supplied by precipitation and groundwater runoff, are preferentially influenced by climatic conditions. Therefore, teleconnections between runoff parameters, climate parameters and global atmospheric drivers such as North Atlantic Oscillation, Southern Pacific Oscillation, Quasi-biennial oscillation and solar activity were studied in the Nitra River Basin, Slovakia. Research was mostly based on records of 80 years (1931-2010 for discharges and baseflow, and 34 years for groundwater heads. Methods of autocorrelation, spectral analysis, cross-correlation and coherence function were used. Results of auto- correllograms for discharges, groundwater heads and base flow values showed a very distinct 11-year and 21-year periodicity. Spectrogram analysis documented the 11-year, 7.8-year, 3.6-year and 2.4-year periods in the discharge, precipitation and air temperature time series. The same cycles except of 11-years were also identified in the long-term series of the North Atlantic Oscillation and Southern Pacific Oscillation indices. The cycle from approximately 2.3 to 2.4-years is most likely connected with Quasi-biennial oscillation. The close negative correlation between the North Atlantic Oscillation winter index and the hydrological surface and groundwater parameters can be used for their prediction within the same year and also for one year in advance.

  7. The 2008 annual report of the Regional Infant and Child Mortality Review Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Brad; Wilson, Ann

    2009-12-01

    The 2008 annual report of the Regional Infant and Child Mortality Review Committee (RICMRC) is presented. This committee has as its mission the review of infant and child deaths so that information can be transformed into action to protect young lives. The 2008 review area includes South Dakota's Minnehaha, Turner, Lincoln, Moody, Lake, McCook, Union, Hansen, Miner and Brookings counties. Within our region in 2008, there were six infant deaths labeled as Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths (SUID), of which two met the criteria for the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The four non-SIDS SUID deaths all represented deaths where asphyxia from unsafe sleeping environments could not be excluded. In addition, there were two accidental deaths from asphyxia in unsafe sleeping enviroments. We need to continue to promote the "Back to Sleep" campaign message of not only placing infants to sleep on their backs, but also making sure infants are put down to sleep on safe, firm, sleeping surfaces and are appropriately dressed for the ambient temperature. Parents need to be aware of the potential hazards of bed-sharing with their infants. In both 2007 and 2008, four children died in motor vehicle crashes, none of which were alcohol-related. Three fire-related childhood deaths were associated with one house fire involving a nonfunctional smoke alarm and a sleeping arrangement without an easy egress from a fire. Since 1997, the RICMRC has sought to achieve its mission to "review infant and child deaths so that information can be transformed into action to protect young lives". For 2008, the committee reviewed 21 deaths from Minnehaha, Turner, Lincoln, Moody, Lake, McCook, Union, Hansen, Miner and Brookings counties that met the following criteria: Children under the age of 18 dying subsequent to hospital discharge following delivery. Children who either died in these counties from causes sustained in them, or residents who died elsewhere from causes sustained in the ten-county region.

  8. Climatic driving forces in inter-annual variation of global FPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dailiang; Liu, Liangyun; Yang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Bin

    2012-09-01

    Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) characterizes vegetation canopy functioning and its energy absorption capacity. In this paper, we focus on climatic driving forces in inter-annual variation of global FPAR from 1982 to 2006 by Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN-Monthly) data. Using FPAR-Simple Ratio Vegetation Index (SR) relationship, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to estimate FPAR at the global scale. The correlation between inter-annual variation of FPAR and temperature, precipitation derived from GHCN-Monthly was examined, during the periods of March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA), September-November (SON), and December-February (DJF) over from 1982 to 2006. The analysis of climatic influence on global FPAR revealed the significant correlation with temperature and precipitation in some meteorological stations area, and a more significant correlation with precipitation was found than which with temperature. Some stations in the regions between 30° N and 60° N and around 30° S in South America, where the annual FPAR variation showed a significant positive correlation with temperature (P forest of Africa and Amazon during the dry season of JJA and SON.

  9. Effects of economic downturns on child mortality: a global economic analysis, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watson, Robert A; Watkins, Johnathan; Zeltner, Thomas; Raine, Rosalind; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    To analyse how economic downturns affect child mortality both globally and among subgroups of countries of variable income levels. Retrospective observational study using economic data from the World Bank's Development Indicators and Global Development Finance (2013 edition). Child mortality data were sourced from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Global. 204 countries between 1981 and 2010. Child mortality, controlling for country-specific differences in political, healthcare, cultural, structural, educational and economic factors. 197 countries experienced at least 1 economic downturn between 1981 and 2010, with a mean of 7.97 downturns per country (range 0-21; SD 0.45). At the global level, downturns were associated with significant (p<0.0001) deteriorations in each child mortality measure, in comparison with non-downturn years: neonatal (coefficient: 1.11, 95% CI 0.855 to 1.37), postneonatal (2.00, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.38), child (2.93, 95% CI 2.26 to 3.60) and under 5 years of age (5.44, 95% CI 4.31 to 6.58) mortality rates. Stronger (larger falls in the growth rate of gross domestic product/capita) and longer (lasting 2 years rather than 1) downturns were associated with larger significant deteriorations (p<0.001). During economic downturns, countries in the poorest quartile experienced ∼1½ times greater deterioration in neonatal mortality, compared with their own baseline; a 3-fold deterioration in postneonatal mortality; a 9-fold deterioration in child mortality and a 3-fold deterioration in under-5 mortality, than countries in the wealthiest quartile (p<0.0005). For 1-5 years after downturns ended, each mortality measure continued to display significant deteriorations (p<0.0001). Economic downturns occur frequently and are associated with significant deteriorations in child mortality, with worse declines in lower income countries.

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Global Quality and Group Engagement in Toddler Child Care Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Alison; Hallam, Rena

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' engagement with their social and physical environment is an important aspect of their experience in early care and education programs. The purpose of this research study was to examine how global quality relates to children's engagement in toddler child care classrooms. Additionally, this study explored how toddlers' group engagement…

  11. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  12. Annual global tree cover estimated by fusing optical and SAR satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, M.; Sexton, J. O.; Channan, S.; Townshend, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Tree cover defined structurally as the proportional, vertically projected area of vegetation (including leaves, stems, branches, etc.) of woody plants above a given height affects terrestrial energy and water exchanges, photosynthesis and transpiration, net primary production, and carbon and nutrient fluxes. Tree cover provides a measurable attribute upon which forest cover may be defined. Changes in tree cover over time can be used to monitor and retrieve site-specific histories of forest disturbance, succession, and degradation. Measurements of Earth's tree cover have been produced at regional, national, and global extents. However, most representations are static, and those for which multiple time periods have been produced are neither intended nor adequate for consistent, long-term monitoring. Moreover, although a substantial proportion of change has been shown to occur at resolutions below 250 m, existing long-term, Landsat-resolution datasets are either produced as static layers or with annual, five- or ten-year temporal resolution. We have developed an algorithms to retrieve seamless and consistent, sub-hectare resolution estimates of tree-canopy from optical and radar satellite data sources (e.g., Landsat, Sentinel-2, and ALOS-PALSAR). Our approach to estimation enables assimilation of multiple data sources and produces estimates of both cover and its uncertainty at the scale of pixels. It has generated the world's first Landsat-based percent tree cover dataset in 2013. Our previous algorithms are being adapted to produce prototype percent-tree and water-cover layers globally in 2000, 2005, and 2010—as well as annually over North and South America from 2010 to 2015—from passive-optical (Landsat and Sentinel-2) and SAR measurements. Generating a global, annual dataset is beyond the scope of this support; however, North and South America represent all of the world's major biomes and so offer the complete global range of environmental sources of error and

  13. Global Analysis of Empirical Relationships Between Annual Climate and Seasonality of NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    This study describes the use of satellite data to calibrate a new climate-vegetation greenness function for global change studies. We examined statistical relationships between annual climate indexes (temperature, precipitation, and surface radiation) and seasonal attributes of the AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series for the mid-1980s in order to refine our empirical understanding of intraannual patterns and global abiotic controls on natural vegetation dynamics. Multiple linear regression results using global l(sup o) gridded data sets suggest that three climate indexes: growing degree days, annual precipitation total, and an annual moisture index together can account to 70-80 percent of the variation in the NDVI seasonal extremes (maximum and minimum values) for the calibration year 1984. Inclusion of the same climate index values from the previous year explained no significant additional portion of the global scale variation in NDVI seasonal extremes. The monthly timing of NDVI extremes was closely associated with seasonal patterns in maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall, with lag times of 1 to 2 months. We separated well-drained areas from l(sup o) grid cells mapped as greater than 25 percent inundated coverage for estimation of both the magnitude and timing of seasonal NDVI maximum values. Predicted monthly NDVI, derived from our climate-based regression equations and Fourier smoothing algorithms, shows good agreement with observed NDVI at a series of ecosystem test locations from around the globe. Regions in which NDVI seasonal extremes were not accurately predicted are mainly high latitude ecosystems and other remote locations where climate station data are sparse.

  14. Booming Economy Fuels Continued Expansion of For-Profit Child Care--Annual Status Report #13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Discusses growth of North America's 40 largest for- profit child care centers. Identifies current threats, including staffing shortage and increasing competition from public schools and among chains. Identifies current opportunities to include employer and franchise child care, upscale child care, elementary school services, and flexible hours.…

  15. Annual Crop-Yield Variation, Child Survival, and Nutrition Among Subsistence Farmers in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belesova, Kristine; Gasparrini, Antonio; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Wilkinson, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Whether year-to-year variation in crop yields affects the nutrition, health, and survival of subsistence-farming populations is relevant to the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change. However, the empirical evidence is limited. We examined the associations of child survival with interannual variation in food crop yield and middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) in a subsistence-farming population of rural Burkina Faso. The study was of 44,616 children aged Demographic Surveillance System, 1992-2012, whose survival was analyzed in relation to the food crop yield in the year of birth (which ranged from 65% to 120% of the period average) and, for a subset of 16,698 children, to MUAC, using shared-frailty Cox proportional hazards models. Survival was appreciably worse in children born in years with low yield (full-adjustment hazard ratio = 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.20) for a 90th- to 10th-centile decrease in annual crop yield) and in children with small MUAC (hazard ratio = 2.72 (95% confidence interval: 2.15, 3.44) for a 90th- to 10th-centile decrease in MUAC). These results suggest an adverse impact of variations in crop yields, which could increase under climate change. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Revised methane emissions factors and spatially distributed annual carbon fluxes for global livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Julie; Asrar, Ghassem R; West, Tristram O

    2017-09-29

    Livestock play an important role in carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Recent research suggests that existing bottom-up inventories of livestock methane emissions in the US, such as those made using 2006 IPCC Tier 1 livestock emissions factors, are too low. This may be due to outdated information used to develop these emissions factors. In this study, we update information for cattle and swine by region, based on reported recent changes in animal body mass, feed quality and quantity, milk productivity, and management of animals and manure. We then use this updated information to calculate new livestock methane emissions factors for enteric fermentation in cattle, and for manure management in cattle and swine. Using the new emissions factors, we estimate global livestock emissions of 119.1 ± 18.2 Tg methane in 2011; this quantity is 11% greater than that obtained using the IPCC 2006 emissions factors, encompassing an 8.4% increase in enteric fermentation methane, a 36.7% increase in manure management methane, and notable variability among regions and sources. For example, revised manure management methane emissions for 2011 in the US increased by 71.8%. For years through 2013, we present (a) annual livestock methane emissions, (b) complete annual livestock carbon budgets, including carbon dioxide emissions, and (c) spatial distributions of livestock methane and other carbon fluxes, downscaled to 0.05 × 0.05 degree resolution. Our revised bottom-up estimates of global livestock methane emissions are comparable to recently reported top-down global estimates for recent years, and account for a significant part of the increase in annual methane emissions since 2007. Our results suggest that livestock methane emissions, while not the dominant overall source of global methane emissions, may be a major contributor to the observed annual emissions increases over the 2000s to 2010s. Differences at regional and local scales may help

  17. Effects of economic downturns on child mortality: a global economic analysis, 1981–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watson, Robert A; Watkins, Johnathan; Zeltner, Thomas; Raine, Rosalind; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To analyse how economic downturns affect child mortality both globally and among subgroups of countries of variable income levels. Design Retrospective observational study using economic data from the World Bank's Development Indicators and Global Development Finance (2013 edition). Child mortality data were sourced from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Setting Global. Participants 204 countries between 1981 and 2010. Main outcome measures Child mortality, controlling for country-specific differences in political, healthcare, cultural, structural, educational and economic factors. Results 197 countries experienced at least 1 economic downturn between 1981 and 2010, with a mean of 7.97 downturns per country (range 0–21; SD 0.45). At the global level, downturns were associated with significant (p<0.0001) deteriorations in each child mortality measure, in comparison with non-downturn years: neonatal (coefficient: 1.11, 95% CI 0.855 to 1.37), postneonatal (2.00, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.38), child (2.93, 95% CI 2.26 to 3.60) and under 5 years of age (5.44, 95% CI 4.31 to 6.58) mortality rates. Stronger (larger falls in the growth rate of gross domestic product/capita) and longer (lasting 2 years rather than 1) downturns were associated with larger significant deteriorations (p<0.001). During economic downturns, countries in the poorest quartile experienced ∼1½ times greater deterioration in neonatal mortality, compared with their own baseline; a 3-fold deterioration in postneonatal mortality; a 9-fold deterioration in child mortality and a 3-fold deterioration in under-5 mortality, than countries in the wealthiest quartile (p<0.0005). For 1–5 years after downturns ended, each mortality measure continued to display significant deteriorations (p<0.0001). Conclusions Economic downturns occur frequently and are associated with significant deteriorations in child mortality, with worse declines in lower income countries. PMID:28589010

  18. Annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the global wind oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have searched for relationships between tornado activity and atmospheric teleconnections to provide insight on the relationship between tornadoes, their environments, and larger scale patterns in the climate system. Knowledge of these relationships is practical because it can improve seasonal and sub-seasonal predictions of tornado probability and, therefore, help mitigate tornado-related losses. This study explores the relationships between the annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the Global Wind Oscillation. Time series herein show that phases of the Global Wind Oscillation, and atmospheric angular momentum anomalies, vary over a period of roughly 20-25 years. Rank correlations indicate that tornado activity is weakly correlated with phases 2, 3, and 4 (positive) and 6, 7, and 8 (negative) of the Global Wind Oscillation in winter, spring, and fall. The correlation is not as clear in summer or at the annual scale. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 and fewer phase 6, 7, and 8 days tend to have more tornadoes. Lastly, logistic regression models indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 days have greater likelihoods of having more than normal tornado activity. Combined, these analyses suggest that seasons with more low atmospheric angular momentum days, or phase 2, 3, and 4 days, tend to have greater tornado activity than those with fewer days, and that this relationship is most evident in winter and spring.

  19. Annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the global wind oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies have searched for relationships between tornado activity and atmospheric teleconnections to provide insight on the relationship between tornadoes, their environments, and larger scale patterns in the climate system. Knowledge of these relationships is practical because it can improve seasonal and sub-seasonal predictions of tornado probability and, therefore, help mitigate tornado-related losses. This study explores the relationships between the annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the Global Wind Oscillation. Time series herein show that phases of the Global Wind Oscillation, and atmospheric angular momentum anomalies, vary over a period of roughly 20-25 years. Rank correlations indicate that tornado activity is weakly correlated with phases 2, 3, and 4 (positive) and 6, 7, and 8 (negative) of the Global Wind Oscillation in winter, spring, and fall. The correlation is not as clear in summer or at the annual scale. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 and fewer phase 6, 7, and 8 days tend to have more tornadoes. Lastly, logistic regression models indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 days have greater likelihoods of having more than normal tornado activity. Combined, these analyses suggest that seasons with more low atmospheric angular momentum days, or phase 2, 3, and 4 days, tend to have greater tornado activity than those with fewer days, and that this relationship is most evident in winter and spring.

  20. Can We Use Regression Modeling to Quantify Mean Annual Streamflow at a Global-Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, V.; Huijbregts, M. A. J.; Hendriks, J. A.; Beusen, A.; Clavreul, J.; King, H.; Schipper, A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying mean annual flow of rivers (MAF) at ungauged sites is essential for a number of applications, including assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. MAF can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict MAF based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. In this study, we developed a global-scale regression model for MAF using observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from 1,885 catchments worldwide, ranging from 2 to 106 km2 in size. In addition, we compared the performance of the regression model with the predictive ability of the spatially explicit global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB [van Beek et al., 2011] by comparing results from both models to independent measurements. We obtained a regression model explaining 89% of the variance in MAF based on catchment area, mean annual precipitation and air temperature, average slope and elevation. The regression model performed better than PCR-GLOBWB for the prediction of MAF, as root-mean-square error values were lower (0.29 - 0.38 compared to 0.49 - 0.57) and the modified index of agreement was higher (0.80 - 0.83 compared to 0.72 - 0.75). Our regression model can be applied globally at any point of the river network, provided that the input parameters are within the range of values employed in the calibration of the model. The performance is reduced for water scarce regions and further research should focus on improving such an aspect for regression-based global hydrological models.

  1. Developing and testing a global-scale regression model to quantify mean annual streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Clavreul, Julie; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying mean annual flow of rivers (MAF) at ungauged sites is essential for assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. MAF can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict MAF based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. In this study, we developed a global-scale regression model for MAF based on a dataset unprecedented in size, using observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from 1885 catchments worldwide, measuring between 2 and 106 km2. In addition, we compared the performance of the regression model with the predictive ability of the spatially explicit global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB by comparing results from both models to independent measurements. We obtained a regression model explaining 89% of the variance in MAF based on catchment area and catchment averaged mean annual precipitation and air temperature, slope and elevation. The regression model performed better than PCR-GLOBWB for the prediction of MAF, as root-mean-square error (RMSE) values were lower (0.29-0.38 compared to 0.49-0.57) and the modified index of agreement (d) was higher (0.80-0.83 compared to 0.72-0.75). Our regression model can be applied globally to estimate MAF at any point of the river network, thus providing a feasible alternative to spatially explicit process-based global hydrological models.

  2. Determinants of performance of health systems concerning maternal and child health: a global approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Idrovo, Álvaro J; Arredondo López, Abel Armando

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association of social determinants on the performance of health systems around the world. A transnational ecological study was conducted with an observation level focused on the country. In order to research on the strength of the association between the annual maternal and child mortality in 154 countries and social determinants: corruption, democratization, income inequality and cultural fragmentation, we used a mixed linear regression model for repeated measures with random intercepts and a conglomerate-based geographical analysis, between 2000 and 2010. Health determinants with a significant association on child mortality(corrupt government (Q3 vs Q1 = 83,05; 95%CI: 33,10 to 133). Improving access to water and sanitation systems, decreasing corruption in the health sector must become priorities in health systems. The ethno-linguistic cultural fragmentation and the detriment of democracy turn out to be two factors related to health results.

  3. Perceived reciprocal value of health professionals' participation in global child health-related work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Sarah; Wigle, Jannah; Akseer, Nadia; Barac, Raluca; Barwick, Melanie; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2017-05-22

    Leading children's hospitals in high-income settings have become heavily engaged in international child health research and educational activities. These programs aim to provide benefit to the institutions, children and families in the overseas locations where they are implemented. Few studies have measured the actual reciprocal value of this work for the home institutions and for individual staff who participate in these overseas activities. Our objective was to estimate the perceived reciprocal value of health professionals' participation in global child health-related work. Benefits were measured in the form of skills, knowledge and attitude strengthening as estimated by an adapted Global Health Competency Model. A survey questionnaire was developed following a comprehensive review of literature and key competency models. It was distributed to all health professionals at the Hospital for Sick Children with prior international work experience (n = 478). One hundred fifty six health professionals completed the survey (34%). A score of 0 represented negligible value gained and a score of 100 indicated significant capacity improvement. The mean respondent improvement score was 57 (95% CI 53-62) suggesting improved overall competency resulting from their international experiences. Mean scores were >50% in 8 of 10 domains. Overall scores suggest that international work brought value to the hospital and over half responded that their international experience would influence their decision to stay on at the hospital. The findings offer tangible examples of how global child health work conducted outside of one's home institution impacts staff and health systems locally.

  4. Cultivating Layered Literacies: Developing the Global Child to Become Tomorrow's Global Citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulsky, Debra D.; Baker, Sheila F.; Chvala, Terry; Willis, Jana M.

    2017-01-01

    Disappearing cultural, political and physical boundaries push humanity beyond a one-community perspective. Global citizenry requires a set of literacies that affect the ability to communicate effectively, think critically and act conscientiously. This challenges educators to consider reframing instructional practices and curricular content. The…

  5. Global-scale high-resolution ( 1 km) modelling of mean, maximum and minimum annual streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark; Hendriks, Jan; Beusen, Arthur; Clavreul, Julie; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying mean, maximum and minimum annual flow (AF) of rivers at ungauged sites is essential for a number of applications, including assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. AF metrics can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict AF metrics based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, so far, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. We developed global-scale regression models that quantify mean, maximum and minimum AF as function of catchment area and catchment-averaged slope, elevation, and mean, maximum and minimum annual precipitation and air temperature. We then used these models to obtain global 30 arc-seconds (˜ 1 km) maps of mean, maximum and minimum AF for each year from 1960 through 2015, based on a newly developed hydrologically conditioned digital elevation model. We calibrated our regression models based on observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from about 4,000 catchments worldwide, ranging from 100 to 106 km2 in size, and validated them against independent measurements as well as the output of a number of process-based global hydrological models (GHMs). The variance explained by our regression models ranged up to 90% and the performance of the models compared well with the performance of existing GHMs. Yet, our AF maps provide a level of spatial detail that cannot yet be achieved by current GHMs.

  6. World in transition: basic structure of global people-environment interactions. 1993 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In spring 1992, increasingly concerned about the preservation of the natural basis for the life and development of humanity, the Federal Government of Germany established the German Advisory Council on Global Change. In its 1993 Annual Report, the Council endeavours to provide a holistic analysis of the Earth System, whereby the central focus is directed at the principal interactions between nature and society. The aim here is to demonstrate the complexity of environmental problems, on the one hand, and to create, on the other, the analytical basis for assessing the impact of current trends (increased greenhouse effect, declining biodiversity, loss of fertile soils, population growth, etc.) on the system as a whole. In-depth treatment of core topics will be related back continually to this global perspective, and vice versa, in order to contribute towards continuous improvement of our understanding of the system. The Report begins with a circumscription of its subject, i.e. a definition of what is meant by ''global environmental change''. This leads inevitably to the issue of ''sustainable development'', which will be dealt with in one of the Reports to follow. The highly condensed description of the ecosphere and the anthroposphere, and an analysis of the linkages between the two spheres in the Earth System, is followed by the examination of the main components and the relevant trends of global environmental change. (orig./UA)

  7. Public health strategies to minimize the global incidence of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an extremely complicated and a multi-faceted public health concern, significantly influenced by the victim's age, the settings in which the abuse occurs, and the relationship between the victim and perpetrator. The global estimates are just the tip of the iceberg as most of it takes place in the privacy of domestic life and often goes unreported and undetected. In fact, occurrence of child abuse can be best explained by exploring the complex interaction among multiple factors at different levels. In order to counter this menace there is a definite need to involve all the stakeholders and ensure mandatory reporting of child abuse with the help of a surveillance system. To conclude, comprehensive and integrated package of services is desired to minimize the incidence of child abuse and neglect, supplemented with community-based initiatives to facilitate early detection and prolonged follow-up of victims of the abuse. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 955-958

  8. Features of annual and semiannual variations derived from the global ionospheric maps of total electron content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we use the NASA-JPL global ionospheric maps of total electron content (TEC, firstly to construct TEC maps (TEC vs. magnetic local time MLT, and magnetic latitude MLAT in the interval from 1999 to 2005. These TEC maps were, in turn, used to estimate the annual-to-mean amplitude ratio, A1, and the semiannual-to-mean amplitude ratio, A2, as well as the latitudinal symmetrical and asymmetrical parts, A' and A" of A1. Thus, we investigated in detail the TEC climatology from maps of these indices, with an emphasis on the quantitative presentation for local time and latitudinal changes in the seasonal, annual and semiannual anomalies of the ionospheric TEC. Then we took the TEC value at 14:00 LT to examine various anomalies at a global scale following the same procedure. Results reveal similar features appearing in NmF2, such as that the seasonal anomaly is more significant in the near-pole regions than in the far-pole regions and the reverse is true for the semiannual anomaly; the winter anomaly has least a chance to be observed at the South America and South Pacific areas. The most impressive feature is that the equinoctial asymmetry is most prominent at the East Asian and South Australian areas. Through the analysis of the TIMED GUVI columnar [O/N2] data, we have investigated to what extent the seasonal, annual and semiannual variations can be explained by their counterparts in [O/N2]. Results revealed that the [O/N2] variation is a major contributor to the daytime winter anomaly of TEC, and it also contributes to some of the semiannual and annual anomalies. The contribution to the anomalies unexplained by the [O/N2] data could possibly be due to the dynamics associated with thermospheric winds and electric fields.

  9. Global resistance and resilience of primary production following extreme drought are predicted by mean annual precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Haëntjens, E. J.; De Boeck, H. J.; Lemoine, N. P.; Gough, C. M.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Mänd, P.; Jentsch, A.; Schmidt, I. K.; Bahn, M.; Lloret, F.; Kreyling, J.; Wohlgemuth, T.; Stampfli, A.; Anderegg, W.; Classen, A. T.; Smith, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme drought is increasing globally in frequency and intensity, with uncertain consequences for the resistance and resilience of key ecosystem functions, including primary production. Primary production resistance, the capacity of an ecosystem to withstand change in primary production following extreme climate, and resilience, the degree to which primary production recovers, vary among and within ecosystem types, obscuring global patterns of resistance and resilience to extreme drought. Past syntheses on resistance have focused climatic gradients or individual ecosystem types, without assessing interactions between the two. Theory and many empirical studies suggest that forest production is more resistant but less resilient than grassland production to extreme drought, though some empirical studies reveal that these trends are not universal. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of sixty-four grassland and forest sites, finding that primary production resistance to extreme drought is predicted by a common continuum of mean annual precipitation (MAP). However, grasslands and forests exhibit divergent production resilience relationships with MAP. We discuss the likely mechanisms underlying the mixed production resistance and resilience patterns of forests and grasslands, including different plant species turnover times and drought adaptive strategies. These findings demonstrate the primary production responses of forests and grasslands to extreme drought are mixed, with far-reaching implications for Earth System Models, ecosystem management, and future studies of extreme drought resistance and resilience.

