WorldWideScience

Sample records for annual foliage growth

  1. Digestion, growth performance and caecal fermentation in growing rabbits fed diets containing foliage of browse trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Abu Hafsa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding dried foliage (leaves and petioles of Acacia saligna, Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera on the performance, digestibility, N utilisation, caecal fermentation and microbial profiles in New Zealand White (NZW rabbits. One hundred weaned male NZW rabbits weighing 819.2±16.6 g and aged 35±1 d were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 25 rabbits each. Rabbits were fed on pelleted diets containing 70% concentrate mixture and 30% Egyptian berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum hay (Control diet or one of the other 3 experimental diets, where 50% of berseem hay was replaced with A. saligna (AS, L. leucocephala (LL or M. oleifera (MO. Compared to Control diet, decreases in dry matter (DM; P=0.004, organic matter (P=0.028, crude protein (CP; P=0.001, neutral detergent fibre (P=0.033 and acid detergent fibre (P=0.011 digestibility were observed with the AS diet. However, DM and CP digestibility were increased by 3% with the MO diet, and N utilisation was decreased (P<0.05 with AS. Rabbits fed AS and LL diets showed decreased (P=0.001 average daily gain by 39 and 7%, respectively vs. Control. Feed conversion was similar in Control and MO rabbits, whereas rabbits fed AS diet ate up to 45% more feed (P=0.002 than Control rabbits to gain one kg of body weight. Caecal ammonia-N was increased (P=0.002 with LL, while acetic acid was decreased (P=0.001 with AS diet vs. other treatments. Caecal E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria counts were decreased with MO by about 44 and 51%, respectively, vs. Control. In conclusion, under the study conditions, tree foliage from M. oleifera and L. leucocephala are suitable fibrous ingredients to be included up to 150 g/kg in the diets of growing rabbits, and can safely replace 50% of berseem hay in diets of NZW rabbits without any adverse effect on their growth performance. Foliage from M. oleifera had a better potential as a feed for rabbits than that from L

  2. Foliage litter quality and annual net N mineralization: comparison across North American forest sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Neal A; Binkley, Dan

    1997-07-01

    The feedback between plant litterfall and nutrient cycling processes plays a major role in the regulation of nutrient availability and net primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. While several studies have examined site-specific feedbacks between litter chemistry and nitrogen (N) availability, little is known about the interaction between climate, litter chemistry, and N availability across different ecosystems. We assembled data from several studies spanning a wide range of vegetation, soils, and climatic regimes to examine the relationship between aboveground litter chemistry and annual net N mineralization. Net N mineralization declined strongly and non-linearly as the litter lignin:N ratio increased in forest ecosystems (r 2  = 0.74, P mineralization decreased linearly as litter lignin concentration increased, but the relationship was significant (r 2  = 0.63, P mineralization across this range of sites (r 2  litter lignin:N ratio and net N mineralization from forest floor and mineral soil was similar. The litter lignin:N ratio explained more of the variation in net N mineralization than climatic factors over a wide range of forest age classes, suggesting that litter quality (lignin:N ratio) may exert more than a proximal control over net N mineralization by influencing soil organic matter quality throughout the soil profile independent of climate.

  3. Effects of goat manure liquid fertilizer combined with AB-MIX on foliage vegetables growth in hydroponic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaryo, Y.; Purnomo, D.; Darini, M. T.; Cahyani, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Hydroponic as one of the protected cultivation practices is very important to be developed in Indonesia due to not only the reduction of arable agricultural lands in lines with increasing of residential demand and other public facilities but also due to the negative influences of climate change as well global warming to plant growth. The effects of liquid fertilizer made from goat manure (LFGM) in combination with AB-Mix on three kinds of foliage vegetable growth was examined in hydroponics. The research was conducted by 3 x 4 factorial experiment and arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications. The first factor was foliage vegetable consisting of 3 levels: Mustard Green, Lettuce, and Red Spinach. The second factor was the mixture composition of nutrient solution consisting of 4 levels: LFGM + AB-Mix (v/v: 1:1), LFGM + AB-Mix (v/v: 1:3), LFGM + AB-Mix (v/v: 3:1), and A/B mix as control. Results indicated that the application of LFGM + AB-Mix (v/v: 1:3) resulted in similar plant growth as control (AB-Mix application), and also resulted in the highest chlorophyll content of Mustard green.

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 and shade on the decomposition of senesced tree foliage: impacts on the growth and survival of treehole mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Malcolm Strand; Daniel A. Herms; Michael G. Kaufman; Mark E. Kubiske; William J. Mattson; Edward D. Walker; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Richard W. Merritt

    1996-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that growth, survival, and reproductive capacity of treehole mosquitoes can be affected by alterations of forest sunlight and CO2 levels. Larval Aedes triseriatus were fed naturally senesced , abscised foliage from red oak (Quercus rubra) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera...

  5. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to changes in soil water content associated with rainfall seasonality. We assessed the effect of adding a slow-release fertilizer. We determined plant growth from 2010 to 2012 and gas exchange in the wet and dry season of 2012. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect sapling growth or leaf gas exchange parameters. Although soil amendment increased phosphorus content by 60 %, neither plant growth nor the photosynthetic parameters were influenced by the addition of mineral nutrients. However, photosynthetic rates and growth of saplings decreased as the forest canopy became denser. Even when Amazonian soils are poor in nutrients, photosynthesis and sapling growth are more responsive to slight variations in light availability in the forest understory than to the availability of nutrients. Therefore, the response of saplings to future increases in atmospheric [CO2] will not be limited by the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil.

  6. Annual Growth Bands in Hymenaea courbaril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, J A; Guilderson, T P; Colinvaux, P A

    2004-02-09

    One significant source of annual temperature and precipitation data arises from the regular annual secondary growth rings of trees. Several tropical tree species are observed to form regular growth bands that may or may not form annually. Such growth was observed in one stem disk of the tropical legume Hymenaea courbaril near the area of David, Panama. In comparison to annual reference {Delta}{sup 14}C values from wood and air, the {Delta}{sup 14}C values from the secondary growth rings formed by H. courbaril were determined to be annual in nature in this one stem disk specimen. During this study, H. courbaril was also observed to translocate recently produced photosynthate into older growth rings as sapwood is converted to heartwood. This process alters the overall {Delta}{sup 14}C values of these transitional growth rings as cellulose with a higher {Delta}{sup 14}C content is translocated into growth rings with a relatively lower {Delta}{sup 14}C content. Once the annual nature of these growth rings is established, further stable isotope analyses on H. courbaril material in other studies may help to complete gaps in the understanding of short and of long term global climate patterns.

  7. Elevated Annual Runoff Ratios in Pacific Northwest Catchments Impacted by Epidemic Foliage Disease of Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Bywater-Reyes, S.; LeBoldus, J. M.; Segura, C.; Ritokova, G.; Shaw, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Catchments in the Western United States are undergoing unprecedented levels of tree die-off and/or reduced vigor due to increased severity of wildfire, drought, insect outbreaks, and disease. In the U.S. Pacific Northwest, Swiss needle cast (SNC) is the most damaging foliar disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), physically obstructing stomata and preventing CO2 uptake and transpiration. A recent analysis in coastal Oregon indicated a substantial increase in area affected by the disease, from 530.5 km2 in 1996 to 2,387.1 km2 in 2015. Deforestation or reduced tree vigor can have profound impacts on catchment hydrology, in theory, producing increased streamflow due to reduced interception and transpiration. However, these increases have not always been detectable as impacts also depend on factors such as climate and vegetation composition. Moreover, press disturbances, such as insect outbreaks or disease, often do not result in complete removal of understorey or canopy vegetation. We analyzed trends in annual runoff ratios (quotient of discharge divided by precipitation) from 1990-2015 in 12 catchments (183-1,744 km2) in western Oregon. In general, runoff ratios increased by 10-27% in catchments with a total area of SNC >10%, with the most substantial runoff increases in catchments with SNC impacting >25% of the area. Interestingly, the most severely impacted catchment ( 90.5% SNC) showed a decrease in runoff. This is consistent with a potential compensatory response from understory western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) trees, a phenomenon observed in the most severely impacted sites. Findings from this study are important for assessing the impacts of biotic forest disturbances on water supply and aquatic ecosystem health.

  8. Partial shading of lateral branches affects growth, and foliage nitrogen- and water-use efficiencies in the conifer Cunninghamia lanceolata growing in a warm monsoon climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingfa; Li, Junyu; Zhang, Yuanbin; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2015-06-01

    The degree to which branches are autonomous in their acclimation responses to alteration in light environment is still poorly understood. We investigated the effects of shading of the sapling crown of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook on the whole-tree and mid-crown branch growth and current-year foliage structure and physiology. Four treatments providing 0, 50, 75 and 90% shading compared with full daylight (denoted as Treatment(0), Treatment(50%), Treatment(75%) and Treatment(90%), and Shaded(0), Shaded(50%), Shaded(75%) and Shaded(90%) for the shaded branches and Sunlit(0), Sunlit(50%), Sunlit(75%) and Sunlit(90%) for the opposite sunlit branches under natural light conditions, respectively), were applied over two consecutive growing seasons. Shading treatments decreased the growth of basal stem diameter, leaf dry mass per unit leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, the ratio of water-soluble to structural leaf nitrogen content, photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency and instantaneous and long-term (estimated from carbon isotope composition) water-use efficiency in shaded branches. Differences between shaded and sunlit branches increased with increasing severity and duration of shading. A non-autonomous, partly compensatory behavior of non-shaded branches was observed for most traits, thus reflecting the dependence between the traits of sunlit branches and the severity of shading of the opposite crown half. The results collectively indicated that tree growth and branch and leaf acclimation responses of C. lanceolata are not only affected by the local light environment, but also by relative within-crown light conditions. We argue that such a non-autonomous branch response to changes in light conditions can improve whole-tree resource optimization. These results contribute to better understanding of tree growth and utilization of water and nitrogen under heterogeneous light conditions within tree canopies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  9. Characterization of the exchange of PBDEs in a subtropical paddy field of China: A significant inputs of PBDEs via air–foliage exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Shaorui; Xu, Yue; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Rice and the distinctive cultivation practices employed in rice growth can significantly influence the environmental fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a paddy field. We studied variations in PBDE concentrations in multiple compartments of a paddy field in the suburban area of Guangzhou, South China, including air, soil, water, and rice tissues. The input/output fluxes of air–surface and air–foliage exchange, atmospheric deposition and water input during different rice growth stages were measured simultaneously. Air–foliage and air–water diffusion exchanges were the key processes controlling inputs and outputs of PBDEs in paddy fields, respectively, whereas atmospheric deposition dominated inputs of higher brominated PBDEs. The high input of PBDEs via air–foliage exchange suggested that vegetation can significantly increase the air-to-field transport of PBDEs in ecosystems. The annual input of PBDEs in all paddy fields in Guangdong Province was estimated to be 22.1 kg. - Highlights: • PBDE concentrations in multiple compartments of a suburban paddy field were measured. • Air–water exchange was the key process controlling PBDE output in paddy fields. • Air–foliage exchange dominated the inputs of PBDEs in paddy fields. • Annual PBDE input in paddy fields in Guangdong Province was calculated to be 22 kg. - Air–foliage exchange is the most dominant inputs of PBDEs in the subtropical paddy fields

  10. Soil and pine foliage nutrient responses 15 years after competing-vegetation control and their correlation with growth for 13 loblolly pine plantations in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; H. Lee Allen; Bruce R. Zutter; Shepard M. Zedaker; Ray A. Newbold

    2006-01-01

    Influences of competition-control treatments on long-term soil and foliar nutrition were examined using a regional data set (the Competition Omission Monitoring Project) that documents loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation nutrients in soils sampled at years 0 and 15 and in pine foliage at years 2, 6, and 15 and their correlations with one...

  11. Estimating annual growth losses from drought in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart; Daniel Waiswa

    2013-01-01

    Growth data over the past 10 years from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations established across the natural range of the species were linked with annual rainfall data over the same period to evaluate the impact of drought on stand growth. Regression procedures were used to determine (1) whether dominant height growth or basal area growth or...

  12. Effect of feeding cassava and/or Stylosanthes foliage on the performance of crossbred growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, C M; Ledin, I; Bertilsson, J

    2010-01-01

    The effect of feeding different levels of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and/or Stylosanthes guianensis foliage on the growth and digestibility was studied using twenty eight 6-month-old crossbred growing cattle (50% local Yellow cattle and 50% Sindhi) (both Bos indicus) weighing on average 114 kg at start. All animals were fed a basal diet consisting of urea treated rice straw (URTRS) fed ad libitum, 0.87 kg concentrate and 0.22 kg molasses on dry matter (DM) basis. The treatments were four supplements: soybean meal, cassava foliage, stylosanthes foliage or a mix of stylosanthes foliage and cassava foliage all giving the same nitrogen intake. The consumption of tannins and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were significantly higher in groups fed a mixture of foliages compared with only cassava foliage, respectively. There were 30% and 19%, respectively, higher live weight gain in the group fed a mixture of foliages as compared to the groups fed only cassava or stylosanthes. The factors of low organic matter and high level of HCN in the diet when feeding only cassava foliage might explain the negative effects on intake, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and nitrogen retention, and resulted in lower growth rates.

  13. The growth of government annual budget through taxes collection

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    Maiga, Sekou; Xu, Feng Ju

    2017-09-01

    In this case study we examine the relationship between the collection of taxes and the growth of government annual revenues (case of republic of Mali). Taxation is the most important source of revenue for modern governments, typically accounting for ninety percent or more of their income, Taxes revenues has contributed a big chunk of funds to the Malian Treasury, about 40%, with our focus being on the years (2012-2017). The primary economic goals of developing countries are to increase the rate of economic growth and hence per capita income, which leads to a higher standard of living. Government needs money to be able to execute its social obligations to the public and these social obligations include but not limited to the provision of infrastructure and social services. Progressive tax rate can be employed to achieve equitable distribution of resources. After economic modeling and estimation, we realized that there is a positive correlation between taxes collection changes and the government annual revenue.

  14. Efficient modelling of foliage distribution and crown dynamics in monolayer tree species.

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    Beyer, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In response to the computational limitations of individual leaf-based tree growth models, this article presents a new approach for the efficient characterisation of the spatial distribution of foliage in monolayered trees in terms of 2D foliage surfaces. Much like the recently introduced 3D leaf area density, this concept accommodates local crown plasticity, which is a common weak point in large-scale growth models. Recognizing phototropism as the predominant driver of spatial crown expansion, we define the local light gradient on foliage surfaces. We consider the partial differential equation describing the evolution of a curve expanding along the light gradient and present an explicit solution. The article concludes with an illustration of the incorporation of foliage surfaces in a simple tree growth model for European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), and discusses perspectives for applications in functional-structural models.

  15. Growth patterns and annual growth cycle of Acacia karroo Hayne in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use and replenishment of carbohydrate reserves in Acacia karroo is closely related to the successive events of the annual growth cycle. Acacia karroo displayed the rapid and substantial decline in non-structural carbohydrates typical of deciduous woody species. In addition, each time shoot, leaf or reproductive organs ...

  16. Catch-up growth and growth deficits: Nine-year annual panel child growth for native Amazonians in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rebecca; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Zeng, Wu; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan; Leonard, William R; Behrman, Jere R; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-07-01

    Childhood growth stunting is negatively associated with cognitive and health outcomes, and is claimed to be irreversible after age 2. To estimate growth rates for children aged 2-7 who were stunted (sex-age standardised z-score [HAZ] -1) at baseline and tracked annually until age 11; frequency of movement among height categories; and variation in height predicted by early childhood height. This study used a 9-year annual panel (2002-2010) from a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane'; n = 174 girls; 179 boys at baseline). Descriptive statistics and random-effect regressions were used. This study found some evidence of catch-up growth in HAZ, but persistent height deficits. Children stunted at baseline improved 1 HAZ unit by age 11 and had higher annual growth rates than non-stunted children. Marginally-stunted boys had a 0.1 HAZ units higher annual growth rate than non-stunted boys. Despite some catch up, ∼ 80% of marginally-stunted children at baseline remained marginally-stunted by age 11. The height deficit increased from age 2 to 11. Modest year-to-year movement was found between height categories. The prevalence of growth faltering among the Tsimane' has declined, but hurdles still substantially lock children into height categories.

  17. Foliage, fine-root, woody-tissue and stand respiration in Pinus radiata in relation to nitrogen status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M G; Hubbard, R M; Pongracic, S; Raison, R J; McMurtrie, R E

    1996-03-01

    We measured respiration of 20-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don trees growing in control (C), irrigated (I), and irrigated + fertilized (IL) stands in the Biology of Forest Growth experimental plantation near Canberra, Australia. Respiration was measured on fully expanded foliage, live branches, boles, and fine and coarse roots to determine the relationship between CO(2) efflux, tissue temperature, and biomass or nitrogen (N) content of individual tissues. Efflux of CO(2) from foliage (dark respiration at night) and fine roots was linearly related to biomass and N content, but N was a better predictor of CO(2) efflux than biomass. Respiration (assumed to be maintenance) per unit N at 15 degrees C and a CO(2) concentration of 400 micro mol mol(-1) was 1.71 micro mol s(-1) mol(-1) N for foliage and 11.2 micro mol s(-1) mol(-1) N for fine roots. Efflux of CO(2) from stems, coarse roots and branches was linearly related to sapwood volume (stems) or total volume (branches + coarse roots) and growth, with rates for maintenance respiration at 15 degrees C ranging from 18 to 104 micro mol m(-3) s(-1). Among woody components, branches in the upper canopy and small diameter coarse roots had the highest respiration rates. Stem maintenance respiration per unit sapwood volume did not differ among treatments. Annual C flux was estimated by summing (1) dry matter production and respiration of aboveground components, (2) annual soil CO(2) efflux minus aboveground litterfall, and (3) the annual increment in coarse root biomass. Annual C flux was 24.4, 25.3 and 34.4 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) for the C, I and IL treatments, respectively. Total belowground C allocation, estimated as the sum of (2) and (3) above, was equal to the sum of root respiration and estimated root production in the IL treatment, whereas in the nutrient-limited C and I treatments, total belowground C allocation was greater than the sum of root respiration and estimated root production, suggesting higher fine root turnover

  18. Potential sources of methylmercury in tree foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatchnick, Melissa D.; Nogaro, Géraldine; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.

    2012-01-01

    Litterfall is a major source of mercury (Hg) and toxic methylmercury (MeHg) to forest soils and influences exposures of wildlife in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the origin of MeHg associated with tree foliage is largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that leaf MeHg is influenced by root uptake and thereby related to MeHg levels in soils. Concentrations of MeHg and total Hg in deciduous and coniferous foliage were unrelated to those in soil at 30 urban and rural forested locations in southwest Ohio. In contrast, tree genera and trunk diameter were significant variables influencing Hg in leaves. The fraction of total Hg as MeHg averaged 0.4% and did not differ among tree genera. Given that uptake of atmospheric Hg 0 appears to be the dominant source of total Hg in foliage, we infer that MeHg is formed by in vivo transformation of Hg in proportion to the amount accumulated. - Highlights: ► Levels of methylmercury and total Hg in foliage were unrelated to those in soil. ► Methylmercury:total Hg ratio in leaves did not differ among nine tree genera. ► Hg in foliage varied inversely with trunk diameter, a proxy for respiration. ► Methylmercury in leaves may result from in vivo methylation of atmospheric Hg. - Methylmercury in tree foliage appears to result from in vivo methylation of mercury accumulated from the atmosphere.

  19. National health expenditure projections: modest annual growth until coverage expands and economic growth accelerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehan, Sean P; Cuckler, Gigi A; Sisko, Andrea M; Madison, Andrew J; Smith, Sheila D; Lizonitz, Joseph M; Poisal, John A; Wolfe, Christian J

    2012-07-01

    For 2011-13, US health spending is projected to grow at 4.0 percent, on average--slightly above the historically low growth rate of 3.8 percent in 2009. Preliminary data suggest that growth in consumers' use of health services remained slow in 2011, and this pattern is expected to continue this year and next. In 2014, health spending growth is expected to accelerate to 7.4 percent as the major coverage expansions from the Affordable Care Act begin. For 2011 through 2021, national health spending is projected to grow at an average rate of 5.7 percent annually, which would be 0.9 percentage point faster than the expected annual increase in the gross domestic product during this period. By 2021, federal, state, and local government health care spending is projected to be nearly 50 percent of national health expenditures, up from 46 percent in 2011, with federal spending accounting for about two-thirds of the total government share. Rising government spending on health care is expected to be driven by faster growth in Medicare enrollment, expanded Medicaid coverage, and the introduction of premium and cost-sharing subsidies for health insurance exchange plans.

  20. Annual Growth of Contract Costs for Major Programs in Development and Early Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Annual growth of contract costs (5-year moving average; adjusted for inflation ; development and early production ) 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 1985 1990 1995...2000 2005 2010 2015 Annual growth of contract costs (5-year moving average; adjusted for inflation ; development and early production ) ActualModel Fiscal...Buildup 31-year average War on Terror Contract Growth: Development and Early Production (scope growth + overruns; in dollars, after inflation ) 1 Page 6

  1. A Propagation Environment Modeling in Foliage

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    Samn SherwoodW

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliage clutter, which can be very large and mask targets in backscattered signals, is a crucial factor that degrades the performance of target detection, tracking, and recognition. Previous literature has intensively investigated land clutter and sea clutter, whereas foliage clutter is still an open-research area. In this paper, we propose that foliage clutter should be more accurately described by a log-logistic model. On a basis of pragmatic data collected by ultra-wideband (UWB radars, we analyze two different datasets by means of maximum likelihood (ML parameter estimation as well as the root mean square error (RMSE performance. We not only investigate log-logistic model, but also compare it with other popular clutter models, namely, log-normal, Weibull, and Nakagami. It shows that the log-logistic model achieves the smallest standard deviation (STD error in parameter estimation, as well as the best goodness-of-fit and smallest RMSE for both poor and good foliage clutter signals.

  2. Evaluation of cassava foliage as a protein supplement for sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage (leaves and petioles) as a protein supplement for sheep. In the first trial, nylon bag degradability of cassava foliage was studied. Proximate analysis of cassava foliage was conducted before and after the incubation. Rumen ...

  3. Quantifying pruning impacts on olive tree architecture and annual canopy growth by using UAV-based 3D modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Brenes, F M; López-Granados, F; de Castro, A I; Torres-Sánchez, J; Serrano, N; Peña, J M

    2017-01-01

    work. Tree foliage losses and annual canopy growth showed different trends as affected by the type and severity of the pruning treatments. Additionally, this technology offers valuable geo-spatial information for designing site-specific crop management strategies in the context of precision agriculture, with the consequent economic and environmental benefits.

  4. Validation of annual growth rings in freshwater mussel shells using cross dating .Can

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel; Wendell R. Haag; Robert H. Findlay

    2009-01-01

    We examined the usefulness of dendrochronological cross-dating methods for studying long-term, interannual growth patterns in freshwater mussels, including validation of annual shell ring formation. Using 13 species from three rivers, we measured increment widths between putative annual rings on shell thin sections and then removed age-related variation by...

  5. Foliage Chemistry of Pinus baksiana in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette C. Proemse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Alberta, Canada, have caused concerns about the effect of oil sands operations on the surrounding terrestrial environments, including jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. stands. We collected jack pine needles from 19 sites in the AOSR (13–128 km from main operations for foliar chemical analyses to investigate the environmental impact on jack pine. Pine needles from three age classes, the current annual growth (CAG, 2011, one year and two year old pine needles, were collected. Samples were analyzed for total carbon (TC, nitrogen (TN, and sulfur (TS, inorganic S (SO4-S, base cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and other elements (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, P, Zn; CAG needles were also analyzed for their nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions. Only TN, TS, Ca, B, Zn, and Fe contents showed weak but significant increases with proximity to the major oil sands operations. C and N isotopic compositions showed no trend with distance or TC and TN contents. Total S contents in CAG of pine foliage increased significantly with proximity to the main industrial operation while foliar inorganic S to organic S ratios (SO4-S/Sorg ranged consistently between 0.13 and 0.32, indicating low to moderately high S loading. Hence, this study suggests some evidence of uptake of S emissions in close proximity to anthropogenic sources, although the reported values have not reached a level of environmental concern.

  6. A technique to identify annual growth rings in Eucalyptus grandis using annual measurements of diameter at breast height and gamma ray densitometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available of radial variation in wood density within the context of the growth history of a compartment (by means of annual PSP data), it was possible to corroborate the estimation of annual growth rings on density profiles of E. grandis, especially closer to the bark-end....

  7. Occurrence of annual growth rings in Rhizophora mangle in a region with low climate seasonality

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    BRUNNA T. SOUZA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The formation of annual growth rings has been confirmed for several mangrove species in the last decade, among which is the Rhizophora mangle. However, the record of annual rings for this species was made in a region with high hydric seasonality, a widely recognized induction factor of annual rings in tropical species. In this sense, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of annual growth rings in R. mangle in the mangroves of Guaratiba (Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, a region with low hydric seasonality. For this purpose, the crossdating technique was applied in ten trees collected with known age (seven years. The growth rings are characterized by alternating layers of low vessel density (earlywood and high vessel density (latewood. Multiple regression analysis indicated that growth rings width variation is driven by precipitation, water surplus, water deficit and water storage. Crossdating analysis confirmed the existence of annual growth rings in the R. mangle in Guaratiba. This discovery in a region with low hydric seasonality increases the dendrocronological potential of this species and suggests the importance of biological factors (eg. phenological behavior as complementary inductors for the formation of growth rings in this species.

  8. An Annual Plant Growth Proxy in the Mojave Desert Using MODIS-EVI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid Mojave Desert, the phenological response of vegetation is largely dependent upon the timing and amount of rainfall, and maps of annual plant cover at any one point in time can vary widely. Our study developed relative annual plant growth models as proxies for annual plant cover using metrics that captured phenological variability in Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI satellite images. We used landscape phenologies revealed in MODIS data together with ecological knowledge of annual plant seasonality to develop a suite of metrics to describe annual growth on a yearly basis. Each of these metrics was applied to temporally-composited MODIS-EVI images to develop a relative model of annual growth. Each model was evaluated by testing how well it predicted field estimates of annual cover collected during 2003 and 2005 at the Mojave National Preserve. The best performing metric was the spring difference metric, which compared the average of three spring MODIS-EVI composites of a given year to that of 2002, a year of record drought. The spring difference metric showed correlations with annual plant cover of R2 = 0.61 for 2005 and R2 = 0.47 for 2003. Although the correlation is moderate, we consider it supportive given the characteristics of the field data, which were collected for a different study in a localized area and are not ideal for calibration to MODIS pixels. A proxy for annual growth potential was developed from the spring difference metric of 2005 for use as an environmental data layer in desert tortoise habitat modeling. The application of the spring difference metric to other imagery years presents potential for other applications such as fuels, invasive species, and dust-emission monitoring in the Mojave Desert.

  9. Annual growth bands in Hymenaea courbaril: implications for utilization in tropical paleoclimate reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J. A.; Guilderson, T.; Colinvaux, P. A.; D'Arrigo, R.

    2004-12-01

    Instrumental records of environmental variables such as temperature and precipitation are necessary to understand climate patterns and variability. In general, such observations from the tropics do not exist prior to the late 19th century, and existing records contain large spatial and temporal gaps and are sparsely distributed. An important source of annual temperature and precipitation proxy-data comes from the regular annual growth rings of wood formed by trees. Tree growth rings occur in response to periodic seasonal changes in the environment. Although expansive and diverse in number and ecology, a vast majority of tropical trees do not produce distinct annual growth rings. Because of this, tropical dendrochronology and paleoclimate reconstructions have lagged behind their temperate and higher latitude cousins. Distinct secondary growth rings were investigated in a single individual of the tropical hardwood legume Hymenaea courbaril felled within the City of David, Republic of Panama. Rings that maintained circuitry were considered annual and were sampled for 14C. Radiocarbon values from the secondary growth rings from this specimen were compared with annual reference radiocarbon values from wood and air in North America, New Zealand and Germany. This comparison demonstrated that the secondary growth rings formed by H. courbaril were determined to be annual in nature in this one stem disk specimen. To confirm the consistency of the annual nature of the secondary growth rings in H. courbaril, nine (9) additional specimens were recovered from the small hamlet of San Carlos y Algarobbo in western Panama between the town of David and the cordillera approximately ~30km from the site of the first tree sample. Of the nine specimens, four were chosen for ring counts and isotope analyses. "Annual" rings were counted and samples corresponding to the equivalent time of the bomb-14C peak were sampled. In addition a small subset of years within one tree specimen were sub-annually

  10. Annual growth patterns of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) along salinity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brenda L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salinity on Taxodium distichum seedlings have been well documented, but few studies have examined mature trees in situ. We investigated the environmental drivers of T. distichum growth along a salinity gradient on the Waccamaw (South Carolina) and Savannah (Georgia) Rivers. On each river, T. distichum increment cores were collected from a healthy upstream site (Upper), a moderately degraded mid-reach site (Middle), and a highly degraded downstream site (Lower). Chronologies were successfully developed for Waccamaw Upper and Middle, and Savannah Middle. Correlations between standardized chronologies and environmental variables showed significant relationships between T. distichum growth and early growing season precipitation, temperature, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Savannah Middle chronology correlated most strongly with August river salinity levels. Both lower sites experienced suppression/release events likely in response to local anthropogenic impacts rather than regional environmental variables. The factors that affect T. distichum growth, including salinity, are strongly synergistic. As sea-level rise pushes the freshwater/saltwater interface inland, salinity becomes more limiting to T. distichum growth in tidal freshwater swamps; however, salinity impacts are exacerbated by locally imposed environmental modifications.

  11. Long-term nitrogen fertilization increases winter injury in montane red spruce foliage (Picea rubens) foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.D. Perkins; G.T. Adams; S.T. Lawson; P.G. Schaberg; S.G. McNulty

    2000-01-01

    Current-year red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) foliage is predisposed to winter injury by one or more types of anthropogenic pollutants, particularly acidic deposition. The resultant defoliation, when severe and repeated, leads to dieback and eventual mortality of affected red spruce individuals

  12. Growth response to ozone of annual species from Mediterranean pastures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimeno, B.S. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT (ed. 70), Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: benjamin.gimeno@ciemat.es; Bermejo, V. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT (ed. 70), Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: Victoria.bermejo@ciemat.es; Sanz, J. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT (ed. 70), Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: j.sanz@ciemat.es; Torre, D. de la [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT (ed. 70), Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: daniel.torre@ciemat.es; Elvira, S. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT (ed. 70), Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: susana.elvira@ciemat.es

    2004-11-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity has been reported on a wide range of plant species. However, scarce information has been provided regarding the sensitivity of semi-natural grassland species, especially those from dehesa Mediterranean grasslands, in spite of their great biological diversity and the high O{sub 3} levels recorded in the region. A screening study was carried out in open-top chambers (OTCs) to assess the O{sub 3}-sensitivity of representative therophytes of these ecosystems based on the response of selected growth-related parameters. Three O{sub 3} treatments and 3 OTCs per treatment were used. Legume species were very sensitive to O{sub 3}, because 78% of the tested species showed detrimental effects on their total biomass relative growth rate (RGR) following their exposure to O{sub 3}. The Trifolium genus was particularly sensitive showing O{sub 3}-induced adverse effects on most of the assessed parameters. Gramineae plants were less sensitive than Leguminosae species because detrimental effects on total biomass RGR were only observed in 14% of the assessed species. No relationship was found between relative growth rates when growing in clean air and O{sub 3} susceptibility. The implications of these effects on the performance of dehesa acidic grasslands and on the definition of ozone critical levels for the protection of semi-natural vegetation are discussed. - Capsule: The therophytes from dehesa acidic pastures of central of the Iberian peninsula present a great sensitivity to ozone, as derived from growth- and biomass-related variables.

  13. Annual and intra-annual growth dynamics of Myricaria elegans shrubs in arid Himalaya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Jiří; Lehečková, Eliška; Sohar, Kristina; Dvorský, Miroslav; Kopecký, Martin; Chlumská, Z.; Wild, Jan; Altman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 761-773 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Climate–growth relationship * Flooding * Tree-rings Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2016

  14. Growth response to ozone of annual species from Mediterranean pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, B S; Bermejo, V; Sanz, J; de la Torre, D; Elvira, S

    2004-11-01

    Ozone (O3) phytotoxicity has been reported on a wide range of plant species. However, scarce information has been provided regarding the sensitivity of semi-natural grassland species, especially those from dehesa Mediterranean grasslands, in spite of their great biological diversity and the high O3 levels recorded in the region. A screening study was carried out in open-top chambers (OTCs) to assess the O3-sensitivity of representative therophytes of these ecosystems based on the response of selected growth-related parameters. Three O3 treatments and 3 OTCs per treatment were used. Legume species were very sensitive to O3, because 78% of the tested species showed detrimental effects on their total biomass relative growth rate (RGR) following their exposure to O3. The Trifolium genus was particularly sensitive showing O3-induced adverse effects on most of the assessed parameters. Gramineae plants were less sensitive than Leguminosae species because detrimental effects on total biomass RGR were only observed in 14% of the assessed species. No relationship was found between relative growth rates when growing in clean air and O3 susceptibility. The implications of these effects on the performance of dehesa acidic grasslands and on the definition of ozone critical levels for the protection of semi-natural vegetation are discussed. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Foliage penetration radar detection and characterization of objects under trees

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of foliage penetration (FOPEN) radar, concentrating on both airborne military radar systems as well as earth resource mapping radars. It is the first concise and thorough treatment of FOPEN, covering the results of a decade-long investment by DARPA in characterizing foliage and earth surface with ultrawideband UHF and VHF synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  16. A model of seasonal foliage dynamics of the subtropical mangrove species Rhizophora stylosa Griff. growing at the northern limit of its distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadev Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Progress of forest production in response to the environment requires a quantitative understanding of leaf area development. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the dynamics of seasonal crown foliage in order to understand the productivity of mangroves, which play an important role in the subtropical and tropical coastlines of the world. Method Crown foliage dynamics of the mangrove Rhizophora stylosa were studies to reveal patterns of leaf recruitment, survival and seasonal leaf area growth. Results Flushing of leaves occurred throughout the year, but both flushing and leaf area growth pattern of leaves varied with season. Maximum flushing occurred in summer, but leaf areas did not differ significantly with season. The half-expansion period is longer, and the intrinsic rate of increase was lower in winter. Summer flushed leaves grew faster at their initial stage and reached their maximum area over a shorter period of time. The difference in temperature and air vapor pressure deficit (VPD between summer and winter contributed to the present dynamics of foliage patterns. The mean leaf longevity was estimated to be 13.1 month. The crown foliage area was almost stable throughout the year. Conclusions Homeostatic control of the crown foliage area may be accompanied by the existence of ecophysiological mechanisms in R. stylosa. Integrating crown foliage dynamics into forest models represents an important step towards incorporating physiological mechanisms into the models for predicting growth responses to environmental changes and for understanding the complex responses of tree growth and litter production.

  17. Uranium mobility across annual growth rings in three deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Kelly C; Widom, Elisabeth; Spitz, Henry B; Wiles, Gregory C; Glover, Sam E

    2018-02-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), and white ash (Fraxinus americana) trees were evaluated as potential archives of past uranium (U) contamination. Like other metals, U mobility in annual growth rings of trees is dependent on the tree species. Uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions (masses 234, 235, 236, and 238) were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to test the efficacy of using tree rings to retroactively monitor U pollution from the FFMPC, a U purification facility operating from 1951 to 1989. This study found non-natural U (depleted U and detectable 236 U) in growth rings of all three tree species that pre-dated the start of operations at FFMPC and compositional trends that did not correspond with known contamination events. Therefore, the annual growth rings of these tree species cannot be used to reliably monitor the chronology of U contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of annual and seasonal rainfall patterns on growth and phenology of emergent tree species in Southeastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Mark Schulze

    2012-01-01

    Understanding tree growth in response to rainfall distribution is critical to predicting forest and species population responses to climate change. We investigated inter-annual and seasonal variation in stem diameter by three emergent tree species in a seasonally dry tropical forest in southeast Pará, Brazil. Annual diameter growth rates by Swietenia macrophylla...