  10. Deciphering emerging Zika and dengue viral epidemics: Implications for global maternal–child health burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Tambo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda and control and eradication efforts have aimed at its vectors (Aedes mosquitoes in Latin America in the 1950s, an absolute neglect of Zika programs and interventions has been documented in Aedes endemic and epidemic-prone countries. The current unprecedented Zika viral epidemics and rapid spread in the Western hemisphere pose a substantial global threat, with associated anxiety and consequences. The lack of safe and effective drugs and vaccines against Zika or dengue epidemics further buttresses the realization from the West Africa Ebola outbreak that most emerging disease-prone countries are still poorly prepared for an emergency response. This paper examines knowledge gaps in both emerging and neglected arthropod-borne flavivirus infectious diseases associated with poverty and their implications for fostering local, national and regional emerging disease preparedness, effective and robust surveillance–response systems, sustained control and eventual elimination. Strengthening the regional and Global Health Flavivirus Surveillance-Response Network (GHFV-SRN with other models of socio-economic, climatic, environmental and ecological mitigation and adaptation strategies will be necessary to improve evidence-based national and global maternal–child health agenda and action plans. Keywords: Zika virus, Epidemics, Health, Preparedness, Surveillance, Maternal–child

  11. Did Child Restraint Laws Globally Converge? Examining 40 Years of Policy Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif-Muñoz, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to determine what factors have been associated with the global adoption of mandatory child restraint laws (ChRLs) since 1975. In order to determine what factors explained the global adoption of mandatory ChRLs, Weibull models were analyzed. To carry out this analysis, 170 countries were considered and the time risk corresponded to 5,146 observations for the period 1957-2013. The dependent variable was first time to adopt a ChRL. Independent variables representing global factors were the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank's (WB) road safety global campaign; the Geneva Convention on Road Traffic; and the United Nation's (UN) 1958 Vehicle Agreement. Independent variables representing regional factors were the creation of the European Transport Safety Council and being a Commonwealth country. Independent variables representing national factors were population; gross domestic product (GDP) per capita; political violence; existence of road safety nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); and existence of road safety agencies. Urbanization served as a control variable. To examine regional dynamics, Weibull models for Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Commonwealth were also carried out. Empirical estimates from full Weibull models suggest that 2 global factors and 2 national factors are significantly associated with the adoption of this measure. The global factors explaining adoption are the WHO and WB's road safety global campaign implemented after 2004 (P policy was global. Regional analysis showed that the UN's Convention on Road Traffic was significant in Asia, the creation of the European Transport Safety Council was significant in Europe and North America, and the global campaign was in Africa. In Commonwealth and European and North American countries, the existence of road safety agencies was also positively associated with ChRL adoption. Results of the world models suggest that

  12. Global estimation of long-term persistence in annual river runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markonis, Y.; Moustakis, Y.; Nasika, C.; Sychova, P.; Dimitriadis, P.; Hanel, M.; Máca, P.; Papalexiou, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    Long-term persistence (LTP) of annual river runoff is a topic of ongoing hydrological research, due to its implications to water resources management. Here, we estimate its strength, measured by the Hurst coefficient H, in 696 annual, globally distributed, streamflow records with at least 80 years of data. We use three estimation methods (maximum likelihood estimator, Whittle estimator and least squares variance) resulting in similar mean values of H close to 0.65. Subsequently, we explore potential factors influencing H by two linear (Spearman's rank correlation, multiple linear regression) and two non-linear (self-organizing maps, random forests) techniques. Catchment area is found to be crucial for medium to larger watersheds, while climatic controls, such as aridity index, have higher impact to smaller ones. Our findings indicate that long-term persistence is weaker than found in other studies, suggesting that enhanced LTP is encountered in large-catchment rivers, were the effect of spatial aggregation is more intense. However, we also show that the estimated values of H can be reproduced by a short-term persistence stochastic model such as an auto-regressive AR(1) process. A direct consequence is that some of the most common methods for the estimation of H coefficient, might not be suitable for discriminating short- and long-term persistence even in long observational records.

  13. Annual Research Review: Threats to the validity of child psychiatry and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Pickles, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Suggestions have been made that many claims concern false-positive findings in the field of child psychology and psychiatry. The literature was searched for concepts and findings on the validity of child psychiatry and psychology. Substantial progress has been made in some, but not all, areas and considerable challenges remain in all. The two major threats to validity concern the inability to examine brain tissues in life and the evidence that there is a high overlap among disorders. We emphasize the need to follow published guidelines on preplanned analyses and we note the dangers associated with unregulated flexibility in data analysis. We note the very important clinical and developmental findings that have been ignored, perhaps partly because of an excessive focus on technologies. Nevertheless, we are positive about both the accomplishments and the ways in which challenges are being met. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2010 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    The global power deal market is finally seeing an upward trend in momentum from the lows reached in 2009, with the total deal value in the non-renewable electricity and gas sectors up 19% year on year from USD 97.6bn to USD 116bn in 2010 - a year which also saw an end to the deal stalemate in the US with a renewed deal flow that looks set to continue this year. Compared to the heady mountain of power deals transacted between 2005-2008, deal values remain low but conditions are in place for a return at least to the foothills of these peaks, according to PwC's annual Power Deals review. Globalisation of the power sector is moving forward on a number of fronts with, for example, companies looking at gaining a larger presence in growth markets, acquisitions of global network asset portfolios with strong international interest in infrastructure assets and signs of greater Chinese involvement, not just from grid companies but also independent power producers.

  15. Perpetrators or Preventers? The Double Role of Corporations in Child Trafficking in a Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rodríguez-López

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the engagement of corporations in child trafficking has become a matter of growing importance. Many corporations have adopted global subcontracting systems and complex structures that boost their productivity and profits, but might also create more opportunities for trafficking and exploitation of both adults and children. Taking this context into account, the ways in which corporations can commit child trafficking will be explored and exemplified to highlight their diversity. This paper also offers a brief overview of the response given by international and European anti-trafficking instruments concerning corporate criminal liability for child trafficking. Moreover, the mechanisms adopted by some companies to prevent trafficking and promote transparency within their supply chains will also be addressed. Overall, this paper aims to illustrate the pivotal role of corporations from two perspectives: as potential perpetrators of this serious crime, and as necessary actors to prevent it.  El compromiso empresarial sobre el tráfico infantil es un asunto de creciente importancia. Muchas corporaciones han adoptado sistemas globales de subcontrataciones y complejas estructuras que incrementan su productividad y sus beneficios, pero que también podrían crear más oportunidades para la trata y la explotación de adultos y niños. Partiendo de este contexto, se exploran y ejemplifican las diversas formas en que las corporaciones pueden cometer tráfico infantil. El artículo repasa brevemente la respuesta de los instrumentos internacionales y europeos en lo tocante a la responsabilidad penal de las corporaciones por la trata infantil, y aborda los mecanismos adoptados por algunas empresas para prevenir la trata y promover la transparencia en sus cadenas de suministro. En suma, se pretende ilustrar el rol crucial de las corporaciones desde dos puntos de vista: como potenciales perpetradores de este grave crimen y como actores necesarios

  16. Bio-fortification potential of global wild annual lentil core collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    Full Text Available Lentil, generally known as poor man's' meat due to its high protein value is also a good source of dietary fiber, antioxidants and vitamins along with fast cooking characteristics. It could be used globally as a staple food crop to eradicate hidden hunger, if this nutritionally rich crop is further enriched with essential minerals. This requires identification of essential mineral rich germplasm. So, in the present study, a core set of 96 wild accessions extracted from 405 global wild annual collections comprising different species was analyzed to determine its bio-fortification potential. Impressive variation (mg/100 g was observed for different minerals including Na (30-318, K (138.29-1578, P (37.50-593.75, Ca (4.74-188.75, Mg (15-159, Fe (2.82-14.12, Zn (1.29-12.62, Cu (0.5-7.12, Mn (1.22-9.99, Mo (1.02-11.89, Ni (0.16-3.49, Pb (0.01-0.58, Cd (0-0.03, Co (0-0.63 and As (0-0.02. Hierarchical clustering revealed high intra- and inter-specific variability. Further, correlation study showed positive significant association among minerals and between minerals including agro-morphological traits. Accessions representation from Turkey and Syria had maximum variability for different minerals. Diversity analysis exhibited wide geographical variations across gene-pool in core set. Potential use of the identified trait-specific genetic resources could be initial genetic material, for genetic base broadening and biofortification of cultivated lentil.

  17. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  18. Determinants of performance of health systems concerning maternal and child health: a global approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pinzón-Flórez

    Full Text Available To assess the association of social determinants on the performance of health systems around the world.A transnational ecological study was conducted with an observation level focused on the country. In order to research on the strength of the association between the annual maternal and child mortality in 154 countries and social determinants: corruption, democratization, income inequality and cultural fragmentation, we used a mixed linear regression model for repeated measures with random intercepts and a conglomerate-based geographical analysis, between 2000 and 2010.Health determinants with a significant association on child mortality(<1year: higher access to water (βa Quartile 4(Q4 vs Quartile 1(Q1 = -6,14; 95%CI: -11,63 to -0,73, sanitation systems, (Q4 vs Q1 = -25,58; 95%CI: -31,91 to -19,25, % measles vaccination coverage (Q4 vs Q1 = -7.35; 95%CI: -10,18 to -4,52, % of births attended by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -7,91; 95%CI: -11,36 to -4,52 and a % of the total health expenditure (Q3 vs Q1 = -2,85; 95%CI: -4,93 to -0,7. Ethnic fragmentation (Q4 vs Q1 = 9,93; 95%CI: -0.03 to 19.89 had a marginal effect. For child mortality<5 years, an association was found for these variables and democratization (not free vs free = 11,23; 95%CI: -0,82 to 23,29, out-of-pocket expenditure (Q1 vs Q4 = 17,71; 95%CI: 5,86 to 29,56. For MMR (Maternal mortality ratio, % of access to water for all the quartiles, % of access to sanitation systems, (Q3 vs Q1 = -171,15; 95%CI: -281,29 to -61, birth attention by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -231,23; 95%CI: -349,32 to -113,15, and having corrupt government (Q3 vs Q1 = 83,05; 95%CI: 33,10 to 133.Improving access to water and sanitation systems, decreasing corruption in the health sector must become priorities in health systems. The ethno-linguistic cultural fragmentation and the detriment of democracy turn out to be two factors related to health results.

  19. "Who Cares for the Children?" Lessons from a Global Perspective of Child Care Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokteff, Maegan; Piercy, Kathleen W.

    2012-01-01

    We present the argument that the meaning of child care and the policies that address it are explicitly linked with national ideologies, work force participation, economic success, and child outcomes. The relationship between family and child care policies is cyclical in nature, with a nation's ideology and vision of family often driving child care…

  20. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  1. Approximating uncertainty of annual runoff and reservoir yield using stochastic replicates of global climate model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, M. C.; Srikanthan, R.; McMahon, T. A.; Karoly, D. J.

    2015-04-01

    Two key sources of uncertainty in projections of future runoff for climate change impact assessments are uncertainty between global climate models (GCMs) and within a GCM. Within-GCM uncertainty is the variability in GCM output that occurs when running a scenario multiple times but each run has slightly different, but equally plausible, initial conditions. The limited number of runs available for each GCM and scenario combination within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) and phase 5 (CMIP5) data sets, limits the assessment of within-GCM uncertainty. In this second of two companion papers, the primary aim is to present a proof-of-concept approximation of within-GCM uncertainty for monthly precipitation and temperature projections and to assess the impact of within-GCM uncertainty on modelled runoff for climate change impact assessments. A secondary aim is to assess the impact of between-GCM uncertainty on modelled runoff. Here we approximate within-GCM uncertainty by developing non-stationary stochastic replicates of GCM monthly precipitation and temperature data. These replicates are input to an off-line hydrologic model to assess the impact of within-GCM uncertainty on projected annual runoff and reservoir yield. We adopt stochastic replicates of available GCM runs to approximate within-GCM uncertainty because large ensembles, hundreds of runs, for a given GCM and scenario are unavailable, other than the Climateprediction.net data set for the Hadley Centre GCM. To date within-GCM uncertainty has received little attention in the hydrologic climate change impact literature and this analysis provides an approximation of the uncertainty in projected runoff, and reservoir yield, due to within- and between-GCM uncertainty of precipitation and temperature projections. In the companion paper, McMahon et al. (2015) sought to reduce between-GCM uncertainty by removing poorly performing GCMs, resulting in a selection of five better performing GCMs from

  2. CHILD RIGHTS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A CALL FOR A RIGHTS-BASED GLOBAL RESEARCH AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinbabo, Mulugeta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite many achievements regarding child rights over the last 20 years, including improvements in many indicators such as the significant reduction in infant and child mortality; the more positive way of thinking about and listening to children; and increased response to those who abuse children, the rights of children are still insufficiently protected. Millions of children across the world suffer from the effects of extreme forms of poverty and their associated evils, such as malnourishment, stunted growth, nutritional-deficiency diseases and illiteracy. Recent figures from the International Labour Organisation (2010 show that, globally one in every six children work, 126 million children work in hazardous conditions, and the highest proportion of child labourers is in sub-Saharan Africa, where 26% of children (49 million are involved in work. These figures provide only a glimpse of the challenges and obstacles that a child faces around the world

  3. The global burden of child burn injuries in light of country level economic development and income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoelge, Mathilde; El-Khatib, Ziad; Laflamme, Lucie

    2017-06-01

    Child burn mortality differs widely between regions and is closely related to material deprivation, but reports on their global distribution are few. Investigating their country level distribution in light of economic level and income inequality will help assess the potential for macro-level improvements. We extracted data for child burn mortality from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 and combined data into 1-14 years to calculate rates at country, region and income levels. We also compiled potential lives saved. Then we examined the relationship between country level gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank and income inequality (Gini Index) from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database and child burn mortality using Spearman coefficient correlations. Worldwide, the burden of child burn deaths is 2.5 per 100,000 across 103 countries with the largest burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (4.5 per 100,000). Thirty-four thousand lives could be saved yearly if all countries in the world had the same rates as the best performing group of high-income countries; the majority in low-income countries. There was a negative graded association between economic level and child burns for all countries aggregated and at regional level, but no consistent pattern existed for income inequality at regional level. The burden of child burn mortality varies by region and income level with prevention efforts needed most urgently in middle-income countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. Investment in safe living conditions and access to medical care are paramount to achieving further reductions in the global burden of preventable child burn deaths.

  4. The global burden of child burn injuries in light of country level economic development and income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Sengoelge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child burn mortality differs widely between regions and is closely related to material deprivation, but reports on their global distribution are few. Investigating their country level distribution in light of economic level and income inequality will help assess the potential for macro-level improvements. We extracted data for child burn mortality from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 and combined data into 1–14 years to calculate rates at country, region and income levels. We also compiled potential lives saved. Then we examined the relationship between country level gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank and income inequality (Gini Index from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database and child burn mortality using Spearman coefficient correlations. Worldwide, the burden of child burn deaths is 2.5 per 100,000 across 103 countries with the largest burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (4.5 per 100,000. Thirty-four thousand lives could be saved yearly if all countries in the world had the same rates as the best performing group of high-income countries; the majority in low-income countries. There was a negative graded association between economic level and child burns for all countries aggregated and at regional level, but no consistent pattern existed for income inequality at regional level. The burden of child burn mortality varies by region and income level with prevention efforts needed most urgently in middle-income countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. Investment in safe living conditions and access to medical care are paramount to achieving further reductions in the global burden of preventable child burn deaths.

  5. The 2007 annual report of the Regional Infant and Child Mortality Review Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Brad; Wilson, Ann L

    2008-08-01

    The mission of the Regional Infant and Child Mortality Review Committee (RICMRC) is to review infant and child deaths so that information can be transformed into action to protect young lives. The 2007 review area includes South Dakota's Minnehaha, Turner, Lincoln, Moody, Lake, McCook, Union, Hansen, Miner and Brookings counties. Although there were no deaths in 2007 that met the criteria of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in our region, there were three infant deaths associated with unsafe sleeping environments (including adult co-sleeping) that either caused or potentially may have caused these infants' deaths. We need to continue to promote the "Back to Sleep" campaign message of not only placing infants to sleep on their backs, but also making sure infants are put down to sleep on safe, firm sleeping surfaces and that they are appropriately dressed for the ambient temperature. Parents need to be aware of the potential hazards of co-sleeping with their infants. Compared to nine such deaths in 2006, only four deaths in 2007 involved motor-vehicle crashes, none of which were alcohol related. Two drowning deaths illustrated the rapidity in which even momentary caregiver distractions can lead to deaths in children in and around water. Since 1997 the Regional Infant and Child Mortality Review Committee (RICMRC) has sought to achieve its mission to "review infant and child deaths so that information can be transformed into action to protect young lives." For 2007, the committee reviewed 25 deaths from Minnehaha, Turner, Lincoln, Moody, Lake, McCook, Union, Hansen, Miner and Brookings counties that met the following criteria: Children under the age of 18 dying subsequent to hospital discharge following delivery. Children who either died in these counties from causes sustained in them, or residents who died elsewhere from causes sustained in the 10-county region. The report that follows reviews the committee's activities for 2007. No deaths meeting the criteria

  6. Global Annual Final AC Yield Comparison between HCPV and c-Si PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Ferrer-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide comparison of the annual yield between conventional c-Si photovoltaic (PV technology and high concentrated photovoltaic (HCPV technology is presented. The idea of this paper is to find the most appropriate locations for HCPV systems in terms of the annual energy produced when comparing to fixed tilt PV systems and two-axis oriented PY systems. For estimating the annual energy generation, the method of the Performance Ratio is used. For some locations with high annual direct normal irradiation values, which are distributed around the world, HCPV systems are found to be more advantageous than fixed tilt PV systems. World maps showing this comparison are presented.

  7. Global and regional annual brain volume loss rates in physiological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippling, Sven; Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Suppa, Per; Spies, Lothar; Manogaran, Praveena; Gocke, Carola; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Opfer, Roland

    2017-03-01

    The objective is to estimate average global and regional percentage brain volume loss per year (BVL/year) of the physiologically ageing brain. Two independent, cross-sectional single scanner cohorts of healthy subjects were included. The first cohort (n = 248) was acquired at the Medical Prevention Center (MPCH) in Hamburg, Germany. The second cohort (n = 316) was taken from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS). Brain parenchyma (BP), grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), corpus callosum (CC), and thalamus volumes were calculated. A non-parametric technique was applied to fit the resulting age-volume data. For each age, the BVL/year was derived from the age-volume curves. The resulting BVL/year curves were compared between the two cohorts. For the MPCH cohort, the BVL/year curve of the BP was an increasing function starting from 0.20% at the age of 35 years increasing to 0.52% at 70 years (corresponding values for GM ranged from 0.32 to 0.55%, WM from 0.02 to 0.47%, CC from 0.07 to 0.48%, and thalamus from 0.25 to 0.54%). Mean absolute difference between BVL/year trajectories across the age range of 35-70 years was 0.02% for BP, 0.04% for GM, 0.04% for WM, 0.11% for CC, and 0.02% for the thalamus. Physiological BVL/year rates were remarkably consistent between the two cohorts and independent from the scanner applied. Average BVL/year was clearly age and compartment dependent. These results need to be taken into account when defining cut-off values for pathological annual brain volume loss in disease models, such as multiple sclerosis.

  8. 23rd WiN Global Annual Conference: Women in Nuclear meet Atoms for Peace. Programme and Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Women in Nuclear (WiN) Global is a worldwide non-profit-making association made up mostly of female professionals working in the various fields of nuclear energy and radiation applications. WiN Global aims to promote understanding and public awareness of the benefits of nuclear and radiation applications through a series of active networks, both national and international. It has approximately 25 000 members from more than 100 countries, organized in national, regional and international chapters. Every year, a chapter of WiN Global organizes the annual conference, which is a unique occasion for the WiN Global community to meet. The 23. WiN Global Annual Conference will highlight the vital role women play in all applications of nuclear science and technology. At the same time, it will provide opportunities for networking, exchanging ideas, technical visits and obtaining the most up-to-date information on the nuclear programmes and facilities around the world as well as on employment opportunities at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  9. Updates in the genetic evaluation of the child with global developmental delay or intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, Leigh Anne; Milunsky, Jeff M

    2012-12-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) and intellectual disability (ID) occur in up to 3% of the general population and are even more commonly encountered in the setting of the pediatric neurology clinic. New advances in technology and in the understanding of genetic disorders have led to changes in the diagnostic approach to a child with unexplained GDD or ID. Chromosomal microarray has become a first-line test for evaluation of patients in this population and has both significantly increased diagnostic yield and introduced new challenges in the interpretation of copy number variants of uncertain significance. The G-banded karyotype is now frequently utilized as an adjunct to the microarray rather than as a first-line test in individuals with GDD or ID. Fragile X DNA testing continues to be recommended in the initial evaluation of the child with GDD or ID. The presence or absence of certain cardinal features (such as microcephaly or macrocephaly, seizures, autism, abnormal neurologic examination, and facial dysmorphism) can be utilized to direct single-gene molecular testing. The availability of next-generation and massively parallel sequencing technologies has enabled the use of genetic testing panels, in which dozens of genes associated with GDD or ID may be rapidly analyzed. Most recently, the clinical availability of whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing has opened new possibilities for the evaluation of individuals with GDD or ID who have previously eluded a genetic diagnosis. Consultation with a medical geneticist is recommended when progressing beyond first-tier analyses to most efficiently prioritize testing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unique contributions of dynamic versus global measures of parent-child interaction quality in predicting school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardack, Sarah; Herbers, Janette E; Obradović, Jelena

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the unique contribution of microsocial and global measures of parent-child positive coregulation (PCR) in predicting children's behavioral and social adjustment in school. Using a community sample of 102 children, ages 4-6, and their parents, we conducted nested path analytic models to identify the unique effects of 2 measures of PCR on school outcomes. Microsocial PCR independently predicted fewer externalizing and inattention/impulsive behaviors in school. Global PCR did not uniquely relate to children's behavioral and social adjustment outcomes. Household socioeconomic status was related to both microsocial and global measures of PCR, but not directly associated with school outcomes. Findings illustrate the importance of using dynamic measures of PCR based on microsocial coding to further understand how the quality of parent-child interaction is related to children's self-regulatory and social development during school transition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Setting Priorities in Global Child Health Research Investments: Guidelines for Implementation of the CHNRI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Gibson, Jennifer L.; Ameratunga, Shanthi; El Arifeen, Shams; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Black, Maureen; Black, Robert E.; Brown, Kenneth H.; Campbell, Harry; Carneiro, Ilona; Chan, Kit Yee; Chandramohan, Daniel; Chopra, Mickey; Cousens, Simon; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Gardner, Julie Meeks; Hess, Sonja Y.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Kapiriri, Lydia; Kosek, Margaret; Lanata, Claudio F.; Lansang, Mary Ann; Lawn, Joy; Tomlinson, Mark; Tsai, Alexander C.; Webster, Jayne

    2008-01-01

    This article provides detailed guidelines for the implementation of systematic method for setting priorities in health research investments that was recently developed by Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI). The target audience for the proposed method are international agencies, large research funding donors, and national governments and policy-makers. The process has the following steps: (i) selecting the managers of the process; (ii) specifying the context and risk management preferences; (iii) discussing criteria for setting health research priorities; (iv) choosing a limited set of the most useful and important criteria; (v) developing means to assess the likelihood that proposed health research options will satisfy the selected criteria; (vi) systematic listing of a large number of proposed health research options; (vii) pre-scoring check of all competing health research options; (viii) scoring of health research options using the chosen set of criteria; (ix) calculating intermediate scores for each health research option; (x) obtaining further input from the stakeholders; (xi) adjusting intermediate scores taking into account the values of stakeholders; (xii) calculating overall priority scores and assigning ranks; (xiii) performing an analysis of agreement between the scorers; (xiv) linking computed research priority scores with investment decisions; (xv) feedback and revision. The CHNRI method is a flexible process that enables prioritizing health research investments at any level: institutional, regional, national, international, or global. PMID:19090596

  12. The Effect of Hurricanes on Annual Precipitation in Maryland and the Connection to Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jackie; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Precipitation is a vital aspect of our lives droughts, floods and other related disasters that involve precipitation can cause costly damage in the economic system and general society. Purpose of this project is to determine what, if any effect do hurricanes have on annual precipitation in Maryland Research will be conducted on Marylands terrain, climatology, annual precipitation, and precipitation contributed from hurricanes Possible connections to climate change

  13. FLO1K, global maps of mean, maximum and minimum annual streamflow at 1 km resolution from 1960 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Beck, Hylke E.; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke M.

    2018-03-01

    Streamflow data is highly relevant for a variety of socio-economic as well as ecological analyses or applications, but a high-resolution global streamflow dataset is yet lacking. We created FLO1K, a consistent streamflow dataset at a resolution of 30 arc seconds (~1 km) and global coverage. FLO1K comprises mean, maximum and minimum annual flow for each year in the period 1960-2015, provided as spatially continuous gridded layers. We mapped streamflow by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs) regression. An ensemble of ANNs were fitted on monthly streamflow observations from 6600 monitoring stations worldwide, i.e., minimum and maximum annual flows represent the lowest and highest mean monthly flows for a given year. As covariates we used the upstream-catchment physiography (area, surface slope, elevation) and year-specific climatic variables (precipitation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, aridity index and seasonality indices). Confronting the maps with independent data indicated good agreement (R2 values up to 91%). FLO1K delivers essential data for freshwater ecology and water resources analyses at a global scale and yet high spatial resolution.

  14. Trends and inter-annual variability of methane emissions derived from 1979-1993 global CTM simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dentener

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend and interannual variability of methane sources are derived from multi-annual simulations of tropospheric photochemistry using a 3-D global chemistry-transport model. Our semi-inverse analysis uses the fifteen years (1979--1993 re-analysis of ECMWF meteorological data and annually varying emissions including photo-chemistry, in conjunction with observed CH4 concentration distributions and trends derived from the NOAA-CMDL surface stations. Dividing the world in four zonal regions (45--90 N, 0--45 N, 0--45 S, 45--90 S we find good agreement in each region between (top-down calculated emission trends from model simulations and (bottom-up estimated anthropogenic emission trends based on the EDGAR global anthropogenic emission database, which amounts for the period 1979--1993 2.7 Tg CH4 yr-1. Also the top-down determined total global methane emission compares well with the total of the bottom-up estimates. We use the difference between the bottom-up and top-down determined emission trends to calculate residual emissions. These residual emissions represent the inter-annual variability of the methane emissions. Simulations have been performed in which the year-to-year meteorology, the emissions of ozone precursor gases, and the stratospheric ozone column distribution are either varied, or kept constant. In studies of methane trends it is most important to include the trends and variability of the oxidant fields. The analyses reveals that the variability of the emissions is of the order of 8Tg CH4 yr-1, and likely related to wetland emissions and/or biomass burning.

  15. Global Complexity: Information, Chaos, and Control at ASIS 1996 Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M. E. L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses proceedings of the 1996 ASIS (American Society for Information Science) annual meeting in Baltimore (Maryland), including chaos theory; electronic universities; distance education; intellectual property, including information privacy on the Internet; the need for leadership in libraries and information centers; information warfare and…

  16. 'Mixed blessings': parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-08-01

    Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants. Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates. Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different

  17. Projecting pest population dynamics under global warming: the combined effect of inter- and intra-annual variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidon, Royi; Tsueda, Hirotsugu; Morin, Efrat; Morin, Shai

    2016-06-01

    The typical short generation length of insects makes their population dynamics highly sensitive not only to mean annual temperatures but also to their intra-annual variations. To consider the combined effect of both thermal factors under global warming, we propose a modeling framework that links general circulation models (GCMs) with a stochastic weather generator and population dynamics models to predict species population responses to inter- and intra-annual temperature changes. This framework was utilized to explore future changes in populations of Bemisia tabaci, an invasive insect pest-species that affects multiple agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region. We considered three locations representing different pest status and climatic conditions: Montpellier (France), Seville (Spain), and Beit-Jamal (Israel). We produced ensembles of local daily temperature realizations representing current and future (mid-21st century) climatic conditions under two emission scenarios for the three locations. Our simulations predicted a significant increase in the average number of annual generations and in population size, and a significant lengthening of the growing season in all three locations. A negative effect was found only in Seville for the summer season, where future temperatures lead to a reduction in population size. High variability in population size was observed between years with similar annual mean temperatures, suggesting a strong effect of intra-annual temperature variation. Critical periods were from late spring to late summer in Montpellier and from late winter to early summer in Seville and Beit-Jamal. Although our analysis suggested that earlier seasonal activity does not necessarily lead to increased populations load unless an additional generation is produced, it is highly likely that the insect will become a significant pest of open-fields at Mediterranean latitudes above 40° during the next 50 years. Our simulations also implied that current

  18. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Plant Uptake During Periods with no Photosynthesis Accounts for About Half of Global Annual Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, W. J.; Zhu, Q.; Tang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Uncertainties in current Earth System Model (ESM) predictions of terrestrial carbon-climate feedbacks over the 21st century are as large as, or larger than, any other reported natural system uncertainties. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) decomposition and photosynthesis, the dominant fluxes in this regard, are tightly linked through nutrient availability, and the recent Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) used for climate change assessment had no credible representations of these constraints. In response, many ESM land models (ESMLMs) have developed dynamic and coupled soil and plant nutrient cycles. Here we quantify terrestrial carbon cycle impacts from well-known observed plant nutrient uptake mechanisms ignored in most current ESMLMs. In particular, we estimate the global role of plant root nutrient competition with microbes and abiotic process at night and during the non-growing season using the ACME land model (ALMv1-ECA-CNP) that explicitly represents these dynamics. We first demonstrate that short-term nutrient uptake dynamics and competition between plants and microbes are accurately predicted by the model compared to 15N and 33P isotopic tracer measurements from more than 20 sites. We then show that global nighttime and non-growing season nitrogen and phosphorus uptake accounts for 46 and 45%, respectively, of annual uptake, with large latitudinal variation. Model experiments show that ignoring these plant uptake periods leads to large positive biases in annual N leaching (globally 58%) and N2O emissions (globally 68%). Biases these large will affect modeled carbon cycle dynamics over time, and lead to predictions of ecosystems that have overly open nutrient cycles and therefore lower capacity to sequester carbon.

  19. A web of gaps: a discussion of research strands concerning Global South families with a disabled child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Xanthe; Watermeyer, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), limited access to a range of supports means that families often carry primary responsibility for the care of a disabled child. The impact of this responsibility is poorly understood. To present a selective review, critique, and comparison of the prominent areas of research aimed at understanding families with disabled children in the Global South. We compare and critically discuss prominent bodies of literature concerning the family-disability-poverty nexus in LMICs. Three prominent bodies of literature concerned with families with a disabled child in LMICs are reviewed. These were selected based on their relative prevalence in a large review of the literature, and comprise (1) work concerning quality of life (FQOL) of families with a disabled child; (2) interventions aimed at supporting families with a disabled child in LMICs; and (3) the ways in which culture mediates the families' experience of disability. FQOL research points to poverty as a primary source of family distress, and directs our focus towards families' own expertise in coping with their circumstances. Intervention literature from LMICs highlights the family as the unit of analysis and praxis concerning disabled children, and reminds us of the contextual factors which must be considered when working with their families. Culturally oriented research on poverty, disability, and the family nuances our understanding of the locally-determined priorities of families with a disabled child in LMICs. All three research strands carry benefits, limitations and gaps. The complexity of understanding families with a disabled child in LMICs comes to the fore, directing us away from narrow application of any single theoretical or research framework. Future researchers may draw on insights provided here in creating a more integrated approach.

  20. Effect of climate warming on the annual terrestrial net ecosystem CO2 exchange globally in the boreal and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Renduo; Cescatti, Alessandro; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Buchmann, Nina; Zhu, Juan; Chen, Guanhong; Moyano, Fernando; Pumpanen, Jukka; Hirano, Takashi; Takagi, Kentaro; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-06-08

    The net ecosystem CO 2 exchange is the result of the imbalance between the assimilation process (gross primary production, GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE). The aim of this study was to investigate temperature sensitivities of these processes and the effect of climate warming on the annual terrestrial net ecosystem CO 2 exchange globally in the boreal and temperate regions. A database of 403 site-years of ecosystem flux data at 101 sites in the world was collected and analyzed. Temperature sensitivities of rates of RE and GPP were quantified with Q 10 , defined as the increase of RE (or GPP) rates with a temperature rise of 10 °C. Results showed that on the annual time scale, the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of GPP (Q 10sG ) was higher than or equivalent to the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of RE (Q 10sR ). Q 10sG was negatively correlated to the mean annual temperature (MAT), whereas Q 10sR was independent of MAT. The analysis of the current temperature sensitivities and net ecosystem production suggested that temperature rise might enhance the CO 2 sink of terrestrial ecosystems both in the boreal and temperate regions. In addition, ecosystems in these regions with different plant functional types should sequester more CO 2 with climate warming.

  1. A children's nurse's role in the global development of a child with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Jodie; Corkin, Doris

    2013-11-01

    The nursing care of a six year old with type 1 diabetes reveals the importance of accurate control of the condition for normal physical, emotional and cognitive development. Clearly the children's nurse can educate and support the child, parents and extended family towards achieving independence and self-care. Theoretical knowledge of normal child maturation can guide nurses to constantly adapt their modes of communication and nursing skills, so as to promote every aspect and stage of the child's growth. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes is increasing, and nurses should use their close professional involvement with patients to assist research at every opportunity.

  2. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we...... on or in the peak of the breeding season with the largest effect sizes observed in cooler parts of species' climatic ranges. Our results document the potential of combining time scales and integrating both species attributes and environmental variables for global change attribution. We suggest such an approach......Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader...

  3. Developmental assistance for child and adolescent mental health in low– and middle–income countries (2007–2014): Annual trends and allocation by sector, project type, donors and recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jasmine; Pigott, Hugo; Tomlinson, Mark; Jordans, Mark JD

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, mental disorders are the leading cause of disability among children and adolescents. To date, there has been no estimate of developmental assistance supporting mental health projects that target children and adolescents (DAMH–CA). This study aimed to identify, describe and analyse DAMH–CA with respect to annual trends (2007–2014), sector, project type, recipient regions, and top donor and recipient countries, and estimate annual DAMH–CA per child/adolescent by region. Methods Developmental assistance for all projects focused on children and adolescent mental health between 2007 and 2014 was identified on the Organisation for Economic Co–operation and Development’s (OECD) Creditor Reporting System, and analysed by target population, sector, project type, donors, and recipients. The study did not include governmental or private organisation funds, nor funding for projects that targeted the community or those that included mental health but not as a primary objective. Results Between 2007 and 2014, 704 projects were identified, constituting US$ 88.35 million in DAMH–CA, with an average of 16.9% of annual development assistance for mental health. Three quarters of DAMH–CA was used to fund projects in the humanitarian sector, while less than 10% was directed at mental health projects within the education, HIV/AIDS, rights, and neurology sectors. DAMH–CA was predominantly invested in psychosocial support projects (US$ 63.24 million, 72%), while little in absolute and relative terms supported capacity building, prevention, promotion or research, with the latter receiving just US$ 1.2 million over the eight years (1.4% of total DAMH–CA). For 2014, DAMH–CA per child/adolescent was US$ 0.02 in Europe, less than US$ 0.01 in Asia, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean, and US$ 0 in Oceania. Conclusions To mitigate the growing burden of mental and neurological disorders, increased financial aid must be invested in child and

  4. Developmental assistance for child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries (2007-2014): Annual trends and allocation by sector, project type, donors and recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jasmine; Pigott, Hugo; Tomlinson, Mark; Jordans, Mark Jd

    2017-12-01

    Globally, mental disorders are the leading cause of disability among children and adolescents. To date, there has been no estimate of developmental assistance supporting mental health projects that target children and adolescents (DAMH-CA). This study aimed to identify, describe and analyse DAMH-CA with respect to annual trends (2007-2014), sector, project type, recipient regions, and top donor and recipient countries, and estimate annual DAMH-CA per child/adolescent by region. Developmental assistance for all projects focused on children and adolescent mental health between 2007 and 2014 was identified on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Creditor Reporting System, and analysed by target population, sector, project type, donors, and recipients. The study did not include governmental or private organisation funds, nor funding for projects that targeted the community or those that included mental health but not as a primary objective. Between 2007 and 2014, 704 projects were identified, constituting US$ 88.35 million in DAMH-CA, with an average of 16.9% of annual development assistance for mental health. Three quarters of DAMH-CA was used to fund projects in the humanitarian sector, while less than 10% was directed at mental health projects within the education, HIV/AIDS, rights, and neurology sectors. DAMH-CA was predominantly invested in psychosocial support projects (US$ 63.24 million, 72%), while little in absolute and relative terms supported capacity building, prevention, promotion or research, with the latter receiving just US$ 1.2 million over the eight years (1.4% of total DAMH-CA). For 2014, DAMH-CA per child/adolescent was US$ 0.02 in Europe, less than US$ 0.01 in Asia, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean, and US$ 0 in Oceania. To mitigate the growing burden of mental and neurological disorders, increased financial aid must be invested in child and adolescent mental health, especially with respect to capacity

  5. Comparisons of a Quantum Annealing and Classical Computer Neural Net Approach for Inferring Global Annual CO2 Fluxes over Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Radov, A.; Singh, D.

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of mid to high latitude atmospheric CO2 show growing amplitudes in seasonal variations over the past several decades. Recent high-resolution satellite measurements of CO2 concentration are now available for three years from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program of DOE has been making long-term CO2-flux measurements (in addition to CO2 concentration and an array of other meteorological quantities) at several towers and mobile sites located around the globe at half-hour frequencies. Recent papers have shown CO2 fluxes inferred by assimilating CO2 observations into ecosystem models are largely inconsistent with station observations. An investigation of how the biosphere has reacted to changes in atmospheric CO2 is essential to our understanding of potential climate-vegetation feedbacks. Thus, new approaches for calculating CO2-flux for assimilation into land surface models are necessary for improving the prediction of annual carbon uptake. In this study, we calculate and compare the predicted CO2 fluxes results employing a Feed Forward Backward Propagation Neural Network model on two architectures, (i) an IBM Minsky Computer node and (ii) a hybrid version of the ARC D-Wave quantum annealing computer. We compare the neural net results of predictions of CO2 flux from ARM station data for three different DOE ecosystem sites; an arid plains near Oklahoma City, a northern arctic site at Barrows AL, and a tropical rainforest site in the Amazon. Training times and predictive results for the calculating annual CO2 flux for the two architectures for each of the three sites are presented. Comparative results of predictions as measured by RMSE and MAE are discussed. Plots and correlations of observed vs predicted CO2 flux are also presented for all three sites. We show the estimated training times for quantum and classical calculations when extended to calculating global annual Carbon Uptake over land. We also

  6. World Health Organization perspectives on the contribution of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization on reducing child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustreo, F; Okwo-Bele, J-M; Kamara, L

    2015-02-01

    Child mortality has decreased substantially globally-from 12.6 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013-due, in large part to of governments' and organisations' work, to prevent pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria, the main causes of death in the postneonatal period. In 2012, the World Health Assembly adopted the Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 as the current framework aimed at preventing millions of deaths through more equitable access to existing vaccines for people in all communities. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) plays a critical role in this effort by financing and facilitating delivery platforms for vaccines, with focused support for the achievements of improved vaccination coverage and acceleration of the uptake of WHO-recommended lifesaving new vaccines in 73 low-income countries. The GAVI Alliance has contributed substantially towards the progress of Millennium Development Goal 4 and to improving women's lives. By 2013, the GAVI Alliance had immunised 440 million additional children and averted six million future deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases in the world's poorest countries. The GAVI Alliance is on track to reducing child mortality to 68 per 1000 live births by 2015 in supported countries. This paper discusses the GAVI Alliance achievements related to Millennium Development Goal 4 and its broader contribution to improving women's lives and health systems, as well as challenges and obstacles it has faced. Additionally, it looks at challenges for the future and how it will continue its work related to reducing child mortality and improving women's health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Regional scaling of annual mean precipitation and water availability with global temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2018-03-01

    Changes in regional water availability belong to the most crucial potential impacts of anthropogenic climate change, but are highly uncertain. It is thus of key importance for stakeholders to assess the possible implications of different global temperature thresholds on these quantities. Using a subset of climate model simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), we derive here the sensitivity of regional changes in precipitation and in precipitation minus evapotranspiration to global temperature changes. The simulations span the full range of available emission scenarios, and the sensitivities are derived using a modified pattern scaling approach. The applied approach assumes linear relationships on global temperature changes while thoroughly addressing associated uncertainties via resampling methods. This allows us to assess the full distribution of the simulations in a probabilistic sense. Northern high-latitude regions display robust responses towards wetting, while subtropical regions display a tendency towards drying but with a large range of responses. Even though both internal variability and the scenario choice play an important role in the overall spread of the simulations, the uncertainty stemming from the climate model choice usually accounts for about half of the total uncertainty in most regions. We additionally assess the implications of limiting global mean temperature warming to values below (i) 2 K or (ii) 1.5 K (as stated within the 2015 Paris Agreement). We show that opting for the 1.5 K target might just slightly influence the mean response, but could substantially reduce the risk of experiencing extreme changes in regional water availability.

  8. Renewables 2015 global status report - Annual Reporting on Renewables: Ten years of excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Rickerson, Wilson; Lins, Christine; Williamson, Laura E.; Adib, Rana; Murdock, Hannah E.; Musolino, Evan; Hullin, Martin; Reith, Ayla; Valero, Alana; Mastny, Lisa; Petrichenko, Ksenia; Seyboth, Kristin; Skeen, Jonathan; Sovacool, Benjamin; Wouters, Frank; Martinot, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against the backdrop of increasing global energy consumption, particularly in developing countries, and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. Despite rising energy use, for the first time in four decades, global carbon emissions associated with energy consumption remained stable in 2014 while the global economy grew; this stabilisation has been attributed to increased penetration of renewable energy and to improvements in energy efficiency. Globally, there is growing awareness that increased deployment of renewable energy (and energy efficiency) is critical for addressing climate change, creating new economic opportunities, and providing energy access to the billions of people still living without modern energy services. Although discussion is limited to date, renewables also are an important element of climate change adaptation, improving the resilience of existing energy systems and ensuring delivery of energy services under changing climatic conditions. Renewable energy provided an estimated 19.1% of global final energy consumption in 2013, and growth in capacity and generation continued to expand in 2014. Heating capacity grew at a steady pace, and the production of bio-fuels for transport increased for the second consecutive year, following a slowdown in 2011-2012. The most rapid growth, and the largest increase in capacity, occurred in the power sector, led by wind, solar PV, and hydropower. Growth has been driven by several factors, including renewable energy support policies and the increasing cost-competitiveness of energy from renewable sources. In many countries, renewables are broadly competitive with conventional energy sources. At the same time, growth continues to be tempered by subsidies to fossil fuels and nuclear power, particularly in developing countries. Although Europe remained an important market and a centre for innovation, activity continued to shift towards other

  9. Credit where credit is due: Pakistan's role in reducing the global burden of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Qazi, Shamim; Shah, Iqbal

    2015-11-25

    Factors contributing to Pakistan's poor progress in reducing reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) include its low level of female literacy, gender inequity, political challenges, and extremism along with its associated relentless violence; further, less than 1% of Pakistan's GDP is allocated to the health sector. However, despite these disadvantages, Pakistani researchers have been able to achieve positive contributions towards RMNCH-related global knowledge and evidence base, in some cases leading to the formulation of WHO guidelines, for which they should feel proud. Nevertheless, in order to improve the health of its own women and children, greater investments in human and health resources are required to facilitate the generation and use of policy-relevant knowledge. To accomplish this, fair incentives for research production need to be introduced, policy and decision-makers' capacity to demand and use evidence needs to be increased, and strong support from development partners and the global health community must be secured.

  10. On the long-range dependence properties of annual precipitation using a global network of instrumental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; O'Connell, Patrick Enda; Tzouka, Katerina; Iliopoulou, Theano

    2018-01-01

    The long-range dependence (LRD) is considered an inherent property of geophysical processes, whose presence increases uncertainty. Here we examine the spatial behaviour of LRD in precipitation by regressing the Hurst parameter estimate of mean annual precipitation instrumental data which span from 1916-2015 and cover a big area of the earth's surface on location characteristics of the instrumental data stations. Furthermore, we apply the Mann-Kendall test under the LRD assumption (MKt-LRD) to reassess the significance of observed trends. To summarize the results, the LRD is spatially clustered, it seems to depend mostly on the location of the stations, while the predictive value of the regression model is good. Thus when investigating for LRD properties we recommend that the local characteristics should be considered. The application of the MKt-LRD suggests that no significant monotonic trend appears in global precipitation, excluding the climate type D (snow) regions in which positive significant trends appear.

  11. "Mixed Blessings": Parental Religiousness, Parenting, and Child Adjustment in Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. Methods: We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and…

  12. Local Needs and Global Indicators : A Contextual Approach to Multidimensional Child Deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefzadeh Faal Daghati, Sepideh; Gossmann, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the socio-political construction of childhood in Iran after the 1979 revolution and its influence on multidimensional child deprivation. It presents evidence that suggests that the revolution, and the ideological and political forces that emerged in its aftermath, established

  13. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  14. State of Early Child Development Research, Practice, and Policy for Most Vulnerable Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary Eming

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to enhance development of children ages 0-6 have profound benefits for children, families, and societies. The benefits are well documented, recognized internationally, and supportive of policies and programs targeting early child development (ECD). Intervening in the early years is a critical first step toward alleviating poverty,…

  15. The Potential Impact of Animal Science Research on Global Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health: A Landscape Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Jack; Jacobi, Sheila K; Boyd, R Dean; Bauman, Dale E; Anthony, Russell V; Bazer, Fuller W; Lock, Adam L; Serazin, Andrew C

    2017-03-01

    High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory. With the desire to catalyze disruptive advancements in global maternal and child health, this landscape review was commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to examine the nutritional and managerial practices used within the food-animal agricultural system that may have relevance to the challenges faced by global human health. The landscape was categorized into a framework spanning 1 ) preconception, 2 ) gestation and pregnancy, 3 ) lactation and suckling, and 4 ) postweaning and toddler phases. Twelve key findings are outlined, wherein research within the discipline of animal sciences stands to inform the global health community and in some cases identifies gaps in knowledge in which further research is merited. Notable among the findings were 1 ) the quantitative importance of essential fatty acid and amino acid nutrition in reproductive health, 2 ) the suggested application of the ideal protein concept for improving the amino acid nutrition of mothers and children, 3 ) the prospect of using dietary phytase to improve the bioavailability of trace minerals in plant and vegetable-based diets, and 4 ) nutritional interventions to mitigate environmental enteropathy. The desired outcome of this review was to identify potential interventions that may be worthy of consideration. Better appreciation of the close linkage between human health, medicine, and agriculture will identify opportunities that will enable faster and more efficient innovations

  16. The Potential Impact of Animal Science Research on Global Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health: A Landscape Review12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Sheila K; Boyd, R Dean; Bauman, Dale E; Anthony, Russell V; Bazer, Fuller W; Lock, Adam L; Serazin, Andrew C

    2017-01-01

    High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory. With the desire to catalyze disruptive advancements in global maternal and child health, this landscape review was commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to examine the nutritional and managerial practices used within the food-animal agricultural system that may have relevance to the challenges faced by global human health. The landscape was categorized into a framework spanning 1) preconception, 2) gestation and pregnancy, 3) lactation and suckling, and 4) postweaning and toddler phases. Twelve key findings are outlined, wherein research within the discipline of animal sciences stands to inform the global health community and in some cases identifies gaps in knowledge in which further research is merited. Notable among the findings were 1) the quantitative importance of essential fatty acid and amino acid nutrition in reproductive health, 2) the suggested application of the ideal protein concept for improving the amino acid nutrition of mothers and children, 3) the prospect of using dietary phytase to improve the bioavailability of trace minerals in plant and vegetable-based diets, and 4) nutritional interventions to mitigate environmental enteropathy. The desired outcome of this review was to identify potential interventions that may be worthy of consideration. Better appreciation of the close linkage between human health, medicine, and agriculture will identify opportunities that will enable faster and more efficient innovations in global

  17. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} transient. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    This research focuses on improving the understanding of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide transient using observations and models of the past and present. In addition, an attempt is made to develop an ability to predict the future of the carbon cycle in response to continued anthropogenic perturbations and climate change. Three aspects of the anthropogenic carbon budget were investigated: (1) the globally integrated budget at the present time; (2) the time history of the carbon budget; and (3) the spatial distribution of carbon fluxes. One of the major activities of this study was the participation in the model comparison study of Enting, et al. [1994] carried out in preparation for the IPCC 1994 report.

  18. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  19. Globalization, localization and food culture: perceived roles of social and cultural capitals in healthy child feeding practices in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Keiko; Ominami, Chihiro; Song, Chunyan; Murayama, Nobuko; Wolff, Cindy

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined parental perceptions of sociocultural factors associated with healthy child feeding practices among parents of preschool-age children in rural Japan. Fifteen Japanese mothers of preschool-age children participated in this qualitative study. These participants were aged 22-39 years and resided in a rural town in western Japan. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews to assess parental perceptions of healthy child feeding practices and their relationships with globalization and localization. These interviews were transcribed, translated into English and coded, based on the principles of grounded theory. A codebook was developed and pre-identified, and the newly-identified themes from this codebook were examined and compared. Overall, local and seasonal foods, along with traditional Japanese foods and simple foods (soshoku), were considered to be beneficial for children. Participants also noted that children were expected to be mindful and exhibit good table manners that reflect cultural values related to meal-time socializing or family bonding, and food appreciation. On the other hand, the majority of the participants stated that foods containing food additives and imported foods were unsuitable for children. Participants noted that strong social capital, especially social support from their mothers or mothers-in-law, as well as social networks for obtaining fresh local foods, contributed to healthy child feeding practices. Cultural capital (including the preservation of traditional Japanese dietary habits, eating rules and inter-generational commensality), was also identified as being key to healthy feeding practices. Identifying and promoting the social and cultural capital that positively support healthy child feeding practices may be an important component of nutrition education programs.

  20. Teen, Parent, and Clinician Expectations About Obesity and Related Conditions During the Annual Well-Child Visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Bossick

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to examine family (patient, parent/guardian and clinician preferences for identification and management of obesity and obesity-related conditions during the well-child visit. Methods: Four focus groups with teen patients (n = 16, four focus groups with parents (n = 15 and one focus group with providers (n = 12 were conducted using a structured moderator guide tailored to each population. Eligible patients had a well-child visit during the past 12 months and a diagnosis of overweight, obesity, hyperlipidemia or elevated blood pressure. Parents who attended their child’s well-child visit and whose child met the diagnostic criteria were eligible. Teen focus groups were divided by gender (male/female and age (14–15/16–17 years. Focus group transcripts were coded for concepts and themes using qualitative data and thematic analysis. Analysis was performed across groups to determine common themes and domains of intersect. Results: Teens and parents expect weight to be discussed at well-child visits and prefer discussions to come from a trusted clinician who uses serious, consistent language. Teens did not recognize the health implications from excess weight, and both parents and teens express the need for more information on strategies to change behavior. Providers recognize several challenges and barriers to discussing weight management in the well-child visit. Conclusions: A clinician-teen-family relationship built on trust, longevity, teamwork, support and encouragement can create a positive atmosphere and may improve understanding for weight-related messages for teens and families during a well-child visit.

  1. Parenting and globalization in western countries: explaining differences in parent-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoo, Mariëlle Jl; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S

    2017-06-01

    We review research on intra-cultural differences in parenting, and the sources of those differences. Ethnic-minority parents differ from majority parents in parenting values, childrearing goals and resources-differences that affect parenting practices and children's development. Within-country comparisons indicate less sensitivity, more authoritarian discipline, less child-focused communications, and less engagement in learning activities in ethnic-minority compared to ethnic-majority parents, which help account for disparities in children. Despite group differences in parenting, associations between parenting and child development generalize across cultures, with rare exceptions. However, a focus on intra-cultural differences is based on comparisons of group 'averages', which masks the enormous variation within ethnic-minority samples. Within-group variation can be partly explained by stressors associated with low socioeconomic status (SES), acculturation and discrimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2008 Annual Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    2008 was the year in which power deal values came down from their record-breaking highs of the two preceding years as the financial crisis and a number of market uncertainties had a negative impact on deal activity. Nonetheless, total deal numbers leapt by 24% as companies concentrated on smaller deals and took advantage of new opportunities that arose in the changed market conditions. Europe was least affected by the downturn in deal values and accounted for over half of all bidder and target power deal value. In contrast, power deals in Australia, which had previously been a main motor of growing M and A activity in the Asia Pacific region, virtually stalled as uncertainty over new carbon emission policies combined with the financial crisis to deter deal flow. In North America, like Europe, big deals were fewer but underlying deal activity was comparable with previous years. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector, drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key electricity and gas utilities markets. Looking to the future, the easing of the financial crisis will be key to deal flow but the near-term outlook looks less robust than the recent past, especially as debt markets will be further constrained by calls from the public financing required to support government bail-out programmes. Set against this, the underlying imperatives of consolidation, supply security and capitalisation remain in place and will create increasing pent-up deal demand. A lower energy price environment will change the metrics for more expensive cleaner power assets, placing an even higher importance on the outcome of global climate talks and the run-up to the December 2009 UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen

  3. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2008 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    2008 was the year in which power deal values came down from their record-breaking highs of the two preceding years as the financial crisis and a number of market uncertainties had a negative impact on deal activity. Nonetheless, total deal numbers leapt by 24% as companies concentrated on smaller deals and took advantage of new opportunities that arose in the changed market conditions. Europe was least affected by the downturn in deal values and accounted for over half of all bidder and target power deal value. In contrast, power deals in Australia, which had previously been a main motor of growing M and A activity in the Asia Pacific region, virtually stalled as uncertainty over new carbon emission policies combined with the financial crisis to deter deal flow. In North America, like Europe, big deals were fewer but underlying deal activity was comparable with previous years. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector, drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key electricity and gas utilities markets. Looking to the future, the easing of the financial crisis will be key to deal flow but the near-term outlook looks less robust than the recent past, especially as debt markets will be further constrained by calls from the public financing required to support government bail-out programmes. Set against this, the underlying imperatives of consolidation, supply security and capitalisation remain in place and will create increasing pent-up deal demand. A lower energy price environment will change the metrics for more expensive cleaner power assets, placing an even higher importance on the outcome of global climate talks and the run-up to the December 2009 UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen.

  4. 2013 Annual Global Tax Competitiveness Ranking: Corporate Tax Policy at a Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Canada is losing its appeal as a destination for business investment. Its ability to compete against other countries for investment slipped considerably this year in our global tax competitiveness ranking, down six spots among OECD countries, and down 11 spots among the 90 countries. While many governments around the world responded to the fallout of the global recession by significantly reducing corporate tax rates, certain policy moves in Canada have us headed in the opposite direction. Canada is in danger of repelling business investment, which can only worsen current economic and fiscal challenges. Canada’s fading advantage is the result of recent anti-competitive provincial tax policies that increased the cost of investment. This includes, most notably, British Columbia’s decision to reverse the harmonization of its provincial sales tax with the federal GST, as well as recent corporate income tax rate hikes in B.C. and New Brunswick. When economic calamity strikes, and workers and their families feel the pain of lost jobs and lost wealth, politicians know they can score populist points by targeting the corporate sector. After all, corporations do not vote and they do not have a human face. News stories about major multinational corporations using tax-avoidance techniques to minimize their tax bills, only feed the populism, leaving voters believing that companies are getting away without paying a “fair share” of taxes. But when the corporate sector is targeted, it is not only supposedly wealthy capitalists who pay, but also employees, through lost wages and jobs, and working-class people who have a stake in companies through pension plans and mutual funds. On a larger scale, it is the economy that suffers. The same profit-maximizing imperative that leads companies to seek ways to reduce their tax liabilities also motivates firms to redirect investment to competing, lower-tax jurisdictions. Populist policies aimed at squeezing

  5. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2006 Annual Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    2006 was another recordbreaking year in the electricity and gas utilities sector. Total deal values shot through the record level set in 2005 to reach a dizzying USD 298.8bn. This is nearly seven times the USD 43bn level of transactions recorded in the sector only three years earlier in 2003. The rise is all the more astonishing as it comes in a year when deal activity from corporate US utility players plummeted. The sharp downturn in North America came as companies took stock of aggressive regulatory stances from some state regulators during a US midterm election year that coincided with the ending of rate freezes and reaction to the repeal of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act. North American electricity deal values by bidder fell 64% to USD 20.7bn, not far above the USD 16.7bn level of 2003. The picture in Europe and the Asia Pacific region was very different. Both regions recorded record levels of power deal activities as utility companies continued to strive for super regional'' scale. Deal activity in Europe was given extra momentum by the countdown to the July 2007 implementation of full retail market liberalisation. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key power and gas markets. Looking to the future, the regulatory environment will play a key role in determining the course of deal activity. Companies entering into big deals need to be ready more than ever for the long haul. However, the underpinning momentum in the sector remains strong and this is likely to create continued buoyancy in the period ahead

  6. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2006 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    2006 was another recordbreaking year in the electricity and gas utilities sector. Total deal values shot through the record level set in 2005 to reach a dizzying USD 298.8bn. This is nearly seven times the USD 43bn level of transactions recorded in the sector only three years earlier in 2003. The rise is all the more astonishing as it comes in a year when deal activity from corporate US utility players plummeted. The sharp downturn in North America came as companies took stock of aggressive regulatory stances from some state regulators during a US midterm election year that coincided with the ending of rate freezes and reaction to the repeal of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act. North American electricity deal values by bidder fell 64% to USD 20.7bn, not far above the USD 16.7bn level of 2003. The picture in Europe and the Asia Pacific region was very different. Both regions recorded record levels of power deal activities as utility companies continued to strive for super regional'' scale. Deal activity in Europe was given extra momentum by the countdown to the July 2007 implementation of full retail market liberalisation. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key power and gas markets. Looking to the future, the regulatory environment will play a key role in determining the course of deal activity. Companies entering into big deals need to be ready more than ever for the long haul. However, the underpinning momentum in the sector remains strong and this is likely to create continued buoyancy in the period ahead.