  19. Benchmarks for Expected Annual Academic Growth for Students in the Bottom Quartile of the Normative Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammacca, Nancy K; Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg

    Effect sizes are commonly reported for the results of educational interventions. However, researchers struggle with interpreting their magnitude in a way that transcends generic guidelines. Effect sizes can be interpreted in a meaningful context by benchmarking them against typical growth for students in the normative distribution. Such benchmarks are not currently available for students in the bottom quartile. This report remedies this by providing a comparative context for interventions involving these students. Annual growth effect sizes for K-12 students were computed from nationally normed assessments and a longitudinal study of students in special education. They reveal declining growth over time, especially for reading and math. These results allow researchers to better interpret the effects of their interventions and help practitioners by quantifying typical growth for struggling students. More longitudinal research is needed to show growth trajectories for students in the bottom quartile.

  20. Growth patterns and annual growth cycle of Acacia karroo Hayne in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was conducted to describe the growth patterns of A. karroo at different levels of water stress in different edaphic situations. Shoots are heterophyllous and are formed by green growth. The degree of development of a shoot, relative to others in the canopy, is governed by branch and position in the canopy.

  1. BOREAS TE-09 Photosynthetic Capacity and Foliage Nitrogen Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains TE-09 data on the response of photosynthetic capacity to foliage nitrogen concentration and photosynthetic capacity in the canopies of Norther Study Area...

  2. BOREAS TE-09 Photosynthetic Capacity and Foliage Nitrogen Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains TE-09 data on the response of photosynthetic capacity to foliage nitrogen concentration and photosynthetic capacity in the canopies of Norther...

  3. Further studies in using mangrove foliage as a prawn feed

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Wafar, S.

    . parviflora@@ and @iR. apiculata@@ leaves which contained high protein and calories. Increase in the nutritive value of the decomposed mangrove foliage has been attributed to the high biomass of microbial flora...

  4. Rapid growth, early maturation and short generation time in African annual fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, Radim; Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 24 (2013), s. 24 ISSN 2041-9139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : extreme life history * annual fish * explosive growth * rapid maturation * generation time * killifish * diapause * vertebrate * reaction norm * Savanna Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2013 http://www.evodevojournal.com/content/4/1/24

  5. Intra-annual plasticity of growth mediates drought resilience over multiple years in tropical seedling communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; Ong, Robert; Reynolds, Glen

    2017-10-01

    Precipitation patterns are changing across the globe causing more severe and frequent drought for many forest ecosystems. Although research has focused on the resistance of tree populations and communities to these novel precipitation regimes, resilience of forests is also contingent on recovery following drought, which remains poorly understood, especially in aseasonal tropical forests. We used rainfall exclusion shelters to manipulate the interannual frequency of drought for diverse seedling communities in a tropical forest and assessed resistance, recovery and resilience of seedling growth and mortality relative to everwet conditions. We found seedlings exposed to recurrent periods of drought altered their growth rates throughout the year relative to seedlings in everwet conditions. During drought periods, seedlings grew slower than seedlings in everwet conditions (i.e., resistance phase) while compensating with faster growth after drought (i.e., recovery phase). However, the response to frequent drought was species dependent as some species grew significantly slower with frequent drought relative to everwet conditions while others grew faster with frequent drought due to overcompensating growth during the recovery phase. In contrast, mortality was unrelated to rainfall conditions and instead correlated with differences in light. Intra-annual plasticity of growth and increased annual growth of some species led to an overall maintenance of growth rates of tropical seedling communities in response to more frequent drought. These results suggest these communities can potentially adapt to predicted climate change scenarios and that plasticity in the growth of species, and not solely changes in mortality rates among species, may contribute to shifts in community composition under drought. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Apple dwarfing rootstocks and interstocks affect the type of growth units produced during the annual growth cycle: precocious transition to flowering affects the composition and vigour of annual shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznyova, Alla N; Tustin, D Stuart; Thorp, T Grant

    2008-04-01

    Precocious flowering in apple trees is often associated with a smaller tree size. The hypothesis was tested that floral evocation in axillary buds, induced by dwarfing rootstocks, reduces the vigour of annual shoots developing from these buds compared with shoots developing from vegetative buds. The experimental system provided a wide range of possible tree vigour using 'Royal Gala' scions and M.9 (dwarfing) and MM.106 (non-dwarfing) as rootstocks and interstocks. Second-year annual shoots were divided into growth units corresponding to periods (flushes) of growth namely, vegetative spur, extension growth unit, uninterrupted growth unit, floral growth unit (bourse) and extended bourse. The differences between the floral and vegetative shoots were quantified by the constituent growth units produced. The dwarfing influence was expressed, firstly, in reduced proportions of shoots that contained at least one extension growth unit and secondly, in reduced proportions of bicyclic shoots (containing two extension growth units) and shoots with an uninterrupted growth unit. In treatments where floral shoots were present, they were markedly less vigorous than vegetative shoots with respect to both measures. In treatments with M.9 rootstock, vegetative and floral shoots produced on average 0.52 and 0.17 extension growth units, compared with 0.77 extension growth units per shoot in the MM.106 rootstock treatment. Remarkably, the number of nodes per extension growth unit was not affected by the rootstock/interstock treatments. These results showed that rootstocks/interstocks affect the type of growth units produced during the annual growth cycle, reducing the number of extension growth units, thus affecting the composition and vigour of annual shoots. This effect is particularly amplified by the transition to flowering induced by dwarfing rootstocks. The division of annual shoot into growth units will also be useful for measuring and modelling effects of age on apple tree

  7. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  8. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  9. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Hochlef, H.; Ben Salem, L.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 ± 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 ± 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those offered

  10. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  11. Annual Glyphosate Treatments Alter Growth of Unaffected Bentgrass (Agrostis) Weeds and Plant Community Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W.; Auer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB) and redtop (RT), where the glyphosate resistance (GR) trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities. PMID:23226530

  12. Plant allometry, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry, and interspecific trends in annual growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J

    2006-02-01

    Life forms as diverse as unicellular algae, zooplankton, vascular plants, and mammals appear to obey quarter-power scaling rules. Among the most famous of these rules is Kleiber's (i.e. basal metabolic rates scale as the three-quarters power of body mass), which has a botanical analogue (i.e. annual plant growth rates scale as the three-quarters power of total body mass). Numerous theories have tried to explain why these rules exist, but each has been heavily criticized either on conceptual or empirical grounds. N,P-STOICHIOMETRY: Recent models predicting growth rates on the basis of how total cell, tissue, or organism nitrogen and phosphorus are allocated, respectively, to protein and rRNA contents may provide the answer, particularly in light of the observation that annual plant growth rates scale linearly with respect to standing leaf mass and that total leaf mass scales isometrically with respect to nitrogen but as the three-quarters power of leaf phosphorus. For example, when these relationships are juxtaposed with other allometric trends, a simple N,P-stoichiometric model successfully predicts the relative growth rates of 131 diverse C3 and C4 species. The melding of allometric and N,P-stoichiometric theoretical insights provides a robust modelling approach that conceptually links the subcellular 'machinery' of protein/ribosomal metabolism to observed growth rates of uni- and multicellular organisms. Because the operation of this 'machinery' is basic to the biology of all life forms, its allometry may provide a mechanistic explanation for the apparent ubiquity of quarter-power scaling rules.

  13. Degree-day accumulation influences annual variability in growth of age-0 walleye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Christopher S.; Schoenebeck, Casey W.; Hoback, W. Wyatt; Koupal, Keith D.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of age-0 fishes influences survival, especially in temperate regions where size-dependent over-winter mortality can be substantial. Additional benefits of earlier maturation and greater fecundity may exist for faster growing individuals. This study correlated prey densities, growing-degree days, water-surface elevation, turbidity, and chlorophyll a with age-0 walleye Sander vitreus growth in a south-central Nebraska irrigation reservoir. Growth of age-0 walleye was variable between 2003 and 2011, with mean lengths ranging from 128 to 231 mm by fall (September 30th–October 15th). A set of a priori candidate models were used to assess the relative support of explanatory variables using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). A temperature model using the growing degree-days metric was the best supported model, describing 65% of the variability in annual mean lengths of age-0 walleye. The second and third best supported models included the variables chlorophyll a (r2 = 0.49) and larval freshwater drum density (r2 = 0.45), respectively. There have been mixed results concerning the importance of temperature effects on growth of age-0 walleye. This study supports the hypothesis that temperature is the most important predictor of age-0 walleye growth near the southwestern limits of its natural range.

  14. Effect of stimulation by foliage plant display images on prefrontal cortex activity: a comparison with stimulation using actual foliage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Miho; Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Natural scenes like forests and flowers evoke neurophysiological responses that can suppress anxiety and relieve stress. We examined whether images of natural objects can elicit neural responses similar to those evoked by real objects by comparing the activation of the prefrontal cortex during presentation of real foliage plants with a projected image of the same foliage plants. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in the prefrontal cortex were measured using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy while the subjects viewed the real plants or a projected image of the same plants. Compared with a projected image of foliage plants, viewing the actual foliage plants significantly increased oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in the prefrontal cortex. However, using the modified semantic differential method, subjective emotional response ratings ("comfortable vs. uncomfortable" and "relaxed vs. awakening") were similar for both stimuli. The frontal cortex responded differently to presentation of actual plants compared with images of these plants even when the subjective emotional response was similar. These results may help explain the physical and mental health benefits of urban, domestic, and workplace foliage. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  15. Pluri-annual energy programming - The Energy transition for green growth. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Transition for Green Growth Act and its attendant action plans are designed to give France the means to make a more effective contribution to tackling climate change and reinforce its energy independence, while striking a better balance in its energy mix and creating jobs and business growth. This document summarizes the content of the Pluri-annual energy programming, which is the consistent action framework of the French energy transition: improving energy efficiency and reducing fossil fuels consumption, accelerating the development of renewable energy sources, maintaining a high-level of security of supply in the respect of environmental requirements, preparing tomorrow's energy system, developing clean mobility, taking account of the socio-economic issues of the energy transition and acting with the regions in this way

  16. Impact of foliage on LoRa 433MHz propagation in tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Khairol Amali; Salleh, Mohd Sharil; Segaran, Jivitraa Devi; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan

    2018-02-01

    LoRa is being considered as one of the promising system for Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN) to support the growth of Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Designed to operate in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) bands, LoRa had been tested and evaluated mainly in Europe and US in the 868 MHz and 915 MHz modulation bands. Using chirp spread spectrum technology, LoRa is expected to be robust against degredation. This paper provides some early results in the performance of LoRa signal propagation of 433 MHz modulation in tropical foliage environments.

  17. A computational model for biosonar echoes from foliage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ming

    Full Text Available Since many bat species thrive in densely vegetated habitats, echoes from foliage are likely to be of prime importance to the animals' sensory ecology, be it as clutter that masks prey echoes or as sources of information about the environment. To better understand the characteristics of foliage echoes, a new model for the process that generates these signals has been developed. This model takes leaf size and orientation into account by representing the leaves as circular disks of varying diameter. The two added leaf parameters are of potential importance to the sensory ecology of bats, e.g., with respect to landmark recognition and flight guidance along vegetation contours. The full model is specified by a total of three parameters: leaf density, average leaf size, and average leaf orientation. It assumes that all leaf parameters are independently and identically distributed. Leaf positions were drawn from a uniform probability density function, sizes and orientations each from a Gaussian probability function. The model was found to reproduce the first-order amplitude statistics of measured example echoes and showed time-variant echo properties that depended on foliage parameters. Parameter estimation experiments using lasso regression have demonstrated that a single foliage parameter can be estimated with high accuracy if the other two parameters are known a priori. If only one parameter is known a priori, the other two can still be estimated, but with a reduced accuracy. Lasso regression did not support simultaneous estimation of all three parameters. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate that foliage echoes contain accessible information on foliage type and orientation that could play a role in supporting sensory tasks such as landmark identification and contour following in echolocating bats.

  18. Differential responses of plant foliage to simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S. (Manhattan Coll., Bronx, NY); Curry, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were performed to show the responses of foliage of several clones of Tradescantia sp., Pteridium aquilinum, Quercus palustris, and Glycine max to simulated acid rain. These experiments were performed to (a) predict the relative sensitivities of foliage of these plants to acid rain, and (b) identify leaf surface and anatomical alterations to simulated acid rain that may be used to diagnose acid rain injury. Plants were exposed to simulated rain at pH levels of 5.7, 3.4, 3.1, 2.9, 2.7, 2.5, and 2.3.

  19. Seasonal changes in stable carbon isotope ratios within annual growth rings of Pinus radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walcroft, A.; Silvester, W.; Whitehead, D.; Kelliher, F.

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope composition of photosynthetically assimilated carbon (δ 13 C) is determined by the ratio of the leaf internal CO 2 concentration (c i ) to that of the ambient air (c a ), and so reflects the contribution of both stomatal conductance (g s ) and the rate of photosynthesis (A). Assimilated carbon which is subsequently laid down as wood in annual growth rings may therefore represent a time integrated record of physiological responses by the whole tree to seasonal changes in the environmental variables regulating growth. We analysed the stable carbon isotope composition of Pinus radiata wood collected from two plantation forest sites in New Zealand which differ markedly in temperature, rainfall and soil characteristics. For both sites, discs were cut from the stem of several trees near ground level and whole wood samples were taken from within individual annual growth rings over a number of years. At one site, diameter bands were installed over the 1994 - 1996 growing seasons in order to date precisely the formation of wood during that time. Trees at each site consistently showed a seasonal pattern in the stable isotope composition of wood within individual growth rings. The amplitude of seasonal δ 13 C variation at the wet and dry sites were 1-2 per thousand and 4 per thousand respectively. Mean δ 13 C values from the wet site were 3 per thousand more 13 C depleted than those from the dry site implying lower water-use efficiency (carbon assimilation per unit transpiration). A process-based, model of stomatal conductance and CO 2 assimilation was combined with a soil-water balance model to estimate the average daily leaf-level intercellular CO 2 concentration (c i ). Over two growing seasons at each site there was generally good agreement between mean canopy-level c i derived from the tree-ring δ 13 C data and modelled leaf-level c i levels. Further, the ratio of annual CO 2 assimilation to transpiration estimated by the model for each site

  20. Development of fall foliage color in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abby K. Van den Berg; John R. Donnelly; Paula F. Murakami; Paul G. Schaberg

    2001-01-01

    Fall foliage development is important to tourism and culture in the Northeast. However, few data exist on the control of the timing and brilliance of fall color. In this study, leaf tissue from 16 sugar maples (Acer saccharum) was collected periodically from June 30 through October 27, 1999 and analyzed for foliar nutrient, moisture and carbohydrate...

  1. Sampling strategies for efficient estimation of tree foliage biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam Temesgen; Vicente Monleon; Aaron Weiskittel; Duncan Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Conifer crowns can be highly variable both within and between trees, particularly with respect to foliage biomass and leaf area. A variety of sampling schemes have been used to estimate biomass and leaf area at the individual tree and stand scales. Rarely has the effectiveness of these sampling schemes been compared across stands or even across species. In addition,...

  2. Recent developments in annual growth lignocellulosics as reinforcing fillers in thermoplastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, R.E.; Caulfield, D.F.; Rowell, R.M. [Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Recent interest in reducing the environmental impact of materials is leading to the development of newer agricultural based materials that can reduce the stress to the environment. Several billion pounds of fillers and reinforcements are used annually in the plastics industry and their use is likely to increase, to reduce the amount of plastics used in a product, with improved compounding technology and new coupling agents. The use of lignocellulosic fibers (eg. kenaf, jute, etc.) as reinforcing fillers in plastics has generated significant interest in recent years. The use of lignocellosic fibers permit the use of high volume fillings due to their lower densities and non-abrasive properties, and therefore reduces the use of plastics in a product. The specific tensile and flexural moduli of a 50% weight of glass fiber-PP injection molded composite and are superior to typical calcium carbonate or talc based PP composites. Results indicate that annual growth lignocellulosic wastes and fibers are viable reinforcing fillers as long as the right processing conditions and aids are used, and for applications where the higher water absorption of the agro-base fiber composite is not critical.

  3. Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) in annual growth segments of knotted wrack (Ascophyllum nodosum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise, E-mail: Hilde.Heldal@imr.no [Institute of Marine Research (IMR), PO Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Sjotun, Kjersti, E-mail: Kjersti.Sjotun@bio.uib.no [University of Bergen (UoB), Department of Biology, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2010-10-15

    The distribution of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) in annual growth segments of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) from the southwestern coast of Norway is examined in samples collected from January to November 2006. A twenty-fold increase in the {sup 99}Tc-concentration from the youngest to the oldest growth segments was found. The concentrations ranged from 42 to 98 Bq/kg dry weight (d.w.) and from 964 to 1000 Bq/kg d.w. in growth segments formed in 2006 and 1996, respectively. In addition, a seasonal variation in the {sup 99}Tc concentration was observed in the actively growing 2006-segments: concentrations decreased from 98 Bq/kg d.w. in April to 54 Bq/kg d.w. in June; there was a further reduction from June to August (42 Bq/kg d.w.); and, finally there was an increase from August to November (93 Bq/kg d.w.). In most of the segments formed between 2000 and 2005, there was a tendency of slightly decreasing {sup 99}Tc-concentrations between June and November but this pattern was not observed for the older growth segments. In order to find an explanation for the non-homogenous distribution of {sup 99}Tc within thalli of A. nodosum, different hypotheses are discussed. Uptake and elimination of {sup 99}Tc appears to be most pronounced in the actively growing segments. To date, such non-homogenous distribution of {sup 99}Tc within thalli of A. nodosum has not been taken into consideration, neither in connection with sample collection nor analysis. This paper shows that special protocols must be followed if A. nodosum is going to be used as a bioindicator for {sup 99}Tc in the marine environment. A sampling strategy is proposed.

  4. Advanced growth and surface analysis system for in situ studies of interface formation. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayers, D.E.; Nemanich, R.J.; Wang, Z.

    1994-01-01

    This is the first annual report for developing an advanced integrated in situ UHV growth/analysis system for synchrotron radiation studies of interface and surface reactions which lead to epitaxial structures on Si, Ge, and Si 1-x Ge x alloys. This equipment will allow one to use techniques based on synchrotron radiation, such as photoemission, x-ray standing wave (XSW), and surface x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAFS) to determining the electronic states and atomic configurations of surfaces in metal-silicon, metal-germanium and metal-silicon-germanium alloys. Since the award of the contract the authors have completed a detailed design of the overall system, identified commercially available equipment which fits the requirements and have purchased or ordered all of this equipment. They have also custom designed a considerable amount of equipment which is not available commercially because of the special requirements. This includes both of the UHV chambers, sample manipulators, and a mobile support stand. In this report, they will describe the design and purchase status of the system. An overview of the equipment purchase status is given in Appendix 1. The details of their custom designed growth and analytical chambers are given in Appendix 2

  5. Nitrogen deposition outweighs climatic variability in driving annual growth rate of canopy beech trees: evidence from long-term growth reconstruction across a geographic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilesca, Tiziana; Rita, Angelo; Brunetti, Michele; Giammarchi, Francesco; Leonardi, Stefano; Magnani, Federico; van Noije, Twan; Tonon, Giustino; Borghetti, Marco

    2018-03-23

    In this study, we investigated the role of climatic variability and atmospheric nitrogen deposition in driving long-term tree growth in canopy beech trees along a geographic gradient in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula, from the Alps to the southern Apennines. We sampled dominant trees at different developmental stages (from young to mature tree cohorts, with tree ages spanning from 35 to 160 years) and used stem analysis to infer historic reconstruction of tree volume and dominant height. Annual growth volume (G V ) and height (G H ) variability were related to annual variability in model simulated atmospheric nitrogen deposition and site-specific climatic variables, (i.e. mean annual temperature, total annual precipitation, mean growing period temperature, total growing period precipitation, and standard precipitation evapotranspiration index) and atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including tree cambial age among growth predictors. Generalized additive models (GAM), linear mixed-effects models (LMM), and Bayesian regression models (BRM) were independently employed to assess explanatory variables. The main results from our study were as follows: i) tree age was the main explanatory variable for long-term growth variability; ii) GAM, LMM, and BRM results consistently indicated climatic variables and CO 2 effects on G V and G H were weak, therefore evidence of recent climatic variability influence on beech annual growth rates was limited in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula; iii) instead, significant positive nitrogen deposition (N dep ) effects were repeatedly observed in G V and G H ; the positive effects of N dep on canopy height growth rates, which tended to level off at N dep values greater than approximately 1.0 g m -2 y -1 were interpreted as positive impacts on forest stand above-ground net productivity at the selected study sites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  6. Root-Derived Oxylipins Promote Green Peach Aphid Performance on Arabidopsis Foliage[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Vamsi J.; Keeretaweep, Jantana; Sarowar, Sujon; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Oxylipins function as signaling molecules in plant growth and development and contribute to defense against stress. Here, we show that oxylipins also facilitate infestation of Arabidopsis thaliana shoots by the phloem sap–consuming green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae), an agronomically important insect pest. GPAs had difficulty feeding from sieve elements and tapping into the xylem of lipoxygenase5 (lox5) mutant plants defective in LOX activity. These defects in GPA performance in the lox5 mutant were accompanied by reduced water content of GPAs and a smaller population size of GPAs in the mutant compared with the wild-type plant. LOX5 expression was rapidly induced in roots in response to infestation of shoots by GPAs. In parallel, levels of LOX5-derived oxylipins increased in roots and in petiole exudates of GPA-colonized plants. Application of 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (an oxylipin produced by the LOX5 enzyme) to roots restored water content and GPA population size in lox5 plants, thus confirming that a LOX5-derived oxylipin promotes infestation of the foliage by GPAs. Micrografting experiments demonstrated that GPA performance on foliage is influenced by the LOX5 genotype in roots, thus demonstrating the importance of root-derived oxylipins in colonization of aboveground organs by an insect. PMID:22474183

  7. Measuring Annual Growth Using Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement: An Examination of Seasonal and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Payan, Anita; McGee, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine annual growth patterns and gender differences in written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) when used in the context of universal screening. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 672) from 2 elementary schools that used WE-CBM as a universal screener participated in the study. Student…

  8. Mulberry Foliage As Forage Protein Source For Sheep And Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein is one of limiting nutrient factor that determine the production level of livestock including sheep and goat. However, the price of protein feed source from oil meal or animal by-products is expensive and sometimes it is not are affordable by small scale farmers in the village. On the other hand, ruminants animal have the advantage of having rumen which able in using protein from forage to meet their protein requirement. Therefore this is important to obtain alternative feed which is cheap, affordable and have high quality and available throughout the year to increase sheep and goat productivity. Mulbery (Morus alba plant can grow well all the year in tropical condition like Indonesia. Mulbery foliage has high protein content (> 20%, so it is potential to be used as protein foliage source in goat and sheep diet. Mulberry foliage supplementation in sheep diet could increase dry matter consumption 22.5% and followed by average daily gain 85% compared to unsuplemented diet.

  9. Divergence in foraging behavior of foliage-gleaning birds of Canadian and Russian boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Russell; Pravosudov, Vladimir; Sterling, John; Kozlenko, Anna; Kontorschikov, Vitally

    1999-08-01

    We compared foraging behavior of foliage-gleaning birds of the boreal forest of two Palaearctic (central Siberia and European Russia) and two Nearctic (Mackenzie and Ontario, Canada) sites. Using discriminant function analysis on paired sites we were able to distinguish foliage-gleaning species from the Nearctic and Palaearctic with few misclassifications. The two variables that most consistently distinguished species of the two avifaunas were the percentage use of conifer foliage and the percentage use of all foliage. Nearctic foliage-gleaner assemblages had more species that foraged predominantly from coniferous foliage and displayed a greater tendency to forage from foliage, both coniferous and broad-leafed, rather than twigs, branches, or other substrates. The greater specialization on foliage and, in particular, conifer foliage by New World canopy foliage insectivores is consistent with previously proposed hypotheses regarding the role of Pleistocene vegetation history on ecological generalization of Eurasian species. Boreal forest, composed primarily of spruce and pine, was widespread in eastern North America, whereas pockets of forest were scattered in Eurasia (mostly the mountains of southern Europe and Asia). This may have affected the populations of birds directly or indirectly through reduction in the diversity and abundance of defoliating outbreak insects. Loss of habitat and resources may have selected against ecological specialization on these habitats and resources.

  10. Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

    2014-06-16

    Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months.

  11. Founders Energy Ltd. 1998 annual report : fiscally prudent, value driven balanced growth strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Founders Energy Ltd is a growth-oriented junior resource company engaged in the acquisition and development of oil and natural gas properties in Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The annual review provides details of the company's operations and relevant financial performance during the 1998 fiscal year. In brief, the company realized significant increases in production and reserves, top quartile findings and development costs. It reported significant increases in leverage to natural gas through exploration success at Pouce Coupe and the acquisition of Opal Energy Inc.. It established new core areas in west-central Alberta, Peace River Arch and west-central Saskatchewan. It achieved a better balanced risk profile through geographical diversification and better balance to exploration and development. It increased undeveloped land area to 160,268 net acres and added 11.5 million barrels of established reserves at a finding cost of $ 6.28 per barrel. Financial highlights include increased gross revenue, increased net income per share, and increased shareholders' equity. tabs., figs

  12. Consumption of Pistacia lentiscus foliage alleviates coccidiosis in young goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovics, A; Cohen, I; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Dvash, L; Ungar, E D; Azaizeh, H; Landau, S Y

    2012-05-25

    Coccidiosis near weaning is a major cause of diarrhea, ill-thrift, and impaired performance in small ruminants. A recent survey showed that in villages of the Samaria Hills, Israel, shepherds treat young, weaned goat kids afflicted with diarrhea by cutting and feeding them the foliage of Pistacia lentiscus L. (lentisk) or by tethering them close to lentisk bushes which they browse. The aim of the present study was to assess whether lentisk leaves do indeed have anti-coccidial value, and, if positive, to ascertain the role of tannins in this effect. We monitored for 24 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) days the effect of lentisk feeding on the development of naturally occurring coccidiosis in weaned kids artificially infected with parasitic nematodes. In Experiment 1, kids were infected with nematodes and fed lentisk foliage (PIS) or cereal hay (HAY). Coccidiosis developed at the early stage of the nematode infection, when dietary treatments were initiated. Kids in the PIS group had a lower (Pcoccidiosis occurred at the peak of the nematode infection, before experimental diets were initiated. Dietary treatments were: cereal hay (HAY), or lentisk foliage consumed without (PIS) or with (PISPEG) a 20-g daily supplement of polyethylene glycol (PEG; MW 4000), a molecule that impairs tannin-bonding with proteins. Goats fed the PIS diet had lower fecal opg counts than counterparts of the HAY (Pcoccidiosis; and (ii) this positive effect is associated with tannins. As coccidiosis is a major affliction of kids, providing them with tannin-rich browse near weaning could be an environmentally friendly way of improving their welfare and health status, in particular under bio-organic farm management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fully digital foliage-penetrating synthetic aperature radar processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Stephen; Hsu, Charles C.; Zaghloul, Mona E.; Szu, Harold H.; Karangelen, Nicholas E.; Buss, James R.

    2001-03-01

    A high performance, fully digital Foliage Penetrating Synthetic Aperture Radar (FOPEN SAR) system is described. The FOPEN SAR algorithm is illustrated using Matlab. Digital implementation is derived and simulated using VHDL. The complex mathematical functions required by the algorithm have been demonstrated. Simulations have achieved an SNR equals 290 dB when compared to the baseline results from Matlab. The accuracy of the simulation was limited by the resolution of certain trigonometric and exponential functions implemented using VHDL, and thus can be improved upon. This would allow greater flexibility between speed/area considerations without degradation of the target resolution (100dB-signal accuracy).

  14. Characterization of Foliage Mutants for Plant Variety Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin; Zaiton Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Breeding for new plant varieties requires a substantial investment in terms of skill, labour, material resources and financing. Thus, registration of new plant variety is important to ensure return of revenue and protection of the breeder's right. Before a new variety is registered, it has to comply certain requirements under Plant Variety Protection Act. One of the most important requirements is, the new species/variety must be morphologically distinguishable from existing plant varieties. This paper discusses detailed leaf characteristics of 4 foliage mutants produced by Malaysian Nuclear Agency as part of the requirement for new variety registration. (author)

  15. The 1993 annual conference of the Israeli Association for Crystal Growth. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    Papers presented in oral and poster sessions of one day conference, organized by Israeli Association for Crystal Growth, are compiled in this document. Main topics covered in this document can be classified as: (i) Fundamental and numerical analysis of crystal growth. (ii) Techniques of crystal growth and structural analysis. (iii) Thin film growth and characterization

  16. Cold in the common garden: comparative low-temperature tolerance of boreal and temperate conifer foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Richard Strimbeck; Trygve D. Kjellsen; Paul G. Schaberg; Paula F. Murakami

    2007-01-01

    Because they maintain green foliage throughout the winter season, evergreen conifers may face special physiological challenges in a warming world. We assessed the midwinter low-temperature (LT) tolerance of foliage from eight temperate and boreal species in each of the genera Abies, Picea, and Pinus growing in an arboretum in...

  17. Ecotypic variation in growth responses to simulated herbivory: trade-off between maximum relative growth rate and tolerance to defoliation in an annual plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Iván D.; Tapia-López, Rosalinda; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that slow-growing plants are more likely to maximize above-ground biomass and fitness when defoliated by herbivores than those with an already high relative growth rate (RGR). Some populations of the annual herb Datura stramonium L. can tolerate foliar damage better than others. The physiological basis of this difference is examined here in a comparative study of two ecotypes that differ in tolerance and maximum growth rate, using a growth analytical approach. One hundred and fifty-four plants of each ecotype grown under controlled conditions were suddenly defoliated (35 % of total leaf area removed) and a similar sample size of plants remained undefoliated (control). Ontogenetic plastic changes in RGR and its growth components [net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area and leaf weight ratio (LWR)] after defoliation were measured to determine whether these plastic changes maximize plant growth and fitness. Different ontogenetic phases of the response were discerned and increased RGR of defoliated plants was detected at the end of the experimental period, but brought about by a different growth component (NAR or LWR) in each ecotype. These changes in RGR are putatively related to increases in fitness in defoliated environments. At the intra-specific scale, data showed a trade-off between the ability to grow under benign environmental conditions and the ability to tolerate resource limitation due to defoliation. PMID:25725085

  18. Intra-annual dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in the cambium of mature conifer trees reflects radial growth demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Sonia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Treydte, Kerstin; Traversi, Maria Laura; King, Gregory M; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    The presence of soluble carbohydrates in the cambial zone, either from sugars recently produced during photosynthesis or from starch remobilized from storage organs, is necessary for radial tree growth. However, considerable uncertainties on carbohydrate dynamics and the consequences on tree productivity exist. This study aims to better understand the variation in different carbon pools at intra-annual resolution by quantifying how cambial zone sugar and starch concentrations fluctuate over the season and in relation to cambial phenology. A comparison between two physiologically different species growing at the same site, i.e., the evergreen Picea abies Karst. and the deciduous Larix decidua Mill., and between L. decidua from two contrasting elevations, is presented to identify mechanisms of growth limitation. Results indicate that the annual cycle of sugar concentration within the cambial zone is coupled to the process of wood formation. The highest sugar concentration is observed when the number of cells in secondary wall formation and lignification stages is at a maximum, subsequent to most radial growth. Starch disappears in winter, while other freeze-resistant non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) increase. Slight differences in NSC concentration between species are consistent with the differing climate sensitivity of the evergreen and deciduous species investigated. The general absence of differences between elevations suggests that the cambial activity of trees growing at the treeline was not limited by the availability of carbohydrates at the cambial zone but instead by environmental controls on the growing season duration.

  19. Insect feeding and oviposition deterrents from western red cedar foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R I; Pierce, H D; Borden, J H; Oehlschlager, A C

    1981-01-01

    The feeding deterrent activity of fractions from the foliage of western red cedar,Thujaplicata Donn, was studied in laboratory bioassays using the white pine weevil,Pissodes strobi Peck, as a test insect. The most active fraction was the volatile mixture that comprises the leaf oil of this tree species. Further fractionation of the leaf oil indicated feeding deterrent activity in the monoterpene hydrocarbon, thujone, and terpene alcohol fractions. When tested alone, both (-)-3-isothujone and (+)-3-thujone, which made up 75-88% and 5-10% of the leaf oil, respectively, deterred feeding by the weevils. Western red cedar leaf oil also showed antifeedant activity with the alder flea beetle,Altica ambiens (Le Conte), and served as an oviposition deterrent for the onion root maggot,Hylemya antiqua Meigen. The leaf oil, however, had no inhibitory effect on the feeding of the leaf roller,Epinotia solandriana L., and the red-backed sawfly,Eriocampa ovata L.

  20. BOREAS TE-9 NSA Photosynthetic Capacity and Foliage Nitrogen Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Dang, Qinglai; Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-9 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. This data set describes the spatial and temporal relationship between foliage nitrogen concentration and photosynthetic capacity in the canopies of black spruce, jack pine, and aspen located within the Northern Study Area (NSA). The data were collected from June to September 1994 and are useful for modeling the vertical distribution of carbon fixation for different forest types in the boreal forest. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. Annuals sprouting adventitiously from the hypocotyl: their compensatory growth and implications for weed management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latzel, Vít; Dospělová, L.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2009), s. 923-929 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : hypocotyle * regeneration * annuals Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  2. Enhanced anthocyanin synthesis in foliage plant Caladium bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S J; Deng, X M; Mao, H Z; Hong, Y

    2005-03-01

    A protocol was developed for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of monocotyledon foliage plant Caladium bicolor cv. Jackie Suthers using leaf disc and petiole as the explants. The explants were inoculated with Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring a binary vector with the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. Callus formation was induced in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), 0.1 mg/1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 30 g/l sucrose and kanamycin 50 mg/l for selection. Resistant calli were induced for shoot generation in MS medium with 2 mg/l 6-BA and 0.2 mg/l alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. As much as 10% of the explants gave rise to kanamycin-resistant shoots with our procedure. Transformed plants had enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in the roots, leaves and stems (epidermis and vascular bundles). Integration of the transgene into the host genome was confirmed by genomic Southern blot hybridization, and RNA blot hybridization analysis indicated that the expression of the transgene correlated with anthocyanin accumulation. This investigation illustrates the utility of anthocyanin regulatory genes in the genetic manipulation of the color of foliage plants. It also supports the premise that the Lc gene can be used as a powerful non-destructive cell autonomous visual marker in a wide variety of plants, as exemplified by the perfect symmetrical half-green/half-red plant presumably derived from the symmetrical division of one transgenic and one non-transgenic precursor meristematic cell.

  3. Effect of SO sub 2 on growth and development of Dahlia rosea Cav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.N.; Yunus, M.; Kulshreshtha, K.; Srivastava, K.; Ahmad, K.J. (National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India))

    1988-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide, being a by-product of fossil fuel consumption is one of the major air pollutants prevailing in Indian environment. The pernicious effects of SO{sub 2} on plant growth and yield have been well documented. However, it remained debatable for many years whether low concentrations of SO{sub 2} are adequate to induce injury to agricultural and horticultural crops. In the light of the above reports, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of long-term fumigation with SO{sub 2} on plant foliage, photosynthetic pigments, protein content, stomatal response, phytomass and flowering in Dahlia rosea Cav. a popular ornamental annual plant.

  4. Foliage efficiency of forest-forming species in the climatic gradients of Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Usoltsev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paperis of the scientific area of biogeography and devoted to a new aspect in the study of biological productivity of forest ecosystems on a geographical basis, expressed indirectly by climate parameters, namely, the foliage efficiency that until now is not investigated at the global level. Foliage efficiency is the ratio of net primary production (NPP to foliage biomass and is expressed in relative units. Some features of change of foliage efficiency of vicarious forest-forming species in Eurasian transcontinental gradients are showed for the first time using the voluminous factual material. The set of published biomass and NPP data (t/ha obtained in a number of 2192 plots is compiled. Using multiple regression analysis technique, the statistically significant changes in foliage efficiency values according to two transcontinental gradients, namely by zonal belts and continentality of climate, are stated for each forest-forming species. The species-specificity of age dynamics of stem volume and foliage efficiency is shown. It is monotonically decreased almost for all tree species in the following order: spruce and fir, pine, birch, oak, larch and aspen-poplar. When climate continentality increasing, foliage efficiency values of mature forests is dropping, most intensively in pines, less intensive in deciduous forests and virtually no changes in spruce-fir communities. In zonal gradient from the northern temperate to the subequatorial belt, foliage efficiency of deciduous species decreases, but it of the evergreen spruce and pine increases in the same direction. One of the possible causes of these opposite zonal trends of foliage efficiency in evergreen and deciduous species consists in different conditions of physiological processes in the year cycle, in particular, in year-round assimilates accumulation in the first and seasonal one in the second.

  5. Variations of Mercury Concentrations in American Beech Foliage over a Growing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, I.; Tsui, M. T. K.; Chow, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Accumulation of atmospheric gaseous mercury (Hg) in foliage is well known, however, a small fraction of Hg always exists as highly bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg) in foliage but the source of MeHg in foliage is unknown. Recent studies suggested in-vivo Hg methylation in foliage while others suggested external inputs (e.g., precipitation) as sources of MeHg in foliage. This study assesses the accumulation of total Hg and MeHg within the foliage of a small sample set of American Beech trees, one of the common tree species in the east coast and the study site is located within the campus of University of North Carolina - Greensboro, over the growing season in 2017 (spring, summer, and fall). In addition, this study evaluates the Hg concentrations in foliage as related to other physiological parameters (e.g., stomatal density, leaf area, chlorophyll, and carbon/nitrogen content) and the changes in environmental characteristics (e.g., sunlight) over the growing season. For this investigation, five American Beech trees with varying characteristics (height, age, and location) were selected. On a biweekly basis, starting late April 2017, foliage samples were collected and composited from different positions on each tree. For the samples processed to date, our results indicate that total Hg accumulation is occurring for all five trees with an initial mean value of 5.79 ng/g, increasing to a mean value of 13.9 ng/g over a ten-week period. Coincidentally, there has been a similar increase in chlorophyll (a+b) concentrations for the foliage, and there is a strong, positive relationship between chlorophyll and total-Hg concentrations. However, we found no relationships between total Hg concentrations and stomatal density of foliage or carbon/nitrogen content. This study is still ongoing and will continue through the end of the growing season in 2017. Additionally, from the same sample sets, besides total Hg analysis and other ancillary parameters in foliage, MeHg analysis

  6. [Plant growth with limited water]. [Annual report, December 15, 1992--December 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    We used a soybean seedling system to explore the mechanism of growth limitation by water deficiency (low {Psi}{sub W}). Our prior work had show that (low {Psi}{sub W} inhibited plant growth initially because of a physical limitation to water uptake that appeared to result from a decrease in the {Psi}{sub W} gradient feeding water to the enlarging cells. The gradient was shown to originate from cell wall yielding and was altered primarily at the vascular tissue. In the present grant, we reported the detailed shape of the gradient. We also found that growth could mobilize water from mature tissues in the complete absence of external water using the gradient in {Psi}{sub W}. Growth was maintained by this mobilization. After growth has been inhibited a few hours, metabolic changes occur and a 28kD protein accumulates in the wall fraction of the growth-affected cells. In the present grant, we showed that the mRNA for the protein accumulated in a tissue-specific manner similar to that of the protein, and the accumulation was correlated with the growth response. Other investigators working independently with an acid phosphatase found a deduced amino acid sequence similar to that for the 28kD protein we had published. Biochemical tests showed that the 28kD protein and a related 3lkD protein expressed acid phosphatase activity. We found that the acid phosphatase Of the 28kD protein was in the cell walls of intact plants (in addition to being in the cytoplasm). Current work focuses on the role of this protein. Efforts were made to reverse the growth inhibition at low {Phi}{sub W} by treating growing tissues with low pH buffer, but the protons apparently failed to penetrate the cuticle.

  7. Genetic associations among average annual productivity, growth traits, and stayability: a parallel between Nelore and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Eler, J P; Bignardi, A B; Ferraz, J B S

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship among average annual productivity of the cow (PRODAM), yearling weight (YW), postweaning BW gain (PWG), scrotal circumference (SC), and stayability in the herd for at least 6 yr (STAY) of Nelore and composite beef cattle. Measurements were taken on animals born between 1980 and 2010 on 70 farms located in 7 Brazilian states. Estimates of heritability and genetic and environmental correlations were obtained by Bayesian approach with 5-trait animal models. Genetic trends were estimated by regressing means of estimated breeding values by year of birth. The heritability estimates were between 0.14 and 0.47. Estimates of genetic correlation among female traits (PRODAM and STAY) and growth traits ranged from -0.02 to 0.30. Estimates of genetic correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.94 among growth traits indicating that selection for these traits could be successful in tropical breeding programs. Genetic correlations among all traits were favorable and simultaneous selection for growth, productivity, and stayability is therefore possible. Genetic correlation between PRODAM and STAY was 0.99 and 0.85 for Nelore and composite cattle, respectively. Therefore, PRODAM and STAY might be influenced by many of the same genes. The inclusion of PRODAM instead of STAY as a selection criterion seems to be more advantageous for tropical breeding programs because the generation interval required to obtain accurate estimates of genetic merit for PRODAM is shorter. Average annual genetic changes were greater in Nelore than in composite cattle. This was not unexpected because the breeding program of composite cattle included a large number of farms, different production environments, and genetic level of the herds and breeds. Thus, the selection process has become more difficult in this population.

  8. Effect of D2O on growth properties and chemical structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Bali, Garima [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Reeves, David T [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Sun, Qining [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Shah, Riddhi S [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    In present paper, we report the production and detailed structural analysis of deuterium-enriched rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) for neutron scattering experiments. An efficient method to produce deuterated biomass was developed by designing hydroponic perfusion chambers. In preliminary studies, the partial deuterated rye samples were grown in increasing levels of D2O to study the seed germination and the level of deuterium incorporation as a function of D2O concentration. Solution NMR method indicated 36.9 % deuterium incorporation in 50 % D2O grown annual rye samples and further significant increase in the deuterium incorporation level was observed by germinating the rye seedlings in H2O and growing in 50 % D2O inside the perfusion chambers. Moreover, in an effort to compare the substrate characteristics related to enzymatic hydrolysis on deuterated and protiated version of biomass, annual rye grown in 50 % D2O was selected for detailed biomass characterization studies. The compositional analyses, degree of polymerization and cellulose crystallinity were compared with its protiated control. The cellulose molecular weight indicated slight variation with deuteration; however, hemicellulose molecular weights and cellulose crystallinity remain unaffected with the deuteration. Besides the minor differences in biomass components, the development of deuterated biomass for neutron scattering application is essential to understand the complex biomass conversion processes.

  9. Branch and foliage biomass relations for shortleaf pine in southeast Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles O. Sabatia; Thomas B. Lynch; Rodney E. Will

    2007-01-01

    Data from 36 shortleaf pine trees, sampled from thinning study plots in even-aged naturally regenerated shortleaf pine forests in Southeast Oklahoma, were used to fit tree branch and foliage biomass equations.

  10. Changes in the relationship between annual tree growth and climatic variables for four hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.R. Smith; J.C. Rennie

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to characterize temporal and spatial variability in the growth response of four major hardwood species (white oak, chestnut oak, northern red oak, and yellow-poplar) to climatic fluctuations, and to evaluate the role of environmental factors associated with difference in response among individuals. The study incorporated tree-ring data collected...

  11. Highly plastic resource allocation to growth and reproduction in females of an African annual fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrtílek, Milan; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 616-628 ISSN 0906-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0112 Keywords : Nothobranchius * compensatory growth * egg size * life history * diet restriction Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.052, year: 2015

  12. Intra-annual variability in skeletal growth of the Devonian tabulate coral Scoliopora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladil, Jindřich

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 68, - (2002), s. 77-78 ISSN 0729-011X. [International Palaeontological Congress Australia /1./. 06.07.2002-10.07.2002, Sydney] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013209 Keywords : sclerochronology * skeletal growth * ocean and marine basins Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  13. Structural organization of the foliage of ornamental varieties of genus Fragaria L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma G. Biryulyova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of the development and structural organization of foliage decorative combs strawberries. An association between the area of assimilating surface and the number of shoots renewal per plant has found. Group of cultivars with similar morphological, quantitative and dimensional characteristics of the foliage have been selected. The results of the anatomical and morphological investigations of strawberry varieties, depending on the different moisture conditions are shown.

  14. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2000-01-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial 14 C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. 14 C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of Δ 14 C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout 14 C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11 S , 49 deg 58 O ). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its 14 C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the Δ 14 C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO 2 mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  15. The multi-annual Energy Plan - Executive summary. The energy transition for the green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The multi-annual energy plan aims at completing the transition towards an energy system which is more efficient, less wasteful, more diverse and therefore more resilient. It reaffirms our commitment to reducing energy consumption, particularly energy from fossil fuels. The future of France's energy sector lies in striking a harmonious balance between different energy sources. These strategic decisions will help us to meet our objectives to keep greenhouse gas emissions to a minimum in line with our commitments to the EU and to the Paris Climate Agreement, to protect human health and the environment and to ensure access to energy at a reasonable cost whilst stimulating economic activity and employment in France

  16. A strategy for monitoring Swiss needle cast and assessing its growth impact in Douglas-fir plantations of Coastal Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug Maguire; Alan Kanaskie; Mike McWilliams

    2000-01-01

    Many Douglas-fir plantations along the north coast of Oregon are exhibiting severe symptoms of Swiss needle cast disease (SNC). These symptoms include premature loss of foliage, abundant fungal pseudothecia on needles, yellowing of foliage, and apparent reduction in diameter and height growth. The development of the disease and its impacts on growth are currently being...

  17. Time-resolved metabolomics reveals metabolic modulation in rice foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arita Masanori

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate the interaction of dynamics among modules that constitute biological systems, comprehensive datasets obtained from "omics" technologies have been used. In recent plant metabolomics approaches, the reconstruction of metabolic correlation networks has been attempted using statistical techniques. However, the results were unsatisfactory and effective data-mining techniques that apply appropriate comprehensive datasets are needed. Results Using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS and capillary electrophoresis diode-array detection (CE-DAD, we analyzed the dynamic changes in the level of 56 basic metabolites in plant foliage (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica at hourly intervals over a 24-hr period. Unsupervised clustering of comprehensive metabolic profiles using Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM allowed classification of the biochemical pathways activated by the light and dark cycle. The carbon and nitrogen (C/N metabolism in both periods was also visualized as a phenotypic linkage map that connects network modules on the basis of traditional metabolic pathways rather than pairwise correlations among metabolites. The regulatory networks of C/N assimilation/dissimilation at each time point were consistent with previous works on plant metabolism. In response to environmental stress, glutathione and spermidine fluctuated synchronously with their regulatory targets. Adenine nucleosides and nicotinamide coenzymes were regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We also demonstrated that SOM analysis was applicable to the estimation of unidentifiable metabolites in metabolome analysis. Hierarchical clustering of a correlation coefficient matrix could help identify the bottleneck enzymes that regulate metabolic networks. Conclusion Our results showed that our SOM analysis with appropriate metabolic time-courses effectively revealed the synchronous dynamics among metabolic modules and elucidated the

  18. The suitability of annual tree growth rings as environmental archives: Evidence from Sr, Nd, Pb and Ca isotopes in spruce growth rings from the Strengbach watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, Peter; Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Labolle, François; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Gangloff, Sophie; Cobert, Florian; Lucot, Eric; Guéguen, Florence; Brioschi, Laure; Steinmann, Marc; Chabaux, François

    2012-05-01

    The combination of the Sr, Nd and Pb isotope systems, recognized as tracers of sources, with the Ca isotope system, known to reveal biology-related fractionations, allowed us to test the reliability of spruce (Picea abies) growth rings as environmental archives through time (from 1916 to 1983) in a forest ecosystem affected by acid atmospheric deposition. Sr and Pb isotopes have already been applied in former tree-ring studies, whereas the suitability of Nd and Ca isotope systems is checked in the present article. Our Sr and Nd isotope data indicate an evolution in the cation origin with a geogenic origin for the oldest rings and an atmospheric origin for the youngest rings. Ca isotopes show, for their part, an isotopic homogeneity which could be linked to the very low weathering flux of Ca. Since this flux is weak the spruces' root systems have pumped the Ca mainly from the organic matter-rich top-soil over the past century. In contrast, the annual growth rings studied are not reliable and suitable archives of past Pb pollution.

  19. To live fast or not: growth, vigor and longevity of old-growth ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, M. R. [Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station

    1996-01-01

    Old ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine trees were studied to determine volume growth patterns in relation to leaf area. Ponderosa pine trees varied in age from 166 to 432 years and were about 77 inches in diameter; lodgepole pine trees ranged in age from 250 to 296 years and were 31 inches in diameter. Trees of both species had flat tops, heavy branches and foliage distribution characteristic of older trees. Annual volume increments were determined from crossdated radial increments measured on discs at four meter height intervals; leaf areas were determined based on leaf area/branch sapwood area ratios. Ponderosa pine volume growth was found to have been gradual at first, reaching a plateau that persisted for a century or more, followed by a rapid increase, and a sudden decrease in growth to less than one half of the earlier rate and persisting at these levels for several decades. In lodgepole pine growth decline was less frequent and less spectacular; growth in general was more even, with slight annual variations. Volume growth in the most recent years prior to felling weakly correlated with leaf area. Growth efficiencies were generally higher for trees having the lowest leaf areas. The fact that these persisted for many decades with low growth efficiencies suggests that defence mechanisms are more effective in old trees than in younger ones. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Annual alteration in the growth and health-related physical fitness of the school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Del Corona Lorenzi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up of growth and physical fitness is important because it enables to verify health status during determined periods in a population. The aim of this study was to track the changes in growth and health-related physical fitness (HRPF of students during a year period and also to compare them with HRPF criteria. The sample consisted of 61 students of both sexes (31 boys and 30 girls measured in August 2001 and in August 2002 as well. Growth was evaluated by stature and body weight and HRPF by some tests of the battery proposed by PROESP-BR, having as reference the HRPF health zone of the Physical Best (AAHPERD, 1988 and Fitnessgram (COOPER INSTITUTE OF AEROBICS RESEARCH, 1987. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Student’s t-test for paired samples. The results showed that students had high indexes for stature and body weight. Excepted for body composition, the students had low HRPF, presenting high prevalence of below health zone for the physical fitness components. RESUMO O monitoramento do crescimento e da aptidão física é importante por possibilitar que se verifique o estado de saúde ao longo de determinados períodos de uma dada população. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as alterações, após o período de um ano, no crescimento e na aptidão física relacionada à saúde de escolares dos dois sexos, e compará-las com critérios de saúde. O estudo teve como sujeitos 61 escolares dos dois sexos (31 meninos e 30 meninas selecionados de forma não aleatória voluntária, avaliados em agosto de 2001 e agosto de 2002. O crescimento físico dos escolares foi avaliado por meio da estatura e massa corporal, a aptidão física relacionada à saúde foi avaliada através de alguns dos testes da bateria proposta pelo PROESP-BR, tendo como referência os critérios de zona saudável de aptidão física do Physical Best (AAPHERD, 1988 e Fitnessgram (COOPER INSTITUTE FOR AEROBICS RESEARCH, 1987. A análise dos dados

  1. Simulating the Effects of the Airborne Lidar Scanning Angle, Flying Altitude, and Pulse Density for Forest Foliage Profile Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Qin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Foliage profile is a key biophysical parameter for forests. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging is an effective tool for vegetation parameter retrieval. Data acquisition conditions influence the estimation of biophysical parameters. To acquire accurate foliage profiles at the lowest cost, we used simulations to explore the effects of data acquisition conditions on forest foliage profile retrieval. First, a 3-D forest scene and the airborne small-footprint full-waveform LiDAR data were simulated by the DART model. Second, the foliage profile was estimated from LiDAR data based on a Geometric Optical and Radiative Transfer model. Lastly, the effects of the airborne LiDAR scanning angle, flying altitude, and pulse density on foliage profile retrieval were explored. The results indicated that the scanning angle was an important factor in the foliage profile retrieval, and the optimal scanning angle was 20°. The optimal scanning angle was independent of flying altitude and pulse density, and combinations of multiple scanning angles could improve the accuracy of the foliage profile estimation. The flying altitude and pulse density had little influence on foliage profile retrieval at plot level and could be ignored. In general, our study provides reliable information for selecting the optimal instrument operational parameters to acquire more accurate foliage profiles and minimize data acquisition costs.

  2. Esso Imperial Oil annual report to shareholders 2002 : positioned for growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Financial information from Esso Imperial Oil, one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil and natural gas, was presented and a review of their 2002 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Some of the highlights of 2002 are: the total return on Imperial shares including capital appreciation and dividends was 3 per cent, compared with a net loss of 12 per cent for the Standard and Poors/TSX composite index; in the past decade, the total return on Imperial's shares have averaged 17 per cent a year, compounded; regular dividend payments increased to 84 cents a share, the eighth consecutive year of dividend growth; and, the company has purchased more than 200 million shares for $5.2 billion since 1995, reducing the number outstanding by 35 per cent. Progress in key priority areas for 2002 included a second-best year for safety performance, a successful $1.6 billion capital investment program, the expansion of the Cold Lake oil sands project, an increase of 15 per cent in polyethylene production, an increase of 3.5 per cent in retail sales of Esso gasoline, and advancement of the Mackenzie gas project. Other achievements included the development of a 170 megawatt cogeneration plant at Cold Lake that will reduce costs and greenhouse gas emissions. A 95 megawatt unit was also constructed at the Sarnia manufacturing facility. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information including the accounts of Imperial Oil Inc. and its subsidiaries and the company's proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  3. Annual report to the Working Group on Technology, Growth, and Employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    A meeting of the Working Group on High Energy Physics was convened in Brussels, Belgium, in July 1984, and impaneled new groups of technical experts to report on long-term planning, technical collaborations, and the identification of administrative obstacles experienced within the Summit countries that impede international collaboration. The charges to these three new groups are contained in this report under the section on the Brussels meeting. The reports prepared by the technical experts were then reviewed at the January 1985 meeting at Cadarache, France, and the results are contained in this report under the section on the Cadarache meeting. The Summit Working Group on High Energy Physics believes progress is being made toward cooperation among the Summit countries in the exploration of scientific and technological development upon which the Summit Heads of State and Government declared at Versailles revitalization and growth of the world economy will depend - to a large extent. At Cadarache, the Group found that, since its establishment, international collaboration has increased in the use of present accelerators and in the planning for future accelerators. The Group also found that there are specific areas of technology in which near-term research cooperation is possible. Finally, the Group identified administrative regulations that hamper effective international collaboration in science and technology and that could be revised or eliminated through coordinated, high level Summit action. The major accomplishment of the Working Group thus far has been the creation of a forum for discussions on collaboration in a major field of science by seven industrialized countries. The Group recommends the continuation of its review of long-term plans for major facilities on an intergovernmental basis

  4. Contrasting Potato Foliage and Tuber Defense Mechanisms against the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liangliang; Bradeen, James M

    2016-01-01

    The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. When inoculated with P. infestans, foliage of nontransformed 'Russet Burbank' (WT) develops late blight disease while that of transgenic 'Russet Burbank' line SP2211 (+RB) does not. We compared the foliar transcriptome responses of these two lines to P. infestans inoculation using an RNA-seq approach. A total of 515 million paired end RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of 29,970 genes. We also compared the differences and similarities of defense mechanisms against P. infestans in potato foliage and tubers. Differentially expressed genes, gene groups and ontology bins were identified to show similarities and differences in foliage and tuber defense mechanisms. Our results suggest that R gene dosage and shared biochemical pathways (such as ethylene and stress bins) contribute to RB-mediated incompatible potato-P. infestans interactions in both the foliage and tubers. Certain ontology bins such as cell wall and lipid metabolisms are potentially organ-specific.

  5. Avian community assembly rules: The foliage-gleaning guild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, James W

    1981-08-01

    The theory of animal community organization has been dominated by general models based on the Lotka-Volterra equations. The predictions of these models are difficult to test in particular situations. Moreover, a great deal of ecological information is incommensurate with the data requirements of these models. A different approach to community organization addresses the "ecosystem assembly problem". This problem is defined to be that of constructing an algorithm which assembles a subset of a species pool in a specified environment.A model of ecosystem assembly, based on generative grammars as used in theoretical linguistics, is described. It was constructed from and validated with data collected by D.H. Morse on a guild of foliage-gleaning birds inhabiting spruce forests on islands off the coast of Maine. The data were divided into two groups. One group, from the years 1967-1970, was used for model construction; the second group, from 1971-1975, was used to validate the model.The model has two major components. One component inserts species onto islands according to the microhabitat used by each species and the resources available on each island. A second component deletes those inserted species from islands on which they were not observed to occur during 1967-1970. This component is composed of deletion rules that remove species depending on (a) their sizes and resource requirements, (b) the sizes and resource requirements of other species present in the ecosystem, and (c) the structure of the vegetation on the islands. Model validation was performed by comparing the predicted distributions of species against observed distributions not used in model construction. Model accuracy for the later data (1971-1975) was slightly higher than for the earlier data (1967-1970), approximately 88% and 84%, respectively.The behavior of the model was investigated with several simulations. These included the effects of the removal of certain deletion rules and the effects of the

  6. Variation of Maximum Tree Height and Annual Shoot Growth of Smith Fir at Various Elevations in the Sygera Mountains, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafeng; Čufar, Katarina; Eckstein, Dieter; Liang, Eryuan

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about tree height and height growth (as annual shoot elongation of the apical part of vertical stems) of coniferous trees growing at various altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau, which provides a high-elevation natural platform for assessing tree growth performance in relation to future climate change. We here investigated the variation of maximum tree height and annual height increment of Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii) in seven forest plots (30 m×40 m) along two altitudinal transects between 3,800 m and 4,200/4,390 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Four plots were located on north-facing slopes and three plots on southeast-facing slopes. At each site, annual shoot growth was obtained by measuring the distance between successive terminal bud scars along the main stem of 25 trees that were between 2 and 4 m high. Maximum/mean tree height and mean annual height increment of Smith fir decreased with increasing altitude up to the tree line, indicative of a stress gradient (the dominant temperature gradient) along the altitudinal transect. Above-average mean minimum summer (particularly July) temperatures affected height increment positively, whereas precipitation had no significant effect on shoot growth. The time series of annual height increments of Smith fir can be used for the reconstruction of past climate on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In addition, it can be expected that the rising summer temperatures observed in the recent past and anticipated for the future will enhance Smith fir's growth throughout its altitudinal distribution range. PMID:22396738

  7. Inter-annual variation in the response of Pinus taeda tree growth to long term Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. J.; Aref, S.; Ho, R. M.; Pippen, J. S.; Hamilton, J.; de Lucia, E. H.

    2005-12-01

    Rising carbon dioxide is predicted to increase forest productivity, though the duration of the response and how it might be altered by annual variation in rainfall and temperature are not well understood. For eight years we measured the basal area of trees exposed to Free Air Carbon-dioxide Enrichment (FACE) in a rapidly growing Pinus taeda plantation and used these measurements to estimate monthly and annual growth. We coupled these measurements with a mathematical model to estimate the start and end of growth in each year. Elevated carbon dioxide increased the basal area increment (BAI) of trees by 13 to 27 percent. Exposure to elevated carbon dioxide increased the growth rate but not the duration of the growing season in most years. With the exception of one year following an extreme drought and a severe ice storm, BAI was positively correlated with the amount of rainfall during the growing season. The inter-annual variation in the relative enhancement of BAI caused by elevated carbon dioxide was strongly related to the combination of temperature and rainfall during the growing season. There was no evidence of a systematic reduction in the stimulation of growth during the first eight years of this experiment, suggesting that hypothesized limitation of the carbon dioxide response caused by nitrogen availability has yet to occur.

  8. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyó, Dávid; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2011-05-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The efficiency of 32P, 15N foliage spray upon winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiuzhi

    1985-01-01

    The efficiency of foliage spray of KH 2 PO 4 open wheat in heading stage is related to the content of effective P in the soil. In the irrigation field with high content of effective P and under the conditions of foliage spray of KH 2 PO 4 (3/1000), the wheat grain output was increased by 4.5-12.93% in comparison with control plot. It was increased by 7-16.07% in the soil with low content of effective P. By using 32 P-tracer determination it has been shown that the foliage spray of KH 2 PO 4 could increase the content of 32 P in the plant. The utilization coefficient of 32 P by plant was 19.8% while N and P were sprayed together the utilization coefficient was 28.6%, but the absolute value of absorbing capacity, however, only amounted to 0.65-0.91% of the total content of P in the plant observed. By using 15 N-tracing assay, it was found that the availability of 15 N-fertilizer to the roots of wheat after heading stage was rather high. The efficiency of foliage spray of N-fertilizer were not significant

  10. Diel rhythms in the volatile emission of apple and grape foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from intact apple (Malus x domestica Borkh., cv. Golden Delicious) and grape (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Pinot Noir) foliage. Volatiles were monitored continuously for 48 hours by proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass s...

  11. Mountain pine beetle attack alters the chemistry and flammability of lodgepole pine foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon

    2012-01-01

    During periods with epidemic mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forests, large amounts of tree foliage are thought to undergo changes in moisture content and chemistry brought about by tree decline and death. However, many of the presumed changes have yet to be...

  12. Variation for epicuticular waxes on onion foliage and impacts on numbers of onion thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists in onion for amounts of epicuticular waxes on foliage, and plants with lower amounts of these waxes suffer less damage from the insect pest Thrips tabaci (thrips). Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of epicuticular waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessi...

  13. Orange Is the New Green: Exploring the Restorative Capacity of Seasonal Foliage in Schoolyard Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Paddle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban schoolyard environments are increasingly characterized by a proliferation of hard surfaces with little if any greenery. Schoolyard “greening” initiatives are becoming increasingly popular; however, schoolyard designs often fail to realize their restorative potential. In this quasi-experimental study, a proposed schoolyard greening project was used to visualize alternative planting designs and seasonal tree foliage; these design alternatives were subsequently used as visual stimuli in a survey administered to children who will use the schoolyard to assess the perceived restorative capacity of different design features. The findings indicate that seasonal changes in tree foliage enhance the perceived restorative quality of schoolyard environments. Specifically, fall foliage colour, when compared to green foliage, is rated as being perceived to be equally restorative for children. Additionally, seasonal planting, including evergreen conifers, may enhance the restorative quality of the schoolyard especially when deciduous trees are leafless. Landscape design professionals, community-based organizations, and other decision-makers in schoolyard greening efforts should strategically consider their tree choices to maximize year-round support for healthy attention functioning in children through restoration.

  14. Orange Is the New Green: Exploring the Restorative Capacity of Seasonal Foliage in Schoolyard Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddle, Eli; Gilliland, Jason

    2016-05-17

    Urban schoolyard environments are increasingly characterized by a proliferation of hard surfaces with little if any greenery. Schoolyard "greening" initiatives are becoming increasingly popular; however, schoolyard designs often fail to realize their restorative potential. In this quasi-experimental study, a proposed schoolyard greening project was used to visualize alternative planting designs and seasonal tree foliage; these design alternatives were subsequently used as visual stimuli in a survey administered to children who will use the schoolyard to assess the perceived restorative capacity of different design features. The findings indicate that seasonal changes in tree foliage enhance the perceived restorative quality of schoolyard environments. Specifically, fall foliage colour, when compared to green foliage, is rated as being perceived to be equally restorative for children. Additionally, seasonal planting, including evergreen conifers, may enhance the restorative quality of the schoolyard especially when deciduous trees are leafless. Landscape design professionals, community-based organizations, and other decision-makers in schoolyard greening efforts should strategically consider their tree choices to maximize year-round support for healthy attention functioning in children through restoration.

  15. Foliage biomass qualitative indices of selected forest forming tree species in Ukrainian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sytnyk Svitlana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study objective was research on the assimilation component of aboveground biomass of trees and its correlation with mensurational indices of trees (age, diameter and height in stands of the main forest forming species in the Ukrainian Northern Steppe zone - Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Black locust. The research was carried out in forest stands subordinated to the State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine. We used experimental data collected on sample plots established during years 2014-2016. The main research results prove that the foliage share in the tree greenery biomass structure had a wide range of values. For both investigated species, a positive correlation was found between the dry matter content in the tree foliage and the tree age, height and diameter. The foliage share in tree greenery biomass decreased with increasing mensurational index values. Correlation analysis revealed linear relationships between the mensurational indices and the discussed aboveground live biomass parameters. The closest correlation was observed between the stand age, mean stand diameter, mean stand height and dry matter content in the foliage.

  16. FOLIAGE YIELD, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND INTAKE CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE MUCUNA VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice G. Sidibé-Anago

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of variety and fertiliser on foliage yield and chemical composition of the foliage of three mucuna varieties, Mucuna deeringeana, Mucuna cochinchinensis and Mucuna spp. var, Ghana, was studied in an experiment in Burkina Faso in 2005 and 2007. The chemical composition and intake of hay from the same mucuna species were also studied using six Zebu cows per treatment offered 1/3 of their diet as grass hay. The experimental design of the agriculture experiment in both years was a randomised block with 3 mucuna varieties, not fertilised or fertilised with 2 kg DM/m2 of cow manure and with 4 replications. The foliages were harvested when 75% of the plants were flowering both for measuring foliage yield and for making hay. Soil characteristics before and after the experiment, dry matter yields and stem/leaf ratio of the vines were recorded and chemical composition of the foliages analysed. The mean age at harvesting was 57 d for M. spp. var. Ghana that was significantly shorter than for M. deeringeana (63 d and M. cochinchinensis (81 d. Age at harvesting was not significantly affected by fertilisation. Dry matter yield was significantly lower for M. spp. var. Ghana, 1.71 t/ha for the unfertilised plots, compared to 3.29 and 3.07 t/ha for M. deeringeana and M. cochinchinensis, respectively. Fertilisation with manure more than doubled the yield for all varieties. There was no difference in stem/leaf ratio due to variety or fertiliser. The leaves+petiole fraction was generally heavier than the stem fraction. M. spp. var. Ghana had significantly higher content of crude protein than M. deeringeana and M. cochinchinensis (204, 177 and 150 g/kg DM, respectively. M. cochinchinensis had significantly higher ADF content than M. spp. var. Ghana, 474 and 369 g/kg DM, respectively. M. spp. var. Ghana had the highest CP content (209 g/kg DM, significantly different from M. cochinchinensis (165 g/kg DM but not from M. deeringeana (192 g/kg DM. M. spp. var

  17. Evaluation of Nutritive Value, Phenolic Compounds and in vitro Digestion Charactristics of Barberry (Berberis Vulgaris Foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Modaresi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study was intended to evaluate the nutritional value, phenolic compounds and digestibility coefficients of barberry leaves. Berberis vulgaris is one of the major crops in the province. The province has more than 70 percent and 95 percent of the total area under cultivation of barberry. Waste and foliage of barberry harvest traditionally used to feed livestock Tannin concentration greater than 3 to 4 percent in food, can have negative effects on digestibility in ruminants and in particular to reduce the absorption of dietary protein. So it can be expected that high amounts of tannins within waste foliage of barberry reduce its efficiency in ruminants to be fed. Several studies have shown that the addition of certain compounds such as urea, polyethylene Due to the high volume of barberry foliage that remains after harvesting and the possibility of its use in animal nutrition, this study tried to determine some nutrient compounds, phenolic compounds and degradation parameters were barberry leaves. In addition, in this study to determine the best additives are effective in reducing the concentration of tannins and phenolic compounds, urea, polyethylene glycol, sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide were compared. Materials and method As the samples were dried by the sun for 6 days. The amount of 5% by weight (dry matter basis urea, polyethylene glycol, sodium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide that was prepared with distilled water, was sprayed on 5 kg of the sample and thoroughly mixed. Each of the treatments were prepared in triplicate. Treatments include: 1 control (foliage without additives, 2 foliage with 5% solution of urea, 3 foliage with 5% polyethylene glycol, 4 foliage with 5% sodium hydroxide, 5 with 5% calcium hydroxide was foliage. The sample were kept in anaerobic plastic containers for 3 days and then opened and dried at room temperature. Samples were analyzed for crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent

  18. The Annual Allowed Revenue growth of basic transmission grid face the expansion of transmission system; O crescimento da receita anual permitida da rede basica face a expansao do sistema de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Isabela Sales; Camargo, Ivan Marques de Toledo [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since the separation between the purchase and sale of electric energy and contracts for access and use of transmission systems, in 1999, when the first Annual Allowed Revenue of the transmission concessionaires was established, to the last Annual Revenue readjustment, in 2007, the revenue of the basic transmission grid more than quadruplicated. The growth of the Allowed Annual Revenue of the main transmission grid has raised questions about the excessive growth of the transmission system. However, despite the significant evolution of the basic transmission grid in the last years, it can be observed that since 2003 the growth curve of the Annual Allowed Revenue moved away from the transmission system growth curve. Between years 2000 and 2007, while the transmission system grew in average 4% per year, the average tax of growth of the Allowed Annual Revenue was superior 20% per year. Two facts contributed for this behavior - the great growth of IGP-M index, mainly between years 2002 and 2003, and the great difference between the Annual Allowed Revenue for the transmission installations existing in 1999 and the Maximum Annual Revenue for the new transmission installations, connected to the transmission grid since then. (author)

  19. Sensitivity of growth and biomass allocation patterns to increasing nitrogen: a comparison between ephemerals and annuals in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhang, Yuanming; Niklas, Karl J

    2014-02-01

    Biomass accumulation and allocation patterns are critical to quantifying ecosystem dynamics. However, these patterns differ among species, and they can change in response to nutrient availability even among genetically related individuals. In order to understand this complexity further, this study examined three ephemeral species (with very short vegetative growth periods) and three annual species (with significantly longer vegetative growth periods) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China, to determine their responses to different nitrogen (N) supplements under natural conditions. Nitrogen was added to the soil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 g N m(-2) year(-1). Plants were sampled at various intervals to measure relative growth rate and shoot and root dry mass. Compared with annuals, ephemerals grew more rapidly, increased shoot and root biomass with increasing N application rates and significantly decreased root/shoot ratios. Nevertheless, changes in the biomass allocation of some species (i.e. Erodium oxyrrhynchum) in response to the N treatment were largely a consequence of changes in overall plant size, which was inconsistent with an optimal partitioning model. An isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship for the final biomass harvest was observed for each species and all annuals, while pooled data of three ephemerals showed an allometric scaling relationship. These results indicate that ephemerals and annuals differ observably in their biomass allocation patterns in response to soil N supplements, although an isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship was maintained across all species. These findings highlight that different life history strategies behave differently in response to N application even when interspecific scaling relationships remain nearly isometric.

  20. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia—A Case of Novel Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Skoneczny

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic profiling allows for simultaneous and rapid annotation of biochemically similar organismal metabolites. An effective platform for profiling of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs was developed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions and surveyed for the presence of related PAs and PANOs in leaf tissues at various growth stages. Echium plantagineum possessed numerous related and abundant PANOs (>17 by seven days following seed germination, and these were also observed in rosette and flowering growth stages. In contrast, the less invasive E. vulgare accumulated significantly lower levels of most PANOs under identical glasshouse conditions. Several previously unreported PAs were also found at trace levels. Field-grown populations of both species were also evaluated for PA production and highly toxic echimidine N-oxide was amongst the most abundant PANOs in foliage of both species. PAs in field and glasshouse plants were more abundant in the more widely invasive species, E. plantagineum, and may provide competitive advantage by increasing the plant’s capacity to deter natural enemies in its invaded range through production of novel weapons.