  7. Web-based child pornography: The global impact of deterrence efforts and its consumption on mobile platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Chad M S

    2015-06-01

    Our study is the first to look at mobile device use for child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) consumption, and at the global impact of deterrence efforts by search providers. We used data from Google, Bing, and Yandex to assess how web searches for CSEM are being conducted, both at present and historically. Our findings show that the blocking efforts by Google and Microsoft have resulted in a 67% drop in the past year in web-based searches for CSEM. Additionally, our findings show that mobile devices are a substantial platform for web-based consumption of CSEM, with tablets and smartphones representing 32% of all queries associated with CSEM conducted on Bing. Further, our findings show that a major search engine not located in the United States, Yandex, did not undertake blocking efforts similar to those implemented by Google and Microsoft and has seen no commensurate drop in CSEM searches and continues to profit from ad revenue on these queries. While the efforts by Google and Microsoft have had a deterrence effect in the United States, searchers from Russia and other locations where child pornography possession is not criminalized have continued to use these services. Additionally, the same lax enforcement environment has allowed searchers from the United States to utilize Yandex with little fear of detection or referral to United States law enforcement from the Russian authorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra-annual runoff variability on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual variability poses a risk to water security in many basins as runoff is unevenly distributed over the year. Areas such as Northern Africa, Australia and the South-Western USA are characterized by a high coefficient of variability of monthly runoff. Analyzing the global risk of water scarcity, this study examines 680 basin-country units (BCUs) (403 river basins divided by country borders). By calculating the water balance for each BCU, the interplay of runoff on the one hand and domestic, industrial and environmental water needs on the other hand is shown. In contrast to other studies on average water scarcity, this work focuses on variability of water supply as metrics based on annual average water availability and demand can underestimate the risk of scarcity. The model is based on the assumption that each country-basin with sub-basins and tributaries can be treated as one single reservoir with storage capacity aggregated over that BCU. It includes surface runoff and the possibility to withdraw groundwater as water supply. The storage capacity of each BCU represents the ability to transfer water from wet months to dry months in order to buffer and cope with intra-annual water supply variability and to meet total water demand. Average monthly surface runoff per country-basin for the period 1979 to 2012 is derived from outcomes of the hydrological model Mac-PDM. Mac-PDM is forced with monthly ERAI-Interim reanalysis climate data on a one degree resolution. Groundwater withdrawal capacity, total water demand and storage capacity are taken from the IMPACT model provided by the International Food Research Institute (IFPRI). Storage refers to any kind of surface reservoir whose water can be managed and used for human activities in the industrial, domestic and agricultural sectors. Groundwater withdrawal capacity refers to the technological capacity to pump water rather than the amount of groundwater available. Total water demand includes consumptive water

  9. The importance of vitamin D in maternal and child health: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscaletti, M; Stewart, P; Munns, C F

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are important nutrients for skeletal growth and bone health. Children and pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency (VDD). VDD, with or without dietary calcium deficiency, can lead to nutritional rickets (NR), osteomalacia, and disturbances in calcium homeostasis. Multiple studies have linked VDD to adverse health outcomes in both children and pregnant women that extend beyond bone health. VDD remains an important global public health concern, and an important differentiation must be made between the impact of VDD on children and adults. Reports of increased incidence of NR continue to emerge. NR is an entirely preventable condition, which could be eradicated in infants and children worldwide with adequate vitamin D and calcium supplementation. The desire and necessity to put in place systems for preventing this potentially devastating pediatric disease should not elicit dispute. VDD and NR are global public health issues that require a collaborative, multi-level approach for the implementation of feasible preventative strategies. This review highlights the history, risk factors, and controversies related to VDD during pregnancy and childhood with a particular focus on global NR prevention.

  10. Inter-annual variability of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as simulated with global terrestrial biosphere models and an atmospheric transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Saeki, Tazu; Nakazawa, Takakiyo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies; Ishizawa, Misa; Maksyutov, Shamil [Inst. for Global Change Research, Yokohama (Japan). Frontier Research System for Global Change; Thornton, Peter E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Climate and Global Dynamics Div.

    2003-04-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual variations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} for the period from 1961 to 1997 have been simulated using a global tracer transport model driven by a new version of the Biome BioGeochemical Cycle model (Biome-BGC). Biome-BGC was forced by daily temperature and precipitation from the NCEP reanalysis dataset, and the calculated monthly-averaged CO{sub 2} fluxes were used as input to the global transport model. Results from an inter-comparison with the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach model (CASA) and the Simulation model of Carbon CYCLE in Land Ecosystems (Sim-CYCLE) model are also reported. The phase of the seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere was reproduced generally well by Biome-BGC, although the amplitude was smaller compared to the observations and to the other biosphere models. The CO{sub 2} time series simulated by Biome-BGC were compared to the global CO{sub 2} concentration anomalies from the observations at Mauna Loa and the South Pole. The modeled concentration anomalies matched the phase of the inter-annual variations in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} observations; however, the modeled amplitude was lower than the observed value in several cases. The result suggests that a significant part of the inter-annual variability in the global carbon cycle can be accounted for by the terrestrial biosphere models. Simulations performed with another climate-based model, Sim-CYCLE, produced a larger amplitude of inter-annual variability in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, making the amplitude closer to the observed range, but with a more visible phase mismatch in a number of time periods. This may indicate the need to increase the Biome-BGC model sensitivity to seasonal and inter-annual changes in temperature and precipitation.

  11. Inter-annual variability of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as simulated with global terrestrial biosphere models and an atmospheric transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Saeki, Tazu; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Ishizawa, Misa; Maksyutov, Shamil; Thornton, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual variations of atmospheric CO 2 for the period from 1961 to 1997 have been simulated using a global tracer transport model driven by a new version of the Biome BioGeochemical Cycle model (Biome-BGC). Biome-BGC was forced by daily temperature and precipitation from the NCEP reanalysis dataset, and the calculated monthly-averaged CO 2 fluxes were used as input to the global transport model. Results from an inter-comparison with the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach model (CASA) and the Simulation model of Carbon CYCLE in Land Ecosystems (Sim-CYCLE) model are also reported. The phase of the seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere was reproduced generally well by Biome-BGC, although the amplitude was smaller compared to the observations and to the other biosphere models. The CO 2 time series simulated by Biome-BGC were compared to the global CO 2 concentration anomalies from the observations at Mauna Loa and the South Pole. The modeled concentration anomalies matched the phase of the inter-annual variations in the atmospheric CO 2 observations; however, the modeled amplitude was lower than the observed value in several cases. The result suggests that a significant part of the inter-annual variability in the global carbon cycle can be accounted for by the terrestrial biosphere models. Simulations performed with another climate-based model, Sim-CYCLE, produced a larger amplitude of inter-annual variability in atmospheric CO 2 , making the amplitude closer to the observed range, but with a more visible phase mismatch in a number of time periods. This may indicate the need to increase the Biome-BGC model sensitivity to seasonal and inter-annual changes in temperature and precipitation

  12. Will Global Climate Change Alter Fundamental Human Immune Reactivity: Implications for Child Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Ashwin; Lucas, Robyn M; Harley, David; McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-11-11

    The human immune system is an interface across which many climate change sensitive exposures can affect health outcomes. Gaining an understanding of the range of potential effects that climate change could have on immune function will be of considerable importance, particularly for child health, but has, as yet, received minimal research attention. We postulate several mechanisms whereby climate change sensitive exposures and conditions will subtly impair aspects of the human immune response, thereby altering the distribution of vulnerability within populations-particularly for children-to infection and disease. Key climate change-sensitive pathways include under-nutrition, psychological stress and exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation, with effects on susceptibility to infection, allergy and autoimmune diseases. Other climate change sensitive exposures may also be important and interact, either additively or synergistically, to alter health risks. Conducting directed research in this area is imperative as the potential public health implications of climate change-induced weakening of the immune system at both individual and population levels are profound. This is particularly relevant for the already vulnerable children of the developing world, who will bear a disproportionate burden of future adverse environmental and geopolitical consequences of climate change.

  13. Will Global Climate Change Alter Fundamental Human Immune Reactivity: Implications for Child Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Swaminathan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The human immune system is an interface across which many climate change sensitive exposures can affect health outcomes. Gaining an understanding of the range of potential effects that climate change could have on immune function will be of considerable importance, particularly for child health, but has, as yet, received minimal research attention. We postulate several mechanisms whereby climate change sensitive exposures and conditions will subtly impair aspects of the human immune response, thereby altering the distribution of vulnerability within populations—particularly for children—to infection and disease. Key climate change-sensitive pathways include under-nutrition, psychological stress and exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation, with effects on susceptibility to infection, allergy and autoimmune diseases. Other climate change sensitive exposures may also be important and interact, either additively or synergistically, to alter health risks. Conducting directed research in this area is imperative as the potential public health implications of climate change-induced weakening of the immune system at both individual and population levels are profound. This is particularly relevant for the already vulnerable children of the developing world, who will bear a disproportionate burden of future adverse environmental and geopolitical consequences of climate change.

  14. What Is the Association between Absolute Child Poverty, Poor Governance, and Natural Disasters? A Global Comparison of Some of the Realities of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Adel; Halleröd, Björn; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the degree to which exposure to natural disasters and poor governance (quality of governance) is associated with absolute child poverty in sixty-seven middle- and low-income countries. The data is representative for about 2.8 billion of the world´s population. Institutionalist tend to argue that many of society's ills, including poverty, derive from fragile or inefficient institutions. However, our findings show that although increasing quality of government tends to be associated with less poverty, the negative effects of natural disasters on child poverty are independent of a country´s institutional efficiency. Increasing disaster victims (killed and affected) is associated with higher rates of child poverty. A child´s estimated odds ratio to be in a state of absolute poverty increases by about a factor of 5.7 [95% CI: 1.7 to 18.7] when the average yearly toll of disasters in the child´s country increases by one on a log-10 scale. Better governance correlates with less child poverty, but it does not modify the correlation between child poverty and natural disasters. The results are based on hierarchical regression models that partition the variance into three parts: child, household, and country. The models were cross-sectional and based on observational data from the Demographic Health Survey and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, which were collected at the beginning of the twenty-first millennium. The Sustainable Development Goals are a principle declaration to halt climate change, but they lack a clear plan on how the burden of this change should be shared by the global community. Based on our results, we suggest that the development agencies should take this into account and to articulate more equitable global policies to protect the most vulnerable, specifically children.

  15. What Is the Association between Absolute Child Poverty, Poor Governance, and Natural Disasters? A Global Comparison of Some of the Realities of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Daoud

    Full Text Available The paper explores the degree to which exposure to natural disasters and poor governance (quality of governance is associated with absolute child poverty in sixty-seven middle- and low-income countries. The data is representative for about 2.8 billion of the world´s population. Institutionalist tend to argue that many of society's ills, including poverty, derive from fragile or inefficient institutions. However, our findings show that although increasing quality of government tends to be associated with less poverty, the negative effects of natural disasters on child poverty are independent of a country´s institutional efficiency. Increasing disaster victims (killed and affected is associated with higher rates of child poverty. A child´s estimated odds ratio to be in a state of absolute poverty increases by about a factor of 5.7 [95% CI: 1.7 to 18.7] when the average yearly toll of disasters in the child´s country increases by one on a log-10 scale. Better governance correlates with less child poverty, but it does not modify the correlation between child poverty and natural disasters. The results are based on hierarchical regression models that partition the variance into three parts: child, household, and country. The models were cross-sectional and based on observational data from the Demographic Health Survey and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, which were collected at the beginning of the twenty-first millennium. The Sustainable Development Goals are a principle declaration to halt climate change, but they lack a clear plan on how the burden of this change should be shared by the global community. Based on our results, we suggest that the development agencies should take this into account and to articulate more equitable global policies to protect the most vulnerable, specifically children.

  16. Annual research review: Child and adolescent mental health interventions: a review of progress in economic studies across different disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    Resources for supporting children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders continue to be scarce. Economics research can identify current patterns of expenditure, and help inform allocation of treatment and support resources between competing needs or uses. The aim was to identify the costs of supporting children and adolescents, the economic impacts of childhood psychiatric disorders in adulthood and any new evidence on the cost-effectiveness of interventions. An electronic search of databases (including PubMed, Medline and Psychinfo) identified peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2005 and 2012. Sixty-seven papers provided data on support and treatment costs now or in the future, or cost-effectiveness analyses of services. Half the articles came from the United States. Most articles focussed on autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 23 articles), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 15), conduct disorder (CD; n = 7), and anxiety or depression (n = 8). Only 14 studies used a cost perspective wider than health care; most included education costs (n = 11), but only five included costs to the justice system. The number of studies estimating costs to the family has increased, particularly for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the United Kingdom, support costs for children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) appear to be lower than for those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although for the United States, the opposite may be true. Support costs for children and adolescents with ASD may be higher than both CD and ADHD. However, there were many differences between the samples and the methods employed making comparisons between studies difficult. Outcomes in adulthood include negative impacts on (mental) health, quality of life, public sector services, employment status and income. The evidence base is improving for child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, although only one full cost

  17. Annual research review: Current limitations and future directions in MRI studies of child- and adult-onset developmental psychopathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horga, Guillermo; Kaur, Tejal; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-06-01

    The widespread use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the study of child- and adult-onset developmental psychopathologies has generated many investigations that have measured brain structure and function in vivo throughout development, often generating great excitement over our ability to visualize the living, developing brain using the attractive, even seductive images that these studies produce. Often lost in this excitement is the recognition that brain imaging generally, and MRI in particular, is simply a technology, one that does not fundamentally differ from any other technology, be it a blood test, a genotyping assay, a biochemical assay, or behavioral test. No technology alone can generate valid scientific findings. Rather, it is only technology coupled with a strong experimental design that can generate valid and reproducible findings that lead to new insights into the mechanisms of disease and therapeutic response. In this review we discuss selected studies to illustrate the most common and important limitations of MRI study designs as most commonly implemented thus far, as well as the misunderstanding that the interpretations of findings from those studies can create for our theories of developmental psychopathologies. Common limitations of MRI study designs are in large part responsible thus far for the generally poor reproducibility of findings across studies, poor generalizability to the larger population, failure to identify developmental trajectories, inability to distinguish causes from effects of illness, and poor ability to infer causal mechanisms in most MRI studies of developmental psychopathologies. For each of these limitations in study design and the difficulties they entail for the interpretation of findings, we discuss various approaches that numerous laboratories are now taking to address those difficulties, which have in common the yoking of brain imaging technologies to studies with inherently stronger designs that permit more valid

  18. Explaining the slow transition of child-appropriate dosage formulations from the global to national level in the context of Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Hansen, Ebba; Mbonye, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    validation meeting where preliminary findings were shared with stakeholders. Policy analysis and policy transfer theories were used to guide a deductive analysis for manifest and latent content. RESULTS: According to stakeholders, the transition to the globally recommended child-appropriate dosage...... formulations has been slow in Uganda due to a number of factors. These factors include resource constraints at the global and national levels, lack of Ministry of Health (MOH) formal commitment to the adoption of the child-appropriate dosage formulations policy and a lack of consensus between those who...... formulations still remains to be implemented in Uganda and other low income countries. This has been due to lack of resources that hindered formal transfer of the policy from the global to the local level. To achieve this transfer there is a need for resource mobilisation at both the international and local...

  19. A general psychopathology factor (P factor) in children: Structural model analysis and external validation through familial risk and child global executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Maurício S; Gadelha, Ary; do Rosário, Maria C; Mari, Jair J; Manfro, Gisele G; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Paus, Tomás; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Rohde, Luis A; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF). A community sample of 8,012 families from Brazil with children ages 6-12 years completed structured interviews about the child and parental psychiatric syndromes, and a subsample of 2,395 children completed tasks assessing EF (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and time processing). Confirmatory factor analyses tested a series of structural models of psychopathology in both parents and children. The model with a general psychopathology factor ("P factor") with 3 specific factors (fear, distress, and externalizing) exhibited the best fit. The general P factor accounted for most of the variance in all models, with little residual variance explained by each of the 3 specific factors. In addition, associations between child and parental factors were mainly significant for the P factors and nonsignificant for the specific factors from the respective models. Likewise, the child P factor-but not the specific factors-was significantly associated with global child EF. Overall, our results provide support for a latent overarching P factor characterizing child psychopathology, supported by familial associations and child EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  1. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  2. Annual Research Review: An expanded account of information-processing mechanisms in risk for child and adolescent anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Waters, Allison M

    2017-04-01

    anxiety and/or depression risk. We discuss future research directions that can more systematically test whether these biases act as proximal mechanisms that mediate other distal risk factors. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Globalization Education and New Realities (Keynote Address, Midwest History of Education Society Annual Meeting, 2005, Chicago, Illinois)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, William H.

    2006-01-01

    A central argument of this essay suggests that the truth of globalization is little known to the body politic as it is enmeshed in the dynamics of capitalist accumulation, avarice, and despotism. This project hopes to first locate, and then unmask the realities of globalization, warts and all. Gaining some knowledge of globalization, the…

  4. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  5. Annual and interannual variations in global 6.5DWs from 20 to 110 km during 2002-2016 observed by TIMED/SABER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. Y.; Zhang, S. D.; Li, C. Y.; Li, H. J.; Huang, K. M.; Huang, C. M.

    2017-08-01

    Using version 2.0 of the TIMED/SABER kinetic temperature data, we have conducted a study on the annual and interannual variations of 6.5DWs at 20-110 km, from 52°S to 52°N for 2002-2016. First, we obtained global annual variations in the spectral power and amplitudes of 6.5DWs. We found that strong wave amplitudes emerged from 25°S/N to 52°S/N and peaked in the altitudes of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and the lower thermosphere. The annual variations in the 6.5DWs are similar in both hemispheres but different at various altitudes. At 40-50 km, the annual maxima emerge mostly in winters. In the MLT, annual peaks occurred twice every half year. At 80-90 km, 6.5DWs appeared mainly in equinoctial seasons and winters. At 100-110 km, 6.5DWs emerged mainly in equinoctial seasons. Second, we continued the study of the interannual variations in 6.5DW amplitudes from 2002 to 2016. Frequency spectra of the monthly mean amplitudes showed that main dynamics in the long-term variations of 6.5DWs were AO and SAO in both hemispheres. In addition, 4 month period signals were noticed in the MLT of the NH. The amplitudes of SAO and AO were obtained using a band-pass filter and were found to increase with altitude, as do the 6.5DW amplitudes. In both hemispheres, the relative importance of SAO and AO changes with altitude. At 40-50 and 100-110 km, AO play a dominant role, while at 80-90 km, they are weaker than SAO. Our results show that both the annual and interannual variations in 6.5DWs are mainly caused by the combined action of SAO and AO.

  6. Annual Research Review: Child and adolescent mental health interventions: a review of progress in economic studies across different disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Resources for supporting children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders continue to be scarce. Economics research can identify current patterns of expenditure, and help inform allocation of treatment and support resources between competing needs or uses. Scope and methods The aim was to identify the costs of supporting children and adolescents, the economic impacts of childhood psychiatric disorders in adulthood and any new evidence on the cost-effectiveness of interventions. An electronic search of databases (including PubMed, Medline and Psychinfo) identified peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2005 and 2012. Findings Sixty-seven papers provided data on support and treatment costs now or in the future, or cost-effectiveness analyses of services. Half the articles came from the United States. Most articles focussed on autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 23 articles), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 15), conduct disorder (CD; n = 7), and anxiety or depression (n = 8). Conclusion Only 14 studies used a cost perspective wider than health care; most included education costs (n = 11), but only five included costs to the justice system. The number of studies estimating costs to the family has increased, particularly for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the United Kingdom, support costs for children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) appear to be lower than for those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although for the United States, the opposite may be true. Support costs for children and adolescents with ASD may be higher than both CD and ADHD. However, there were many differences between the samples and the methods employed making comparisons between studies difficult. Outcomes in adulthood include negative impacts on (mental) health, quality of life, public sector services, employment status and income. The evidence base is improving for child and adolescent psychiatric

  7. Credit where credit is due: Pakistan?s role in reducing the global burden of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Qazi, Shamim; Shah, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Factors contributing to Pakistan?s poor progress in reducing reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) include its low level of female literacy, gender inequity, political challenges, and extremism along with its associated relentless violence; further, less than 1% of Pakistan?s GDP is allocated to the health sector. However, despite these disadvantages, Pakistani researchers have been able to achieve positive contributions towards RMNCH-related global knowledge and evidence ...

  8. Ending preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Shamim; Aboubaker, Samira; MacLean, Rachel; Fontaine, Olivier; Mantel, Carsten; Goodman, Tracey; Young, Mark; Henderson, Peggy; Cherian, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Despite the existence of low-cost and effective interventions for childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea, these conditions remain two of the leading killers of young children. Based on feedback from health professionals in countries with high child mortality, in 2009, WHO and Unicef began conceptualising an integrated approach for pneumonia and diarrhoea control. As part of this initiative, WHO and Unicef, with support from other partners, conducted a series of five workshops to facilitate the inclusion of coordinated actions for pneumonia and diarrhoea into the national health plans of 36 countries with high child mortality. This paper presents the findings from workshop and post-workshop follow-up activities and discusses the contribution of these findings to the development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea, which outlines the necessary actions for elimination of preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Though this goal is ambitious, it is attainable through concerted efforts. By applying the lessons learned thus far and continuing to build upon them, and by leveraging existing political will and momentum for child survival, national governments and their supporting partners can ensure that preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea are eventually eliminated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Renewables 2018 - Global status report. A comprehensive annual overview of the state of renewable energy. Advancing the global renewable energy transition - Highlights of the REN21 Renewables 2018 Global Status Report in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Rutovitz, Jay; Dwyer, Scott; Teske, Sven; Murdock, Hannah E.; Adib, Rana; Guerra, Flavia; Murdock, Hannah E.; Blanning, Linh H.; Guerra, Flavia; Hamirwasia, Vibhushree; Misra, Archita; Satzinger, Katharina; Williamson, Laura E.; Lie, Mimi; Nilsson, Anna; Aberg, Emma; Weckend, Stephanie; Wuester, Henning; Ferroukhi, Rabia; Garcia, Celia; Khalid, Arslan; Renner, Michael; Taylor, Michael; Epp, Barbel; Seyboth, Kristin; Skeen, Jonathan; Kamiya, George; Munuera, Luis; Appavou, Fabiani; Brown, Adam; Kondev, Bozhil; Musolino, Evan; Brown, Adam; Mastny, Lisa; Arris, Lelani

    2018-06-01

    REN21's Renewables 2018 Global Status Report presents developments and trends through the end of 2017, as well as observed trends from early 2018 where available. Renewable power accounted for 70% of net additions to global power generating capacity in 2017, the largest increase in renewable power capacity in modern history, according to REN21's Renewables 2018 Global Status Report (GSR). But the heating, cooling and transport sectors - which together account for about four-fifths of global final energy demand - continue to lag far behind the power sector. The GSR, published today, is the most comprehensive annual overview of the state of renewable energy worldwide. New solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity reached record levels: Solar PV additions were up 29% relative to 2016, to 98 GW. More solar PV generating capacity was added to the electricity system than net capacity additions of coal, natural gas and nuclear power combined. Wind power also drove the uptake of renewables with 52 GW added globally. Investment in new renewable power capacity was more than twice that of net, new fossil fuel and nuclear power capacity combined, despite large, ongoing subsidies for fossil fuel generation. More than two-thirds of investments in power generation were in renewables in 2017, thanks to their increasing cost-competitiveness - and the share of renewables in the power sector is expected to only continue to rise. Investment in renewables was regionally concentrated: China, Europe and the United States accounted for nearly 75% of global investment in renewables in 2017. However, when measured per unit of gross domestic product (GDP), the Marshall Islands, Rwanda, the Solomon Islands, Guinea Bissau, and many other developing countries are investing as much as or more in renewables than developed and emerging economies. Both energy demand and energy-related CO 2 emissions rose substantially for the first time in four years. Energy-related CO 2 emissions rose by 1

  10. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  11. Discourse, ideas and power in global health policy networks: political attention for maternal and child health in the millennium development goal era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-05-18

    Maternal and child health issues have gained global political attention and resources in the past 10 years, due in part to their prominence on the Millennium Development Goal agenda and the use of evidence-based advocacy by policy networks. This paper identifies key factors for this achievement, and raises questions about prospective challenges for sustaining attention in the transition to the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, far broader in scope than the Millennium Development Goals. This paper relies on participant observation methods and document analysis to develop a case study of the behaviours of global maternal and child health advocacy networks during 2005-2015. The development of coordinated networks of heterogeneous actors facilitated the rise in attention to maternal and child health during the past 10 years. The strategic use of epidemiological and economic evidence by these networks enabled policy attention and promoted network cohesion. The time-bound opportunity of reaching the 2015 Millennium Development Goals created a window of opportunity for joint action. As the new post-2015 goals emerge, networks seek to sustain attention by repositioning their framing of issues, network structures, and external alliances, including with networks that lay both inside and outside of the health domain. Issues rise on global policy agendas because of how ideas are constructed, portrayed and positioned by actors within given contexts. Policy networks play a critical role by uniting stakeholders to promote persuasive ideas about policy problems and solutions. The behaviours of networks in issue-framing, member-alignment, and strategic outreach can force open windows of opportunity for political attention -- or prevent them from closing.