  1. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia—A Case of Novel Weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoneczny, Dominik; Weston, Paul A.; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Gurr, Geoff M.; Callaway, Ragan M.; Weston, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic profiling allows for simultaneous and rapid annotation of biochemically similar organismal metabolites. An effective platform for profiling of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and their N-oxides (PANOs) was developed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions and surveyed for the presence of related PAs and PANOs in leaf tissues at various growth stages. Echium plantagineum possessed numerous related and abundant PANOs (>17) by seven days following seed germination, and these were also observed in rosette and flowering growth stages. In contrast, the less invasive E. vulgare accumulated significantly lower levels of most PANOs under identical glasshouse conditions. Several previously unreported PAs were also found at trace levels. Field-grown populations of both species were also evaluated for PA production and highly toxic echimidine N-oxide was amongst the most abundant PANOs in foliage of both species. PAs in field and glasshouse plants were more abundant in the more widely invasive species, E. plantagineum, and may provide competitive advantage by increasing the plant’s capacity to deter natural enemies in its invaded range through production of novel weapons. PMID:26561809

  2. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia--A Case of Novel Weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoneczny, Dominik; Weston, Paul A; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Gurr, Geoff M; Callaway, Ragan M; Weston, Leslie A

    2015-11-06

    Metabolic profiling allows for simultaneous and rapid annotation of biochemically similar organismal metabolites. An effective platform for profiling of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and their N-oxides (PANOs) was developed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions and surveyed for the presence of related PAs and PANOs in leaf tissues at various growth stages. Echium plantagineum possessed numerous related and abundant PANOs (>17) by seven days following seed germination, and these were also observed in rosette and flowering growth stages. In contrast, the less invasive E. vulgare accumulated significantly lower levels of most PANOs under identical glasshouse conditions. Several previously unreported PAs were also found at trace levels. Field-grown populations of both species were also evaluated for PA production and highly toxic echimidine N-oxide was amongst the most abundant PANOs in foliage of both species. PAs in field and glasshouse plants were more abundant in the more widely invasive species, E. plantagineum, and may provide competitive advantage by increasing the plant's capacity to deter natural enemies in its invaded range through production of novel weapons.

  3. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  4. The growth and evolution of cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a 20-year history of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) annual scientific sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel C; Markl, Michael; Dall'Armellina, Erica; Han, Yuchi; Kozerke, Sebastian; Kuehne, Titus; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Messroghli, Daniel; Patel, Amit; Schaeffter, Tobias; Simonetti, Orlando; Valente, Anne Marie; Weinsaft, Jonathan W; Wright, Graham; Zimmerman, Stefan; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2018-01-31

    The purpose of this work is to summarize cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) research trends and highlights presented at the annual Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) scientific sessions over the past 20 years. Scientific programs from all SCMR Annual Scientific Sessions from 1998 to 2017 were obtained. SCMR Headquarters also provided data for the number and the country of origin of attendees and the number of accepted abstracts according to type. Data analysis included text analysis (key word extraction) and visualization by 'word clouds' representing the most frequently used words in session titles for 5-year intervals. In addition, session titles were sorted into 17 major subject categories to further evaluate research and clinical CMR trends over time. Analysis of SCMR annual scientific sessions locations, attendance, and number of accepted abstracts demonstrated substantial growth of CMR research and clinical applications. As an international field of study, significant growth of CMR was documented by a strong increase in SCMR scientific session attendance (> 500%, 270 to 1406 from 1998 to 2017, number of accepted abstracts (> 700%, 98 to 701 from 1998 to 2018) and number of international participants (42-415% increase for participants from Asia, Central and South America, Middle East and Africa in 2004-2017). 'Word clouds' based evaluation of research trends illustrated a shift from early focus on 'MRI technique feasibility' to new established techniques (e.g. late gadolinium enhancement) and their clinical applications and translation (key words 'patient', 'disease') and more recently novel techniques and quantitative CMR imaging (key words 'mapping', 'T1', 'flow', 'function'). Nearly every topic category demonstrated an increase in the number of sessions over the 20-year period with 'Clinical Practice' leading all categories. Our analysis identified three growth areas 'Congenital', 'Clinical Practice', and 'Structure

  5. Orange Is the New Green: Exploring the Restorative Capacity of Seasonal Foliage in Schoolyard Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Paddle, Eli; Gilliland, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Urban schoolyard environments are increasingly characterized by a proliferation of hard surfaces with little if any greenery. Schoolyard “greening” initiatives are becoming increasingly popular; however, schoolyard designs often fail to realize their restorative potential. In this quasi-experimental study, a proposed schoolyard greening project was used to visualize alternative planting designs and seasonal tree foliage; these design alternatives were subsequently used as visual stimuli in a ...

  6. Possible Influence of MLP Regulators in Foliage of Host Species on Invasion of Phyllophagous Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy I. Ponomarev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the northern border of the Gypsy moth area (Lymantria dispar L., 1758, caterpillars are reorient to exogenous regulators of membrane lipid peroxidation in connection with repeated cold periods during feeding. In case of an introduction of host plants with high contents of exogenous regulators of MLP (e.g. Fe2+ in foliage in these areas that may affect diapause duration, the boundaries of spreading and intensity of outbreaks may change.

  7. Intra-annual nutrient flux in Pinus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, Timothy J; Allen, H Lee; Stape, Jose L; Fox, Thomas R; Rubilar, Rafael A; Price, James W

    2012-10-01

    Intra-annual nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) flux was quantified for Pinus taeda L. at a nutrient-poor, well-drained sandy site in Scotland County, NC, USA where a 2 × 2 factorial of irrigation and nutrition was applied in four replications in a 10-year-old stand with 1200 stems ha(-1). Treatments were applied with the goal of providing optimum nutrition (no nutritional deficiencies) and water availability. Component (foliage, branch, stem and root) nutrient content was estimated monthly for 2 years using nutrient concentration and phenology assessments combined with destructive harvests. Positive flux values indicated nutrient accumulation in the trees while negative values indicated nutrient loss from the trees. Fertilization significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium flux 140%, on average, over non-fertilized. Irrigation significantly increased calcium flux 28% while there was no significant irrigation effect on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or magnesium. Maximum nutrient fluxes (kg ha(-1) day(-1)) for non-fertilized and fertilized stands were 0.36 and 1.05 for nitrogen, 0.042 and 0.095 for phosphorus, 0.13 and 0.51 for potassium, 0.27 and 0.42 for calcium, and 0.04 and 0.12 for magnesium, respectively. Maximum flux was coincident with ephemeral tissue (foliage and fine root) development and likely would be higher in stands with more foliage than those observed in this study (projected leaf area indices were 1.5 and 3.0 for the non-fertilized and fertilized stands). Minimum nutrient fluxes (kg ha(-1) day(-1)) for non-fertilized and fertilized stands were -0.18 and -0.42 for nitrogen, -0.029 and -0.070 for phosphorus, -0.05 and -0.18 for potassium, -0.04 and -0.05 for calcium, and -0.02 and -0.03 for magnesium, respectively. Minimum fluxes were typically observed in the dormant season and were linked to foliage senescence and branch death. Foliage and branch component nutrient contents

  8. Cassava foliage affects the microbial diversity of Chinese indigenous geese caecum using 16S rRNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Li; Hanlin Zhou; Xiangyu Pan; Tieshan Xu; Zhenwen Zhang; Xuejuan Zi; Yu Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Geese are extremely adept in utilizing plant-derived roughage within their diet. However, the intestinal microbiome of geese remains limited, especially the dietary effect on microbial diversity. Cassava foliage was widely used in animal feed, but little information is available for geese. In this study, the geese were fed with control diet (CK), experimental diet supplemented with 5% cassava foliage (CF5) or 10% (CF10) for 42 days, respectively. The cecal samples were collected after animals...

  9. Disparate effects of plant genotypic diversity on foliage and litter arthropod communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutsinger, Greg [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Reynolds, Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Sanders, Dr. Nathan James [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2008-01-01

    Intraspecific diversity within plant species is increasingly recognized as an important influence on the structure of associated arthropod communities, though whether there are congruent responses of above- and belowground communities to intraspecific diversity remains unclear. In this study, we compare the effects of host-plant genotype and genotypic diversity of the perennial plant, Solidago altissima, on the arthropod community associated with living plant tissue (foliage-based community) and microarthropods associated with leaf litter (litter-based community). We found that variation among host-plant genotypes had strong effects on the diversity and composition of foliage-based arthropods, but only weak influence on litter-based microarthropods. Furthermore, host-plant genotypic diversity was positively related to the abundance and diversity of foliage-based arthropods, including herbivore and predator trophic levels. In contrast, there were minimal effects of genotypic diversity in litter on microarthropods. Our study illustrates that incorporating both above- and belowground perspective into community genetics studies leads to very different conclusions about the importance of intraspecific diversity, than when considering aboveground responses in isolation.

  10. Dissimilar bill shapes in new world tropical versus temperate forest foliage-gleaning birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Russell

    1981-05-01

    The bill shape of foliage-gleaning birds in temperate and tropical new world forests is dissimilar. Tropical species have longer and narrower bills than their temperate zone counterparts. In addition, their bills are longer for a given body size. These differences cannot be readily explained as phylogenetic artifacts. I suggest that the distinct bill morphology of the two assemblages is determined by the type of insects that comprise the largest size classes of potential prey. These large insects are particularly important since they generally comprise the bulk of the nestling diet for insectivorous birds. In tropical forests Orthoptera are probably the most abundant large soft-bodied arthropods; they form an important resource for foliage-gleaning birds during the breeding (rainy) seasons. Most temperate zone foliage-gleaning birds rely almost entirely upon caterpillars when breeding. Long, narrow bills are thought to close more rapidly than shorter, broader bills. These long, "fast" bills may be required to efficiently harvest active Orthoptera. Migrant warblers may face morphological constraints from breeding successfully in lowland tropical forests. While the short-billed temperate zone birds can survive the tropical dry season by foraging on small arthropods, they may be inefficient at handling large Orthoptera to feed to nestlings.

  11. Interaction between sapwood and foliage area in alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis) trees of different heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokany, Karel; McMurtrie, Ross E; Atwell, Brian J; Keith, Heather

    2003-10-01

    In native stands of Eucalyptus delegatensis R. T. Baker, sapwood area (As) to foliage area (Af) ratios (As:Af) decreased as tree height increased, contradicting the common interpretation of the Pipe Model Theory as well as the generally observed trend of increasing As:Af ratios with tree height. To clarify this relationship, we estimated sapwood hydraulic conductivity theoretically based on measurements of sapwood vessel diameters and Poiseuille's law for fluid flow through pipes. Despite the observed decrease in As:Af ratios with tree height, leaf specific conductivity increased with total tree height, largely as a result of an increase in the specific conductivity of sapwood. This observation supports the proposition that the stem's ability to supply foliage with water must increase as trees grow taller, to compensate for the increased hydraulic path length. The results presented here highlight the importance of measuring sapwood hydraulic conductivity in analyses of sapwood-foliage interactions, and suggest that measurements of sapwood hydraulic conductivity may help to resolve conflicting observations of how As:Af ratios change as trees grow taller.

  12. Annual precipitation since 515 BC reconstructed from living and fossil juniper growth of northeastern Qinghai Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, P.R.; Graumlich, L.J. [University of Arizona, Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, AZ (United States); Tarasov, P.E. [Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam Department, Potsdam (Germany); Heussner, K.-U.; Wagner, M. [German Archaeological Institute, Department of Eurasian Archaeology, Berlin (Germany); Oesterle, H. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg, P. O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam (Germany); Thompson, L.G. [Ohio State University, Byrd Polar Research Center, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Annual precipitation for the last 2,500 years was reconstructed for northeastern Qinghai from living and archaeological juniper trees. A dominant feature of the precipitation of this area is a high degree of variability in mean rainfall at annual, decadal, and centennial scales, with many wet and dry periods that are corroborated by other paleoclimatic indicators. Reconstructed values of annual precipitation vary mostly from 100 to 300 mm and thus are no different from the modern instrumental record in Dulan. However, relatively dry years with below-average precipitation occurred more frequently in the past than in the present. Periods of relatively dry years occurred during 74-25 BC, AD51-375, 426-500, 526-575, 626-700, 1100-1225, 1251-1325, 1451-1525, 1651-1750 and 1801-1825. Periods with a relatively wet climate occurred during AD376-425, 576-625, 951-1050, 1351-1375, 1551-1600 and the present. This variability is probably related to latitudinal positions of winter frontal storms. Another key feature of precipitation in this area is an apparently direct relationship between interannual variability in rainfall with temperature, whereby increased warming in the future might lead to increased flooding and droughts. Such increased climatic variability might then impact human societies of the area, much as the climate has done for the past 2,500 years. (orig.)

  13. Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of growth, non-structural carbohydrates and C stable isotopes in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scartazza, Andrea; Moscatello, Stefano; Matteucci, Giorgio; Battistelli, Alberto; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2013-07-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of growth, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of NSC were studied in a beech forest of Central Italy over a 2-year period characterized by different environmental conditions. The net C assimilated by forest trees was mainly used to sustain growth early in the season and to accumulate storage carbohydrates in trunk and root wood in the later part of the season, before leaf shedding. Growth and NSC concentration dynamics were only slightly affected by the reduced soil water content (SWC) during the drier year. Conversely, the carbon isotope analysis on NSC revealed seasonal and inter-annual variations of photosynthetic and post-carboxylation fractionation processes, with a significant increase in δ(13)C of wood and leaf soluble sugars in the drier summer year than in the wetter one. The highly significant correlation between δ(13)C of leaf soluble sugars and SWC suggests a decrease of the canopy C isotope discrimination and, hence, an increased water-use efficiency with decreasing soil water availability. This may be a relevant trait for maintaining an acceptable plant water status and a relatively high C sink capacity during dry seasonal periods. Our results suggest a short- to medium-term homeostatic response of the Collelongo beech stand to variations in water availability and solar radiation, indicating that this Mediterranean forest was able to adjust carbon-water balance in order to prevent C depletion and to sustain plant growth and reserve accumulation during relatively dry seasons.

  14. Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P methane production in vitro when compared to Pennisetum alone (17.0, 19.1, and 18.0 versus 26.2 mL CH(4)/g fermented dry matter, respectively). It was demonstrated that S. saman, A. lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity.

  15. Spatiotemporal phenological changes in fall foliage peak coloration in deciduous forest and the responses to climatic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Wilson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Plant phenology studies typically focus on the beginning and end of the growing season in temperate forests. We know too little about fall foliage peak coloration, which is a bioindicator of plant response in autumn to environmental changes, an important visual cue in fall associated with animal activities, and a key element in fall foliage ecotourism. Spatiotemporal changes in timing of fall foliage peak coloration of temperate forests and the associated environmental controls are not well understood. In this study, we examined multiple color indices to estimate Land Surface Phenology (LSP) of fall foliage peak coloration of deciduous forest in the northeastern USA using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily imagery from 2000 to 2015. We used long term phenology ground observations to validate our estimated LSP, and found that Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI) and Plant Senescence Reflectance Index (PSRI) were good metrics to estimate peak and end of leaf coloration period of deciduous forest. During the past 16 years, the length of period with peak fall foliage color of deciduous forest at southern New England and northern Appalachian forests regions became longer (0.3 7.7 days), mainly driven by earlier peak coloration. Northern New England, southern Appalachian forests and Ozark and Ouachita mountains areas had shorter period (‒0.2 ‒9.2 days) mainly due to earlier end of leaf coloration. Changes in peak and end of leaf coloration not only were associated with changing temperature in spring and fall, but also to drought and heat in summer, and heavy precipitation in both summer and fall. The associations between leaf peak coloration phenology and climatic variations were not consistent among ecoregions. Our findings suggested divergent change patterns in fall foliage peak coloration phenology in deciduous forests, and improved our understanding in the environmental control on timing of fall foliage color change.

  16. Classification of Forest Regrowth Stage using Polarimetric Decomposition and Foliage Projective Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewley, D.; Lucas, R.; Bunting, P.; Moghaddam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Within Queensland, Australia extensive clearing of vegetation for agriculture has occurred within the Brigalow Belt Bioregion (BBB), reducing forests dominated by Acacia harpophylla (brigalow) to 10 % of their former extent. Where cleared land is left abandoned or unmanaged regeneration is rapid, Regenerating vegetation represents a more efficient and cost effective method for carbon sequestration than direct planting and offers a number of benefits over plantation forest, particularly in terms of provision of habitat for native fauna. To effectively protect regenerating vegetation, maps of the distribution of forests at different stages of regeneration are required. Whilst mapping approaches have traditionally focused on optical data, the high canopy cover of brigalow regrowth in all but the very early stages limits discrimination of forests at different stages of growth. The combination of optical data, namely Landsat derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) backscatter data have previously been investigated for mapping regrowth. This study therefore aimed to investigate the potential of the alpha-Entropy (α/H) decomposition (S Cloude and E Pottier, "An entropy based classification scheme for land applications of polarimetric SAR," 1997, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 68-78) applied to polarimetric ALOS PALSAR backscatter for mapping regrowth stage combined with FPC data to account for canopy variations. The study focused on the Tara Downs subregion, located in the Western Darling Downs, within the south of the BBB. PALSAR data were acquired over the study site in fully-polarimetric mode (incidence angle mid swath ~ 26 degrees). From these data α/H layers were generated and stacked with FPC data. Considering only those areas known to contain brigalow prior to clearing and with an FPC > 9 %, k-means clustering was applied, with

  17. Mapping a candidate gene (MdMYB10 for red flesh and foliage colour in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating plant genomics and classical breeding is a challenge for both plant breeders and molecular biologists. Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a tool that can be used to accelerate the development of novel apple varieties such as cultivars that have fruit with anthocyanin through to the core. In addition, determining the inheritance of novel alleles, such as the one responsible for red flesh, adds to our understanding of allelic variation. Our goal was to map candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in a population segregating for the red flesh phenotypes. Results We have identified the Rni locus, a major genetic determinant of the red foliage and red colour in the core of apple fruit. In a population segregating for the red flesh and foliage phenotype we have determined the inheritance of the Rni locus and DNA polymorphisms of candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the candidate genes were also located on an apple genetic map. We have shown that the MdMYB10 gene co-segregates with the Rni locus and is on Linkage Group (LG 09 of the apple genome. Conclusion We have performed candidate gene mapping in a fruit tree crop and have provided genetic evidence that red colouration in the fruit core as well as red foliage are both controlled by a single locus named Rni. We have shown that the transcription factor MdMYB10 may be the gene underlying Rni as there were no recombinants between the marker for this gene and the red phenotype in a population of 516 individuals. Associating markers derived from candidate genes with a desirable phenotypic trait has demonstrated the application of genomic tools in a breeding programme of a horticultural crop species.

  18. Responses of transpiration and photosynthesis to reversible changes in photosynthetic foliage area in western red cedar (Thuja plicata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, S; Livingston, N J; Whitehead, D

    2002-04-01

    Experiments were conducted on 1-year-old western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.) seedlings to determine the response of illuminated foliage to reversible changes in total photosynthetic foliage area (L(A)). Reductions in L(A) were brought about by either shading the lower foliage or by reducing the ambient CO2 concentration (c(a)) of the air surrounding the lower part of the seedling. In the latter case, the vapor pressure was also changed so that transpiration rates (E) could be manipulated independently of photosynthetic rates (A). We hypothesized that following such treatments, short-term compensatory changes would occur in stomatal conductance (g(s)) and A of the remaining foliage. These changes would occur in response to hydraulic signals generated by changes in the water potential gradient rather than changes in the distribution of sources and sinks of carbon within the seedling. When a portion of the foliage was shaded, there was an immediate reduction in whole-seedling E and a concomitant increase in g(s), A and E in the remaining illuminated foliage. However, the intercellular CO2 concentration did not change. These compensatory effects were fully reversed after the shade was removed. When the lower foliage A was reduced to < 0 micromol m-2 s-1, by shading or lowering c(a), and E was either unchanged or increased (by adjusting the vapor pressure deficit), there was no significant increase in g(s) and A in the remaining foliage. We conclude that compensatory responses in illuminated foliage occur only when reductions in L(A) are accompanied by a reduction in whole-plant E. The relationship between the reduction in whole-seedling E and the increase in A is highly linear (r2 = 0.68) and confirms our hypothesis of the strong regulation of g(s) by hydraulic signals generated within the seedling. We suggest that the mechanism of the compensatory effects is a combination of both increased CO2 supply, resulting from increased g(s), and a response of the rate of

  19. Assessment of tannin variation in Tamarisk foliage across a latitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, A.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Friedman, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Certain phenotypic traits of plants vary with latitude of origin. To understand if tannin concentration varies among populations of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) according to a latitudinal gradient, an analytical method was adapted from an enological tannin assay. The tannin content (wet basis) of tamarisk foliage collected from 160 plants grown in a common garden ranged from 8.26 to 62.36 mg/g and was not correlated with the latitude of the original North American plant collection site. Tannins do not contribute to observed differences in herbivory observed among these tamarisk populations.

  20. Rotylenchulus reniformis on Greenhouse-grown Foliage Plants: Host Range and Sources of Inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J L

    1991-10-01

    Two sources of inoculum of reniform nematodes, Rotylenchulus reniformis, were identified for infestation of ornamental foliage plants in commercial greenhouses. These were water from a local canal system and rooted cuttings purchased from other sources. Eight ornamental plant species were identified as good hosts for the reniform nematode, with each species supporting a reniform population density equal to or greater than that supported by 'Rutgers' tomato and a reproduction factor of greater than 1.0. Nine other plant species were identified as poor hosts.

  1. Dragon Fruit Foliage Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Concentrated Latex Effluent: Comparison of Treatment with Ferric Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juferi Idris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of dragon fruit foliage as a natural coagulant for treatment of concentrated latex effluent was investigated and compared with ferric sulfate, a chemical coagulant. Dragon fruit is a round and often red-colored fruit with scales-like texture and is native to south American countries which is also cultivated and heavily marketed in southeast Asian countries. Its foliage represents a part of its overall plant system. Latex effluent is one of the main byproduct from rubber processing factories in Malaysia. Three main parameters investigated were chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SS, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of latex effluent pH as well as coagulation dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages for foliage were observed for effluent pH 10 at 94.7, 88.9, and 99.7%, respectively. It is concluded that the foliage showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes. The foliage could be used in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian latex effluent prior to secondary treatment.

  2. Estimating the Uncertainty In Diameter Growth Model Predictions and Its Effects On The Uncertainty of Annual Inventory Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Veronica C. Lessard

    2001-01-01

    Uncertainty in diameter growth predictions is attributed to three general sources: measurement error or sampling variability in predictor variables, parameter covariances, and residual or unexplained variation around model expectations. Using measurement error and sampling variability distributions obtained from the literature and Monte Carlo simulation methods, the...

  3. Veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in animal products : annual report 2012 of the National Reference Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    This report if the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in products of animal origin according to Council Directive 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2012. The main tasks of the NRL are communication with Official Laboratories

  4. Climate and site dependence of the annual growth of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambetti, D.; Lo Vecchio, G.; Nanni, T. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). FISBAT; Schweingruber, F.H. [Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2000-04-01

    The study is focused on the relationship between ring width formation of the silver fir and the climatic factors. Therefore, material on two sites of the Northern Apennine has been collected at different altitudes, slope and soil characteristics and has been compared tree ring width with meteorological data from a neighbouring station. The results are that the ring growth depends mainly on the winter mean temperature of the current year, the summer precipitation and the mean summer temperature of the preceding year. The influence of winter mean temperature is more pronounced at high altitudes. The mean summer temperature and summer precipitation had a stronger effect on the growth year at lower altitudes and on the following year at higher altitudes.

  5. Inter-annual variability in apparent relative production, survival, and growth of juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2001–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Martin, Barbara A.

    2017-06-15

    Executive SummaryPopulations of the once abundant Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) of the Upper Klamath Basin, decreased so substantially throughout the 20th century that they were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1988. Major landscape alterations, deterioration of water quality, and competition with and predation by exotic species are listed as primary causes of the decreases in populations. Upper Klamath Lake populations are decreasing because fish lost due to adult mortality, which is relatively low for adult Lost River suckers and variable for adult shortnose suckers, are not replaced by new young adult suckers recruiting into known adult spawning aggregations. Catch-at-age and size data indicate that most adult suckers presently in Upper Klamath Lake spawning populations were hatched around 1991. While, a lack of egg production and emigration of young fish (especially larvae) may contribute, catch-at-length and age data indicate high mortality during the first summer or winter of life may be the primary limitation to the recruitment of young adults. The causes of juvenile sucker mortality are unknown.We compiled and analyzed catch, length, age, and species data on juvenile suckers from Upper Klamath Lake from eight prior studies conducted from 2001 to 2015 to examine annual variation in apparent production, survival, and growth of young suckers. We used a combination of qualitative assessments, general linear models, and linear regression to make inferences about annual differences in juvenile sucker dynamics. The intent of this exercise is to provide information that can be compared to annual variability in environmental conditions with the hopes of understanding what drives juvenile sucker population dynamics.Age-0 Lost River suckers generally grew faster than age-0 shortnose suckers, but the difference in growth rates between the two species varied among years. This unsynchronized annual variation in

  6. Growth of consumer-directed health plans to one-half of all employer-sponsored insurance could save $57 billion annually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Amelia M; Marquis, M Susan; McDevitt, Roland D; Sood, Neeraj

    2012-05-01

    Enrollment is increasing in consumer-directed health insurance plans, which feature high deductibles and a personal health care savings account. We project that an increase in market share of these plans--from the current level of 13 percent of employer-sponsored insurance to 50 percent--could reduce annual health care spending by about $57 billion. That decrease would be the equivalent of a 4 percent decline in total health care spending for the nonelderly. However, such growth in consumer-directed plan enrollment also has the potential to reduce the use of recommended health care services, as well as to increase premiums for traditional health insurance plans, as healthier individuals drop traditional coverage and enroll in consumer-directed plans. In this article we explore options that policy makers and employers facing these challenges should consider, including more refined plan designs and decision support systems to promote recommended services.

  7. Diagnosis of abiotic and biotic stress factors using the visible symptoms in foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollenweider, P.; Guenthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.

    2005-01-01

    Visible symptoms in the foliage of trees are recorded to monitor the effects of abiotic and biotic stress. Difficulties are reported in diagnosing the origin of stress. The present paper discusses several diagnostic criteria which are usable in different species for a better determination of the stress factor type. A new diagnosis scheme to differentiate between classes of abiotic and biotic stress factors is supplied. Abiotic stress generates gradients of symptoms. The symptom specificity is determined by the degree of interaction between the stress factor and plant defense system. Symptoms caused by abiotic stress and natural autumnal senescence can be morphologically different or undistinguishable according to the stress and plant species. With biotic stress, the class of parasitic is generally recognizable on the basis of the visible symptoms. Structurally and physiologically based explanations of the symptom morphology are still missing for many stress factors. - The morphology and distribution of visible stress symptoms in tree foliage provides diagnostic tools to identify plant defense responses and differentiate stress from natural senescence symptoms

  8. [Species-associated differences in foliage-root coupling soil-reinforcement and anti-erosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-quan; Liu, Jing; Nao, Min; Yao, Xi-jun; Zheng, Yong-gang; Li, You-fang; Su, Yu; Wang, Chen-jia

    2015-02-01

    This paper took four kinds of common soil and water conservation plants of the study area, Caragana microphylla, Salix psammophila, Artemisia sphaerocephala and Hippophae rhamnides at ages of 4 as the research object. Thirteen indicators, i.e., single shrub to reduce wind velocity ration, shelterbelt reducing wind velocity ration, community reducing wind velocity ration, taproot tensile strength, representative root constitutive properties, representative root elasticity modulus, lateral root branch tensile strength, accumulative surface area, root-soil interface sheer strength, interface friction coefficient, accumulative root length, root-soil composite cohesive, root-soil composite equivalent friction angle, reflecting the characteristics of windbreak and roots, were chose to evaluate the differences of foliage-root coupling soil-reinforcement and anti-erosion among four kinds of plants by analytic hierarchy process (AHP) under the condition of spring gale and summer rainstorm, respectively. The results showed the anti-erosion index of foliage-root coupling was in the sequence of S. psammophila (0.841) > C. microphylla (0.454) > A. sphaerocephala (-0.466) > H. rhamnides (-0.829) in spring gale, and C. microphylla (0.841) > S. psammophila (0. 474) > A. sphaerocephala (-0.470) > H. rhamnides (-0.844) in summer rainstorm. S. psammophila could be regarded as one of the most important windbreak and anti-erosion species, while C. microphylla could be the most valuable soil and water conservation plant for the study area.

  9. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  10. Simulation of oil palm growth and yield.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraalingen, van D.W.G.; Breure, C.J.; Spitters, C.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented to simulate growth and yield formation of oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) in dependence of weather data and plant characteristics. From incoming amounts of light, light interception of the foliage and photosynthetic characteristics of individual leaflets, daily rates

  11. Coordination Between Wind Power, Hydro Storage Facility and Conventional Generating Units According to the Annual Growth Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Shojaeean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing trend of the consumption of the electric power and the global tendency to substitute new renewable sources of energy, this paper proposes a Monte Carlo based method to determine an optimal level of this change. Considering the limitation of the wind farms in continuous supply of electric power, hydrostatic power storage facilities are used beside wind farms so that the electric power could be stored and fed in a continuous flow into power systems. Due to the gradual exclusion of conventional generators and 5 percent annual load increments, LOLE index was used in order to calculate the amount of the wind power and the capacity of the necessary power storage facility. To this end, LOLE index was calculated for the first year as the reference index for the estimation of the amount of wind power and the capacity of the storage facility in consequent years. For the upcoming years, calculations have been made to account for the gradual exclusion of conventional generators in proportion to load increments. The proposed method has been implemented and simulated on IEEE-RTS test system.

  12. Effects of CO2 and temperature on growth and resource use of co-occurring C3 and C4 annuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.S.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors examined how CO 2 concentrations and temperature interacted to affect growth, resource acquisition, and resource allocation of two annual plants that were supplied with a single pulse of nutrients. Physiological and growth measurements were made on individuals of Abutilon throphrasti (C 3 ) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C 4 ) grown in environments with atmospheric CO 2 levels of 400 or 700 μL/L and with light/dark temperatures of 28 degree/22 degree or 38 degree/31 degree C. Elevated CO 2 and temperature treatments had significant independent and interactive effects on plant growth, resource allocation, and resource acquisition, and the strength and direction of these effects were often dependent on plant species. For example, final biomass of Amaranthus was enhanced by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree but was depressed at 38 degree. For Abutilon, elevated CO 2 increased initial plant relative growth rates at 28 degree but not at 38 degree, and had no significant effects on final biomass at either temperature. These results are interpreted in light of the interactive effects of CO 2 and temperature on the rates of net leaf area production and loss, and on net whole-plant nitrogen retention. At 28 degree C, elevated CO 2 stimulated the initial production of leaf area in both species, which led to an initial stimulation of biomass accumulation at the higher CO 2 level. However, in elevated CO 2 at 28 degree, the rate of net leaf area loss for Abutilon increased while that of Amaranthus decreased. Furthermore, high CO 2 apparently enhanced the ability of Amaranthus to retain nitrogen at this temperature, which may have helped to enhance photosynthesis, whereas nitrogen retention was unaffected in Abutilon

  13. Population differentiation for germination and early seedling root growth traits under saline conditions in the annual legume Medicago truncatula (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Matilde A; Moriuchi, Ken S; Fotinos, Tonya D; Miller, Kelsey E; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; von Wettberg, Eric J; Cook, Douglas R

    2014-03-01

    Seedling establishment and survival are highly sensitive to soil salinity and plants that evolved in saline environments are likely to express traits that increase fitness in those environments. Such traits are of ecological interest and they may have practical value for improving salt tolerance in cultivated species. We examined responses to soil salinity and tested potential mechanisms of salt tolerance in Medicago truncatula, using genotypes that originated from natural populations occurring on saline and nonsaline soils. Germination and seedling responses were quantified and compared between saline and nonsaline origin genotypes. Germination treatments included a range of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations in both offspring and parental environments. Seedling treatments included NaCl, abscisic acid (ABA), and potassium chloride (KCl). Saline origin genotypes displayed greater salinity tolerance for germination and seedling traits relative to nonsaline origin genotypes. We observed population specific differences for the effects of salinity on time to germination and for the impact of parental environment on germination rates. ABA and NaCl treatments had similar negative effects on root growth, although relative sensitivities differed, with saline population less sensitive to NaCl and more sensitive to ABA compared to their nonsaline counterparts. We report population differentiation for germination and seedling growth traits under saline conditions among populations derived from saline and nonsaline environments. These observations are consistent with a syndrome of adaptations for salinity tolerance during early plant development, including traits that are common among saline environments and those that are idiosyncratic to local populations.

  14. Determinants of tree species preference for foraging by insectivorous birds in a novel Prosopis - Leucaena woodland in Puerto Rico: the role of foliage palatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Beltran; J.M. Wunderle Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The foliage palatability hypothesis predicts that avian insectivores will preferentially forage in tree species with the greatest abundance of their arthropod prey, which in turn are associated with the tree’s foliage nutrition and palatability. We tested this hypothesis in a novel Prosopis–Leucaena woodland in Puerto Rico by determining foraging preferences of five...

  15. Embracing the future: Canada's nuclear renewal and growth. 28th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 31st CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 28th Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 31st CNS/CNA Student Conference was held on June 3-6, 2007 in Saint John, New Brunswick. The central objective of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of views on how this technical enterprise can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. 'Embracing the Future: Canada's Nuclear Renewal and Growth' was the theme for this year's gathering of nuclear industry experts from across Canada and around the world. This theme reflects the global renaissance of interest in nuclear technology, strongly evident here in Canada through plant refurbishments (underway and planned), new-build planning, renewal and expansion of the nuclear workforce, and growth in public support for environmentally sustainable technology. Topics for discussion at this conference include: the nuclear renaissance in Canada and around the world, recent developments at Canadian utilities, status of plant refurbishment and new build plans, and uranium supply issues. For business, energy, and science reporters this conference offers an insight into major nuclear projects and an opportunity to meet leaders in the nuclear sector. Over 100 technical papers were presented, as well as over 20 student papers, in the following sessions: control room operation; safety analyses; environment and waste management; plant life management and refurbishment; reactor physics; advanced reactor design; instrumentation control; general nuclear topics and standards; chemistry and materials; probabilistic safety assessment; and, performance improvement

  16. Persistence in soil and on foliage of the nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Mohamed; H.C. Coppel; J.D. Podgwaite

    1982-01-01

    Six plots of pine trees harboring high densities of N. sertifer larvae were sprayed with the nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) of this species. Half of these plots were resprayed in the second year of the study. Polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) were recovered in all plots from soil and foliage sampled at fixed time intervals within a 21-month period...

  17. Cassava foliage affects the microbial diversity of Chinese indigenous geese caecum using 16S rRNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Pan, Xiangyu; Xu, Tieshan; Zhang, Zhenwen; Zi, Xuejuan; Jiang, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Geese are extremely adept in utilizing plant-derived roughage within their diet. However, the intestinal microbiome of geese remains limited, especially the dietary effect on microbial diversity. Cassava foliage was widely used in animal feed, but little information is available for geese. In this study, the geese were fed with control diet (CK), experimental diet supplemented with 5% cassava foliage (CF5) or 10% (CF10) for 42 days, respectively. The cecal samples were collected after animals were killed. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the microbial diversity in the caecum of geese with different dietary supplements. Taxonomic analysis indicated that the predominant phyla were distinct with different dietary treatments. The phyla Firmicutes (51.4%), Bacteroidetes (29.55%) and Proteobacteria (7.90%) were dominant in the CK group, but Bacteroidetes (65.19% and 67.29%,) Firmicutes (18.01% and 17.39%), Proteobacteria (8.72% and 10.18%), Synergistete (2.51% and 1.76%) and Spirochaetes (2.60% and 1.46%) were dominant in CF5 and CF10 groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was negatively correlated with the supplementation of cassava foliage. However, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were positively correlated with the supplementation of cassava foliage. Our study also revealed that the microbial communities were significantly different at genus levels. Genes related to nutrient and energy metabolism, immunity and signal transduction pathways were primarily enriched by the microbiome.

  18. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  19. Dynamics of low-temperature acclimation in temperate and boreal conifer foliage in a mild winter climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Richard Strimbeck; Trygve D. Kjellsen; Paul G. Schaberg; Paula F. Murakami

    2008-01-01

    To provide baseline data for physiological studies of extreme low-temperature (LT) tolerance in boreal conifers, we profiled LT stress responses, liquid nitrogen (LN2)-quench tolerance, and sugar concentrations in foliage of boreal-temperate species pairs in the genera Abies, Picea and Pinus, growing in an...

  20. Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuc Thi Hue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter, K98-7 (medium bitter and a local (sweet, were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05. Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves.

  1. A practical algorithm to infer soil and foliage component temperatures from bi-angular ATSR-2 data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, L.; Li, Z.L.; Menenti, M.; Su, Z.; Verhoef, W.; Wan, Z.

    2003-01-01

    An operational algorithm is proposed to retrieve soil and foliage component temperatures over heterogeneous land surface based on the analysis of bi-angular multi-spectral observations made by ATSR-2. Firstly, on the basis of the radiative transfer theory in a canopy, a model is developed to infer

  2. Nutrients in foliage and wet deposition of nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in washing tree top in Abies religiosa forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.R Peña-Mendoza; A. Gómez-Guerrero; Mark Fenn; P. Hernández de la Rosa; D. Alvarado Rosales

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional content and tree top in the forests are evaluated of Abies religiosa, San Miguel Tlaixpan (SMT) and Rio Frio (RF), State of Mexico. The work had two parts. In the first, the nutritional content was evaluated in new foliage (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in Abies religiosa trees, in periods of spring, summer and winter, in...

  3. Conopy architecture of Larrea tridentata (DC.) Cov., a desert shrub: foliage orientation and direct beam radiation interception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Howard S; Meinzer, Frederick C; Wisdom, Charles S; Rasoul Sharifi, M; Rundel, Philip W; Neufeld, Mollie S; Goldring, Yoram; Cunningham, Gary L

    1988-02-01

    At sites in the United States, creosote bushes (Larrea tridentata (DC.) Cov.) orient foliage clusters predominantly toward the southeast. Foliage of bushes at the southernmost distribution extreme in Mexico shows no predominant orientation. Clusters at all sites are inclined between 33° and 71° from the horizontal. Inclinations are steeper in the drier and hotter Mojave Desert than in the Chihuahuan Desert. Individual leaflets, though not measured, appear more randomly oriented than foliage clusters. In several populations studied, branches were shorter in the southeastern sectors of the crown, reducing self-shading early in the morning. Measurements of direct beam radiation interception by detached branches, using digital image processing, indicated that foliage clusters oriented toward the southeast exhibited less self-shading during spring mornings than clusters oriented northeast. This effect was not apparent at the summer solstice. This type of canopy architecture may tend to minimize self-shading during the morning hours when conditions are more favorable for photosynthesis, resulting in an improved daily water use efficiency.

  4. Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Bradley Chamberlain; Stephanie Long; Swathi A. Turlapati; Gloria. Quigley

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species (five conifers and five hardwoods) for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of...

  5. Development of a standardized methodology for quantifying total chlorophyll and carotenoids from foliage of hardwood and conifer tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Gabriela Martinez; Benjamin Lyons; Stephanie Long

    2009-01-01

    Despite the availability of several protocols for the extraction of chlorophylls and carotenoids from foliage of forest trees, information regarding their respective extraction efficiencies is scarce. We compared the efficiencies of acetone, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) over a range of incubation times for the extraction of...

  6. The theoretical relationship between foliage temperature and canopy resistance in sparse crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, W. James; Gurney, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    One-dimensional, sparse-crop interaction theory is reformulated to allow calculation of the canopy resistance from measurements of foliage temperature. A submodel is introduced to describe eddy diffusion within the canopy which provides a simple, empirical simulation of the reported behavior obtained from a second-order closure model. The sensitivity of the calculated canopy resistance to the parameters and formulas assumed in the model is investigated. The calculation is shown to exhibit a significant but acceptable sensitivity to extreme changes in canopy aerodynamics, and to changes in the surface resistance of the substrate beneath the canopy at high and intermediate values of leaf area index. In very sparse crops changes in the surface resistance of the substrate are shown to contaminate the calculated canopy resistance, tending to amplify the apparent response to changes in water availability. The theory is developed to allow the use of a measurement of substrate temperature as an option to mitigate this contamination.

  7. BOREAS TE-6 Predawn Leaf Water Potentials and Foliage Moisture Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Vogel, Jason G.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-6 team collected several data sets to examine the influence of vegetation, climate, and their interactions on the major carbon fluxes for boreal forest species. This data set contains summaries of predawn leaf water potentials and foliage moisture contents collected at the TF and CEV sites that had canopy access towers. The data were collected on a nearly weekly basis from early June to late August 1994 by TE-06, members of the BOREAS staff, and employees of Environment Canada. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  8. USE OF FOLIAGE FROM RAMON (Brosimum alicastrum Swarth IN ANIMAL FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ángel Rojas-Schroeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramón (Brosimum alicastrum Swarth is a tree which is commonly used in animal feed in the mexican tropics. It has been used in a traditional way in the feeding of productive domestic species. However, the systematic evaluation of its nutritional value has not been as broad as might be expected. In the present review the reported nutritional value for bovines, ovines, pigs and rabbits is presented. Ramón foliage has a nutritional value suitable for use in the diet of most domestic productive species. However, its use is greater in ruminant species. Specific studies are required to determine with greater precision its energy and protein value in each species of interest.

  9. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching

  10. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  11. Leaf chemistry and foliage avoidance by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis in glasshouse collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison S Scott; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2011-03-01

    Observational studies on foliage avoidance by the polyphagous thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) identified six non-host species (Allagopappus dichotomus (Asteraceae), Gardenia posoquerioides (Rubiaceae), Plectranthus aff. barbatus, Plectranthus strigosus, Plectranthus zuluensis (Lamiaceae), and Sclerochiton harveyanus (Acanthaceae) among plants growing within a major glasshouse botanical collection. The effects of sequentially obtained acetone and aqueous methanol leaf extracts on mortality in first instar Frankliniella occidentalis were assessed. The acetone leaf extract of Sclerochiton harveyanus, which had the highest activity against the thrips, yielded four new iridoids, sclerochitonosides A-C, and sclerochitonoside B 4'-methyl ether. Mortality of F. occidentalis was increased on exposure to all four iridoids, and the most active iridoid was sclerochitonoside A (8-epiloganic acid 4'-hydroxyphenylethyl ester). Choice experiments demonstrated that this compound did not significantly deter H. haemorrhoidalis from treated leaf surfaces. The significance of iridoids in the defense mechanism of plants against thrips is discussed.

  12. Foliage and Grass as Fuel Pellets–Small Scale Combustion of Washed and Mechanically Leached Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hari Arti Khalsa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The high contents of disadvantageous elements contained in non-woody biomass are known to cause problems during small and large scale combustion, typically resulting in a higher risk of slagging, corrosion, and increased emissions. Mechanically leaching the respective elements from the biomass through a sequence of process steps has proven to be a promising solution.The florafuel process used here is comprised of size reduction followed by washing and subsequent mechanical dewatering of the biomass. Densification of the upgraded biomass into standardized pellets (Ø 6mm enables an application in existing small-scale boilers. The presented combustion trials investigated the performance of pellets made from leached grass, foliage and a mixture of both in two small-scale boilers (<100 kWth with slightly different technology (moving grate versus water-cooled burner tube during a 4-h measurement period. Emissions were in accordance with German emissions standards except for NOx (threshold is 0.50 g/m3 in the case of pure grass pellets (0.51 g/m3 and particulate matter (PM in all but one case (foliage, 13–16 mg/m3. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP unit installed with one of the boilers successfully reduced PM emission of both the grass and mixture fuel below the threshold of 20 mg/m3 (all emission values refer to 13 vol.% O2, at standard temperature and pressure (STP. Bottom ash composition and grate temperature profiles were analyzed and discussed for one of the boilers.

  13. Biosynthesis of mono- and sesquiterpenes in strawberry fruits and foliage: 2H labeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Mosandl, Armin; Wüst, Matthias

    2006-02-22

    The biosynthesis of the monoterpene (S)-linalool and the sesquiterpene trans-(S)-nerolidol in fruits of Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Eros and Florence and of the monoterpene (-)-alpha-pinene in Fragaria vesca was investigated by in vivo feeding experiments with [5,5-2H2]mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-2H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose (d2-DOX). The feeding experiments indicate that (S)-linalool and trans-(S)-nerolidol in Fragaria x ananassa Duch. and (-)-alpha-pinene in F. vesca are exclusively synthesized via the cytosolic mevalonic acid pathway without any contribution from the plastidial 1-deoxy-D-xylulose/2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) route. Inhibition experiments revealed that even the presence of mevastatin, an export of plastid-derived isopentyl diphosphate/dimethylallyl diphosphate, cannot be induced. However, the enantioselective analysis shows that in Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Eros and Florence both linalool enantiomers are present and that only (S)-linalool is labeled after administration of d2-MVL. Therefore, the origin of (R)-linalool in these fruits remains unknown. Contrarily, in Fragaria x ananassa Duch. foliage (R)-linalool is the dominant enantiomer. Feeding experiments revealed an incorporation of d2-MVL and d2-DOX at equal rates exclusively into (S)-linalool. Only in F. vesca foliage, where (R)-linalool is present at high enantiomeric purity (ee > 90%), is a de novo biosynthesis of the (R)-enantiomer via the DOXP/MEP pathway detectable. These results demonstrate a complex intraplant variation of (R)- and (S)-linalool biosynthesis via the cytosolic and plastidial route.

  14. A model analysis of climate and CO2 controls on tree growth in a semi-arid woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Harrison, S. P.; Prentice, I. C.

    2015-03-01

    We used a light-use efficiency model of photosynthesis coupled with a dynamic carbon allocation and tree-growth model to simulate annual growth of the gymnosperm Callitris columellaris in the semi-arid Great Western Woodlands, Western Australia, over the past 100 years. Parameter values were derived from independent observations except for sapwood specific respiration rate, fine-root turnover time, fine-root specific respiration rate and the ratio of fine-root mass to foliage area, which were estimated by Bayesian optimization. The model reproduced the general pattern of interannual variability in radial growth (tree-ring width), including the response to the shift in precipitation regimes that occurred in the 1960s. Simulated and observed responses to climate were consistent. Both showed a significant positive response of tree-ring width to total photosynthetically active radiation received and to the ratio of modeled actual to equilibrium evapotranspiration, and a significant negative response to vapour pressure deficit. However, the simulations showed an enhancement of radial growth in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration (ppm) ([CO2]) during recent decades that is not present in the observations. The discrepancy disappeared when the model was recalibrated on successive 30-year windows. Then the ratio of fine-root mass to foliage area increases by 14% (from 0.127 to 0.144 kg C m-2) as [CO2] increased while the other three estimated parameters remained constant. The absence of a signal of increasing [CO2] has been noted in many tree-ring records, despite the enhancement of photosynthetic rates and water-use efficiency resulting from increasing [CO2]. Our simulations suggest that this behaviour could be explained as a consequence of a shift towards below-ground carbon allocation.

  15. Black gram ( L. foliage supplementation to crossbred cows: effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L. on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus×Bos indicus cows (body weight 330.93± 10.82 kg at their second and mid lactation (milk yield 6.77±0.54 kg/d were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the total tract digestibility of various nutrients. Results The daily feed intake was increased (p0.05, the fibre digestibility was increased (p0.05 among the groups, milk yield was increased by 10 per cent with total replacement of wheat bran in concentrate mixture with of black gram foliage. The economics of milk production calculated as feed cost per kg milk yield (INR 10.61 vs 7.98 was reduced by complete replacement of wheat bran with black gram foliage. Conclusion Black gram foliage could be used as complete replacement for wheat bran in concentrate mixture of dairy cows in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders’ animal production.

  16. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  17. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Ae Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV, prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS. Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2–3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  18. Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration, Reporting Period: April 2008 - February 2009 [re: "Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and north California Current"].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries; Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Oregon State University; OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health Sciences University.

    2009-07-17

    We have made substantial progress toward our objectives outlined in our BPA supported proposal entitled 'Columbia River Basin Juvenile Salmonids: Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern California Current' which we report on herein. During 2008, we were able to successfully conduct 3 mesoscale cruises. We also were able to conduct 7 biweekly predator cruises, along with substantial shore-based visual observations of seabirds. Detailed results of the mesoscale cruises are available in the Cruise Reports and summarized in the next section. We have taken a proactive approach to getting the results of our research to fisheries managers and the general public. We have begun to make annual predictions based on ocean conditions of the relative survival of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon well before they return as adults. This is based on both biological and physical indicators that we measure during our surveys or collect from outside data sources. Examples of our predictions for 2009 and 2010 are available on the following web site: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fed/oeip/a-ecinhome.cfm.

  19. ANNUAL REPOR ANNUAL REPORT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The rapid growth in identification of genes in this group of eye diseases is illustrated very clearly in the case of retinal degenerations, which are a large group of .... methods are in principle available, as injected genes do not migrate to other parts of the body. There are about 40 million blind in the world. (8 million of them.

  20. Measuring spectral effects of calcium fertilization in the red spruce foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, W. R.; Rock, B. N.; Hallett, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Acidic precipitation has altered biogeochemical cycles in the forests of the Northeastern U.S., and has lead to an interest in the decline symptomology of tree species affected as a result of these changes. For instance, in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands, leaching losses of calcium (Ca) may hamper root uptake capacities, wood structural properties, and tolerance of low temperature. The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) is currently the site of a long-term Ca investigation, where an entire watershed was fertilized with wollastonite (CaSiO3) at the rate of 0.12 kg ha-1 in 1999. Preliminary data confirm that Ca-treated spruce foliage is higher in total foliar Ca as compared to foliage from trees in a reference watershed. Total foliar Ca concentration, as well as that of a bound Ca-oxalate pool, increase with needle age class. In order to test the utility of hyperspectral instruments for differentiating conifer stands of varying Ca availability, we used a Visible/Infrared Intelligent Spectrometer to measure reflectance spectra of fresh red spruce needles from trees at both Ca-amended and reference sites. Needles from Ca-amended sites were characterized by higher percent reflectance of incident radiation. Differences in spectral indices of needle health were apparent mostly in mixed-needle-year boughs (MNY), as opposed to current-year (CY), or third-year (3Y) needle classes. The Ca-amended spectra of MNY boughs had an average green peak of 7.32 ± 0.29 percent, while reference samples had a green peak of 6.37 ± 0.20 percent. The Red-edge Inflection Point (REIP) of MNY boughs was lower in Ca-amended than in reference treatments, occurring at 725.7 ± 0.7 nm and 727.3 ± 0.6 nm, respectively. The ratio of simulated Landsat band measurements (TM 5/4) of Ca-treated MNY needles was 0.440 ± 0.007, while that of reference was 0.421 ± 0.008.

  1. Flavour characterisation and free radical scavenging activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Siddharth; Khanum, Hafeeza; Ravi, Ramasamy; Borse, Babasaheb Baskarrao; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective was to characterize Indian Coriandrum sativum L. foliage (Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC varieties) and its radical scavenging activity. Foliage of Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC contained ascorbic acid (1.16 ± 0.35 and 1.22 ± 0.54 mg/g), total carotenoids (1.49 ± 0.38 and 3.08 ± 1.2 mg/g), chlorophyll 'a' (8.23 ± 2.4 and 12.18 ± 2.9 mg/g), chlorophyll 'b' (2.74 ± 0.8 and 4.39 ± 1.3 mg/g) and total chlorophyll (10.97 ± 2.6 and 16.57 ± 3.2 mg/g). The polyphenol content was 26.75 ± 1.85 and 30.00 ± 2.64 mg/g in Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC, respectively. Ethanol extracts (200 ppm) of alef and Microcarpum DC showed higher radical scavenging activity of 42.05 ± 2.42 % and 62.79 ± 1.36 % when compared with 95 % butylated hydroxyanisole. The principal component analysis results indicated that e-nose can distinguish the volatiles effectively. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis showed that Microcarpum DC variety is superior to Vulgare alef variety. Nearly 90 % of the flavour compounds present were identified by GC-MS in both varieties. The principal component identified in both the varieties were decanal (7.645 and 7.74 %), decanol  (25.12 and 39.35 %), undecanal (1.20 and 1.75 %), dodecanal (7.07 and 2.61 %), tridecen-1-al  (6.67 and 1.21 %), dodecen-1-ol  (16.68 and 8.05 %), 13-tetradecenal (9.53 and 8.60 %), tetradecanal (5.61 and 4.35 %) and 1-octadecanol (1.25 and 3.67 %).

  2. The effect of long-term feeding of fresh and ensiled cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage on gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokerya, S; Waller, P J; Try, P; Höglund, J

    2009-02-01

    The benefit of long-term feeding of fresh or ensiled cassava foliage on gastrointestinal parasite in goats was evaluated. Eighteen male goats (15.15 +/- 2.83 kg and between 4-6 months) were randomly allocated into three treatments supplemented with 200 g of wheat bran head(-1) day(-1). All groups were fed ad-libitum on either grass (CO), fresh cassava (CaF) or ensiled cassava foliage (CaS). At the beginning of the trial, each goat was inoculated with 3000 L3 containing approximately 50% Haemonchus contortus. Individual LWt, FEC and PCV were measured at weekly intervals for 10 weeks. At the termination of the experiment all goats were slaughtered for worm recovery and enumeration. The goats in CaF and CaS had similar weight gains while those in CO lost weight (p ensiled cassava foliage reduced the H. contortus population while the fresh foliage only reduced worm fecundity.

  3. Patterns of biomass allocation between foliage and woody structure: the effects of tree size and specific functional traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvanus Mensah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass allocation is closely related to species traits, resources availability and competitive abilities, and therefore it is often used to capture resource utilisation within plants. In this study, we searched for patterns in biomass allocation between foliage and wood (stem plus branch, and how they changed with tree size (diameter, species identity and functional traits (leaf area and specific wood density. Using data on the aboveground biomass of 89 trees from six species in a Mistbelt forest (South Africa, we evaluated the leaf to wood mass ratio (LWR. The effects of tree size, species identity and specific traits on LWR were tested using Generalised Linear Models. Tree size (diameter was the main driver of biomass allocation, with 44.43 % of variance explained. As expected, LWR declined significantly with increasing tree diameter. Leaf area (30.17% explained variance and wood density (12.61% explained variance also showed significant effects, after size effect was accounted for. Results also showed clear differences among species and between groups of species. Per unit of wood mass, more biomass is allocated to the foliage in the species with the larger leaf area. Inversely, less biomass is allocated to the foliage in species with higher wood density. Moreover, with increasing diameter, lower wood density species tended to allocate more biomass to foliage and less biomass to stems and branches. Overall, our results emphasise the influence of plant size and functional traits on biomass allocation, but showed that neither tree diameter and species identity nor leaf area and wood density are the only important variables.

  4. Surveillance Unattended Foliage Penetrating Radar for Border Control and Homeland Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Amato

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing request for safety, security and environment protection at local and national level reveal the deficiency of the traditional surveillance and control centers to satisfy the needs and requirements of modern border control systems for homeland protection where land border is expected to be monitored as well as the maritime one. This is, for instance, the case of any land border affected by hidden immigration and/or illegal traffics as well as any small areas such as critical infrastructures or military/ civilian posts in forest or jungle environment characterized by vegetation. In such challenging environment, logistics constraints strongly recommend to have very low power devices able to operate months or years without maintenance. A such scenario should be the perfect place for implementing an Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS network making use FOliage PENetration (FOPEN radar for border control. The paper aims to present the basic characteristics and preliminary results of a Surveillance Unattended FOPEN (SUF radar suitable for detecting moving targets, people or vehicles, in dense forest environment.

  5. Microbial diversity of thermophiles with biomass deconstruction potential in a foliage-rich hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li Sin; Goh, Kian Mau; Chan, Chia Sing; Annie Tan, Geok Yuan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chong, Chun Shiong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2018-03-30

    The ability of thermophilic microorganisms and their enzymes to decompose biomass have attracted attention due to their quick reaction time, thermostability, and decreased risk of contamination. Exploitation of efficient thermostable glycoside hydrolases (GHs) could accelerate the industrialization of biofuels and biochemicals. However, the full spectrum of thermophiles and their enzymes that are important for biomass degradation at high temperatures have not yet been thoroughly studied. We examined a Malaysian Y-shaped Sungai Klah hot spring located within a wooded area. The fallen foliage that formed a thick layer of biomass bed under the heated water of the Y-shaped Sungai Klah hot spring was an ideal environment for the discovery and analysis of microbial biomass decay communities. We sequenced the hypervariable regions of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes using total community DNA extracted from the hot spring. Data suggested that 25 phyla, 58 classes, 110 orders, 171 families, and 328 genera inhabited this hot spring. Among the detected genera, members of Acidimicrobium, Aeropyrum, Caldilinea, Caldisphaera, Chloracidobacterium, Chloroflexus, Desulfurobacterium, Fervidobacterium, Geobacillus, Meiothermus, Melioribacter, Methanothermococcus, Methanotorris, Roseiflexus, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium, Thermoanaerobaculum, and Thermosipho were the main thermophiles containing various GHs that play an important role in cellulose and hemicellulose breakdown. Collectively, the results suggest that the microbial community in this hot spring represents a good source for isolating efficient biomass degrading thermophiles and thermozymes. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Variation in composition and yield of foliage oil of eucalyptus polybractea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Z.; Akhtar, M.; Qureshi, T.M.; Ahhter, J.; Ahmad, R.

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus polybractea (blue mallee) is the essential oil rich species used in the commercial production of pharmaceutical-grade Eucalyptus oil in Australia. This species was grown at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan during 2004-08 to investigate the quantity and quality of its foliage oil. The oils were extracted by hydro-distillation method, from the leaves of four year aged ten E. polybractea plants. The data showed a significant intra-species variation in their oil contents (29.3 to 41.8 mg g-1 fresh weight of leaves). Out of ten plants eight contained oil >30 mg g/sup -1/ fresh weight of leaves. The components of the extracted oils varied from 12-26 as detected by GC/FID on Carbowax 20 M packed glass column. Among all the oil components, 1, 8-cineole was the major compound (91.7-94.2 %), while the other identified compounds were alpha-pinene (0-1.2 %), beta-pinene (0.4-2.3 %), limonene (0.2-1.3 %), p-cymene (1.23-2.75 %), and terpinene-4-ol (0.6-0.92 %). The extracted oils from all the Eucalyptus polybractea plants contained high amount of 1, 8-cineole (>90 %), therefore, classified as species of high quality medicinal oil. (author)

  7. Characterization of particulate matter deposited on urban tree foliage: A landscape analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yan, Jingli; Ma, Keming; Zhou, Weiqi; Chen, Guojian; Tang, Rongli; Zhang, Yuxin

    2017-12-01

    Plants can mitigate ambient particulate matter by cleaning the air, which is crucial to urban environments. A novel approach was presented to quantitatively characterize particulate matter deposited on urban tree foliage. This approach could accurately quantify the number, size, shape, and spatial distribution of particles with different diameters on leaves. Spatial distribution is represented by proximity, which measures the closeness of particles. We sampled three common broadleaf species and obtained images through field emission scanning electron microscopy. We conducted the object-based method to extract particles from images. We then used Fragstats to analyze the landscape characteristics of these particles in term of selected metrics. Results reveal that Salix matsudana is more efficient than Ailanthus altissima and Fraxinus chinensis in terms of the number and area of particles per unit area and the proportion of fine particulate matter. The shape complexity of the particles increases with their size. Among the three species, S. matsudana and A. altissima particles respectively yield the highest and lowest proximity. PM1 in A. altissima and PM10 in F. chinensis and S. matsudana show the highest proximity, which may influence subsequent particle retention. S. matsudana should be generally considered to collect additional small particles. Different species and particle sizes exhibit various proximities, which should be further examined to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  8. The rapid determination of sideroxylonals in Eucalyptus foliage by extraction with sonication followed by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Ian R; Foley, William J

    2005-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the quantification of sideroxylonals, a group of formylated phloroglucinol compounds found in some eucalypts. Samples of dry, ground foliage were extracted by sonication with 20% methanol in acetonitrile, 7% water in acetonitrile or 40% water in acetonitrile and the extracts analysed by reversed phase HPLC. The extracts from the two water-acetonitrile extractions were stable for at least 48 h. All three sonication methods recovered more sideroxylonals than did the Soxhlet extraction with petroleum spirit and acetone. Adding 0.1% trifluoracetic acid to the water-acetonitrile extraction solvents led to even higher recoveries of sideroxylonals. Soaking the sample in extracting solvent for 5 min recovered 70% of the sideroxylonals, whilst sonicating the suspension for 1 min recovered the remainder. The developed method involving sonication of the sample for 5 min in 7% water in acetonitrile with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid is fast and requires minimal equipment and solvents compared with the traditional methods. With an autosampler it is possible to prepare and run 100 samples a day. More importantly, the technique is ideal for the analysis of small samples, e.g. individual leaves, which is essential when studying the evolutionary ecology of eucalypts.

  9. Foliage and Litter Chemistry, Decomposition, and Nutrient Release in Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen A. Carlson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following fertilization of forest plantations, high accumulations of nutrients in the forest floor creates the need to assess rates of forest floor decomposition and nutrient release. The study site was a 25-year old experimental loblolly pine plantation in the North Carolina Sandhills Region. Soluble and insoluble N, P, carbohydrate and phenol-tannin fractions were determined in foliage and litter by extraction with trichloroacetic acid. The long-term forest floor decomposition rate and decomposition and nutrient release in an experiment simulating removal of the overstory canopy were also determined. In litter, insoluble protein-N comprised 80%–90% of total-N concentration while soluble inorganic- and organic-P comprised 50%–75% of total-P concentration explaining forest floor N accumulations. Fertilization did not increase soluble carbohydrates in litter and forest floor decomposition rates. Loblolly pine forest floor decomposing in environmental conditions simulating removal of the overstory canopy was greatly accelerated and indicated 75% mass loss and release of 80% of the N pool within one year. This could result in a loss of substantial quantities of N at harvest due to low N uptake by seedlings in the newly planted next rotation suggesting management of the forest floor at harvest is essential to conserve site N capital in these N limited systems.

  10. Compression map, functional groups and fossilization: A chemometric approach (Pennsylvanian neuropteroid foliage, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, J. A.; Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all of the spectrochemical studies involving Carboniferous foliage of seed-ferns are based on a limited number of pinnules, mainly compressions. In contrast, in this paper we illustrate working with a larger pinnate segment, i.e., a 22-cm long neuropteroid specimen, compression-preserved with cuticle, the compression map. The objective is to study preservation variability on a larger scale, where observation of transparency/opacity of constituent pinnules is used as a first approximation for assessing the degree of pinnule coalification/fossilization. Spectrochemical methods by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry furnish semi-quantitative data for principal component analysis.The compression map shows a high degree of preservation variability, which ranges from comparatively more coalified pinnules to less coalified pinnules that resemble fossilized-cuticles, noting that the pinnule midveins are preserved more like fossilized-cuticles. A general overall trend of coalified pinnules towards fossilized-cuticles, i.e., variable chemistry, is inferred from the semi-quantitative FTIR data as higher contents of aromatic compounds occur in the visually more opaque upper location of the compression map. The latter also shows a higher condensation of the aromatic nuclei along with some variation in both ring size and degree of aromatic substitution. From principal component analysis we infer correspondence between transparency/opacity observation and chemical information which correlate with varying degree to fossilization/coalification among pinnules. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Transfer of atmospheric tritiated water to foliage and fruit of crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Napier, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Tritiated water (THO) released to the environment from the effluent streams of nuclear reactors may be easily assimilated by organisms through metabolic fixation following foliar interception of THO vapor. This study was initiated to characterize atmospheric THO exchange parameters in two crops agronomically important to eastern Washington, grape (Vitus vinifera) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Short-term exposures using atmospheric THO concentrations ranging from 458 to 1,300,900 pCi/m 3 indicated no statistically significant concentration influences on THO exchange into the leaf tissue free-water (TFW) and organically bound tritium (OBT) of the leaves of either species. Long-term exposures indicated that equilibration of the leaf TFW with atmospheric THO concentrations occurred within 24 to 48 h for both species while equilibration of grape TFW appeared to take over 20 days. The rate of THO saturation of the foliage TFW appeared to be directly related to the stomatal resistance of the leaves and fruit. Desorption rates from both leaves and fruit were greater in the light than in the dark, again correlating with stomatal resistance. More than 90% of the absorbed THO was lost from the leaf TFW pool within 24 h following cessation of exposure for both species, while loss of THO from grape TFW and OBT pools was minimal. It appeared that more than 95 to 98% of the THO found in the TFW and OBT pools of the grape fruit was of atmospheric origin and not from transport from other parts of the plant

  12. Fruits and foliage of Pueraria (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) from the Neogene of Eurasia and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Manchester, Steven R; Dilcher, David L

    2010-12-01

    Pueraria (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) is native in East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania and is well known as a rampant invasive weed in the southeastern United States (P. montana; better known as kudzu), but relatively little is known about its early evolution and biogeographic origin. • On the basis of comparative analyses of the fruit and leaflet architecture of closely related extant and fossil taxa, we studied the fossil history and biogeography of Pueraria. • Fossil Pueraria is recognized on the basis of distinctive fruit and foliage from the Mio-Pliocene of middle latitudes in China, Japan, Abkhazia, and Croatia. Recognition of P. miothunbergiana from the Mio-Pliocene of China and Japan is reinforced by a trifoliolate leaf as well as isolated lateral and terminal leaflets. Pueraria shanwangensis sp. nov. represents the first recognition of fossil Pueraria fruits. This fruit species co-occurs with P. miothunbergiana in the Middle Miocene Shanwang flora and possibly represents the same population. Pueraria maxima (Unger) comb. nov., previously named as Dolichites maximus or Desmodium maximum, is recognized on the basis of leaflets from the Miocene of Croatia and Abkhazia. Other prior fossil reports of Pueraria and Dolichites are reevaluated. • Pueraria had begun to diversify by at least the Middle Miocene and had spread into the Mio-Pliocene subtropical and temperate floras of the Balkan Peninsula, the Caucasus, and eastern Asia, which suggests the present diversity of this genus in tropical Asia and Oceania might have originated from the mid-latitudes of Eurasia.

  13. Seasonal dynamics of resource partitioning among foliage-gleaning passerines in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Rauno V

    1980-05-01

    The five most abundant species were included in a year-round study with respect to six foraging niche dimensions. Approximately full multidimensional utilization functions were used for niche metrics. During summer foraging overlaps were invariably high, but in other seasons periodically lower. Foraging site breadth was lower in winter, when fewer sites are profitable for foraging than in summer. Feeding posture versatility, by contrast, was highest in winter. Seasonal foraging shifts were very prominent, as great in fact as between-species differences. Often seasonal trends were parallel in different species. Niche axes of macrohabitat-type (e.g. tree) were more open for foraging variation and axes of microhabitat-type (tree part) more rigid. Among the resident species seasonal variation in foraging was greatest in Regulus regulus and Parus cristatus, whereas the foraging behaviour was more stable for P. montanus (an abundant species with broad niche), perhaps owing to greater intraspecific competition. In these northern forests foliage-gleaners must be versatile generalists to cope with the unpredictable resources, and thus they overlap broadly in their general resource niches which are determined by their genetically fixed cost and benefit relations to each resource type. Anyhow, presumably during periodical food shortage, the actual resource uses adjusted by resource availability and competition may overlap narrowly.

  14. Mercury distribution in the foliage and soil profiles of the Tibetan forest: Processes and implications for regional cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Xue, Yong-gang; Xu, Bai-qing; Yao, Tan-dong

    2014-01-01

    Remote forests are considered a pool of Mercury (Hg) in the global Hg cycle. However, notably few studies have investigated the fate of Hg in the Tibetan forest. In this study, fifty-two foliage samples and seven litter/soil profiles were collected throughout the Tibetan forest. The concentrations of total Hg (THg) in foliage were positively correlated with longitude and negatively correlated with altitude, indicating that the emission of Hg is expected to decrease with increasing distance from emission sources to the Tibetan forest. The deposition flux of THg in the Tibetan forest (with an air-to-forest ground flux of 9.2 μg/m 2 /year) is ∼2 times the flux in clearings, which is suggestive of enhanced Hg deposition by the forest. The depositional Hg is eventually stored in the forest soil, and the soil acts as a net ‘sink’ for Hg. - Highlights: • Foliage can be used as bio-indicator for monitoring the spatial Hg distribution. • The Tibetan forest can enhance the atmospheric Hg deposition to the ground. • The Tibetan forest soil is a pool of Hg that acts to delay the regional cycling of Hg. - The Tibetan forest can accumulate atmospheric Hg, which undergoes long-range transport, and the soil of Tibetan forest acts as the final Hg ‘sink’

  15. Ethnobotanical magnitude towards sustainable utilization of wild foliage in Arabian Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash C. Phondani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was deals with identifying traditional uses of medicinal plants for curing a variety of ailments and degree of religious conservation for retention of ethnobotanical knowledge. The study was carried out in the State of Qatar to document the ethnobotanical uses of 58 medicinally important plant species including identification, botanical name, Arabic name, family, habit, habitat, distribution pattern, and the plant parts used for curing variety of ailments. The documented species belong to 54 plant genera and 30 botanical families. They have been used to cure more than 38 different kinds of human ailments. A majority of ethnobotanical plant species belonging to shrubs (41.38% followed by perennial herbs (31.04%, annual herbs (18.96% and trees (8.62% respectively. The frequency of ethnobotanical plant species were recorded maximum in fabaceae (13.79%, followed by lamiaceae, chenopodiaceae (6.89% each, asteraceae, capparaceae, polygonaceae, boraginaceae, aizooaceae (5.17% each, brassicaceae, asclepiadaceae, convolvulaceae, zygophyllaceae, solanaceae (3.44% each while, remaining 17 families had one (1.72% species each. Perception of stakeholders concerning prioritization and categorization of potential native plants and 25 ethnobotanical species were prioritized and ranked on the basis of their multipurpose use value, feasibility climatic conditions and Global Sustainability Assessment System (GSAS criteria measures i.e. drought resistant, low water requirement, growth performance, survival rate, canopy size, adaptation potential, low maintenance and use value for sustainability and landscaping. The analysis emphasized the potentials of ethnomedicinal research, sustainable utilization, conservation initiatives, and urgent need to document ethnobotanical knowledge for sustainability and scientific validation to prevent their losses.