  12. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  13. Global Climate Change and Environmental Health: Proceedings of the 1997 Annual Conference of the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovats, Sari; Patz, Jonathan A.; Dobbins, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the conference was to bring together a diverse group of occupational and environmental health experts to address the potential effects of climate change and ozone depletion on the current and future incidence of disease, heat stress, food and water supplies, and air pollution; to discuss initial strategies for improving R and D, global health surveillance systems, disease prevention, medical and public health community education, international cooperation, and public outreach; to address this international occupational and environmental health problem; and to explore international challenges and opportunities for collaborative projects in addressing these potential effects

  14. Nuclear power and the global challenges of energy security, 6 September 2007, London, England, World Nuclear Association Annual Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Atoms for Peace speech given by US President Eisenhower in 1953 - the speech that paved the way for the creation of the IAEA - he declared that a special purpose of Atoms for Peace would be 'to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world'. That vision has yet to be realized. And it should not be taken to mean that nuclear power is the solution for all countries, or for all developing countries. But I would reiterate what I said at the outset - that the global challenges of security and development are interlinked, and that addressing the energy security needs of all countries will be a key to progress on both fronts. It is incumbent upon us to see to it that nuclear power will fulfil its potential in addressing these challenges

  15. Report on Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Global Alliance for Medical Education, Barcelona, Spain, June 9–11, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Murray

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Participants representing various stakeholders, including medical schools, pharmaceutical companies, medical education companies, international regulatory bodies, and independent consultants from 17 countries, attended the annual meeting of the Global Alliance for Medical Education (GAME in Barcelona between 9 and 11 June 2013. The attendees took part in small-group exercises to explore the use of a 10-step empirical procedure as part of an instructional design model applied to the planning and implementation of educational activities in continuing medical education and continuing professional development (CME/CPD. The strategic focus of GAME was presented to highlight areas of interest in patient safety, inter-professional education, and adult learning theory in CME/CPD. These areas were also underlined during presentations of abstracts by representatives of the World Health Organization, academic institutions, and medical education companies. These presentations demonstrated the wide array of educational activities and formats being conducted around the world, with live links to Rwanda and Uruguay emphasizing the global reach of GAME.

  16. How is the impact of climate change on river flow regimes related to the impact on mean annual runoff? A global-scale analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Döll, Petra; Schmied, Hannes Müller

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of climate change on freshwater resources, change in mean annual runoff (MAR) is only a first indicator. In addition, it is necessary to analyze changes of river flow regimes, i.e. changes in the temporal dynamics of river discharge, as these are important for the well-being of humans (e.g. with respect to water supply) and freshwater-dependent biota (e.g. with respect to habitat availability). Therefore, we investigated, in a global-scale hydrological modeling study, the relation between climate-induced changes of MAR and changes of a number of river flow regime indicators, including mean river discharge, statistical low and high flows, and mean seasonal discharge. In addition, we identified, for the first time at the global scale, where flow regime shifts from perennial to intermittent flow regimes (or vice versa) may occur due to climate change. Climate-induced changes of all considered river flow regime indicators (except seasonal river flow changes) broadly follow the spatial pattern of MAR changes. The differences among the computed changes of MAR due to the application of the two climate models are larger than the differences between the change of MAR and the change of the diverse river flow indicators for one climate model. At the sub-basin and grid cell scales, however, there are significant differences between the changes of MAR, mean annual river discharge, and low and high flows. Low flows are projected to be more than halved by the 2050s in almost twice the area as compared to MAR. Similarly, northern hemisphere summer flows decrease more strongly than MAR. Differences between the high emissions scenario A2 (with emissions of 25 Gt C yr −1 in the 2050s) and the low emissions scenario B2 (16 Gt C yr −1 ) are generally small as compared to the differences due to the two climate models. The benefits of avoided emissions are, however, significant in those areas where flows are projected to be more than halved due to climate change

  17. The commercial marketing of healthy lifestyles to address the global child and adolescent obesity pandemic: prospects, pitfalls and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica I; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Story, Mary

    2009-11-01

    Public- and private-sector initiatives to promote healthy eating and physical activity, called 'healthy lifestyles', are a relatively recent response to the global obesity pandemic. The present paper explores different views about marketing healthy lifestyles with a special emphasis on private-sector initiatives and public-private partnerships designed to reach young people. We discuss aspects of these initiatives and partnerships from three perspectives: (i) the potential for commercial marketing practices to have a favourable influence on reversing global obesity trends (termed prospects); (ii) unresolved dilemmas and challenges that may hinder progress (termed pitfalls); and (iii) the implementation and evaluation of coordinated and systematic actions (termed priorities) that may increase the likelihood that commercially marketed healthy-lifestyle initiatives and public-private partnerships can make a positive contribution to reverse the rise in overweight and obesity among young people globally.

  18. Modeling Impacts of Alternative Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Rice–Wheat Annual Rotation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyang; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Yinglie; Pan, Xiaojian; Liu, Pingli; Chen, Zhaozhi; Huang, Taiqing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluating the net exchange of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in conjunction with soil carbon sequestration may give a comprehensive insight on the role of agricultural production in global warming. Materials and Methods Measured data of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were utilized to test the applicability of the Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC) model to a winter wheat – single rice rotation system in southern China. Six alternative scenarios were simulated against the baseline scenario to evaluate their long-term (45-year) impacts on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI). Principal Results The simulated cumulative CH4 emissions fell within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, with the exception of N2O emissions during rice-growing season and both gases from the control treatment. Sensitivity tests showed that both CH4 and N2O emissions were significantly affected by changes in both environmental factors and management practices. Compared with the baseline scenario, the long-term simulation had the following results: (1) high straw return and manure amendment scenarios greatly increased CH4 emissions, while other scenarios had similar CH4 emissions, (2) high inorganic N fertilizer increased N2O emissions while manure amendment and reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenarios decreased N2O emissions, (3) the mean annual soil organic carbon sequestration rates (SOCSR) under manure amendment, high straw return, and no-tillage scenarios averaged 0.20 t C ha−1 yr−1, being greater than other scenarios, and (4) the reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario produced the least N loss from the system, while all the scenarios produced comparable grain yields. Conclusions In terms of net GWP and GHGI for the comprehensive assessment of climate change and crop production, reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario followed by no-tillage scenario would be advocated for this specified cropping system. PMID

  19. Modeling impacts of alternative practices on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from rice-wheat annual rotation in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluating the net exchange of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions in conjunction with soil carbon sequestration may give a comprehensive insight on the role of agricultural production in global warming. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measured data of methane (CH(4 and nitrous oxide (N(2O were utilized to test the applicability of the Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC model to a winter wheat - single rice rotation system in southern China. Six alternative scenarios were simulated against the baseline scenario to evaluate their long-term (45-year impacts on net global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: The simulated cumulative CH(4 emissions fell within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, with the exception of N(2O emissions during rice-growing season and both gases from the control treatment. Sensitivity tests showed that both CH(4 and N(2O emissions were significantly affected by changes in both environmental factors and management practices. Compared with the baseline scenario, the long-term simulation had the following results: (1 high straw return and manure amendment scenarios greatly increased CH(4 emissions, while other scenarios had similar CH(4 emissions, (2 high inorganic N fertilizer increased N(2O emissions while manure amendment and reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenarios decreased N(2O emissions, (3 the mean annual soil organic carbon sequestration rates (SOCSR under manure amendment, high straw return, and no-tillage scenarios averaged 0.20 t C ha(-1 yr(-1, being greater than other scenarios, and (4 the reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario produced the least N loss from the system, while all the scenarios produced comparable grain yields. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of net GWP and GHGI for the comprehensive assessment of climate change and crop production, reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario followed by no-tillage scenario would be advocated for this specified

  20. Annual Research Review: Categories versus Dimensions in the Classification and Conceptualisation of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders--Implications of Recent Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, David; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether child and adolescent mental disorders are best classified using dimensional or categorical approaches is a contentious one that has equally profound implications for clinical practice and scientific enquiry. Here, we explore this issue in the context of the forth coming publication of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 approaches to…

  1. Global Health Observatory (GHO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... global health estimates Health Equity Monitor 3.1 Maternal mortality Maternal health 3.2 Newborn and child mortality Child ... Programmes) Quick links Contact us Frequently asked questions Employment Feedback Privacy Email scams Regions Africa Americas South- ...

  2. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: History and achievements with special reference to annual single-dose treatment with diethylcarbamazine in Samoa and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Eisaku

    2011-03-01

    Samoa in relation to the annual single-dose MDAs revealed that low density mf carriers, who have a very low mf count of 1-20/ml of venous blood, could not play a significant role in filariasis transmission.From around 1990, studies on spaced low-dose DEC treatments and various types of combination chemotherapy with DEC and ivermectin increased. Albendazole, a well-known anti-intestinal helminths agent, was later added to the combination. The main findings of these studies with W. bancrofti are: (i) a single dose of DEC at 6 mg/kg reduced mean mf density by ca. 90% 1 year after treatment; (ii) the same dose could damage/kill adult worms; (iii) a single dose of ivermectin at ca. 400 µg/kg was more effective than DEC in reducing mf density during the first year and was similarly or less effective in the second year; (iv) ivermectin probably could not kill adult worms; (v) a single combined dose of albendazole (400 mg) and DEC (6 mg/kg) was effective to reduce mf density by 85 to nearly 100% 12-24 months after treatment; and (vi) ivermectin or albendazole included in the combination chemotherapy produced "beyond-filariasis" benefits: clearance/reduction of intestinal helminths, and, additionally, in the case of ivermectin, skin-dwelling ectoparasites.The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) started its worldwide activities in 2000, with the target of elimination by 2020. The basic strategy is to conduct annual single-dose MDAs for 4-6 years. In 2000-2007, a minimum of 570 million individuals were treated in 48 of 83 endemic countries. The drugs used are DEC 6 mg/kg plus albendazole 400 mg in most countries, or ivermectin 200-400 µg/kg plus albendazole 400 mg particularly in onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa. (MDAs with DEC alone had been used in India.)The GPELF achieved impressive results in terms of parasitological cure/improvement, clinical benefits, social and economic impacts, etc. However, the most impressive result of all was the

  3. Facilitators and barriers to quality of care in maternal, newborn and child health: a global situational analysis through metareview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Lambrechts, Thierry; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Bose, Krishna; Mason, Elizabeth Mary; Mathai, Matthews

    2014-05-22

    Conduct a global situational analysis to identify the current facilitators and barriers to improving quality of care (QoC) for pregnant women, newborns and children. Metareview of published and unpublished systematic reviews and meta-analyses conducted between January 2000 and March 2013 in any language. Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) is used to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Health systems of all countries. Study outcome: QoC measured using surrogate indicators--effective, efficient, accessible, acceptable/patient centred, equitable and safe. Conducted in two phases (1) qualitative synthesis of extracted data to identify and group the facilitators and barriers to improving QoC, for each of the three population groups, into the six domains of WHO's framework and explore new domains and (2) an analysis grid to map the common facilitators and barriers. We included 98 systematic reviews with 110 interventions to improve QoC from countries globally. The facilitators and barriers identified fitted the six domains of WHO's framework--information, patient-population engagement, leadership, regulations and standards, organisational capacity and models of care. Two new domains, 'communication' and 'satisfaction', were generated. Facilitators included active and regular interpersonal communication between users and providers; respect, confidentiality, comfort and support during care provision; engaging users in decision-making; continuity of care and effective audit and feedback mechanisms. Key barriers identified were language barriers in information and communication; power difference between users and providers; health systems not accounting for user satisfaction; variable standards of implementation of standard guidelines; shortage of resources in health facilities and lack of studies assessing the role of leadership in improving QoC. These were common across the three population groups. The barriers to good

  4. Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM: Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Wazny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: to systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM. Methods: an iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked using a “Research Priority Score” (RPS and the “Average Expert Agreement” (AEA was calculated for every question. Our groups of experts were comprised of both individuals working in Ministries of Health or Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs and individuals working in high–income countries (HICs in academia or NGO headquarters. A Spearman's Rho was calculated to determine the correlation between the two groups' research questions' ranks. Results: The overall RPS ranged from 64.58 to 89.31, with a median score of 81.43. AEA scores ranged from 0.54 to 0.86. Research questions involving increasing the uptake of iCCM services, research questions concerning the motivation, retention, training and supervision of Community Health Workers (CHWs and concerning adding additional responsibilities including counselling for infant and young child feeding (IYCF and treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM ranked highly. There was weak to moderate, statistically significant, correlation between scores by representatives of high–income countries and those working in–country or regionally (Spearman's ρ = 0.35034, P < 0.01. Conclusions: Operational research to determine optimal training, supervision and modes of motivation and retention for the CHW is vital for improving iCCM, globally, as is research to motivate caregivers to take advantage of iCCM services. Experts working in–country or regionally in

  5. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  6. Child and Adolescent Mortality Across Malaysia's Epidemiological Transition: A Systematic Analysis of Global Burden of Disease Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razak, Suraya; Azzopardi, Peter S; Patton, George C; Mokdad, Ali H; Sawyer, Susan M

    2017-10-01

    A rapid epidemiological transition in developing countries in Southeast Asia has been accompanied by major shifts in the health status of children and adolescents. In this article, mortality estimates in Malaysian children and adolescents from 1990 to 2013 are used to illustrate these changes. All-cause and cause-specific mortality estimates were obtained from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study. Data were extracted from 1990 to 2013 for the developmental age range from 1 to 24 years, for both sexes. Trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality for the major epidemiological causes were estimated. From 1990 to 2013, all-cause mortality decreased in all age groups. Reduction of all-cause mortality was greatest in 1- to 4-year-olds (2.4% per year reduction) and least in 20- to 24-year-olds (.9% per year reduction). Accordingly, in 2013, all-cause mortality was highest in 20- to 24-year-old males (129 per 100,000 per year). In 1990, the principal cause of death for 1- to 9-year boys and girls was vaccine preventable diseases. By 2013, neoplasms had become the major cause of death in 1-9 year olds of both sexes. The major cause of death in 10- to 24-year-old females was typhoid in 1990 and neoplasms in 2013, whereas the major cause of death in 10- to 24-year-old males remained road traffic injuries. The reduction in mortality across the epidemiological transition in Malaysia has been much less pronounced for adolescents than younger children. The contribution of injuries and noncommunicable diseases to adolescent mortality suggests where public health strategies should focus. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors During Pregnancy, Delivery and Birth Affecting Global Quality of Life of the Adult Child at Long-term Follow-up. Results from the Prospective Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a prospective cohort study, where we explore associations between pregnancy, delivery and the global quality of life (QOL of the adult child 31-33 years later. The data is from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61 using two sets of questionnaires send to 7,222 persons: one filled out by physicians during pregnancy and delivery, while the follow-up questionnaire was completed by the adult children 31-33 years later. The main outcome measures were objective factors describing pregnancy and delivery along with global quality of life, including: Well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, fulfilment of needs, experience of life's temporal and spatial domains, expression of life's potentials and objective measures. Results showed two main factors in pregnancy that seemed to be associated with a reduced quality of life for the child 31-33 years later: the mother's smoking habits and the mother's medication–especially painkillers and different psychopharmacological drugs with the association being most prevalent early in pregnancy. Considering what can and do go wrong during the various stages of labour and delivery and considering how few connections we found between the factors examined and the later global QOL, it seems that the child is remarkably resilient to external influences during pregnancy and delivery concerned with global QOL, as an adult.

  8. The political process in global health and nutrition governance: the G8's 2010 Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Child, and Newborn Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, John; Kulik, Julia; Bracht, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Why do informal, plurilateral summit institutions such as the Group of Eight (G8) major market democracies succeed in advancing costly public health priorities such as maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH), even when the formal, multilateral United Nations (UN) system fails to meet such goals, when G8 governments afflicted by recession, deficit, and debt seek to cut expenditures, and when the private sector is largely uninvolved, despite the growing popularity of public-private partnerships to meet global health and related nutrition, food, and agriculture needs? Guided by the concert-equality model of G8 governance, this case study of the G8's 2010 Muskoka Initiative on MNCH traces the process through which that initiative was planned within Canada, internationally prepared through negotiations with Canada's G8 partners, produced at Muskoka by the leaders in June, multiplied in its results by the UN summit in September, and reinforced by the new accountability mechanism put in place. It finds that the Muskoka summit succeeded in mobilizing major money and momentum for MNCH. This was due to the initiative and influence of children-focused nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), working with committed individuals and agencies within the host Canadian government, as well as supportive public opinion and the help of those in the UN responsible for realizing its Millennium Development Goals. Also relevant were the democratic like-mindedness of G8 leaders and their African partners, the deference of G8 members to the host's priority, and the need of the G8 to demonstrate its relevance through a division of labor between it and the new Group of Twenty summit. This study shows that G8 summits can succeed in advancing key global health issues without a global shock on the same subject to galvanize agreement and action. It suggests that, when committed, focused NGOs and government officials will lead and the private sector will follow, but that there will be a lag in the

  9. Child and Adolescent Health From 1990 to 2015: Findings From the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2015 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Zoeckler, Leo; Olsen, Helen Elizabeth; Thomas, Katie; Pinho, Christine; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Dandona, Lalit; Ferrari, Alize; Ghiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Hay, Simon I; Kinfu, Yohannes; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lopez, Alan; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mokdad, Ali H; Naghavi, Mohsen; Patton, George C; Salomon, Joshua; Sartorius, Benn; Topor-Madry, Roman; Vollset, Stein Emil; Werdecker, Andrea; Whiteford, Harvey A; Abate, Kalkidan Hasen; Abbas, Kaja; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alemayohu, Mulubirhan Assefa; Altirkawi, Khalid; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Amare, Azmeraw T; Antonio, Carl A T; Arnlov, Johan; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Bacha, Umar; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Barac, Aleksandra; Bärnighausen, Till Winfried; Baye, Estifanos; Bedi, Neeraj; Bensenor, Isabela M; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bernal, Oscar Alberto; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Brazinova, Alexandra; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Carter, Austin; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Charlson, Fiona J; Chitheer, Abdulaal A; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Ciobanu, Liliana G; Crump, John; Dandona, Rakhi; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribew, Amare; deVeber, Gabrielle; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Amanuel Yesuf; Erskine, Holly E; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fernandes, Joao C; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas D; Flor, Luisa Sorio; Foreman, Kyle J; Franklin, Richard C; Fraser, Maya S; Frostad, Joseph J; Fullman, Nancy; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gibney, Katherine B; Gidey Yihdego, Mahari; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gizachew, Tessema Assefa; Glaser, Elizabeth; Gold, Audra L; Goldberg, Ellen; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Jiang, Guohong; Gupta, Rajeev; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Hankey, Graeme J; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hijar, Martha; Horino, Masako; Hosgood, H Dean; Hu, Guoqing; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Jayaraman, Sudha P; Jha, Vivekanand; Jibat, Tariku; Johnson, Catherine O; Jonas, Jost; Kasaeian, Amir; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter N; Khalil, Ibrahim; Khang, Young-Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kissoon, Niranjan; Knibbs, Luke D; Koyanagi, Ai; Krohn, Kristopher J; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kulikoff, Rachel; Kumar, G Anil; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lam, Hilton Y; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis Odai; Leung, Janni; Lim, Stephen S; Lo, Loon-Tzian; Lo, Warren D; Looker, Katharine J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Malekzadeh, Reza; Markos Shifti, Desalegn; Mazidi, Mohsen; Meaney, Peter A; Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam; Memiah, Peter; Mendoza, Walter; Abera Mengistie, Mubarek; Mengistu, Gebremichael Welday; Mensah, George A; Miller, Ted R; Mock, Charles; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mueller, Ulrich; Nagata, Chie; Naheed, Aliya; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nsoesie, Elaine; Oh, In-Hwan; Okoro, Anselm; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Ortiz, Alberto; Paudel, Deepak; Pereira, David M; Perico, Norberto; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Rankin, Zane; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M N; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Sagar, Rajesh; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Kedir Mohammed, Muktar Sano; Santos, Itamar S; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James G; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shaheen, Amira; Shaikh, Masood Ali; She, June; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Jasvinder; Silpakit, Naris; Smith, Alison; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Stein, Dan J; Steiner, Caitlyn; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Swaminathan, Soumya; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M; Tadese, Fentaw; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Teeple, Stephanie; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Temam Shifa, Girma; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomas, Bernadette; Thomson, Alan J; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tonelli, Marcello; Tran, Bach Xuan; Troeger, Christopher; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uthman, Olalekan; Vasankari, Tommi; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert; Gebrehiwot, Solomon Weldemariam; Westerman, Ronny; Williams, Hywel C; Wolfe, Charles D A; Woodbrook, Rachel; Yano, Yuichiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2017-06-01

    Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health. To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion. Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss. Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long-term sequelae of conditions present at birth (eg

  10. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  11. Effects of nitrogen application rates on net annual global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in double-rice cropping systems of the Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongdu; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Hailin; Liu, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    The net global warming potential (NGWP) and net greenhouse gas intensity (NGHGI) of double-rice cropping systems are not well documented. We measured the NGWP and NGHGI including soil organic carbon (SOC) change and indirect emissions (IE) from double-crop rice fields with fertilizing systems in Southern China. These experiments with three different nitrogen (N) application rates since 2012 are as follows: 165 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 225 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N1), which was the local N application rates as the control; 135 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 180 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N2, 20 % reduction); and 105 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 135 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N3, 40 % reduction). Results showed that yields increased with the increase of N application rate, but without significant difference between N1 and N2 plots. Annual SOC sequestration rate under N1 was estimated to be 1.15 MgC ha -1  year -1 , which was higher than those under other fertilizing systems. Higher N application tended to increase CH 4 emissions during the flooded rice season and significantly increased N 2 O emissions from drained soils during the nonrice season, ranking as N1 > N2 > N3 with significant difference (P < 0.05). Two-year average IE has a huge contribution to GHG emissions mainly coming from the higher N inputs in the double-rice cropping system. Reducing N fertilizer usage can effectively decrease the NGWP and NGHGI in the double-rice cropping system, with the lowest NGHGI obtained in the N2 plot (0.99 kg CO 2 -eq kg -1 yield year -1 ). The results suggested that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be simultaneously achieved by properly reducing N fertilizer application in double-rice cropping systems.

  12. Child slavery and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, Stephen J.; Hill, R.J.; Hania, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Child slavery and child labour deny children their God-given dignity and freedom, and their right to education. Catholic Social Teaching is unequivocal in resolute condemnation of child slavery and child labour, in all of their forms.

  13. Annual Research Review: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Cortese, Samuele; Fairchild, Graeme; Stringaris, Argyris

    2016-03-01

    alternatives). In CD, it is reckless and insensitive to negative consequences. In depression, it is disengaged, perseverative, and pessimistic, while in anxiety, it is hesitant, risk-averse, and self-deprecating. A survey of current empirical indications related to these disorder-specific hypotheses highlights the limited and fragmentary nature of the evidence base and illustrates the need for a major research initiative in decision making in childhood disorders. The final section highlights a number of important additional general themes that need to be considered in future research. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Annual research review: Harms experienced by child users of online and mobile technologies: the nature, prevalence and management of sexual and aggressive risks in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia; Smith, Peter K

    2014-06-01

    , peer norms) and digital factors (online practices, digital skills, specific online sites). Mobile and online risks are increasingly intertwined with pre-existing (offline) risks in children's lives. Research gaps, as well as implications for practitioners, are identified. The challenge is now to examine the relations among different risks, and to build on the risk and protective factors identified to design effective interventions. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Annual Research Review: Discovery science strategies in studies of the pathophysiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders--promises and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yihong; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric science remains descriptive, with a categorical nosology intended to enhance interobserver reliability. Increased awareness of the mismatch between categorical classifications and the complexity of biological systems drives the search for novel frameworks including discovery science in Big Data. In this review, we provide an overview of incipient approaches, primarily focused on classically categorical diagnoses such as schizophrenia (SZ), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but also reference convincing, if focal, advances in cancer biology, to describe the challenges of Big Data and discovery science, and outline approaches being formulated to overcome existing obstacles. A paradigm shift from categorical diagnoses to a domain/structure-based nosology and from linear causal chains to complex causal network models of brain-behavior relationship is ongoing. This (r)evolution involves appreciating the complexity, dimensionality, and heterogeneity of neuropsychiatric data collected from multiple sources ('broad' data) along with data obtained at multiple levels of analysis, ranging from genes to molecules, cells, circuits, and behaviors ('deep' data). Both of these types of Big Data landscapes require the use and development of robust and powerful informatics and statistical approaches. Thus, we describe Big Data analysis pipelines and the promise and potential limitations in using Big Data approaches to study psychiatric disorders. We highlight key resources available for psychopathological studies and call for the application and development of Big Data approaches to dissect the causes and mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders and identify corresponding biomarkers for early diagnosis. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. The Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    1995-06-16

    Jun 16, 1995 ... Gallinetti "Child Justice" 648; Le Roux-Kemp 2008 Annual Survey of South African Law 298 (the. Act contains a "separate, but parallel, ... The various aspects of section 68 are then evaluated. The greatest challenges lie in the ... See also, eg, Picardi Hotels v Thekwini. Properties 2009 1 SA 493 (SCA) para ...

  17. Family Child Care Licensing Study, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report details the findings of an annual survey of state child care regulatory agencies. The survey gathered data on both small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The report's introduction lists the survey categories and…

  18. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  19. Estimated Annual Maintenance Costs for Educational Facilities in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea.......Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea....

  20. Selections from the ABC 2013 Annual Convention, New Orleans, Louisiana: A Gumbo of Favorite Assignments: Global, Communicating Complex Information, Short-Message Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2014-01-01

    This article, the first of a two-part series, catalogs teaching innovations presented at the 2013 Association for Business Communication (ABC) Annual Convention, New Orleans. They were presented during the My Favorite Assignment session. The 11 Favorite Assignments featured here offer the reader a variety of learning experiences including…

  1. Effect of the one-child policy on influenza transmission in China: a stochastic transmission model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21% in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, -0.15% (SD 1.85%, between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a

  2. The health and social situation of the mother during pregnancy and global quality of life of the child as an adult. Results from the prospective Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort 1959-1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective cohort study (Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61 of 7,222 persons was used in order to explore the association between the social and health situation during pregnancy and the global quality of life (QOL of the adult child 31-33 years later. Two sets of questionnaires were used with one filled out by physicians during pregnancy and one filled out by the adult children 31-33 years later. The questionnaires included mother's situation during pregnancy and global QOL of the child at follow-up: Well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, fulfilment of needs, experience of life’s temporal and spatial domains, expression of life’s potentials and objective measures. The only indicators to have clear connections with a reduced quality of life were the cases of mother's with syphilis (8.5%, mother's congenital malformations (8.8%, low social group (6.9% and failing contraception (3.8%. The results obtained repudiate the common notion and hypothesis that the mother's situation during pregnancy is highly important for the quality of life that the child experience as an adult. This suggest that the aspects important for quality of life later on are not found solely in early conditions, but instead more dependent on later attitude towards life of that specific person.

  3. Integrating HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis screening and treatment through the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health platform to reach global elimination targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Woodring

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year, an estimated 180 000 babies in the Western Pacific Region are infected by hepatitis B, 13 000 by syphilis and 1400 by HIV through mother-to-child transmission.1 These infections can be largely prevented by antenatal screening, treatment and timely vaccination for newborns. Despite challenges in controlling each disease, major achievements have been made. National immunization programmes have reduced the regional hepatitis B prevalence from over 8% in 1990 to 0.93% among children born in 2012. In addition, HIV testing and treatment have helped keep the regional prevalence of HIV infections at 0.1%. In contrast, the number of maternal syphilis cases is still high in the Western Pacific Region, with an estimated 45 million cases in 2012. Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of these infections cannot be achieved through vertically applied programming and require using and augmenting to the shared Maternal, Newborn and Child Health platform to coordinate, integrate and enable cost efficiencies for these elimination efforts. The Regional Framework for Triple Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV, Hepatitis B and Syphilis in Asia and the Pacific 2018–2030 offers such a coordinated approach towards achieving the triple elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis and provides guidance for decision-makers, managers and health professionals working in programmes addressing maternal, newborn and child health, HIV, hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections and immunization.