  16. Patterns and correlates of giant sequoia foliage dieback during California’s 2012–2016 hotter drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; Das, Adrian J.; Ampersee, Nicholas J.; Cahill, Kathleen G.; Caprio, Anthony C.; Sanders, John E.; Williams, A. Park

    2017-01-01

    Hotter droughts – droughts in which unusually high temperatures exacerbate the effects of low precipitation – are expected to increase in frequency and severity in coming decades, challenging scientists and managers to identify which parts of forested landscapes may be most vulnerable. In 2014, in the middle of California’s historically unprecedented 2012–2016 hotter drought, we noticed apparently drought-induced foliage dieback in giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum Lindl. [Buchholz]) in Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks, California. Characteristics of the dieback were consistent with a controlled process of drought-induced senescence: younger (distal) shoots remained green while older (proximal) shoots were preferentially shed. As part of an ongoing interdisciplinary effort to understand and map sequoia vulnerability to hotter droughts, we reviewed historical records for evidence of previous foliage dieback events, surveyed dieback along trail corridors in eight sequoia groves, and analyzed tree-ring data from a high- and a low-foliage-dieback area. In sharp contrast to the greatly elevated mortality of other coniferous species found at low and middle elevations, we estimate that drought. Foliage dieback was notably elevated in 2014 – the most severe single drought year in our 122-year record – but much lower in subsequent years. We found no historical records of similar foliage dieback during previous droughts. Dieback in 2014 was highly variable both within and among groves, ranging from virtually no dieback in some areas to nearly 50% in others. Dieback was highest (1) at low elevations, probably due to higher temperatures, reduced snowpack, and earlier snowmelt; (2) in areas of low adult sequoia densities, which likely reflect intrinsically more stressful sites; and (3) on steep slopes, probably reflecting reduced water availability. Average sequoia ring widths were narrower at the high-dieback than the low-dieback tree-ring site, but

  17. Extracting Leaf Area Index by Sunlit Foliage Component from Downward-Looking Digital Photography under Clear-Sky Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelu Zeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of near-surface remote sensing requires the accurate extraction of leaf area index (LAI from networked digital cameras under all illumination conditions. The widely used directional gap fraction model is more suitable for overcast conditions due to the difficulty to discriminate the shaded foliage from the shadowed parts of images acquired on sunny days. In this study, a new LAI extraction method by the sunlit foliage component from downward-looking digital photography under clear-sky conditions is proposed. In this method, the sunlit foliage component was extracted by an automated image classification algorithm named LAB2, the clumping index was estimated by a path length distribution-based method, the LAD and G function were quantified by leveled digital images and, eventually, the LAI was obtained by introducing a geometric-optical (GO model which can quantify the sunlit foliage proportion. The proposed method was evaluated at the YJP site, Canada, by the 3D realistic structural scene constructed based on the field measurements. Results suggest that the LAB2 algorithm makes it possible for the automated image processing and the accurate sunlit foliage extraction with the minimum overall accuracy of 91.4%. The widely-used finite-length method tends to underestimate the clumping index, while the path length distribution-based method can reduce the relative error (RE from 7.8% to 6.6%. Using the directional gap fraction model under sunny conditions can lead to an underestimation of LAI by (1.61; 55.9%, which was significantly outside the accuracy requirement (0.5; 20% by the Global Climate Observation System (GCOS. The proposed LAI extraction method has an RMSE of 0.35 and an RE of 11.4% under sunny conditions, which can meet the accuracy requirement of the GCOS. This method relaxes the required diffuse illumination conditions for the digital photography, and can be applied to extract LAI from downward-looking webcam images

  18. Growth and development response of maize ( Zea mays L. ) In crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and development response of Zea mays were investigated at the University of Port Harcourt botanical garden. Crude oil pollution effects of direct spray on foliage or spill on soil on the growth changes and chlorophyll content of Z. mays were examined, alongside a control. There were significant (p = 0.05) reductions ...

  19. Effects of foliage clumping on the estimation of global terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Pisek, Jan; Liu, Jane; Deng, Feng; Ishizawa, Misa; Chan, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded leaf separation proposed by Norman (1982) is an effective way to upscale from leaf to canopy in modeling vegetation photosynthesis. The Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) makes use of this methodology, and has been shown to be reliable in modeling the gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from CO2flux and tree ring measurements. In this study, we use BEPS to investigate the effect of canopy architecture on the global distribution of GPP. For this purpose, we use not only leaf area index (LAI) but also the first ever global map of the foliage clumping index derived from the multiangle satellite sensor POLDER at 6 km resolution. The clumping index, which characterizes the degree of the deviation of 3-dimensional leaf spatial distributions from the random case, is used to separate sunlit and shaded LAI values for a given LAI. Our model results show that global GPP in 2003 was 132 ± 22 Pg C. Relative to this baseline case, our results also show: (1) global GPP is overestimated by 12% when accurate LAI is available but clumping is ignored, and (2) global GPP is underestimated by 9% when the effective LAI is available and clumping is ignored. The clumping effects in both cases are statistically significant (p < 0.001). The effective LAI is often derived from remote sensing by inverting the measured canopy gap fraction to LAI without considering the clumping. Global GPP would therefore be generally underestimated when remotely sensed LAI (actually effective LAI by our definition) is used. This is due to the underestimation of the shaded LAI and therefore the contribution of shaded leaves to GPP. We found that shaded leaves contribute 50%, 38%, 37%, 39%, 26%, 29% and 21% to the total GPP for broadleaf evergreen forest, broadleaf deciduous forest, evergreen conifer forest, deciduous conifer forest, shrub, C4 vegetation, and other vegetation, respectively. The global average of this ratio is 35%.

  20. Bacterial endophyte communities in the foliage of coast redwood and giant sequoia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Ann Carrell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic bacterial microbiome, with an emerging role in plant nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance, is much less studied in natural plant populations than in agricultural crops. In a previous study, we found consistent associations between trees in the pine family and acetic acid bacteria (AAB occurring at high relative abundance inside their needles. Our objective here was to determine if that pattern may be general to conifers, or alternatively, is more likely restricted to pines, or conifers growing in nutrient limited and exposed environments. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to characterize the foliar endophyte communities of two conifers in the Cupressaceae family: Two coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens populations and one giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum population were sampled. Similar to the pines, the endophyte communities of the giant trees were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. However, although some major OTUs occurred at a high relative abundance of 10-40% in multiple samples, no specific group of bacteria dominated the endophyte community to the extent previously observed in high-elevation pines. Several of the dominating bacterial groups in the coast redwood and giant sequoia foliage (e.g. Bacillus, Burkholderia, Actinomycetes are known for disease- and pest suppression, raising the possibility that the endophytic microbiome protects the giant trees against biotic stress. Many of the most common and abundant OTUs in our dataset were most similar to 16S rRNA sequences from bacteria isolated from lichens or arctic plants. For example, an OTU belonging to the uncultured Rhizobiales LAR1 lineage, which is commonly associated with lichens, was observed at high relative abundance in many of the coast redwood samples. The taxa shared between the giant trees, arctic plants, and lichens may be part of a broadly defined endophyte microbiome common to temperate, boreal, and tundra

  1. Photon Recollision Probability: a Useful Concept for Cross Scale Consistency Check between Leaf Area Index and Foliage Clumping Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisek, J.

    2017-12-01

    Clumping index (CI) is the measure of foliage aggregation relative to a random distribution of leaves in space. CI is an important factor for the correct quantification of true leaf area index (LAI). Global and regional scale CI maps have been generated from various multi-angle sensors based on an empirical relationship with the normalized difference between hotspot and darkspot (NDHD) index (Chen et al., 2005). Ryu et al. (2011) suggested that accurate calculation of radiative transfer in a canopy, important for controlling gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) (Baldocchi and Harley, 1995), should be possible by integrating CI with incoming solar irradiance and LAI from MODIS land and atmosphere products. It should be noted that MODIS LAI/FPAR product uses internal non-empirical, stochastic equations for parameterization of foliage clumping. This raises a question if integration of the MODIS LAI product with empirically-based CI maps does not introduce any inconsistencies. Here, the consistency is examined independently through the `recollision probability theory' or `p-theory' (Knyazikhin et al., 1998) along with raw LAI-2000/2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA) data from > 30 sites, surveyed across a range of vegetation types. The theory predicts that the amount of radiation scattered by a canopy should depend only on the wavelength and the spectrally invariant canopy structural parameter p. The parameter p is linked to the foliage clumping (Stenberg et al., 2016). Results indicate that integration of the MODIS LAI product with empirically-based CI maps is feasible. Importantly, for the first time it is shown that it is possible to obtain p values for any location solely from Earth Observation data. This is very relevant for future applications of photon recollision probability concept for global and local monitoring of vegetation using Earth Observation data.

  2. Multi-element fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing identify multiple elements that affect fungal communities in Quercus macrocarpa foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, Ari; Keating, Karen; Gadbury, Gary; Jones, Kenneth L; Mattox, J David

    2010-09-01

    Diverse fungal mutualists, pathogens and saprobes colonize plant leaves. These fungi face a complex environment, in which stochastic dispersal interplays with abiotic and biotic filters. However, identification of the specific factors that drive the community assembly seems unattainable. We mined two broad data sets and identified chemical elements, to which dominant molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the foliage of a native tree respond most extremely. While many associations could be identified, potential complicating issues emerged. Those were related to unevenly distributed OTU frequency data, a large number of potentially explanatory variables, and the disproportionate effects of outlier observations.

  3. Specificity of HPLC to assess the chemical stability based on partenine from Parthenium hysterophorus L. powdered dry foliage (escoba amarga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo Hernandez, Yanelis; Mohamad Safa, Bassam; Gonzalez Bedia, Mirtha Mayra

    2010-01-01

    It is required a specific analysis technique allowing the follow-up to stability study intrinsic of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (escoba amarga) powdered dry foliage to achieve in a pharmaceutical way a antiparasitic usefulness with the quality, safety and effectiveness demanded requirements. High performance liquid chromatography was applied to P. hysterophorus degraded samples under degradation conditions in an oxidative, basic and acid medium. The analysis technique specificity was assessed to detect the interest component without interferences of its degradation products and its possible usefulness in studies on solid stability in the plant powder

  4. Observations on the foliage production in some mangrove species of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, S.

    Growth with respect to the shoot height, production of leaves, buds, flowers and fruits in Rhizophora mucronata and Kandelia rheedii of mangroves were studied for a period of thirteen months by tagging method. Growth in both plants was continuous...

  5. Variation in the species composition and mean body size of an avian foliage-gleaning guild along an elevational gradient: correlation with arthropod body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Stewart W

    1994-08-01

    The composition of an avian foliage-gleaning guild was analyzed with respect to body size at nine sites along an elevational gradient in the Oregon Cascades. Mean body size decreased from 20.5 g near the lower forest boundary where it meets the grassland at about 775 m to 9.3 g near timberline at about 1720 m. Both the loss of larger species and the gain of smaller species contributed to the change. Mean volume of the foliage-dwelling arthropods also decreased with increasing elevation by two orders of magnitude along the same gradient. A significant decrease in body size occurred in three arthropod groups, larval Lepidoptera, Homoptera, and spiders, and of these, larval Lepidoptera dominated the overall size trend among arthropods. Both developmental differences (higher elevation sites are delayed seasonally on the same calendar date) and taxonomic differences contributed to the change in mean arthropod size. Mean bird size was positively correlated (r=0.93) with the body size of foliage-dwelling arthropods. A similar pattern was suggested for other avian guilds dependent directly or indirectly upon foliage-dwelling arthropods, but not for guilds independent of foliage-dwelling arthropods.

  6. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  7. Changes in transpiration and foliage growth in lodgepole pine trees following mountain pine beetle attack and mechanical girdling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; Charles C. Rhoades; Kelly Elder; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in North American lodgepole pine forests demonstrates the importance of insect related disturbances in changing forest structure and ecosystem processes. Phloem feeding by beetles disrupts transport of photosynthate from tree canopies and fungi introduced to the tree's vascular system by the bark beetles inhibit water...

  8. Analysis of N and K in the sap of petioles and in foliage fabrics of tomato plants under hydropony conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Cordero, O. F.

    2001-01-01

    The foliage analyses give information about the nutritional state of the plant in the past, this is that it should have lapsed time enough so that the changes are manifested in the composition of fabrics of the foliage. A nutritional pursuit, based on variations in the concentration of elements in the sap of the plant could indicate that this is nutritionally happening in the plant in the moment. This can be a tool to predict symptoms caused by nutritional anomalies in an immediate form, being able to correct more quickly the problem and to reduce the time of exhibition from the plant to the nutritional tension. The nitrogen (N) and the potassium (K) are two elements that the tomato plants require in big quantities, therefore in search of validating new methodologies, this work had as objectives: 1) To determine the utility of the levels of N and K obtained in sap analysis as a tool for the detection of nutritional lacks and as an indicator of the concentration of N and K in the nutritious solution. 2) To compare the results of analysis of sap of petioles with the routine analyses of fabric to foliate. (Author) [es

  9. Effects of supplementing low-quality roughages with tree foliages on digestibility, nitrogen utilization and rumen characteristics in sheep: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, A K

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six published studies containing 219 treatment means and 1069 sheep were included in the dataset for meta-analysis to elucidate responses of foliage supplementation on digestibility, nitrogen balance and rumen parameters. Major predictive variables were percentages of foliages in diets (FL), crude protein (CP) in foliages (FCP), NDF in foliages (FNDF), NDF in basal forages (BNDF), CP in basal forages (BCP), CP in total diets (DCP) and foliage CP intake (FCPI). Organic matter digestibility increased linearly (p = 0.10) with increasing FL, but responded quadratically to DCP (p = 0.021) and BCP (p < 0.001), with maximal OM digestibility occurred at 14.6% of CP in diets (R(2) = 0.12). The digestibility of CP was affected by FL (p = 0.01), FCPI (p < 0.026), FCP (p < 0.001), FNDF (p < 0.001) and DCP (p < 0.032) positively and quadratically, and maximal response was at 14.1% DCP (p < 0.001), 51% FL (p < 0.001), 29% FCP (p < 0.001) and FCPI of 122 g/day (p < 0.001). The digestibility of NDF increased quadratically (p = 0.09) with increasing FL, peaking at 16% foliage levels, decreased quadratically (p = 0.001) with increasing FNDF and decreased linearly (p = 0.048) with increasing FCPI. Digestible OM and CP intakes were the highest at 37.2% and 42.1% FL, respectively. Fecal N excretion increased linearly with increasing FL (p < 0.001) and DCP (p < 0.001, R(2) = 0.66). However, FCPI (p = 0.082), FCP (p = 0.003) and BCP (p < 0.001) affected fecal N excretion positively and quadratically. Urinary N excretion increased linearly (p < 0.001) with increasing FL (R(2) = 0.45), FCPI (R(2) = 0.79), FCP (R(2) = 0.51), BCP (R(2) = 0.72) and DCP (R(2) = 0.77). Rumen NH(3) concentration was affected positively and quadratically (p = 0.023) by FL with a peak rumen NH(3) level of 160 mg/l at 17.3% FL. However, rumen NH(3) concentration (mg/l) increased linearly with increasing FCP (p = 0.001), FCPI (p = 0.01) and DCP (p < 0.001). In conclusion, catalytic foliage supplementation at

  10. Early growth and survival of Acacia galpinii after planting in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliage transparency was in excess of 80% for all age groups while crown dieback and stem damage was below 5%. A. galpinii was found to be suitable for dry-zone afforestation. Key Words: Indigenous tree planting; Acacia galpinii; Growth rate; Survival rate; Tree health. Southern African Forestry Journal Issue 202 2004: ...

  11. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Dust on Foliage Pigments and Pollution Resistances of Plants Grown Nearby Coal Based Thermal Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Manisha; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2018-01-01

    Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category. Observed AQI was greater than 100 in the surrounding area of TPP. The mean dust load on plant foliage was significantly greater in the polluted site compared with the control site: 4.45 ± 1.96 versus 1.38 ± 0.41 mg cm -2 . Nearby, TPP highest and lowest dust load were founded in F. benghalensis (7.58 ± 0.74) and F. religiosa (2.25 ± 0.12 mg cm -2 ) respectively. Analysis revealed the strong negative correlation between dust load and essential pigments of foliage, such as chlorophyll content, carotenoids, pH of foliage extract, and relative water content. Conversely, strong positive correlation was observed with the ascorbic acid content of plant species. Correlation and percentage change analysis in ascorbic acid content for the polluted site against the control site showed the adverse impact on plants due to dust load. Based on their responses to dust pollution, A. scholaris, P. longifolia, and M. indica were observed as most suitable plant species. Estimation of DRC, chlorophyll a/b ratio, APTI and API revealed the A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica as the most suitable plant species for green belt formation. The high gradation was obtained in A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica for opted parameters and showed their most suitability for green belt formation. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidences to estimate the

  12. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  13. Aspects of Permian palaeobotany and palynology. V. On the nature of Asterophyllites Dumasii zeiller, its correlation with Calamites gigas brongniart and the problem concerning its sterile foliage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerp, J.H.F.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of abundant material from the Waderner Gruppe (= Nahe Gruppe of Boy and Fichter, 1982; Autunian, Lower Permian) of Sobernheim (Nahe area, southwest Germany) it can be demonstrated that the presumed sterile foliage Asterophyllites dumasii Zeiller only represents the bract-bearing axes of

  14. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  15. 226Ra contamination of soil and foliage as a function of distance downwind from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    This study concerned 226 Ra contamination of soils and foliage as a function of distance downwind from a uranium mill tailings pile. In soils the radium contamination was primarily associated with particle sizes 226 Ra contamination in Artemisia tridentata. Internal contamination appeared to be a larger contributor to total contamination at distances less than or equal to 0.16 km downwind from the tailings pile. At distances > 0.16 km, external contamination became a larger contributor to the total 226 Ra contamination. In most soil samples 226 Ra concentrations approached background levels at a distance of 1.1 km from the tailings pile. Total vegetation contamination approached background at 6.6 km. This study suggested that a combination of root uptake and foliar absorption were responsible for internal contamination and further studies were suggested. 19 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  16. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Wannaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina. Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al and sulphur (S as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  17. Quantification of tannins in tree and shrub foliage. A laboratory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.

    2003-01-01

    tannin activity for both free and bound tannins in terms of rumen fermentation parameters; and 14 C-polyethylene glycol binding assay are also discussed. Each type of tannin responds differently in each of these assays. This variability makes it impossible to use any single method. Use of a battery of methods, therefore, is suggested; and these assays are being used in the FAO/IAEA-sponsored projects on the utilisation of tree foliage as livestock feed. Using these assays for 37 shrub and tree leaves, highly significant correlation existed between protein precipitation capacity and extractable total phenols (r = 0.87) or tannins (r = 0.83). On the other hand, a weak correlation was observed between condensed tannins (measured by the butanol-HCI method) and protein precipitation capacity (r = 0.41), which could be due to the variation in structural and biological activity of tannins. The correlations observed between extractable total phenols, tannins or condensed tannins and the tannin bioassay values based on the rumen simulation technique were similar to those obtained between extractable total phenols, tannins or condensed tannins and protein precipitation capacity. Highly significant correlations between extractable phenolics or tannins with protein precipitation capacity or the values obtained using the tannin bioassay suggest that extractable total phenolics and tannins values could be taken as a measure of biological activity of tannins. The condensed tannins values by the butanol-HCl-iron method do not appear to reflect the biological activity. From the relationships between chemical, protein precipitation and bioassays, it was postulated that tree and shrub leaves with extractable total phenol and tannin contents of approximately 4.5% and 2.0% respectively (as tannic acid equivalent) will not produce significant adverse effects on ruminant livestock. The hydrolysable tannins, measured by an HPLC and a spectrophotometric method (rhodanine), were present in all

  18. Efficiency evaluation for remediating paddy soil contaminated with cadmium and arsenic using water management, variety screening and foliage dressing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Guojian; Wu, Qianhua; Feng, Renwei; Guo, Junkang; Wang, Ruigang; Xu, Yingming; Ding, Yongzhen; Fan, Zhilian; Mo, Liangyu

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soils in many regions of China have been seriously polluted by multiple heavy metals or metalloids, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In order to ensure the safety of food and take full advantage of the limited farmland resources of China, exploring an effective technology to repair contaminated soils is urgent and necessary. In this study, three technologies were employed, including variety screening, water management and foliage dressing, to assess their abilities to reduce the accumulation of Cd and As in the grains of different rice varieties, and meanwhile monitor the related yields. The results of variety screening under insufficient field drying condition showed that the As and Cd contents in the grains of only four varieties [Fengliangyouxiang 1 (P6), Zhongzheyou 8 (P7), Guangliangyou 1128 (P10), Y-liangyou 696 (P11)] did not exceed their individual national standard. P6 gained a relatively high grain yield but accumulated less As and Cd in the grains despite of the relatively high As and Cd concentrations in the rhizosphere soil. However, long-playing field drying in water management trial significantly increased Cd but decreased As content in the grains of all tested three varieties including P6, suggesting an important role of water supply in controlling the accumulation of grain As and Cd. Selenium (Se) showed a stronger ability than silicon (Si) to reduce As and Cd accumulation in the grains of Fengliangyou 4 (P2) and Teyou 524 (P13), and keep the yields. The results of this study suggest that combined application of water management and foliage dressing may be an efficient way to control As and Cd accumulation in the grains of paddy rice exposing to As- and Cd-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  20. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  1. Annual Energy Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  2. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  3. Herbivory-induced mortality increases with radial growth in an invasive riparian phreatophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Dudley, T.; Leavitt, S.

    2012-12-01

    Under equal conditions, plants that allocate a larger proportion of resources to growth must do so at the expense of allocating fewer resources to storage. The critical balance between growth and storage leads to the hypothesis that in high-resource environments, plants that express high growth rates are more susceptible to episodic disturbance than plants that express lower growth rates. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the radial growth (RG), basal area increment (BAI) and carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in tree-ring alpha-cellulose of mature tamarisk trees (Tamarix spp.) occurring at three sites in the western United States. All of the trees had been subjected to episodic foliage herbivory over three or more consecutive growing seasons by the recently released biological control agent, the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) resulting in approximately 50% mortality in each stand (n = 31 live and killed trees, respectively). Mean annual BAI (measured from annual ring widths) in the 10 years prior to the onset of herbivory was on average 45% higher in killed trees compared to live trees (P tamarisk leaf beetle, they also expressed higher (less negative) δ13C ratios compared to live trees. In fact, at a site near Moab, UT, mean annual BAI was 100% higher in killed trees despite having about a 0.5‰ higher δ13C relative to live trees (P = 0.0008). These patterns suggest that the killed trees operated with a lower stomatal conductance despite the fact that they were more productive. Results from this investigation suggest that live trees allocated a relatively large proportion of resources to storage, thereby allowing these trees to produce new leaves after each subsequent herbivory event, whereas recently killed trees likely allocate a larger proportion of resources to growth at the expense of maintaining smaller storage reserves than living trees. Herbivory by the tamarisk leaf beetle therefore may be expected to reduce the overall net primary

  4. Lodgepole pine provenances differ in chemical defense capacities against foliage and stem diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximization of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) growth in the face of climate change and new pest outbreaks requires an understanding of the natural variability of quantitative resistance to disease. We assessed trees for the severity of foliar d...

  5. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindh, U.; Sundberg, O.

    1977-01-01

    The Gustaf Werner Institute (GWI) annual report for the year 1976 presents in a condensed form the scientific activities in the disciplines High Energy Physics and Physical Biology at Uppsala University. The activities in High Energy Physics fall into three domains: Research with the local accelerator, participation in collaborations at international centers and work on the rebuilding of the Uppsala synchrocyclotron. A major subject of research in Physical Biology is control of growth and differentiation, as reflected in the kinetics of biochemical reactions or in the behaviour of healthy or malignant cells at various levels of organization. (Auth.)

  6. Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The PNRI Annual Report summarizes the institute's yearly progress in nuclear research and development projects, services, regulations, technology transfers and information dissemination on the peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. The establishment and future operation of the Technetium 99m Generator Facility and the Electron Beam Facility will enhance the institute's capabilities. The PNRI has made great strides in agricultural and environmental research, helping to improve crop growth and water resource management. It served more clients availing of irradiation and other services, and was vigilant in monitoring incidents in the Southeast Asian region to preserve national nuclear safety and security

  7. Laser-zone growth in a ribbon-to-ribbon (RTR) process silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low-cost solar array project. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghdadi, A.; Gurtler, R.W.; Legge, R.; Sopori, B.; Ellis, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    A new calculation is included of the effects of thermal stresses during growth on silicon ribbon quality. Thermal stress distributions are computed for ribbon growth under a variety of temperature profiles. It is shown that the width dependence is not as large as had previously been assumed. Under practical growth conditions, the stresses are actually often below the yield point. It is also shown that, for the thermal profiles presently in use, buckling is probable for widths greater than 4 - 6 cm. Two ideal temperature profiles are described which could result in ribbons grown without either high dislocation generation or buckling. A growth rate of 55 cm/sup 2//min with a single ribbon was achieved. The growth of RTR ribbon with a fairly uniform parallel dendritic structure was also demonstrated. Encouraging results were obtained with two approaches for reducing the Mo impurity level in polycrystalline feedstock. Neutron Activation Analysis has shown that the Mo level can be reduced to below the level of detection by etching the polycrystalline ribbon surface. Coating the Mo substrate with Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ does not affect thermal shear separation of the polyribbon (Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ is a well-known diffusion barrier); this process shows promise of improving cell efficiencies and also increasing the useful life of the molybdenum substrate. A number of solar cells have been fabricated on RTR silicon grownfrom CVD feedstock.

  8. Estimating the Effect of Urban Growth on Annual Runoff Volume Using GIS in the Erbil Sub-Basin of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammed Hameed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth and spread of impervious surfaces within urbanizing catchment areas pose signiificant threats to the quality of natural and built-up environments. Impervious surfaces prevent water infiltration into the soil, resulting in increased runoff generation. The Erbil Sub-basin was selected because the impervious cover is increasing rapidly and is affecting the hydrological condition of the watershed. The overall aim of this study is to examine the impact of urban growth and other changes in land use on runoff response during the study period of 1984 to 2014. The study describes long-term hydrologic responses within the rapidly developing catchment area of Erbil city, in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Data from six rainfall stations in and around the Erbil Sub-basin were used. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was also used to extract the distribution of the drainage network. Historical levels of urban growth and the corresponding impervious areas, as well as land use/land cover changes were mapped from 1984 to 2014 using a temporal satellite image (Landsat to determine land use/land cover changes. Land use/land cover was combined with a hydrological model (SCS-CN to estimate the volume of runoff from the watershed. The study indicates that the urbanization of the watershed has increased the impervious land cover by 71% for the period from 1984 to 2004 and by 51% from 2004 to 2014. The volume of runoff was 85% higher in 2014 as compared to 1984 due to the increase in the impervious surface area; this is attributed to urban growth. The study also points out that the slope of the watershed in the Erbil sub-basin should be taken into account in surface runoff estimation as the upstream part of the watershed has a high gradient and the land is almost barren with very little vegetation cover; this causes an increase in the velocity of the flow and increases the risk of flooding in Erbil city.

  9. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Frank J.; Pechmann, Ildiko; Bogden, John D.; Grabosky, Jason; Weis, Peddrick

    2008-01-01

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield

  10. Annual Report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    marrow of mouse and study of different stages of meiosis in cells from grasshopper testis. B. Human cytogenetics: setting up and harvesting lymphocyte culture, G-banding, karyotyping vi) Study of growth pattern of E. coli host, transformation of E.coli DH5a with desired plasmid, plasmid and genomic DNA extraction, agarose ...

  11. Direct effects of soil amendments on field emergence and growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newingham, B.A.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. is a non-native, annual grass that has invaded western North America. In SE Utah, B. tectorum generally occurs in grasslands dominated by the native perennial grass, Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. and rarely where the natives Stipa hymenoides Roem. and Schult. and S. comata Trin. & Rupr. are dominant. This patchy invasion is likely due to differences in soil chemistry. Previous laboratory experiments investigated using soil amendments that would allow B. tectorum to germinate but would reduce B. tectorum emergence without affecting H. jamesii. For this study we selected the most successful treatments (CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl and zeolite) from a previous laboratory study and applied them in the field in two different years at B. tectorum-dominated field sites. All amendments except the lowest level of CaCl2 and zeolite negatively affected B. tectorum emergence and/or biomass. No amendments negatively affected the biomass of H. jamesii but NaCl reduced emergence. Amendment effectiveness depended on year of application and the length of time since application. The medium concentration of zeolite had the strongest negative effect on B. tectorum with little effect on H. jamesii. We conducted a laboratory experiment to determine why zeolite was effective and found it released large amounts of Na+, adsorbed Ca2+, and increased Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, exchangeable Mg2+, exchangeable K, and NH 4+ in the soil. Our results suggest several possible amendments to control B. tectorum. However, variability in effectiveness due to abiotic factors such as precipitation and soil type must be accounted for when establishing management plans. ?? Springer 2006.

  12. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  13. Penetration of UV-B radiation in foliage: evidence that the epidermis behaves as a non-uniform filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, T.A.; Martin, G.; Vogelmann, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    In some plants, particularly herbaceous species, a considerable proportion of incident ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) penetrates into the leaf mesophyll where it is potentially damaging to nucleic acids and the photosynthetic machinery. We used optical techniques to look at the spatial variation in UV-B penetration through the epidermis of foliage of two herbaceous species (Chenopodium album and Smilacina stellata) and a conifer (Picea pungens). Measurements of UV-B penetration in intact foliage with a fibre-optic microprobe revealed that 300 nm radiation reached 161±36μm (mean±SD) into leaves of C. album, 154±40μm in S. stellata and 17±2μm in P. pungens, with epidermal transmittance being 39±14%, 55±19% and 0%, respectively. A thin polymer film was developed which fluoresced blue when irradiated by UV-B. Fresh epidermal leaf peels were placed over the film and irradiated with UV-B, and microscopic examination of the film from below allowed us to determine the spatial pattern of UV-B penetration through the epidermis. In herbaceous species, film fluorescence below cell walls, but not epidermal and guard cell protoplasts indicated that UV-B transmittance was much greater through anticlinal cell wall regions than protoplasts. Ultraviolet-B transmittance through large areas of epidermal cells could be induced by plasmolysis. Epidermal transmittance was also relatively high through stomal pores (and what appear to be nuclei in Smilacina), but relatively low through stomatal guard cells. Results from the fluorescing film technique were substantiated by direct measurements of UV-B transmittance through epidermal peels with a fibre-optic microprobe run paradermally along the bottom or inner side of irradiated peels. In Smilacina, we estimate that UV-B epidermal transmittance was up to 90% through anticlinal cell wall regions, but <10% through protoplast areas. In contrast to herbaceous species, we did not detect any UV-B transmittance through the

  14. International energy annual, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production, consumption, reserves, trade, and prices for five primary energy sources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear electricity. It also presents information on petroleum products. Since the early 1980's the world's total output of primary energy has increased steadily. The annual average growth rate of energy production during the decade was 1.9 percent. Throughout the 1980's, petroleum was the world's most heavily used type of energy. In 1989, three countries--the United States, the USSR, and China--were the leading producers and consumers of world energy. Together, these countries consumed and produced almost 50 percent of the world's total energy. Global production and consumption of crude oil and natural gas liquids increased during the 1980's, despite a decline in total production and demand in the early part of the decade. World production of dry natural gas continued to rise steadily in the 1980's. For the last several years, China has been the leading producer of coal, followed by the United States. In 1989, hydroelectricity supply declined slightly from the upward trend of the last 10 years. Nuclear power generation rose slightly from the 1988 level, compared with the marked growth in earlier years. Prices for major crude oils all increased between 1988 and 1989, but remained well below the price levels at the beginning of the decade. 26 figs., 36 tabs

  15. AREVA annual results 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA expanded its backlog and increased its revenues compared with 2008, on strong installed base business and dynamic major projects, fostering growth in operating income of 240 million euros. As announced previously, Areva is implementing a financing plan suited to its objectives of profitable growth. The plan was implemented successfully in 2009, including the conclusion of an agreement, under very satisfactory terms, to sell its Transmission and Distribution business for 4 billion euros, asset sales for more than 1.5 billion euros, and successful bond issues of 3 billion euros. The plan will continue in 2010 with a capital increase, the completion of asset disposals and cost reduction and continued operational performance improvement programs. Areva bolstered its Renewable Energies business segment by supplementing its offshore wind power and biomass businesses with the acquisition of Ausra, a California-based leader in concentrated solar power technology. Despite the sale of T and D, Areva is maintaining its financial performance outlook for 2012: 12% average annual revenue growth to 12 billion euros in 2012, double digit operating margin and substantially positive free operating cash flow. Annual results 2009: - For the group as a whole, including Transmission and Distribution: Backlog: euros 49.4 bn (+2.5%), Revenues: euros 14 bn (+6.4%), Operating income: euros 501 m (+20.1%); - Nuclear and Renewable Energies perimeter: Backlog: euros 43.3 bn (+1.8%), Strong revenue growth: +5.4% to euros 8.5 bn, Operating income before provision for the Finnish project in the first half of 2009: euros 647 m, Operating income: euros 97 m, for a euros 240 m increase from 2008; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euros 552 m, i.e. euros 15.59 per share; - Net debt: euros 6,193 m; - Pro-forma net debt, including net cash to be received from the sale of T and D in 2010: euros 3,022 m; - Dividend of euros 7.06 per share to be proposed during the Annual

  16. IMPACT OF DIFFERENT TOPOGRAPHIC CORRECTIONS ON PREDICTION ACCURACY OF FOLIAGE PROJECTIVE COVER (FPC IN A TOPOGRAPHICALLY COMPLEX TERRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ediriweera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative retrieval of land surface biological parameters (e.g. foliage projective cover [FPC] and Leaf Area Index is crucial for forest management, ecosystem modelling, and global change monitoring applications. Currently, remote sensing is a widely adopted method for rapid estimation of surface biological parameters in a landscape scale. Topographic correction is a necessary pre-processing step in the remote sensing application for topographically complex terrain. Selection of a suitable topographic correction method on remotely sensed spectral information is still an unresolved problem. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of topographic corrections on the prediction of FPC in hilly terrain using an established regression model. Five established topographic corrections [C, Minnaert, SCS, SCS+C and processing scheme for standardised surface reflectance (PSSSR] were evaluated on Landsat TM5 acquired under low and high sun angles in closed canopied subtropical rainforest and eucalyptus dominated open canopied forest, north-eastern Australia. The effectiveness of methods at normalizing topographic influence, preserving biophysical spectral information, and internal data variability were assessed by statistical analysis and by comparing field collected FPC data. The results of statistical analyses show that SCS+C and PSSSR perform significantly better than other corrections, which were on less overcorrected areas of faintly illuminated slopes. However, the best relationship between FPC and Landsat spectral responses was obtained with the PSSSR by producing the least residual error. The SCS correction method was poor for correction of topographic effect in predicting FPC in topographically complex terrain.

  17. Image analysis of epicuticular damage to foliage caused by dry deposition of the air pollutant nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Pamela E; Parry, Sally D; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Heath, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Nitric acid vapor is produced by the same photochemical processes that produce ozone. In the laboratory, concentrated nitric acid is a strong acid and a powerful oxidant. In the environment, where the concentrations are much lower, it is an innocuous source of plant nitrogen. As an air pollutant, which mode of action does dry deposition of nitric acid follow? We investigated the effects of dry deposition of nitric acid on the foliage of four tree species native to the western United States. A novel controlled environment, fumigation system enabled a four-week exposure at concentrations consistent with ambient diurnal patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and automated image analysis revealed changes in the epicuticular wax layer during fumigation. Exposure to nitric acid resulted in a reproducible suite of damage symptoms that increased with increasing dose. Each tree species tested exhibited a unique set of damage features, including cracks, lesions, and conformation changes to epicuticular crystallite structures. Dry deposition of atmospheric nitric acid caused substantial perturbation to the epicuticular surface of all four tree species investigated, consistent with the chemical oxidation of epicuticular waxes. Automated image analysis eliminated many biases that can trouble microscopy studies. Trade names and commercial enterprises or products are mentioned solely for information. No endorsements by the U.S. Department of Agriculture are implied.

  18. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  19. Investigating organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon, Part 1 of 3: estimating annual foliar biomass for a deciduous-dominant urban riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Goldman, Jami H.

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we explored the amount, type, and distribution of foliar biomass that is deposited annually as leaf litter to Fanno Creek and its floodplain in Portland, Oregon, USA. Organic matter is a significant contributor to the decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations observed in Fanno Creek each year and leaf litter is amongst the largest sources of organic matter to the stream channel and floodplain. Using a combination of field measurements and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data, the annual foliar biomass was estimated for 13 stream reaches along the creek. Biomass estimates were divided into two sets: (1) the annual foliage available from the entire floodplain overstory canopy, and (2) the annual foliage overhanging the stream, which likely contributes leaf litter directly to the creek each year. Based on these computations, an estimated 991 (±22%) metric tons (tonnes, t) of foliar biomass is produced annually above the floodplain, with about 136 t (±24%) of that foliage falling directly into Fanno Creek. The distribution of foliar biomass varies by reach, with between 150 and 640 t/km2 produced along the floodplain and between 400 and 1100 t/km2 available over the channel. Biomass estimates vary by reach based primarily on the density of tree cover, with forest-dominant reaches containing more mature deciduous trees with broader tree canopies than either wetland or urban-dominant reaches, thus supplying more organic material to the creek. By quantifying the foliar biomass along Fanno Creek we have provided a reach-scale assessment of terrestrial organic matter loading, thereby providing land managers useful information for planning future restoration efforts.

  20. Chitosan (biochikol 020 PC) in the control of some ornamental foliage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyła, A T

    2004-01-01

    Chitosan, (Biochikol 020 PC) a potential elicitor of plant defence and also an active inhibitor of fungal growth was used in experiments. The compound was used at concentrations 0.01 to 0.2% as a plant spray for rose protection against Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae, Peronospora sparsa and Diplocarpon rosae, Oidium chrysanthemi and Puccinia horiana on chrysanthemum, against Melampsora epitea on willow. Myrothecium roridum on dieffenbachia and against Lophodermium spp on Scots pine. Effectiveness of this product, applied curatively 2-times at 7-day-intervals after appearance of rose powdery mildew symptoms on most of plant parts, was about 32%. When compound was applied just after the first disease symptoms appearance, after 2-week-protection its effectiveness was about 43-60%. After 4 weeks, effectiveness of chitosan (Biochikol 020 PC) increased and ranged from 67 to 77%. In the control of P. sparsa on rose shrubs, growing in plastic tunnel, chitosan at conc. 0.025% was applied 4 times at weekly intervals. Effectiveness of chitosan against this pathogen was over 72%, similar as standard fungicide. Increase of chitosan (Biochikol 020 PC) concentration resulted in decrease of its effectiveness. In case of D. rosae control, chitosan used 9 times at weekly intervals was applied after first disease symptoms. After 3-week-protection effectiveness of the compound varied from 18 to 60% according to used concentration. After 9 weeks of protection effectiveness of tested product ranged from 16 to 23% and was connected with used concentration. Increase of chitosan concentration resulted in better protection of rose shrubs. Effectiveness of chitosan (Biochikol 020 PC) used 4-times at conc. 0.01 to 0.05% as chrysanthemum spray in the control of Oidium chrysanthemi ranged from 69 to 79%, whereas against Puccinia horiana from 54-97%. Two-time-spraying of willow with rust symptoms (Melampsora epitea) with chitosan at conc. 01-0.04% caused decrease of disease severity from 26 to

  1. Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Rakesh; Chamberlain, Bradley; Long, Stephanie; Turlapati, Swathi A; Quigley, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species (five conifers and five hardwoods) for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of tissue. For each species, calcium (Ca) and oxalate were extracted sequentially in double deionized water and 2N acetic acid, and finally, five replicate samples were extracted in 5% (0.83N) perchloric acid (PCA) and the other five in 2N hydrochloric acid (HCl); three cycles of freezing and thawing were used for each solvent. Total ions were extracted by microwave digestion. Calcium was quantified with an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer method and oxalate was eluted and quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography method. This experiment was repeated again with two conifer and two hardwood species using four trees per species, and two analytical replicates for each tree. We report here that, regardless of age of individual trees within a species, time of collection or species type, the third extraction in PCA or HCl resulted in near equimolar quantities of Ca and oxalate (r(2) ≥ 0.99). This method provides an easy estimate of the quantity of CaOx crystals using a small sample of foliar tissue. An additional benefit of PCA is that it precipitates the nucleic acids and proteins, allowing the quantification of several free/soluble metabolites such as amino acids, polyamines, organic acids and inorganic elements all from a single sample extract. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Nexen 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report contains financial information from Nexen Inc., a Calgary-based global energy and chemicals company. A review of strategies and operations was also provided, including details of new exploration and plans for growth development in Canada and internationally. Growth regions included the Athabasca oil sands; Gulf of Mexico, Middle East, offshore West Africa and the North Sea. Nexen share prices at the end of the fourth quarter rested at $58.35, up from $47.03 in 2003. Quarterly dividends increased to $0.10 per share. Net sales for 2004 were $3,176 million compared to $2,844 million in 2003. Cash flow increased 8 per cent from 2003 to $1.9 billion. The report lists major achievements of 2004. Among the achievements were the acquisition of assets in the UK North Sea and the development of the Long Lake Project. New investments in 2004 included $69 million in Offshore West Africa, $175 million in Canada with $148 million in maturing Canadian core assets. Legal proceedings pending against the company were provided. This annual report includes an auditor's report of the company's energy resource activities. An operations review was also presented along with consolidated financial statements, a summarized balance sheet of assets, liabilities/surplus and net assets, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. A summary of government and environmental regulations affecting business was also provided. tabs., figs

  3. Annual Check-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Annual Check-Up Posted under Health Guides . Updated 24 April 2017. + ... I get ready for my annual medical check-up? If this is your first visit to your ...

  4. Use of artificial neural network (ANN) for the development of bioprocess using Pinus roxburghii fallen foliages for the release of polyphenols and reducing sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Siddharth; Negi, Sangeeta

    2013-07-01

    In present study, different parameters, i.e., percentage of NaOH, loading volume, microwave power (watt) and volume of water during pretreatment were optimized by ANN for release of polyphenols and sugars from pine fallen foliage. ANN used was feed forward back propagation type with 72 input, 72 output and 10 hidden layers coupled with Lvenberg-Marquardt (LM) training algorithms. The predicted optimal values by generated neural network for alkali pretreatment were 6 ml (0.5% NaOH)/g of substrate, soaking time of 10 min followed by 1 min of 100 W microwave. Pretreated sample on enzymatic hydrolysis at 50°C for 20 h with cocktail of cellulase, xylanase and laccase produced by locally isolated consortia released 668.9 mg/g of total sugar and 265.06 mg/g of total polyphenols. Optimization by ANN showed good yield, therefore, indicating its suitability for bioprocess modeling and control for release of reducing sugars and polyphenols from pine foliage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cones, Seeds, and Foliage of Tetraclinis Salicornioides (Cupressaceae) from the Oligocene and Miocene of Western North America: A Geographic Extension of the European Tertiary Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvacek; Manchester; Schorn

    2000-03-01

    The cupressaceous genus Tetraclinis is recognized from the Oligocene and Miocene of western North America on the basis of co-occurring seed cones, seeds, and foliage branches. Morphological and anatomical comparisons with the two previously recognized European Tertiary species indicate that the North American specimens are morphologically inseparable from Tetraclinis salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek. The North American taxon is treated as a new variety, T. salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek var. praedecurrens (Knowlton) comb. et stat. nov., and is distinguished from the European representatives, T. salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek var. salicornioides, by slight anatomical differences in the leaf epidermis. Although cones and seeds of the fossil species are closely similar to those of extant Tetraclinis articulata, the foliage is more "spreading," composed of flattened segments with fused facial and lateral leaves that are apparently adaptive for a more mesic climate. The recognition of T. salicornioides in western North America along with the absence of Tetraclinis in the fossil and recent flora of eastern Asia provide evidence for communication of the species across the North Atlantic during the early or middle Tertiary.

  6. Carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 enrichment in coastal forest foliage from nutrient-poor and seabird-enriched sites in southern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, D.J.; Newman, J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of nutrient inputs from breeding seabirds on forest foliage δ 13 C and δ 15 N, we collected foliage samples from two contrasting locations. Olearia lyallii forest on North East Island at The Snares hosts large numbers of (in particular) breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus). At Mason Bay (Rakiura/Stewart Island), samples of Brachyglottis rotundifolia, Griselinia littoralis, and Dracophyllum longifolium were collected from two strata within diverse dune forest and one stratum from the open dunes. The δ 13 C results were typical of C 3 plants and did not differ significantly between Mason Bay and North East Island. In contrast, the δ 15 N results from Mason Bay (mean ± standard deviation, -6.1 ± 1.7 permille) were significantly lower than expected for temperate forest (95% confidence interval of difference, 2.7-3.9 permille), and dramatically lower (19.1-21.5 permille) than North East Island where enrichments (+14.2 ± 3.1 permille) were among the highest ever reported for vegetation. (author). 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Empowering growth in Pakistan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid); H. Majid (Hadia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPakistan's Vision 2025 connects a policy commitment to greater gender equality with inclusive growth. It prioritises a "good quality of life and high living standard for all citizens across regions, gender" and to "achieve an annual average growth rate of 7 to 8 per cent that is

  8. 2014 HPC Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Barbara [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Our commitment is to support you through delivery of an IT environment that provides mission value by transforming the way you use, protect, and access information. We approach this through technical innovation, risk management, and relationships with our workforce, Laboratories leadership, and policy makers nationwide. This second edition of our HPC Annual Report continues our commitment to communicate the details and impact of Sandia’s large-scale computing resources that support the programs associated with our diverse mission areas. A key tenet to our approach is to work with our mission partners to understand and anticipate their requirements and formulate an investment strategy that is aligned with those Laboratories priorities. In doing this, our investments include not only expanding the resources available for scientific computing and modeling and simulation, but also acquiring large-scale systems for data analytics, cloud computing, and Emulytics. We are also investigating new computer architectures in our advanced systems test bed to guide future platform designs and prepare for changes in our code development models. Our initial investments in large-scale institutional platforms that are optimized for Informatics and Emulytics work are serving a diverse customer base. We anticipate continued growth and expansion of these resources in the coming years as the use of these analytic techniques expands across our mission space. If your program could benefit from an investment in innovative systems, please work through your Program Management Unit ’s Mission Computing Council representatives to engage our teams.

  9. Effects of Foliar Spraying with Salicylic acid and Putrescine on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faraji-mehmany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L. is an annual, herbaceous plant belonging to the Labiatae family. This plant is most often used as a culinary herb, but it also has marked medicinal benefits, especially upon the whole digestive system. The most important components of S. hortensis include volatile oils, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids, tannins, mucus, resins, carotenoids and mineral components. Plant growth regulators are used to improve the quality and quantity of medicinal plant production. Salicylic Acid is one of this PGRs that involved in seed germination, photosynthesis, Stomatal opening and closure, Membrane Permeability, Ions Absorption and transmission and other growth processes. Polyamines are ubiquitous low-molecular-weight aliphatic amines that are involved in regulating plant growth processes. The most commonly found polyamines in higher plants, putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd and spermine (Spm may be present in free, soluble conjugated and insoluble bound forms. It has been demonstrated that PAs are important for the normal course of diverse plant ontogeny processes such as cell division and elongation, organogenesis and somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted in factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Karaj, Iran. Foliar spraying with SA (1, 2 and 3 mM.l and Putrecine (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg l-1 was performed in thrice in Savory growth period. Spraying was performed at 21, 35 (Budding Phase and 56 (flowering initiation phase day after seed germination. In flowering stage, some morphological traits such as plant height, weight, yield, canopy diameter, stem diameter, leaf area, essential oil content and efficiency were measured. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance showed that the effects of salicylic acid and putrescine spraying on plant height, canopy diameter, stem diameter, number of axillary stems

  10. Annual ring validation of the south african sardine Sardinops sagax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 21 sardine Sardinops sagax otoliths, collected in winter and spring 1994, were examined with a scanning electron microscope to validate growth zones using daily growth increments. Increment numbers and widths for the first, second and third annual growth zones served to back-calculate hatching dates and to ...

  11. 2002 annual report EDF group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the 2002 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) group, the French electric utility. Content: Introductory section (EDF at a glance, Chairman's message, 2002 Highlights); Corporate governance and Group strategy (Corporate governance, sustainable growth strategy, EDF branches); Financial performance (Reaching critical mass, Margins holding up well, Balance sheet); Human resources (Launching Group-wide synergies, Optimising human resources); Customers (Major customers, SMEs and professional customers, Local authorities, Residential customers, Ensuring quality access to electricity); Generation (A balanced energy mix, Nuclear generation, Fossil-fuelled generation, Renewable energies); Corporate social responsibility (Global and local partnerships, Promoting community development)

  12. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  13. Compartmentation of metals in foliage of Populus tremula grown on soils with mixed contamination. II. Zinc binding inside leaf cell organelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollenweider, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.vollenweider@wsl.c [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Bernasconi, Petra [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Environmental Protection Office (AfU), Aabachstrasse 5, 6300 Zug (Switzerland); Gautschi, Hans-Peter [Centre for Microscopy and Image Analysis (CMI), University of Zurich, Gloriastrasse 30, 8006 Zuerich (Switzerland); Menard, Terry; Frey, Beat; Guenthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    The phytoextraction potential of plants for removing heavy metals from polluted soils is determined by their capacity to store contaminants in aboveground organs and complex them safely. In this study, the metal compartmentation, elemental composition of zinc deposits and zinc complexation within leaves from poplars grown on soil with mixed metal contamination was analysed combining several histochemical and microanalytical approaches. Zinc was the only heavy metal detected and was stored in several organelles in the form of globoid deposits showing {beta}-metachromasy. It was associated to oxygen anions and different cations, noteworthy phosphorous. The deposit structure, elemental composition and element ratios indicated that zinc was chelated by phytic acid ligands. Maturation processes in vacuolar vs. cytoplasmic deposits were suggested by differences in size and amounts of complexed zinc. Hence, zinc complexation by phytate contributed to metal detoxification and accumulation in foliage but could not prevent toxicity reactions therein. - Zinc contaminants translocated to symplast of aged leaves were detoxified by phytic acid ligands.

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. CPTSC 2001: Managing Change and Growth in Technical and Scientific Communication. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Council for Programs in Technical and Scientific Communication (28th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, October 11-13, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylath, Bruce, Ed.

    This proceedings presents 43 papers delivered at the 2001 annual meeting of the Council for Programs in Technical and Scientific Communication (CPTSC). Papers in the proceedings include the following: "Act IV: On Being Less Invisible" (Bill Karis); "Building a Community of Professional Communicators by Mapping Needs and Assets"…

  11. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  12. Annual Report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Herma G.; Leadbetter, Alan J. [eds.] [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1999-11-01

    In this Annual Report a selection of about 30 scientific achievements are highlighted. These are intended to represent the huge range of high quality research carried out at ILL. In 1998 about 750 experiments were performed in the 225 days of reactor operation. The fields of magnetism and strongly correlated electron systems continue to be fertile and to throw up strong new growth. Remarkable new advances are coming from the applications of both existing and new neutron techniques and the development of new materials. These highlights concern superconductors, nano-magnetic particles, colossal magneto-resistance, magnetic-nuclear correlations, quantum spin systems and more. Novel magnetic measurements are also reported for a quasicrystal and on thin films of both normal and superconducting materials. Thanks to special abilities of neutrons to penetrate matter new results were obtained: following the production of novel intermetallic compounds, pressure dependence of phonon frequencies, the structure of glasses, solutions (in both bulk and thin films) and adsorbed phases; dynamics and relaxation in liquids; the confirmation of reptant motion in linear polymers, self-assembly and shear phenomena in liquid crystals. Three important results from nuclear physics are also included. These involve: fission-produced neutron-rich nuclei, weighing gamma photons in connection with the determination of fundamental constants and the determination of interatomic potentials from the slowing down process of atoms recoiling from gamma-ray emission - a direct link between nuclear and solid-state physics. The neutron experiments of importance for particle physics and biology will be reported next year

  13. Annual Report, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, Herma G.; Leadbetter, Alan J.

    1999-01-01

    In this Annual Report a selection of about 30 scientific achievements are highlighted. These are intended to represent the huge range of high quality research carried out at ILL. In 1998 about 750 experiments were performed in the 225 days of reactor operation. The fields of magnetism and strongly correlated electron systems continue to be fertile and to throw up strong new growth. Remarkable new advances are coming from the applications of both existing and new neutron techniques and the development of new materials. These highlights concern superconductors, nano-magnetic particles, colossal magneto-resistance, magnetic-nuclear correlations, quantum spin systems and more. Novel magnetic measurements are also reported for a quasicrystal and on thin films of both normal and superconducting materials. Thanks to special abilities of neutrons to penetrate matter new results were obtained: following the production of novel intermetallic compounds, pressure dependence of phonon frequencies, the structure of glasses, solutions (in both bulk and thin films) and adsorbed phases; dynamics and relaxation in liquids; the confirmation of reptant motion in linear polymers, self-assembly and shear phenomena in liquid crystals. Three important results from nuclear physics are also included. These involve: fission-produced neutron-rich nuclei, weighing gamma photons in connection with the determination of fundamental constants and the determination of interatomic potentials from the slowing down process of atoms recoiling from gamma-ray emission - a direct link between nuclear and solid-state physics. The neutron experiments of importance for particle physics and biology will be reported next year

  14. 1999 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Numac is one of Canada's top 25 oil and gas producing companies, exploring, developing and producing crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in Western Canada. During 1999, Numac increased its average daily production from 25,000 BOE/day in the first quarter to 29,000 BOE/day in the fourth quarter, while reducing unit operating, general and administrative and interest costs by more than one dollar per barrel to $6.70 per BOE, a reduction of 14 per cent compared to 1998. Cash flow totalled $137.7 million, or $1.44 per share, a substantial 76 per cent improvement over the previous year. The company had net earnings of $40.4 million, which represents a 20 per cent return on equity. Long-term debt was reduced to $154.4 million at year end, with no further off-balance sheet debt. Following completion of a major non-core property divestiture program, the number of working interest wells was reduced by two thirds to 1,300 wells from 3,900 wells. In 2000, the company intends to evaluate substantial undeveloped land blocks acquired during 1999 by drilling, believing that its bread and butter development and exploitation program in core areas can provide consistent and profitable growth and reach its key objective of 12 per cent after-tax rate of return on capital projects. Approximately $145 million is earmarked for exploration and development , split equally among Numac's three core areas in Alberta. The annual report provides a detailed review of operations, management's discussion and analysis of results, consolidated financial statements and relevant supplementary information. A summary review of operations and finances covering the five year period from 1995 to 1999 is also included

  15. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  16. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  17. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  18. CSIR Annual report 1990

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1990.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 26 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1990.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  19. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  20. CSIR Annual report 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1995.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 33 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1995.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  3. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  4. 55th Annual

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1990-01-01

    Jan 1, 1990 ... At the invitation of the Madhya Pradesh. Council of Science and Technology, the. Barkatullah University and the Regional. Research laboratory, Bhopal, the 55th Annual. Meeting of the Academy was held at the. Tagore Bhawan, Bhopal from 10 to 13. November 1989. One of the best organized Annual.

  5. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 and shade on the decomposition of senesced tree foliage: impacts on microbial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Kaufman; R. Malcolm Strand; Mark E. Kubiske; William J. Mattson; Daniel A. Herms; Edward D. Walker; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Richard W. Merritt

    1996-01-01

    We examined microbial respiration and carbon/nitrogen content of decomposing leaf material in microcosms used for growth studies of the treehole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus. Leaf material originated from birch and oak trees exposed to conditions of shade/sun and elevated/ambient levels of CO2. Microbial respiration as measured...

  7. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S.; Hassayoun, L.

    2005-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH 3 -N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 ± 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P 0.05). However, those supplemented with acacia without PEG (D3) had

  8. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  9. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  10. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  11. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  12. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  13. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  14. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  15. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  16. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  17. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  18. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  19. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. USRDS - Annual Data Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Annual Data Report Comprehensive statistics on chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal diseases in the United States...

  1. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  2. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  3. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  4. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2005-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  5. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  6. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  7. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  8. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  9. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  10. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  11. Annual Market Intelligence Report

    OpenAIRE

    Johan, Novie; Jones, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This report is the first Annual Market Intelligence Report (AMIR) produced by TCRC. Since 2005, TCRC has produced Quarterly Market Intelligence Report (QMIR). These reports provided estimated meal numbers on board based on forecasted passenger numbers. Due to changes in the way in which some data is reported, it was no longer possible to produce reports quarterly, hence the development of this annual report. Past reports and other TCRC Publications could be accessed online at http://epubs.s...

  12. ANILLOS ANUALES Y CLIMA EN RHIZOPHORA MANGLE L. DE LA BAHÍA DE CISPATÁ, COLOMBIA ANNUAL GROWTH RINGS AND CLIMATE IN RHIZOPHORA MANGLE L. FROM THE CISPATÁ BAY, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Ramírez Correa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Por su localización en el ecotono tierra-mar Rhizophora mangle es un organismo con gran sensibilidad al cambio climático. La existencia de anillos anuales climáticamente sensibles en esta especie revela un enorme potencial para la dendroclimatologia tropical. Aunque se ha documentado la existencia de anillos anuales en el género Rhizophora delimitados por cambios en la densidad de poros, aquí se demuestra mediante el uso de la tomografía computarizada que los anillos en R. mangle también están definidos por cambios de densidad de la madera. La comparación entre el número de máximos de densidad de madera (DM y de poros (DP en secciones trasversales con la edad de los árboles, reveló la anualidad de los anillos de crecimiento de R. mangle. A mayor precipitación mayor DP y menor DM; y viceversa. La DM y la DP se interpretan como rasgos adaptativos que le permiten a R. mangle adaptarse a los pulsos anuales en salinidad relacionados con las descargas de los ríos en la bahía de Cispatá.Because of its location in the land-sea ecotone Rhizophora mangle is an organism with great sensitivity to climate change. The existence of climate sensitive annual rings in this specie highlights its potential relevance for tropical dendroclimatology. Even though had been previously established the existence of annual rings, delimited by changes in pore-density, in Rhizophora genus, using computed tomographies, is also possible demonstrate, that the rings in R. mangle can also be defined by changes in wood density. Comparing wood density maxima (DM and pore density maxima (PD in tree cross-sections reveal the annual nature of R. mangle tree-rings. With increased rainfall PD increases and DM decreases, and vice versa. PD and DM are interpreted as adaptive traits that allow R. mangle to adapt to the conditions produced by annual pulses in salinity in the bay of Cispatá related to high and low discharges of the rivers.

  13. Mapping tropical dry forest height, foliage height profiles and disturbance type and age with a time series of cloud-cleared Landsat and ALI image mosaics to characterize avian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.H. Helmer; Thomas S. Ruzycki; Jr. Joseph M. Wunderle; Shannon Vogesser; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Charles Kwit; Thomas J. Brandeis; David N. Ewert

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest vertical structure is possible with lidar data, but lidar is not widely available. Here we map tropical dry forest height (RMSE=0.9 m, R2=0.84, range 0.6–7 m), and we map foliage height profiles, with a time series of Landsat and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery on the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas, substituting time for vertical canopy...

  14. Effect of vacuum storage on shelf life of a grain protector based on Peumus boldus Molina foliage powder and lime against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a key pest of stored grain maize. As an ecological pest control alternative, the use of botanical insecticides, such as powder from boldus (Peumus boldus Molina foliage singly or mixed with lime, has been evaluated. Unfortunately, its shelf life is very short and does not exceed 15 d. The effectiveness of vacuum storage on insecticidal properties of a natural grain protector produced with boldus powder:lime at proportions of 50:50 and 60:40 against adults of S. zeamais was assessed under laboratory conditions. Treatments were evaluated at 1% and 2% (w/w for 150 d of storage. All treatments based on boldus powder kept the level of mortality by contact activity over 80% at 150 d of storage. The highest toxicity, as a fumigant, was observed in treatments 50:50 at 2% and 60:40 at 1% and 2% with mortality over 60%. The grain weight loss was less than 1% and seed germination was not affected. With the exception of 0:100 at 2% without vacuum storage, all treatments were repellent to S. zeamais. Vacuum storage extended shelf life of the grain protector for 150 d.

  15. Population Growth: Crisis and Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, John R., Ed.; Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.

    The proceedings of this first annual symposium on population growth considers the consequences of this growth, along with possible means of regulation. Topics of speeches include: Population Outlook in Asia (Irene Taeuber); Malnutrition is a Problem of Ecology (Paul Gyorgy); The Leisure Explosion (E. H. Storey); Effects of Pollution on Population…

  16. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  17. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor......This paper assesses the implications of large-scale investments in biofuels for growth and income distribution. We find that biofuels investment enhances growth and poverty reduction despite some displacement of food crops by biofuels. Overall, the biofuel investment trajectory analyzed increases...

  18. Effect of browse plant foliage supplementation on the performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami

    2015-08-01

    The effect of browse plants (Piliostigma thonningii, Daniellia oliveri, Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Annona senegalensis) supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility, nutritive value and N utilization and growth performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top (TST) was investigated using 24 Red Sokoto goats (9.0 ± 0.25 kg) body weight (BW) which were randomly assigned to one of the six diets in a completely random design. Intakes of dry matter (DM) and nutrients, feed conversion ratio, digestibility of nutrients except for neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), digestible organic matter (DOM), digestible crude protein (DCP), energy concentration, N utilization and average daily gain were superior (P < 0.05) in TST-supplemented diets compared to sole TST diet. Among the supplemental fodders, intakes of forage, DM, condensed tannins and most of the nutrients; digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP) and non-fibre carbohydrate, DOM and DCP; and N absorbed, balance and retention were greater (P < 0.05) in A. africana relative to the other fodders. Results indicate that the entire browse fodders are good supplements to low quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better nutritive value.

  19. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  20. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  1. EDF group. Annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document is the English version of the 2001 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) Group, the French electric utility. It comprises 4 parts: introduction (statement of the chairman and chief executive officer, corporate governance, group key figures, sustainable growth indicators - parent company, energy for a sustainable future, EdF group worldwide); dynamics and balanced growth (financial results, EdF's strategy in building a competitive global group: consolidating the European network, moving forward in energy-related services, responding to increasing energy demand in emerging countries); sustainable solutions for all (empowering the customer: competitive solutions for industrial customers, anticipating the needs of residential customers and SMEs, environmental solutions to enhance urban life, upgrading the network and providing access to energy; a sound, sustainable and secure energy mix: a highly competitive nuclear fleet, the vital resource of fossil-fuelled plants, a proactive approach to renewable energies); a global commitment to corporate social responsibility (human resources and partnerships). (J.S.)

  2. Physiological and developmental effects of O3 on cottonwood growth in urban and rural sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jillian W; Jones, Clive G; Dawson, Todd E

    2006-12-01

    Previously we found that cloned cottonwood saplings (Populus deltoides) grew twice as large in New York, New York, USA, compared to surrounding rural environments and that soils, temperature, CO2, nutrient deposition, and microclimatic variables could not account for the greater urban plant biomass. Correlations between final season biomass and cumulative O3 exposures, combined with twofold growth reductions in an open-top chamber experiment provided strong evidence that higher cumulative O3 exposures in rural sites reduced growth in the country. Here, we assess the field gas exchange, growth and development, and allocation responses underlying the observed growth differences and compare them with isolated O3 responses documented in the open-top chamber experiment. Cottonwoods showed no visible foliar injury, reduced photosynthesis of recently expanded foliage, early leaf senescence, protective reduction in stomatal conductance, or compensatory allocation to shoot relative to root biomass for either the chamber or field experiment. Instead, O3-impacted chamber plants had significantly higher conductance and reduced photosynthesis of older foliage that led to reduced leaf area production and a twofold biomass reduction in the absence of visible injury. Rural-grown field plants showed the same pattern of significantly higher conductance in the absence of concomitant increases in photosynthesis that was indicative of a loss of stomatal control. Incremental changes in foliar production were also significantly inversely related to fluctuations in ambient O3 exposures. The similarity in biomass, gas exchange, phenological, and allocation responses between chamber and field experiments indicate that mechanisms accounting for reduced growth at rural sites were consistent with those in the open-top chamber O3 experiment. This study shows the limitation of visible symptoms as a sole diagnostic factor for documenting detrimental O3 impacts and points toward a new approach to

  3. CSIR Annual report 1981

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty seventh annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1981 to 31 December 1981. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1981, certified...

  4. CSIR Annual report 1982

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty eighth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1982 to 31 December 1982. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1982, certified...

  5. 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French union of the petroleum industry (UFIP). It summarizes the highlights of the petroleum industry activity in France in 2001 and gives some additional information about the production, refining and distribution of petroleum products in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  6. TIARA annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shigeru; Narumi, Kazumasa; Yoshida, Masaru; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Yoshikawa, Masato; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Otsubo, Michiro; Yokota, Watalu; Nakamura, Yoshiteru

    2006-01-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2005. The 126 of the presented papers are indexed individually. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  7. OMS 1987 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Designed to serve both as an activity report on Office of Management Studies (OMS) progress during 1987 and a catalog of OMS services and products, this annual report focuses on the management of technology in a scholarly environment. Programs and services are reported in five sections: (1) Applied Research and Development (the Institute on…

  8. Folklife Annual, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Alan, Ed.; Hardin, James, Ed.

    This annual publication is intended to promote the documentation and study of the folklife of the United States, to share the traditions, values, and activities of U.S. folk culture, and to serve as a national forum for the discussion of ideas and issues in folklore and folklife. The articles in this collection are: (1) "Eating in the Belly…

  9. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules (Ed.), John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  10. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  11. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  12. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 145 refs.; 20 figs.; 4 fotos; 2 tabs

  13. CSIR Annual report 1966

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty second annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1966, to the 31st December 1966. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  14. KTA annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report gives an overview of the rulemaking work in the individual fields as well as other activities, such as meetings, international codes of rules, and publications. KTA organization, including its administration and funds is listed. (orig./HP) [de

  15. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  16. Annual report - ENERSUL - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of ENERSUL - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: Outlook for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sold; capacity increases; customers; customers; energy balance; performance and quality; electric system; investments; people; human resources; synergies; awards; workplace safety; social balance; and patrimonial balance

  17. ELETRONUCLEAR - Annual report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual activities report of 1997 of ELETRONUCLEAR - Brazilian company responsible by the electric power generation from the nuclear technology - introduces the next main topics: company vision and mission; energy production and commercialization; investments in the electric power generation; economic and financial situation; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  18. 52nd Annual Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1987-01-01

    Jan 1, 1987 ... At the invitation of the Banaras Hindu. University, Varanasi, the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Academy was held in the BHU campus from Friday 7 to Monday 10 November 1986. The Meeting began with the inaugural function in the newly completed University. Auditorium, Swatantrata Bhavan, at 6 p.m. on.

  19. Annual Report - ESCELSA - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual report of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; market overview; market expansion; customers; technological stream; measuring quality; electric system; investments; protecting the environment; and resource allocation

  20. CSIR Annual report 1980

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty-sixth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1980 to 31 December 1980. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1980, certified...

  1. CSIR Annual report 1970

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty sixth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1970, to the 31st December 1970. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  2. CSIR Annual report 1967

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty third annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1967, to the 31st December 1967. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  3. BAM - Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The annual report contains progress and activity reports of the presidential department, the departments metals and metal construction, civil engineering and building activities, organic matter, chemical safety engineering, special fields of materials testing, techniques independent of the type of material, an index, as well as general and statistic statements. (HK) [de

  4. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 299 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  5. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  6. IKF annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The annual report of 1988 gives a survey of the following category of themes: nuclear physics, atom physics, nuclear methods, nuclear solid-state physics and developments of machines. Apart from the use of its own Van de Graaff accelerators the institute takes part in joint ventures in research, for example with the GSI (Association for Heavy-Ion Research) in Darmstadt. (DG) [de

  7. ANCLI annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2002. (A.L.B.)

  8. CSIR Annual report 1971

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty seventh annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1971, to the 31st December 1971. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  9. NRCC annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer

  10. Annual report - ESCELSA - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of 1999 of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power company - introduces the next main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; customers; quality; electric system; investments; people; resources; synergies; awards; outlook; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  11. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  12. Annual report SNET 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the SNET (National Society of Electricity and thermic) presents the society activities and the financial report for the year 2003. The society position in the market, the environmental policy, the performance, the workers and financial data are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.

    2008-03-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2007. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  14. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  15. NIKHEF Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this annual report 1982, the NIKHEF research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry is described in a wide context. Next, the reports of the individual projects of section-H and section-K are described in detail. Finally, the report gives some statistical information of publications, colloquia and co-workers. (Auth.)

  16. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  17. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  18. NUFFIC Annual Report, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-operation, The Hague.

    The 1977 annual report of the Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC) considers the following topics: major developments in work and policy; relationships NUFFIC has with other organizations; University Development Cooperation; developments in international education; the functioning of the Consultative Structure…

  19. CSIR Annual report 1968

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fourth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1968, to the 31st December 1968. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  20. CSIR Annual report 1969

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fifth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1969, to the 31st December 1969. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  1. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  2. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary and detailed reports are presented of current research during 1987 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics. (H.W.). 61 refs.; 13 figs.; 14 tabs

  3. PTB annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The annual report presents general information on the institution's activities and the various departments, and reports on scientific work in the field of metrology and safety engineering. Brief scientific accounts refer to work in the domains of mechanics and acoustics, electricity, heat, optics, industrial metrology, atomic physics, technical and scientific services, collection and disposal of radioactive waste. (DG) [de

  4. Annual report 1981, annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume entitled ''Annex to the annual report'' deals in more detail with the scientific works of the I.L.L.: the scientific activity of theoricians; experimental reports on inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry

  5. HASYLAB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at HASYLAB together with a list of publications, speeches, and theses. The work concerns technical developments, the study of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and liquids, X-ray structure studies of solids and interfaces, molecular biology, further applications of synchrotron radiation, and experimental developments. (HSI)

  6. RTE annual results 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the results of the RTE (Electric power Transport Network). The year 2005 is marked by the new status of RTE, as a limited company. The financial good performances, the market, the open network, the environmental policy, the human resources and the european and international relations are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  7. CSIR Annual report 1962

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the eighteenth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1962 to 31 December 1962. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1962, certified...

  8. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  9. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  10. Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacz, M.; Zielinska, M.

    2011-06-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2010. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments at HIL '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' Appendices '' where general information on HIL activities are described. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Heavy Ion Laboratory prof. K. Rusek is also given.

  11. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, David B.

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 issue of "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Give Me That Old Time Religion?: A Study of Religious Themes in the Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan" (John S. Seiter); "The Three Stooges versus the Third Reich" (Roy Schwartzman); "Interdisciplinary Team Teaching: Implementing…

  12. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  13. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  14. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  15. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, N.; Skalski, J.

    2009-01-01

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  16. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  17. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  18. Annual report 1982. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the scientific annual report 1982 of the ILL on R and D activities of the different colleges: fundamental and nuclear physics, inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry, theory. Abstracts of the publications published during the year are presented

  19. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  20. NIKHEF Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF) during its first year. Following a general introduction to the research areas in which NIKHEF is involved, 29 brief reports from the project groups are presented. Details concerning personnel, participation in councils and committees, finances, publications, colloquia and participation in congresses and schools are included. (Auth.)

  1. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2004. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and monitoring of environment; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers is presented

  2. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  3. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  4. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  5. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  6. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  7. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2000

  8. 57th Annual Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1992-01-01

    Jan 1, 1992 ... At the invitation of the National Chemical. Laboratory, Pune, the 57th Annual Meeting of the Academy was held at Pune ftom 8 to 11. November 1991. The Meeting began with the inaugural session on the morning of Friday, 8 November at the National Chemical laboratory (NCl). Auditorium. Dr R A ...

  9. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.