  4. Inter annual variability of the global carbon cycle (1992-2005) inferred by inversion of atmospheric CO2 and δ13CO2 measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, P.J.; Pickett-Heaps, C.; Law, R.M.; Allison, C.E.; Francey, R.J.; Trudinger, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    We present estimates of the surface sources and sinks of CO 2 for 1992 - 2005 deduced from atmospheric inversions. We use atmospheric CO 2 records from 67 sites and 10 δ 13 CO 2 records. We use two atmospheric models to increase the robustness of the results. The results suggest that inter annual variability is dominated by the tropical land. Statistically significant variability in the tropical Pacific supports recent ocean modeling studies in that region. The northern land also shows significant variability. In particular, there is a large positive anomaly in 2003 in north Asia, which we associate with anomalous biomass burning. Results using δ 13 CO 2 and CO 2 are statistically consistent with those using only CO 2 , suggesting that it is valid to use both types of data together. An objective analysis of residuals suggests that our treatment of uncertainties in CO 2 is conservative, while those for δ 13 CO 2 are optimistic, highlighting problems in our simple isotope model. Finally, δ 13 CO 2 measurements offer a good constraint to nearby land regions, suggesting an ongoing value in these measurements for studies of inter annual variability. (authors)

  5. Child health, child education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A R

    1989-06-01

    Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.

  6. Modern-Day Child Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Glind, Hans; Kooijmans, Joost

    2008-01-01

    Child slavery is a contemporary global problem existing since ancient times. The concept of slavery and practices similar to it are defined in a range of international instruments. Children are particularly vulnerable to slavery-like practices, and their special plight is addressed by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC-in particular…

  7. Global Cancer Humanitarian Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.

  8. 2012 CPES Annual Report

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech. Center for Power Electronics Systems

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Power Electronics Systems at Virginia Tech is a research center dedicated to improving electrical power processing and distribution that impact systems of all sizes – from battery – operated electronics to vehicles to regional and national electrical distribution systems. Our mission is to provide leadership through global collaborative research and education for creating advanced electric power processing systems of the highest value to society. CPES, with annual research expe...

  9. Effects of Childhood Experience of Violence Between Parents and/or Parent-to-Child Violence on Young Israeli Adults' Global Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    The study examines long-term effects of family violence in childhood (violence between parents and/or parent-to-child violence) on adult self-esteem. Data were derived from a sample of 352 university students. Findings show that young adults not exposed to family violence in childhood report the highest self-esteem; lower self-esteem reports were by those experiencing one type of family violence; the lowest self-esteem was reported by those who experienced two types of family violence. In the latter two groups, self-esteem was also affected by frequency of violence. A linkage was identified between the family violence types examined: The more frequent one type of violence, the more frequent the other type. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of effects of family violence on child development are discussed.

  10. Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2014–2015 season: annual report from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Puig-Barberà

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN has established a prospective, active surveillance, hospital-based epidemiological study to collect epidemiological and virological data for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres over several consecutive seasons. It focuses exclusively on severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization. A standard protocol is shared between sites allowing comparison and pooling of results. During the 2014–2015 influenza season, the GIHSN included seven coordinating sites from six countries (St. Petersburg and Moscow, Russian Federation; Prague, Czech Republic; Istanbul, Turkey; Beijing, China; Valencia, Spain; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Here, we present the detailed epidemiological and influenza vaccine effectiveness findings for the Northern Hemisphere 2014–2015 influenza season.

  11. The first year of implementation of the Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 mandates the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development to report annually on the implementation of the Child Justice Act to the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Justice and Constitutional Development. On 1 April 2011 a year had passed since the implementation of the Child ...

  12. The epidemiology of child homicides in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shanaaz; Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl

    2013-08-01

    To describe age- and sex-specific rates of child homicide in South Africa. A cross-sectional mortuary-based study was conducted in a national sample of 38 medicolegal laboratories operating in 2009. These were sampled in inverse proportion to the number that were operational in each of three strata defined by autopsy volume:  1499 annual autopsies. Child homicide data were collected from mortuary files, autopsy reports and police interviews. Cause of death, evidence of abuse and neglect or of sexual assault, perpetrator characteristics and circumstances surrounding the death were investigated. An estimated 1018 (95% confidence interval, CI: 843-1187) child homicides occurred in 2009, for a rate of 5.5 (95% CI: 4.6-6.4) homicides per 100 000 children younger than 18 years. The homicide rate was much higher in boys (6.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 5.6-8.3) than in girls (3.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 3.2-4.7). Child abuse and neglect had preceded nearly half (44.5%) of all homicides, but three times more often among girls than among boys. In children aged 15 to 17 years, the homicide rate among boys (21.7 per 100 000; 95% CI: 14.2-29.2) was nearly five times higher than the homicide rate among girls (4.6 per 100 000; 95% CI: 2.4-6.8). South Africa's child homicide rate is more than twice the global estimate. Since a background of child abuse and neglect is common, improvement of parenting skills should be part of primary prevention efforts.

  13. Global Megacities Differing Adaptation Responses to Climate Change: an Analysis of Annual Spend of Ten Major cities on the adaptation economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, M. A.; Georgeson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are increasingly at risk from climate change with negative impacts predicted for human health, the economy and ecosystems. These risks require responses from cities, to improve the resilience of their infrastructure, economy and environment to climate change. Policymakers need to understand what is already being spent on adaptation so that they can make more effective and comprehensive adaptation plans. Through the measurement of spend in the newly defined 'Adaptation Economy' we analysis the current efforts of 10 global megacities in adapting to climate change. These cities were chosen based on their size, geographical location and their developmental status. The cities are London, Paris, New York, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Beijing, Mumbai, Jakarta, Lagos and Addis Ababa. It is important to study a range of cities in different regions of the world, with different climates and at different states of socio-economic development. While in economic terms, disaster losses from weather, climate and geophysical events are greater in developed countries, fatalities and economic losses as a proportion of GDP are higher in developing countries. In all cities examined the Adaptation Economy is still a small part of the overall economy accounting for a maximum of 0.3% of the Cities total GDP (GDPc). The differences in total spend are significant between cities in developed and rapidly emerging countries, compared to those in developing countries with a spend ranging from £16 million to £1,500 million. Comparing key sub sectors, we demonstrate that there are distinctive adaptation profiles with developing cities having a higher relative spend on health, while developed cities have a higher spend on disaster preparedness, ICT and professional services. Comparing spend per capita and as a percentage of GDPc demonstrates even more clearly disparities between the cities in the study; developing country cities spend half as much as a proportion of GPCc in some cases, and

  14. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  15. Child's Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milshtein, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of child day centers on college campuses and what it takes to provide safe, successful, and fun places that support students, faculty, and staff needs. Areas addressed include safety and security, class and room size, inclusion of child-size toilets, and interior color schemes. (GR)

  16. CEA Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The CEA, a prominent player in research development and innovation, is active in three main domains: energy, health care and information technology, defense and security. This annual report presents the CEA activities for the year 2007 in these three main areas: science and technology working for nuclear deterrence and global security, the energies without greenhouse effect gases emission against the climatic change, researches in the information sciences and technologies for a better communication and health. The CEA safety, organization, communication and international relations are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  17. International energy annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports for primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude petroleum and petroleum products in selected countries. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed with respect to primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources and from United States Embassy personnel in foreign posts. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values familiar to the American public

  18. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  19. CEA - Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The CEA, a prominent player in research development and innovation, is active in 3 main areas: energy, health care and information technology and defense and security. This annual report presents the CEA activity for the year 2006 in these three main areas: Science and technology working for nuclear deterrence and global security (the simulation programs, the nuclear warheads, the nuclear propulsion, the decommissioning, the fighting against nuclear proliferation and monitoring international treaties, the global security); health and information technology (micro and nano technologies and systems); energy from nuclear fission and fusion and other technologies that do not emit greenhouse gases (progress for the nuclear industry, sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste, nuclear systems of the future, new energy technologies). (A.L.B.)

  20. Annual Report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Today, with increasing ability to empirically study the sequences and ..... It is the business of seismologists to measure and study earthquakes, in order to .... attention to the fact that we live in a global village where a disease in one corner.

  1. "High/Scope Supporting the Child, the Family, the Community": A Report of the Proceedings of the High/Scope Ireland Third Annual Conference, 12th October 2004, Newry, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    The third annual High/Scope Ireland Conference provided a forum for speakers workshop leaders and delegates from across Ireland, the UK, USA, Europe and South Africa to share their experiences of High/Scope in action. Research demonstrates that long term benefits for High/Scope participants include increased literacy rates, school success and…

  2. [Child labour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  3. Annual evolution of global, direct and diffuse radiation and fractions in tilted surfaces Evolução anual das radiações e fraç��es global, direta e difusa em superfícies inclinadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson P. de Souza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the annual evolution of global, direct and diffuse components of incident solar radiation on tilted surfaces to 12.85, 22.85 and 32.85º, facing north, in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The radiometric fractions were obtained for each component of the radiation in the aforementioned surfaces, through the ratio with the global and top of the atmosphere radiations. Seasonality was evaluated based on monthly averages of daily values. The measures occurred between 04/1998 and 07/2001 at 22.85º; 08/2001 and 02/2003 at 12.85º; and from 03/2003 to 12/2007 at 32.85º, with concomitant measures in the horizontal surface (reference. The levels of global and direct radiation on tilted surfaces were lower in summer and higher in the equinoxes when compared with the horizontal. The diffuse radiation on tilted surfaces was lower in most months, with losses of up to 65%. A trend of increasing differences occurred between horizontal and tilted surfaces with the increase of the angle in all the components and fractions of incident radiation. The annual evolution of rainfall and cloud cover ratio directly affected the atmospheric transmissivity of direct and diffuse components in the region.Avaliou-se a evolução anual das componentes global, direta e difusa da radiação solar incidente em superfícies inclinadas a 12,85; 22,85 e 32,85º, com face voltada ao Norte, em Botucatu-SP. Foram obtidas frações radiométricas para cada componente da radiação nas superfícies supracitadas, através de razões com a radiação global e a do topo da atmosfera. A sazonalidade foi avaliada através das médias mensais dos valores diários. As medidas ocorreram entre 04/1998 e 07/2001, em 22,85º; 08/2001 e 02/2003, em 12,85º; e de 03/2003 a 12/2007, em 32,85º, com medidas concomitantes no plano horizontal (referência. Os níveis das radiações global e direta nos planos inclinados foram inferiores no período de verão e superiores entre os

  4. The State of Washington's Children, Summer 2002. [Tenth Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Frederick A.; Brandon, Richard; Hill, Sheri L.; Carter, S. Louise; Garrison, Michelle M.; DeWys, Shelley; Mandell, Dorothy J.

    This Kids Count report is the tenth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children and focuses on child poverty and the needs of the working poor. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, births to…

  5. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  6. National, regional, and global sex ratios of infant, child, and under-5 mortality and identification of countries with outlying ratios: a systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Leontine; Chao, Fengqing; You, Danzhen; Pedersen, Jon; Sawyer, Cheryl C

    2014-09-01

    Under natural circumstances, the sex ratio of male to female mortality up to the age of 5 years is greater than one but sex discrimination can change sex ratios. The estimation of mortality by sex and identification of countries with outlying levels is challenging because of issues with data availability and quality, and because sex ratios might vary naturally based on differences in mortality levels and associated cause of death distributions. For this systematic analysis, we estimated country-specific mortality sex ratios for infants, children aged 1-4 years, and children under the age of 5 years (under 5s) for all countries from 1990 (or the earliest year of data collection) to 2012 using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model, accounting for various data quality issues and assessing the uncertainty in sex ratios. We simultaneously estimated the global relation between sex ratios and mortality levels and constructed estimates of expected and excess female mortality rates to identify countries with outlying sex ratios. Global sex ratios in 2012 were 1·13 (90% uncertainty interval 1·12-1·15) for infants, 0·95 (0·93-0·97) for children aged 1-5 years, and 1·08 (1·07-1·09) for under 5s, an increase since 1990 of 0·01 (-0·01 to 0·02) for infants, 0·04 (0·02 to 0·06) for children aged 1-4 years, and 0·02 (0·01 to 0·04) for under 5s. Levels and trends varied across regions and countries. Sex ratios were lowest in southern Asia for 1990 and 2012 for all age groups. Highest sex ratios were seen in developed regions and the Caucasus and central Asia region. Decreasing mortality was associated with increasing sex ratios, except at very low infant mortality, where sex ratios decreased with total mortality. For 2012, we identified 15 countries with outlying under-5 sex ratios, of which ten countries had female mortality higher than expected (Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Iran, Jordan, Nepal, and Pakistan). Although excess female

  7. Child malnutrition – from Hospital to clinical practice – the experience of Tanzania and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vasconcelos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a global effort to tackle the problem of child malnutrition that is still the underlying cause of death of at least 3.1 million children annually. Uganda and Tanzania are among the 22 countries with higher prevalence of child malnutrition. However, these two countries are true examples of how it is possible to reduce this scourge through simple, low-cost strategies. In 2010 I had the opportunity to learn and understand childhood malnutrition through a postgraduate course in Tanzania and Uganda – the East African Short Course in Tropical Medicine from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM. Beginning with a review of concepts and definitions of childhood malnutrition and the links between development and nutrition, this article moves on to summarise a learning experience from Uganda and Tanzania related to the progress and effectiveness of ‘hospital-based” and ‘community-specific’ interventions.

  8. Child labour: a public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Saleema Aziz; Vertejee, Samina; Pirani, Laila

    2009-11-01

    Child labour is a global practice and has many negative outcomes. According to International Labour Organization, child labour is the important source of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan has estimated the number of Pakistani working children to be around 11-12 millions, out of which, at least, half the children are under the age of ten years. It portrays the society's attitude towards child care. It is therefore, essential to break this vicious cycle and hence, enable the society to produce healthy citizens. This article analyzes the determinants of child labour in the Pakistani context and its implications for child's life, in specific, and for the nation, in general, utilizing the model developed by Clemen-stone & McGuire (1991). Since this practice has complex web of causation, a multidisciplinary approach is required to combat this issue through proposed recommendations.

  9. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  10. Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  11. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  12. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  13. Mother and Child Health International Research Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building a virtual global research institute to support maternal and child health ... Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia) : Building ... to information and communication technology (ICT) initiatives through its global ...

  14. Gender bias in child care and child health: global patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Rohan; Jain, Snigdha; Lodha, Rakesh; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2014-04-01

    Gender-based discrimination is reported across the spectrum of paediatric healthcare including emergency, inpatient, outpatient and preventive care and is mostly reported from South Asia and China with sporadic reports from Africa and South America. Biases against young girls have been documented even in immunisation percentage, home food allocation, seeking medical care for childhood ailments and percentage of household healthcare expenditures allocated to them. Such gender discrimination in access to medical care is likely to have an influence on the overall health of female children. Over the last five decades, the under-5 sex ratios are worsening in India with declining number of girls. Deliberate parental neglect of girls' essential and life-saving medical care is also an important contributing factor apart from sex-selective abortions to the declining gender ratios. Corrective measures and focused action are needed.

  15. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  16. Variability and trends in global drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Monthly precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) from the CRUTS3.1 data set are used to compute monthly P minus PET (PMPE) for the land areas of the globe. The percent of the global land area with annual sums of PMPE less than zero are used as an index of global drought (%drought) for 1901 through 2009. Results indicate that for the past century %drought has not changed, even though global PET and temperature (T) have increased. Although annual global PET and T have increased, annual global P also has increased and has mitigated the effects of increased PET on %drought.

  17. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developmental conditions. More Child Development Basics Early Brain Development Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting Tips Infants (0-1 year) Toddlers (1-2 years) Toddlers (2-3 years) Preschoolers (3-5 years) Middle Childhood (6-8 years) Middle Childhood (9-11 years) ...

  18. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  19. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  20. Child Domestic Labour: A Modern Form of Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagbrough, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a global scene for the scope of child domestic labour and explores the inter-woven relationship between the practice and slavery, as well as the consequences for this uniquely vulnerable group of child workers. In doing so, it seeks to dispel the myths that child domestic work is a safe form of employment for girls…

  1. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... about the Child Care Rule > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  2. CEA 2009 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After an indication of several key figures about the activity of the CEA (Centre d'Etudes Atomiques) and its relationship with the academic as well as the industrial field, in France and worldwide, this 2009 annual report presents its various research programs in the field of defence and of global security: basic research (nuclear weapons and propulsion, struggle against proliferation and terrorism) and applied research (nuclear deterrence, national and international security). Then, it presents the programs in the field of de-carbonated energy: basic research (in material science and in life sciences) and applied research (fission energy, fusion energy, new energy technologies). A last group of research programs deals with information and health technologies and concerns life and material sciences, micro- and nano-technologies, software technologies. Interaction with other research institutions and bodies is also evoked. A brief scientific assessment is proposed. Finally, the different structures building the CEA are presented

  3. International energy annual, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production, consumption, reserves, trade, and prices for five primary energy sources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear electricity. It also presents information on petroleum products. Since the early 1980's the world's total output of primary energy has increased steadily. The annual average growth rate of energy production during the decade was 1.9 percent. Throughout the 1980's, petroleum was the world's most heavily used type of energy. In 1989, three countries--the United States, the USSR, and China--were the leading producers and consumers of world energy. Together, these countries consumed and produced almost 50 percent of the world's total energy. Global production and consumption of crude oil and natural gas liquids increased during the 1980's, despite a decline in total production and demand in the early part of the decade. World production of dry natural gas continued to rise steadily in the 1980's. For the last several years, China has been the leading producer of coal, followed by the United States. In 1989, hydroelectricity supply declined slightly from the upward trend of the last 10 years. Nuclear power generation rose slightly from the 1988 level, compared with the marked growth in earlier years. Prices for major crude oils all increased between 1988 and 1989, but remained well below the price levels at the beginning of the decade. 26 figs., 36 tabs

  4. “MIDDLE GROUND,” “DUALITY,” AND “DIVERSIMILARITY” AS RESPONSES TO POSTCOLONIAL AND GLOBAL CHALLENGES IN CHINUA ACHEBE’S "THE EDUCATION OF A BRITISH-PROTECTED CHILD" AND "NO LONGER AT EASE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Culea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two literary works by Chinua Achebe—"No Longer at Ease" (1960 and "The Education of a British-Protected Child" (2011—in the context of the issue of diversity in the postcolonial setting. It aims to approach Achebe’s work from a new perspective, by applying a theoretical paradigm employed in business to the study of literature and culture. The “diversimilarity” paradigm, used for managing cultural diversity in organisations, is applied and shown to be pertinent to the investigation of literature, too. The methodology employed combines theoretical data with the practical implications of the conceptual framework on Achebe’s work. The paper starts with a discussion of the diversity concept and then moves on to tackle the diversimilarity paradigm in business. Then the investigation focuses on Achebe’s “duality” and “middle ground” concepts as they assist diversimilarity, concepts which work together at the levels of mentality, ideology, and identity. Finally, the paper focuses on language and the methods proposed by Achebe to manage and solve the existing linguistic diversity problems in Nigeria. The findings show that in the works explored, the diversimilarity paradigm is assisted by other concepts as solutions for the Nigerian people to cope with diversity. Moreover, Achebe shows that the other conceptions that support diversimilarity are still effective, even though they are rooted in the ancestral values of his Igbo people. The originality of the paper results from placing Achebe’s literary work in the context of contemporary concerns related to human identity in the postcolonial globalized environment and from expanding the scope and methods of literary research by employing concepts from other areas of human activity. Thus, the intersection between the worlds of the economy and culture seems fruitful for the investigation of cultural diversity.

  5. 33 CFR 55.9 - Child development centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (c) Training programs shall be conducted monthly to ensure that all child development center employees complete a minimum of 20 hours of training annually with respect to early childhood development... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child development centers. 55.9...

  6. Annual rates of decline in child, maternal, HIV, and tuberculosis mortality across 109 countries of low and middle income from 1990 to 2013: an assessment of the feasibility of post-2015 goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Olson, Zachary D; Yamey, Gavin; Jamison, Dean T

    2014-12-01

    Measuring a country's health performance has focused mostly on estimating levels of mortality. An alternative is to measure rates of decline in mortality, which are more sensitive to changes in health policy than are mortality levels. Historical rates of decline in mortality can also help test the feasibility of future health goals (eg, post-2015). We aimed to assess the annual rates of decline in under-5, maternal, tuberculosis, and HIV mortality over the past two decades for 109 low-income and middle-income countries. For the period 1990-2013, we estimated annual rates of decline in under-5 mortality (deaths per 1000 livebirths), the maternal mortality ratio (deaths per 100 000 livebirths), and tuberculosis and HIV mortality (deaths per 100 000 population per year) using published data from UNICEF and WHO. For every 5-year interval (eg, 1990-95), we defined performance as the size of the annual rate of decline for every mortality indicator. Subsequently, we tested the feasibility of post-2015 goals by estimating the year by which countries would achieve 2030 targets proposed by The Lancet's Commission on Investing in Health (ie, 20 deaths per 1000 for under-5 mortality, 94 deaths per 100 000 for maternal mortality, four deaths per 100 000 for tuberculosis mortality, and eight deaths per 100 000 for HIV mortality) at observed country and aspirational best-performer (90th percentile) rates. From 2005 to 2013, the mean annual rate of decline in under-5 mortality was 4·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·9-4·6), for maternal mortality it was 3·3% (2·5-4·1), for tuberculosis mortality 4·1% (2·8-5·4), and for HIV mortality 2·2% (0·1-4·3); aspirational best-performer rates per year were 7·1% (6·8-7·5), 6·3% (5·5-7·1), 12·8% (11·5-14·1), and 15·3% (13·2-17·4), respectively. The top two country performers were Macedonia and South Africa for under-5 mortality, Belarus and Bulgaria for maternal mortality, Uzbekistan and Macedonia for

  7. Child health and child care of very young children in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy

    2017-01-01

    With the global progress in reduction of child mortality, an increasing concern for the health, development and well-being of the surviving child has emerged. It is estimated that 250 million children are not reaching their developmental potential in developing countries, due to among others malnutrition, inadequate care and exposure to violence. In addition, structural and other social aspects of the immediate family and wider community environment of the child exert influence...

  8. Towards a global land subsidence map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, G.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Land subsidence is a global problem, but a global land subsidence map is not available yet. Such map is crucial to raise global awareness of land subsidence, as land subsidence causes extensive damage (probably in the order of billions of dollars annually). With the global land subsidence map

  9. State Child Care Licensing Laws in the Fifty States: A New Look in the Face of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkley, Josephine; Jackson, Jolie

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews state child care licensing legislation in light of reported child abuse and neglect in some such facilities. Recommended are licensing of all facilities of any size or religious affiliation, criminal record screening, at least annual inspections, unannounced inspections, and required notice to parents when abuse has been…

  10. “The child can remember your voice”: parent–child communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a wealth of research on parent–child communication about sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and its influence on young people's sexual behaviours. However, most of it is from the global North. The aim of this study was to explore parent–child communication in three South African provinces: ...

  11. SLA Looks Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes the 1992 Special Libraries Association (SLA) Annual Conference. Topics discussed include emphasizing internationalism; competing in a global economy; the competitive importance of information; downsizing because of financial constraints; Internet and NREN (National Research and Education Network); recruitment; ethics; standards; and the…

  12. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The CEA, a public technological research organization is active in three main areas: energy, health care and information technology and defense and security. Excellence in fundamental research underpins its activities. This annual report presents its activities in three main axis. The defense and security axis where science and technology are working for nuclear deterrence and global security, presents the simulation program, the resources available to the scientific community, the nuclear warheads, the nuclear propulsion, the decommissioning of the Rhone Valley facilities, the fighting against nuclear proliferation and monitoring international treaties and the global security. The second axis deals with energy from nuclear fission and fusion and other technologies that do not emit greenhouse gases: progress for the nuclear industry, coherent set of tools for nuclear research and development, sustainable management of radioactive wastes and materials, nuclear systems of the future and new energy technologies. The third axis is devoted to major breakthroughs in information, communication and health science and technology. The report provides also the 2006 financial report, the CEA organizational structure and the support programs. (A.L.B.)

  13. Child injuries in Ethiopia: A review of the current situation with projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Alonge, Olakunle; Lawhorn, Collene; Ambaw, Yirga; Kumar, Smita; Jacobs, Troy; Hyder, Adnan A

    2018-01-01

    Heavy burden of child injuries and lack of policy response in Ethiopia call for an improved understanding of the situation and development of action plans from multiple governmental agencies and stakeholders. A consortium of international and Ethiopian researchers and stakeholders used extensive literature review and mixed analytical methods to estimate and project the burden of fatal and non-fatal child unintentional injuries in Ethiopia from 2015 to 2030. Estimates were derived for children aged 0-14 years. Data sources include a longitudinal study conducted by the Central Statistics Agency of Ethiopia and the World Bank as well as model-based estimates from World Health Organization 2017 and Global Burden of Disease 2016 project. Injuries caused about 25 thousand deaths among 0-14-year olds in Ethiopia in 2015. The leading cause of fatal child unintentional injuries in Ethiopia was road-traffic injuries, followed by fire, heat and hot substances and drowning. The death rate due to injuries among 0-14 years olds was about 50 percent higher in males than females. Rural children were exposed to a greater risk of injury than their urban peers. The longitudinal survey suggests that the incidence rate of child injuries increased during the period 2011-2014. The annual mortality caused by injuries is projected to increase from 10,697 in 2015 to 11,279 in 2020 and 11,989 in 2030 among children under 5 years, an increase of 12 percentage points in 15 years. The number of deaths among 0-14-year olds will be 26,463, 27,807, and 30,364 respectively in 2015, 2020, and 2030. As the first multisectoral collaboration on child injuries in Ethiopia, this study identified gaps in understanding of the burden of child injuries in Ethiopia. In consultation with Ethiopian government and other stakeholders, we propose starting an injury surveillance system at health clinics and hospitals and building an intervention package based on existing platforms.

  14. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  15. 'Global change' impact of inter-annual variation in water discharge as a driving factor to dredging and spoil disposal in the river Rhine system and of turbidity in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, V.N.; de Jong, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1970 to 2000, the annual mean suspended matter (SPM) concentrations in the Vlie and Marsdiep tidal inlets of the Wadden Sea varied over five times. The present paper examines the possible relationship between SPM in the Wadden Sea and changing river Rhine discharges and dredging operations.

  16. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get your child treated for any bites, especially dog bites, right away. Let your child's doctor know ... Call your health care provider if: Your child's temperature is 101°F (38.3°C) or higher. ...

  17. Teaching the pre-primary child reading and writing: a challenge for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching the pre-primary child reading and writing: a challenge for pre-primary school teachers in rivers state, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Educational Research ... of the child's interactive learning and emphasizes specific teaching methods ...

  18. The economic consequences of malnutrition in Cambodia, more than 400 million US dollar lost annually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriansky, Jack; Champa, Ngy; Pak, Kimchoeun; Whitney, Sophie; Laillou, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia is among the 28 worst countries globally with the highest rates of childhood malnutrition. The aim of the assessment was to apply published evidence associating malnutrition and a variety of functional consequences to project economic implications of this high rate of childhood malnutrition. Such information is vital to advocate for appropriate programs and action plan to reduce malnutrition (from severe stunting to micronutrient deficiencies). This exercise used a "consequence model" to apply these "coefficients of loss" established in the global scientific literature to Cambodia health, demographic and economic data to develop a national estimation of the economic losses link to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analysed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at more than $400 million annually -2.5% of GDP. Micronutrient deficiencies suggest deficits in the quality of the diet - representing a national burden of more than $200 million annually while breastfeeding behaviours account for 6% of the burden. 57% of the losses emerge from indicators measured in children, while 43% of losses are from indicators independent of childhood measurements - indicators of maternal behaviour along with maternal and adult nutrition. Given the low cost of interventions and the high baseline losses, investment in nutrition programs in Cambodia is likely to offer high returns and attractive benefit cost ratios. Since nearly half the losses are determined prior to the birth of the child, this has implications for targeting and timing of programs.

  19. Nexen 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report contains financial information from Nexen Inc., a Calgary-based global energy and chemicals company. A review of strategies and operations was also provided, including details of new exploration and plans for growth development in Canada and internationally. Growth regions included the Athabasca oil sands; Gulf of Mexico, Middle East, offshore West Africa and the North Sea. Nexen share prices at the end of the fourth quarter rested at $58.35, up from $47.03 in 2003. Quarterly dividends increased to $0.10 per share. Net sales for 2004 were $3,176 million compared to $2,844 million in 2003. Cash flow increased 8 per cent from 2003 to $1.9 billion. The report lists major achievements of 2004. Among the achievements were the acquisition of assets in the UK North Sea and the development of the Long Lake Project. New investments in 2004 included $69 million in Offshore West Africa, $175 million in Canada with $148 million in maturing Canadian core assets. Legal proceedings pending against the company were provided. This annual report includes an auditor's report of the company's energy resource activities. An operations review was also presented along with consolidated financial statements, a summarized balance sheet of assets, liabilities/surplus and net assets, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. A summary of government and environmental regulations affecting business was also provided. tabs., figs

  20. 2002 annual report EDF group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the 2002 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) group, the French electric utility. Content: Introductory section (EDF at a glance, Chairman's message, 2002 Highlights); Corporate governance and Group strategy (Corporate governance, sustainable growth strategy, EDF branches); Financial performance (Reaching critical mass, Margins holding up well, Balance sheet); Human resources (Launching Group-wide synergies, Optimising human resources); Customers (Major customers, SMEs and professional customers, Local authorities, Residential customers, Ensuring quality access to electricity); Generation (A balanced energy mix, Nuclear generation, Fossil-fuelled generation, Renewable energies); Corporate social responsibility (Global and local partnerships, Promoting community development)

  1. EDF Group - Annual Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The EDF Group is emerging as a global leader in electricity and an industrial benchmark spanning the entire business from generation and networks to sales and marketing. The group is growing stronger and changing. A long-term vision and relentless determination to provide a modern public service underpin its robust business model. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2013. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document comprises the Activity Report and the Sustainable Development Indicators

  2. 77 FR 18797 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Office of Postsecondary Education; Child Care Access Means...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Office of Postsecondary Education; Child Care Access Means Parents in School Program Annual Performance Report Summary: This is a revision of the Child Care Access Means Parent In School Program (CCAMPIS) Annual Performance Report (APR...

  3. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    SOFTWARE, LIKE ALL industry products, is the result of complex multinational supply chains with many partners from concept to development to production and maintenance. Global software engineering (GSE), IT outsourcing, and business process outsourcing during the past decade have showed growth...... rates of 10 to 20 percent per year. This instalment of Practitioner’s Digest summarizes experiences and guidance from industry to facilitate knowledge and technology transfer for GSE. It’s based on industry feedback from the annual IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, which had...

  4. Practice Parameter: Evaluation of the child with microcephaly (an evidence-based review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Stephen; Michelson, David; Plawner, Lauren; Dobyns, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To make evidence-based recommendations concerning the evaluation of the child with microcephaly. Methods: Relevant literature was reviewed, abstracted, and classified. Recommendations were based on a 4-tiered scheme of evidence classification. Results: Microcephaly is an important neurologic sign but there is nonuniformity in its definition and evaluation. Microcephaly may result from any insult that disturbs early brain growth and can be seen in association with hundreds of genetic syndromes. Annually, approximately 25,000 infants in the United States will be diagnosed with microcephaly (head circumference microcephaly (head circumference microcephaly (−2 to −3 SD; ∼40%). Coexistent conditions include epilepsy (∼40%), cerebral palsy (∼20%), mental retardation (∼50%), and ophthalmologic disorders (∼20% to ∼50%). Recommendations: Neuroimaging may be considered useful in identifying structural causes in the evaluation of the child with microcephaly (Level C). Targeted and specific genetic testing may be considered in the evaluation of the child with microcephaly who has clinical or imaging abnormalities that suggest a specific diagnosis or who shows no evidence of an acquired or environmental etiology (Level C). Screening for coexistent conditions such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and sensory deficits may also be considered (Level C). Further study is needed regarding the yield of diagnostic testing in children with microcephaly. GLOSSARY CP = cerebral palsy; GDD = global developmental delay; HC = head circumference; MRE = medically refractory epilepsy; OMIM = Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. PMID:19752457

  5. Child Bride and Child Sex: Combating Child Marriages in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the basis of child marriages in Northern Nigeria. It is an Islamic practice rooted in the interpretation of the Quran. Significantly, the caveat that copulation should be delayed until such girls are mature is often ignored as these child brides are engaged in sex. This paper analyzes the report of a Senator in ...

  6. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  7. Child Sexual Abuse in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantula, Fennie; Saloojee, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work. Although Zimbabwe has a well-established legal and regulatory framework to protect children from child sexual abuse, implementation of existing policies is weak. Financial, human, and material resource constraints are frequently cited to explain limited prevention activity. Effective strategies for the prevention of child sexual abuse should focus on implementing existing legislation, targeting schoolchildren, and getting community involvement. A dedicated budget would help entrench these strategies, but gains can be achieved even in the absence of this.

  8. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  9. Annual nitrate drawdown observed by SOCCOM profiling floats and the relationship to annual net community production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Dunne, John P.; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    Annual nitrate cycles have been measured throughout the pelagic waters of the Southern Ocean, including regions with seasonal ice cover and southern hemisphere subtropical zones. Vertically resolved nitrate measurements were made using in situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer (ISUS) and submersible ultraviolet nitrate analyzer (SUNA) optical nitrate sensors deployed on profiling floats. Thirty-one floats returned 40 complete annual cycles. The mean nitrate profile from the month with the highest winter nitrate minus the mean profile from the month with the lowest nitrate yields the annual nitrate drawdown. This quantity was integrated to 200 m depth and converted to carbon using the Redfield ratio to estimate annual net community production (ANCP) throughout the Southern Ocean south of 30°S. A well-defined, zonal mean distribution is found with highest values (3-4 mol C m-2 yr-1) from 40 to 50°S. Lowest values are found in the subtropics and in the seasonal ice zone. The area weighted mean was 2.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 for all regions south of 40°S. Cumulative ANCP south of 50°S is 1.3 Pg C yr-1. This represents about 13% of global ANCP in about 14% of the global ocean area.Plain Language SummaryThis manuscript reports on 40 annual cycles of nitrate observed by chemical sensors on SOCCOM profiling floats. The annual drawdown in nitrate concentration by phytoplankton is used to assess the spatial variability of annual net community production in the Southern Ocean. This ANCP is a key component of the global carbon cycle and it exerts an important control on atmospheric carbon dioxide. We show that the results are consistent with our prior understanding of Southern Ocean ANCP, which has required decades of observations to accumulate. The profiling floats now enable annual resolution of this key process. The results also highlight spatial variability in ANCP in the Southern Ocean.

  10. The State of Washington's Children, Fall 2001. [Ninth Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

    This Kids Count report is the ninth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, divorces involving children, and births to unmarried mothers; (2) economic…

  11. NEA 2015 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magwood, William D. IV; Ha, Jaejoo; Nieh, Ho; Hah, Yeonhee; Siemann, Michael; Gulliford, Jim; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena; Gannon-Picot, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The year 2015 continued to be one of significant change, both in relation to the Agency and the global context within which it operates. As countries around the world plan aggressive nuclear power plant construction programmes, prepare to phase out and decommission plants, or to both build and retire plants simultaneously, issues of economics, waste management, public communication and nuclear safety continue to dominate the global discussion regarding nuclear power. As many countries work to absorb the outcome of the COP21 negotiations at the end of 2015, it is becoming increasingly likely that the future of nuclear power will be determined in great respect by non-traditional suppliers and new entrant countries. As reflected in this year's Annual Report, the NEA completed a significant revision of its management structure, which, it is hoped, will enable it to be more flexible, more efficient and more focused on the issues of greatest concern to its member countries. Our members provided input via the process of developing the new Strategic Plan of the Nuclear Energy Agency: 2017-2022, reaffirming their desire to maintain a sharp focus on nuclear safety as our most important mission area, while also reaffirming the vital importance of the NEA as a leading forum for technology cooperation, economic analysis and scientific investigation. In that respect, the NEA's new role as the institutional home of the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) continues the Agency's coverage of complex issues associated with the deployment of new nuclear power plants. The NEA also launched the Nuclear Innovation 2050 initiative in 2015, through which NEA hopes to develop a coordinated international agenda for priority nuclear technology research and development on issues ranging from advanced fuel cycles to improved technology and methods for decommissioning retired plants. In all, 2015 was a year of both continued success for the NEA and a

  12. NUKEM annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of this important undertaking in the German nuclear industry informs about its structure, holdings and activities in 1981. The report of the management is followed by remarks on the annual statement of accounts (annual balance, profit-loss accounting) and the report of the Supervisory Board. In the annex the annual balance of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH as per December 31, 1981, and the profit-loss accounting of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH for the business year 1981 are presented. (UA) [de

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Suncor is a Canada-based integrated oil company with over $ 5.2 billion in assets. It produces 142,800 barrels of oil equivalent per day. There are four major business areas within Suncor: (1) oil sands - produces and markets custom-blended refinery stocks and transportation fuel from its oil sands mining and upgrading facilities at Fort McMurray, Alberta; (2) the Exploration and Production arm which explores, acquires, develops and produces oil and natural gas in western Canada and markets its production throughout North America; (3) Sunoco, Suncor's refining and marketing operation, with a major refinery in Sarnia, Ontario, and a network of more than 500 retail gasoline outlets throughout the province; and (4) International oil and In-situ operations, which focus on developing heavy oil and oil shale technologies that provide unique strategic advantages to Suncor on a global basis. This report records the company's progress during the 1999 fiscal year in terms of the company's priorities for long-term growth , i.e. to expand the oil sands, transfer expertise and technology from oil sands to new businesses, integrate downstream and upstream businesses, and focus on natural gas and alternative and renewable energy. The company is fully aware of the need for sustainable development and in its oil sands operations has in place a comprehensive Greenhouse Gas Management Plan that in fact affects the entire company. The goal is to remove one tonne of carbon dioxide for every tonne of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere through management of own emissions, pursuing greenhouse gas offsets and supporting education and research. The company has scored some notable successes in all of the target areas, details of which are provided in this annual report. A statement of the company's financial state is also included, along with the company's goals for 2000

  10. Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa: Strengthening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program aims to assist targeted developing ... The program is part of the Global Health Research Initiative, a collaboration between Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, the ...

  11. Risk Assessment: How Crucial in Determining Child's Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a global concern to curtail the prevalence of child abuse. However, certain difficulties are posed in meeting this objective in Nigeria, because child social workers often lack the practical or theoretical skills for detecting those children that are susceptible to abuse and thus, in need of early protective measures.

  12. CGH Celebrates Take Your Child To Work Day 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shady Grove celebrated Take Your Child To Work Day this year with a variety of activities and sessions aimed at inspiring school-aged children to explore career paths in science and public service. CGH hosted its inaugural Take Your Child To Work Day session: An Introduction to Global Health.

  13. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  14. Research priorities on ending child marriage and supporting married girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi

    2015-09-03

    Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.

  15. Annual Growth Bands in Hymenaea courbaril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, J A; Guilderson, T P; Colinvaux, P A

    2004-02-09

    One significant source of annual temperature and precipitation data arises from the regular annual secondary growth rings of trees. Several tropical tree species are observed to form regular growth bands that may or may not form annually. Such growth was observed in one stem disk of the tropical legume Hymenaea courbaril near the area of David, Panama. In comparison to annual reference {Delta}{sup 14}C values from wood and air, the {Delta}{sup 14}C values from the secondary growth rings formed by H. courbaril were determined to be annual in nature in this one stem disk specimen. During this study, H. courbaril was also observed to translocate recently produced photosynthate into older growth rings as sapwood is converted to heartwood. This process alters the overall {Delta}{sup 14}C values of these transitional growth rings as cellulose with a higher {Delta}{sup 14}C content is translocated into growth rings with a relatively lower {Delta}{sup 14}C content. Once the annual nature of these growth rings is established, further stable isotope analyses on H. courbaril material in other studies may help to complete gaps in the understanding of short and of long term global climate patterns.

  16. Reproductive, maternal, newborn, child & adolescent health in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project will contribute to evidence from four country case studies in Syria, South Sudan, Mali, and Colombia or the Democratic Republic of Congo as part of a global project to inform developing operational guidance on interventions related to reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health ...

  17. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE IN ZIMBABWE: PREVENTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacob Mugumbate

    that social workers in Zimbabwe have a role to play at all the three levels of intervention. KEY TERMS: Child sexual abuse (CSA), social work, prevention,. Meili's model. ..... network/2013/mar/19/world-social-work-day-fair-global- · economy1.

  18. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  19. CSIR Annual report 1965

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 48 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. CSIR Annual report 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 86 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. CSIR Annual report 1976

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 75 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. CSIR Annual report 1978

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 78 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. CSIR Annual report 1991

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 40 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  6. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  7. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  8. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  9. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  10. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  11. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  12. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N; Mika, J R; Wieteska, K [eds.

    1999-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  13. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  14. Global warming and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonand, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The macro-economic impacts of climate change and of policies to reduce carbon content should be moderate on a global basis for the planet - a few hundredths of a % of world GDP on an annual basis, but significant for some regions (Asia-Pacific notably). The probability of extreme climatic events justifies with effect from today the implementation of measures that will carry a cost in order to limit global warming. (author)

  15. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  16. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  17. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  18. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  19. Dental care - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002213.htm Dental care - child To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Proper care of your child's teeth and gums includes brushing and rinsing daily. It ...

  20. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  2. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  3. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  4. 1998 Annual Study Report. Surveys on seeds for global environmental technologies, including those for energy saving; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sho energy nado chikyu kankyo taisaku gijutsu no seeds ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The energy-saving and other global environmental technologies are surveyed by collecting relevant information from various institutes, both abroad and domestic, to contribute to development of ceramic gas turbines. USA has announced a climate change plan, based on the five principles, to promote utilization of high-efficiency technologies and development of new clean technologies. UK is promoting to improve energy efficiency, along with liberalization of its energy markets. Germany concentrates its efforts in the 'Program for Energy Research and Energy Technologies.' France places emphasis on prevention of air pollution and rational use of energy. The R and D trends at public institutes, e.g., universities, for global environmental technologies are surveyed, from which a total of 14 themes are extracted as the seed technologies. At the same time, a total of 9 techniques potentially applicable to the seeds are extracted by mainly reviewing JICST and patent information, and assessed. The R&D trends of the IPCC-related researchers are also surveyed, but provide no theme directly applicable to the seeds. Most of the related themes at the private and public institutes surveyed, both domestic and abroad, are concentrated on carbon dioxide. (NEDO)

  5. Child Labour and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    D'Alessandro, Simone; Fioroni, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evolution of child labour, fertility and human capital in an economy characterized by two type of individuals, low and high skilled workers. This heterogeneity allows for an endogenous analysis of inequality generated by child labour. More specifically, according to empirical evidence, we oer an explanation for the emergence of a vicious cycle between child labour and inequality. The basic intuition behind this result is the interdependence between child labour and f...

  6. Systematic screening of child abuse in out-of-hours primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, MCM

    2017-01-01

    Child abuse is a serious global health problem. This thesis focused on – improving – the detection of child abuse in the out-of-hours primary care (OOH-PC). The main aim was to assess the diagnostic value of the screening instrument SPUTOVAMO-R2 for child abuse. We found that the detection rate of

  7. Child Sexual Abuse and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first book to explore child sexual abuse within global religious and media organisations. Termed here the dual narrative, there is, on the one hand, the view that everyone is a potential paedophile, and, on the other, the notion of a witch-hunt falsely accusing people. Beginning with a re-examination of historic claims of satanic ritual abuse, the author moves on to investigate global celebrity culture, the global religious context as well as an analysis of technology. The interna...

  8. A method for assessing the annual dose to the most exposed individual from tritium and 14C reactor discharges to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1979-10-01

    A method is described for assessing the annual dose to the most exposed individual from routine releases of tritium and 14 C to the atmosphere during normal reactor operations. A detailed assessment has been made of the resulting equilibrium contamination levels in a range of foodstuffs typical of an average UK diet and of the annual doses resulting from a chronic intake of tritium and 14 C via inhalation, ingestion and, additionally, in the case of tritium, via skin absorption. Equilibrium annual doses from the global circulation of tritium and 14 C have also been calculated. Upper limits to the effective annual dose-equivalents to the most exposed individual were found to be 0.6 rem.yr -1 and 100 rem.yr -1 per Ci.yr -1 release of tritium and 14 C respectively, with the ingestion pathway contributing significantly to the overall exposure. The most exposed individual was found to be a Reference 10 year old child. The methods outlined for calculating the ingestion dose from tritium and 14 C releases hav been incorporated into the more generally applicable code FOODDOSE. The code may be used to make more realistic dose calculations to the individuals based on site-specific surveys of variables such as local meteorology, local diet and local land use for agriculture, which may lead to doses smaller than the upper limit values quoted by factors of 20 and 200 for tritium and 14 C respectively. (author)

  9. Child homicide perpetrators worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Dekel, Bianca; Morris-Gehring, Alison; Watts, Charlotte; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe child homicide perpetrators and estimate their global and regional proportion to inform prevention strategies to reduce child homicide mortality worldwide. A systematic review of 9431 studies derived from 18 databases led to the inclusion of 126 studies after double screening. All included studies reported a number or proportion of child homicides perpetrators. 169 countries and homicide experts were surveyed in addition. The median proportion for each perpetrator category was calculated by region and overall and by age groups and sex. Data were obtained for 44 countries. Overall, parents committed 56.5% (IQR 23.7-69.6) of child homicides, 58.4% (0.0-66.7) of female and 46.8% (14.1-63.8) of male child homicides. Acquaintances committed 12.6% (5.9-31.3) of child homicides. Almost a tenth (9.2% (IQR 0.0-21.9) of child homicides had missing information on the perpetrator. The largest proportion of parental homicides of children was found in high-income countries (64.2%; 44.7-71.8) and East Asia and Pacific Region (61.7%; 46.7-78.6). Parents committed the majority (77.8% (61.5-100.0)) of homicides of children under the age of 1 year. For adolescents, acquaintances were the main group of homicide perpetrators (36.9%, 6.6-51.8). There is a notable lack of studies from low-income and middle-income countries and children above the age of 1 year. Children face the highest risk of homicide by parents and someone they know. Increased investment into the compilation of routine data on child homicide, and the perpetrators of this homicide is imperative for understanding and ultimately reducing child homicide mortality worldwide. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015030125.

  10. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  11. Umweltbundesamt. Annual report 1997; Umweltbundesamt. Jahresbericht 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, K; Plehn, G [comps.

    1999-12-31

    This annual report of the Federal Environmental Office comprises the following chapters: Environmental monitoring and reporting; Environmental research: Global and national environmental protection; Instruments and strategies; Ecological effects and quality goal; Effects on humans; Water; Soil; Air; Noise; Energy, climate protection; Traffic; Environmentally compatible products; Environmentally compatible technology; Waste management; Materials evaluation, genetic engineering. (SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Jahresbericht des Umweltbundesamtes gliedert sich in folgende Kapitel: Umweltaufklaerung und Umweltberichterstattung; Globaler und nationaler Umweltschutz; Instrumente und Strategien; Oekologische Wirkungen und Qualitaetsziele; Wirkungen auf den Menschen; Wasser; Boden; Luft; Laerm; Energie, Klimaschutz; Verkehr; Produktbezogener Umweltschutz; Umweltvertraegliche Technik und Verfahren; Entsorgung, Stoffbewertung und Vollzug, Gentechnik. (SR)

  12. Umweltbundesamt. Annual report 1997; Umweltbundesamt. Jahresbericht 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, K.; Plehn, G. [comps.

    1998-12-31

    This annual report of the Federal Environmental Office comprises the following chapters: Environmental monitoring and reporting; Environmental research: Global and national environmental protection; Instruments and strategies; Ecological effects and quality goal; Effects on humans; Water; Soil; Air; Noise; Energy, climate protection; Traffic; Environmentally compatible products; Environmentally compatible technology; Waste management; Materials evaluation, genetic engineering. (SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Jahresbericht des Umweltbundesamtes gliedert sich in folgende Kapitel: Umweltaufklaerung und Umweltberichterstattung; Globaler und nationaler Umweltschutz; Instrumente und Strategien; Oekologische Wirkungen und Qualitaetsziele; Wirkungen auf den Menschen; Wasser; Boden; Luft; Laerm; Energie, Klimaschutz; Verkehr; Produktbezogener Umweltschutz; Umweltvertraegliche Technik und Verfahren; Entsorgung, Stoffbewertung und Vollzug, Gentechnik. (SR)

  13. KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2015: State Trends in Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "KIDS COUNT Data Book" is an annual publication that assesses child well-being nationally and across the 50 states, as well as in the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Using an index of 16 indicators, the report ranks states on overall child well-being and in economic well-being, education, health and family and community. The…

  14. NIRE annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of 'ecotechnology' that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts.

  15. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  16. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  17. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  18. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  19. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  20. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  1. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  2. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  3. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  4. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  5. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  6. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  7. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2003-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2002 is reported. Structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  8. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2005-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  9. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2004-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2003 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  10. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  11. Annual Report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The annual report gives the specific scientific results in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and data processing with a list of publications. (orig.) [de

  12. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  13. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  14. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  15. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  16. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  17. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  18. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  19. FY 1998 annual summary report on recent trends of global warming prevention measures with fluorochlorohydrocarbon alternatives; 1998 nendo daitia furon no chikyu ondanka taisaku doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the recent trends of the ozone layer protection and global warming prevention measures. Latest international information has been collected by attending the 10th Meeting of the Party of Montreal Protocol, and the 17th and 18th Open Ended Working Group. The important decisions made so far are investigation on the novel ozone layer destruction substances, requirement of studying on decommissioning Halon facilities, collection of information of HFC and PFC, and reporting to IPCC. Information regarding regulation trends of HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6} are collected by attending the COP-4 meeting and the preparatory meetings therefor. The report on these 3 substances will be completed in July or so, 1999. The trends of technical development in HCFC alternatives in refrigeration and blowing sectors were investigated. HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc are introduced. Also introduced is latest information regarding the emission estimation and control measures of HFC in USA and UK, emission control measures of SF{sub 6} in USA and Japan, and techniques for destruction of CFC and the like, which could be the basic techniques for controlling diffusion of HFC. The CFC phase-out programs of China, the biggest ozone layer destruction substance (e.g., CFC) consuming country, are also outlined. (NEDO)

  20. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  1. Child computer interaction SIG: towards sustainable thinking and being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Read, J.; Hourcade, J.P.; Markopoulos, P.; Iversen, O.S.

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant

  2. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  3. Assessing development assistance for child survival between 2000 and 2014: A multi-sectoral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunling; Chu, Annie; Li, Zhihui; Shen, Jian; Subramanian, S V; Hill, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of Countdown countries did not reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4) on reducing child mortality, despite the fact that donor funding to the health sector has drastically increased. When tracking aid invested in child survival, previous studies have exclusively focused on aid targeting reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH). We take a multi-sectoral approach and extend the estimation to the four sectors that determine child survival: health (RMNCH and non-RMNCH), education, water and sanitation, and food and humanitarian assistance (Food/HA). Using donor reported data, obtained mainly from the OECD Creditor Reporting System and Development Assistance Committee, we tracked the level and trends of aid (in grants or loans) disbursed to each of the four sectors at the global, regional, and country levels. We performed detailed analyses on missing data and conducted imputation with various methods. To identify aid projects for RMNCH, we developed an identification strategy that combined keyword searches and manual coding. To quantify aid for RMNCH in projects with multiple purposes, we adopted an integrated approach and produced the lower and upper bounds of estimates for RMNCH, so as to avoid making assumptions or using weak evidence for allocation. We checked the sensitivity of trends to the estimation methods and compared our estimates to that produced by other studies. Our study yielded time-series and recipient-specific annual estimates of aid disbursed to each sector, as well as their lower- and upper-bounds in 134 countries between 2000 and 2014, with a specific focus on Countdown countries. We found that the upper-bound estimates of total aid disbursed to the four sectors in 134 countries rose from US$ 22.62 billion in 2000 to US$ 59.29 billion in 2014, with the increase occurring in all income groups and regions with sub-Saharan Africa receiving the largest sum. Aid to RMNCH has experienced the fastest growth (12

  4. Assessing development assistance for child survival between 2000 and 2014: A multi-sectoral perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunling Lu

    Full Text Available The majority of Countdown countries did not reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 on reducing child mortality, despite the fact that donor funding to the health sector has drastically increased. When tracking aid invested in child survival, previous studies have exclusively focused on aid targeting reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH. We take a multi-sectoral approach and extend the estimation to the four sectors that determine child survival: health (RMNCH and non-RMNCH, education, water and sanitation, and food and humanitarian assistance (Food/HA.Using donor reported data, obtained mainly from the OECD Creditor Reporting System and Development Assistance Committee, we tracked the level and trends of aid (in grants or loans disbursed to each of the four sectors at the global, regional, and country levels. We performed detailed analyses on missing data and conducted imputation with various methods. To identify aid projects for RMNCH, we developed an identification strategy that combined keyword searches and manual coding. To quantify aid for RMNCH in projects with multiple purposes, we adopted an integrated approach and produced the lower and upper bounds of estimates for RMNCH, so as to avoid making assumptions or using weak evidence for allocation. We checked the sensitivity of trends to the estimation methods and compared our estimates to that produced by other studies. Our study yielded time-series and recipient-specific annual estimates of aid disbursed to each sector, as well as their lower- and upper-bounds in 134 countries between 2000 and 2014, with a specific focus on Countdown countries. We found that the upper-bound estimates of total aid disbursed to the four sectors in 134 countries rose from US$ 22.62 billion in 2000 to US$ 59.29 billion in 2014, with the increase occurring in all income groups and regions with sub-Saharan Africa receiving the largest sum. Aid to RMNCH has experienced the

  5. EDF group. Annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document is the English version of the 2001 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) Group, the French electric utility. It comprises 4 parts: introduction (statement of the chairman and chief executive officer, corporate governance, group key figures, sustainable growth indicators - parent company, energy for a sustainable future, EdF group worldwide); dynamics and balanced growth (financial results, EdF's strategy in building a competitive global group: consolidating the European network, moving forward in energy-related services, responding to increasing energy demand in emerging countries); sustainable solutions for all (empowering the customer: competitive solutions for industrial customers, anticipating the needs of residential customers and SMEs, environmental solutions to enhance urban life, upgrading the network and providing access to energy; a sound, sustainable and secure energy mix: a highly competitive nuclear fleet, the vital resource of fossil-fuelled plants, a proactive approach to renewable energies); a global commitment to corporate social responsibility (human resources and partnerships). (J.S.)

  6. EDF group. Annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document is the English version of the 2001 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) Group, the French electric utility. It comprises 4 parts: introduction (statement of the chairman and chief executive officer, corporate governance, group key figures, sustainable growth indicators - parent company, energy for a sustainable future, EdF group worldwide); dynamics and balanced growth (financial results, EdF's strategy in building a competitive global group: consolidating the European network, moving forward in energy-related services, responding to increasing energy demand in emerging countries); sustainable solutions for all (empowering the customer: competitive solutions for industrial customers, anticipating the needs of residential customers and SMEs, environmental solutions to enhance urban life, upgrading the network and providing access to energy; a sound, sustainable and secure energy mix: a highly competitive nuclear fleet, the vital resource of fossil-fuelled plants, a proactive approach to renewable energies); a global commitment to corporate social responsibility (human resources and partnerships). (J.S.)

  7. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming.

  8. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  9. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  10. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  11. Child labor : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan; Kanbur, Ravi

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1990, the first World Summit for Children promised to reduce child mortality and malnutrition. It set targets to be reached by the year 2000. Although it established no explicit goals on child labor, the targets included basic education for all children and the completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of children. Meeting these goals will reduce child labor, say the authors. The evidence they review shows that education intervention play a key role in reducing c...

  12. The Global Professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Bousquet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As educators in an increasingly global society, we realize that we need to train students-undergraduate and graduate-to live and work in a global environment. This idea is not a new one; scholars, administrators, and government officials have been promoting similar notions for several decades, especially since the advent of the Cold War. David Ward, president of the American Council on Education, emphasized at the 2003 annual meeting of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges that international education can no longer be considered "business as usual." The concept that graduates must have cross-cultural knowledge and expertise -long recognized in the languages and humanities-has steadily gained support to become an important goal and a marker of achievement for many professional schools in the United States today.

  13. Well-child visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fluoride in diet Infant formulas Obesity in children Growth and development schedules: Infant -- newborn development Toddler development Preschooler development School-age child development Adolescent ...

  14. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This annual report is the fifth issued in English from the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory in Uppsala since research was started in November 1970. It covers work performed during the calendar year 1976 and updates information given in earlier annual reports with regard to laboratory facilities such as computer configuration and layout of the experimental area. The descriptions of the research projects are also in general more detailed than usual and may sometime contain results obtained before 1976 in order to avoid too many references to earlier annual reports. It has, for instance, been thought of interest to make the sections on the study of beam foil excitation of atoms and on the measurements of nuclear deformations by the REPREC method quite extensive. (Auth.)

  15. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  16. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  17. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  18. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  19. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Ru...

  20. Global Mindset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial.......e. the capability to sense (quickly), reflect (constructively) and act purposefully (for mutual benefit). A case on an MNC is used at the end to show the organizational manifestations of a GM....

  1. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bibliography Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind Printable ... Information About... Transforming Teaching Family and Community Engagement Early Learning Helping Your Child Our mission is to promote student achievement and ...

  2. The State of Texas Children: Texas KIDS COUNT Annual Data Book--The Importance of Investing in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviney, Frances; Phillips, Pace; Dickerson, Carrie; Tibbitt, Laura

    2011-01-01

    On February 4, the Center for Public Policy Priorities (CPPP) released the 18th annual Texas KIDS COUNT data book, "The State of Texas Children 2011." The annual data book and free data warehouse provide the latest look at more than 80 different measures of child well-being in Texas and every county in the state. This year, the opening…

  3. Corruption kills: estimating the global impact of corruption on children deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Van-Melle, Astrid; Fraisse, Florence; Roger, Amaury; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI) and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2)= 0.89) included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.valueCorruption Perception Index (p.valuecorruption) was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.

  4. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, E; Funk, A L; Shimakawa, Y

    2016-11-01

    The risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been quoted as 70-90% among women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg), and 5-30% among HBsAg-positive HBeAg-negative women. These risks are derived from Asia; little is known about sub-Saharan Africa. To determine the risk of mother-to-child transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, according to maternal HBeAg and type of prophylaxis. We searched Medline, Global Health, Embase, African Journals Online and African Index Medicus. We included observational or interventional studies that enrolled infants of HBV-infected women, and that tested for HBsAg or HBV DNA between 3 and 12 months of age. Fifteen articles from 11 African countries were included. Among HBeAg-positive women, the pooled risk was 38.3% (95% CI: 7.0-74.4%) without prophylaxis, which was significantly lower than the lower bound of 70-90% risk in the literature (P = 0.007). Among HBeAg-negative women, the pooled risk was 4.8% (95% CI: 0.1-13.3%) without prophylaxis, which lays within the lower range of the 5-30% risk in Asia. By extrapolating the pooled transmission risks to the number of births to infectious mothers, an estimated 1% of newborns (n = 367 250) are annually infected with HBV at birth in sub-Saharan Africa. Compared to Asia, the risk of mother-to-child transmission is low in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the annual number of infants perinatally infected with HBV is twice the number of incident paediatric HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa (n = 190 000). This highlights the importance of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HBV in sub-Saharan Africa, which has been long neglected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mother's time allocation, child care and child cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    BRILLI, Ylenia

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of maternal employment and non-parental child care on child cognitive development, taking into account the mother's time allocation between leisure and child-care time. I estimate a behavioral model, in which maternal labor supply, non-parental child care, goods expenditure and time allocation decisions are considered to be endogenous choices of the mother. The child cognitive development depends on maternal and non-parental child care and on the goods bought f...

  6. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

  7. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2000

  8. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 299 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  9. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This annual report contains short descriptions of the work done at the named institute. These concern the study of hyperfine interactions, experiments with synchroton radiation, experiments at storage rings, and experiments at CERN. Furthermore, a list of publications, contributions to conferences and these is presented. (HSI) [de

  10. CSIR Annual report 1966

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty second annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1966, to the 31st December 1966. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  11. Annual Report - ESCELSA - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual report of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; market overview; market expansion; customers; technological stream; measuring quality; electric system; investments; protecting the environment; and resource allocation

  12. Annual Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  13. HASYLAB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at HASYLAB together with a list of publications, speeches, and theses. The work concerns technical developments, the study of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and liquids, X-ray structure studies of solids and interfaces, molecular biology, further applications of synchrotron radiation, and experimental developments. (HSI)

  14. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  15. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  16. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  17. CSIR Annual report 1968

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fourth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1968, to the 31st December 1968. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  18. CSIR Annual report 1971

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty seventh annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1971, to the 31st December 1971. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  19. CSIR Annual report 1970

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty sixth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1970, to the 31st December 1970. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  20. CSIR Annual report 1969

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fifth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1969, to the 31st December 1969. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  1. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  2. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  3. KTA annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report gives an overview of the rulemaking work in the individual fields as well as other activities, such as meetings, international codes of rules, and publications. KTA organization, including its administration and funds is listed. (orig./HP) [de

  4. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 145 refs.; 20 figs.; 4 fotos; 2 tabs

  5. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In this annual report the work done at the named Institute is described. This concerns particle and fields in the solar system, infrared astronomy, X-ray astronomy, γ-astronomy, and molecule spectroscopy. A list of publications is added. (HSI)

  6. ANCLI annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2003. (A.L.B.)

  7. ANCLI annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2004. (A.L.B.)

  8. Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, N; Skalski, J [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given.

  9. TIARA annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shigeru; Narumi, Kazumasa; Yoshida, Masaru; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Yoshikawa, Masato; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Otsubo, Michiro; Yokota, Watalu; Nakamura, Yoshiteru

    2006-01-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2005. The 126 of the presented papers are indexed individually. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  10. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  11. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  12. ANCLI annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2002. (A.L.B.)

  13. Annual General Meetings

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We have produced this information booklet to explain why companies must – by law – hold an Annual General Meeting (AGM). The laws which cover AGMs are known as the Companies Acts. This guide gives only a summary of the rules for AGMs. If you have a concern about the AGM of a particular company, you should get independent legal advice.

  14. Annual report 1981, annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume entitled ''Annex to the annual report'' deals in more detail with the scientific works of the I.L.L.: the scientific activity of theoricians; experimental reports on inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry

  15. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains.

  16. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlikowicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.

    2007-03-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2006. The document consist of four parts: 'Laboratory Overview', 'Experiments and Experimental Set-ups', 'Experiments Using the Outside Facilities' and 'General Information on HIL Activities'. An 'Introduction' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  17. Annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The annual report from IKU (Continental Shelf Institute) in Norway deals with the market adjustment of research activities at the institute as a result of offshore cost-cutting policy in the petroleum industry. The market is about to shift focus from volume to competence. In practice, that means buying competence instead of project ideas or proposals

  18. BAM - Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The annual report contains progress and activity reports of the presidential department, the departments metals and metal construction, civil engineering and building activities, organic matter, chemical safety engineering, special fields of materials testing, techniques independent of the type of material, an index, as well as general and statistic statements. (HK) [de

  19. Annual report - ENERSUL - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of ENERSUL - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: Outlook for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sold; capacity increases; customers; customers; energy balance; performance and quality; electric system; investments; people; human resources; synergies; awards; workplace safety; social balance; and patrimonial balance

  20. 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French union of the petroleum industry (UFIP). It summarizes the highlights of the petroleum industry activity in France in 2001 and gives some additional information about the production, refining and distribution of petroleum products in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  1. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.

    2008-03-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2007. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  2. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  3. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  4. Annual report - ESCELSA - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of 1999 of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power company - introduces the next main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; customers; quality; electric system; investments; people; resources; synergies; awards; outlook; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  5. IKF annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The annual report of 1988 gives a survey of the following category of themes: nuclear physics, atom physics, nuclear methods, nuclear solid-state physics and developments of machines. Apart from the use of its own Van de Graaff accelerators the institute takes part in joint ventures in research, for example with the GSI (Association for Heavy-Ion Research) in Darmstadt. (DG) [de

  6. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.

    2006-05-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2005. The document consist of four parts: Laboratory Overview, Experiments and Experimental Set-ups, Experiments Using the Outside Facilities and General Information on HIL Activities. An Introduction written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  7. KVI Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This annual report offers 93 informative descriptions of the current research projects at the KVI cyclotron during 1982. The projects are classed under the following heads: elastic and inelastic scattering; giant resonances; transfer and charge exchange reactions; breakup reactions; heavy ion reactions; electromagnetic and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; atomic physics; nuclear solid state physics; cyclotron, computers and instrumentation; nuclear medicine; environmental studies. (Auth.)

  8. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  9. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    In this annual report the work done at the named institute is described. This concerns experiments with synchrotron radiations, high energy physics experiments at the PETRA and DORIS storage rings, studies of MFS interactions, and some neutrino experiments at CERN. A list of publications is included. (HSI)

  10. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  11. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  12. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  13. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  14. Annual report SNET 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the SNET (National Society of Electricity and thermic) presents the society activities and the financial report for the year 2003. The society position in the market, the environmental policy, the performance, the workers and financial data are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  16. NUFFIC Annual Report, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-operation, The Hague.

    The 1977 annual report of the Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC) considers the following topics: major developments in work and policy; relationships NUFFIC has with other organizations; University Development Cooperation; developments in international education; the functioning of the Consultative Structure…

  17. CSIR Annual report 1967

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty third annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1967, to the 31st December 1967. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  18. Annual report 1982. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the scientific annual report 1982 of the ILL on R and D activities of the different colleges: fundamental and nuclear physics, inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry, theory. Abstracts of the publications published during the year are presented

  19. CSIR Annual report 1980

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty-sixth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1980 to 31 December 1980. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1980, certified...

  20. NRCC annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer

  1. GKSS annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This annual report reviews the structure and activities of the GKSS in 1983. R and D work was done on reactor safety engineering, environmental research/environmental engineering and underwater technology. It also reports on cooperation with outside partners, the organization, financing, and developments in the staff structure as well as on publications, lectures, applications for patents, etc. (UA) [de

  2. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules (Ed.), John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  3. ELETRONUCLEAR - Annual report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual activities report of 1997 of ELETRONUCLEAR - Brazilian company responsible by the electric power generation from the nuclear technology - introduces the next main topics: company vision and mission; energy production and commercialization; investments in the electric power generation; economic and financial situation; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  4. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  5. PTB annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The annual report presents general information on the institution's activities and the various departments, and reports on scientific work in the field of metrology and safety engineering. Brief scientific accounts refer to work in the domains of mechanics and acoustics, electricity, heat, optics, industrial metrology, atomic physics, technical and scientific services, collection and disposal of radioactive waste. (DG) [de

  6. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2004. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and monitoring of environment; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers is presented

  7. NIKHEF Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this annual report 1982, the NIKHEF research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry is described in a wide context. Next, the reports of the individual projects of section-H and section-K are described in detail. Finally, the report gives some statistical information of publications, colloquia and co-workers. (Auth.)

  8. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary and detailed reports are presented of current research during 1987 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics. (H.W.). 61 refs.; 13 figs.; 14 tabs

  9. NIKHEF Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF) during its first year. Following a general introduction to the research areas in which NIKHEF is involved, 29 brief reports from the project groups are presented. Details concerning personnel, participation in councils and committees, finances, publications, colloquia and participation in congresses and schools are included. (Auth.)

  10. Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacz, M.; Zielinska, M.

    2011-06-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2010. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments at HIL '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' Appendices '' where general information on HIL activities are described. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Heavy Ion Laboratory prof. K. Rusek is also given.

  11. CSIR Annual report 1962

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the eighteenth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1962 to 31 December 1962. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1962, certified...

  12. CSIR Annual report 1983

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty ninth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1983 to 31 December 1983. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1983, certified...

  13. CSIR Annual report 1981

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty seventh annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1981 to 31 December 1981. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1981, certified...

  14. CSIR Annual report 1982

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty eighth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1982 to 31 December 1982. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1982, certified...

  15. CSIR Annual report 1963

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the nineteenth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1963, to the 31st December 1963. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  16. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  17. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  18. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  19. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  20. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  1. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  2. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  3. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, N.; Skalski, J.

    2009-01-01

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  4. On Parsing CHILDES

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Aarre

    2005-01-01

    Research on child language acquisition would benefit from the availability of a large body of syntactically parsed utterances between parents and children. We consider the problem of generating such a ``treebank'' from the CHILDES corpus, which currently contains primarily orthographically transcribed speech tagged for lexical category.

  5. Every Child, Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  6. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  7. Prevention of Child Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Gaia, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the determinants of child abandonment in the city of Bra ov. The research is based on a new dataset collected on the field on mothers and pregnant women at risk of abandoning their child.

  8. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  9. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  10. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.T.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by

  11. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  12. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...

  13. The battered child syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorantin, E.; Lindbichler, F.

    2002-01-01

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.) [de

  14. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  15. Developing Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is the first qualitative micro case study of one aspect of globalization: personal networks as a concrete outcome of development assistance spending. The empirical findings related in this paper present circumstantial evidence that Japanese foreign aid has contributed to globalization...

  16. Global Uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  17. Annual, semi-annual and ter-annual variations of gravity wave momentum flux in 13 years of SABER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Preusse, Peter; Ern, Manfred; Strube, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the variations at different time scales such as the annual cycle, the semiannual oscillation (SAO), the ter-annual cycle (about four monthly) and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in zonal mean GW amplitudes and GW momentum flux (GWMF) have been investigated using satellite observations from 2002-2014 and combining ECMWF high resolution data with the GORGRAT model. The global distribution (patterns) of spectral amplitudes of GW momentum flux in stratosphere and mesosphere (from 30 km to 90 km) show that the annual cycle is the most predominant variation, and then are SAO, ter-annual cycle and QBO. For annual components, two relatively isolated amplitude maxima appear in each hemisphere: a subtropical maximum is associated with convective sources in summer, a mid and high latitude maximum is associated with the polar vortex in winter. In the subtropics, GWs propagate upward obliquely to the higher latitudes. The winter maximum in the southern hemisphere has larger momentum flux than that one in the northern hemisphere. While on the SH the phase (i.e. time corresponding to the maximum GWMF) continuously descends with the maximum in July in the upper mesosphere and in September in the lower stratosphere, on the northern hemisphere, the phase has no visible altitude dependence with a maximum in December. For semiannual variations, in the MLT (70-80 km) region, there is an obvious enhancement of spectral amplitude at equatorial latitudes which relate to the dissipation of convectively forced GWs. The SAO in absolute momentum flux and the annual cycle in zonal momentum flux indicated that the variations at mid-latitudes (about from 30°-40°) are not a SAO signals but rather an annual cycle when the direction of GWMF is considered. The ter-annual cycle may be related to the duration of active convection in subtropical latitudes (from June to Sep. in north hemisphere) Indications for QBO are found latitude extension to mid-latitudes in stratosphere of

  18. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking...

  19. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  20. Influence of Sea Surface Temperature, Tropospheric Humidity and Lapse Rate on the Annual Cycle of the Clear-Sky Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Liu, W.

    2000-01-01

    The implication of this work will provide modeling study a surrogate of annual cycle of the greenhouse effect. For example, the model should be able to simulate the annual cycle before it can be used for global change study.

  1. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  2. A Transactional Model of Temperamental Development: Evidence of a Relationship between Child Temperament and Maternal Stress over Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Raikkonen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Komsi, Niina; Jarvenpaa, Anna-Liisa; Strandberg, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Although there is growing consensus that parental stress is a risk factor in child development, longitudinal studies of its effects are few. This study tested a sample of 231 mother-child dyads in terms of whether the relations between the global experience of stress in mothers (perceived stress scale) and child temperamental characteristics…

  3. Parents' Death and its Implications for Child Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Atrash, Hani K.

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of child mortality is a global public health priority. Parents can play an important role in reducing child mortality. The inability of one or both parents to care for their children due to death, illness, divorce or separation increases the risk of death of their children. There is increasing evidence that the health, education, and socioeconomic status of mothers and fathers have significant impact on the health and survival of their children. We conducted a literature review to e...

  4. Atlas of the global distribution of atmospheric heating during the global weather experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaack, Todd K.; Johnson, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    Global distributions of atmospheric heating for the annual cycle of the Global Weather Experiment are estimated from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Level 3b data set. Distributions of monthly, seasonally, and annually averaged heating are presented for isentropic and isobaric layers within the troposphere and for the troposphere as a whole. The distributions depict a large-scale structure of atmospheric heating that appears spatially and temporally consistent with known features of the global circulation and the seasonal evolution.

  5. Global carbon budget 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO 2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990's, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO 2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6±0.4 GtC yr -1 , ELUC 0.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , GATM 4.3±0

  6. An ethical approach to resolving value conflicts in child protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E; Moynihan, S

    2010-01-01

    Child protection professionals working in diverse societies are regularly faced with value conflicts. Recognising these, and resolving them in the best interests of children, is a task that requires child protection specialists to make complex judgements and decisions. In this paper the philosophical concepts of absolutism and relativism to child abuse are applied, and it explores how this approach has practical relevance to solving ethical dilemmas in child protection. Children's interests are best served by erring towards an absolutist approach to the diagnosis and recognition of maltreatment and towards a relativistic approach in determining how services respond to a harmful incident or situation. Absolutism and relativism are not alternatives, but part of a continuous process of recognising and negotiating ever-changing community, national and global norms. At the service level the dichotomy transpires into the need to be culturally competent in handling the conflicting needs, rights and values of children, families, communities and professionals, whilst retaining the skill of child advocacy.

  7. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G; Walker, Susan P; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Christian, Parul; de Onis, Mercedes; Ezzati, Majid; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Katz, Joanne; Martorell, Reynaldo; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-08-03

    Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity. Low body-mass index, indicative of maternal undernutrition, has declined somewhat in the past two decades but continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa. Prevalence of maternal overweight has had a steady increase since 1980 and exceeds that of underweight in all regions. Prevalence of stunting of linear growth of children younger than 5 years has decreased during the past two decades, but is higher in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere and globally affected at least 165 million children in 2011; wasting affected at least 52 million children. Deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc result in deaths; deficiencies of iodine and iron, together with stunting, can contribute to children not reaching their developmental potential. Maternal undernutrition contributes to fetal growth restriction, which increases the risk of neonatal deaths and, for survivors, of stunting by 2 years of age. Suboptimum breastfeeding results in an increased risk for mortality in the first 2 years of life. We estimate that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011. Maternal overweight and obesity result in increased maternal morbidity and infant mortality. Childhood overweight is becoming an increasingly important contributor to adult obesity, diabetes, and non-communicable diseases. The high present and future disease burden caused by malnutrition in women of reproductive age, pregnancy, and children in the first 2 years of life should lead to interventions focused on these groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reflexões acerca do papel do fonoaudiólogo junto à família de uma criança com Transtorno Global do Desenvolvimento: estudo de caso Considerations about the role of a speech-language pathologist with the family of a child with Pervasive Development Disorder: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cecília Rabinovitsch Gertel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi refletir e discutir o papel do fonoaudiólogo na condução das estratégias terapêuticas junto à família de uma criança com Transtorno Global do Desenvolvimento. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida por meio de estudo de caso de uma criança com Transtorno Global do Desenvolvimento atendida de julho/2002 a novembro/2004. Os recortes do material clínico retratam o percurso seguido ao longo do eixo da história do paciente enfatizando os momentos significativos que geraram desenvolvimento do processo terapêutico fonoaudiológico no que se refere à comunicação oral e integração social no ambiente familiar. O enfoque das estratégias clínicas foi direcionado para propiciar um ambiente físico e emocional capaz de promover experiências constitutivas que respeitem a singularidade de cada paciente levando em conta a realidade da família e da comunidade onde se encontra inserido aquele núcleo social. Portanto, em nosso entender, a atuação fonoaudiológica pode ser direcionada para a criação de situações que favoreçam o processo [de cada paciente] de inclusão na vida cotidiana, com o respeito que todas as pessoas merecem.The aim of this study was to reflect about and discuss the role of a speech-language pathologist with the family of a child with Pervasive Development Disorder. This case study reported the case of a child with Pervasive Development Disorder that attended speech-language therapy from July/2002 to November/2004. The excerpts of clinical material depict the course of the patient's history, emphasizing the significant moments that generated development of the therapeutical process related to oral communication and social interaction within his familiar setting. Clinical strategies focused a favorable physical and emotional environment, promoting constitutive experiences that respect the singularity of each patient, considering the realities of the family and the community it is part of

  9. International Energy Agency 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The IEA Executive Director’s Annual Report 2012 is the first of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It is presented to the IEA Governing Board and released publicly to ensure transparency and also to take stock of the organisation’s activities from a strategic perspective. 2012 was a transitional year for the IEA, given fundamental changes in the global energy economy as well as internal management and budget issues. At the same time demand for IEA products set new records, and the public and political impact of IEA work through effective communication was measured as high.

  10. International Energy Agency 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    The IEA Executive Director's Annual Report 2013 is the second of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It was presented to the IEA Governing Board and is also released publicly to ensure transparency and to take stock of the organisation's activities from a strategic perspective. 2013 was a banner year for the IEA, given continued changes in the global energy economy as well as the IEA Ministerial meeting in November which brought together Energy Ministers from all 28 IEA member countries, accession countries Chile and Estonia, seven key partner countries - Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa - as well as more that 30 top-level executives from the energy industry. Key Ministerial outcomes included the first IEA Ministers' Joint Statement on Climate Change and a declaration of association by six key partner countries to build multilateral cooperation with the IEA.

  11. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  12. Shadow Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  13. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…

  14. Global Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  15. Fourth annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Independent Radiation Monitoring Scheme for Clwyd began its monitoring programme in Clwyd in 1988. This is the fourth report on the results of the radiation monitoring carried out within Clwyd. The historical reasons for the conception of the Radiation Monitoring Scheme are given in the First Annual Report together with the protocol of operation and detailed sampling and monitoring information. The fourth Annual Report identifies any changes in techniques that have occurred in the last twelve months together with the latest monitoring and analytical data. Samples of air, beach materials, coastal sand and silt, seaweed, meat, fish and milk were taken from various locations within the county. No significant charges in radiation levels were found when compared with data from previous years. The values have remained within the range currently being expected throughout the United Kingdom. (author)

  16. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  17. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Document Server

    Pension Fund

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud). Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys). Questions from members and beneficiaries. Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer). As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  18. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  19. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  20. Annual recertification: fun? Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, A

    1994-01-01

    Learning is critical to fostering a knowledge base required for maintaining currency and furthering professional development. In the ever-changing field of nephrology, most skills practised in nursing are considered to be sanctioned medical acts or added nursing skills. Therefore, annual recertification of the skills designated as sanctioned medical acts is an expectation of the College of Nurses of Ontario. The Wellesley Hospital policy indicates one time only or annual approval of the added nursing skills. The article will discuss the use of games as a creative, non-threatening educational tool in the recertification/re-approval process currently in place at The Wellesley Hospital, renal programs. In the past two years, several games or alternative teaching strategies have been utilized to assist the staff in preparing for recertification. This paper will examine the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing alternative teaching formats. Commentary regarding the response of staff nurses, nursing management and education will be highlighted.

  1. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  2. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  3. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  4. 1986 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This annual report describes the reasearch activity carried out during 1986 by the Fusion Department of the Italian Commision for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA). The report outlines the main results obtained by the three major projects of the Fusion Department (Fusion Physics, Frascati Tokamak Upgrade, and Fusion Reactor Engineering), plus the divisional project Inertial Confinement mentioned separately because of its particular scientific content. Most of the research work was performed by the Fusion Department at its location at the ENEA Frascati Energy Research Center, but some work was also done elsewhere, or with recourse to other ENEA departments. The research activity described in this annual report was carried out with the frame of the Association Euratom-ENEA on Fusion, with the exception of some minor activities

  5. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  6. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  7. Nagra annual report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    This annual report made by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) takes a look at the cooperative’s activities and work done in 2013. Nagra’s task is recapitulated. Developments in 2013 concerning legislation, inventories of radioactive materials, sectorial planning and scientific and technical aspects are examined. Work done in the rock laboratories, in the public relations sector and consulting areas is looked at. Nagra’s organizational structure with its management, commissions and auditors is commented on and an organigram of the head office is presented. On the financial side of things, the annual financial statement with incomes, cash flow and accumulated accounts is presented as is the report made by the statutory auditors. An appendix to the report contains details on waste inventories and volumes, a list publications made in 2012 as well as Internet addresses and a glossary.

  8. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  9. Nagra annual report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This annual report made by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) takes a look at the cooperative’s activities and work done in 2013. Nagra’s task is recapitulated. Developments in 2013 concerning legislation, inventories of radioactive materials, sectorial planning and scientific and technical aspects are examined. Work done in the rock laboratories, in the public relations sector and consulting areas is looked at. Nagra’s organizational structure with its management, commissions and auditors is commented on and an organigram of the head office is presented. On the financial side of things, the annual financial statement with incomes, cash flow and accumulated accounts is presented as is the report made by the statutory auditors. An appendix to the report contains details on waste inventories and volumes, a list publications made in 2012 as well as Internet addresses and a glossary

  10. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  11. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-03-26

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.

  12. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  13. [Why child neuropsychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllnitz, G

    1978-05-01

    The author gives a brief survey of the development of Child-Neuropsychiatry in the G.D.R. and subsequently gives reasons for the decision in favor of the unity of neurology and psychiatry as applied to children and juveniles, which is in contrast to developments in other countries. In addition to hygienic, economic, organizational, and medical considerations, this decision was also determined by the fact that a Child-Neuropsychiatrist must, in his practical work as a subspecialist, be able to head a multiprofessional team and, thus, help assure optimum development of a child's personality.

  14. CHILD LABOR IN PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Ariyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang. This study, especially, investigates the probability of children age 7-15 years old to be a worker. It is found that factors that significantly affect child labor are gender, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal system. However, parents’ education and income are found to be insignificant in affecting the probability of child labor in Palembang.

  15. TIARA annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Itoh, Hisayoshi [eds.; Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    2000-10-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. Summary reports of 106 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  16. TIARA annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Namba, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    2001-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. Summary reports of 103 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  17. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Areva is a world energy expert on technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. This 2005 annual report provides information on the Group results in the following domains: information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operations, new developments and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and outlook. (A.L.B.)

  18. Uranium industry annual, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data on US uranium raw materials and marketing activities of the domestic uranium industry. It contains aggregated data reported by US companies on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (1988), Form EIA-858, and historical data from prior data collections and other pertinent sources. The report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent agency for data collection and analysis with the US Department of Energy

  19. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2006. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2006 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  20. Risoe annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    An explanation of Risoe National Laboratory's function within the Danish research system is followed by brief accounts of research activities at Risoe during 1987. Energy resources, technology and policy are discussed, the annual accounts are presented, a guide to the National Laboratory and a list of its publications are given. Some of the research activities that took place in 1987 described in more detail are within the fields of chemistry and the environment, superconductivity, new aspects of powdery mildew, polymers and robotics. (AB)