    2006-05-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2005. The document consist of four parts: Laboratory Overview, Experiments and Experimental Set-ups, Experiments Using the Outside Facilities and General Information on HIL Activities. An Introduction written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  10. GKSS annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This annual report reviews the structure and activities of the GKSS in 1983. R and D work was done on reactor safety engineering, environmental research/environmental engineering and underwater technology. It also reports on cooperation with outside partners, the organization, financing, and developments in the staff structure as well as on publications, lectures, applications for patents, etc. (UA) [de

  11. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  12. CSIR Annual report 1963

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the nineteenth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1963, to the 31st December 1963. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  13. Biologia reprodutiva do fura-barreira Hylocryptus rectirostris (Aves: Furnariidae Breeding biology of the Henna-capped Foliage-gleaner Hylocryptus rectirostris(Aves: Furnariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene C. P. Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia reprodutiva de Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied, 1831 é descrita pela primeira vez. As coletas de dados foram realizadas no período de abril de 2004 a novembro de 2005, no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais. Os indivíduos foram marcados com anilhas coloridas e acompanhados ao longo de duas estações reprodutivas. Ovos, ninhegos e jovens foram descritos. O sucesso reprodutivo foi avaliado em cinco categorias: construção de ninhos, ovos, ninhegos, casais e ninhos. Casos de competição por cavidades e predação também foram registrados. A atividade reprodutiva é altamente sincrônica tanto entre os casais quanto entre as estações. Foram encontrados 20 ninhos, todos construídos em barrancos localizados nas margens de rios. O período de incubação é de 17 dias e o período de ninhego varia entre 21 a 25 dias. O casal se reveza na construção do ninho, incubação e alimentação da prole, sendo que a fêmea apresenta maior desenvolvimento da placa incubatória. A porcentagem de ninhos que produziram um ou mais filhotes foi de 33% (n = 9 na estação de 2004 e 18% (n = 11 na estação de 2005. As causas dos fracassos ocorridos ao longo da atividade reprodutiva foram principalmente destruição do ninho por desabamento ou enchente do rio. Este estudo fornece conhecimentos a respeito da biologia básica de H. rectirostris e pode contribuir para futuras medidas de conservação e manejo desta espécie.Here, we provide the first description of the breeding biology of the Henna-browed Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied, 1831. The foliage-gleaner was studied at the Serra do Cipó Nationa Park (Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Birds were marked with color bands and monitored through two reproductive seasons from April 2004 to November 2005. Eggs, nestlings and young are described. Breeding success was calculated for five categories: nest construction

  14. Water regime and growth of young oak stands subjected to air-warming and drought on two different forest soils in a model ecosystem experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Bleuler, P; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Schulin, R

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to increase annual temperatures and decrease summer precipitation in Central Europe. Little is known of how forests respond to the interaction of these climate factors and if their responses depend on soil conditions. In a 3-year lysimeter experiment, we investigated the growth response of young mixed oak stands, on either acidic or calcareous soil, to soil water regime, air-warming and drought treatments corresponding to an intermediate climate change scenario. The air-warming and drought treatments were applied separately as well as in combination. The air-warming treatment had no effect on soil water availability, evapotranspiration or stand biomass. Decreased evapotranspiration from the drought-exposed stands led to significantly higher air and soil temperatures, which were attributed to impaired transpirational cooling. Water limitation significantly reduced the stand foliage, shoot and root biomass as droughts were severe, as shown in low leaf water potentials. Additional air warming did not enhance the drought effects on evapotranspiration and biomass, although more negative leaf water potentials were observed. After re-watering, evapotranspiration increased within a few days to pre-drought levels. Stands not subjected to the drought treatment produced significantly less biomass on the calcareous soil than on the acidic soil, probably due to P or Mn limitation. There was no difference in biomass and water regime between the two soils under drought conditions, indicating that nutrient availability was governed by water availability under these conditions. The results demonstrate that young oak stands can cope with severe drought and therefore can be considered for future forestry. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  16. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  17. Nagra annual report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This annual report made by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) takes a look at the cooperative’s activities and work done in 2013. Nagra’s task is recapitulated. Developments in 2013 concerning legislation, inventories of radioactive materials, sectorial planning and scientific and technical aspects are examined. Work done in the rock laboratories, in the public relations sector and consulting areas is looked at. Nagra’s organizational structure with its management, commissions and auditors is commented on and an organigram of the head office is presented. On the financial side of things, the annual financial statement with incomes, cash flow and accumulated accounts is presented as is the report made by the statutory auditors. An appendix to the report contains details on waste inventories and volumes, a list publications made in 2012 as well as Internet addresses and a glossary

  18. Annual recertification: fun? Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, A

    1994-01-01

    Learning is critical to fostering a knowledge base required for maintaining currency and furthering professional development. In the ever-changing field of nephrology, most skills practised in nursing are considered to be sanctioned medical acts or added nursing skills. Therefore, annual recertification of the skills designated as sanctioned medical acts is an expectation of the College of Nurses of Ontario. The Wellesley Hospital policy indicates one time only or annual approval of the added nursing skills. The article will discuss the use of games as a creative, non-threatening educational tool in the recertification/re-approval process currently in place at The Wellesley Hospital, renal programs. In the past two years, several games or alternative teaching strategies have been utilized to assist the staff in preparing for recertification. This paper will examine the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing alternative teaching formats. Commentary regarding the response of staff nurses, nursing management and education will be highlighted.

  19. 1986 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This annual report describes the reasearch activity carried out during 1986 by the Fusion Department of the Italian Commision for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA). The report outlines the main results obtained by the three major projects of the Fusion Department (Fusion Physics, Frascati Tokamak Upgrade, and Fusion Reactor Engineering), plus the divisional project Inertial Confinement mentioned separately because of its particular scientific content. Most of the research work was performed by the Fusion Department at its location at the ENEA Frascati Energy Research Center, but some work was also done elsewhere, or with recourse to other ENEA departments. The research activity described in this annual report was carried out with the frame of the Association Euratom-ENEA on Fusion, with the exception of some minor activities

  20. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud). Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys). Questions from members and beneficiaries. Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer). As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  1. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  2. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  3. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  4. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  5. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  6. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-03-26

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.

  7. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  8. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  9. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  10. IKF - annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Steuer, E.

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed in the named institute during 1982 together with a list of publications. The work concerns nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, high-energetic heavy ion physics, heavy ion-atom collisions, nuclear solidstate physics, solid-state particle detectors, the application of nuclear methods and mass spectroscopy, ion source development, instrumental development and data processing, interdisciplinary cooperation, as well as the Van de Graaf accelerator facilities. (HSI) [de

  11. NSLS annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out

  12. NSLS annual report 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out.

  13. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The 1979 annual report of HMI presents information on the major scientific findings of this year in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry, data processing and electronics as well as on the scientific cooperation with universities, institutions, and the industry. The general development of HMI, its structure and organisation are reviewed. A detailed list of publications and lectures (also by foreign guests of HMI) in the various fields of research is given. (RB) [de

  14. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    In part 1, the annual report informs of the organizational and administrative development of the Bundesanstalt, in its 2nd part it presents a survey of scientific activities in 1976, examinations carried out, measuring devices and operational equipment given permission to, and cooperation in national and international bodies. The 3rd part contains scientific summaries of activities published and not published, which were either concluded in the year under review or which came to some interim results. (orig.) [de

  15. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  16. TIARA annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. Summary reports of 95 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  17. TIARA annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Namba, Hideki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002. Summary reports of 109 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  18. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Lesniak, L.; Malecki, P.; Stachura, Z.; Wojciechowski, H.

    1992-01-01

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author)

  19. Risoe annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    An explanation of Risoe National Laboratory's function within the Danish research system is followed by brief accounts of research activities at Risoe during 1987. Energy resources, technology and policy are discussed, the annual accounts are presented, a guide to the National Laboratory and a list of its publications are given. Some of the research activities that took place in 1987 described in more detail are within the fields of chemistry and the environment, superconductivity, new aspects of powdery mildew, polymers and robotics. (AB)

  20. Annual Report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This annual report from the Netherlands Centre for Energy Research, includes the progress made in the five main research areas: fission energy, nuclear fusion and superconductivity, combustion energy (including environmental research), current energy and non-energetic applications of nuclear fission. Studies performed by the Energy Study Centrum, a department within ECN, and the Bureau for Energy Research Projects are described. A financial report is presented and a list of publications included. (C.F.)

  1. Uranium industry annual, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data on US uranium raw materials and marketing activities of the domestic uranium industry. It contains aggregated data reported by US companies on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (1988), Form EIA-858, and historical data from prior data collections and other pertinent sources. The report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent agency for data collection and analysis with the US Department of Energy

  2. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.; Smulek, W.; Godlewska-Para, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes the activities of the Institute in 2005. The document consist of four parts: (1) Radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies; (2) Radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, general chemistry; (3) Radiobiology; (4) Nuclear technologies and methods. In total - 73 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity and the international cooperation is also listed

  3. 2008 annual merit review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  4. Annual report ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggin, S.

    1988-07-01

    The paper presents the 1988 Annual Report for ISIS (United Kingdom). A description is given of the accelerator and target station. The capability of ISIS is described including the facilities available and the type of science carried out using the instruments. The development and support activities are outlined, along with the ISIS organisation and user interaction. The appendix contains experimental reports on research work conducted at ISIS. (U.K.)

  5. TIARA annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Saido, Masahiro; Nashiyama, Isamu [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-10-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998. Summary reports of 90 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  6. TIARA annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Itoh, Hisayoshi [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-10-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. Summary reports of 106 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  7. Annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Vyver, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    In 1983, the various research projects in which the nuclear physics laboratory of Ghent State University is involved, were continued. In the present Annual Report, the results obtained in the field of photofission, photonuclear reactions positron annihilation, dosimetry and nuclear theory are summarized. The new 10 MeV high duty factor linear electron accelerator is presently being installed: performance tests will be carried out until July 1984; after which this facility will gradually become available for nuclear research purposes. (AF)

  8. Annual exposure report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.L.; Mann, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    All DOE facilities annually submit occupational radiation exposure data to a central repository. The data include a summary of whole-body exposures, a summary of internal depositions of radioactive materials above specified limits, and occupational exposure reports for termination employees. The 1981 data were received in August 1982 and have been incorporated into a report format, established in 1980, that includes technical discussions and data illustrations

  9. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This annual report gives the activities during the year 2000 and information about the General Direction of the Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) in France. The highlights of the year are discussed in the main following topics: public utilities, the Erika oil slick, the petroleum products prices increase, the energy efficiency national program, Eole 2005, the nuclear industry management. The french energy accounting, the publications and the organization of the DGEMP are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2007. The document consist of eight parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear technology in energy generation; Condensed matter physics; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection management of hazards; Radioisotope center POLATOM and in last section in which the lists of published in 2007 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  11. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This year 2000 annual report of the CEA (atomic energy commissariat) gives a general overview of the CEA activities and organization in the domains of the defence, the nuclear energy the technological research and the fundamental research. It is presented in seven main parts: contribution to national defence, civil nuclear research, technological research for the industry, pushing back the frontiers of scientific knowledge in physics and life science, mastery of installations; institute for protection and nuclear safety, research resources. (A.L.B.)

  12. ILL Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This annual report provides a general view of the activities of the different sections of the ILL. In 1974, twenty-two different neutron spectrometers with different characteristics were available on a regular basis. Moreover, a number of special neutron sources were employed for on-line experiments. The major effort was devoted to an increase in experimental systems and to the development of new measurement techniques [fr

  13. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    In this annual report a survey is given about the research programs of the named institute during 1980. The research concerns experiments with synchrotron radiation, hyperfine structure studies, experiments with the DORIS and PETRA storage rings, and experiments at the CERN accelerators. Furthermore the development of instruments in this institute is described. In addition a list of publications, contributions to conferences, and theses of this institute is given. (HSI)

  14. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2008. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by directors of the Heavy Ion Laboratory: prof. J. Jastrzebski, prof. J. Kownacki and prof. K. Rusek is also given

  15. TIARA annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. Summary reports of 88 papers and 4 brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  16. NERSC 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John (ed.)

    1999-03-01

    This 1998 annual report from the National Scientific Energy Research Computing Center (NERSC) presents the year in review of the following categories: Computational Science; Computer Science and Applied Mathematics; and Systems and Services. Also presented are science highlights in the following categories: Basic Energy Sciences; Biological and Environmental Research; Fusion Energy Sciences; High Energy and Nuclear Physics; and Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Other Projects.

  17. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, R.; Lesniak, L.; Malecki, P.; Stachura, Z.; Wojciechowski, H. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author).

  18. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Gaz de France presents the activities for the year 2005 in four main chapters: the group profile, the governance and the challenges; the energy and services display and the infrastructures; the capital opening and some key data; the group collaborators, the energy conservation, the research programs and the future of the gas and the electricity. (A.L.B.)

  19. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P.

    2008-01-01

    The ''Annual Report 2007'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2007. Report consists of two parts. First one consist of of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  20. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  1. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    1976-01-01

    This annual report contains research reports from the various groups of the Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm. Reports are made by workers in the Atomic and Molecular Physics group, the Surface Physics group, the Nuclear Physics group, the group researching into High Energy Physics and related topics and the Instrumentation and Methods group. The report also contains a list of the papers published by members of the Institute during the year and a list of the theses which were presented. (B.D.)

  2. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2006. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2006 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  3. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Areva is a world energy expert on technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. This 2005 annual report provides information on the Group results in the following domains: information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operations, new developments and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and outlook. (A.L.B.)

  4. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P.

    2006-06-01

    The ''Annual Report 2005'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2005. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute prof. Ziemowit Sujkowski is also given

  5. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P.

    2007-06-01

    The ''Annual Report 2006'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2006. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  6. NIKHEF annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This annual report of NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands) describes experiments carried out at CERN (Geneve), DESY (Hamburg) viz. WA25; CHARM-collaboration; ACCMOR experiments; proton-antiproton collision; LEAR; MARK-J; Crystal Ball experiment; HERA. For the nuclear physics section, experiments are described on electro-excitation of nuclei; pion and muon physics. Theoretical studies are listed concerning electromagnetic interactions in the sigma-omega model and delta-nuclei dynamics. A radiochemical and technical part concludes the report. (Auth.)

  7. 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2002 provides information on financial highlights, corporate governance, organization of the Group, share, sustainable development policy (integration into the management practices, financial and environmental responsibility, responsibility to the employees and to the society), nuclear power (front end division, reactors and services division, back end division), connectors division, equity interests and financial report. (A.L.B.)

  8. TIARA annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003. Summary reports of 113 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  9. TIARA annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Namba, Hideki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. Summary reports of 103 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  10. TIARA annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shigeru; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Masaru; Itoh, Hisayosi; Yoshikawa, Masato; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Otsubo, Michiaki; Tajima, Satoshi; Tanaka, Susumu

    2004-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2004. Summary reports of 115 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  11. Uranium industry annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data collected on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ''Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,'' is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2

  12. Areva 2005 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This annual report contains information on AREVA's objectives, prospects and strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7, as well as contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the annual report and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction; 3 - General information on the company and share capital: Information on AREVA, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organizational chart of the AREVA group, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, 5 - New developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, AREVA group energy businesses, Front End Division, Reactors and Services Division, Back End Division, Transmission and Distribution Division, Major Contracts, The Group's principal sites, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Human resources, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development, intellectual property and brand name programs, Risk and insurance; 6 - Assets - Financial position - financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the Group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report 2005, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA Financial statements 2005, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 7 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of administrative bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual General Meeting of Shareholders of May 2, 2006; 8 - Recent developments and outlook: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2005, Outlook

  13. Annual Report 2010-2011

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... 2013-2014 Annual Report 2013-2014 Rapport annuel 2013-2014 Annual Report 2014-2015 Annual Report 2014-2015 Rapport annuel 2014-2015 Investing in Solutions Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Investing in Solutions Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Investir dans des solutions Plan stratégique 2015-2020 Financial statements ...

  14. AREVA 2010 annual results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Areva's 44-billion euro backlog at the end of 2010 gives the group excellent visibility, enabling it to confirm its outlook for 2012: 12 billion euros in revenue, double-digit operating margin and significantly positive free operating cash flow. Revenue rose by 575 million euros in 2010, or 6.7%, in comparison to 2009 and operating income excluding particular items improved by 201 million euros, nearly 2 points of revenue. In the past two years, Areva has raised 7.1 billion euros and secured its liquidity to ensure its development. In 2011, Areva is going to simplify the group's capital structure by listing ordinary shares of AREVA. At that time, the group may launch the employee share-holding plan, something it has ardently sought for several years as a way for its employees to share in AREVA's growth. The consolidated backlog stood at 44.204 billion euros at December 31, 2010, up 2.0% compared with that at December 31, 2009. The group's consolidated revenue came to 9.104 billion euros in 2010, up 6.7% on a reported basis and 5.1% like-for-like compared with 2009. Excluding particular items, operating income rose by 1.9 point, going from 3.9% in 2009 to 5.8% in 2010, giving operating income of 532 million euros (331 million euros in 2009). Net income attributable to equity owners of the parent came to 883 million euros in 2010, an increase of 331 million euros compared with 2009. Operating cash flow before capex was 923 million euros, an increase of 548 million euros compared with 2009, when it was 375 million euros, due to the visible improvement in EBITDA and working capital requirement. The change in gross capex (excluding acquisitions) from 1.780 billion euros in 2009 to 1.966 billion euros in 2010 is due to the ramp-up of construction programs, particularly in Enrichment. In 2010, almost 60% of the group's capital spending was on sites in France. The acquisitions made in Renewable Energies in 2010 in the amount of 210 million euros (100% of Ausra and the

  15. USTRANSCOM 2007 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    and gain better asset visibility—it joined the skyrocketing growth industry of third party logistics ( 3PL ) services. This $110 billion 3PL services...industry is primed for another year of double-digit growth because of the success of the value-added services 3PLs can provide. The Defense...All this adds up to the best possible support to the warfighter. The DTCI Coordinator, or commercial 3PL , is required to maintain a specific level

  16. AAER Inc. 2007 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, D.; Gauthier, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains financial information from AAER Inc., a wind turbine manufacturer located in Bromont Quebec. AAER uses proven European technologies to manufacture high capacity wind turbines of 1 MW or more for the North American and European markets. Their wind turbines maintain high performance in various wind conditions and are sold at competitive prices. AAER has also begun implementing procedures to gradually manufacture some of its own key components, using technology transfers from its current suppliers. In order to maximize control over its supply chain, AAER plans to consolidate its supply chain for its major components. A gradual integration strategy will minimize risk and will ensure a constant supply of key components such as blades, converters, generators and electronic control boxes, while lowering manufacturing costs, minimizing financial risk, accelerating the development of new versions of components and increasing profit margins. This report included a review of business strategies and operations, as well as plans for growth development in Canada and internationally. The company's major achievements of 2007 were also listed. This annual report included an auditor's report of the company's activities along with an operations review, consolidated financial statements, a summarized balance sheet of assets, liabilities/surplus and net assets, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were also summarized. tabs., figs

  17. Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Each May, the Continuing Education Division of the T.J.Watson School of Engineering, Applied Science and Technology at the State University of New York at Binghamton sponsors an Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging in cooperation with local professional societies (IEEE, ASME, SME, IEPS) and UnlPEG (the University-Industry Partnership for Economic Growth.) Each volume of this Electronics Packaging Forum series is based on the the preceding Symposium, with Volume Two based on the 1990 presentations. The Preface to Volume One included a brief definition of the broad scope of the electronics packaging field with some comments on why it has recently assumed such a more prominent priority for research and development. Those remarks will not be repeated here; at this point it is assumed that the reader is a professional in the packaging field, or possibly a student of one of the many academic disciplines which contribute to it. It is worthwhile repeating the series objectives, however, so the reader will be cle...

  18. Characterization of Flavan-3-ols and Expression of MYB and Late Pathway Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Foliage of Vitis bellula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Gang Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs are fundamental nutritional metabolites in different types of grape products consumed by human beings. Although the biosynthesis of PAs in berry of Vitis vinifera has gained intensive investigations, the understanding of PAs in other Vitis species is limited. In this study, we report PA formation and characterization of gene expression involved in PA biosynthesis in leaves of V. bellula, a wild edible grape species native to south and south-west China. Leaves are collected at five developmental stages defined by sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 cm in length. Analyses of thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD show the formation of (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, (+-gallocatechin and (−-epigallocatechin during the entire development of leaves. Analyses of butanol-HCl boiling cleavage coupled with spectrometry measurement at 550 nm show a temporal trend of extractable PA levels, which is characterized by an increase from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm long leaves followed by a decrease in late stages. TLC and HPLC-PAD analyses identify cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargonidin produced from the cleavage of PAs in the butanol-HCl boiling, showing that the foliage PAs of V. bellula include three different types of extension units. Four cDNAs, which encode VbANR, VbDFR, VbLAR1 and VbLAR2, respectively, are cloned from young leaves. The expression patterns of VbANR and VbLAR2 but not VbLAR1 and VbDFR follow a similar trend as the accumulation patterns of PAs. Two cDNAs encoding VbMYBPA1 and VbMYB5a, the homologs of which have been demonstrated to regulate the expression of both ANR and LAR in V. vinifera, are also cloned and their expression profiles are similar to those of VbANR and VbLAR2. In contrast, the expression profiles of MYBA1 and 2 homologs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis are different from those of VbANR and VbLAR2. Our data show that both ANR and LAR branches are

  19. Characterization of Flavan-3-ols and Expression of MYB and Late Pathway Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Foliage of Vitis bellula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue; Peng, Qing-Zhong; Du, Ci; Li, Ke-Gang; Xie, De-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are fundamental nutritional metabolites in different types of grape products consumed by human beings. Although the biosynthesis of PAs in berry of Vitis vinifera has gained intensive investigations, the understanding of PAs in other Vitis species is limited. In this study, we report PA formation and characterization of gene expression involved in PA biosynthesis in leaves of V. bellula, a wild edible grape species native to south and south-west China. Leaves are collected at five developmental stages defined by sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 cm in length. Analyses of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) show the formation of (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (−)-epigallocatechin during the entire development of leaves. Analyses of butanol-HCl boiling cleavage coupled with spectrometry measurement at 550 nm show a temporal trend of extractable PA levels, which is characterized by an increase from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm long leaves followed by a decrease in late stages. TLC and HPLC-PAD analyses identify cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargonidin produced from the cleavage of PAs in the butanol-HCl boiling, showing that the foliage PAs of V. bellula include three different types of extension units. Four cDNAs, which encode VbANR, VbDFR, VbLAR1 and VbLAR2, respectively, are cloned from young leaves. The expression patterns of VbANR and VbLAR2 but not VbLAR1 and VbDFR follow a similar trend as the accumulation patterns of PAs. Two cDNAs encoding VbMYBPA1 and VbMYB5a, the homologs of which have been demonstrated to regulate the expression of both ANR and LAR in V. vinifera, are also cloned and their expression profiles are similar to those of VbANR and VbLAR2. In contrast, the expression profiles of MYBA1 and 2 homologs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis are different from those of VbANR and VbLAR2. Our data show that both ANR and LAR branches are involved in

  20. Quantification of tannins in tree foliage. A laboratory manual for the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project on 'Use of nuclear and related techniques to develop simple tannin assays for predicting and improving the safety and efficiency of feeding ruminants on tanniniferous tree foliage'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Tanniniferous trees and shrubs are of importance in animal production because they can provide significant protein supplements, but unfortunately the amounts of tannins that they contain vary widely and largely unpredictably, and their effects on animals range from beneficial to toxicity and death. The toxic or antinutritional effects tend to occur in times of stress when a very large proportion of the diet is tanniniferous. With a better understanding of tannin properties and proper management, they could become an invaluable source of protein for strategic supplementation. As the demand for food rises, tanniniferous plants must play an increasingly important part in the diet of animals, in particular for ruminants in smallholder subsistence farming in developing countries. It is therefore critical that techniques be developed to measure and manage the anti-nutritional components that they contain. Keeping the above in mind, a Joint FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques to Develop Simple Tannin Assays for Predicting and Improving the Safety and Efficiency of Feeding Ruminants on Tanniniferous Tree Foliage' has been initiated. In order to provide sound basis for this CRP, an FAO/IAEA Consultants Meeting was held in August 1997 in Vienna, at which the tanniniferous plants to be studied, the analytical methods, the test animals and the animal response evaluation techniques were defined. This publication contains methodologies for the analysis of tannins using chemical-, protein precipitation/binding- and bio-assays recommended by the consultants

  1. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  2. NERSC 2001 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John (editor)

    2001-12-12

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005.

  3. 1992 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Annual report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire at Orsay (France). The main themes are presented. Concerning experimental research: nuclear structure, ground states and low energy excited states, high excitation energy nuclear states, nuclear matter and nucleus-nucleus collision, intermediate energy nuclear physics, radiochemistry, inter-disciplinary research, scientific information and communication; concerning theoretical physics: particles and fields (formal aspects and hadronic physics), chaotic systems and semi-classical methods, few body problems, nucleus-nucleus scattering, nucleus spectroscopy and clusters, statistical physics and condensed matter; concerning general activities and technological research: accelerators, detectors, applications in cryogenics, data processing, Isolde and Orion equipment

  4. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.; Smulek, W.; Godlewska-Para, E.

    2008-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes achievements of the Institute in 2007 obtained in seven fields: (1) radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies; (2) radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, general chemistry; (3) radiobiology; (4) nuclear technologies and methods: process engineering; (5) nuclear technologies and methods: material engineering, structural studies, diagnostics; (6) nuclear technologies and methods: nucleonic control systems and accelerators. In total - 76 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity, international cooperation and publications are also given

  5. International energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided

  6. IPP annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In part A of this annual report the tokamak and stellarator projects at the IPP are reported: ASDEX, ASDEX upgrade, JET collaboration, NET collaboration, Wendelstein VII-7, Wendelstein VII-AS, Wendelstein VII-X and stellarator reactor system studies. In part B the departments and research groups give a brief, but detailed report of the results in the field of research and development. In part C a review is presented of the IPP organisation. Part D includes the papers and conference reports published in 1981. Finally a brief description of the IPP projects at German universities is presented. (GG) [de

  7. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  8. GKSS annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, one of the national research centers, carries out R and D work on conservation of resources and environment, improvement of working conditions and on increase of economic competitiveness. The activities fall into the fields energy research and technology, basic technologies, marine research and techniques, health-environment-biotechnology. The annual report contains selected research work in summaries, the report on R and D work in reactor safety, materials research, environmental and climate research as well as environmental, and underwater techniques, describes the research institutes, cooperation with external partners, the organization, the budget, personnel, publications, including patent applications, and lectures. (HK) [de

  9. Institute annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  10. GKSS 1978 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    In its annual reports, the GKSS gives a detailed survey of its R+D activities in the year under report as well as of its organisation and social situation. These sections are supplemented by some detailed reports on selected research activities. In the year under report, techniques for the irradiation of pressure vessel steels in research reactors, the determination of the critical heat flux on LWR fuel rods, a GKSS contribution to the production of manganese modules in the Pacific Ocean, the corrosion behaviour of structural steels under seawater conditions, and remote aerosol monitoring by means of laser technology are dealt with. (orig.) [de

  11. Nordel annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    Nordel is a body for co-operation between the transmission system operators (TSO's) in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden with the primary objective to create conditions for and develop an efficient and harmonised Nordic electricity market, regardless of national borders. Furthermore, Nordel serves as forum for contact between the TSOs and representatives of the market players in the Nordic countries. The statistical part of Nordel's annual report includes data about: Exchange of electricity; Gross consumption; Electricity generation; Installed capacity; Generation of condensing power; Net consumption; Transmission capacity; Pumped storage power; Losses; Occasional power to electric boilers; Total consumption; CHP generation. (BA)

  12. Uranium industry annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Uranium industry data collected in the EIA-858 survey provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of annual activities of the industry and include some information about industry plans over the next several years. This report consists of two major sections. The first addresses uranium raw materials activities and covers the following topics: exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment. The second major section is concerned with the following uranium marketing activities: uranium purchase commitments, uranium prices, procurement arrangements, uranium imports and exports, enrichment services, inventories, secondary market activities utility market requirements and related topics

  13. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine

  14. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.; Smulek, W.; Godlewska-Para, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes achievements of the Institute in 2008 obtained in six fields: (1) radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies, (2) radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, general chemistry, (3) radiobiology, (4) nuclear technologies and methods: process engineering, (5) nuclear technologies and methods: material engineering, structural studies, diagnostics, (6) nucleonic control systems and accelerators. In total - 76 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity, international cooperation and publications are also given

  15. International energy annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports for primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude petroleum and petroleum products in selected countries. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed with respect to primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources and from United States Embassy personnel in foreign posts. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values familiar to the American public

  16. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.; Smulek, W.; Godlewska-Para, E.

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes achievements of the Institute in 2006 obtained in seven fields: (1) radiation chemistry and technology, (2) radiochemistry and coordination chemistry, (3) radiobiology, (4) application of nuclear methods in material and process engineering, (5) design of instruments based on nuclear techniques, (6) trace analysis and radioanalytical techniques, (7) environmental research. In total - 83 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity, international cooperation and publications are presented

  17. International energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  18. Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of: a) Research activities carried out during 1975 within the framework of the scientific sections of the Institute, b) the central technical seπtions and their services, and c) the organizational structure. Enclosed are: 1) Report on the activities of the administrative management, the administration, and general services, 2) a list of all publications and conference reports issued by IPP Garching during 1975, and an annual report by the Institut fuer Plasmaphysik of the University of Stuttgart, an institute financed by IPP Garching. (GG) [de

  19. Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annual Report covers the activities at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) during the year 1981. It contains 74 short reports grouped under the headings: inelastic scattering studies, transfer and charge-exchange reactions, breakup reactions and fission studies, heavy-ion reactions, gamma, electron and X-ray spectroscopy, hyperfine interactions and nuclear orientation, weak interactions, IBA related studies, other theoretical studies, cyclotron and beam lines, data acquisition and data analysis, instrumentation and electronics and medical physics. Details are also presented of the personnel, scientific publications, internal reports, and attended and internal conferences and seminars. (C.F.)

  20. NPL 1999 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 NPL 1999 Annual Report. The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics research. Research activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current program includes ''in-house'' research on nuclear collisions using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators as well as local and remote non-accelerator research on fundamental symmetries and weak interactions and user-mode research on relativistic heavy ions at large accelerator facilities around the world.

  1. Annual report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In this annual report, the Institut fuer Kernphysik of the university of Frankfurt/Main gives a survey on its scientific activities in the year 1974. Research activities in this period comprised the following fields: nuclear reactions and nuclear structure, heavy ion physics, atomic collision processes, neutron diffractometry and spectroscopy, solid state particle trace detectors, methods of nuclear analysis and mass spectroscopy, ion source development, electronics and data processing, and radiation protection. Furthermore, some application-oriented interdisciplinary research projects were started. (orig./AK) [de

  2. Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The annual report of the PTB for 1975 deals in part 1 with organization and activities of the executive committee and the administration, in the second part with work carried out by the departments mechanics, electric power, heat, optics, acoustics, nuclear physics, reactor radiation, general technical-scientific services, and the institute in Berlin. The second part deals with examinations, authorizations, permits, cooperation, advisory activities and scientific services. Part three presents R and D activities carried out in the nine departments in the form of scientific summaries. (HK) [de

  3. Annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes the work during 1982 of the Nuclear Physics Institute of Lyon. The achievement of SARA postaccelerator in Grenoble, realized in collaboration with the Nuclear Science Institute, permits to pursue new lines of research in heavy ion physics. A new isotope separator was realized by the nuclear spectroscopy group and the high energy experimental group cooperates with the LAPP to build in international collaboration the L3 detector for LEP. The topics covered include theoretical physics, high energy and intermediate energy physics, nuclear physics and interdisciplinary physics, such as solid state physics and neutronics [fr

  4. IKF annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Boecking, H.

    1983-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the scientific work performed at the named institute descriptions of the operation of the Van-de-Graaf accelerator facilities of this institute and the work of the technical establishments, as well as a list of publications. The scientific work concerns nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, high energy heavy ion physics, atomic physics with fast ions, nuclear solid state physics, solid-state track detectors, applications of nuclear methods in solid state physics, ion source developments, apparative developments and data processing, as well as interdisciplinary collaborations. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI) [de

  5. Uranium industry annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    In the Uranium Industry Annual 1991, data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2. A feature article entitled ''The Uranium Industry of the Commonwealth of Independent States'' is included in this report

  6. CEA Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The CEA, a prominent player in research development and innovation, is active in three main domains: energy, health care and information technology, defense and security. This annual report presents the CEA activities for the year 2007 in these three main areas: science and technology working for nuclear deterrence and global security, the energies without greenhouse effect gases emission against the climatic change, researches in the information sciences and technologies for a better communication and health. The CEA safety, organization, communication and international relations are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  7. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This annual report presents the CEA (Atomic Energy Research Center) activities and research programs during the year 2002. the first part is devoted to the scientific development in the defense, nuclear energy, technology, fundamental research and valuation domains. The second and third parts present respectively the development conditions with the environment safety and the means of development with the human resources, the information technology, the training and the public relations. The fourth part situates the Cea enterprise in the economy and the fifth part the Cea development in the Europe and the world. The last part is the financial accounting. (A.L.B.)

  8. Nordel annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    Nordel is a body for co-operation between the transmission system operators (TSO's) in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden with the primary objective to create conditions for and develop an efficient and harmonised Nordic electricity market, regardless of national borders. Furthermore, Nordel serves as forum for contact between the TSOs and representatives of the market players in the Nordic countries. The statistical part of Nordel's annual report includes data about: Exchange of electricity; Gross consumption; Electricity generation; Installed capacity; Generation of condensing power; Net consumption; Transmission capacity; Pumped storage power; Losses; Occasional power to electric boilers; Total consumption; CHP generation. (BA)

  9. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the research done at the named institute. These abstracts concern the development of accelerators and ion sources, the construction of the magnetic spectrograph and radiation detectors, the investigation of solids and microstructures by nuclear methods, the development of electronic circuits, the advances in data processing, the study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure, and reaction mechanisms, the research on atomic physics and the interaction of charged particles with matter, the studies in medium and high energy physics, the theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and the research in cosmochemistry. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the research done at the named institute. These abstracts concern the development of accelerators and ion sources, the construction of the magnetic spectrograph and radiation detectors, the investigation of solids and microstructures by nuclear methods, the development of electronic circuits, the advances in data processing, the study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure, and reaction mechanisms, the research on atomic physics and the interaction of charged particles with matter, the studies of in medium and high energy physics, the theoretical studies of nuclear structure and the research in cosmophysics. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the research done at the named institute. These abstracts concern the development of accelerators and ion sources, the construction of the magnetic spectrograph and radiation detectors, the investigation of solids and microstructures by nuclear methods, the development of electronic circuits, the advances in data processing, the study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure, and reaction mechanisms, the research on atomic physics and the interaction of charged particles with matter, the studies in medium and high energy physics, the theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and the research in cosmochemistry. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (orig./HSI) [de

  12. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1991, the Corporation undertook an examination of its future direction, having completed the divestment mandate assigned to it in 1986. This examination resulted in a reorientation of the Corporation's objectives toward enhancing participation in the energy sector by the Aboriginal Peoples and northern communities of the province. The Corporation's cash assets increased to $33 million in 1991, largely attributable to a Suncor dividend of $14.2 million. The financial statements have been prepared by management in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Management is also responsible for the other information in the annual report, which is consistent with that contained in the financial statements

  13. 1985. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a description of the progress made in each sections of the Institut Research activities of the different departments include: reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities analysis; and associated safety research programs (criticality, sites, transport ...), radioecology and environmental radioprotection techniques; data acquisition on radioactive waste storage sites; radiation effects on man, studies on radioprotection techniques; nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport, and monitoring of nuclear material management; nuclear facility decommissioning; and finally the public information [fr

  14. Institute annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  15. NPL 1999 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 NPL 1999 Annual Report. The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics research. Research activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current program includes ''in-house'' research on nuclear collisions using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators as well as local and remote non-accelerator research on fundamental symmetries and weak interactions and user-mode research on relativistic heavy ions at large accelerator facilities around the world

  16. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  17. 2000 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000. The following activities and developed topic in this report describe: the Argentine regulatory system; the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activities in the Argentina since the beginnings in the National Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) of Argentina; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the safeguards and inspection of the nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants; the radiological emergency systems; the environmental monitoring; the institutional relations with national and international organizations; the biological and physics dosimetry; the training courses and meetings; the economic and human recourses

  18. Annual Energy Review 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-10-01

    This twenty-ninth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) most comprehensive look at integrated energy statistics. The summary statistics on the Nation’s energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices cover all major energy commodities and all energy-consuming sectors of the U.S. economy from 1949 through 2010. The AER is EIA’s historical record of energy statistics and, because the coverage spans six decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analysis.

  19. 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and communication with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the nuclear protection and safety, the advanced technologies, the quasi-particles, the effects of ionizing radiations on humans, the medical imagery, the transfer of technology, the protection and valorization of knowledge, the radioactive wastes and spent fuels management, the training and teaching, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (O.M.)

  20. Renewable energy annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary