WorldWideScience

Sample records for annual foliage growth

  1. New foliage growth is a significant, unaccounted source for volatiles in boreal evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Schiestl-Aalto, P.; Aaltonen, H.; Levula, J.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Bäck, J.

    2014-03-01

    Estimates of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests are based on the assumption that foliage has a steady emission potential over its lifetime, and that emissions are mainly modified by short-term variations in light and temperature. However, in many field studies this has been challenged, and high emissions and atmospheric concentrations have been measured during periods of low biological activity, such as in springtime. We conducted measurements during three years, using an online gas-exchange monitoring system to observe volatile organic emissions from a mature (1 year-old) and a growing Scots pine shoot. The emission rates of organic vapors from vegetative buds of Scots pine during the dehardening and rapid shoot growth stages were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those from mature foliage; this difference decreased and finally disappeared when the new shoot was maturing in late summer. On average, the springtime monoterpene emission rate of the bud was about 500 times higher than that of the mature needles; during the most intensive needle elongation period, the monoterpene emission rate of the growing needles was 3.5 higher than that of the mature needles, and in September the monoterpene emission rate of the same years' needles was even lower (50%) than that of the previous years' needles. For other measured compounds (methanol, acetone and methylbutenol) the values were of the same order of magnitude, except before bud break in spring, when the emission rates of buds for those compounds were on average about 20-30 times higher than that of mature needles. During spring and early summer the buds and growing shoots are a strong source of several VOCs, and if they are not accounted for in emission modeling a significant proportion of the emissions - from a few percent to even half of the annual cumulative emissions - will remain concealed. The diurnal emission pattern of growing shoots differed from the diurnal cycle in temperature as

  2. Growth and Nutrient Status of Foliage as Affected by Tree Species and Fertilization in a Fire-Disturbed Urban Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choonsig Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth and macronutrient (C, N, P, K status in the foliage of four tree species (LT: Liriodendron tulipifera L.; PY: Prunus yedoensis Matsumura; QA: Quercus acutissima Carruth; PT: Pinus thunbergii Parl. in response to fertilization with different nutrient ratios in a fire-disturbed urban forest located in BongDaesan (Mt., Korea. Two fertilizers (N3P8K1 = 113:300:37 kg·ha−1·year−1; N6P4K1 = 226:150:37 ha−1·year−1 in four planting sites were applied in April 2013 and March 2014. The growth and nutrient responses of the foliage were monitored six times for two years. Foliar growth and nutrient concentrations were not significantly different (p > 0.05 in response to different doses of N or P fertilizer, but the foliage showed increased N and P concentrations and content after fertilization compared with the control (N0P0K0. Foliar C and K concentrations were little affected by fertilization. Foliar nutrient concentrations and contents were significantly higher in PY and LT than in PT. The results suggest that the foliar N and P concentration could be used as a parameter to assess the nutrient environments of tree species restored in a fire-disturbed urban forest.

  3. Growth and Nutrient Status of Foliage as Affected by Tree Species and Fertilization in a Fire-Disturbed Urban Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Choonsig Kim; Jaeyeob Jeong; Jae-Hyun Park; Ho-Seop Ma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth and macronutrient (C, N, P, K) status in the foliage of four tree species (LT: Liriodendron tulipifera L.; PY: Prunus yedoensis Matsumura; QA: Quercus acutissima Carruth; PT: Pinus thunbergii Parl.) in response to fertilization with different nutrient ratios in a fire-disturbed urban forest located in BongDaesan (Mt.), Korea. Two fertilizers (N3P8K1 = 113:300:37 kg·ha−1·year−1; N6P4K1 = 226:150:37 ha−1·year−1) in four planting sites we...

  4. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to changes in soil water content associated with rainfall seasonality. We assessed the effect of adding a slow-release fertilizer. We determined plant growth from 2010 to 2012 and gas exchange in the wet and dry season of 2012. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect sapling growth or leaf gas exchange parameters. Although soil amendment increased phosphorus content by 60 %, neither plant growth nor the photosynthetic parameters were influenced by the addition of mineral nutrients. However, photosynthetic rates and growth of saplings decreased as the forest canopy became denser. Even when Amazonian soils are poor in nutrients, photosynthesis and sapling growth are more responsive to slight variations in light availability in the forest understory than to the availability of nutrients. Therefore, the response of saplings to future increases in atmospheric [CO2] will not be limited by the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil.

  5. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães; Ricardo Antonio Marenco; Miguel Angelo Branco Camargo

    2014-01-01

    Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to ...

  6. Feeding cassava foliage to sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Khuc Thi

    2012-01-01

    The potential of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a protein-rich feed in sheep production in Vietnam was examined by studying cassava foliage yield, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, toxicity and performance of lambs fed the foliage as a supplement. Cassava foliage fed ad libitum as a protein supplement to a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw gave similar lamb live weight gain (LWG) as diets supplemented with commercial concentrate or protein-rich foliage of stylosanthes (S...

  7. 叶面喷施锰对生菜生长和品质的影响%Effects of Foliage Spraying Mn on Growth and Quality of Lettuce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光远; 王凤华; 蒋燕

    2015-01-01

    The randomized block design was used to study the effects of foliage spraying Mn on growth and quality of lettuce.The results showed that foliage spraying Mn can promote lettuce growth to some extent and improve its yield and quality.The height,leaf number and stomatal number presents a first increase and then decrease trend with increase of Mn concentration, which indicates that low Mn concentration can promote lettuce height and increase leaf number and stomatal number,but high Mn concentration has the inhibition effect on lettuce growth.Single lettuce weight increases with increase of Mn concentration. Foliage spraying Mn can improve chlorophyll synthesis of lettuce leaves. The chlorophyll content in lettuce leaves is higher than CK obviously when Mn concentration is ≤30 mg/L, but chlorophyll synthesis is inhibited when Mn concentration reaches 40 mg/L.The soluble protein, soluble sugar and proline content in lettuce leaves presents a first rise and then decline trend with increase of Mn concentration,but POD content in lettuce leaves presents a decline trend with increase of Mn concentration.%为探明锰(Mn)在生菜生长中的作用,采用随机区组试验的方法研究了 Mn 不同浓度叶面喷施对生菜生长和品质的影响。结果表明:叶面喷施一定浓度的 Mn 可以在一定程度上促进生菜生长,提高其产量和品质。随着 Mn 喷施浓度的升高,生菜的株高、叶片数和气孔数呈先增加后减小趋势,即低浓度的Mn 促进生菜长高,叶片数和气孔数增加,但浓度过高却起抑制作用。生菜的单株重随 Mn 浓度的增加而增加。叶面喷施 Mn 可促进叶绿素的合成,在 Mn 浓度≤30 mg/L 时,叶绿素含量明显高于对照,但当浓度达40 mg/L 时,开始显示抑制效应。叶片的可溶性蛋白质、可溶性糖和脯氨酸的含量均随着 Mn 浓度的升高呈先升高后降低的趋势,但 POD 活性却随着 Mn 浓度的升高呈下降趋势。

  8. Annual Growth Bands in Hymenaea courbaril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, J A; Guilderson, T P; Colinvaux, P A

    2004-02-09

    One significant source of annual temperature and precipitation data arises from the regular annual secondary growth rings of trees. Several tropical tree species are observed to form regular growth bands that may or may not form annually. Such growth was observed in one stem disk of the tropical legume Hymenaea courbaril near the area of David, Panama. In comparison to annual reference {Delta}{sup 14}C values from wood and air, the {Delta}{sup 14}C values from the secondary growth rings formed by H. courbaril were determined to be annual in nature in this one stem disk specimen. During this study, H. courbaril was also observed to translocate recently produced photosynthate into older growth rings as sapwood is converted to heartwood. This process alters the overall {Delta}{sup 14}C values of these transitional growth rings as cellulose with a higher {Delta}{sup 14}C content is translocated into growth rings with a relatively lower {Delta}{sup 14}C content. Once the annual nature of these growth rings is established, further stable isotope analyses on H. courbaril material in other studies may help to complete gaps in the understanding of short and of long term global climate patterns.

  9. Characterization of the exchange of PBDEs in a subtropical paddy field of China: A significant inputs of PBDEs via air–foliage exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice and the distinctive cultivation practices employed in rice growth can significantly influence the environmental fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a paddy field. We studied variations in PBDE concentrations in multiple compartments of a paddy field in the suburban area of Guangzhou, South China, including air, soil, water, and rice tissues. The input/output fluxes of air–surface and air–foliage exchange, atmospheric deposition and water input during different rice growth stages were measured simultaneously. Air–foliage and air–water diffusion exchanges were the key processes controlling inputs and outputs of PBDEs in paddy fields, respectively, whereas atmospheric deposition dominated inputs of higher brominated PBDEs. The high input of PBDEs via air–foliage exchange suggested that vegetation can significantly increase the air-to-field transport of PBDEs in ecosystems. The annual input of PBDEs in all paddy fields in Guangdong Province was estimated to be 22.1 kg. - Highlights: • PBDE concentrations in multiple compartments of a suburban paddy field were measured. • Air–water exchange was the key process controlling PBDE output in paddy fields. • Air–foliage exchange dominated the inputs of PBDEs in paddy fields. • Annual PBDE input in paddy fields in Guangdong Province was calculated to be 22 kg. - Air–foliage exchange is the most dominant inputs of PBDEs in the subtropical paddy fields

  10. Influence of Foliage Fertilizer Application on the Growth and Development of Calendula officinalis%叶面喷肥对金盏菊生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭家伟

    2011-01-01

    Experiments of foliage fertilizer application were done with different concentrations of KH2PO4. The results showed that 2‰ KH2PO4 can not only promote the growth of the seedlings, but also advance the flowering period, increase the yield and quality of the flowers and chlorophyll content, satisfying the long-term nutritional needs of Calendula officinalis for its growth. The phosphorus and potassium fertilizer is suitable for the growth and development of potted plants of Calendula offwinalis.%选用不同浓度的KH2PO4分别对盆栽金盏菊进行了叶面喷肥试验。结果表明:2‰KH2PO4不仅可促进金盏菊幼苗生长,还可提旱花期,提高花的产量及品质,增加叶绿素含量,能满足金盏菊生长对养分的长期需求,即磷钾肥更适于盆栽金盏菊的生长发育。

  11. Feasibility of poplar foliages as bio-monitors for organochlorine pesticides in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI TianYou; ZHU XiaoHua; WANG Wei; MENG Wei; YU YunJiang; LI FaSheng; YANG YongLiang; LIU Feng

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of poplar (P. tomentosa) foliages as passive biomonitors for organochlorine pesticides In air was explored. The accumulation patterns of poplar foliages for HCHs, DDTs and HCB were similar, the amount of HCHs, DDTs and HCB increased with foliage growth in spring, and decreased thereafter. There was no obvious distinction in the accumulation styles between the adult leaf and the leaf-litter. This accumulation pattern is likely related to the growing process of the poplar foliage, and was ob-served for the first time in our work, giving an evidence for the "bud burst effect" in plants. The tech-nical HCH and DDT were used largely in history and not used in recent years, but there was a little usage of lindane and new input of o,p'DDT in recent years, and dicofol usage may be the main source of o,p'-DDT. Concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB in poplar foliages were similar to those in pine needles at the corresponding period, and there is a positive strong correlation between OCP concen-tration data of two kinds of trees. It presents no difference in the accumulation style between two kinds of trees. The level of OCPs in the poplar foliage reflected the pollution status of OCPs in air. The result of this work showed that the poplar foliage can be used as the bio-monitor of OCPs in air.

  12. Beef production based on cassava products and legume foliage in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Chu Manh, Thang

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to determine the associative effects of supplemental sources of protein, or protein and energy, using cassava products and legume foliage on rumen degradability, in vivo digestibility, feed intake and growth rate of crossbred growing cattle. First it was hypothesized that the substitution of a part of a conventional concentrate with mixed cassava and legume foliage will positively influence rumen degradability and improve the performance of growing cattle. T...

  13. Effects of Foliage Spraying with Rare Earth on Growth and Physiological Index of Vernicia montana Seedlings%叶面喷施稀土对千年桐幼苗生长和生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦如萍; 薛立; 陈红跃; 彭耀强; 许松葵

    2005-01-01

    The seedlings of Vernicia montana derived from seeds soaking with water (the first group) or 300 mg·L-1 mixed nitric-acid rare earth solution (the second group) were treated with various concentrations of mixed nitric-acid rare earth solution by foliage spraying. The results showed that the seedling heights sprayed with 100 和 1 000 mg·L-1 of the first group and with 50 和 100 mg· L-1 of the second group were significantly higher than the controls, and the diameter at ground level sprayed with 300 mg·L-1 of the second group was significantly greater than the control, being 26.92% more than the latter; except for spraying with 0 mg·L%-1 and 700 - 1 500 mg·L-1 of the second group, the seedling dry weight above ground of others was 29.13% - 73.91% greater than the control, whereas the seedling dry weight under ground of others was 20.78% - 116.88% greater than the control; the contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b for all spraying seedling were 91.67% - 191.67% and 87.5 % - 306.25 % greater than the control, respectively, and soluble proteins and soluble sugars were 16.00 % - 179.78 % and 10.73% - 105.65% greater than the control, respectively. Compared with the control, the activity of SOD tended to increase, whereas the contents of MDA decreased. These indicated that spraying leaves with optimum concentration of mixed nitric-acid rare earth solution could markedly promote the growth of seedlings and improve resistance ability of V. montana seedlings to bad environment. On the whole, the effects of spraying the leaves of seedling with 50 - 500 mg·L-1 mixed nitricacid rare earth solution, which were derived from seeds soaking with 300 mg·L-1 mixed nitric-acid rare earth solution, were good.

  14. Could gingko foliage serve as a bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of gingko (Gingo Biloba) foliage as a passive bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air was explored. The accumulation patterns of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl- trichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in gingko foliage were similar; the amounts of HCHs, DDTs and HCB increased with foliage growth in spring and decreased thereafter. This accumu-lation pattern is likely related to the growing process of the gingko foliage, which was observed for the first time in our work, giving a piece of evidence for the "bud burst effect" in plants. Compared with those in pine needles in 1980’s, the residual levels of HCHs and DDTs have declined obviously in Bei-jing, indicating that the ban on the production and use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in our country is effective; however, the amount of HCB has increased, indicating great progress of chemical industry in Beijing. The analysis for the source of OCPs in the gingko foliage showed that the technical HCHs and DDTs were used largely in history, but were not used in recent years. A little lidane has been used and there was a new input of o,p′-DDT in recent years; dicofol usage may be the main source of o,p′-DDT. Concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB in gingko foliages were similar to those in pine nee-dles in the corresponding period and there is a strong positive correlation between the OCPs concen-tration data obtained from these two kinds of trees. It presents no difference in the accumulation style between these two kinds of trees. The level of OCPs in the gingko foliage reflects the pollution status of OCP in air. The result of this work shows that the gingko foliage can be used as a bio-monitor of OCPs in air.

  15. Could gingko foliage serve as a bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI TianYou; ZHU XiaoHua; MENG Wei; YU YunJiang; WANG Wei; LI FaSheng; LIU Feng; YANG YongLiang; WU DaNian

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of gingko (Gingo Biloba) foliage as a passive bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air was explored. The accumulation patterns of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in gingko foliage were similar; the amounts of HCHs, DDTs and HCB increased with foliage growth in spring and decreased thereafter. This accumu-lation pattern is likely related to the growing process of the gingko foliage, which was observed for the first time in our work, giving a piece of evidence for the "bud burst effect" in plants. Compared with those in pine needles in 1980's, the residual levels of HCHs and DDTs have declined obviously in Bei-jing, indicating that the ban on the production and use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in our country is effective; however, the amount of HCB has increased, indicating great progress of chemical industry in Beijing. The analysis for the source of OCPs in the gingko foliage showed that the technical HCHs and DDTs were used largely in history, but were not used in recent years. A little lidane has been used and there was a new input of o,p'-DDT in recent years; dicofol usage may be the main source of o,p'-DDT. Concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB in gingko foliages were similar to those in pine nee-dles in the corresponding period and there is a strong positive correlation between the OCPs concen-tration data obtained from these two kinds of trees. It presents no difference in the accumulation style between these two kinds of trees. The level of OCPs in the gingko foliage reflects the pollution status of OCP in air. The result of this work shows that the gingko foliage can be used as a bio-monitor of OCPs in air.

  16. GENETIC VARIATION IN FOLIAGE AND PROTEIN YIELD OF SOME ELITE CASSAVA (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ GENOTYPES IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Adjebeng-Danquah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz contains high levels of proteins and minerals which can be utilized for human and animal consumption. A randomized complete block design with three replications was established to evaluate 25 cassava genotypes for their foliage and crude protein (CP productivity as well as growth persistency under rain-fed conditions. The foliage comprising the leaves and the young tender stems were periodically harvested from 20cm above ground starting from three months after planting and every three months until root harvest at 12 months after planting. Apart from the first harvest, significant genotypic differences (P≤ 0.05 were established for foliage yield for the subsequent harvest days. The highest total cumulative fresh and dry foliage yields were 41.07t/ha and 15.73 t/ha respectively. Cumulative crude protein yield also ranged between 0.64 t/ha and 1.63 t/ha. Periodic pruning resulted in much higher foliage and protein yields than when the foliage was obtained only once at root harvest. Strong phenotypic correlations were observed among most of the different traits. Protein yield was observed to be highly correlated with fresh and dry foliage yield whereas a weak and non-significant correlation was recorded for protein content and all the other traits except with number of shoots and protein yield. Harvesting time also had a significant effect on foliage and crude protein yields with the second harvest giving a much higher foliage production for most of the genotypes. High heritability (broad sense estimates were observed for most of the traits studied. These traits can be used to select genotypes for foliage and protein production.

  17. The height and seasonal variation of foliage clumping: implications for the remote sensing retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Clumping index (CI) describes the level of foliage grouping within distinct canopy structures relative to a random distribution. Vegetation foliage clumping significantly alters its radiation environment and affects vegetation growth as well as water and carbon cycles. In moderate to dense forest stands, in-situ measurements near the ground surface may considerably underestimate the overall canopy-level clumping effect. This is because the large gaps between tree crowns at upper levels of the canopy may not be all measured near the ground due to obscurity by lower vegetation of branches. To assess the possible role of the vertical distribution of foliage clumping and the differences from the CI values measured at the forest floor, measurements of CI at different heights were conducted at three different stands: native cloud rainforest stand in Hawai'i, mature birch dominated stand in Jarvselja, Estonia, and boreal evergreen needleleaf stand in Hyytiala, Finland. Additionally, the seasonal variation of foliage clumping at scales larger than the shoot is reported for two RAMI birch and pine sites in Jarvselja, Estonia. This information about height and seasonal variations of CI is shown to be important for correct estimating and validating the foliage clumping from airborne/satellite remote sensing.

  18. The Plant Foliage Projective Coverage Change over the Northern Tibetan Plateau during 1957-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuo, L.

    2015-12-01

    Northern Tibetan Plateau is the headwater of the Yellow River, the Yangtze River and the Mekong River that support billions of the population. Vegetation change will affect the regional ecosystem and water balances through the changes in biomass and evapotranspiration. Dynamic vegetation growth is determined by physiological, morphological, bioclimatic and phenological properties. These properties are affected by climate variables such as air temperature, precipitation, soil temperature and concentration of CO2, etc. Due to climate change, some parts of the northern Tibetan Plateau are under the threat of desertification. Identifying the places of vegetation degradation and the dominant driven climatic factors will help mitigate the climate change impacts on ecosystem and water resources in this region. In this study, the changes of foliage projective coverages (FPCs) of various plant functional types (PFTs) existed in the northern Tibetan Plateau and the responses of FPCs to the four climate variables over 1957-2009 are examined. The dominant factors among the four climate variables are also identified. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM) is modified and used for the investigation. The modified LPJ-DGVM can better account for soil temperature in the top 0.4-m depth where vegetation root concentrates over the northern Tibetan Plateau. The modified model is evaluated by using monthly and annual soil temperature observed at stations across the region, and the eco-geographic maps that describe plant types and spatial distributions developed from field surveys and satellite images for this region.

  19. National health expenditure projections: modest annual growth until coverage expands and economic growth accelerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehan, Sean P; Cuckler, Gigi A; Sisko, Andrea M; Madison, Andrew J; Smith, Sheila D; Lizonitz, Joseph M; Poisal, John A; Wolfe, Christian J

    2012-07-01

    For 2011-13, US health spending is projected to grow at 4.0 percent, on average--slightly above the historically low growth rate of 3.8 percent in 2009. Preliminary data suggest that growth in consumers' use of health services remained slow in 2011, and this pattern is expected to continue this year and next. In 2014, health spending growth is expected to accelerate to 7.4 percent as the major coverage expansions from the Affordable Care Act begin. For 2011 through 2021, national health spending is projected to grow at an average rate of 5.7 percent annually, which would be 0.9 percentage point faster than the expected annual increase in the gross domestic product during this period. By 2021, federal, state, and local government health care spending is projected to be nearly 50 percent of national health expenditures, up from 46 percent in 2011, with federal spending accounting for about two-thirds of the total government share. Rising government spending on health care is expected to be driven by faster growth in Medicare enrollment, expanded Medicaid coverage, and the introduction of premium and cost-sharing subsidies for health insurance exchange plans. PMID:22692089

  20. Foliage penetration radar detection and characterization of objects under trees

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of foliage penetration (FOPEN) radar, concentrating on both airborne military radar systems as well as earth resource mapping radars. It is the first concise and thorough treatment of FOPEN, covering the results of a decade-long investment by DARPA in characterizing foliage and earth surface with ultrawideband UHF and VHF synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  1. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  2. An annual plant growth proxy in the Mojave Desert using MODIS-EVI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, C.S.A.; Thomas, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the arid Mojave Desert, the phenological response of vegetation is largely dependent upon the timing and amount of rainfall, and maps of annual plant cover at any one point in time can vary widely. Our study developed relative annual plant growth models as proxies for annual plant cover using metrics that captured phenological variability in Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) satellite images. We used landscape phenologies revealed in MODIS data together with ecological knowledge of annual plant seasonality to develop a suite of metrics to describe annual growth on a yearly basis. Each of these metrics was applied to temporally-composited MODIS-EVI images to develop a relative model of annual growth. Each model was evaluated by testing how well it predicted field estimates of annual cover collected during 2003 and 2005 at the Mojave National Preserve. The best performing metric was the spring difference metric, which compared the average of three spring MODIS-EVI composites of a given year to that of 2002, a year of record drought. The spring difference metric showed correlations with annual plant cover of R2 = 0.61 for 2005 and R 2 = 0.47 for 2003. Although the correlation is moderate, we consider it supportive given the characteristics of the field data, which were collected for a different study in a localized area and are not ideal for calibration to MODIS pixels. A proxy for annual growth potential was developed from the spring difference metric of 2005 for use as an environmental data layer in desert tortoise habitat modeling. The application of the spring difference metric to other imagery years presents potential for other applications such as fuels, invasive species, and dust-emission monitoring in the Mojave Desert.

  3. A general model of intra-annual tree growth using dendrometer bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sean M; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth is an important indicator of forest health, productivity, and demography. Knowing precisely how trees' grow within a year, instead of across years, can lead to a finer understanding of the mechanisms that drive these larger patterns. The growing use of dendrometer bands in research forests has only rarely been used to measure growth at resolutions finer than yearly, but intra-annual growth patterns can be observed from dendrometer bands using precision digital calipers and weekly measurements. Here we present a workflow to help forest ecologists fit growth models to intra-annual measurements using standard optimization functions provided by the R platform. We explain our protocol, test uncertainty in parameter estimates with respect to sample sizes, extend the optimization protocol to estimate robust lower and upper annual diameter bounds, and discuss potential challenges to optimal fits. We offer R code to implement this workflow. We found that starting values and initial optimization routines are critical to fitting the best functional forms. After using a bounded, broad search method, a more focused search algorithm obtained consistent results. To estimate starting and ending annual diameters, we combined the growth function with early and late estimates of beginning and ending growth. Once we fit the functions, we present extension algorithms that estimate periodic reductions in growth, total growth, and present a method of controlling for the shifting allocation to girth during the growth season. We demonstrate that with these extensions, an analysis of growth response to weather (e.g., the water available to a tree) can be derived in a way that is comparable across trees, years, and sites. Thus, this approach, when applied across broader data sets, offers a pathway to build inference about the effects of seasonal weather on growth, size- and light-dependent patterns of growth, species-specific patterns, and phenology. PMID:25691954

  4. A general model of intra-annual tree growth using dendrometer bands

    OpenAIRE

    Sean M McMahon; Parker, Geoffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Tree growth is an important indicator of forest health, productivity, and demography. Knowing precisely how trees' grow within a year, instead of across years, can lead to a finer understanding of the mechanisms that drive these larger patterns. The growing use of dendrometer bands in research forests has only rarely been used to measure growth at resolutions finer than yearly, but intra-annual growth patterns can be observed from dendrometer bands using precision digital calipers and weekly ...

  5. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  6. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 ± 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 ± 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those offered

  7. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Sheikhlar; Abd Razk Alimon; Hassan Daud; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Goh Yong Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diet...

  8. Interception and transfer of wet-deposited (134)Cs to potato foliage and tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M

    2016-01-01

    Contamination levels on potato foliage and tubers were investigated by repeated sampling after multiple foliar contaminations of wet-deposited (134)Cs at five different growth stages in a micro-plot field experiment in three successive years. Application of the radionuclide early in the growing season (deposition date 19-27 June, growth stage II = plant establishment) resulted in low (134)Cs activity concentration in potato tubers across sampling occasions (mean 60, 25 and 115 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (D.W.) for years 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Following radionuclide deposition in the middle of the growing season (15-24 July, growth stage III = tuber initiation), (134)Cs activity concentration in tubers across sampling occasions was found to be highest (mean 150, 850 and 660 Bq kg(-1) D.W. for years 1, 2 and 3, respectively). When the radionuclide was sprayed on at later stages (5-7 August, growth stage IV = tuber bulking), (134)Cs activity concentrations in tubers across sampling dates decreased (mean 75, 310 and 395 Bq kg(-1) D.W. for years 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Deposition in the second half of August (15-28 August, late growth stage IV and beginning of growth stage V = tuber maturation) resulted in yet lower (134)Cs activity concentration in tubers. Potato tubers may concentrate as much as up to 2 times more (134)Cs than foliage depending on deposition date of radionuclide. PMID:26519923

  9. Annual Glyphosate Treatments Alter Growth of Unaffected Bentgrass (Agrostis) Weeds and Plant Community Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrens, Collin W.; Carol A Auer

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB) and redtop (RT), where the glyphosate resistance (GR) trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate ...

  10. Measurements of environmental elements of foliages with MXRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microbeam X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) analysis by employing X-ray lens is used to determine the content of heavy metal elements and sulphur of pine needles from different regions of Beijing city, and the relation-ship between content and air pollution is studied. The elements leading to air pollution are confirmed, according to the comparation of injured needle with normal one. Two dimensional micro automatic scanning of middle part of Buxus microphylla foliages is achieved, and the results show the anti-contaminated ability of Buxus microphylla foliages for several metal elements. The research validates the application of microbeam X-ray fluorescence analysis by employing X-ray lens in detecting environmental samples methodologically, which provides scientific basis for environmental research, pollution treatment and environmental management. (authors)

  11. Foliage temperature and latent heat flux of irrigated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of 42 hourly measurements from a weighing lysimeter of foliage temperature provided a basis from which to evaluate the residual energy balance method for determining latent heat flux which incorporated foliage temperature measurements by an infrared thermometer. The measurements were taken regularly during daylight in a 2-ha field of irrigated wheat and covered a 14-day period ending at anthesis. The residual method () underestimated lysimeter latent heat loss () by 11% and accounted for 79% of the variance in . Uncertainty in ranged from overestimates of ∼ 35 W m−2 when advective effects were minimized with ∼ 95% profile adjustment to underestimates as high as 20% of (approaching 200 W m−2) resulting from flux divergence in latent heat flux of comparable magnitude in causing advective enhancement of evaporation loss. This range in performance of was explained in part owing to a variable fetch requirement, contributed to by atmospheric conditions of stability in influencing boundary layer development. The greatest uncertainty in was observed during stable atmospheric conditions when foliage temperature lower than ambient accompanied significant local advective enhancement of crop evaporation. (author)

  12. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for the supplemented groups. CP digestibility was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for goats supplemented with Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P < 0.05) for the goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P < 0.01) in supplemented groups. The hot carcass weight was higher in the group supplemented with A. senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only. PMID:26563272

  13. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  14. Erythrina foliage as an alternative feed for growing goats in Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Kongmanila, Daovy

    2012-01-01

    Foliages from some tropical plants and from different species of the legume Erythrina were examined in five studies assessing the characteristics of these foliages as feed for goats. Digestibility and feed preference studies showed that ad libitum feeding of foliage from Erythrina (Erythrina variegata), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and kapok (Ceiba pentandra) resulted in a longer time spent eating and more changes in diet selection, feed intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility ...

  15. Translocation, accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in rice after foliage contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single leaf of rice stem was artificially contaminated with 137Cs at different growth stages to study its foliage absorption and translocation. The results showed that the translocation rate of 137Cs to non-contaminated parts of the plant was related with the phyllo-taxis of the contaminated leaf and the majority of 137Cs in the plant was distributed in leaves and stems. For rice being contaminated, there was a positive linear relationship between the accumulation of 137Cs in each non-contaminated part of the plant and the amount of the contamination. The order of the specific activity of 137Cs was: Leaf>Stem>root>ear in non-contaminated parts of the plant

  16. Characterization of Foliage Mutants for Plant Variety Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding for new plant varieties requires a substantial investment in terms of skill, labour, material resources and financing. Thus, registration of new plant variety is important to ensure return of revenue and protection of the breeder's right. Before a new variety is registered, it has to comply certain requirements under Plant Variety Protection Act. One of the most important requirements is, the new species/variety must be morphologically distinguishable from existing plant varieties. This paper discusses detailed leaf characteristics of 4 foliage mutants produced by Malaysian Nuclear Agency as part of the requirement for new variety registration. (author)

  17. Seasonal changes in stable carbon isotope ratios within annual growth rings of Pinus radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stable isotope composition of photosynthetically assimilated carbon (δ13C) is determined by the ratio of the leaf internal CO2 concentration (ci) to that of the ambient air (ca), and so reflects the contribution of both stomatal conductance (gs) and the rate of photosynthesis (A). Assimilated carbon which is subsequently laid down as wood in annual growth rings may therefore represent a time integrated record of physiological responses by the whole tree to seasonal changes in the environmental variables regulating growth. We analysed the stable carbon isotope composition of Pinus radiata wood collected from two plantation forest sites in New Zealand which differ markedly in temperature, rainfall and soil characteristics. For both sites, discs were cut from the stem of several trees near ground level and whole wood samples were taken from within individual annual growth rings over a number of years. At one site, diameter bands were installed over the 1994 - 1996 growing seasons in order to date precisely the formation of wood during that time. Trees at each site consistently showed a seasonal pattern in the stable isotope composition of wood within individual growth rings. The amplitude of seasonal δ13C variation at the wet and dry sites were 1-2 per thousand and 4 per thousand respectively. Mean δ13C values from the wet site were 3 per thousand more 13C depleted than those from the dry site implying lower water-use efficiency (carbon assimilation per unit transpiration). A process-based, model of stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation was combined with a soil-water balance model to estimate the average daily leaf-level intercellular CO2 concentration (ci). Over two growing seasons at each site there was generally good agreement between mean canopy-level ci derived from the tree-ring δ13C data and modelled leaf-level ci levels. Further, the ratio of annual CO2 assimilation to transpiration estimated by the model for each site correlated with the

  18. Elemental composition of annual growth rings in spruce and lime wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trees usually form visible annual growth rings. In order to get a chronological record of trace element pollution in the environment instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine element content (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sm, Sr, W and Zn) in 10-year-old segments of one hundred-old lime Tilia cordata Mill and in 90-old spruce wood Picea abies Karst originating from the area of Central Spis (Slovak Republic) known for the maximum level of pollution with heavy metals [1,2]. Samples were collected from two sides of a lime (SW and NW) and from one side of a spruce. No correlation of elements was observed between two sides of a lime. Correlation of elements in relevant rings of two types of wood was not evident

  19. Three mimic mutants for reclining foliage in common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new mutants for the reclining foliage (RF) character were induced by treating seed of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines B-351 and 182-1 with 20 krad of .gamma.-radiation. These two mutants were shown to be monogenic and recessive. Allelism tests between the common RF gene rf and the two new mimic mutants for RF indicated that each of the three mutants has an independent locus. The symbols rf2 and rf3 were given to the new mutants. F2 data from the allelism tests showed that the rf2 stock carries a recessive epistatic gene in that does not affect rf2 but suppresses expression of rf and rf3. The rf locus was shown to be independent of the Sur locus for RF in linkage group VII

  20. Uptake of tritium through foliage in capsicum fruitescens, L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium uptake and release patterns throuogh foliage in Capsicum fruitescens, L. were investigated using twelve potted plants, under different conditions of exposure and release. The plants studied belonged to two age groups, 3 months and 5 months. The average half residence time for the species was found to be 42.6 min, on the basis of treating the entire group of plants as a single cluster. The individual release rates showed a variation of up to a factor of two, for half residence time values (Tsub(1/2)). The second component was not easily resolvable in most of the cases. Tissue bound tritium showed interesting uptake patterns. The ratios between tissue bound tritium and tissue free water tritium concentrations indicated regular mode of uptake with well defined rate constants in the case of long exposure periods. (author)

  1. Advanced growth and surface analysis system for in situ studies of interface formation. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first annual report for developing an advanced integrated in situ UHV growth/analysis system for synchrotron radiation studies of interface and surface reactions which lead to epitaxial structures on Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex alloys. This equipment will allow one to use techniques based on synchrotron radiation, such as photoemission, x-ray standing wave (XSW), and surface x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAFS) to determining the electronic states and atomic configurations of surfaces in metal-silicon, metal-germanium and metal-silicon-germanium alloys. Since the award of the contract the authors have completed a detailed design of the overall system, identified commercially available equipment which fits the requirements and have purchased or ordered all of this equipment. They have also custom designed a considerable amount of equipment which is not available commercially because of the special requirements. This includes both of the UHV chambers, sample manipulators, and a mobile support stand. In this report, they will describe the design and purchase status of the system. An overview of the equipment purchase status is given in Appendix 1. The details of their custom designed growth and analytical chambers are given in Appendix 2

  2. Radiocarbon evidence for annual growth rings in a deep sea octocoral (Primnoa resedaeformis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, O A; Scott, D B; Risk, M J; Guilderson, T P

    2005-04-05

    The deep-sea gorgonian octocoral Primnoa resedaeformis is distributed throughout the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at depths of 65-3200 m. It has a two-part skeleton of calcite and gorgonin. Towards the inside of the axial skeleton gorgonin and calcite are deposited in concentric growth rings, similar to tree rings. Colonies were collected from the Northeast Channel (northwest Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Nova Scotia, Canada) from depths of 250-475 m. Radiocarbon was measured in individual rings isolated from sections of each colony, after dissolution of calcite. Each {Delta}{sup 14}C measurement was paired with a ring age determined by three amateur ring counters. The precision of ring counts averaged better than {+-} 2 years. Accurate reconstruction of 20th century bomb-radiocarbon shows that (1) the growth rings are formed annually, (2) the gorgonin is derived from surface particulate organic matter (POM) and (3) useful environmental data are recorded in the organic endoskeletons of deep-sea octocorals. These results support the use of Primnoa resedaeformis as a long-term, high resolution monitor of surface ocean conditions, particularly in temperate and boreal environments where proxy data are lacking.

  3. Measuring annual growth using written expression curriculum-based measurement: An examination of seasonal and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A; Mercer, Sterett H; Payan, Anita; McGee, Wendy

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine annual growth patterns and gender differences in written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) when used in the context of universal screening. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 672) from 2 elementary schools that used WE-CBM as a universal screener participated in the study. Student writing samples were scored for production-dependent, production-independent, and accurate-production indicators. Results of latent growth models indicate that for most WE-CBM outcome indicators across most grade levels, average growth was curvilinear, with increasing curvilinearity on all indicators as grade level increased. Evidence of gender differences was mixed with girls having higher initial scores on all WE-CBM indicators except for total words written (second and third grades), correct minus incorrect writing sequences (fourth grade only), and percent correct writing sequences (second-fourth grades) where differences were not statistically significant. Despite differences in initial level, there were few gender differences in growth and limited overall between-student variability in linear slope. The results of this study extend research on annual patterns of growth and gender differences in WE-CBM by analyzing all 3 types of WE-CBM indicators, including upper elementary grades, and assessing skills more frequently (i.e., 4 to 5 times in 1 year) than in prior research on annual growth. The findings have implications for universal screening in WE-CBM and for understanding gender differences in writing performance. PMID:25133462

  4. Growth response of temperate mountain grasslands to inter-annual variations of snow cover duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Choler

    2015-02-01

    (NDVIint, used as a surrogate for aboveground primary productivity, and snow cover duration were derived from a 13 year long time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS. A regional-scale meteorological forcing that accounted for topographical effects was provided by the SAFRAN–Crocus–MEPRA model chain. A hierarchical path analysis was developed to analyze the multivariate causal relationships between forcing variables and proxies of primary productivity. Inter-annual variations in primary productivity were primarily governed by year-to-year variations in the length of the snow-free period and to a much lesser extent by temperature and precipitation during the growing season. A prolonged snow cover reduces the number and magnitude of frost events during the initial growth period but this has a negligeable impact on NDVIint as compared to the strong negative effect of a delayed snow melting. The maximum NDVI slightly responded to increased summer precipitation and temperature but the impact on productivity was weak. The period spanning from peak standing biomass to the first snowfall accounted for two thirds of NDVIint and this explained the high sensitivity of NDVIint to autumn temperature and autumn rainfall that control the timing of the first snowfall. The ability of mountain plants to maintain green tissues during the whole snow-free period along with the relatively low responsiveness of peak standing biomass to summer meteorological conditions led to the conclusion that the length of the snow-free period is the primary driver of the inter-annual variations in primary productivity of mountain grasslands.

  5. Regime switch in karstic caves atmosphere; possible consequence on annual speleothem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, F.; Genthon, P.; Mangin, A.; D'Hulst, D.

    2005-12-01

    Speleothem are usually considered as records of past climate, and are supposed to present annual growth rings. Yet, they grow inside caves that benefit from very stable environment. However, Bourges et al. 2001, have shown that the atmosphere of Aven d'Orgnac (South East France), was characterized by drop of CO2 concentration and 222Rn activity at the end of autumn and presented each year the succession of a winter and a summer regime. Temperature data are now used to constrain the climate of this cave system. Our data consist in 5 years monitoring with 0.01°C accuracy, three short thermal profiling campaigns, and sparser data gathered in different French painted caves. Near the opening of Aven d'Orgnac, the Salle de Jolys room records each year at the end of autumn the onset of the winter regime that is shown to be triggered by the inverse density stratification induced by the decrease of the outside night temperature. Comparison of summer and winter vertical temperature profiles point to a thermoconvective destabilization of this room atmosphere, involving the downward flow of cold outside bearing air near the cave floor during winter nights. The winter regime propagates then stepwise inside the Aven d'Orgnac cave system. In Salle Plane, which is situated more than one kilometer away from the entrance, the winter regime has never been observed. Our thermal profiling experiment shows there low amplitude (0.03°C) temperature changes, with major daily and half daily components, that are strongly correlated with the pressure first time derivative. Comparison with temperature records from other rooms of the Aven d'Orgnac cave system and with other caves monitored by our team suggest that a strong correlation between temperature changes and the pressure first time derivative could be considered as a clue to the confined character of a given cave room. We propose therefore that the Aven d'Orgnac cave system could be divided in two parts : the open system, where the

  6. Intra-annual response of tree growth to climate in temperate forests: larger implications of fine-scale responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, S.; Parker, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Tree growth is a key component in the movement of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems. Although correlating annual growth rates to temperature an precipitation averages is the most common approach to extrapolating climate sensitivities, individual trees respond to weather at a much finer temporal scale. This response, further, is sensitive to many environmental factors and that sensitivity can depend on species, individual location in the species range, or size of the individual among other factors. Using weekly and bi-weekly measurements of dendrometer bands on 100 trees in three sites in the eastern US (Massachusetts, Virginia, and Maryland) over four years, we fit functional forms to intra-annual growth and compared patterns in productivity response to daily temperature and water balance information. We also determined phenological patterns in growth initiation, cessation, and maximum rate. We found that across size classes and species, trees respond to high temperatures and minor droughts by pausing in diameter increase. Although water retention may contribute some to this pattern, large differences in end-of-year biomass gain demonstrate a clear relationship between these pauses and overall annual carbon gain. Species did show some distinct patterns in this sensitivity and the overall phenology of growth. Further, the growing season as defined by when the majority of biomass increase actually occurred was much smaller than the leaf-out season indicating that droughts and heat-waves in a key subset of the green season can have a disproportionate effect on tree carbon uptake and forest carbon balance.

  7. Founders Energy Ltd. 1998 annual report : fiscally prudent, value driven balanced growth strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Founders Energy Ltd is a growth-oriented junior resource company engaged in the acquisition and development of oil and natural gas properties in Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The annual review provides details of the company's operations and relevant financial performance during the 1998 fiscal year. In brief, the company realized significant increases in production and reserves, top quartile findings and development costs. It reported significant increases in leverage to natural gas through exploration success at Pouce Coupe and the acquisition of Opal Energy Inc.. It established new core areas in west-central Alberta, Peace River Arch and west-central Saskatchewan. It achieved a better balanced risk profile through geographical diversification and better balance to exploration and development. It increased undeveloped land area to 160,268 net acres and added 11.5 million barrels of established reserves at a finding cost of $ 6.28 per barrel. Financial highlights include increased gross revenue, increased net income per share, and increased shareholders' equity. tabs., figs

  8. In vitro antioxidant and H + , K + -ATPase inhibition activities of Acalypha wilkesiana foliage extract

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kashi Prakash Gupta; Pradeepa,; Manjunatha Hanumanthappa

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activty and anti-acid property of Acalypha wilkesiana foliage extract. Materials and Methods: Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from healthy leaves of A. wilkesiana. Free radical scavenging activity and H + , K + -ATPase inhibition activities of aqueous foliage extracts was screened by in vitro models. Statistical Analysis Used: All experiments were performed in triplicate and results are expressed as mean ± SEM. Results: A...

  9. Insects associated with tropical foliage produced in the coffee growing region of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Leidy V. Cardona; Efrain R. Henao; Misael Salgado; Steven P. Arthurs

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey of insects and pest management practices on 34 farms growing ornamental tropical foliage plants in the central coffee region of Colombia over two years. Tropical foliage provided habitat for a diverse range of insects. In total, phytophagous or detritivorous insects from six orders, 40 families and 62 genera were collected. The most common were Hemiptera (29 genera from 16 families), followed by Coleoptera (17 genera from 4 families), Diptera (5 genera from 5 families), ...

  10. Time-resolved metabolomics reveals metabolic modulation in rice foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arita Masanori

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate the interaction of dynamics among modules that constitute biological systems, comprehensive datasets obtained from "omics" technologies have been used. In recent plant metabolomics approaches, the reconstruction of metabolic correlation networks has been attempted using statistical techniques. However, the results were unsatisfactory and effective data-mining techniques that apply appropriate comprehensive datasets are needed. Results Using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS and capillary electrophoresis diode-array detection (CE-DAD, we analyzed the dynamic changes in the level of 56 basic metabolites in plant foliage (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica at hourly intervals over a 24-hr period. Unsupervised clustering of comprehensive metabolic profiles using Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM allowed classification of the biochemical pathways activated by the light and dark cycle. The carbon and nitrogen (C/N metabolism in both periods was also visualized as a phenotypic linkage map that connects network modules on the basis of traditional metabolic pathways rather than pairwise correlations among metabolites. The regulatory networks of C/N assimilation/dissimilation at each time point were consistent with previous works on plant metabolism. In response to environmental stress, glutathione and spermidine fluctuated synchronously with their regulatory targets. Adenine nucleosides and nicotinamide coenzymes were regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We also demonstrated that SOM analysis was applicable to the estimation of unidentifiable metabolites in metabolome analysis. Hierarchical clustering of a correlation coefficient matrix could help identify the bottleneck enzymes that regulate metabolic networks. Conclusion Our results showed that our SOM analysis with appropriate metabolic time-courses effectively revealed the synchronous dynamics among metabolic modules and elucidated the

  11. Characterizing leaf area index (LAI) and vertical foliage profile (VFP) over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Ganguly, S.; Zhang, G.; Hofton, M. A.; Nelson, R. F.; Dubayah, R.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and vertical foliage profile (VFP) are among the important canopy structural variables. Recent advances in lidar remote sensing technology have demonstrated the capability of accurately mapping LAI and VFP over large areas. The primary objective of this study was to derive and validate a LAI and VFP product over the contiguous United States (CONUS) using spaceborne waveform lidar data. This product was derived at the footprint level from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) using a biophysical model. We validated GLAS-derived LAI and VFP across major forest biomes using airborne waveform lidar. The comparison results showed that GLAS retrievals of total LAI were generally accurate with little bias (r2 = 0.67, bias = -0.13, RMSE = 0.75). The derivations of GLAS retrievals of VFP within layers were not as accurate overall (r2 = 0.36, bias = -0.04, RMSE = 0.26), and these varied as a function of height, increasing from understory to overstory - 0 to 5 m layer: r2 = 0.04, bias = 0.09, RMSE = 0.31; 10 to 15 m layer: r2 = 0.53, bias = -0.08, RMSE = 0.22; and 15 to 20 m layer: r2 = 0.66, bias = -0.05, RMSE = 0.20. Significant relationships were also found between GLAS LAI products and different environmental factors, in particular elevation and annual precipitation. In summary, our results provide a unique insight into vertical canopy structure distribution across North American ecosystems. This data set is a first step towards a baseline of canopy structure needed for evaluating climate and land use induced forest changes at the continental scale in the future, and should help deepen our understanding of the role of vertical canopy structure in terrestrial ecosystem processes across varying scales.

  12. Characterizing Leaf Area Index (LAI and Vertical Foliage Profile (VFP over the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI and vertical foliage profile (VFP are among the important canopy structural variables. Recent advances in lidar remote sensing technology have demonstrated the capability of accurately mapping LAI and VFP over large areas. The primary objective of this study was to derive and validate a LAI and VFP product over the contiguous United States using spaceborne waveform lidar data. This product was derived at the footprint level from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS using a biophysical model. We validated GLAS derived LAI and VFP across major forest biomes using airborne waveform lidar. The comparison results showed that GLAS retrievals of total LAI were generally accurate with little bias (r2 = 0.67, bias = −0.13, RMSE = 0.75. The derivations of GLAS retrievals of VFP within layers was not as accurate overall (r2 = 0.36, bias = −0.04, RMSE = 0.26, and these varied as a function of height, increasing from understory to overstory −0 to 5 m layer: r2 = 0.04, bias = 0.09, RMSE = 0.31; 10 to 15 m layer: r2 = 0.53, bias = −0.08, RMSE = 0.22; and 15 to 20 m layer: r2 = 0.66, bias =−0.05, RMSE = 0.20. Significant relationships were also found between GLAS LAI products and different environmental factors, in particular elevation and annual precipitation. In summary, our results provide a unique insight into vertical canopy structure distribution across North American ecosystems. This data set is a first step towards a baseline of canopy structure needed for evaluating climate and land use induced forest changes at continental scale in the future and should help deepen our understanding of the role of vertical canopy structure on terrestrial ecosystem processes across varying scales.

  13. Annual Enrollment Report: Growth in Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Daniels, George L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides the key findings of the 2001 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments. Shows that undergraduate enrollments continued to grow while graduate enrollments declined. Discusses degrees granted and race, ethnicity, and gender factors. (PM)

  14. The 1993 annual conference of the Israeli Association for Crystal Growth. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers presented in oral and poster sessions of one day conference, organized by Israeli Association for Crystal Growth, are compiled in this document. Main topics covered in this document can be classified as: (i) Fundamental and numerical analysis of crystal growth. (ii) Techniques of crystal growth and structural analysis. (iii) Thin film growth and characterization

  15. Three-dimensional mapping of light transmittance and foliage distribution using lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The horizontal and vertical distributions of light transmittance were evaluated as a function of foliage distribution using lidar (light detection and ranging) observations for a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) stand in the Turkey Lakes Watershed. Along the vertical profile of vegetation, horizontal slices of probability of light transmittance were derived from an Optech ALTM 1225 instrument's return pulses (two discrete, 15-cm diameter returns) using indicator kriging. These predictions were compared with (i) below canopy (1-cm spatial resolution) transect measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) and (ii) measurements of tree height. A first-order trend was initially removed from the lidar returns. The vertical distribution of vegetation height was then sliced into nine percentiles and indicator variograms were fitted to them. Variogram parameters were found to vary as a function of foliage height above ground. In this paper, we show that the relationship between ground measurements of FPAR and kriged estimates of vegetation cover becomes stronger and tighter at coarser spatial resolutions. Three-dimensional maps of foliage distribution were computed as stacks of the percentile probability surfaces. These probability surfaces showed correspondence with individual tree-based observations and provided a much more detailed characterization of quasi-continuous foliage distribution. These results suggest that discrete-return lidar provides a promising technology to capture variations of foliage characteristics in forests to support the development of functional linkages between biophysical and ecological studies. (author)

  16. Foliage Plant Retrieval using Polar Fourier Transform, Color Moments and Vein Features

    CERN Document Server

    Kadir, Abdul; Susanto, Adhi; Santosa, Paulus Insap

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposed a method that combines Polar Fourier Transform, color moments, and vein features to retrieve leaf images based on a leaf image. The method is very useful to help people in recognizing foliage plants. Foliage plants are plants that have various colors and unique patterns in the leaf. Therefore, the colors and its patterns are information that should be counted on in the processing of plant identification. To compare the performance of retrieving system to other result, the experiments used Flavia dataset, which is very popular in recognizing plants. The result shows that the method gave better performance than PNN, SVM, and Fourier Transform. The method was also tested using foliage plants with various colors. The accuracy was 90.80% for 50 kinds of plants.

  17. Foliage Plant Retrieval Using Polar Fourier Transform, Color Moments and Vein Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a method that combines Polar Fo urier Transform, color moments, and vein features to retrieve leaf images based on a leaf image. The method is very useful to help people in recognizing foliage plants. Foliage plants are plants that have various colors and unique patterns in the leaf. Th erefore, the colors and its patterns are information that sh ould be counted on in the processing of plant identification. To compare the performance of retri eving system to other result, the experiments used Flavia dataset, which is very popular in recognizin g plants. The result shows that the method gave bet ter performance than PNN, SVM, and Fourier Transform. T he method was also tested using foliage plants with various colors. The accuracy was 90.80% for 50 kinds of plants.

  18. Impact of Foliage Surface Properties on Vegetation Reflection and Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Yan, L.; Zhao, Y.; Jiao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Optical properties of phytoelements and their distribution in the canopy space (i.e., canopy structure) are among key factors that determine light environment in vegetation canopies, which in turn drives various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. Canopy radiative response is the source of information about ecosystem properties from remote sensing. Understanding of how radiation interacts with foliage and traverses in the 3D vegetation canopy is essential to both modeling and remote sensing communities. Radiation scattered by a leaf includes information from two dissimilar sources - the leaf surface and leaf interior. The first component of scattered radiation emanates from light reflected at the air-cuticle interface. This portion of reflected radiation does not interact with biochemical constituents inside the leaf and depends on the properties of the leaf surface. The leaf cuticle acts as a "barrier" for photons to enter the mesophyll and be absorbed; thus, tending to increase the leaf scattering. The second component mainly results from radiation interactions within the leaf-interior. The canopy radiation regime is sensitive to canopy structure, leaf surface properties and leaf biochemical constituents. Impact of leaf surface properties on canopy reflection and absorption is poorly understood. Radiation scattered at the surface of leaves is partly polarized. Fresnel reflection is the principal cause of light polarization. Polarization measurements provide a means to assess the impact of leaf surface properties on canopy radiation regime. We measured Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) in the principal plane and its polarized portion of needles and shoots of two coniferous species in the 400 to 1000 nm spectral interval. The needle and shoot BRF spectra were decomposed into polarized (PBRF) and diffuse (DBRF) components: BRF=PBRF+DBRF. Our analyses indicate: 1) PBRF in forward directions can account for up to 70% of

  19. Annuals sprouting adventitiously from the hypocotyl: their compensatory growth and implications for weed management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latzel, Vít; Dospělová, L.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2009), s. 923-929. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : hypocotyle * regeneration * annuals Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  20. Comparison of green and variegated foliage plant species based on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under different light intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare green and variegated foliage plants namely; Hedera helix, Ardisia pusilla and Scindapsus aureus were treated under three different light intensities (2, 10 and 20 micro mol-m-2-s-1) using florescent lights for three months, and photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content were measured. IMAGING-PAM chlorophyll fluorescence system was used to determine photosynthetic characteristics. The results showed that Fv/Fm (maximal PS-II quantum yield) and Y (II) (effective PS-II quantum yield) values were lower in variegated species compared to those in green species at 2 micro mol-m-2-s-1 light intensity. Although, Fv/Fm and Y (II) values in variegated S. aureus was lower than variegated H. helix, but variegated S. aureus survived and Hedera helix plants died after low light treatment. In contrast, Fv/Fm and Y (II) values were increased in green and variegated species with increasing the light intensity, except Fv/Fm value for variegated S. aureus which was slightly decreased at 20 micro mol-m-2-s-1 light intensity. The ETR (electron transport rate) value was also lower in both green and variegated species at 2 micro mol-m-2-s-1 intensity. ETR values saturated in green and variegated plants with increasing the light intensity. Higher level of chlorophyll was obtained in green species compared to variegated species for both low and high light intensity treatments. Chlorophyll content in green species decreased at 20 micro mol-m-2-s-1 light intensity, whereas in variegated species, chlorophyll content increased with increasing the light intensities. The results of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed that especially low light intensity created stress condition in variegated foliage plants compared to green plants, and affected the normal growth and development. (author)

  1. Quantity and quality of light affect growth and reproduction of the invasive annual plant Impatiens glandulifera

    OpenAIRE

    Strømme, Christian Bianchi

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions occur worldwide and are among the primary causes of biodiversity loss. Some ecosystems are more prone to biological invasions due to interactions between traits of the invasive species and their new environment. For plants, light quantity and quality affect community invasibility, and previous studies show that the performance of the invasive summer-annual Impatiens glandulifera (Royle) is negatively affected by shade due to reduced light quantity, but effects of light qu...

  2. Insects associated with tropical foliage produced in the coffee growing region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of insects and pest management practices on 34 farms growing ornamental tropical foliage plants in the central coffee region of Colombia over two years. Tropical foliage provided habitat for a diverse range of insects. In total, phytophagous or detritivorous insects from six orders, 40 families and 62 genera were collected. The most common were Hemiptera (29 genera from 16 families, followed by Coleoptera (17 genera from 4 families, Diptera (5 genera from 5 families, Lepidoptera (5 genera from 4 families, Hymenoptera (3 genera from 2 families and Orthoptera (2 genera from 2 families. The most common phytophagous species were leaf cutting ants (Atta and Acromyrmex spp., leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae, leafhoppers (Cicadellidae, stinkbugs (Pentatomidae, squash bugs (Coreidae, tree hoppers (Membracidae and plant hoppers (Fulgoridae. Beneficial insects identified from tropical foliage included predators and parasitoids amongst 5 orders, 12 families and 22 genera. The most abundant were predators among the Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, Reduviidae, Lycidae and Formicidae but only low numbers of parasitoids (Ichneumonidae, Braconidae and Tachinidae were collected. A pest management questionnaire given to growers revealed a preponderance of reliance on broad spectrum insecticides with a smaller number of growers (approximately one third also using some biological control methods. Our survey contributes basic information regarding diversity of Neotropical insects associated with ornamental foliage plants.

  3. Comparison of Three Insect Sampling Methods in Sweetpotato Foliage in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three sampling methods-sweep-net, hand-vacuum modified from a leaf vacuum/blower, and a wheeled, blower-vacuum designed to blow insects from the foliage into the vacuum port of a leaf vacuum-were compared as methods for sampling insects in sweetpotatoes, lpomead batatas L. Results of the 4-yr study...

  4. Field growth comparisons of invasive alien annual and native perennial grasses in monocultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medusahead is rapidly invading native grassland and cheatgrass dominated grassland throughout the western US. Understanding growth dynamics of medusahead relative to bluebunch wheatgrass and cheatgrass is central to predicting and managing medusahead invasion. We hypothesized that medusahead would...

  5. Effects of controlled release fertilizer and foliage fertilizer on potted strawberry%控释肥与叶面肥对盆栽草莓的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成国; 李增红; 周杰; 彭婷亭

    2015-01-01

    以草莓品种‘红颜’为试验材料,通过调查草莓相关指标,探究控释肥与叶面肥对草莓‘红颜’营养生长、繁殖、产量等的影响,为基质盆栽草莓提供施肥技术和方法。结果表明:①叶面肥和控释肥对草莓营养生长有促进作用,除功能叶数外,对其他性状的促进作用都是显著的;控释肥对功能叶数和株高的影响达到极显著水平。②叶面肥增强了草莓的无性繁殖力,有效分株和匍匐茎分别增加了38.64%和133.77%;控释肥增加了草莓的有效分株,而降低了草莓匍匐茎数。③控释肥和叶面肥对基质盆栽草莓结果数和产量都有显著的负面影响。%The strawberry variety ‘Hongyan’was used as a test material,and its vegetative growth,repro-duction and fruit yield were investigated so as to explore controlled release fertilizer and foliage fertilizer practices of soilless potted strawberry.The results indicated that both foliage fertilizer and controlled release fertilizer had a significant accelerating effect on the vegetative growth of strawberry except the functional leaves,while controlled release fertilizer very significantly influenced the number of functional leaves and the plant height;Foliage fertiliz-er enhanced the asexual reproduction of strawberry,with the effective offshoots and stolons increasing by 38.64%and 133.77% respectively;Controlled release fertilizer increased the effective offshoots of strawberry but reduced the number of strawberry runners;Both foliage fertilizer and controlled release fertilizer had a significant negative effect on the fruit number and yield of soilless potted strawberry.

  6. Effect of D2O on growth properties and chemical structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Bali, Garima [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Reeves, David T [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Sun, Qining [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Shah, Riddhi S [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    In present paper, we report the production and detailed structural analysis of deuterium-enriched rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) for neutron scattering experiments. An efficient method to produce deuterated biomass was developed by designing hydroponic perfusion chambers. In preliminary studies, the partial deuterated rye samples were grown in increasing levels of D2O to study the seed germination and the level of deuterium incorporation as a function of D2O concentration. Solution NMR method indicated 36.9 % deuterium incorporation in 50 % D2O grown annual rye samples and further significant increase in the deuterium incorporation level was observed by germinating the rye seedlings in H2O and growing in 50 % D2O inside the perfusion chambers. Moreover, in an effort to compare the substrate characteristics related to enzymatic hydrolysis on deuterated and protiated version of biomass, annual rye grown in 50 % D2O was selected for detailed biomass characterization studies. The compositional analyses, degree of polymerization and cellulose crystallinity were compared with its protiated control. The cellulose molecular weight indicated slight variation with deuteration; however, hemicellulose molecular weights and cellulose crystallinity remain unaffected with the deuteration. Besides the minor differences in biomass components, the development of deuterated biomass for neutron scattering application is essential to understand the complex biomass conversion processes.

  7. Growth of Critically Endangered annual fish Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinca Peres da Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of knowledge of the biology of endangered species for the planning of conservation and management efforts, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of temperature on the growth of Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Ahl, 1924. To clarify the thermal influence on the growth of the species, temperatures of 16, 20, 24 , and 28°C were tested in triplicate. The present study showed that a water temperature of 28°C is detrimental to the growth of the species. Among the other tested temperatures, it was found that the optimum temperature for growth decreases as an individual ages and is slightly lower for females. It was demonstrated here that males reach a higher weight and length, and grow faster than females, reaching sexual maturity earlier. To optimize the growth of this species in captivity, the ideal temperature of the water during the initial life period is 24°C, until after puberty when the temperature should decrease to about 21°C.

  8. Highly plastic resource allocation to growth and reproduction in females of an African annual fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrtílek, Milan; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 616-628. ISSN 0906-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0112 Keywords : Nothobranchius * compensatory growth * egg size * life history * diet restriction Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.701, year: 2014

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia—A Case of Novel Weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoneczny, Dominik; Weston, Paul A.; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Gurr, Geoff M.; Callaway, Ragan M.; Weston, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic profiling allows for simultaneous and rapid annotation of biochemically similar organismal metabolites. An effective platform for profiling of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and their N-oxides (PANOs) was developed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions and surveyed for the presence of related PAs and PANOs in leaf tissues at various growth stages. Echium plantagineum possessed numerous related and abundant PANOs (>17) by seven days following seed germination, and these were also observed in rosette and flowering growth stages. In contrast, the less invasive E. vulgare accumulated significantly lower levels of most PANOs under identical glasshouse conditions. Several previously unreported PAs were also found at trace levels. Field-grown populations of both species were also evaluated for PA production and highly toxic echimidine N-oxide was amongst the most abundant PANOs in foliage of both species. PAs in field and glasshouse plants were more abundant in the more widely invasive species, E. plantagineum, and may provide competitive advantage by increasing the plant’s capacity to deter natural enemies in its invaded range through production of novel weapons. PMID:26561809

  10. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia—A Case of Novel Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Skoneczny

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic profiling allows for simultaneous and rapid annotation of biochemically similar organismal metabolites. An effective platform for profiling of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs was developed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions and surveyed for the presence of related PAs and PANOs in leaf tissues at various growth stages. Echium plantagineum possessed numerous related and abundant PANOs (>17 by seven days following seed germination, and these were also observed in rosette and flowering growth stages. In contrast, the less invasive E. vulgare accumulated significantly lower levels of most PANOs under identical glasshouse conditions. Several previously unreported PAs were also found at trace levels. Field-grown populations of both species were also evaluated for PA production and highly toxic echimidine N-oxide was amongst the most abundant PANOs in foliage of both species. PAs in field and glasshouse plants were more abundant in the more widely invasive species, E. plantagineum, and may provide competitive advantage by increasing the plant’s capacity to deter natural enemies in its invaded range through production of novel weapons.

  11. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia--A Case of Novel Weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoneczny, Dominik; Weston, Paul A; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Gurr, Geoff M; Callaway, Ragan M; Weston, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic profiling allows for simultaneous and rapid annotation of biochemically similar organismal metabolites. An effective platform for profiling of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and their N-oxides (PANOs) was developed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions and surveyed for the presence of related PAs and PANOs in leaf tissues at various growth stages. Echium plantagineum possessed numerous related and abundant PANOs (>17) by seven days following seed germination, and these were also observed in rosette and flowering growth stages. In contrast, the less invasive E. vulgare accumulated significantly lower levels of most PANOs under identical glasshouse conditions. Several previously unreported PAs were also found at trace levels. Field-grown populations of both species were also evaluated for PA production and highly toxic echimidine N-oxide was amongst the most abundant PANOs in foliage of both species. PAs in field and glasshouse plants were more abundant in the more widely invasive species, E. plantagineum, and may provide competitive advantage by increasing the plant's capacity to deter natural enemies in its invaded range through production of novel weapons. PMID:26561809

  12. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  13. Growth of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Regan, 1912) based in a temporary water body population in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenzon, A; Peret, A C; Bohrer, M B

    2001-02-01

    The growth of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia was studied in its natural environment, in order to obtain information about its biology. A total of 797 specimens of C. melanotaenia were collected on a monthly basis between April 1994 and March 1995 in a temporary water body, located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The growth curve in total length suggests, to both sexes, a fast initial growth. Males present a smaller growth rate than females, but they attain a higher average maximum length than the females. PMID:11340469

  14. Growth of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Regan, 1912) based in a temporary water body population in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    A. ARENZON; A. C. Peret; M. B. C. BOHRER

    2001-01-01

    The growth of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia was studied in its natural environment, in order to obtain information about its biology. A total of 797 specimens of C. melanotaenia were collected on a monthly basis between April 1994 and March 1995 in a temporary water body, located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The growth curve in total length suggests, to both sexes, a fast initial growth. Males present a smaller growth rate than females, but they attain a higher average maxi...

  15. The Correlation and Linear Regression Analysis between Annual GDP Growth Rate and Money Laundering in Albania during the Period 2007-2011*

    OpenAIRE

    Llambrini Sota; Fejzi Kolaneci

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first attempt to investigate the relationship between the annual GDP growth rate and money laundering in the Republic of Albania during the period 2007-2011. The main result of the study: there is a negative correlation between money laundering process and economic growth rate in Albania during the specified period; there is a negative correlation between money laundering and import, but there is a positive correlation between money laundering and the government expendi...

  16. Detection of foliage-obscured vehicle using a multiwavelength polarimetric lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S.; Stoker, J.; Greenlee, S.

    2008-01-01

    Foliage obscured man-made targets detection and identification is of great interest to many applications. In this paper, the backscattered laser signals from a multiwavelength polarimetric lidar were used to detect a vehicle hidden inside a vegetated area. The Polarimetric reflectance data from the lidar at two separate laser wavelengths at 1064 nm and 532 nm revealed distinct target characteristics from both the vehicle and the vegetation. The results from this case study demonstrated the validity of the proposed lidar detection technique. Furthermore, the results could potentially lead to a lidar detection and identification technique for a wide variety of foliage-obscured man-made targets under various application scenarios. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  17. Orange Is the New Green: Exploring the Restorative Capacity of Seasonal Foliage in Schoolyard Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Eli Paddle; Jason Gilliland

    2016-01-01

    Urban schoolyard environments are increasingly characterized by a proliferation of hard surfaces with little if any greenery. Schoolyard “greening” initiatives are becoming increasingly popular; however, schoolyard designs often fail to realize their restorative potential. In this quasi-experimental study, a proposed schoolyard greening project was used to visualize alternative planting designs and seasonal tree foliage; these design alternatives were subsequently used as visual stimuli in a ...

  18. Possible Influence of MLP Regulators in Foliage of Host Species on Invasion of Phyllophagous Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy I. Ponomarev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the northern border of the Gypsy moth area (Lymantria dispar L., 1758, caterpillars are reorient to exogenous regulators of membrane lipid peroxidation in connection with repeated cold periods during feeding. In case of an introduction of host plants with high contents of exogenous regulators of MLP (e.g. Fe2+ in foliage in these areas that may affect diapause duration, the boundaries of spreading and intensity of outbreaks may change.

  19. The dynamic of the annual carbon allocation to wood in European tree species is consistent with a combined source-sink limitation of growth: implications for modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, J.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Dufrene, E.; Francois, C.; Soudani, K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Delpierre, N.

    2015-05-01

    The extent to which wood growth is limited by carbon (C) supply (i.e. source control) or by cambial activity (i.e. sink control) will strongly determine the responses of trees to global changes. Nevertheless, the physiological processes that are responsible for limiting forest growth are still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the key determinants of the annual C allocation to wood along large soil and climate regional gradients over France. The study was conducted for five tree species representative of the main European forest biomes (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Quercus ilex, Quercus robur and Picea abies). The drivers of stand biomass growth were assessed on both inter-site and inter-annual scales. Our data set comprised field measurements performed at 49 sites (931 site-years) that included biometric measurements and a variety of stand characteristics (e.g. soil water holding capacity, leaf area index). It was complemented with process-based simulations when possible explanatory variables could not be directly measured (e.g. annual and seasonal tree C balance, bioclimatic water stress indices). Specifically, the relative influences of tree C balance (source control), direct environmental control (water and temperature controls of sink activity) and allocation adjustments related to age, past climate conditions, competition intensity and soil nutrient availability on growth were quantified. The inter-site variability in the stand C allocation to wood was predominantly driven by age-related decline. The direct effects of temperature and water stress on sink activity (i.e. effects independent from their effects on the C supply) exerted a strong influence on the annual stand wood growth in all of the species considered, including deciduous temperate species. The lagged effect of the past environmental conditions (e.g. the previous year's water stress and low C uptake) significantly affected the annual C allocation to wood. The C supply

  20. Effects of foliage plants on human physiological and psychological responses at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumeno, Desto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Escalation of task demands and time pressures tends to make a worker run into work stress, which leads to mental fatigue and depression. The mental fatigue can be reduced when attention capacity is restored. Nature can serve as a source of fascination which can restore the attention capacity. People bring plants indoors so they can experience nature in their workplace. The stress and fatigue are also affected by air temperatures. The increase or decrease of temperatures from the comfort zone may induce the stress and fatigue. The objective of this study is to investigate the intervention of using foliage plants placed inside a building at different air temperature levels. The effects of foliage plants on human stress and fatigue were measured by human physiological responses such as heart rate, amylase level, electroencephalography (EEG), and the secondary task-reaction time. Several different tasks, namely typing, math and logical sequences are included in the investigation of these studies. Fifteen subjects, with the age ranged from 22 to 38 years old have participated in the study using within subject design. From the study, it is revealed that the presence of foliage plants at several temperatures have different effects on meditation, secondary task reaction time and typing accuracy. This study also revealed that the presence of plants on several types of tasks has different effects of attention which are useful for increasing work performance.

  1. Disparate effects of plant genotypic diversity on foliage and litter arthropod communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutsinger, Greg [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Reynolds, Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Sanders, Dr. Nathan James [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2008-01-01

    Intraspecific diversity within plant species is increasingly recognized as an important influence on the structure of associated arthropod communities, though whether there are congruent responses of above- and belowground communities to intraspecific diversity remains unclear. In this study, we compare the effects of host-plant genotype and genotypic diversity of the perennial plant, Solidago altissima, on the arthropod community associated with living plant tissue (foliage-based community) and microarthropods associated with leaf litter (litter-based community). We found that variation among host-plant genotypes had strong effects on the diversity and composition of foliage-based arthropods, but only weak influence on litter-based microarthropods. Furthermore, host-plant genotypic diversity was positively related to the abundance and diversity of foliage-based arthropods, including herbivore and predator trophic levels. In contrast, there were minimal effects of genotypic diversity in litter on microarthropods. Our study illustrates that incorporating both above- and belowground perspective into community genetics studies leads to very different conclusions about the importance of intraspecific diversity, than when considering aboveground responses in isolation.

  2. Reconfiguration of tree architecture under the effect of wind, competition for light, and annual growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    In general, trees have self-similar architectures with longer and thicker branches near the roots. Yet, branch segments grown each year always have approximately the same length. This hierarchy of branch lengths and the whole self-similar characteristics results in fact from a continuous process of growth of new branches and shedding of old ones. To assess how such a process affects tree architecture, a functional-structural mechanically-based model of virtual trees is developed. In this model, trees grow into fractal structures to promote efficient photosynthesis in a competing environment. In addition, branch diameters increase in response to wind-induced loads. The results of this model suggest that most self-similar characteristics of trees can be explained by considering that tree are growing structure able to resist mechanical loads due to wind efficiently.

  3. Modelling Growth and Partitioning of Annual Above-Ground Vegetative and Reproductive Biomass of Grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggio, Franco; Vendrame, Nadia; Maniero, Giovanni; Pitacco, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In the current climate change scenarios, both agriculture and forestry inherently may act as carbon sinks and consequently can play a key role in limiting global warming. An urgent need exists to understand which land uses and land resource types have the greatest potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to global change. A common believe is that agricultural fields cannot be net carbon sinks due to many technical inputs and repeated disturbances of upper soil layers that all contribute to a substantial loss both of the old and newly-synthesized organic matter. Perennial tree crops (vineyards and orchards), however, can behave differently: they grow a permanent woody structure, stand undisturbed in the same field for decades, originate a woody pruning debris, and are often grass-covered. In this context, reliable methods for quantifying and modelling emissions and carbon sequestration are required. Carbon stock changes are calculated by multiplying the difference in oven dry weight of biomass increments and losses with the appropriate carbon fraction. These data are relatively scant, and more information is needed on vineyard management practices and how they impact vineyard C sequestration and GHG emissions in order to generate an accurate vineyard GHG footprint. During the last decades, research efforts have been made for estimating the vineyard carbon budget and its allocation pattern since it is crucial to better understand how grapevines control the distribution of acquired resources in response to variation in environmental growth conditions and agronomic practices. The objective of the present study was to model and compare the dynamics of current year's above-ground biomass among four grapevine varieties. Trials were carried out over three growing seasons in field conditions. The non-linear extra-sums-of-squares method demonstrated to be a feasible way of growth models comparison to statistically assess significant differences among

  4. The 19th KAIF/KNS annual conference growth of nuclear industry and its current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the president Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' speech at the UN general Conference in December 1953, nuclear industry for peaceful uses of nuclear energy has been developed steadily worldwide through international co-operation and collaboration during last half a century. However, from late 1980s, in particular, after Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 and growing public opposition on nuclear waste management and disposal, the growth of nuclear power plants worldwide, except some Asian countries, has been slowed down. Nuclear power currently supplies about 16 % of the world's electricity. In the next 50 years, it is expected that the world energy demand will increase about two times comparing current level while electricity demand will be tripled. Therefore, the nuclear industry should be expanded significantly in the next 50 years to meet the role for 'Prosperity beyond Peace'. The main issues for nuclear industry to take this important role are to increase in economics of nuclear power, and to resolve nuclear waste management and disposal. Some of these issues have been resolved mainly through international co-operation. For example, there are significant efforts to improve economics of nuclear power. This paper reviews worldwide efforts to resolve these issues and mentions what are the remaining ones

  5. Esso Imperial Oil annual report to shareholders 2002 : positioned for growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Esso Imperial Oil, one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil and natural gas, was presented and a review of their 2002 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Some of the highlights of 2002 are: the total return on Imperial shares including capital appreciation and dividends was 3 per cent, compared with a net loss of 12 per cent for the Standard and Poors/TSX composite index; in the past decade, the total return on Imperial's shares have averaged 17 per cent a year, compounded; regular dividend payments increased to 84 cents a share, the eighth consecutive year of dividend growth; and, the company has purchased more than 200 million shares for $5.2 billion since 1995, reducing the number outstanding by 35 per cent. Progress in key priority areas for 2002 included a second-best year for safety performance, a successful $1.6 billion capital investment program, the expansion of the Cold Lake oil sands project, an increase of 15 per cent in polyethylene production, an increase of 3.5 per cent in retail sales of Esso gasoline, and advancement of the Mackenzie gas project. Other achievements included the development of a 170 megawatt cogeneration plant at Cold Lake that will reduce costs and greenhouse gas emissions. A 95 megawatt unit was also constructed at the Sarnia manufacturing facility. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information including the accounts of Imperial Oil Inc. and its subsidiaries and the company's proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  6. Annual report to the Working Group on Technology, Growth, and Employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meeting of the Working Group on High Energy Physics was convened in Brussels, Belgium, in July 1984, and impaneled new groups of technical experts to report on long-term planning, technical collaborations, and the identification of administrative obstacles experienced within the Summit countries that impede international collaboration. The charges to these three new groups are contained in this report under the section on the Brussels meeting. The reports prepared by the technical experts were then reviewed at the January 1985 meeting at Cadarache, France, and the results are contained in this report under the section on the Cadarache meeting. The Summit Working Group on High Energy Physics believes progress is being made toward cooperation among the Summit countries in the exploration of scientific and technological development upon which the Summit Heads of State and Government declared at Versailles revitalization and growth of the world economy will depend - to a large extent. At Cadarache, the Group found that, since its establishment, international collaboration has increased in the use of present accelerators and in the planning for future accelerators. The Group also found that there are specific areas of technology in which near-term research cooperation is possible. Finally, the Group identified administrative regulations that hamper effective international collaboration in science and technology and that could be revised or eliminated through coordinated, high level Summit action. The major accomplishment of the Working Group thus far has been the creation of a forum for discussions on collaboration in a major field of science by seven industrialized countries. The Group recommends the continuation of its review of long-term plans for major facilities on an intergovernmental basis

  7. Mapping a candidate gene (MdMYB10 for red flesh and foliage colour in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating plant genomics and classical breeding is a challenge for both plant breeders and molecular biologists. Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a tool that can be used to accelerate the development of novel apple varieties such as cultivars that have fruit with anthocyanin through to the core. In addition, determining the inheritance of novel alleles, such as the one responsible for red flesh, adds to our understanding of allelic variation. Our goal was to map candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in a population segregating for the red flesh phenotypes. Results We have identified the Rni locus, a major genetic determinant of the red foliage and red colour in the core of apple fruit. In a population segregating for the red flesh and foliage phenotype we have determined the inheritance of the Rni locus and DNA polymorphisms of candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the candidate genes were also located on an apple genetic map. We have shown that the MdMYB10 gene co-segregates with the Rni locus and is on Linkage Group (LG 09 of the apple genome. Conclusion We have performed candidate gene mapping in a fruit tree crop and have provided genetic evidence that red colouration in the fruit core as well as red foliage are both controlled by a single locus named Rni. We have shown that the transcription factor MdMYB10 may be the gene underlying Rni as there were no recombinants between the marker for this gene and the red phenotype in a population of 516 individuals. Associating markers derived from candidate genes with a desirable phenotypic trait has demonstrated the application of genomic tools in a breeding programme of a horticultural crop species.

  8. Classification of Forest Regrowth Stage using Polarimetric Decomposition and Foliage Projective Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewley, D.; Lucas, R.; Bunting, P.; Moghaddam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Within Queensland, Australia extensive clearing of vegetation for agriculture has occurred within the Brigalow Belt Bioregion (BBB), reducing forests dominated by Acacia harpophylla (brigalow) to 10 % of their former extent. Where cleared land is left abandoned or unmanaged regeneration is rapid, Regenerating vegetation represents a more efficient and cost effective method for carbon sequestration than direct planting and offers a number of benefits over plantation forest, particularly in terms of provision of habitat for native fauna. To effectively protect regenerating vegetation, maps of the distribution of forests at different stages of regeneration are required. Whilst mapping approaches have traditionally focused on optical data, the high canopy cover of brigalow regrowth in all but the very early stages limits discrimination of forests at different stages of growth. The combination of optical data, namely Landsat derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) backscatter data have previously been investigated for mapping regrowth. This study therefore aimed to investigate the potential of the alpha-Entropy (α/H) decomposition (S Cloude and E Pottier, "An entropy based classification scheme for land applications of polarimetric SAR," 1997, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 68-78) applied to polarimetric ALOS PALSAR backscatter for mapping regrowth stage combined with FPC data to account for canopy variations. The study focused on the Tara Downs subregion, located in the Western Darling Downs, within the south of the BBB. PALSAR data were acquired over the study site in fully-polarimetric mode (incidence angle mid swath ~ 26 degrees). From these data α/H layers were generated and stacked with FPC data. Considering only those areas known to contain brigalow prior to clearing and with an FPC > 9 %, k-means clustering was applied, with

  9. Assessment of tannin variation in Tamarisk foliage across a latitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, A.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Friedman, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Certain phenotypic traits of plants vary with latitude of origin. To understand if tannin concentration varies among populations of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) according to a latitudinal gradient, an analytical method was adapted from an enological tannin assay. The tannin content (wet basis) of tamarisk foliage collected from 160 plants grown in a common garden ranged from 8.26 to 62.36 mg/g and was not correlated with the latitude of the original North American plant collection site. Tannins do not contribute to observed differences in herbivory observed among these tamarisk populations.

  10. Dragon Fruit Foliage Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Concentrated Latex Effluent: Comparison of Treatment with Ferric Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juferi Idris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of dragon fruit foliage as a natural coagulant for treatment of concentrated latex effluent was investigated and compared with ferric sulfate, a chemical coagulant. Dragon fruit is a round and often red-colored fruit with scales-like texture and is native to south American countries which is also cultivated and heavily marketed in southeast Asian countries. Its foliage represents a part of its overall plant system. Latex effluent is one of the main byproduct from rubber processing factories in Malaysia. Three main parameters investigated were chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SS, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of latex effluent pH as well as coagulation dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages for foliage were observed for effluent pH 10 at 94.7, 88.9, and 99.7%, respectively. It is concluded that the foliage showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes. The foliage could be used in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian latex effluent prior to secondary treatment.

  11. The Annual Allowed Revenue growth of basic transmission grid face the expansion of transmission system; O crescimento da receita anual permitida da rede basica face a expansao do sistema de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Isabela Sales; Camargo, Ivan Marques de Toledo [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since the separation between the purchase and sale of electric energy and contracts for access and use of transmission systems, in 1999, when the first Annual Allowed Revenue of the transmission concessionaires was established, to the last Annual Revenue readjustment, in 2007, the revenue of the basic transmission grid more than quadruplicated. The growth of the Allowed Annual Revenue of the main transmission grid has raised questions about the excessive growth of the transmission system. However, despite the significant evolution of the basic transmission grid in the last years, it can be observed that since 2003 the growth curve of the Annual Allowed Revenue moved away from the transmission system growth curve. Between years 2000 and 2007, while the transmission system grew in average 4% per year, the average tax of growth of the Allowed Annual Revenue was superior 20% per year. Two facts contributed for this behavior - the great growth of IGP-M index, mainly between years 2002 and 2003, and the great difference between the Annual Allowed Revenue for the transmission installations existing in 1999 and the Maximum Annual Revenue for the new transmission installations, connected to the transmission grid since then. (author)

  12. Impact of aerosol composition and foliage characteristics on forest canopy deposition rates: A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, K. E.; Pryor, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are a major sink for atmospheric aerosols. Hence it has been suggested that (i) increased tree planting in urban areas might lead to a reduction in aerosol particle concentrations and thus a reduction in respiratory conditions and heart complications, and (ii) forests may be responsible for removing a disproportionately large fraction of potentially climate-relevant fine and ultra-fine aerosol particles from the atmosphere. However, larger uncertainties remain with respect to controls on uptake rates for forests. E.g. the deposition flux partitioning between foliage and non-foliage elements, the influence of particle size and composition, the role of leaf surface morphology and stomatal aperture in surface uptake. Improved understanding of the relative importance of these factors and the variability across different tree species should help determine how much of a sink naturally occurring and planted forests can provide downstream of fine particle production. In this study, a sample of trees native to southern Indiana were exposed to ultra-fine aerosol particle populations in a 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.5 m Teflon chamber. Stable particle size distributions (PSD) with geometric mean diameters (GMD) ranging from 40 to 80 nm were generated from sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and sodium sulfite solutions using a TSI model 3940 Aerosol Generation System (AGS). The aerosol stream was diluted using scrubbed and dried zero air to allow a variation of total number concentration across two orders of magnitude. PSD in the chamber are continuously measured using a TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) comprising an Electrostatic Classifier (EC model 3080) attached to a Long DMA (LDMA model 3081) and a TSI model 3025A Butanol Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) operated with both the internal diffusion loss and multiple charge corrections turned on. The composition of the chamber air was also monitored for carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor

  13. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Highlights: → We studied the elements in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient, Austria. → We analysed 19 elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. → Elemental concentrations were higher in urban area than in the rural area. → Studied areas were separated by CDA based on the elemental concentrations. → Dust and leaves can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Studying the elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Sr, Zn) in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient in Wien, Austria we found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for Al, Ba, Fe, Pb, P and Se, and concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for Mn and Sr.

  14. Decline of activity and quantity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and net photosynthesis in ozone-treated potato foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, M.S.; Pell, E.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The effect of ozone (O{sub 3}) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity and quantity and net photosynthesis in greenhouse-grown Solanum tuberosum L. cv Norland foliage was studied in relation to oxidant-induced premature senescence. Plants, 26 days old, were exposed to 0.06 to 0.08 microliters per liter O{sub 3} from 1,000 to 1,600 hours for 4 days in a controlled environment chamber. On day 5, plants were exposed to a 6-hour simulated inversion in which O{sub 3} peaked at 0.12 microliters per liter. Net photosynthesis declined in response to O{sub 3} but recovered to near control levels 3 days after the exposure ended. Rubisco activity and quantity in control potato foliage increased and then decreased during the 12-day interval of the study. In some experiments foliage studied was physiologically mature and Rubisco activity had peaked when O{sub 3} exposure commenced. In those cases, O{sub 3} accelerated the decline in Rubisco activity. When less mature foliage was treated with O{sub 3}, the leaves never achieved the maximal level of Rubisco activity observed in control foliage and also exhibited more rapid decline in initial and total activity. Percent activation of Rubisco (initial/total activity) was not affected significantly by treatment. Quantity of Rubisco decreased in concert with activity. The reduction in the quantity of Rubisco, an important foliage storage protein, could contribute to premature senescence associated with toxicity of this air pollutant.

  15. Sensitivity of growth and biomass allocation patterns to increasing nitrogen: a comparison between ephemerals and annuals in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhang, Yuanming; Niklas, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Biomass accumulation and allocation patterns are critical to quantifying ecosystem dynamics. However, these patterns differ among species, and they can change in response to nutrient availability even among genetically related individuals. In order to understand this complexity further, this study examined three ephemeral species (with very short vegetative growth periods) and three annual species (with significantly longer vegetative growth periods) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China, to determine their responses to different nitrogen (N) supplements under natural conditions. Methods Nitrogen was added to the soil at rates of 0, 0·5, 1·0, 3·0, 6·0 and 24·0 g N m−2 year−1. Plants were sampled at various intervals to measure relative growth rate and shoot and root dry mass. Key Results Compared with annuals, ephemerals grew more rapidly, increased shoot and root biomass with increasing N application rates and significantly decreased root/shoot ratios. Nevertheless, changes in the biomass allocation of some species (i.e. Erodium oxyrrhynchum) in response to the N treatment were largely a consequence of changes in overall plant size, which was inconsistent with an optimal partitioning model. An isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship for the final biomass harvest was observed for each species and all annuals, while pooled data of three ephemerals showed an allometric scaling relationship. Conclusions These results indicate that ephemerals and annuals differ observably in their biomass allocation patterns in response to soil N supplements, although an isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship was maintained across all species. These findings highlight that different life history strategies behave differently in response to N application even when interspecific scaling relationships remain nearly isometric. PMID:24287812

  16. Effect of inter-annual variability in pasture growth and irrigation response on farm productivity and profitability based on biophysical and farm systems modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Iris; Mackay, Alec; Vibart, Ronaldo; Rendel, John; Beautrais, Josef; Dennis, Samuel

    2016-09-15

    Farm system and nutrient budget models are increasingly being used in analysis to inform on farm decision making and evaluate land use policy options at regional scales. These analyses are generally based on the use of average annual pasture yields. In New Zealand (NZ), like in many countries, there is considerable inter-annual variation in pasture growth rates, due to climate. In this study a modelling approach was used to (i) include inter-annual variability as an integral part of the analysis and (ii) test the approach in an economic analysis of irrigation in a case study within the Hawkes Bay Region of New Zealand. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) was used to generate pasture dry matter yields (DMY) for 20 different years and under both dryland and irrigation. The generated DMY were linked to outputs from farm-scale modelling for both Sheep and Beef Systems (Farmaxx Pro) and Dairy Systems (Farmax® Dairy Pro) to calculate farm production over 20 different years. Variation in DMY and associated livestock production due to inter-annual variation in climate was large, with a coefficient of variations up to 20%. Irrigation decreased this inter-annual variation. On average irrigation, with unlimited available water, increased income by $831 to 1195/ha, but when irrigation was limited to 250mm/ha/year income only increased by $525 to 883/ha. Using pasture responses in individual years to capturing the inter-annual variation, rather than the pasture response averaged over 20years resulted in lower financial benefits. In the case study income from irrigation based on an average year were 10 to >20% higher compared with those obtained from individual years. PMID:27203517

  17. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  18. PARATHION RESIDUES ON APPLE AND PEACH FOLIAGE AS AFFECTED BY THE PRESENCE OF THE FUNGICIDES, MANEB AND ZINEB

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a search for factors that might produce more hazardous conditions for workers exposed to pesticide residues on crops, a study was carried out to determine if the presence of the fungicides, maneb or zineb, on apple and peach foliage where parathion had been applied, affects th...

  19. Snails and slugs damaging the cut foliage, Cordyline fruticosa and use of biorationals towards their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthiga, S; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

    2012-01-01

    Snails and slugs became a serious molluscan pests and damaging leaves of purple compacta, Cordyline fruticosa extensively grown for export at Green Farm Ltd, Sri Lanka. The export quality of leaves of C. fruticosa is lowered due to feeding of snails, Achantina fulica (Bowditch), Opeas pyrgula Schmacker and Boettgerx and Helix aspersa Muller and slugs incurring great loss to cut foliage industry. Paucity of information is available to understand snails and slugs damage and their host range that limits to develop suitable management practices. Therefore this study was aimed to determine damage, alternate hosts and to develop possible management practices. Snails and slugs damaged mainly fresh leaves of C. fruticosa. The severity of damage was 44.5% in infested field based on the visual rating method. Leaves of cassava, sting bean, okra, cucumber, passion fruit, papaya, Glyricidia and shoe flower were identified as alternate hosts and neem, Ixora and Dracaena spp were not served as alternate hosts. Among the plant materials tested for their repellence against snails and slugs revealed that neem seed powder was an irritant; neem leaves, mint leaves and Lantana leaves were acted as anti-feedant and Salt as chemical repellent. Among the barrier and bait experiments Bordeaux mixture exhibited a significant barrier effect against horizontal movement of snails. Baits made out of Metaldehyde bait, vegetables bait and jaggery had a strong effect in repelling the snails and slugs. Mulching with Madhuca longifolia punnac was the best to reduce the snails and slugs population compared to M. longifolia seed kernel powder. Oil from M. longifolia failed to reduce their population. Hence the results revealed that saponin containing M. longifolia punnac helped to eliminate snails and slugs when used as mulch. Metaldehyde, vegetable and jaggery baits are also useful to minimize their colonization further. Hence combination of these methods will help to prevent snails and slugs from

  20. Foliage and Grass as Fuel Pellets–Small Scale Combustion of Washed and Mechanically Leached Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hari Arti Khalsa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The high contents of disadvantageous elements contained in non-woody biomass are known to cause problems during small and large scale combustion, typically resulting in a higher risk of slagging, corrosion, and increased emissions. Mechanically leaching the respective elements from the biomass through a sequence of process steps has proven to be a promising solution.The florafuel process used here is comprised of size reduction followed by washing and subsequent mechanical dewatering of the biomass. Densification of the upgraded biomass into standardized pellets (Ø 6mm enables an application in existing small-scale boilers. The presented combustion trials investigated the performance of pellets made from leached grass, foliage and a mixture of both in two small-scale boilers (<100 kWth with slightly different technology (moving grate versus water-cooled burner tube during a 4-h measurement period. Emissions were in accordance with German emissions standards except for NOx (threshold is 0.50 g/m3 in the case of pure grass pellets (0.51 g/m3 and particulate matter (PM in all but one case (foliage, 13–16 mg/m3. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP unit installed with one of the boilers successfully reduced PM emission of both the grass and mixture fuel below the threshold of 20 mg/m3 (all emission values refer to 13 vol.% O2, at standard temperature and pressure (STP. Bottom ash composition and grate temperature profiles were analyzed and discussed for one of the boilers.

  1. Democratic Republic of the Congo; Request for a Three-Year Arrangement under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and for the First Annual Program

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Request for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) and for the First Annual Program. The authorities requested a three-year PRGF arrangement in support of their program covering April 1, 2002–July 31, 2005, in an amount equivalent to SDR 580 million. The authorities have also steadfastly implemented a Staff-Monitored Program covering June 2001–March 2002, aiming principally at stabilizing...

  2. Coordination between growth, phenology and carbon storage in three coexisting deciduous tree species in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tamir; Vitasse, Yann; Hoch, Günter

    2016-07-01

    In deciduous trees growing in temperate forests, bud break and growth in spring must rely on intrinsic carbon (C) reserves. Yet it is unclear whether growth and C storage occur simultaneously, and whether starch C in branches is sufficient for refoliation. To test in situ the relationships between growth, phenology and C utilization, we monitored stem growth, leaf phenology and stem and branch nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics in three deciduous species: Carpinus betulus L., Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. To quantify the role of NSC in C investment into growth, a C balance approach was applied. Across the three species, >95% of branchlet starch was consumed during bud break, confirming the importance of C reserves for refoliation in spring. The C balance calculation showed that 90% of the C investment in foliage (7.0-10.5 kg tree(-1) and 5-17 times the C needed for annual stem growth) was explained by simultaneous branchlet starch degradation. Carbon reserves were recovered sooner than expected, after leaf expansion, in parallel with stem growth. Carpinus had earlier leaf phenology (by ∼25 days) but delayed cambial growth (by ∼15 days) than Fagus and Quercus, the result of a competitive strategy to flush early, while having lower NSC levels. PMID:27126226

  3. Estimation of leaf area index and foliage clumping in deciduous forests using digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianucci, Francesco; Cutini, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Rapid, reliable and meaningful estimates of leaf area index (LAI) are essential to the characterization of forest ecosystems. In this contribution the accuracy of both fisheye and non-fisheye digital photography for the estimation of forest leaf area in deciduous stands was evaluated. We compared digital hemispherical photography (DHP), the most widely used technique that measures the gap fraction at multiple zenith angles, with methods that measure the gap fraction at a single zenith angle, namely 57.5 degree photography and cover photography (DCP). Comparison with other different gap fraction methods used to calculate LAI such as canopy transmittance measurements from AccuPAR ceptometer and LAI- 2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA) were also performed. LAI estimated from all these indirect methods were compared with direct measurements obtained by litter traps (LAILT). We applied these methods in 10 deciduous stands of Quercus cerris, Castanea sativa and Fagus sylvatica, the most common deciduous species in Italy, where LAILT ranged from 3.9 to 7.3. DHP and DCP provided good indirect estimates of LAILT, and outperformed the other indirect methods. The DCP method provided estimates of crown porosity, crown cover, foliage cover and the clumping index at the zenith, but required assumptions about the light extinction coefficient at the zenith (k), to accurately estimate LAI. Cover photography provided good indirect estimates of LAI assuming a spherical leaf angle distribution, even though k appeared to decrease as LAI increased, thus affecting the accuracy of LAI estimates in DCP. In contrast, the accuracy of LAI estimates in DHP appeared insensitive to LAILT values, but the method was sensitive to photographic exposure, gamma-correction and was more time-consuming than DCP. Foliage clumping was estimated from all the photographic methods by analyzing either gap size distribution (DCP) or gap fraction distribution (DHP). Foliage clumping was also calculated from PCA and

  4. Flavour characterisation and free radical scavenging activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Siddharth; Khanum, Hafeeza; Ravi, Ramasamy; Borse, Babasaheb Baskarrao; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective was to characterize Indian Coriandrum sativum L. foliage (Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC varieties) and its radical scavenging activity. Foliage of Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC contained ascorbic acid (1.16 ± 0.35 and 1.22 ± 0.54 mg/g), total carotenoids (1.49 ± 0.38 and 3.08 ± 1.2 mg/g), chlorophyll 'a' (8.23 ± 2.4 and 12.18 ± 2.9 mg/g), chlorophyll 'b' (2.74 ± 0.8 and 4.39 ± 1.3 mg/g) and total chlorophyll (10.97 ± 2.6 and 16.57 ± 3.2 mg/g). The polyphenol content was 26.75 ± 1.85 and 30.00 ± 2.64 mg/g in Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC, respectively. Ethanol extracts (200 ppm) of alef and Microcarpum DC showed higher radical scavenging activity of 42.05 ± 2.42 % and 62.79 ± 1.36 % when compared with 95 % butylated hydroxyanisole. The principal component analysis results indicated that e-nose can distinguish the volatiles effectively. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis showed that Microcarpum DC variety is superior to Vulgare alef variety. Nearly 90 % of the flavour compounds present were identified by GC-MS in both varieties. The principal component identified in both the varieties were decanal (7.645 and 7.74 %), decanol  (25.12 and 39.35 %), undecanal (1.20 and 1.75 %), dodecanal (7.07 and 2.61 %), tridecen-1-al  (6.67 and 1.21 %), dodecen-1-ol  (16.68 and 8.05 %), 13-tetradecenal (9.53 and 8.60 %), tetradecanal (5.61 and 4.35 %) and 1-octadecanol (1.25 and 3.67 %). PMID:27570292

  5. Electromagnetically characterizing disordered systems: Composite material design and foliage penetrating radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, William Melvin

    dependent functional effective descriptions to consistently simplify the stochastic forest structure. A realistic forest structure is obtained using Lindenmayer algorithms and measured tree parameters and then used to create a layered effective model. In the framework of this model coupling into and propagation through the forest are investigated, and the effects of each layered component are explored. This dissertation explores the applicability of effective representations of composite systems for simplification, and demonstrates the use of that simplification in describing electromagnetic propagation within foliage in order to facilitate the design of foliage penetrating radars.

  6. Surveillance Unattended Foliage Penetrating Radar for Border Control and Homeland Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Amato

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing request for safety, security and environment protection at local and national level reveal the deficiency of the traditional surveillance and control centers to satisfy the needs and requirements of modern border control systems for homeland protection where land border is expected to be monitored as well as the maritime one. This is, for instance, the case of any land border affected by hidden immigration and/or illegal traffics as well as any small areas such as critical infrastructures or military/ civilian posts in forest or jungle environment characterized by vegetation. In such challenging environment, logistics constraints strongly recommend to have very low power devices able to operate months or years without maintenance. A such scenario should be the perfect place for implementing an Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS network making use FOliage PENetration (FOPEN radar for border control. The paper aims to present the basic characteristics and preliminary results of a Surveillance Unattended FOPEN (SUF radar suitable for detecting moving targets, people or vehicles, in dense forest environment.

  7. Compression map, functional groups and fossilization: A chemometric approach (Pennsylvanian neuropteroid foliage, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, J. A.; Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all of the spectrochemical studies involving Carboniferous foliage of seed-ferns are based on a limited number of pinnules, mainly compressions. In contrast, in this paper we illustrate working with a larger pinnate segment, i.e., a 22-cm long neuropteroid specimen, compression-preserved with cuticle, the compression map. The objective is to study preservation variability on a larger scale, where observation of transparency/opacity of constituent pinnules is used as a first approximation for assessing the degree of pinnule coalification/fossilization. Spectrochemical methods by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry furnish semi-quantitative data for principal component analysis.The compression map shows a high degree of preservation variability, which ranges from comparatively more coalified pinnules to less coalified pinnules that resemble fossilized-cuticles, noting that the pinnule midveins are preserved more like fossilized-cuticles. A general overall trend of coalified pinnules towards fossilized-cuticles, i.e., variable chemistry, is inferred from the semi-quantitative FTIR data as higher contents of aromatic compounds occur in the visually more opaque upper location of the compression map. The latter also shows a higher condensation of the aromatic nuclei along with some variation in both ring size and degree of aromatic substitution. From principal component analysis we infer correspondence between transparency/opacity observation and chemical information which correlate with varying degree to fossilization/coalification among pinnules. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Decline of rubisco activity and net photosynthesis in ozone-treated potato foliage. [Solanum tuberosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, M.S.; Pell, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The effect of O/sub 3/ on rubisco activity in Solanum tuberosum L. cv Norland foliage was studied as related to oxidant-induced premature senescence. Plants, 25 days old, were exposed to O/sub 3/ increasing from 0.06 to 0.08 ..mu..1/L for 6 h/day for 4 days in a controlled environment chamber. On day 5 plants were exposed to a 6 h simulated inversion in which O/sub 3/ peaked at 0.12 /sup +/1/L. The authors measured initial and total rubisco activities and net photosynthesis of leaves at full expansion on days 0,3,5,6,9 and 12. These parameters declined in both ozone and control plants throughout the course of the experiment. O/sub 3/ exacerbated the decline and produced a significantly greater decrease following the inversion. The enhanced reduction in rubisco activity over time may be an important characteristics of ozone-induced premature senescence. Rubisco activation (initial/total activity) did not change with the treatment. The decrease in activity is most likely due to a decrease in available protein rather than a decrease in the percentage of rubisco activated in vivo.

  9. Transfer of atmospheric tritiated water to foliage and fruit of crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritiated water (THO) released to the environment from the effluent streams of nuclear reactors may be easily assimilated by organisms through metabolic fixation following foliar interception of THO vapor. This study was initiated to characterize atmospheric THO exchange parameters in two crops agronomically important to eastern Washington, grape (Vitus vinifera) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Short-term exposures using atmospheric THO concentrations ranging from 458 to 1,300,900 pCi/m3 indicated no statistically significant concentration influences on THO exchange into the leaf tissue free-water (TFW) and organically bound tritium (OBT) of the leaves of either species. Long-term exposures indicated that equilibration of the leaf TFW with atmospheric THO concentrations occurred within 24 to 48 h for both species while equilibration of grape TFW appeared to take over 20 days. The rate of THO saturation of the foliage TFW appeared to be directly related to the stomatal resistance of the leaves and fruit. Desorption rates from both leaves and fruit were greater in the light than in the dark, again correlating with stomatal resistance. More than 90% of the absorbed THO was lost from the leaf TFW pool within 24 h following cessation of exposure for both species, while loss of THO from grape TFW and OBT pools was minimal. It appeared that more than 95 to 98% of the THO found in the TFW and OBT pools of the grape fruit was of atmospheric origin and not from transport from other parts of the plant

  10. Foliage and Litter Chemistry, Decomposition, and Nutrient Release in Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen A. Carlson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following fertilization of forest plantations, high accumulations of nutrients in the forest floor creates the need to assess rates of forest floor decomposition and nutrient release. The study site was a 25-year old experimental loblolly pine plantation in the North Carolina Sandhills Region. Soluble and insoluble N, P, carbohydrate and phenol-tannin fractions were determined in foliage and litter by extraction with trichloroacetic acid. The long-term forest floor decomposition rate and decomposition and nutrient release in an experiment simulating removal of the overstory canopy were also determined. In litter, insoluble protein-N comprised 80%–90% of total-N concentration while soluble inorganic- and organic-P comprised 50%–75% of total-P concentration explaining forest floor N accumulations. Fertilization did not increase soluble carbohydrates in litter and forest floor decomposition rates. Loblolly pine forest floor decomposing in environmental conditions simulating removal of the overstory canopy was greatly accelerated and indicated 75% mass loss and release of 80% of the N pool within one year. This could result in a loss of substantial quantities of N at harvest due to low N uptake by seedlings in the newly planted next rotation suggesting management of the forest floor at harvest is essential to conserve site N capital in these N limited systems.

  11. Acute aquatic toxicity of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duringer, Jennifer M; Swan, Laurence R; Walker, Douglas B; Craig, A Morrie

    2010-11-01

    Recently, interest has developed for using essential oils from Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood in commercial products such as pest repellents and cosmetics. In order to gauge the relative toxicological risk that these oils pose to freshwater and marine organisms, the acute aquatic toxicity of these oils was evaluated using OPPTS guidelines to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. For western juniper foliage oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward D. magna or O. mykiss, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). For toxicity to S. capricornutum using algal cell density, the 72 and 96 h EC50 value was 1.7 mg/L and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.63 mg/L. For Port Orford cedar heartwood oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward O. mykiss or S. capricornutum, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). The 48-h D. magna EC50 value was 1.9 mg/L; the NOEC values for algal cell density were 1.25 mg/L (72 h) and 0.63 mg/L (96 h). In summary, this study shows that western juniper foliage and Port Orford cedar heartwood oils demonstrate little to no risk to aquatic organisms. PMID:20033284

  12. Mercury distribution in the foliage and soil profiles of the Tibetan forest: Processes and implications for regional cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote forests are considered a pool of Mercury (Hg) in the global Hg cycle. However, notably few studies have investigated the fate of Hg in the Tibetan forest. In this study, fifty-two foliage samples and seven litter/soil profiles were collected throughout the Tibetan forest. The concentrations of total Hg (THg) in foliage were positively correlated with longitude and negatively correlated with altitude, indicating that the emission of Hg is expected to decrease with increasing distance from emission sources to the Tibetan forest. The deposition flux of THg in the Tibetan forest (with an air-to-forest ground flux of 9.2 μg/m2/year) is ∼2 times the flux in clearings, which is suggestive of enhanced Hg deposition by the forest. The depositional Hg is eventually stored in the forest soil, and the soil acts as a net ‘sink’ for Hg. - Highlights: • Foliage can be used as bio-indicator for monitoring the spatial Hg distribution. • The Tibetan forest can enhance the atmospheric Hg deposition to the ground. • The Tibetan forest soil is a pool of Hg that acts to delay the regional cycling of Hg. - The Tibetan forest can accumulate atmospheric Hg, which undergoes long-range transport, and the soil of Tibetan forest acts as the final Hg ‘sink’

  13. Ethnobotanical magnitude towards sustainable utilization of wild foliage in Arabian Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phondani, Prakash C; Bhatt, Arvind; Elsarrag, Esam; Horr, Yousef A

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation was deals with identifying traditional uses of medicinal plants for curing a variety of ailments and degree of religious conservation for retention of ethnobotanical knowledge. The study was carried out in the State of Qatar to document the ethnobotanical uses of 58 medicinally important plant species including identification, botanical name, Arabic name, family, habit, habitat, distribution pattern, and the plant parts used for curing variety of ailments. The documented species belong to 54 plant genera and 30 botanical families. They have been used to cure more than 38 different kinds of human ailments. A majority of ethnobotanical plant species belonging to shrubs (41.38%) followed by perennial herbs (31.04%), annual herbs (18.96%) and trees (8.62%) respectively. The frequency of ethnobotanical plant species were recorded maximum in fabaceae (13.79%), followed by lamiaceae, chenopodiaceae (6.89% each), asteraceae, capparaceae, polygonaceae, boraginaceae, aizooaceae (5.17% each), brassicaceae, asclepiadaceae, convolvulaceae, zygophyllaceae, solanaceae (3.44% each) while, remaining 17 families had one (1.72%) species each. Perception of stakeholders concerning prioritization and categorization of potential native plants and 25 ethnobotanical species were prioritized and ranked on the basis of their multipurpose use value, feasibility climatic conditions and Global Sustainability Assessment System (GSAS) criteria measures i.e. drought resistant, low water requirement, growth performance, survival rate, canopy size, adaptation potential, low maintenance and use value for sustainability and landscaping. The analysis emphasized the potentials of ethnomedicinal research, sustainable utilization, conservation initiatives, and urgent need to document ethnobotanical knowledge for sustainability and scientific validation to prevent their losses. PMID:27419083

  14. Extracting Leaf Area Index by Sunlit Foliage Component from Downward-Looking Digital Photography under Clear-Sky Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelu Zeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of near-surface remote sensing requires the accurate extraction of leaf area index (LAI from networked digital cameras under all illumination conditions. The widely used directional gap fraction model is more suitable for overcast conditions due to the difficulty to discriminate the shaded foliage from the shadowed parts of images acquired on sunny days. In this study, a new LAI extraction method by the sunlit foliage component from downward-looking digital photography under clear-sky conditions is proposed. In this method, the sunlit foliage component was extracted by an automated image classification algorithm named LAB2, the clumping index was estimated by a path length distribution-based method, the LAD and G function were quantified by leveled digital images and, eventually, the LAI was obtained by introducing a geometric-optical (GO model which can quantify the sunlit foliage proportion. The proposed method was evaluated at the YJP site, Canada, by the 3D realistic structural scene constructed based on the field measurements. Results suggest that the LAB2 algorithm makes it possible for the automated image processing and the accurate sunlit foliage extraction with the minimum overall accuracy of 91.4%. The widely-used finite-length method tends to underestimate the clumping index, while the path length distribution-based method can reduce the relative error (RE from 7.8% to 6.6%. Using the directional gap fraction model under sunny conditions can lead to an underestimation of LAI by (1.61; 55.9%, which was significantly outside the accuracy requirement (0.5; 20% by the Global Climate Observation System (GCOS. The proposed LAI extraction method has an RMSE of 0.35 and an RE of 11.4% under sunny conditions, which can meet the accuracy requirement of the GCOS. This method relaxes the required diffuse illumination conditions for the digital photography, and can be applied to extract LAI from downward-looking webcam images

  15. Effects of CO2 and temperature on growth and resource use of co-occurring C3 and C4 annuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examined how CO2 concentrations and temperature interacted to affect growth, resource acquisition, and resource allocation of two annual plants that were supplied with a single pulse of nutrients. Physiological and growth measurements were made on individuals of Abutilon throphrasti (C3) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C4) grown in environments with atmospheric CO2 levels of 400 or 700 μL/L and with light/dark temperatures of 28 degree/22 degree or 38 degree/31 degree C. Elevated CO2 and temperature treatments had significant independent and interactive effects on plant growth, resource allocation, and resource acquisition, and the strength and direction of these effects were often dependent on plant species. For example, final biomass of Amaranthus was enhanced by elevated CO2 at 28 degree but was depressed at 38 degree. For Abutilon, elevated CO2 increased initial plant relative growth rates at 28 degree but not at 38 degree, and had no significant effects on final biomass at either temperature. These results are interpreted in light of the interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on the rates of net leaf area production and loss, and on net whole-plant nitrogen retention. At 28 degree C, elevated CO2 stimulated the initial production of leaf area in both species, which led to an initial stimulation of biomass accumulation at the higher CO2 level. However, in elevated CO2 at 28 degree, the rate of net leaf area loss for Abutilon increased while that of Amaranthus decreased. Furthermore, high CO2 apparently enhanced the ability of Amaranthus to retain nitrogen at this temperature, which may have helped to enhance photosynthesis, whereas nitrogen retention was unaffected in Abutilon

  16. Bacterial endophyte communities in the foliage of coast redwood and giant sequoia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Ann Carrell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic bacterial microbiome, with an emerging role in plant nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance, is much less studied in natural plant populations than in agricultural crops. In a previous study, we found consistent associations between trees in the pine family and acetic acid bacteria (AAB occurring at high relative abundance inside their needles. Our objective here was to determine if that pattern may be general to conifers, or alternatively, is more likely restricted to pines, or conifers growing in nutrient limited and exposed environments. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to characterize the foliar endophyte communities of two conifers in the Cupressaceae family: Two coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens populations and one giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum population were sampled. Similar to the pines, the endophyte communities of the giant trees were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. However, although some major OTUs occurred at a high relative abundance of 10-40% in multiple samples, no specific group of bacteria dominated the endophyte community to the extent previously observed in high-elevation pines. Several of the dominating bacterial groups in the coast redwood and giant sequoia foliage (e.g. Bacillus, Burkholderia, Actinomycetes are known for disease- and pest suppression, raising the possibility that the endophytic microbiome protects the giant trees against biotic stress. Many of the most common and abundant OTUs in our dataset were most similar to 16S rRNA sequences from bacteria isolated from lichens or arctic plants. For example, an OTU belonging to the uncultured Rhizobiales LAR1 lineage, which is commonly associated with lichens, was observed at high relative abundance in many of the coast redwood samples. The taxa shared between the giant trees, arctic plants, and lichens may be part of a broadly defined endophyte microbiome common to temperate, boreal, and tundra

  17. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Movements and Growth of Marked Walleye Recaptured in Lake Roosevelt, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly; Scholz, Allan

    2002-03-01

    Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) have been marked with floy tags in Lake Roosevelt since 1997 to estimate abundance, distribution and movement trends. In 2000, walleye were collected and marked during the spawning run in the Spokane River through electrofishing and angling to supplement movement and growth data collected in previous years. Walleye were also collected and marked during the 2000 and 2001 Kettle Falls Governor's Cup Walleye Tournaments. Seventy-six tag returns were recovered in 2000 and twenty-three in 2001. Walleye migrated into the Spokane River to spawn in mid April and early May. The majority of marked walleye were recovered within 25 km of their original marking location, with a few traveling long distances between recovery locations. Data also verified earlier results that walleye establish summer home ranges. Some walleye remained in the Spokane River, while others moved downstream, or upstream after entering the mainstem of Lake Roosevelt. Those moving upstream moved as far north as Keenlyside Dam in British Columbia (245 km). Growth data indicated similar trends exhibited in the past. Walleye growth and mortality rates were consistent with other walleye producing waters. Walleye condition was slightly below average when compared to other systems.

  18. Intra-annual Secondary Growth Rate-Climate Relations of Fagus orientalis Lipsky in the Center of Hyrcanian Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza OLADI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Weekly rate of Beech tree ring increment were related to the changes of climatic factors in weekly intervals. In order to do so, small samples were extracted from 5 Oriental beech trees located in Nowshahr educational forest in the central part of the Hyrcanian forests of Iran during 2008 growing season. Microscopic sections were prepared and average increases in tree ring width were measured, standardized and modeled using Gompertz equation. The results showed that the minimum air temperature and water evaporation had the strongest and positive effect on the secondary growth rate while the role of precipitation was minor and negative. Air temperature and evaporation variations during growing season were assumed to remain in their optimum level; increasing xylem formation by accelerating carbohydrate production and carbon uptake of trees, respectively. Since the studied site had warm and humid climate receiving sufficient amount of rainfall before and during growing season, water availability was not a limiting factor of radial growth and its minor negative relation was interpreted according to its small hampering effect on the air temperature and sunlight absorption of trees. It was concluded that meteorological factors affecting secondary growth rate of trees should be interpreted as a package rather than analyzed disconnectedly.

  19. The evolution of activity breaks in the nest cycle of annual eusocial bees: a model of delayed exponential growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strohm Erhard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects show considerable variability not only in social organisation but also in the temporal pattern of nest cycles. In annual eusocial sweat bees, nest cycles typically consist of a sequence of distinct phases of activity (queen or workers collect food, construct, and provision brood cells and inactivity (nest is closed. Since the flight season is limited to the time of the year with sufficiently high temperatures and resource availability, every break reduces the potential for foraging and, thus, the productivity of a colony. This apparent waste of time has not gained much attention. Results We present a model that explains the evolution of activity breaks by assuming differential mortality during active and inactive phases and a limited rate of development of larvae, both reasonable assumptions. The model predicts a systematic temporal structure of breaks at certain times in the season which increase the fitness of a colony. The predicted pattern of these breaks is in excellent accordance with field data on the nest cycle of the halictid Lasioglossum malachurum. Conclusion Activity breaks are a counter-intuitive outcome of varying mortality rates that maximise the reproductive output of primitively eusocial nests.

  20. Coordination Between Wind Power, Hydro Storage Facility and Conventional Generating Units According to the Annual Growth Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Shojaeean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing trend of the consumption of the electric power and the global tendency to substitute new renewable sources of energy, this paper proposes a Monte Carlo based method to determine an optimal level of this change. Considering the limitation of the wind farms in continuous supply of electric power, hydrostatic power storage facilities are used beside wind farms so that the electric power could be stored and fed in a continuous flow into power systems. Due to the gradual exclusion of conventional generators and 5 percent annual load increments, LOLE index was used in order to calculate the amount of the wind power and the capacity of the necessary power storage facility. To this end, LOLE index was calculated for the first year as the reference index for the estimation of the amount of wind power and the capacity of the storage facility in consequent years. For the upcoming years, calculations have been made to account for the gradual exclusion of conventional generators in proportion to load increments. The proposed method has been implemented and simulated on IEEE-RTS test system.

  1. Embracing the future: Canada's nuclear renewal and growth. 28th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 31st CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 28th Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 31st CNS/CNA Student Conference was held on June 3-6, 2007 in Saint John, New Brunswick. The central objective of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of views on how this technical enterprise can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. 'Embracing the Future: Canada's Nuclear Renewal and Growth' was the theme for this year's gathering of nuclear industry experts from across Canada and around the world. This theme reflects the global renaissance of interest in nuclear technology, strongly evident here in Canada through plant refurbishments (underway and planned), new-build planning, renewal and expansion of the nuclear workforce, and growth in public support for environmentally sustainable technology. Topics for discussion at this conference include: the nuclear renaissance in Canada and around the world, recent developments at Canadian utilities, status of plant refurbishment and new build plans, and uranium supply issues. For business, energy, and science reporters this conference offers an insight into major nuclear projects and an opportunity to meet leaders in the nuclear sector. Over 100 technical papers were presented, as well as over 20 student papers, in the following sessions: control room operation; safety analyses; environment and waste management; plant life management and refurbishment; reactor physics; advanced reactor design; instrumentation control; general nuclear topics and standards; chemistry and materials; probabilistic safety assessment; and, performance improvement

  2. Gonadotropins and Growth Hormone Family Characterization in an Endangered Siluriform Species, Steindachneridion parahybae (Pimelodidae): Relationship With Annual Reproductive Cycle and Induced Spawning in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honji, Renato Massaaki; Caneppele, Danilo; Pandolfi, Matias; Nostro, Fabiana Laura Lo; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pituitary cells of Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, highlighting the possible relationship with reproductive disorders at this level, since this species shows oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning dysfunction in captivity. The localization and distribution of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), somatolactin (SL), β-luteinizing hormone (β-LH), and β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH) immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the adenohypophysis was studied by immunohistochemical and Western blot methods. In addition, cellular morphometric analyses and semi-quantification of ir-cells optical density (OD) during the annual reproductive cycle and after artificial induced spawning (AIS) were performed. Results showed that the distribution and general localization of pituitary cell types were similar to that of other teleost species. However, the morphometrical study of adenohypophysial cells showed differences along the reproductive cycle and following AIS. In general, females at the vitellogenic stage presented greater OD values for GH, PRL and SL than at other maturation stages (previtellogenic and regression stages), probably indicating an increased cellular activity during this stage. Conversely, β-LH OD did not vary during the annual reproductive cycle. After AIS, β-LH, SL and GH ir-cells showed an increase in OD values suggesting a possible involvement on oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning or a feedback control on the brain-pituitary-gonads axis. Reproductive dysfunction in S. parahybae females in captivity may be due to alteration of the synthesis pathways of β-LH. In addition, GH family of hormones could modulate associated mechanisms that influence the reproductive status in this species. PMID:25989288

  3. Annual report to the working group on technology, growth and employment. Summit Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Summit Working Group in Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982 (Appendix A), and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. Representatives appointed by the governments of the seven Economic Summit countries (Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States) and a representative of the Commission of the European Communities met in Washington, DC on September 29 and 30, 1983 under the co-leadership of the United States and the European Communities. A report of the conclusions of this meeting has been published and a progress report was included in the TGE Working Group report to the 1984 London Summit (Appendix B). Following the London Summit, the fusion Working Group met in Brussels July 5 and 6 to consider the implementation of collaborative projects taking into account the conclusions issued in the Communique from London (Appendix C) and the recommendations of the TGE report

  4. Analysis of N and K in the sap of petioles and in foliage fabrics of tomato plants under hydropony conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foliage analyses give information about the nutritional state of the plant in the past, this is that it should have lapsed time enough so that the changes are manifested in the composition of fabrics of the foliage. A nutritional pursuit, based on variations in the concentration of elements in the sap of the plant could indicate that this is nutritionally happening in the plant in the moment. This can be a tool to predict symptoms caused by nutritional anomalies in an immediate form, being able to correct more quickly the problem and to reduce the time of exhibition from the plant to the nutritional tension. The nitrogen (N) and the potassium (K) are two elements that the tomato plants require in big quantities, therefore in search of validating new methodologies, this work had as objectives: 1) To determine the utility of the levels of N and K obtained in sap analysis as a tool for the detection of nutritional lacks and as an indicator of the concentration of N and K in the nutritious solution. 2) To compare the results of analysis of sap of petioles with the routine analyses of fabric to foliate. (Author)

  5. Spectral Reflectance and Vegetation Index Changes in Deciduous Forest Foliage Following Tree Removal: Potential for Deforestation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, D.; Hu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-05-01

    It is important to detect and quantify deforestation to guide strategic decisions regarding environment, socioeconomic development, and climate change. In the present study, we conducted a field experiment to examine spectral reflectance and vegetation index changes in poplar and locust tree foliage with different leaf area indices over the course of three sunny days, following tree removal from the canopy. The spectral reflectance of foliage from harvested trees was measured using an ASD FieldSpec Prospectroradiometer; synchronous meteorological data were also obtained. We found that reflectance in short-wave infrared and red-edge reflectance was more time sensitive after tree removal than reflectance in other spectral regions, and that the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the red-edge chlorophyll index (CIRE) were the preferred indicators of these changes from several indices evaluated. Synthesized meteorological environments were found to influence water and chlorophyll contents after tree removal, and this subsequently changed the spectral canopy reflectance. Our results indicate the potential for such tree removal to be detected with NDWI or CIRE from the second day of a deforestation event.

  6. Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration, Reporting Period: April 2008 - February 2009 [re: "Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and north California Current"].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries; Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Oregon State University; OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health Sciences University.

    2009-07-17

    We have made substantial progress toward our objectives outlined in our BPA supported proposal entitled 'Columbia River Basin Juvenile Salmonids: Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern California Current' which we report on herein. During 2008, we were able to successfully conduct 3 mesoscale cruises. We also were able to conduct 7 biweekly predator cruises, along with substantial shore-based visual observations of seabirds. Detailed results of the mesoscale cruises are available in the Cruise Reports and summarized in the next section. We have taken a proactive approach to getting the results of our research to fisheries managers and the general public. We have begun to make annual predictions based on ocean conditions of the relative survival of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon well before they return as adults. This is based on both biological and physical indicators that we measure during our surveys or collect from outside data sources. Examples of our predictions for 2009 and 2010 are available on the following web site: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fed/oeip/a-ecinhome.cfm.

  7. Retrieving Leaf Area Index and Foliage Profiles Through Voxelized 3-D Forest Reconstruction Using Terrestrial Full-Waveform and Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yang, X.; Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Saenz, E.; Paynter, I.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Martel, J.; Howe, G.; Hewawasam, K.; Jupp, D.; Culvenor, D.; Newnham, G.; Lowell, J.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring and monitoring canopy biophysical parameters provide a baseline for carbon flux studies related to deforestation and disturbance in forest ecosystems. Terrestrial full-waveform lidar systems, such as the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI) and its successor Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar (DWEL), offer rapid, accurate, and automated characterization of forest structure. In this study, we apply a methodology based on voxelized 3-D forest reconstructions built from EVI and DWEL scans to directly estimate two important biophysical parameters: Leaf Area Index (LAI) and foliage profile. Gap probability, apparent reflectance, and volume associated with the laser pulse footprint at the observed range are assigned to the foliage scattering events in the reconstructed point cloud. Leaf angle distribution is accommodated with a simple model based on gap probability with zenith angle as observed in individual scans of the stand. The DWEL instrument, which emits simultaneous laser pulses at 1064 nm and 1548 nm wavelengths, provides a better capability to separate trunk and branch hits from foliage hits due to water absorption by leaf cellular contents at 1548 nm band. We generate voxel datasets of foliage points using a classification methodology solely based on pulse shape for scans collected by EVI and with pulse shape and band ratio for scans collected by DWEL. We then compare the LAIs and foliage profiles retrieved from the voxel datasets of the two instruments at the same red fir site in Sierra National Forest, CA, with each other and with observations from airborne and field measurements. This study further tests the voxelization methodology in obtaining LAI and foliage profiles that are largely free of clumping effects and returns from woody materials in the canopy. These retrievals can provide a valuable 'ground-truth' validation data source for large-footprint spaceborne or airborne lidar systems retrievals.

  8. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  9. Quantification of tannins in tree and shrub foliage. A laboratory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    tannin activity for both free and bound tannins in terms of rumen fermentation parameters; and 14C-polyethylene glycol binding assay are also discussed. Each type of tannin responds differently in each of these assays. This variability makes it impossible to use any single method. Use of a battery of methods, therefore, is suggested; and these assays are being used in the FAO/IAEA-sponsored projects on the utilisation of tree foliage as livestock feed. Using these assays for 37 shrub and tree leaves, highly significant correlation existed between protein precipitation capacity and extractable total phenols (r = 0.87) or tannins (r = 0.83). On the other hand, a weak correlation was observed between condensed tannins (measured by the butanol-HCI method) and protein precipitation capacity (r = 0.41), which could be due to the variation in structural and biological activity of tannins. The correlations observed between extractable total phenols, tannins or condensed tannins and the tannin bioassay values based on the rumen simulation technique were similar to those obtained between extractable total phenols, tannins or condensed tannins and protein precipitation capacity. Highly significant correlations between extractable phenolics or tannins with protein precipitation capacity or the values obtained using the tannin bioassay suggest that extractable total phenolics and tannins values could be taken as a measure of biological activity of tannins. The condensed tannins values by the butanol-HCl-iron method do not appear to reflect the biological activity. From the relationships between chemical, protein precipitation and bioassays, it was postulated that tree and shrub leaves with extractable total phenol and tannin contents of approximately 4.5% and 2.0% respectively (as tannic acid equivalent) will not produce significant adverse effects on ruminant livestock. The hydrolysable tannins, measured by an HPLC and a spectrophotometric method (rhodanine), were present in all the

  10. 226Ra contamination of soil and foliage as a function of distance downwind from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerned 226Ra contamination of soils and foliage as a function of distance downwind from a uranium mill tailings pile. In soils the radium contamination was primarily associated with particle sizes 226Ra contamination in Artemisia tridentata. Internal contamination appeared to be a larger contributor to total contamination at distances less than or equal to 0.16 km downwind from the tailings pile. At distances > 0.16 km, external contamination became a larger contributor to the total 226Ra contamination. In most soil samples 226Ra concentrations approached background levels at a distance of 1.1 km from the tailings pile. Total vegetation contamination approached background at 6.6 km. This study suggested that a combination of root uptake and foliar absorption were responsible for internal contamination and further studies were suggested. 19 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  11. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Wannaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina. Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al and sulphur (S as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  12. Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zheng Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  13. Confirmation bias leads to overestimation of losses of woody plant foliage to insect herbivores in tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Kozlov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Confirmation bias, i.e., the tendency of humans to seek out evidence in a manner that confirms their hypotheses, is almost overlooked in ecological studies. For decades, insect herbivory was commonly accepted to be highest in tropical regions. By comparing the data collected blindly (when the observer was not aware of the research hypothesis being tested with the results of non-blind studies (when the observer knew what results could be expected, we tested the hypothesis that the records made in the tropics could have overestimated community-wide losses of plant foliage to insects due to the confirmation bias. The average loss of leaf area of woody plants to defoliating insects in Brazil, when measured by a blind method (1.11%, was significantly lower than the loss measured in non-blind studies, both original (5.14% and published (6.37%. We attribute the overestimation of the community-wide losses of plant foliage to insects in non-blind studies to the unconsciously preconceived selection of study species with higher-than-average levels of herbivory. Based on our findings, we urge for caution in obtaining community-wide characteristics from the results of multiple single-species studies. Our data suggest that we may need to revise the paradigm of the highest level of background insect herbivory in the tropical regions. More generally, we argue that more attention should be paid by ecologists to the problem of biases occurring at the pre-publication phases of the scientific research and, consequently, to the development and the wide application of methods that avoid biases occurring due to unconscious psychological processes.

  14. Efficiency evaluation for remediating paddy soil contaminated with cadmium and arsenic using water management, variety screening and foliage dressing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Guojian; Wu, Qianhua; Feng, Renwei; Guo, Junkang; Wang, Ruigang; Xu, Yingming; Ding, Yongzhen; Fan, Zhilian; Mo, Liangyu

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soils in many regions of China have been seriously polluted by multiple heavy metals or metalloids, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In order to ensure the safety of food and take full advantage of the limited farmland resources of China, exploring an effective technology to repair contaminated soils is urgent and necessary. In this study, three technologies were employed, including variety screening, water management and foliage dressing, to assess their abilities to reduce the accumulation of Cd and As in the grains of different rice varieties, and meanwhile monitor the related yields. The results of variety screening under insufficient field drying condition showed that the As and Cd contents in the grains of only four varieties [Fengliangyouxiang 1 (P6), Zhongzheyou 8 (P7), Guangliangyou 1128 (P10), Y-liangyou 696 (P11)] did not exceed their individual national standard. P6 gained a relatively high grain yield but accumulated less As and Cd in the grains despite of the relatively high As and Cd concentrations in the rhizosphere soil. However, long-playing field drying in water management trial significantly increased Cd but decreased As content in the grains of all tested three varieties including P6, suggesting an important role of water supply in controlling the accumulation of grain As and Cd. Selenium (Se) showed a stronger ability than silicon (Si) to reduce As and Cd accumulation in the grains of Fengliangyou 4 (P2) and Teyou 524 (P13), and keep the yields. The results of this study suggest that combined application of water management and foliage dressing may be an efficient way to control As and Cd accumulation in the grains of paddy rice exposing to As- and Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:26807822

  15. The Contribution of the Long-term Carbon Pool to Nighttime Foliage Respiration as Revealed by a Year-long C-13 Labeling Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Mortazavi, B.; Chanton, J.

    2005-12-01

    Slash pine (Pinus elliottii) saplings were placed in a CO2 enrichment (~500 ppm above ambient) facility for an entire year, starting in June of 2004. The CO2 used for the enrichment, with an isotopic signature of -48‰, allowed us to track the fate of the labeled photosynthate during nighttime respiration experiments once the saplings were removed from the enrichment facility. A set of saplings subject to similar environmental conditions, but not subject to CO2 enrichment, served as controls. Nighttime respiration experiments for the labeled saplings were measured by two methods. The first procedure consisted in determining the isotopic signature of nighttime integrated (sunset to sunrise) foliage respired CO2, while the second procedure consisted in determining the pre-dawn signal. The nighttime integrated signal was determined by enclosing the entire foliage of four labeled saplings in a non-destructive manner in a 300-liter airtight chamber. Initial and final samples were collected at sunset and sunrise for CO2 concentration and 13C determination and a mass balance equation was used to determine the 13C of respired CO2. In the second procedure foliage from four labeled saplings were collected just prior to dawn and placed in a leaf-chamber. Sequential CO2 samples evolved in darkness over a 15 min period were collected for CO2 concentration and 13C determination from which a Keeling plot was constructed to determine the isotopic signature of foliage respired CO2. The isotopic signature of pre-dawn foliage respired CO2 for the control plants was also determined with an identical leaf-chamber system. Immediately after removal from the enrichment facility, the 13C of foliage respired CO2 had a pre-dawn signature of -40.2‰ and a nighttime integrated signal of -44.1‰, while the control plants had a dCf value of -25.8‰ signature. Monitoring of dCf during a 35-day period revealed a non-linear approach in dCf of the labeled plants towards the control dCf values

  16. POST INFESTATIONAL CHANGES IN THE NUTRITIVE ELEMENTS OF THRIPS (PSEUDODENDROTHRIPS MORI ATTACKED MULBERRY (MORUS SP. FOLIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeva* and MP Shree

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry, the sole food of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. is prone to various pests and diseases. The injury caused during the feeding behavior of insect pests may alter the physiological activities and leading to imbalances in the nutritive constituents of the host plants. An study has been made to know the level of six macro (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur and seven micro nutrients (zinc, iron, manganese, copper, boron, molybdenum and chloride elements in the thrips (Pseudodendrothrips mori Niwa. attacked leaves of six popularly cultivated mulberry varieties. The results revealed a large variation in the nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, sulphur and molybdenum content. The remaining elements were changed non-significantly. Feeding such leaves may cause a variation in growth and development of the silkworm, which results the low yield and poor quality of silk.

  17. Acute toxicity and risk assessment of permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to larval butterflies via ingestion of contaminated foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

    2015-02-01

    Three Florida native larval butterflies (Junonia coenia, Anartia jatrophae, Eumaeus atala) were used in the present study to determine the acute toxicity, hazard, and risk of a 24h ingestion of leaves contaminated with the adult mosquito control insecticides permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to late 4th and early 5th in-star caterpillars. Based on 24-h LD50s for ingestion, naled was more acutely toxic than permethrin and dichlorvos to caterpillars. Hazard quotients using the ratio of the highest doses and the 90th percentile doses from field measurements in host plant foliage following actual mosquito control applications to the toxicological benchmarks from laboratory toxicity tests indicate potential high acute hazard for naled compared to permethrin and dichlorvos. Based on probabilistic ecological risk methods, naled exposure doses in the environment also presented a higher acute risk to caterpillars than permethrin and dichlorvos. The acute toxicity laboratory results and ecological risk assessment are based only on dietary ingestion and single chemical doses. It does not include other typical exposure scenarios that may occur in the environment. It is thus plausible to state that the ecological risk assessment presented here underestimates the potential risks in the field to caterpillars. However, one assumption that is scientifically feasible and certainly real from the results - if the environmental exposure doses of mosquito control operations are similar or higher to those presented here in leaves from the field, after applications, there will likely be significant mortalities and other adverse effects on caterpillar populations. PMID:25462317

  18. IMPACT OF DIFFERENT TOPOGRAPHIC CORRECTIONS ON PREDICTION ACCURACY OF FOLIAGE PROJECTIVE COVER (FPC IN A TOPOGRAPHICALLY COMPLEX TERRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ediriweera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative retrieval of land surface biological parameters (e.g. foliage projective cover [FPC] and Leaf Area Index is crucial for forest management, ecosystem modelling, and global change monitoring applications. Currently, remote sensing is a widely adopted method for rapid estimation of surface biological parameters in a landscape scale. Topographic correction is a necessary pre-processing step in the remote sensing application for topographically complex terrain. Selection of a suitable topographic correction method on remotely sensed spectral information is still an unresolved problem. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of topographic corrections on the prediction of FPC in hilly terrain using an established regression model. Five established topographic corrections [C, Minnaert, SCS, SCS+C and processing scheme for standardised surface reflectance (PSSSR] were evaluated on Landsat TM5 acquired under low and high sun angles in closed canopied subtropical rainforest and eucalyptus dominated open canopied forest, north-eastern Australia. The effectiveness of methods at normalizing topographic influence, preserving biophysical spectral information, and internal data variability were assessed by statistical analysis and by comparing field collected FPC data. The results of statistical analyses show that SCS+C and PSSSR perform significantly better than other corrections, which were on less overcorrected areas of faintly illuminated slopes. However, the best relationship between FPC and Landsat spectral responses was obtained with the PSSSR by producing the least residual error. The SCS correction method was poor for correction of topographic effect in predicting FPC in topographically complex terrain.

  19. Purple foliage coloration in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) arises from activation of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsAN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Binmei; Zhu, Zhangsheng; Cao, Panrong; Chen, Hao; Chen, Changming; Zhou, Xin; Mao, Yanhui; Lei, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanpin; Meng, Wei; Wang, Yingxi; Liu, Shaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Purple foliage always appears in Camellia sinensis families; however, the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is unknown. The tea bud sport cultivar 'Zijuan' confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in a mutant phenotype that has a striking purple color in young foliage and in the stem. In this study, we aimed to unravel the underlying molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthetic regulation in C. sinensis. Our results revealed that activation of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) anthocyanin1 (CsAN1) specifically upregulated the bHLH TF CsGL3 and anthocyanin late biosynthetic genes (LBGs) to confer ectopic accumulation of pigment in purple tea. We found CsAN1 interacts with bHLH TFs (CsGL3 and CsEGL3) and recruits a WD-repeat protein CsTTG1 to form the MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) complex that regulates anthocyanin accumulation. We determined that the hypomethylation of a CpG island in the CsAN1 promoter is associated with the purple phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that low temperature and long illumination induced CsAN1 promoter demethylation, resulting in upregulated expression to promote anthocyanin accumulation in the foliage. The successful isolation of CsAN1 provides important information on the regulatory control of anthocyanin biosynthesis in C. sinensis and offers a genetic resource for the development of new varieties with enhanced anthocyanin content. PMID:27581206

  20. Compartmentation of metals in foliage of Populus tremula grown on soils with mixed contamination. I. From the tree crown to leaf cell level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollenweider, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.vollenweider@wsl.c [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Menard, Terry; Guenthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    In order to achieve efficient phytoextraction of heavy metals using trees, the metal allocation to aboveground tissues needs to be characterised. In his study, the distribution of heavy metals, macro- and micronutrients and the metal micro-localisation as a function of the leaf position and heavy metal treatment were analysed in poplars grown on soil with mixed metal contamination. Zinc was the most abundant contaminant in both soil and foliage and, together with cadmium, was preferentially accumulated in older foliage whereas excess copper and lead were not translocated. Changes in other element concentrations indicated an acceleration in aging as a consequence of the metal treatment. Excess zinc was irregularly accumulated inside leaf tissues, tended to saturate the veins and was more frequently stored in cell symplast than apoplast. Storage compartments including metabolically safe and sensitive subcellular sites resulted in sizable metal accumulation as well as stress reactions. - Within foliage of poplars growing on contaminated soils, Zinc was stored at metabolically safe as well as sensitive subcellular sites, ensuring sizable bioaccumulation but also causing injuries.

  1. Development of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L on the foliage of Quercus cerris L., Q. Petraea (matt Liebl. and Q. Robur L. in the controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L was monitored in laboratory conditions, on the foliage of the species Quercus cerris L. Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. and Quercus robur L. The experiment was established in the controlled environmental conditions, at the temperature of 25°C, photoperiod 14:10 (day: night and relative humidity 70%. The objective of the research was to determine the suitability of the study host plant species for gypsy moth development. The study results show that Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. petraea foliage had a lower survival, higher number of moultings, longer preadult development and lower fecundity, which makes this species less suitable compared to the other two. Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. cerris foliage had the highest survival degree the lowest number of moultings, the shortest preadult development and the highest fecundity, which makes this species the most favourable for gypsy moth development. Q. robur was between the former two species in this respect.

  2. 叶面施肥对花生光合作用和植物激素的影响%Effect of Foliage Spraying on Photosynthetic Indexes and Plant Hormones of Peanut at Blossom Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雄; 彭克勤; 杨毅

    2011-01-01

    Foliage spraying was used at seedling, blossom and pod stage of peanut respectively, the results showed that the photosynthetic indexes were obviously increased by spraying of calcium superphosphate and boric acid at blossom, which improved the photosynthetic efficiency and yield of peanut. At the same time, the change of content of plant hormones at blossom stage was studied, the results showed that the contents of Zeatin and IAA were evidently increased by spraying of calcium superphosphate and boric acid, which promoted the growth of peanut at blossom.%在花生苗期、花针期和荚果期分别进行叶面施肥,结果发现在花针期喷施过磷酸钙和硼酸可以明显提高植株的光合指标,从而提高花生的光合效率.同时,对花针期花生体内的植物激素含量变化研究发现,在该时期叶面喷施过磷酸钙和硼酸可以在很大程度上提高植株的玉米素和生长素含量,从而促进该时期花生的生长发育.

  3. Fall Foliage Topology Seminars

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This book demonstrates the lively interaction between algebraic topology, very low dimensional topology and combinatorial group theory. Many of the ideas presented are still in their infancy, and it is hoped that the work here will spur others to new and exciting developments. Among the many techniques disussed are the use of obstruction groups to distinguish certain exact sequences and several graph theoretic techniques with applications to the theory of groups.

  4. Variability in the carbon isotopic composition of foliage carbon pools (soluble carbohydrates, waxes) and respiration fluxes in southeastern U.S. pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Conte, Maureen H.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Weber, J. C.; Martin, Timothy A.; Cropper, Wendell P., Jr.

    2012-06-01

    We measured the δ13C of assimilated carbon (foliage organic matter (δCOM), soluble carbohydrates (δCSC), and waxes (δCW)) and respiratory carbon (foliage (δCFR), soil (δCSR) and ecosystem 13CO2 (δCER)) for two years at adjacent ecosystems in the southeastern U.S.: a regenerated 32 m tall mature Pinus palustrisforest, and a mid-rotation 13 m tallPinus elliottii stand. Carbon pools and foliage respiration in P. palustris were isotopically enriched by 2‰ relative to P. elliottii. Despite this enrichment, mean δCER values of the two sites were nearly identical. No temporal trends were apparent in δCSC, δCFR, δCSR and δCER. In contrast, δCOM and δCW at both sites declined by approximately 2‰ over the study. This appears to reflect the adjustment in the δ13C of carbon storage reserves used for biosynthesis as the trees recovered from a severe drought prior to our study. Unexpectedly, the rate of δ13C decrease in the secondary C32-36 n-alkanoic acid wax molecular cluster was twice that observed forδCOM and the predominant C22-26 compound cluster, and provides new evidence for parallel but separate wax chain elongation systems utilizing different carbon precursor pools in these species. δCFR and δCER were consistently enriched relative to assimilated carbon but, in contrast to previous studies, showed limited variations in response to changes in vapor pressure deficit (D). This limited variability in respiratory fluxes and δCSC may be due to the shallow water table as well as the deep taproots of pines, which limit fluctuations in photosynthetic discrimination arising from changes in D.

  5. Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis deposits in oak foliage, after aerial application of Foray 48B using rotary and pressure atomizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk), Foray® 48B, was sprayed aerially over blocks selected in a hardwood forest in the USA at the rate of 90 billion international units in 7.0 L/ha, using a helicopter and a fixed‐wing aircraft, each fitted with pressure or rotary cage atomizers. Droplet size spectra were assessed on foliage using two new parameters, viz., droplet‐spot number median diameter (S‐DN.5) and protein mass median diameter (S‐DM.5). The data indicated that when rotary cage atomizers were used, the droplet spectra were narrow with smaller S‐DN.5 and S‐DM.5 values, than when pressure atomizers were used. The protein mass deposits corresponded with the droplet sizes, i.e., the larger the droplet sizes, the greater the deposits. The initial bioactivity did not correspond with the deposits, because the greater the deposits the lower the activity. Persistence of bioactivity also showed irregularities, indicating the role of environmental transformation of formulation ingredients into products of greater toxicity via the dermal route. A controlled laboratory study provided a new methodology to determine oral and dermal toxicity separately, and showed that dermal toxicity of formulation ingredients increased with exposure to sunlight. The field observations were explained on the basis of the laboratory findings that when the applied droplets were too large, the spread area not only became too large to be effective, but also increased the probability of sunlight exposure of the formulation components present in the deposits. The present investigation provided a novel method to develop two new parameters, S‐DN.5 and S‐DM.5, which were related to droplet spread area on target, and not to spherical diameters of the droplets. As a result, these parameters provided a better understanding of the extent of droplet spreading on surfaces, which played a more important role on rain washing and photo‐conversion of the

  6. Growth of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Regan, 1912) based in a temporary water body population in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae) Crescimento do peixe anual Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Regan, 1912) com base na população de um corpo d'água temporário do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (Cyprinodontiformes Rivulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    A. ARENZON; A. C. Peret; M. B. C. BOHRER

    2001-01-01

    The growth of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia was studied in its natural environment, in order to obtain information about its biology. A total of 797 specimens of C. melanotaenia were collected on a monthly basis between April 1994 and March 1995 in a temporary water body, located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The growth curve in total length suggests, to both sexes, a fast initial growth. Males present a smaller growth rate than females, but they attain a higher average maxi...

  7. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  8. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  9. Annual Energy Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  10. Investigating organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon, Part 1 of 3: estimating annual foliar biomass for a deciduous-dominant urban riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Goldman, Jami H.

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we explored the amount, type, and distribution of foliar biomass that is deposited annually as leaf litter to Fanno Creek and its floodplain in Portland, Oregon, USA. Organic matter is a significant contributor to the decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations observed in Fanno Creek each year and leaf litter is amongst the largest sources of organic matter to the stream channel and floodplain. Using a combination of field measurements and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data, the annual foliar biomass was estimated for 13 stream reaches along the creek. Biomass estimates were divided into two sets: (1) the annual foliage available from the entire floodplain overstory canopy, and (2) the annual foliage overhanging the stream, which likely contributes leaf litter directly to the creek each year. Based on these computations, an estimated 991 (±22%) metric tons (tonnes, t) of foliar biomass is produced annually above the floodplain, with about 136 t (±24%) of that foliage falling directly into Fanno Creek. The distribution of foliar biomass varies by reach, with between 150 and 640 t/km2 produced along the floodplain and between 400 and 1100 t/km2 available over the channel. Biomass estimates vary by reach based primarily on the density of tree cover, with forest-dominant reaches containing more mature deciduous trees with broader tree canopies than either wetland or urban-dominant reaches, thus supplying more organic material to the creek. By quantifying the foliar biomass along Fanno Creek we have provided a reach-scale assessment of terrestrial organic matter loading, thereby providing land managers useful information for planning future restoration efforts.

  11. Investigating organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon, Part 1 of 3: Estimating annual foliar biomass for a deciduous-dominant urban riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Goldman, Jami H.

    2014-11-01

    For this study, we explored the amount, type, and distribution of foliar biomass that is deposited annually as leaf litter to Fanno Creek and its floodplain in Portland, Oregon, USA. Organic matter is a significant contributor to the decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations observed in Fanno Creek each year and leaf litter is amongst the largest sources of organic matter to the stream channel and floodplain. Using a combination of field measurements and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data, the annual foliar biomass was estimated for 13 stream reaches along the creek. Biomass estimates were divided into two sets: (1) the annual foliage available from the entire floodplain overstory canopy, and (2) the annual foliage overhanging the stream, which likely contributes leaf litter directly to the creek each year. Based on these computations, an estimated 991 (±22%) metric tons (tonnes, t) of foliar biomass is produced annually above the floodplain, with about 136 t (±24%) of that foliage falling directly into Fanno Creek. The distribution of foliar biomass varies by reach, with between 150 and 640 t/km2 produced along the floodplain and between 400 and 1100 t/km2 available over the channel. Biomass estimates vary by reach based primarily on the density of tree cover, with forest-dominant reaches containing more mature deciduous trees with broader tree canopies than either wetland or urban-dominant reaches, thus supplying more organic material to the creek. By quantifying the foliar biomass along Fanno Creek we have provided a reach-scale assessment of terrestrial organic matter loading, thereby providing land managers useful information for planning future restoration efforts.

  12. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Frank J. [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Pechmann, Ildiko [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, State University, 113 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)], E-mail: pildiko@andromeda.rutgers.edu; Bogden, John D. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States); Grabosky, Jason [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Weis, Peddrick [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield.

  13. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield

  14. Annual Interviews

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Annex II, page 1, Section 3 of the Administrative Circular no. 26 (Rev. 5) states that "The annual interview shall usually take place between 15 November of the reference year and 15 February of the following year." Following the meeting of the Executive Board on 7 December 2004 and the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 19 January 2005, it has been decided, for the advancement exercise of 2005, to extend this period until 15 March 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  15. Temperature and foliage quality affect performance of the outbreak defoliator Ormiscodes amphimone (F. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina La temperatura y la calidad del follaje afectan el desempeño del defoliador epidémico Ormiscodes amphimone (F. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae en el noroeste de la Patagonia argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN PARITSIS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the temperate forests of Chile and Argentina the phytophagous moth Ormiscodes amphimone (F. causes severe defoliation on the southern beech tree Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl. Krasser. The recent increase in defoliation frequency in some áreas appears to be influenced by a warmer climate. To evalúate the effects of temperature and the spatial heterogeneity of foliage quality on the performance and relative consumption rate of O. amphimone in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina we conducted a factorial experiment. Larval performance was measured as relative growth rate, developmental time, larval survival, and pupal weight. Larvae of O. amphimone were reared under two constant temperature regimes (15 °C and 20 °C and fed with two N. pumilio foliage types (from a mesic and from a xeric site. Larvae at the higher temperature and fed with leaves from the mesic site showed higher performance and consumption rate than larvae in the other treatments. Higher temperature and mesic foliage had positive effects on O. amphimone's relative growth rate, development time and relative consumption rate. However, pupal weight was positively influenced by mesic foliage but not by temperature, and larval survival did not show significant differences among treatments. Our results preliminarily suggest that O. amphimone performance and consumption rate may increase under higher temperature conditions, especially in the mesic portions of the precipitation gradient. However, these findings should be carefully interpreted as further research is necessary to assess the influence of higher temperatures on the foliar quality of N. pumilio.En los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina la polilla fitófaga Ormiscodes amphimone (F. genera severas defoliaciones sobre la lenga (Nothofagus pumilio [Poepp. & Endl.] Krasser. El reciente aumento en la frecuencia de defoliación en algunas áreas de la Patagonia parecería estar influenciada por un clima más cálido. Para

  16. Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PNRI Annual Report summarizes the institute's yearly progress in nuclear research and development projects, services, regulations, technology transfers and information dissemination on the peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. The establishment and future operation of the Technetium 99m Generator Facility and the Electron Beam Facility will enhance the institute's capabilities. The PNRI has made great strides in agricultural and environmental research, helping to improve crop growth and water resource management. It served more clients availing of irradiation and other services, and was vigilant in monitoring incidents in the Southeast Asian region to preserve national nuclear safety and security

  17. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gustaf Werner Institute (GWI) annual report for the year 1976 presents in a condensed form the scientific activities in the disciplines High Energy Physics and Physical Biology at Uppsala University. The activities in High Energy Physics fall into three domains: Research with the local accelerator, participation in collaborations at international centers and work on the rebuilding of the Uppsala synchrocyclotron. A major subject of research in Physical Biology is control of growth and differentiation, as reflected in the kinetics of biochemical reactions or in the behaviour of healthy or malignant cells at various levels of organization. (Auth.)

  18. Annual budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that all businesses, including individuals, should have a budget - that is, an estimation of income and expense over an annual cycle. For companies, the budget is generally prepared and approved about one quarter before the start of the company's fiscal year and is updated and revised each quarter during the year. Although budgeting is a task dreaded by most exploration managers, it is usually the vehicle by which drilling prospects, the heart of any exploration program, are sold to the final decision makers. The budgeting process should be viewed as an opportunity rather than as a chore to be completed as quickly as possible

  19. International energy annual, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production, consumption, reserves, trade, and prices for five primary energy sources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear electricity. It also presents information on petroleum products. Since the early 1980's the world's total output of primary energy has increased steadily. The annual average growth rate of energy production during the decade was 1.9 percent. Throughout the 1980's, petroleum was the world's most heavily used type of energy. In 1989, three countries--the United States, the USSR, and China--were the leading producers and consumers of world energy. Together, these countries consumed and produced almost 50 percent of the world's total energy. Global production and consumption of crude oil and natural gas liquids increased during the 1980's, despite a decline in total production and demand in the early part of the decade. World production of dry natural gas continued to rise steadily in the 1980's. For the last several years, China has been the leading producer of coal, followed by the United States. In 1989, hydroelectricity supply declined slightly from the upward trend of the last 10 years. Nuclear power generation rose slightly from the 1988 level, compared with the marked growth in earlier years. Prices for major crude oils all increased between 1988 and 1989, but remained well below the price levels at the beginning of the decade. 26 figs., 36 tabs

  20. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talisman Energy Inc. is the largest Canadian-based independent oil and gas producer. Its main business activities include exploration, development, production and marketing of natural gas, natural gas liquids and crude oil. Main operating centres are in Canada, the North Sea, Indonesia and Sudan. Talisman Energy is also pursuing a number of high potential exploration ventures in Algeria and Trinidad. The Company has experienced a 30 per cent annual production growth rate over the last five years and has consistently increased its reserve base, while maintaining competitive finding and development costs. This report contains an extensive review of activities and achievements in each of Talisman Energy Inc.'s exploration and operating areas during 1998, a consolidated financial statement, a management discussion and analysis of production and financial performance, and a review of corporate governance. Future prospects are also discussed. Continued growth of 10 to 15 per cent annually over the next two years is anticipated as a result of management's current investment program. tabs

  1. Compartmentation of metals in foliage of Populus tremula grown on soils with mixed contamination. II. Zinc binding inside leaf cell organelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytoextraction potential of plants for removing heavy metals from polluted soils is determined by their capacity to store contaminants in aboveground organs and complex them safely. In this study, the metal compartmentation, elemental composition of zinc deposits and zinc complexation within leaves from poplars grown on soil with mixed metal contamination was analysed combining several histochemical and microanalytical approaches. Zinc was the only heavy metal detected and was stored in several organelles in the form of globoid deposits showing β-metachromasy. It was associated to oxygen anions and different cations, noteworthy phosphorous. The deposit structure, elemental composition and element ratios indicated that zinc was chelated by phytic acid ligands. Maturation processes in vacuolar vs. cytoplasmic deposits were suggested by differences in size and amounts of complexed zinc. Hence, zinc complexation by phytate contributed to metal detoxification and accumulation in foliage but could not prevent toxicity reactions therein. - Zinc contaminants translocated to symplast of aged leaves were detoxified by phytic acid ligands.

  2. Compartmentation of metals in foliage of Populus tremula grown on soils with mixed contamination. II. Zinc binding inside leaf cell organelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollenweider, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.vollenweider@wsl.c [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Bernasconi, Petra [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Environmental Protection Office (AfU), Aabachstrasse 5, 6300 Zug (Switzerland); Gautschi, Hans-Peter [Centre for Microscopy and Image Analysis (CMI), University of Zurich, Gloriastrasse 30, 8006 Zuerich (Switzerland); Menard, Terry; Frey, Beat; Guenthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    The phytoextraction potential of plants for removing heavy metals from polluted soils is determined by their capacity to store contaminants in aboveground organs and complex them safely. In this study, the metal compartmentation, elemental composition of zinc deposits and zinc complexation within leaves from poplars grown on soil with mixed metal contamination was analysed combining several histochemical and microanalytical approaches. Zinc was the only heavy metal detected and was stored in several organelles in the form of globoid deposits showing {beta}-metachromasy. It was associated to oxygen anions and different cations, noteworthy phosphorous. The deposit structure, elemental composition and element ratios indicated that zinc was chelated by phytic acid ligands. Maturation processes in vacuolar vs. cytoplasmic deposits were suggested by differences in size and amounts of complexed zinc. Hence, zinc complexation by phytate contributed to metal detoxification and accumulation in foliage but could not prevent toxicity reactions therein. - Zinc contaminants translocated to symplast of aged leaves were detoxified by phytic acid ligands.

  3. Empowering growth in Pakistan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid); H. Majid (Hadia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPakistan's Vision 2025 connects a policy commitment to greater gender equality with inclusive growth. It prioritises a "good quality of life and high living standard for all citizens across regions, gender" and to "achieve an annual average growth rate of 7 to 8 per cent that is inclusiv

  4. AREVA annual results 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AREVA expanded its backlog and increased its revenues compared with 2008, on strong installed base business and dynamic major projects, fostering growth in operating income of 240 million euros. As announced previously, Areva is implementing a financing plan suited to its objectives of profitable growth. The plan was implemented successfully in 2009, including the conclusion of an agreement, under very satisfactory terms, to sell its Transmission and Distribution business for 4 billion euros, asset sales for more than 1.5 billion euros, and successful bond issues of 3 billion euros. The plan will continue in 2010 with a capital increase, the completion of asset disposals and cost reduction and continued operational performance improvement programs. Areva bolstered its Renewable Energies business segment by supplementing its offshore wind power and biomass businesses with the acquisition of Ausra, a California-based leader in concentrated solar power technology. Despite the sale of T and D, Areva is maintaining its financial performance outlook for 2012: 12% average annual revenue growth to 12 billion euros in 2012, double digit operating margin and substantially positive free operating cash flow. Annual results 2009: - For the group as a whole, including Transmission and Distribution: Backlog: euros 49.4 bn (+2.5%), Revenues: euros 14 bn (+6.4%), Operating income: euros 501 m (+20.1%); - Nuclear and Renewable Energies perimeter: Backlog: euros 43.3 bn (+1.8%), Strong revenue growth: +5.4% to euros 8.5 bn, Operating income before provision for the Finnish project in the first half of 2009: euros 647 m, Operating income: euros 97 m, for a euros 240 m increase from 2008; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euros 552 m, i.e. euros 15.59 per share; - Net debt: euros 6,193 m; - Pro-forma net debt, including net cash to be received from the sale of T and D in 2010: euros 3,022 m; - Dividend of euros 7.06 per share to be proposed during the Annual

  5. 欧洲鹅耳枥2年生播种苗年生长动态%Annual growth dynamics of two-year-old seedlings of Carpinus betulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程龙霞; 金纯子; 祝遵凌

    2014-01-01

    In order to reveal the annual dynamic growth of Carpinus betulus, the two-year-old seedlings were taken as materials. The dynamic variations of seedling height, ground diameter and biomass accumulations were measured,and the correlation between the height, ground diameter and ecological factors were investigated. The results indicated that in the experiments, the growth of seedling height,ground diameter basically accorded with the rhythm of slow-fast-slow, which wasiftted by Logistic equation, and the growth stage of seedling height,ground diameter could be divided into three phases: the early stage, fast-growing stage and last stage; the seedling height in the fast-growing stage had one continuous rapid growth period, while the ground diameter had two intermittent growth peaks and the latter was more obvious than the previous; besides, there was a signiifcant linear relation between seedling height and ground diameter, but there was a negative correlation between the parts of seedlings; the correlation analysis of seedling height,ground diameter related with meteorological factors showed that the average temperature in half-moon was the dominate factor of seedling height, but other meteorological factors had no signiifcant effect on the growth of ground diameter.%以欧洲鹅耳枥2年生播种苗为研究对象,对其苗高、地径、生物量的年动态变化和苗高与地径、生态因子的关系等进行研究。结果表明:苗高、地径两者生长基本符合“慢-快-慢”的生长规律,可用Logistic方程来拟合,同时把苗高和地径的生长可分为生长初期、生长盛期和生长末期;苗高在生长盛期有一连续生长高峰期,而地径在生长盛期有2次高峰期,且后期比前期更明显;苗高与地径变化之间呈线性相关,播种苗各部分生长具密切相关性,呈负相关性;通过苗高、地径生长规律与气象因子的相关性分析,表明旬平均气温是影响苗高的

  6. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  7. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  8. Chemical vapor deposition growth. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, R.P.; Manasevit, H.M.; Johnson, R.E.; Kenty, J.L.; Moudy, L.A.; Simpson, W.I.; Yang, J.J.

    1976-10-01

    The formal objective of the contract is development of CVD techniques for producing large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells. The techniques developed are to be directed toward (1) minimum-cost processing, (2) production of sheet having properties adequate to result in cells with terrestrial array efficiency of 10 percent or more, and (3) eventual scale-up to large-quantity production. (WDM)

  9. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH3-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 ± 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P 0.05). However, those supplemented with acacia without PEG (D3) had

  10. Scientific Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As one of the world's largest grain consumers,food security has always been a major concern for the Chinese nation.China must confront the challenge of feeding a fifth of the world's population with less than 9 percent of the planet's arable land.In 2011,China's grain output recorded growth for the eighth successive year,and total production reached an all-time high of 571million tons.In terms of food security,China's goal is to maintain a self-sufficiency rate of above 95 percent.However,an annual net population growth of 7.39 million and the effective decline of the area of farmland in the country,as a result of urbanization,make achieving such selfsufficiency a serious challenge.Given the heavy burden placed on Chinese agriculture,constantly raising productivity by relying on scientific and technological progress has become a priority for China's agricultural sector.The Ministry of Agriculture,for example,has worked to raise China's annual grain yield per-unit area by 1 percent,on average,over the past decade.Last year,the contributory rate of scientific and technological development to China's agriculture reached 52 percent,surpassing the contribution made by land,labor and other production factors for the first time in history.

  11. Application of the Ornamental Foliage Trees in Urban Greening%观叶树木在城市绿化中的运用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉; 林风华; 曹淑和

    2012-01-01

    园林景观的营造,色彩是必不可少的因素之一,运用植物叶色的绚丽,姿态的优美,可以营造出充满生机和动感的自然景观,这对提高城市绿地质量,提升绿地品相,使得城市园林景观多元化、艺术化起到推动的作用。本文对观叶树木在城市绿化中的应用进行了一些思考。%Color is an essential factor for the establishment of urban garden landscape. As such, application of the ornamental trees with colorful leaves and elegant appearance could create a natural-like landscape full of vigor and activity, which could improve greatly the quality of urban greening in terms of diversification and artification. In this paper, some relevant issues about the application of the ornamental foliage trees in urban greening were discussed.

  12. Impact of surfactant assisted acid and alkali pretreatment on lignocellulosic structure of pine foliage and optimization of its saccharification parameters using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ajay Kumar; Negi, Sangeeta

    2015-09-01

    In present study, two hybrid methods such as surfactant assisted acid pretreatment (SAAP) and surfactant assisted base pretreatment (SABP) of pine foliage (PF) were found efficient for removal of 59.53 ± 0.76% and 73.47 ± 1.03% lignin, respectively. Assessment of the impact of pretreatment over the structure of PF were studied by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis. Parameters for saccharification of SAAP and SABP biomass were optimized by Box-Behnken design method and 0.588 g/g and 0.477 g/g of reducing sugars were obtained, respectively. The ethanol fermentation efficiency of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NCIM 3288) of hydrolysates was increased by 16.1% and 6.01% in SAAP-PFF and SABP-PFF after detoxification with XAD-4 resin. The mass balance analysis of the process showed that 67.7% and 70.12% cellulose were utilized during SAAP and SABP, respectively. These results indicated that SAAP would be more economic for bioethanol production. PMID:26025349

  13. Impact of ozone on the activity and quantity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in potato foliage and its relation to premature senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Plants, 26 days old, were exposed to O{sub 3} for five days in a controlled environment chamber. Initial and total activities and quantity of enzyme declined in both O{sub 3}-treated and control plants. Ozone accelerated the decline and produced a significantly greater decrease in activity and quantity by the fifth day of O{sub 3} exposure. Percent activation of the enzyme did not change. Enzyme activity and quantity of O{sub 3}-treated plants remained below control levels throughout a seven-day post-exposure observation period. Ozone may accelerate the decline in rubisco by increasing enzyme acceptability to proteases. To test this hypothesis, rubisco was purified from Norland potato foliage and the enzyme exposed to O{sub 3} or oxygen (O{sub 2}) in vitro. Following oxidant treatment, the extract was treated with exogenous protease. Oxidant treatment reduced the quantity of rubisco an average of 15%. Addition of protease further reduced the quantity by another 30% after O{sub 3} but no O{sub 2} treatment.

  14. A Multifrequency Radar System for Detecting Humans and Characterizing Human Activities for Short-Range Through-Wall and Long-Range Foliage Penetration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram M. Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multifrequency radar system for detecting humans and classifying their activities at short and long ranges is described. The short-range radar system operates within the S-Band frequency range for through-wall applications at distances of up to 3 m. It utilizes two separate waveforms which are selected via switching: a wide-band noise waveform or a continuous single tone. The long-range radar system operating in the W-Band millimeter-wave frequency range performs at distances of up to about 100 m in free space and up to about 30 m through light foliage. It employs a composite multimodal signal consisting of two waveforms, a wide-band noise waveform and an embedded single tone, which are summed and transmitted simultaneously. Matched filtering of the received and transmitted noise signals is performed to detect targets with high-range resolution, whereas the received single tone signal is used for the Doppler analysis. Doppler measurements are used to distinguish between different human movements and gestures using the characteristic micro-Doppler signals. Our measurements establish the ability of this system to detect and range humans and distinguish between different human movements at different ranges.

  15. Effect of vacuum storage on shelf life of a grain protector based on Peumus boldus Molina foliage powder and lime against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a key pest of stored grain maize. As an ecological pest control alternative, the use of botanical insecticides, such as powder from boldus (Peumus boldus Molina foliage singly or mixed with lime, has been evaluated. Unfortunately, its shelf life is very short and does not exceed 15 d. The effectiveness of vacuum storage on insecticidal properties of a natural grain protector produced with boldus powder:lime at proportions of 50:50 and 60:40 against adults of S. zeamais was assessed under laboratory conditions. Treatments were evaluated at 1% and 2% (w/w for 150 d of storage. All treatments based on boldus powder kept the level of mortality by contact activity over 80% at 150 d of storage. The highest toxicity, as a fumigant, was observed in treatments 50:50 at 2% and 60:40 at 1% and 2% with mortality over 60%. The grain weight loss was less than 1% and seed germination was not affected. With the exception of 0:100 at 2% without vacuum storage, all treatments were repellent to S. zeamais. Vacuum storage extended shelf life of the grain protector for 150 d.

  16. Nexen 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains financial information from Nexen Inc., a Calgary-based global energy and chemicals company. A review of strategies and operations was also provided, including details of new exploration and plans for growth development in Canada and internationally. Growth regions included the Athabasca oil sands; Gulf of Mexico, Middle East, offshore West Africa and the North Sea. Nexen share prices at the end of the fourth quarter rested at $58.35, up from $47.03 in 2003. Quarterly dividends increased to $0.10 per share. Net sales for 2004 were $3,176 million compared to $2,844 million in 2003. Cash flow increased 8 per cent from 2003 to $1.9 billion. The report lists major achievements of 2004. Among the achievements were the acquisition of assets in the UK North Sea and the development of the Long Lake Project. New investments in 2004 included $69 million in Offshore West Africa, $175 million in Canada with $148 million in maturing Canadian core assets. Legal proceedings pending against the company were provided. This annual report includes an auditor's report of the company's energy resource activities. An operations review was also presented along with consolidated financial statements, a summarized balance sheet of assets, liabilities/surplus and net assets, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. A summary of government and environmental regulations affecting business was also provided. tabs., figs

  17. Effect of browse plant foliage supplementation on the performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami

    2015-08-01

    The effect of browse plants (Piliostigma thonningii, Daniellia oliveri, Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Annona senegalensis) supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility, nutritive value and N utilization and growth performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top (TST) was investigated using 24 Red Sokoto goats (9.0 ± 0.25 kg) body weight (BW) which were randomly assigned to one of the six diets in a completely random design. Intakes of dry matter (DM) and nutrients, feed conversion ratio, digestibility of nutrients except for neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), digestible organic matter (DOM), digestible crude protein (DCP), energy concentration, N utilization and average daily gain were superior (P < 0.05) in TST-supplemented diets compared to sole TST diet. Among the supplemental fodders, intakes of forage, DM, condensed tannins and most of the nutrients; digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP) and non-fibre carbohydrate, DOM and DCP; and N absorbed, balance and retention were greater (P < 0.05) in A. africana relative to the other fodders. Results indicate that the entire browse fodders are good supplements to low quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better nutritive value. PMID:25863959

  18. Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, G.; Minotta, G.

    2000-05-01

    Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) were grown in low light for one year, under conditions of adequate and limiting nutrition, then transferred to high light. Three months after transfer we measured photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration and leaf mass per area (LMA) of current-year and 1-year-old shoots; silhouette area ratio (SAR, the ratio of shoot silhouette area to projected needle area) was also measured in current-year shoots. At the foliage level, the effects of light and nutrient treatments differed markedly. Light availability during foliage expansion primarily affected LMA and SAR (morphological acclimation at the needle and shoot level, respectively). By contrast, nutrient supply in high light affected photosynthetic capacity per unit of leaf tissue (physiological acclimation at the cellular level) but did not affect LMA and SAR. The capacity for shade-sun acclimation in foliage formed before transfer to high light differed greatly from that of foliage formed following the transfer. The morphological inflexibility of mature needles (measured by LMA) limited their shade-sun acclimation potential. In contrast, at high nutrient supply, shoots that developed just after the change in photosynthetic photon flux density largely acclimated, both morphologically and physiologically, to the new light environment. The acclimation response of both current- and 1-year-old shoots was prevented by nutrient limitation. Analysis of growth at the whole-plant level largely confirmed the conclusions drawn at the shoot level. We conclude that nutrient shortage subsequent to the opening of a canopy gap may strongly limit the acclimation response of Norway spruce seedlings. Successful acclimation was largely related to the plant's ability to produce sun foliage and adjust whole-plant biomass allocation rapidly. PMID:12651514

  19. Empowering growth in Pakistan?

    OpenAIRE

    Siegmann, Karin Astrid; Majid, Hadia

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPakistan's Vision 2025 connects a policy commitment to greater gender equality with inclusive growth. It prioritises a "good quality of life and high living standard for all citizens across regions, gender" and to "achieve an annual average growth rate of 7 to 8 per cent that is inclusive and endogenous" as its first two objectives (GoP 2014a). These commitments respond to the multiple inequalities and the increasing polarization that characterise the South Asian country. Rather t...

  20. Annual Check-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Annual Check-Up Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 January 2015. + ... I get ready for my annual medical check-up? If this is your first visit to your ...

  1. Winter Annual Weed Response to Nitrogen Sources and Application Timings prior to a Burndown Corn Herbicide

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Autumn and early preplant N applications, sources, and placement may affect winter annual weed growth. Field research evaluated (1) the effect of different nitrogen sources in autumn and early preplant on total winter annual weed growth (2006–2010), and (2) strip-till and broadcast no-till N applied in autumn and early preplant on henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L.) growth (2008–2010) prior to a burndown herbicide application. Total winter annual weed biomass was greater than the nontreated contr...

  2. Biologia reprodutiva do fura-barreira Hylocryptus rectirostris (Aves: Furnariidae Breeding biology of the Henna-capped Foliage-gleaner Hylocryptus rectirostris(Aves: Furnariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene C. P. Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia reprodutiva de Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied, 1831 é descrita pela primeira vez. As coletas de dados foram realizadas no período de abril de 2004 a novembro de 2005, no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais. Os indivíduos foram marcados com anilhas coloridas e acompanhados ao longo de duas estações reprodutivas. Ovos, ninhegos e jovens foram descritos. O sucesso reprodutivo foi avaliado em cinco categorias: construção de ninhos, ovos, ninhegos, casais e ninhos. Casos de competição por cavidades e predação também foram registrados. A atividade reprodutiva é altamente sincrônica tanto entre os casais quanto entre as estações. Foram encontrados 20 ninhos, todos construídos em barrancos localizados nas margens de rios. O período de incubação é de 17 dias e o período de ninhego varia entre 21 a 25 dias. O casal se reveza na construção do ninho, incubação e alimentação da prole, sendo que a fêmea apresenta maior desenvolvimento da placa incubatória. A porcentagem de ninhos que produziram um ou mais filhotes foi de 33% (n = 9 na estação de 2004 e 18% (n = 11 na estação de 2005. As causas dos fracassos ocorridos ao longo da atividade reprodutiva foram principalmente destruição do ninho por desabamento ou enchente do rio. Este estudo fornece conhecimentos a respeito da biologia básica de H. rectirostris e pode contribuir para futuras medidas de conservação e manejo desta espécie.Here, we provide the first description of the breeding biology of the Henna-browed Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied, 1831. The foliage-gleaner was studied at the Serra do Cipó Nationa Park (Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Birds were marked with color bands and monitored through two reproductive seasons from April 2004 to November 2005. Eggs, nestlings and young are described. Breeding success was calculated for five categories: nest construction

  3. Effects of supplementation of threshed sorghum top with selected browse plant foliage on haematology and serum biochemical parameters of Red Sokoto goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Oyekunle, Mufutau Atanda; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami; Makinde, Olayinka John

    2016-06-01

    The haematological and biochemical parameters of 24 growing Red Sokoto bucks (9.00 ± 0.25 kg body weight) fed threshed sorghum top (TST) with or without five different browse plant foliage Afzelia africana (AA), Daniellia oliveri (DO), Piliostigma thonningii (PT), Pterocarpus erinaceus (PE) and Annona senegalensis (AS) supplements were studied using a completely randomized design. All haematological parameters were (P < 0.05) lower in TST-fed goats compared with TST-supplemented goats, except for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocytes and monocytes which did not follow a particular pattern. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin and monocytes were higher for AA-supplemented goats while MCHC was reduced relative to other supplements (P < 0.05). White blood cell counts were increased in DO lambs compared to other supplements (P < 0.05). Serum proteins, creatinine, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate were reduced in TST compared with the supplements (P < 0.05). Cholesterol was higher for PT and AA than other diets (P < 0.05). Aspartate transaminase was reduced in TST goats relative to the supplements (P < 0.05). Except for potassium which was reduced in AS (P < 0.05), all serum major minerals were similar among diets. Results indicate that the entire browse fodder are good supplements to low-quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better supplementary effect on haematological and biochemical parameters of the goats. PMID:27010715

  4. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  5. Annual report and accounts 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report and Accounts for 1993 are presented for the health science company Amersham International. The company's research program focuses on developments in life science research, nuclear medicine and industrial quality and safety assurance, with particular expertise in the application of radioactivity to labelling and detection at the molecular level. A review of the company's financial performance and shareholders' returns is presented. The company's strategies in its worldwide markets is explained, as are the research programmes underpinning present and future sales growth. The three main businesses are also described. (UK)

  6. 2002 annual report EDF group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the 2002 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) group, the French electric utility. Content: Introductory section (EDF at a glance, Chairman's message, 2002 Highlights); Corporate governance and Group strategy (Corporate governance, sustainable growth strategy, EDF branches); Financial performance (Reaching critical mass, Margins holding up well, Balance sheet); Human resources (Launching Group-wide synergies, Optimising human resources); Customers (Major customers, SMEs and professional customers, Local authorities, Residential customers, Ensuring quality access to electricity); Generation (A balanced energy mix, Nuclear generation, Fossil-fuelled generation, Renewable energies); Corporate social responsibility (Global and local partnerships, Promoting community development)

  7. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn;

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of large-scale investments in biofuels for growth and income distribution. We find that biofuels investment enhances growth and poverty reduction despite some displacement of food crops by biofuels. Overall, the biofuel investment trajectory analyzed increases...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor and...

  8. Physiological and developmental effects of O3 on cottonwood growth in urban and rural sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jillian W; Jones, Clive G; Dawson, Todd E

    2006-12-01

    Previously we found that cloned cottonwood saplings (Populus deltoides) grew twice as large in New York, New York, USA, compared to surrounding rural environments and that soils, temperature, CO2, nutrient deposition, and microclimatic variables could not account for the greater urban plant biomass. Correlations between final season biomass and cumulative O3 exposures, combined with twofold growth reductions in an open-top chamber experiment provided strong evidence that higher cumulative O3 exposures in rural sites reduced growth in the country. Here, we assess the field gas exchange, growth and development, and allocation responses underlying the observed growth differences and compare them with isolated O3 responses documented in the open-top chamber experiment. Cottonwoods showed no visible foliar injury, reduced photosynthesis of recently expanded foliage, early leaf senescence, protective reduction in stomatal conductance, or compensatory allocation to shoot relative to root biomass for either the chamber or field experiment. Instead, O3-impacted chamber plants had significantly higher conductance and reduced photosynthesis of older foliage that led to reduced leaf area production and a twofold biomass reduction in the absence of visible injury. Rural-grown field plants showed the same pattern of significantly higher conductance in the absence of concomitant increases in photosynthesis that was indicative of a loss of stomatal control. Incremental changes in foliar production were also significantly inversely related to fluctuations in ambient O3 exposures. The similarity in biomass, gas exchange, phenological, and allocation responses between chamber and field experiments indicate that mechanisms accounting for reduced growth at rural sites were consistent with those in the open-top chamber O3 experiment. This study shows the limitation of visible symptoms as a sole diagnostic factor for documenting detrimental O3 impacts and points toward a new approach to

  9. Financial development, economic growth and corporate governance : paper presented at the First Annual Seminar on New Development Finance held at the Goethe University of Frankfurt, September 22 - October 3, 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Adalbert

    1998-01-01

    During the last years the relationship between financial development and economic growth has received widespread attention in the literature on growth and development. This paper summarises in its first part the results of this research, stressing the growth-enhancing effects of an increased interpersonal re-allocation of resources promoted by financial development. The second part of the paper seeks to identify the determinants of financial development based on Diamond's theory of financial ...

  10. Influence of some plant water extracts on the germination and seedling growth of barnyard grass (echinochola crus-galli (L.) beauv)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water extracts of rice husk (Oryza sativa L.), above ground foliage of barnyard grass (Echinochola crus-galli (L.) Beauv) and sorghum stalk (Sorghum bicolor L.) were used to investigate their allelopathic effects on the germination and seedling growth of barnyard grass in a laboratory study. All the water extracts exhibited suppressive effects on the germination and seedling growth of barnyard grass. The order of suppression was rice > sorghum barnyard grass. Regression analysis showed that better germinates had the beneficial effect on the later growth of the seedling. (author)

  11. Characterization of Flavan-3-ols and Expression of MYB and Late Pathway Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Foliage of Vitis bellula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Gang Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs are fundamental nutritional metabolites in different types of grape products consumed by human beings. Although the biosynthesis of PAs in berry of Vitis vinifera has gained intensive investigations, the understanding of PAs in other Vitis species is limited. In this study, we report PA formation and characterization of gene expression involved in PA biosynthesis in leaves of V. bellula, a wild edible grape species native to south and south-west China. Leaves are collected at five developmental stages defined by sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 cm in length. Analyses of thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD show the formation of (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, (+-gallocatechin and (−-epigallocatechin during the entire development of leaves. Analyses of butanol-HCl boiling cleavage coupled with spectrometry measurement at 550 nm show a temporal trend of extractable PA levels, which is characterized by an increase from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm long leaves followed by a decrease in late stages. TLC and HPLC-PAD analyses identify cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargonidin produced from the cleavage of PAs in the butanol-HCl boiling, showing that the foliage PAs of V. bellula include three different types of extension units. Four cDNAs, which encode VbANR, VbDFR, VbLAR1 and VbLAR2, respectively, are cloned from young leaves. The expression patterns of VbANR and VbLAR2 but not VbLAR1 and VbDFR follow a similar trend as the accumulation patterns of PAs. Two cDNAs encoding VbMYBPA1 and VbMYB5a, the homologs of which have been demonstrated to regulate the expression of both ANR and LAR in V. vinifera, are also cloned and their expression profiles are similar to those of VbANR and VbLAR2. In contrast, the expression profiles of MYBA1 and 2 homologs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis are different from those of VbANR and VbLAR2. Our data show that both ANR and LAR branches are

  12. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z.A.; Liang, J. B.; H. Yaakub; N. Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed on...

  13. Quantification of tannins in tree foliage. A laboratory manual for the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project on 'Use of nuclear and related techniques to develop simple tannin assays for predicting and improving the safety and efficiency of feeding ruminants on tanniniferous tree foliage'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanniniferous trees and shrubs are of importance in animal production because they can provide significant protein supplements, but unfortunately the amounts of tannins that they contain vary widely and largely unpredictably, and their effects on animals range from beneficial to toxicity and death. The toxic or antinutritional effects tend to occur in times of stress when a very large proportion of the diet is tanniniferous. With a better understanding of tannin properties and proper management, they could become an invaluable source of protein for strategic supplementation. As the demand for food rises, tanniniferous plants must play an increasingly important part in the diet of animals, in particular for ruminants in smallholder subsistence farming in developing countries. It is therefore critical that techniques be developed to measure and manage the anti-nutritional components that they contain. Keeping the above in mind, a Joint FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques to Develop Simple Tannin Assays for Predicting and Improving the Safety and Efficiency of Feeding Ruminants on Tanniniferous Tree Foliage' has been initiated. In order to provide sound basis for this CRP, an FAO/IAEA Consultants Meeting was held in August 1997 in Vienna, at which the tanniniferous plants to be studied, the analytical methods, the test animals and the animal response evaluation techniques were defined. This publication contains methodologies for the analysis of tannins using chemical-, protein precipitation/binding- and bio-assays recommended by the consultants

  14. The fate of glyphosate in water hyacinth and its physiological and biochemical influences on growth of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Baolong.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption, translocation, distribution, exudation, and guttation of {sup 14}C-glyphosate in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were studied. Glyphosphate entered the plant by foliage and solution treatment. Plants were harvested and separated into the following parts: treated leaf blade, treated leaf petiole, young leaf blade, young leaf petiole, old leak blade, old leaf petiole, and root. Each part was extracted with methanol. Treated leaves, which exist only in foliage treatment, were washed with water and chloroform to remove the glyphosate residues. All {sup 14}C counting was made by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Autoradiography was used to locate {sup 14}C-glyphosate after foliage treatment. Results indicated that glyphosate can be absorbed from the leaf surface and translocated rapidly through phloem tissues into the whole plant body. The roots of water hyacinth absorbed glyphosate without vertical transport. Guttation of glyphosate occurred in treated leaf tips. Exudation of glyphosate from roots of water hyacinth occurred within 8 hr after foliage treatment. Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas reihardii, Anabaena cylindrica, and Chroococcus turgidus were used to explore the physiological and biochemical effects of glyphosate on algae. Spectrophotometric assays were performed for algal growth, chlorophyll, carotenoids, phycobiliprotein, carbohydrate, and protein. TLC procedures and an image analyzer were used to detect the metabolites of glyphosate inside algal cells. The common visible symptom of glyphosate toxicity in all algal cells were bleaching effect and reduction of contents of carbohydrate, protein, and pigments. The results highly suggested that glyphosate injured the algal cells by destruction of photosynthetic pigments and resulted in lowering the contents of carbohydrate and protein in algal cells.

  15. The fate of glyphosate in water hyacinth and its physiological and biochemical influences on growth of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption, translocation, distribution, exudation, and guttation of 14C-glyphosate in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were studied. Glyphosphate entered the plant by foliage and solution treatment. Plants were harvested and separated into the following parts: treated leaf blade, treated leaf petiole, young leaf blade, young leaf petiole, old leak blade, old leaf petiole, and root. Each part was extracted with methanol. Treated leaves, which exist only in foliage treatment, were washed with water and chloroform to remove the glyphosate residues. All 14C counting was made by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Autoradiography was used to locate 14C-glyphosate after foliage treatment. Results indicated that glyphosate can be absorbed from the leaf surface and translocated rapidly through phloem tissues into the whole plant body. The roots of water hyacinth absorbed glyphosate without vertical transport. Guttation of glyphosate occurred in treated leaf tips. Exudation of glyphosate from roots of water hyacinth occurred within 8 hr after foliage treatment. Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas reihardii, Anabaena cylindrica, and Chroococcus turgidus were used to explore the physiological and biochemical effects of glyphosate on algae. Spectrophotometric assays were performed for algal growth, chlorophyll, carotenoids, phycobiliprotein, carbohydrate, and protein. TLC procedures and an image analyzer were used to detect the metabolites of glyphosate inside algal cells. The common visible symptom of glyphosate toxicity in all algal cells were bleaching effect and reduction of contents of carbohydrate, protein, and pigments. The results highly suggested that glyphosate injured the algal cells by destruction of photosynthetic pigments and resulted in lowering the contents of carbohydrate and protein in algal cells

  16. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK)

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Growth of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Regan, 1912 based in a temporary water body population in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae Crescimento do peixe anual Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Regan, 1912 com base na população de um corpo d'água temporário do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (Cyprinodontiformes Rivulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ARENZON

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia was studied in its natural environment, in order to obtain information about its biology. A total of 797 specimens of C. melanotaenia were collected on a monthly basis between April 1994 and March 1995 in a temporary water body, located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The growth curve in total length suggests, to both sexes, a fast initial growth. Males present a smaller growth rate than females, but they attain a higher average maximum length than the females.O crescimento do peixe anual Cynopoecilus melanotaenia foi estudado em seu ambiente natural, visando obter informações referentes a sua biologia. Foram capturados 797 espécimes de C. melanotaenia, em coletas mensais entre abril de 1994 e março de 1995, em um corpo d'água temporário localizado no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A curva de crescimento total sugere, para ambos os sexos, um rápido crescimento inicial. Os machos apresentam uma taxa de crescimento menor que a das fêmeas, mas atingem, em média, um comprimento máximo maior que o das fêmeas.

  12. Stem secondary growth of tundra shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Leblans, Niki; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge of stem secondary growth of arctic shrubs (a key component of tundra net primary production, NPP) is very limited. Here, we investigated the impact of the physical elements of the environment on shrub secondary growth by comparing annual growth rates of model species from similar...... primary growth (stem apical growth, stem length, and apical growth of stem plus leaves), in some cases even with opposite responses. Thus caution should be taken when estimating the impact of the environment on shrub growth from apical growth only. Integration of our data set with the (very limited...

  13. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: GH; Human Growth Hormone; HGH; Somatotropin; Growth Hormone Stimulation Test; Growth Hormone ... I should know? How is it used? Growth hormone (GH) testing is primarily used to identify growth hormone ...

  14. 1999 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numac is one of Canada's top 25 oil and gas producing companies, exploring, developing and producing crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in Western Canada. During 1999, Numac increased its average daily production from 25,000 BOE/day in the first quarter to 29,000 BOE/day in the fourth quarter, while reducing unit operating, general and administrative and interest costs by more than one dollar per barrel to $6.70 per BOE, a reduction of 14 per cent compared to 1998. Cash flow totalled $137.7 million, or $1.44 per share, a substantial 76 per cent improvement over the previous year. The company had net earnings of $40.4 million, which represents a 20 per cent return on equity. Long-term debt was reduced to $154.4 million at year end, with no further off-balance sheet debt. Following completion of a major non-core property divestiture program, the number of working interest wells was reduced by two thirds to 1,300 wells from 3,900 wells. In 2000, the company intends to evaluate substantial undeveloped land blocks acquired during 1999 by drilling, believing that its bread and butter development and exploitation program in core areas can provide consistent and profitable growth and reach its key objective of 12 per cent after-tax rate of return on capital projects. Approximately $145 million is earmarked for exploration and development , split equally among Numac's three core areas in Alberta. The annual report provides a detailed review of operations, management's discussion and analysis of results, consolidated financial statements and relevant supplementary information. A summary review of operations and finances covering the five year period from 1995 to 1999 is also included

  15. Annual Report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Herma G.; Leadbetter, Alan J. [eds.] [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1999-11-01

    In this Annual Report a selection of about 30 scientific achievements are highlighted. These are intended to represent the huge range of high quality research carried out at ILL. In 1998 about 750 experiments were performed in the 225 days of reactor operation. The fields of magnetism and strongly correlated electron systems continue to be fertile and to throw up strong new growth. Remarkable new advances are coming from the applications of both existing and new neutron techniques and the development of new materials. These highlights concern superconductors, nano-magnetic particles, colossal magneto-resistance, magnetic-nuclear correlations, quantum spin systems and more. Novel magnetic measurements are also reported for a quasicrystal and on thin films of both normal and superconducting materials. Thanks to special abilities of neutrons to penetrate matter new results were obtained: following the production of novel intermetallic compounds, pressure dependence of phonon frequencies, the structure of glasses, solutions (in both bulk and thin films) and adsorbed phases; dynamics and relaxation in liquids; the confirmation of reptant motion in linear polymers, self-assembly and shear phenomena in liquid crystals. Three important results from nuclear physics are also included. These involve: fission-produced neutron-rich nuclei, weighing gamma photons in connection with the determination of fundamental constants and the determination of interatomic potentials from the slowing down process of atoms recoiling from gamma-ray emission - a direct link between nuclear and solid-state physics. The neutron experiments of importance for particle physics and biology will be reported next year

  16. Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suncor is a Canada-based integrated oil company with over $ 5.2 billion in assets. It produces 142,800 barrels of oil equivalent per day. There are four major business areas within Suncor: (1) oil sands - produces and markets custom-blended refinery stocks and transportation fuel from its oil sands mining and upgrading facilities at Fort McMurray, Alberta; (2) the Exploration and Production arm which explores, acquires, develops and produces oil and natural gas in western Canada and markets its production throughout North America; (3) Sunoco, Suncor's refining and marketing operation, with a major refinery in Sarnia, Ontario, and a network of more than 500 retail gasoline outlets throughout the province; and (4) International oil and In-situ operations, which focus on developing heavy oil and oil shale technologies that provide unique strategic advantages to Suncor on a global basis. This report records the company's progress during the 1999 fiscal year in terms of the company's priorities for long-term growth , i.e. to expand the oil sands, transfer expertise and technology from oil sands to new businesses, integrate downstream and upstream businesses, and focus on natural gas and alternative and renewable energy. The company is fully aware of the need for sustainable development and in its oil sands operations has in place a comprehensive Greenhouse Gas Management Plan that in fact affects the entire company. The goal is to remove one tonne of carbon dioxide for every tonne of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere through management of own emissions, pursuing greenhouse gas offsets and supporting education and research. The company has scored some notable successes in all of the target areas, details of which are provided in this annual report. A statement of the company's financial state is also included, along with the company's goals for 2000

  17. Annual Report, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Annual Report a selection of about 30 scientific achievements are highlighted. These are intended to represent the huge range of high quality research carried out at ILL. In 1998 about 750 experiments were performed in the 225 days of reactor operation. The fields of magnetism and strongly correlated electron systems continue to be fertile and to throw up strong new growth. Remarkable new advances are coming from the applications of both existing and new neutron techniques and the development of new materials. These highlights concern superconductors, nano-magnetic particles, colossal magneto-resistance, magnetic-nuclear correlations, quantum spin systems and more. Novel magnetic measurements are also reported for a quasicrystal and on thin films of both normal and superconducting materials. Thanks to special abilities of neutrons to penetrate matter new results were obtained: following the production of novel intermetallic compounds, pressure dependence of phonon frequencies, the structure of glasses, solutions (in both bulk and thin films) and adsorbed phases; dynamics and relaxation in liquids; the confirmation of reptant motion in linear polymers, self-assembly and shear phenomena in liquid crystals. Three important results from nuclear physics are also included. These involve: fission-produced neutron-rich nuclei, weighing gamma photons in connection with the determination of fundamental constants and the determination of interatomic potentials from the slowing down process of atoms recoiling from gamma-ray emission - a direct link between nuclear and solid-state physics. The neutron experiments of importance for particle physics and biology will be reported next year

  18. A composite annual-resolution stalagmite record of North Atlantic climate over the last three millennia

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Baker; Hellstrom, John C.; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Gregoire Mariethoz; Valerie Trouet

    2015-01-01

    Annually laminated stalagmites can be used to construct a precise chronology, and variations in laminae thickness provide an annual growth-rate record that can be used as a proxy for past climate and environmental change. Here, we present and analyse the first composite speleothem annual growth-rate record based on five stalagmites from the same cave system in northwest Scotland, where precipitation is sensitive to North Atlantic climate variability and the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (...

  19. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  20. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  1. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  2. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  3. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  4. Modeling Growth of SAT Reading Performance Using Repeated Measures Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Wiley, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Presented at the Annual National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in New York in March 2008. This presentation explores the growth trajectory of the SAT Reading scores and examine what demographics and variation may cause changes and affect growth.

  5. ANILLOS ANUALES Y CLIMA EN RHIZOPHORA MANGLE L. DE LA BAHÍA DE CISPATÁ, COLOMBIA ANNUAL GROWTH RINGS AND CLIMATE IN RHIZOPHORA MANGLE L. FROM THE CISPATÁ BAY, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Ramírez Correa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Por su localización en el ecotono tierra-mar Rhizophora mangle es un organismo con gran sensibilidad al cambio climático. La existencia de anillos anuales climáticamente sensibles en esta especie revela un enorme potencial para la dendroclimatologia tropical. Aunque se ha documentado la existencia de anillos anuales en el género Rhizophora delimitados por cambios en la densidad de poros, aquí se demuestra mediante el uso de la tomografía computarizada que los anillos en R. mangle también están definidos por cambios de densidad de la madera. La comparación entre el número de máximos de densidad de madera (DM y de poros (DP en secciones trasversales con la edad de los árboles, reveló la anualidad de los anillos de crecimiento de R. mangle. A mayor precipitación mayor DP y menor DM; y viceversa. La DM y la DP se interpretan como rasgos adaptativos que le permiten a R. mangle adaptarse a los pulsos anuales en salinidad relacionados con las descargas de los ríos en la bahía de Cispatá.Because of its location in the land-sea ecotone Rhizophora mangle is an organism with great sensitivity to climate change. The existence of climate sensitive annual rings in this specie highlights its potential relevance for tropical dendroclimatology. Even though had been previously established the existence of annual rings, delimited by changes in pore-density, in Rhizophora genus, using computed tomographies, is also possible demonstrate, that the rings in R. mangle can also be defined by changes in wood density. Comparing wood density maxima (DM and pore density maxima (PD in tree cross-sections reveal the annual nature of R. mangle tree-rings. With increased rainfall PD increases and DM decreases, and vice versa. PD and DM are interpreted as adaptive traits that allow R. mangle to adapt to the conditions produced by annual pulses in salinity in the bay of Cispatá related to high and low discharges of the rivers.

  6. Spraying Foliage Fertilizer Containing Amino Acids on Sugarcane%甘蔗喷施含氨基酸水溶肥料效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许树宁; 农定产; 吴建明; 梁高明; 黄成丰

    2014-01-01

    Guitang 21 as cane variety, foliage spraying of fertilizer solution containing amino acids in 3 different stages were studied on their effect on cane yield and sucrose content as well as on the economic benefit. The result showed that spaying in tillering stage (A), in elongating stage (B), and in both tillering and elongating stages (C) have little effect on plant height but positive effect on stalk diameter and on the number of millable cane stalks, significantly increased cane yield. The best spaying stage is in elongating stage, which produced a significantly higher cane yield (4.7% more) than that of the check treatment. The sucrose contents, purity, sugar yields of all three treatments are increased and the reducing sugar decreased significantly compared with the check. The increase in sucrose content of treatment C and B are 2.02% and 1.64% (absolute value), respectively. Analysis of economic benefit showed that treatment B produced the best agricultural and overall output, and treatment C produced the best industrial output but required the most input. It is indicated that treatment B is the best treatment.%以甘蔗品种桂糖21号为材料,研究了3个不同时期叶面喷施含氨基酸水溶肥料对甘蔗产量性状和蔗糖分的影响,并进行了经济效益分析。结果表明:分蘖期喷施(A)、伸长期喷施(B)、全生长期喷施(C)3个处理对甘蔗茎长的影响不大,对甘蔗茎径有一定的促进作用,提高了甘蔗的有效茎数,明显提高了甘蔗产量,其中以伸长期喷施增产效果最好,比对照(CK)增产4.7%,差异达到显著水平;含氨基酸水溶肥处理的平均甘蔗蔗糖分、蔗汁重力纯度和公顷含糖量均明显高于对照,还原糖则反之,其中以全生长期喷施和伸长期喷施处理的蔗糖分提高幅度较大,分别增长2.02%(绝对值,下同)和1.64%。通过经济效益分析,伸长期喷施处理的农业产值和总产值最高,工业产值

  7. Annually laminated speleotherms : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Andy; Smith, Claire; Jex, Catherine; Fairchild, I. J.; Genty, Dominique; Fuller, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This review of annually laminated speleothems firstly considers the four types of annual laminae found within speleothems: fluorescent laminae formed by annual variations in organic matter flux; visible or petrographic laminae, formed by annual variations in calcite texture or fabric; calcite-aragonite couplets; and finally trace element laminae. The methods available to confirm the annual nature, or otherwise, of lamina deposition are reviewed. We consider the use of annual laminae ...

  8. Budget deficit, money growth and inflation: Empirical evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Khieu Van, Hoang

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically examines the nexus among budget deficit, money supply and inflation by using a monthly data set from January 1995 to December 2012 and a SVAR model with five endogenous variables, inflation, money growth, budget deficit growth, real GDP growth and interest rate. Since real GDP and budget deficit are unavailable on the monthly basis, we interpolate those series using Chow and Lin’s (1971) annualized approach from their annual series. Overall, we found that money growth h...

  9. KLE annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report on legal and economic fundamentals, licensing procedures, the state of construction, waste management schemes, financing, staff requirements, public relations, annual balances, cost-benefit calculations for 1985. (HP)

  10. Annual General Canvass Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains annual quantities and value for all seafood products that are landed and sold by established seafood dealers and brokers in the Southeast...

  11. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI)

  12. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  13. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  14. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  15. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  16. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  17. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  18. USRDS - Annual Data Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Annual Data Report Comprehensive statistics on chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal diseases in the United States...

  19. Annual General Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      STAFF ASSOCIATION Our next annual general meeting will take place on : Thursday 22 May 2014 at 11:00 AM Building 40-S2-D01 For further information visit our website : https://indico.cern.ch/event/313124/

  20. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2002 is reported. Structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  1. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  2. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI)

  3. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  4. Annual Trapping Proposal 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Trapping Plan for the 1984-1985 trapping season at Clarence Cannon NWR outlines rules and regulations for the trapping of beaver and muskrat on the...

  5. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  6. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  7. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  8. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry

  9. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  10. Natural gas annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  11. Natural gas annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  12. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  13. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  14. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  15. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  16. Uptake of copper and cerium by alfalfa, lettuce and cucumber exposed to nCeO2 and nCuO through the foliage or the roots: Impacts on food quality, physiological and agronomical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie

    Nanotechnology is increasingly attracting attention not only for its variety of applications in modern life, but for the potential negative effects that nanomaterials (NMs) can cause in the environment and human health. Studies have shown varied effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on plants; however, most of these studies focused on the interaction of NPs with plants at root level. The increasing production and use of NPs have also increased the atmospheric amounts of NPs, which could be taken up by plants through their leaves. Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) are broad leaf plants commonly grown both commercially and in home vegetable gardens that can be easily impacted by atmospheric NPs. However, there is limited information about the potential effects of these atmospheric NPs on cucumber. This research was aimed to determine (I) the possible uptake and translocation of cerium (Ce) by cucumber plants exposed to nCeO 2 (cerium dioxide nanoparticles, nanoceria) through the foliage, (II) the impacts of the NPs on physiological parameters of the plants and the effects on the nutritional value and quality of the fruits, and (III) the effects of seven copper compounds/nanoparticles applied to the growth medium of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). For aim I, 15 day-old hydroponically grown cucumber plants were exposed to nCeO2, either as powder at 0.98 and 2.94 g/m3 or suspensions at 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 mg/l. Ce uptake was analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The activity of three stress enzymes was measured by UV/Vis. Ce was detected in all cucumber tissues and TEM images showed the presence of Ce in roots. Results suggested nCeO2 penetrated plants through leaves and moved to other plant parts. The biochemical assays showed nCeO2 also modified stress enzyme activities. For aim II, 15 day-old soil grown cucumber plants were foliar treated, separately

  17. Inter- and intra-annual variations of clumping index derived from the MODIS BRDF product

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Liu, Jane; Chen, Jing M.; Croft, Holly; Wang, Rong; Sprintsin, Michael; Zheng, Ting; Ryu, Youngryel; Pisek, Jan; Gonsamo, Alemu; Deng, Feng; Zhang, Yongqin

    2016-02-01

    Clumping index quantifies the level of foliage aggregation, relative to a random distribution, and is a key structural parameter of plant canopies and is widely used in ecological and meteorological models. In this study, the inter- and intra-annual variations in clumping index values, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF product, are investigated at six forest sites, including conifer forests, a mixed deciduous forest and an oak-savanna system. We find that the clumping index displays large seasonal variation, particularly for the deciduous sites, with the magnitude in clumping index values at each site comparable on an intra-annual basis, and the seasonality of clumping index well captured after noise removal. For broadleaved and mixed forest sites, minimum clumping index values are usually found during the season when leaf area index is at its maximum. The magnitude of MODIS clumping index is validated by ground data collected from 17 sites. Validation shows that the MODIS clumping index can explain 75% of variance in measured values (bias = 0.03 and rmse = 0.08), although with a narrower amplitude in variation. This study suggests that the MODIS BRDF product has the potential to produce good seasonal trajectories of clumping index values, but with an improved estimation of background reflectance.

  18. Annually Laminated Speleothems: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Andy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This review of annually laminated speleothems firstly considers the four types of annual laminae found within speleothems: fluorescentlaminae formed by annual variations in organic matter flux; visible or petrographic laminae, formed by annual variations in calcitetexture or fabric; calcite-aragonite couplets; and finally trace element laminae. The methods available to confirm the annual nature, or otherwise, of lamina deposition are reviewed. We consider the use of annual laminae in chronology building, with particular relevanceto palaeoclimate reconstructions. Finally, the use of annual lamina width as a palaeoclimate proxy is reviewed.

  19. Effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown hydroponically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Biswas, P. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.

    1989-01-01

    Sweet potato shoot tips have been shown to be a nutritious green vegetable. A study was conducted to determine the effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown in the greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The nutrient solution consisted of a modified half Hoagland solution. Biweekly shoot tip harvests, beginning 42 days after planting, provided substantial amounts of vegetable greens and did not affect the fresh and dry foliage weights or the storage root number and fresh and dry storage root weights at final harvest. The rates of anion and cation uptake were not affected by tip harvests.

  20. The annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, M.; Cloern, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial plants are powerful climate sentinels because their annual cycles of growth, reproduction and senescence are finely tuned to the annual climate cycle having a period of one year. Consistency in the seasonal phasing of terrestrial plant activity provides a relatively low-noise background from which phenological shifts can be detected and attributed to climate change. Here, we ask whether phytoplankton biomass also fluctuates over a consistent annual cycle in lake, estuarine-coastal and ocean ecosystems and whether there is a characteristic phenology of phytoplankton as a consistent phase and amplitude of variability. We compiled 125 time series of phytoplankton biomass (chloro-phyll a concentration) from temperate and subtropical zones and used wavelet analysis to extract their dominant periods of variability and the recurrence strength at those periods. Fewer than half (48%) of the series had a dominant 12-month period of variability, commonly expressed as the canonical spring-bloom pattern. About 20 per cent had a dominant six-month period of variability, commonly expressed as the spring and autumn or winter and summer blooms of temperate lakes and oceans. These annual patterns varied in recurrence strength across sites, and did not persist over the full series duration at some sites. About a third of the series had no component of variability at either the six-or 12-month period, reflecting a series of irregular pulses of biomass. These findings show that there is high variability of annual phytoplankton cycles across ecosystems, and that climate-driven annual cycles can be obscured by other drivers of population variability, including human disturbance, aperiodic weather events and strong trophic coupling between phytoplankton and their consumers. Regulation of phytoplankton biomass by multiple processes operating at multiple time scales adds complexity to the challenge of detecting climate-driven trends in aquatic ecosystems where the noise to

  1. EDF group. Annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document is the English version of the 2001 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) Group, the French electric utility. It comprises 4 parts: introduction (statement of the chairman and chief executive officer, corporate governance, group key figures, sustainable growth indicators - parent company, energy for a sustainable future, EdF group worldwide); dynamics and balanced growth (financial results, EdF's strategy in building a competitive global group: consolidating the European network, moving forward in energy-related services, responding to increasing energy demand in emerging countries); sustainable solutions for all (empowering the customer: competitive solutions for industrial customers, anticipating the needs of residential customers and SMEs, environmental solutions to enhance urban life, upgrading the network and providing access to energy; a sound, sustainable and secure energy mix: a highly competitive nuclear fleet, the vital resource of fossil-fuelled plants, a proactive approach to renewable energies); a global commitment to corporate social responsibility (human resources and partnerships). (J.S.)

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  3. Metal stress and decreased tree growth in response to biosolids application in greenhouse seedlings and in situ Douglas-fir stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess physiological impacts of biosolids on trees, metal contaminants and phytochelatins were measured in Douglas-fir stands amended with biosolids in 1982. A subsequent greenhouse study compared these same soils to soils amended with fresh wastewater treatment plant biosolids. Biosolids-amended field soils had significantly higher organic matter, lower pH, and elevated metals even after 25 years. In the field study, no beneficial growth effects were detected in biosolids-amended stands and in the greenhouse study both fresh and historic biosolids amendments resulted in lower seedling growth rates. Phytochelatins – bioindicators of intracellular metal stress – were elevated in foliage of biosolids-amended stands, and significantly higher in roots of seedlings grown with fresh biosolids. These results demonstrate that biosolids amendments have short- and long-term negative effects that may counteract the expected tree growth benefits. - Highlights: ► Biosolids amendment increases soil metals over 25 years later. ► Douglas-fir growth benefits fail to materialize from biosolids amendments. ► Phytochelatins are elevated in foliage of trees and roots of greenhouse seedlings after new biosolids are added to soil. ► Biosolids connected to metal stress in Douglas-fir. - Biosolids applications increase bioindicators of intracellular metal stress and may counteract tree growth benefits.

  4. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  5. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  6. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  7. NIKHEF Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents the activities of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF) during its first year. Following a general introduction to the research areas in which NIKHEF is involved, 29 brief reports from the project groups are presented. Details concerning personnel, participation in councils and committees, finances, publications, colloquia and participation in congresses and schools are included. (Auth.)

  8. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  9. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  10. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  11. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  12. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  13. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2005. The document consist of four parts: Laboratory Overview, Experiments and Experimental Set-ups, Experiments Using the Outside Facilities and General Information on HIL Activities. An Introduction written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  14. GKSS annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report reviews the structure and activities of the GKSS in 1983. R and D work was done on reactor safety engineering, environmental research/environmental engineering and underwater technology. It also reports on cooperation with outside partners, the organization, financing, and developments in the staff structure as well as on publications, lectures, applications for patents, etc. (UA)

  15. HASYLAB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at HASYLAB together with a list of publications, speeches, and theses. The work concerns technical developments, the study of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and liquids, X-ray structure studies of solids and interfaces, molecular biology, further applications of synchrotron radiation, and experimental developments. (HSI)

  16. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  17. ANCLI annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2004. (A.L.B.)

  18. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 145 refs.; 20 figs.; 4 fotos; 2 tabs

  19. Annual Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  20. KVI Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report offers 93 informative descriptions of the current research projects at the KVI cyclotron during 1982. The projects are classed under the following heads: elastic and inelastic scattering; giant resonances; transfer and charge exchange reactions; breakup reactions; heavy ion reactions; electromagnetic and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; atomic physics; nuclear solid state physics; cyclotron, computers and instrumentation; nuclear medicine; environmental studies. (Auth.)

  1. Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2010. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments at HIL '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' Appendices '' where general information on HIL activities are described. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Heavy Ion Laboratory prof. K. Rusek is also given.

  2. 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French union of the petroleum industry (UFIP). It summarizes the highlights of the petroleum industry activity in France in 2001 and gives some additional information about the production, refining and distribution of petroleum products in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  3. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  4. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the DETN (Studies and Nuclear Technologies Department) is divided into five parts bearing on: (1)magnetic materials elaboration, (2)microstructural characterization of carbon composites, hexagonal ferrites and actinides alloys, (3)laser welding, (4)materials control by ultrasonic testing or by analytical chemistry, (5)numerical modelization

  5. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work done at the named institute. These concern chemical separation, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear fission, heavy ion reactions, ecology of radionuclides, and the operation of major equipments. Furthermore a list of publications and speeches is presented. (HSI)

  6. BAM - Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report contains progress and activity reports of the presidential department, the departments metals and metal construction, civil engineering and building activities, organic matter, chemical safety engineering, special fields of materials testing, techniques independent of the type of material, an index, as well as general and statistic statements. (HK)

  7. NRCC annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer

  8. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2004. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and monitoring of environment; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers is presented

  9. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  10. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  11. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  12. Annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The annual report from IKU (Continental Shelf Institute) in Norway deals with the market adjustment of research activities at the institute as a result of offshore cost-cutting policy in the petroleum industry. The market is about to shift focus from volume to competence. In practice, that means buying competence instead of project ideas or proposals

  13. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  14. PTB annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report presents general information on the institution's activities and the various departments, and reports on scientific work in the field of metrology and safety engineering. Brief scientific accounts refer to work in the domains of mechanics and acoustics, electricity, heat, optics, industrial metrology, atomic physics, technical and scientific services, collection and disposal of radioactive waste. (DG)

  15. Annual report 1982. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the scientific annual report 1982 of the ILL on R and D activities of the different colleges: fundamental and nuclear physics, inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry, theory. Abstracts of the publications published during the year are presented

  16. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains short descriptions of the work done at the named institute. These concern the study of hyperfine interactions, experiments with synchroton radiation, experiments at storage rings, and experiments at CERN. Furthermore, a list of publications, contributions to conferences and these is presented. (HSI)

  17. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 299 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  18. Uranium industry annual 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  19. Annual General Meetings

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We have produced this information booklet to explain why companies must – by law – hold an Annual General Meeting (AGM). The laws which cover AGMs are known as the Companies Acts. This guide gives only a summary of the rules for AGMs. If you have a concern about the AGM of a particular company, you should get independent legal advice.

  20. Annual report - ENERSUL - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of ENERSUL - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: Outlook for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sold; capacity increases; customers; customers; energy balance; performance and quality; electric system; investments; people; human resources; synergies; awards; workplace safety; social balance; and patrimonial balance

  1. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  2. NIKHEF Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report 1982, the NIKHEF research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry is described in a wide context. Next, the reports of the individual projects of section-H and section-K are described in detail. Finally, the report gives some statistical information of publications, colloquia and co-workers. (Auth.)

  3. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2000

  4. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules (Ed.), John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  5. Annual report 1981, annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume entitled ''Annex to the annual report'' deals in more detail with the scientific works of the I.L.L.: the scientific activity of theoricians; experimental reports on inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry

  6. Annual report - ESCELSA - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of 1999 of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power company - introduces the next main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; customers; quality; electric system; investments; people; resources; synergies; awards; outlook; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  7. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  8. Annual report SNET 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the SNET (National Society of Electricity and thermic) presents the society activities and the financial report for the year 2003. The society position in the market, the environmental policy, the performance, the workers and financial data are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2006. The document consist of four parts: 'Laboratory Overview', 'Experiments and Experimental Set-ups', 'Experiments Using the Outside Facilities' and 'General Information on HIL Activities'. An 'Introduction' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  10. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  11. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  12. IKF annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of 1988 gives a survey of the following category of themes: nuclear physics, atom physics, nuclear methods, nuclear solid-state physics and developments of machines. Apart from the use of its own Van de Graaff accelerators the institute takes part in joint ventures in research, for example with the GSI (Association for Heavy-Ion Research) in Darmstadt. (DG)

  13. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  14. TIARA annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2005. The 126 of the presented papers are indexed individually. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  15. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  16. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary and detailed reports are presented of current research during 1987 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics. (H.W.). 61 refs.; 13 figs.; 14 tabs

  17. ANCLI annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2002. (A.L.B.)

  18. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2007. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  19. RTE annual results 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents the results of the RTE (Electric power Transport Network). The year 2005 is marked by the new status of RTE, as a limited company. The financial good performances, the market, the open network, the environmental policy, the human resources and the european and international relations are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  20. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report the work done at the named Institute is described. This concerns particle and fields in the solar system, infrared astronomy, X-ray astronomy, γ-astronomy, and molecule spectroscopy. A list of publications is added. (HSI)

  1. ELETRONUCLEAR - Annual report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual activities report of 1997 of ELETRONUCLEAR - Brazilian company responsible by the electric power generation from the nuclear technology - introduces the next main topics: company vision and mission; energy production and commercialization; investments in the electric power generation; economic and financial situation; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  2. Annual report 1987

    OpenAIRE

    Machena, C.

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 Annual Report of the Lake Kariba Fisheries Research Institute details the various research projects conducted during the year, which covered the following topics: ecology of the submerged vascular vegetation; biology and population dynamics of the butter catfish; post-harvest fish technology and management; sardine population structure; and analysis of the inshore fish.

  3. 1988 Annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1987 Annual Water Management Report 1988 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes 1987 weather summary, water availability forecast, summary of 1987...

  4. PVMaT cost reductions in the EFG high volume PV manufacturing line: Annual report, 5 August 1998--4 August 1999[PhotoVoltaic Manufacturing Technology, Edge-defined Film-fed Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathey, B.; Brown, B.; Cao, J.; Ebers, S.; Gonsiorawski, R.; Heath, B.; Kalejs, J.; Kardauskas, M.; Mackintosh, B.; Ouellette, M.; Piwczyk, B.; Rosenblum, M.; Southimath, B.

    1999-11-16

    This report describes work performed by ASE Americas researchers during the first year of this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology 5A2 program. Significant accomplishments in each of three task are as follows. Task 1--Manufacturing Systems: Researchers completed key node analysis, started statistical process control (SPC) charting, carried out design-of-experiment (DoE) matrices on the cell line to optimize efficiencies, performed a capacity and bottleneck study, prepared a baseline chemical waste analysis report, and completed writing of more than 50% of documentation and statistical sections of ISO 9000 procedures. A highlight of this task is that cell efficiencies in manufacturing were increased by 0.4%--0.5% absolute, to an average in excess of 14.2%, with the help of DoE and SPC methods. Task 2--Low-Cost Processes: Researchers designed, constructed, and tested a 50-cm-diameter, edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) cylinder crystal growth system to successfully produce thin cylinders up to 1.2 meters in length; completed a model for heat transfer; successfully deployed new nozzle designs and used them with a laser wafer-cutting system with the potential to decrease cutting labor costs by 75% and capital costs by 2X; achieved laser-cutting speeds of up to 8X and evaluation of this system is proceeding in production; identified laser-cutting conditions that reduce damage for both Q-switched Nd:YAG and copper-vapor lasers with the help of a breakthrough in fundamental understanding of cutting with these short-pulse-length lasers; and found that bulk EFG material lifetimes are optimized when co-firing of silicon nitride and aluminum is carried out with rapid thermal processing (RTP). Task 3--Flexible Manufacturing: Researchers improved large-volume manufacturing of 10-cm {times} 15-cm EFG wafers by developing laser-cutting fixtures, adapting carriers and fabricating adjustable racks for etching and rinsing facilities, and installing a high-speed data collection

  5. Crime and Economic Growth: Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Surender

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the causality between crime rates and economic growth using state level data in India. A reduced form equation has been estimated using instrumental variable approach to correct for joint endogeneity between crime and economic growth. Higher crimes may reduce level of per capita income and its growth rate. Controlling intentional homicide and robbery rates in each of the states to the minimum level they observed during 1991-2011 period, the predicted annual gro...

  6. Microfinance and regional growth in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Aguilar Andía

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to make a quantitative evaluation of the impact that the expansion of microcredit has had on the growth of economic activity in the Peruvian regions. Taking as a theoretical framework the theory developed to analyze the relationship between economic growth and financial development and with annual information for 24 regions of the country for the period 2001 - 2008, a panel data model is estimated with per capita GDP growth as a dependent variable; and the loans...

  7. Profiles of For-Profit and Nonprofit Education Management Organizations: Thirteenth Annual Report, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Gary; Urschel, Jessica L.; Yat Aguilar, Mayra A.; Dailey, Breanna

    2012-01-01

    While past annual "Profiles" reports have focused on either for-profit EMOs (education management organizations) or nonprofit EMOs, this is the first annual "Profiles" report to cover both categories in a single report which allows for easier comparisons. The 2010-2011 school year marked another year of relatively slow growth in the for-profit…

  8. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O3) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O3 partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O3 partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 μPa Pa-1 O3 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O3 treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO2 assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O3 partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O3 and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O3 treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O3 exposure

  9. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  10. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  11. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  13. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  14. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  15. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  16. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud). Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys). Questions from members and beneficiaries. Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer). As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  17. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  18. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  19. 1986 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes the reasearch activity carried out during 1986 by the Fusion Department of the Italian Commision for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA). The report outlines the main results obtained by the three major projects of the Fusion Department (Fusion Physics, Frascati Tokamak Upgrade, and Fusion Reactor Engineering), plus the divisional project Inertial Confinement mentioned separately because of its particular scientific content. Most of the research work was performed by the Fusion Department at its location at the ENEA Frascati Energy Research Center, but some work was also done elsewhere, or with recourse to other ENEA departments. The research activity described in this annual report was carried out with the frame of the Association Euratom-ENEA on Fusion, with the exception of some minor activities

  20. Uptake and translocation of 54Mn and 65Zn applied on foliage and bark surfaces on balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake and translocation of 54Mn and 65Zn in balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] seedlings were studied with the radioisotopes applied directly on shoot or main-stem surfaces in a growth chamber. Concentration and distribution of the absorbed radioisotopes in different plant parts depended on distances between source (the application site) and sink (the rest of the seedling), as well as on tissue growth activity. Acidic wetness significantly enhanced radioisotope absorption. 54Mn and 65Zn were found to be concentrated primarily in 1-year old needles at the middle and top levels of the seedling crown. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences in accumulation (Bq g−1) between 54Mn and 65Zn in needles and twigs from foliar uptake. The absorption by seedlings (including the washed application shoot) 70 days after application was 24–32% of the remaining activities for 54Mn and 25–30% for 65Zn. Less than 1% of the absorbed isotopes was translocated from the bark application sites to other plant organs, whereas more than 54% of the activity absorbed at 1-year old shoots moved to the rest of the seedling. (author)

  1. Annual Review of Development Effectiveness 2009 : Achieving Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2009-01-01

    This year's annual review of development effectiveness (ARDE) is being written against the backdrop of a global financial crisis, declining growth, and massive fiscal stimulus efforts to revitalize markets. Demand for greater development support from the World Bank has grown, along with concerns that resources be used effectively and efficiently to achieve their development objectives. Thi...

  2. Environment Matters at the World Bank : Annual Review 2004

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Annual Review of Environment Matters, dedicated to Economic Growth and the Environment, brings together a wide variety of external and internal viewpoints on the challenges ahead, and the progress that is taking place. In this issue, three major partner countries-China, India and Mexico-present their perspectives. Among other topics, this edition features the Bank's recent research on...

  3. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year 2000 annual report of the CEA (atomic energy commissariat) gives a general overview of the CEA activities and organization in the domains of the defence, the nuclear energy the technological research and the fundamental research. It is presented in seven main parts: contribution to national defence, civil nuclear research, technological research for the industry, pushing back the frontiers of scientific knowledge in physics and life science, mastery of installations; institute for protection and nuclear safety, research resources. (A.L.B.)

  4. TIARA annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Namba, Hideki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. Summary reports of 103 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  5. KLE annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the year-end report for 1984 of the Nuclear Power Plants Lippe-Ems (KLE), which has been founded for the purpose of constructing and operating nuclear power plants. The main project currently under way is the erection of the Emsland nuclear power plant. The annual report presents the report of the managing board, the company welfare report as of December 1984, and the audit report for the period January 1 to December 31, 1984. (UA)

  6. Risoe annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explanation of Risoe National Laboratory's function within the Danish research system is followed by brief accounts of research activities at Risoe during 1987. Energy resources, technology and policy are discussed, the annual accounts are presented, a guide to the National Laboratory and a list of its publications are given. Some of the research activities that took place in 1987 described in more detail are within the fields of chemistry and the environment, superconductivity, new aspects of powdery mildew, polymers and robotics. (AB)

  7. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2008. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by directors of the Heavy Ion Laboratory: prof. J. Jastrzebski, prof. J. Kownacki and prof. K. Rusek is also given

  8. NERSC 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John (ed.)

    1999-03-01

    This 1998 annual report from the National Scientific Energy Research Computing Center (NERSC) presents the year in review of the following categories: Computational Science; Computer Science and Applied Mathematics; and Systems and Services. Also presented are science highlights in the following categories: Basic Energy Sciences; Biological and Environmental Research; Fusion Energy Sciences; High Energy and Nuclear Physics; and Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Other Projects.

  9. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  10. Annual Report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report from the Netherlands Centre for Energy Research, includes the progress made in the five main research areas: fission energy, nuclear fusion and superconductivity, combustion energy (including environmental research), current energy and non-energetic applications of nuclear fission. Studies performed by the Energy Study Centrum, a department within ECN, and the Bureau for Energy Research Projects are described. A financial report is presented and a list of publications included. (C.F.)

  11. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, R.; Lesniak, L.; Malecki, P.; Stachura, Z.; Wojciechowski, H. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author).

  12. Uranium industry annual, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data on US uranium raw materials and marketing activities of the domestic uranium industry. It contains aggregated data reported by US companies on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (1988), Form EIA-858, and historical data from prior data collections and other pertinent sources. The report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent agency for data collection and analysis with the US Department of Energy

  13. TIARA annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998. Summary reports of 90 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  14. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author)

  15. TIARA annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. Summary reports of 95 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  16. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the Group Gaz de France presents the activities for the year 2005 in four main chapters: the group profile, the governance and the challenges; the energy and services display and the infrastructures; the capital opening and some key data; the group collaborators, the energy conservation, the research programs and the future of the gas and the electricity. (A.L.B.)

  17. NSLS annual report 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out.

  18. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In part 1, the annual report informs of the organizational and administrative development of the Bundesanstalt, in its 2nd part it presents a survey of scientific activities in 1976, examinations carried out, measuring devices and operational equipment given permission to, and cooperation in national and international bodies. The 3rd part contains scientific summaries of activities published and not published, which were either concluded in the year under review or which came to some interim results. (orig.)

  19. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Annual Report 2005'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2005. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute prof. Ziemowit Sujkowski is also given

  20. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areva is a world energy expert on technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. This 2005 annual report provides information on the Group results in the following domains: information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operations, new developments and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and outlook. (A.L.B.)

  1. TIARA annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002. Summary reports of 109 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  2. TIARA annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. Summary reports of 88 papers and 4 brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  3. TIARA annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. Summary reports of 106 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  4. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  5. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes the activities of the Institute in 2005. The document consist of four parts: (1) Radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies; (2) Radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, general chemistry; (3) Radiobiology; (4) Nuclear technologies and methods. In total - 73 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity and the international cooperation is also listed

  6. Annual Pension Fund Update

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2011-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual Pension Fund Update to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Tuesday 20 September 2011 from 10-00 to 12-00 a.m. Copies of the 2010 Financial Statements are available from departmental secretariats. Coffee and croissants will be served prior to the meeting as of 9-30 a.m.

  7. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains research reports from the various groups of the Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm. Reports are made by workers in the Atomic and Molecular Physics group, the Surface Physics group, the Nuclear Physics group, the group researching into High Energy Physics and related topics and the Instrumentation and Methods group. The report also contains a list of the papers published by members of the Institute during the year and a list of the theses which were presented. (B.D.)

  8. 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2002 provides information on financial highlights, corporate governance, organization of the Group, share, sustainable development policy (integration into the management practices, financial and environmental responsibility, responsibility to the employees and to the society), nuclear power (front end division, reactors and services division, back end division), connectors division, equity interests and financial report. (A.L.B.)

  9. TIARA annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. Summary reports of 95 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  10. ILL Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report provides a general view of the activities of the different sections of the ILL. In 1974, twenty-two different neutron spectrometers with different characteristics were available on a regular basis. Moreover, a number of special neutron sources were employed for on-line experiments. The major effort was devoted to an increase in experimental systems and to the development of new measurement techniques

  11. 2008 annual merit review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  12. Annual report ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the 1988 Annual Report for ISIS (United Kingdom). A description is given of the accelerator and target station. The capability of ISIS is described including the facilities available and the type of science carried out using the instruments. The development and support activities are outlined, along with the ISIS organisation and user interaction. The appendix contains experimental reports on research work conducted at ISIS. (U.K.)

  13. TIARA annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2004. Summary reports of 115 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  14. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Annual Report 2006'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2006. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  15. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2006. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2006 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  16. TIARA annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003. Summary reports of 113 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  17. NSLS annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out

  18. NIKHEF annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands) describes experiments carried out at CERN (Geneve), DESY (Hamburg) viz. WA25; CHARM-collaboration; ACCMOR experiments; proton-antiproton collision; LEAR; MARK-J; Crystal Ball experiment; HERA. For the nuclear physics section, experiments are described on electro-excitation of nuclei; pion and muon physics. Theoretical studies are listed concerning electromagnetic interactions in the sigma-omega model and delta-nuclei dynamics. A radiochemical and technical part concludes the report. (Auth.)

  19. Annual Competitiveness Report 2010

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Each year the NCC publishes a two-volume Annual Competitiveness Report. Volume One, Benchmarking Ireland's Performance, analyses Ireland's overall competitiveness performance across 135 statistical indicators including education and skills availability, innovation, R&D, regulation, taxation, costs and a variety of other factors that determine Ireland's ability to compete in world markets. Ireland's performance is benchmarked against 18 other economies and the OECD and EU averages. Volume T...

  20. CRPP Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents the activities of the CRPP in the domain of fusion and points out the main results and events of the past year. For the sake of clarity the activities have been grouped under five headings, resulting in sections of unequal size. These are: tokamak physics, development of new diagnostics, theory and numerical simulation, non-linear plasma physics and development of microwave sources. figs., tabs., refs

  1. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report gives the activities during the year 2000 and information about the General Direction of the Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) in France. The highlights of the year are discussed in the main following topics: public utilities, the Erika oil slick, the petroleum products prices increase, the energy efficiency national program, Eole 2005, the nuclear industry management. The french energy accounting, the publications and the organization of the DGEMP are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  2. TIARA annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Itoh, Hisayoshi [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-10-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. Summary reports of 106 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  3. TIARA annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Saido, Masahiro; Nashiyama, Isamu [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-10-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998. Summary reports of 90 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  4. TIARA annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Namba, Hideki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002. Summary reports of 109 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  5. TIARA annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. Summary reports of 88 papers and 4 brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  6. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1979 annual report of HMI presents information on the major scientific findings of this year in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry, data processing and electronics as well as on the scientific cooperation with universities, institutions, and the industry. The general development of HMI, its structure and organisation are reviewed. A detailed list of publications and lectures (also by foreign guests of HMI) in the various fields of research is given. (RB)

  7. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2007. The document consist of eight parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear technology in energy generation; Condensed matter physics; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection management of hazards; Radioisotope center POLATOM and in last section in which the lists of published in 2007 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  8. TIARA annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. Summary reports of 103 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  9. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Annual Report 2007'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2007. Report consists of two parts. First one consist of of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  10. IKF - annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed in the named institute during 1982 together with a list of publications. The work concerns nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, high-energetic heavy ion physics, heavy ion-atom collisions, nuclear solidstate physics, solid-state particle detectors, the application of nuclear methods and mass spectroscopy, ion source development, instrumental development and data processing, interdisciplinary cooperation, as well as the Van de Graaf accelerator facilities. (HSI)

  11. 2002 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002. The following activities and developed topic in this report describe: radiation and nuclear safety, safeguards, physical protection, transport of radioactive materials, regulatory guides and standards, inspections, licensing, emergency systems, occupational and environmental surveillance, institutional relations with national and international organizations, training courses, information systems, human and economic resources

  12. Areva 2005 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains information on AREVA's objectives, prospects and strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7, as well as contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the annual report and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction; 3 - General information on the company and share capital: Information on AREVA, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organizational chart of the AREVA group, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, 5 - New developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, AREVA group energy businesses, Front End Division, Reactors and Services Division, Back End Division, Transmission and Distribution Division, Major Contracts, The Group's principal sites, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Human resources, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development, intellectual property and brand name programs, Risk and insurance; 6 - Assets - Financial position - financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the Group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report 2005, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA Financial statements 2005, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 7 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of administrative bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual General Meeting of Shareholders of May 2, 2006; 8 - Recent developments and outlook: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2005, Outlook

  13. Uranium industry annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data collected on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ''Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,'' is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2

  14. Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suz, Laura M; Martín, María P; Fischer, Christine R; Bonet, José A; Colinas, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Although successful cultivation of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has inspired the establishment of widespread truffle orchards in agricultural lands throughout the world, there are many unknowns involved in proper management of orchards during the 6-10 years prior to truffle production, and there are conflicting results reported for fertilizer treatments. Here, we systematically evaluate the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex-T. melanosporum orchards. Fertilization did not significantly improve seedling aboveground growth, but the plants treated with the fertilizer 12-7-7 applied to the roots (HNr) displayed longer field-developed roots. Only the fertilizer with the highest dose of K (10-6-28) applied to the foliage (HKf) increased the probability of fine root tip colonization by T. melanosporum in field-developed roots. However, the plants treated with the same fertilizer applied to the soil (HKr) presented the highest probability for colonization by other competing mycorrhizal soil fungi. Potassium seems to have an important role in mycorrhizal development in these soils. Apart from T. melanosporum, we found 14 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, from which seven were identified to species level, three to genus, two to family, and two remained unidentified by their morphological characteristics and DNA analyses. PMID:20033737

  15. Assumptions for the Annual Energy Outlook 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report serves a auxiliary document to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication Annual Energy Outlook 1992 (AEO) (DOE/EIA-0383(92)), released in January 1992. The AEO forecasts were developed for five alternative cases and consist of energy supply, consumption, and price projections by major fuel and end-use sector, which are published at a national level of aggregation. The purpose of this report is to present important quantitative assumptions, including world oil prices and macroeconomic growth, underlying the AEO forecasts. The report has been prepared in response to external requests, as well as analyst requirements for background information on the AEO and studies based on the AEO forecasts

  16. AAER Inc. 2007 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains financial information from AAER Inc., a wind turbine manufacturer located in Bromont Quebec. AAER uses proven European technologies to manufacture high capacity wind turbines of 1 MW or more for the North American and European markets. Their wind turbines maintain high performance in various wind conditions and are sold at competitive prices. AAER has also begun implementing procedures to gradually manufacture some of its own key components, using technology transfers from its current suppliers. In order to maximize control over its supply chain, AAER plans to consolidate its supply chain for its major components. A gradual integration strategy will minimize risk and will ensure a constant supply of key components such as blades, converters, generators and electronic control boxes, while lowering manufacturing costs, minimizing financial risk, accelerating the development of new versions of components and increasing profit margins. This report included a review of business strategies and operations, as well as plans for growth development in Canada and internationally. The company's major achievements of 2007 were also listed. This annual report included an auditor's report of the company's activities along with an operations review, consolidated financial statements, a summarized balance sheet of assets, liabilities/surplus and net assets, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were also summarized. tabs., figs

  17. Nutrient limitation on ecosystem productivity and processes of mature and old-growth subtropical forests in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enqing Hou

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is considered the dominant limiting nutrient in temperate regions, while phosphorus (P limitation frequently occurs in tropical regions, but in subtropical regions nutrient limitation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated N and P contents and N:P ratios of foliage, forest floors, fine roots and mineral soils, and their relationships with community biomass, litterfall C, N and P productions, forest floor turnover rate, and microbial processes in eight mature and old-growth subtropical forests (stand age >80 yr at Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China. Average N:P ratios (mass based in foliage, litter (L layer and mixture of fermentation and humus (F/H layer, and fine roots were 28.3, 42.3, 32.0 and 32.7, respectively. These values are higher than the critical N:P ratios for P limitation proposed (16-20 for foliage, ca. 25 for forest floors. The markedly high N:P ratios were mainly attributed to the high N concentrations of these plant materials. Community biomass, litterfall C, N and P productions, forest floor turnover rate and microbial properties were more strongly related to measures of P than N and frequently negatively related to the N:P ratios, suggesting a significant role of P availability in determining ecosystem production and productivity and nutrient cycling at all the study sites except for one prescribed disturbed site where N availability may also be important. We propose that N enrichment is probably a significant driver of the potential P limitation in the study area. Low P parent material may also contribute to the potential P limitation. In general, our results provided strong evidence supporting a significant role for P availability, rather than N availability, in determining ecosystem primary productivity and ecosystem processes in subtropical forests of China.

  18. AREVA 2010 annual results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areva's 44-billion euro backlog at the end of 2010 gives the group excellent visibility, enabling it to confirm its outlook for 2012: 12 billion euros in revenue, double-digit operating margin and significantly positive free operating cash flow. Revenue rose by 575 million euros in 2010, or 6.7%, in comparison to 2009 and operating income excluding particular items improved by 201 million euros, nearly 2 points of revenue. In the past two years, Areva has raised 7.1 billion euros and secured its liquidity to ensure its development. In 2011, Areva is going to simplify the group's capital structure by listing ordinary shares of AREVA. At that time, the group may launch the employee share-holding plan, something it has ardently sought for several years as a way for its employees to share in AREVA's growth. The consolidated backlog stood at 44.204 billion euros at December 31, 2010, up 2.0% compared with that at December 31, 2009. The group's consolidated revenue came to 9.104 billion euros in 2010, up 6.7% on a reported basis and 5.1% like-for-like compared with 2009. Excluding particular items, operating income rose by 1.9 point, going from 3.9% in 2009 to 5.8% in 2010, giving operating income of 532 million euros (331 million euros in 2009). Net income attributable to equity owners of the parent came to 883 million euros in 2010, an increase of 331 million euros compared with 2009. Operating cash flow before capex was 923 million euros, an increase of 548 million euros compared with 2009, when it was 375 million euros, due to the visible improvement in EBITDA and working capital requirement. The change in gross capex (excluding acquisitions) from 1.780 billion euros in 2009 to 1.966 billion euros in 2010 is due to the ramp-up of construction programs, particularly in Enrichment. In 2010, almost 60% of the group's capital spending was on sites in France. The acquisitions made in Renewable Energies in 2010 in the amount of 210 million euros (100% of Ausra and the

  19. Increase the foliage area of Asparagus Officinalis L. Cv. UC 157 F1 “asparagus” by the spraying of Gibberellin (AG3 and 6 – Benzilaminopurine (6 – BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paraguay Mercado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to study the increment of the leaf area of Asparagus Officinalis L., for they were used it asparagus crown with 5 yolks, to those that were applied by aspersion, different concentrations of the hormones of gibberellic acid and 6-bencilaminopurina which were applied at the 25, 60, 110 and 160 days respectively. It was found that in the different rehearsed treatments one doesn't observe differential significant in the increment of the number of plants, plant height, number of yolks and dry weight of foliage. However it was observed that the combined application of the phytohormonas in the range of 0.110 at 0.230 m of gibberllic acid and 0.037 to 0.075 m of 6-Bencilaminopurin a bigger number of yolk is achieved (13%, sprout (7%, plant height (11.3% and dry weight (7.3% in the treated plants. Concluded to continue making studies of sinergism of these two phytohormonas, gibberellic (AG3 and 6-bencilaminopurina (6-BAP, seeking to achieve adequate levels of leaf area increase of the leaf area in the asparagus.

  20. Temperature and foliage quality affect performance of the outbreak defoliator Ormiscodes amphimone (F.) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina La temperatura y la calidad del follaje afectan el desempeño del defoliador epidémico Ormiscodes amphimone (F.) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) en el noroeste de la Patagonia argentina

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN PARITSIS; Veblen, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    In the temperate forests of Chile and Argentina the phytophagous moth Ormiscodes amphimone (F.) causes severe defoliation on the southern beech tree Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser. The recent increase in defoliation frequency in some áreas appears to be influenced by a warmer climate. To evalúate the effects of temperature and the spatial heterogeneity of foliage quality on the performance and relative consumption rate of O. amphimone in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina we condu...

  1. Past break-monsoon conditions detectable by high resolution intra-annual δ18O analysis of teak rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managave, S. R.; Sheshshayee, M. S.; Borgaonkar, H. P.; Ramesh, R.

    2010-03-01

    Intra-annual variations in the cellulose oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of several annual growth rings of three teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) trees from central India show a clear seasonal cycle with higher values in the early and late growing seasons and lower values in the middle. This cycle is useful to identify growth occurring during different phases of the growing season. Relative humidity (RH) appears to control the intra-annual δ18O variations rather than rainfall, and therefore past break-monsoon conditions associated with lower RH, could be detected by high resolution sub-sampling of annual rings for δ18O analysis.

  2. Contamination of annual crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from the Nordic countries dealing with the uptake of radiocaesium from soil in annual crops after the Chernobyl accident. Barley, potato, carrot cabbage and pea were selected as suitable representatives of Nordic annual crops. The transfer of radiocaesium to man from these annual crops was generally low. Common experience was that levels after the first year decreased considerably in the agricultural ecosystems, because of the absence of fresh direct fallout and the rapid, strong fixing of caesium in most soil types. Thereafter the rate of decrease was very uncertain with a large variation between localities. Agricultural practices inhibit uptake and especially resuspension by deeper placement of the contamined surface soil. Only in areas with highly organic soils, low in clay, potassium and pH, can considerable uptake through roots take place. Examples of such places with an enhanced uptake from soil are at the Swedish peat study sites in the Gaevle region, and the Faroe Islands. In such areas the addition of potassium can be recommended in cases of severe contamination. Reliable effctive ecological halflifes (T1/2eco) for content of radiocaesium in the treated species cannot be calculated from the material available. A cautious estimate of T1/2 of about 5-10 years in the period from 1987 and until today seems reasonable. Results indicate the longest T1/2eco for the Danish and Finnish mineral soils, and the shortest for the Swedish and Faroese organic soils. Aarkrog (1992) states that the ecological halflife for Chernobyl 137Cs in the Danish total diet is 3 years. The content of radiocaesium is lower in barley grain than in the vegetable species. Carrots has a lower uptake to the edible parts than vegetable species where other parts than the root are used. These uptake patterns correspond well with what is generally assumed. (orig.)

  3. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents the CEA (Atomic Energy Research Center) activities and research programs during the year 2002. the first part is devoted to the scientific development in the defense, nuclear energy, technology, fundamental research and valuation domains. The second and third parts present respectively the development conditions with the environment safety and the means of development with the human resources, the information technology, the training and the public relations. The fourth part situates the Cea enterprise in the economy and the fifth part the Cea development in the Europe and the world. The last part is the financial accounting. (A.L.B.)

  4. CEA Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEA, a prominent player in research development and innovation, is active in three main domains: energy, health care and information technology, defense and security. This annual report presents the CEA activities for the year 2007 in these three main areas: science and technology working for nuclear deterrence and global security, the energies without greenhouse effect gases emission against the climatic change, researches in the information sciences and technologies for a better communication and health. The CEA safety, organization, communication and international relations are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  5. Annual Energy Review 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-10-01

    This twenty-ninth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) most comprehensive look at integrated energy statistics. The summary statistics on the Nation’s energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices cover all major energy commodities and all energy-consuming sectors of the U.S. economy from 1949 through 2010. The AER is EIA’s historical record of energy statistics and, because the coverage spans six decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analysis.

  6. Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of the PTB for 1975 deals in part 1 with organization and activities of the executive committee and the administration, in the second part with work carried out by the departments mechanics, electric power, heat, optics, acoustics, nuclear physics, reactor radiation, general technical-scientific services, and the institute in Berlin. The second part deals with examinations, authorizations, permits, cooperation, advisory activities and scientific services. Part three presents R and D activities carried out in the nine departments in the form of scientific summaries. (HK)

  7. International energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided

  8. 1992 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire at Orsay (France). The main themes are presented. Concerning experimental research: nuclear structure, ground states and low energy excited states, high excitation energy nuclear states, nuclear matter and nucleus-nucleus collision, intermediate energy nuclear physics, radiochemistry, inter-disciplinary research, scientific information and communication; concerning theoretical physics: particles and fields (formal aspects and hadronic physics), chaotic systems and semi-classical methods, few body problems, nucleus-nucleus scattering, nucleus spectroscopy and clusters, statistical physics and condensed matter; concerning general activities and technological research: accelerators, detectors, applications in cryogenics, data processing, Isolde and Orion equipment

  9. International energy annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports for primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude petroleum and petroleum products in selected countries. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed with respect to primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources and from United States Embassy personnel in foreign posts. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values familiar to the American public

  10. 1985. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a description of the progress made in each sections of the Institut Research activities of the different departments include: reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities analysis; and associated safety research programs (criticality, sites, transport ...), radioecology and environmental radioprotection techniques; data acquisition on radioactive waste storage sites; radiation effects on man, studies on radioprotection techniques; nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport, and monitoring of nuclear material management; nuclear facility decommissioning; and finally the public information

  11. Annual Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of electricity generation by thermal and nuclear power plants as well as by non-conventional energy sources is presented, and the condition of the power transmission system is dealt with. The information presented concerns the electricity and heat generation business, company economy and finance, business activity development, environmental aspects, human resources and social policy, and public relations. Basic data of the annual statement as of 31 December 1993 are given. The assets of the company were CZK 97,231,604, the profit was CZK 7,278,946. (J.B.)

  12. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the Corporation undertook an examination of its future direction, having completed the divestment mandate assigned to it in 1986. This examination resulted in a reorientation of the Corporation's objectives toward enhancing participation in the energy sector by the Aboriginal Peoples and northern communities of the province. The Corporation's cash assets increased to $33 million in 1991, largely attributable to a Suncor dividend of $14.2 million. The financial statements have been prepared by management in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Management is also responsible for the other information in the annual report, which is consistent with that contained in the financial statements

  13. Nordel annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordel is a body for co-operation between the transmission system operators (TSO's) in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden with the primary objective to create conditions for and develop an efficient and harmonised Nordic electricity market, regardless of national borders. Furthermore, Nordel serves as forum for contact between the TSOs and representatives of the market players in the Nordic countries. The statistical part of Nordel's annual report includes data about: Exchange of electricity; Gross consumption; Electricity generation; Installed capacity; Generation of condensing power; Net consumption; Transmission capacity; Pumped storage power; Losses; Occasional power to electric boilers; Total consumption; CHP generation. (BA)

  14. Annual Energy Review 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States. It documents trends and milestones in U.S. energy production, trade, storage, pricing, and consumption. Each new year of data that is added to the time series—which now reach into 7 decades—extends the story of how Americans have acquired and used energy. It is a story of continual change as the Nation's economy grew, energy requirements expanded, resource availability shifted, and interdependencies developed among nations.

  15. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the research done at the named institute. These abstracts concern the development of accelerators and ion sources, the construction of the magnetic spectrograph and radiation detectors, the investigation of solids and microstructures by nuclear methods, the development of electronic circuits, the advances in data processing, the study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure, and reaction mechanisms, the research on atomic physics and the interaction of charged particles with matter, the studies in medium and high energy physics, the theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and the research in cosmochemistry. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (orig./HSI)

  16. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the research done at the named institute. These abstracts concern the development of accelerators and ion sources, the construction of the magnetic spectrograph and radiation detectors, the investigation of solids and microstructures by nuclear methods, the development of electronic circuits, the advances in data processing, the study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure, and reaction mechanisms, the research on atomic physics and the interaction of charged particles with matter, the studies in medium and high energy physics, the theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and the research in cosmochemistry. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (orig./HSI)

  17. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the research done at the named institute. These abstracts concern the development of accelerators and ion sources, the construction of the magnetic spectrograph and radiation detectors, the investigation of solids and microstructures by nuclear methods, the development of electronic circuits, the advances in data processing, the study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure, and reaction mechanisms, the research on atomic physics and the interaction of charged particles with matter, the studies of in medium and high energy physics, the theoretical studies of nuclear structure and the research in cosmophysics. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (orig./HSI)

  18. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes achievements of the Institute in 2006 obtained in seven fields: (1) radiation chemistry and technology, (2) radiochemistry and coordination chemistry, (3) radiobiology, (4) application of nuclear methods in material and process engineering, (5) design of instruments based on nuclear techniques, (6) trace analysis and radioanalytical techniques, (7) environmental research. In total - 83 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity, international cooperation and publications are presented

  19. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  20. NPL 1999 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OAK-B135 NPL 1999 Annual Report. The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics research. Research activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current program includes ''in-house'' research on nuclear collisions using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators as well as local and remote non-accelerator research on fundamental symmetries and weak interactions and user-mode research on relativistic heavy ions at large accelerator facilities around the world

  1. Annual progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a brief description of the progress made in each section of the Institut. Research activities of the Protection department include, radiation effects on man, radioecology and environment radioprotection techniques. Research activities of the Nuclear Safety department include, reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities safety analysis, safety research programs. The third section deals with nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport and monitoring of nuclear material management

  2. NPL 1999 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 NPL 1999 Annual Report. The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics research. Research activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current program includes ''in-house'' research on nuclear collisions using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators as well as local and remote non-accelerator research on fundamental symmetries and weak interactions and user-mode research on relativistic heavy ions at large accelerator facilities around the world.

  3. 2000 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000. The following activities and developed topic in this report describe: the Argentine regulatory system; the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activities in the Argentina since the beginnings in the National Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) of Argentina; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the safeguards and inspection of the nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants; the radiological emergency systems; the environmental monitoring; the institutional relations with national and international organizations; the biological and physics dosimetry; the training courses and meetings; the economic and human recourses

  4. Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report covers the activities at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) during the year 1981. It contains 74 short reports grouped under the headings: inelastic scattering studies, transfer and charge-exchange reactions, breakup reactions and fission studies, heavy-ion reactions, gamma, electron and X-ray spectroscopy, hyperfine interactions and nuclear orientation, weak interactions, IBA related studies, other theoretical studies, cyclotron and beam lines, data acquisition and data analysis, instrumentation and electronics and medical physics. Details are also presented of the personnel, scientific publications, internal reports, and attended and internal conferences and seminars. (C.F.)

  5. 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1997 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and communication with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the nuclear protection and safety, the advanced technologies, the quasi-particles, the effects of ionizing radiations on humans, the medical imagery, the transfer of technology, the protection and valorization of knowledge, the radioactive wastes and spent fuels management, the training and teaching, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (O.M.)

  6. 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1996 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and external communication with some budgetary informations. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the condensed matter and life sciences, the advanced technologies, the protection and transfer of knowledge and technologies, the environmental activities, the management and processing of nuclear wastes, the nuclear protection and safety, the technical and scientific information, the teaching and training, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (J.S.)

  7. International energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  8. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  9. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes achievements of the Institute in 2008 obtained in six fields: (1) radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies, (2) radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, general chemistry, (3) radiobiology, (4) nuclear technologies and methods: process engineering, (5) nuclear technologies and methods: material engineering, structural studies, diagnostics, (6) nucleonic control systems and accelerators. In total - 76 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity, international cooperation and publications are also given

  10. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes achievements of the Institute in 2007 obtained in seven fields: (1) radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies; (2) radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, general chemistry; (3) radiobiology; (4) nuclear technologies and methods: process engineering; (5) nuclear technologies and methods: material engineering, structural studies, diagnostics; (6) nuclear technologies and methods: nucleonic control systems and accelerators. In total - 76 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity, international cooperation and publications are also given

  11. 1999 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western Canadian Spill Services Ltd (WCSS) is a collaborative effort to provide high-quality oil spill preparedness service and response in Western Canada. The principal activity of the organization is to provide cooperative annual training exercises that focus on spill preparedness, oil spill containment and recovery in freshwater and ice conditions, tank truck rollover response, muskeg spill response and new equipment field trials. Certification of individuals trained in oil spill response and cooperation with similar organizations in the United States are also part of WCSS's mandate. A brief review of operational highlights and a statement of income and expenditures is provided

  12. Institute annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  13. Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present annual report gives a survey of the research activities of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the University of Frankfurt am Main in 1975. Research was done in the following fields: Investigation of nuclear structures and nuclear reactions with light and heavy ions, atomic collision processes, neutron diffractrometry and neutron spectroscopy, solid state particle track detectors and their application in physics and biology, nuclear methods of analysis and mass spectrometry, ion source development, electronics and data processing, and problems of radiation protection. (orig./AK)

  14. GKSS annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, one of the national research centers, carries out R and D work on conservation of resources and environment, improvement of working conditions and on increase of economic competitiveness. The activities fall into the fields energy research and technology, basic technologies, marine research and techniques, health-environment-biotechnology. The annual report contains selected research work in summaries, the report on R and D work in reactor safety, materials research, environmental and climate research as well as environmental, and underwater techniques, describes the research institutes, cooperation with external partners, the organization, the budget, personnel, publications, including patent applications, and lectures. (HK)

  15. Renewable energy annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

  16. Uranium industry annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Uranium Industry Annual 1991, data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2. A feature article entitled ''The Uranium Industry of the Commonwealth of Independent States'' is included in this report

  17. Annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes the work during 1982 of the Nuclear Physics Institute of Lyon. The achievement of SARA postaccelerator in Grenoble, realized in collaboration with the Nuclear Science Institute, permits to pursue new lines of research in heavy ion physics. A new isotope separator was realized by the nuclear spectroscopy group and the high energy experimental group cooperates with the LAPP to build in international collaboration the L3 detector for LEP. The topics covered include theoretical physics, high energy and intermediate energy physics, nuclear physics and interdisciplinary physics, such as solid state physics and neutronics

  18. IPP annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In part A of this annual report the tokamak and stellarator projects at the IPP are reported: ASDEX, ASDEX upgrade, JET collaboration, NET collaboration, Wendelstein VII-7, Wendelstein VII-AS, Wendelstein VII-X and stellarator reactor system studies. In part B the departments and research groups give a brief, but detailed report of the results in the field of research and development. In part C a review is presented of the IPP organisation. Part D includes the papers and conference reports published in 1981. Finally a brief description of the IPP projects at German universities is presented. (GG)

  19. Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is presented of: a) Research activities carried out during 1975 within the framework of the scientific sections of the Institute, b) the central technical seπtions and their services, and c) the organizational structure. Enclosed are: 1) Report on the activities of the administrative management, the administration, and general services, 2) a list of all publications and conference reports issued by IPP Garching during 1975, and an annual report by the Institut fuer Plasmaphysik of the University of Stuttgart, an institute financed by IPP Garching. (GG)

  20. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  1. GKSS 1978 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its annual reports, the GKSS gives a detailed survey of its R+D activities in the year under report as well as of its organisation and social situation. These sections are supplemented by some detailed reports on selected research activities. In the year under report, techniques for the irradiation of pressure vessel steels in research reactors, the determination of the critical heat flux on LWR fuel rods, a GKSS contribution to the production of manganese modules in the Pacific Ocean, the corrosion behaviour of structural steels under seawater conditions, and remote aerosol monitoring by means of laser technology are dealt with. (orig.)

  2. NERSC 2001 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John (editor)

    2001-12-12

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005.

  3. Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    This is the eighth annual report submitted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to Congress. It covers activities and expenditures during Fiscal Year 1991, which ended September 30, 1991. Chapter 1 of this report describes OCRWM`s mission and objectives. Chapters 2 through 8 cover the following topics: earning public trust and confidence; geological disposal; monitored retrieval storage; transportation; systems integration and regulatory compliance; international programs; and program management. Financial statements for the Nuclear Waste Fund are presented in Chapter 9.

  4. Institute annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  5. Uranium industry annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium industry data collected in the EIA-858 survey provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of annual activities of the industry and include some information about industry plans over the next several years. This report consists of two major sections. The first addresses uranium raw materials activities and covers the following topics: exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment. The second major section is concerned with the following uranium marketing activities: uranium purchase commitments, uranium prices, procurement arrangements, uranium imports and exports, enrichment services, inventories, secondary market activities utility market requirements and related topics

  6. IKF annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the scientific work performed at the named institute descriptions of the operation of the Van-de-Graaf accelerator facilities of this institute and the work of the technical establishments, as well as a list of publications. The scientific work concerns nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, high energy heavy ion physics, atomic physics with fast ions, nuclear solid state physics, solid-state track detectors, applications of nuclear methods in solid state physics, ion source developments, apparative developments and data processing, as well as interdisciplinary collaborations. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  7. Effect of trace elements on growth of Pinus tabulaeformis seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The stimulative effect of trace elements on seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus tabulaeformis was tested. The experiments were carried out on seed soak and topdressing with different trace elements and varied concentrat ions at the nursery of Gardens Research Institute, Harbin, in 2000-2001. The experimental results showed that soaking seed with 1% and 0.2% concentrations of Mn element produced best result for seed germination, and the germination rate was increased by 9%~19% for the seeds treated with 1% concentration and 12%~14% for the seeds treated with 0.2% concentration compared with the control group. The seeds treated with boron element had lowest germination rate. For trace element topdressing, Mn and Mo elements presented good result for seedling growth and th e treatment with low concentration was even better. The height or chlorophyll co ntent of the seedlings with spray of low-concentration Mn and Mo element was muc h higher than that of untreated ones. In the contrast to the treating method of seed soak, topdressing (application of spraying on foliage) had evident effect o n seedling growth.

  8. On Maximizing Annualized Option Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Higgins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While options do generally demonstrate an increase in prices as time increases, an annualized return of their excess premiums exhibit other characteristics including a lower return on options farther out of the money, that as the exercise price is farther out of the money that the expiration with the greatest annualized return is longer in time, and more interestingly that for underlying securities having larger standard deviations the greatest annualized option returns are found with options having shorter expirations.

  9. Growth Accounting and Growth Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangir Aziz

    1996-01-01

    The standard growth accounting framework, which weights various inputs by their factor shares to measure their contributions to output growth, is known to underestimate the contribution of inputs in the presence of externalities and increasing returns. This paper develops a model in which, in the absence of such departures from the standard neoclassical framework, growth can occur through either embodied technological progress or firms replication of existing technology. The standard growth a...

  10. Nuclear Physics Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents articles and abstracts published in foreign journals, covering the following subjects: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, applied physics, instrumentation, nonlinear phenomena and high energy physics

  11. Nuclear Physics Department annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents articles and abstracts published in foreign journals, covering the following subjects: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, applied physics, instrumentation, nonlinear phenomena and high energy physics

  12. Annual Energy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  13. Annual Energy Review 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  14. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  15. CMS Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rubia, T D; Shang, S P; Rennie, G; Fluss, M; Westbrook, C

    2005-07-29

    Glance at the articles in this report, and you will sense the transformation that is reshaping the landscape of materials science and chemistry. This transformation is bridging the gaps among chemistry, materials science, and biology--ushering in a wealth of innovative technologies with broad scientific impact. The emergence of this intersection is reinvigorating our strategic investment into areas that build on our strength of interdisciplinary science. It is at the intersection that we position our strategic vision into a future where we will provide radical materials innovations and solutions to our national-security programs and other sponsors. Our 2004 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. We have organized this report into two major sections: research themes and our dynamic teams. The research-theme sections focus on achievements arising from earlier investments while addressing future challenges. The dynamic teams section illustrates the directorate's organizational structure of divisions, centers, and institutes that support a team environment across disciplinary and institutional boundaries. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national-security mission. By maintaining an organizational structure that offers an environment of collaborative problem-solving opportunities, we are able to nurture the discoveries and breakthroughs required for future successes.

  16. Annual Energy Review 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-14

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA`s renewables data, see p. xix, ``Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.`` Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986.

  17. ANNUAL GENERAL ASSEMBLY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Auditorium on Wednesday 3 October 2001 at 14.30 hrs The Agenda comprises:   Opening Remarks (P. Levaux) Some aspects of risk in a pension fund (C. Cuénoud) Annual Report 2000: Presentation and results (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the Report are available from divisional secretariats. Results of the actuarial reviews (G. Maurin) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (P. Levaux) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2000 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel. + 41 22 767 91 94; e-mail Graziella.Praire@cern.ch) The English version will be published next week.

  18. Annual Energy Review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  19. Annual Energy Review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  20. Annual Energy Review 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  1. Annual report, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982 Eldorado Nuclear Ltd. acquired important new sources of uranium in the Wollaston Lake area of northern Saskatchewan by purchasing the shares of Gulf Minerals Canada Ltd. and Uranerz Canada Ltd. Eldorado Nuclear Ltd. is now sole owner of the Rabbit Lake properties, consisting of more than 30 million kg of U3O8 and a mill with a capacity of 2.5 million kg annually. Production records were set at the Port Hope, Ontario, uranium processing plant, and processing capacity continued to expand there and at the new Blind River, Ontario, refinery. The uneconomic Beaverlodge mine in northern Saskatchewan was closed as scheduled. The company participated in the development of the Key Lake project in northern Saskatchewan. This high-grade, open pit mine has reserves containing more than 80 million kg of U3O8, and will have a production capacity of 5.4 million kg annually when production begins in 1983. Company assets were increased from $618.4 million in 1981 to $875.6 million in 1982; and corporate structure was re-organized to integrate newly-acquired operations. Earnings for 1982 were $4 million

  2. CMS Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glance at the articles in this report, and you will sense the transformation that is reshaping the landscape of materials science and chemistry. This transformation is bridging the gaps among chemistry, materials science, and biology--ushering in a wealth of innovative technologies with broad scientific impact. The emergence of this intersection is reinvigorating our strategic investment into areas that build on our strength of interdisciplinary science. It is at the intersection that we position our strategic vision into a future where we will provide radical materials innovations and solutions to our national-security programs and other sponsors. Our 2004 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. We have organized this report into two major sections: research themes and our dynamic teams. The research-theme sections focus on achievements arising from earlier investments while addressing future challenges. The dynamic teams section illustrates the directorate's organizational structure of divisions, centers, and institutes that support a team environment across disciplinary and institutional boundaries. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national-security mission. By maintaining an organizational structure that offers an environment of collaborative problem-solving opportunities, we are able to nurture the discoveries and breakthroughs required for future successes

  3. Annual Energy Review 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration's historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA's renewables data, see p. xix, ''Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.'' Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986

  4. Climate sensitivity of shrub growth across the tundra biome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myers-Smith, Isla H; Elmendorf, Sarah C; Beck, Pieter SA;

    2015-01-01

    Rapid climate warming in the tundra biome has been linked to increasing shrub dominance1–4. Shrub expansion can modify climate by altering surface albedo, energy and water balance, and permafrost2,5–8, yet the drivers of shrub growth remain poorly understood. Dendroecological data consisting of...... multi-decadal time series of annual shrub growth provide an underused resource to explore climate–growth relationships. Here, we analyse circumpolar data from 37 Arctic and alpine sites in 9 countries, including 25 species, and 42,000 annual growth records from 1,821 individuals. Our analyses...

  5. Annual ecosystem respiration budget for a Pinus sylvestris stand in central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a ground-based and an above-canopy eddy covariance system in addition to stem respiration measurements, the annual respiratory fluxes attributable to soil, stems and foliage were determined for a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest growing in central Siberia. Night-time foliar respiration was estimated on the basis of the difference between fluxes measured below and above the canopy and the stem respiration measurements. Comparison of the effects of night-time turbulence on measured CO2 fluxes showed flux loss above the canopy at low wind speeds, but no such effect was observed for the ground-based eddy system. This suggests that problems with flow homogeneity or flux divergence (both of which would be expected to be greater above the canopy than below) were responsible for above-canopy losses under these conditions. After correcting for this, a strong seasonality in foliar respiration was observed. This was not solely attributable to temperature variations, with intrinsic foliar respiratory capacities being much greater in spring and autumn. The opposite pattern was observed for stem respiration, with the intrinsic respiratory capacity being lower from autumn through early spring. Maximum respiratory activity was observed in early summer. This was not simply associated with a response to higher temperatures but seemed closely linked with cambial activity and the development of new xylem elements. Soil respiration rates exhibited an apparent high sensitivity to temperature, with seasonal data implying a Q10 of about 7. We interpret this as reflecting covarying changes in soil microbial activity and soil temperatures throughout the snow-free season. Averaged over the two study years (1999 and 2000), the annual respiratory flux was estimated at 38.3 mol C/m2/a. Of this 0.61 was attributable to soil respiration, with stem respiration accounting for 0.21 and foliar respiration 0.18

  6. Potencial de silagens de ramas de batata-doce para alimentação animal Potential of silages of sweet-potato foliages for animal feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel José Silva Viana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de silagens de ramas de diferentes clones de batata-doce para alimentação animal. O trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Forquilha localizada no Distrito de Batatal, município de Diamantina MG, no período de 23/12/2007 a 23/06/2008. O experimento foi conduzido no esquema de parcelas subdivididas em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados. Foram avaliadas a produtividade de matéria verde e matéria seca das ramas e a composição químico-bromatológica, além do perfil fermentativo de suas silagens, em três idades de colheita (120, 150 e 180 dias, em oito clones de batata doce. A produtividade de matéria seca não variou com a época de colheita das ramas, obtendo-se média de 6,01t ha-1. Os teores de matéria seca nas ramas aumentaram com o ciclo da cultura, verificando-se teores médios de 11,94; 12,16 e 19,62%, aos 120, 150 e 180 dias após o corte, respectivamente. As silagens das ramas de batata-doce apresentaram altos teores protéicos e energéticos e adequado perfil fermentativo, portanto, apresentam potencial para utilização na alimentação animal, independentemente dos clones.The objective was to evaluate the potential of silage derived from different clones of sweet potato for animal feed. The study was conducted at Forquilha Farm located in Batatal district, MG Diamantina in the period from 23/12/2007 to 23/06/2008. The experiment was conducted in split plot design in a randomized complete block. It was evaluated the green and dry matter yield, the chemical composition and the fermentative profile of silage harvested on three dates (days 120, 150 and 180, of eight clones of sweet potato. The dry matter yield did not vary according to the harvest time of the branches, resulting in an average of 6.01t ha-1. The dry matter content in the stems increased with the growth cycle, and there are average levels of 11.94, 12.16 and 19.62% on days 120, 150 and 180 after cutting, respectively. The raw

  7. Areva, annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains information on AREVA objectives, prospects and strategies, particularly in chapters 4 and 7. This information is a not meant as a presentation of past performance data and should not be interpreted as a guarantee that events or data set forth herein are assured or that objectives will be met. Forward looking statements made in this document also address known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could, were they to translate into fact, cause AREVA future financial performance, operating performance and production to differ significantly from the objectives presented or suggested herein. Those factors include, in particular, changes in international, economic or market conditions, as well as risk factors presented in Section 4.14.3. Neither AREVA nor the AREVA group is committing to updating forward looking statements or information contained in the annual report. This annual report contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Unless otherwise indicated, all historical data and forward looking information are based on Group estimates (source: AREVA) and are provided as examples only. To AREVA knowledge, no report is available on the AREVA group markets that is sufficiently complete or objective to serve as a sole reference source. The AREVA group developed estimates based on several sources, including in-house studies and reports, statistics provided by international organizations and professional associations, data published by competitors and information collected by AREVA subsidiaries. The main sources, studies and reports used include (i) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the World Nuclear Association (WNA), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEA), Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for the nuclear business; and (ii) the

  8. Areva, annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report contains information on AREVA objectives, prospects and strategies, particularly in chapters 4 and 7. This information is a not meant as a presentation of past performance data and should not be interpreted as a guarantee that events or data set forth herein are assured or that objectives will be met. Forward looking statements made in this document also address known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could, were they to translate into fact, cause AREVA future financial performance, operating performance and production to differ significantly from the objectives presented or suggested herein. Those factors include, in particular, changes in international, economic or market conditions, as well as risk factors presented in Section 4.14.3. Neither AREVA nor the AREVA group is committing to updating forward looking statements or information contained in the annual report. This annual report contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Unless otherwise indicated, all historical data and forward looking information are based on Group estimates (source: AREVA) and are provided as examples only. To AREVA knowledge, no report is available on the AREVA group markets that is sufficiently complete or objective to serve as a sole reference source. The AREVA group developed estimates based on several sources, including in-house studies and reports, statistics provided by international organizations and professional associations, data published by competitors and information collected by AREVA subsidiaries. The main sources, studies and reports used include (i) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the World Nuclear Association (WNA), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEA), Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for the nuclear business; and (ii

  9. Enbridge 2002 annual report : enduring values, sustainable growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Enbridge was presented and a review of their 2002 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Calgary based Enbridge is a leading North American energy delivery company employing 4,000 people in Canada and the United States. In 2002, the company delivered approximately 2.1 million barrels of crude oil and liquids per day and distributed about 410 billion cubic feet of natural gas. In the past year, Enbridge remained with its core competencies of liquids pipelining, gas distribution and gas pipelining which continued to provide high earnings per share. Earnings in 2002 increased by 8 per cent in adjusted earnings per share. Highlights of the year include expansion of the crude oil pipeline system through phase 3 of the Terrace project which will serve Alberta's oil sands. Enbridge is also well positioned through its Norman Wells pipeline to participate in liquids production associated with the gas reserves of the Mackenzie Delta. Natural gas distribution also experienced strong expansion in 2002, as did the natural gas pipelining business. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information including the accounts of Enbridge and the company's proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  10. Petro-Canada 2002 annual report : profitability and exceptional growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Petro-Canada was presented and a review of their 2002 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Petro-Canada is focused on 5 core businesses: Terra Nova east coast oil, oil sands development at MacKay River, North American natural gas exploration in the foothills, operations in North Africa, and the petroleum downstream sector. Highlights of 2002 for each of these core business areas were presented. In general, the report states that 2002 was an exceptional year with an operating performance that combined with favourable commodity prices to produce excellent financial results. The most significant event in 2002 was the acquisition and integration of the upstream businesses of Veba Oil and Gas, creating a new core international business for Petro-Canada. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information including the accounts of Petro-Canada and its subsidiaries and the company's proportionate share of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  11. CEA 2009 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an indication of several key figures about the activity of the CEA (Centre d'Etudes Atomiques) and its relationship with the academic as well as the industrial field, in France and worldwide, this 2009 annual report presents its various research programs in the field of defence and of global security: basic research (nuclear weapons and propulsion, struggle against proliferation and terrorism) and applied research (nuclear deterrence, national and international security). Then, it presents the programs in the field of de-carbonated energy: basic research (in material science and in life sciences) and applied research (fission energy, fusion energy, new energy technologies). A last group of research programs deals with information and health technologies and concerns life and material sciences, micro- and nano-technologies, software technologies. Interaction with other research institutions and bodies is also evoked. A brief scientific assessment is proposed. Finally, the different structures building the CEA are presented

  12. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resources of international co-operation, notably through the Nuclear Energy Agency, can substantially help 'keep the nuclear option open' in a sustainable development perspective, for example by helping preserve and develop scientific and technical know-how, maintaining adequate human resources both in quantity and quality, contributing to greater cost-effectiveness of nuclear operations, and improving stakeholder confidence in radioactive waste management solutions. The 1999 Annual Report of the Nuclear Energy Agency illustrates various facets of the international co-operation made available to Member governments which assists them in rising to these challenges: Nuclear Development and the Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Science, Data Banks, Legal Affairs, Joint Projects and Other Co-operative Projects. (author)

  13. KWL annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application for decommissioning the Lingen reactor has been filed on June 13, 1983. Response by the competent authority is expected to come in by mid-1985 at the earliest. At the beginning of 1985, preparatory work for the decommissioning phase has been started in the reactor containment, as e.g. removal of fuel elements, blow out of primary cooling circuit and evacuation of fuel storage pond. The number of personnel working at KWL reactor has been reduced to 108 in the period under review. The annual report 1984 has been worked out according to legal provisions; the profit and loss account is balanced at DM 35,43 millions. (orig./HSCH)

  14. KWL annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 1987, the work for preparing the safe enclosure of the reactor was completed, and on March 22, 1988 the supervisory authority gave permission to start operational activities for post-shutdown containment of the reactor, as of March 30, 1988. The personnel of KWL was reduced to 12 members in the reporting year. As financial reserves for decontamination and waste management, DM 14.6 millions were required, and DM 3.6 millions for reprocessing. The annual loss of DM 20.3 millions was compensated by VEW by mena of supplementary contributions. KWL also, as in previous years, contributed in 1987 to research projects of the European Commission (Euratom), the KWL programme covering the field of containment after decommissioning, and theoretical and experimental studies on the effects of ventilation and air-drying on activity release and corrosion in the plant. (orig./HP)

  15. 2012 NEA Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a message from the Director-General of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA, a semi-autonomous body within the OECD) and an overview of the Fukushima accident and NEA follow-up, this annual report presents the various technical programmes in which the NEA is committed. These programmes deal with nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science, data bank, legal affairs, joint projects and other cooperative projects. The report then presents activities of the technical secretariat (Generation IV International Forum or GIF, Multinational Design Evaluation Programme or MDEP), and some general information about the NEA (organisational structure, publications in 2012) and about its activities of information and communication activities, and regarding the relationship between nuclear energy and civil society

  16. CEA - Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEA, a prominent player in research development and innovation, is active in 3 main areas: energy, health care and information technology and defense and security. This annual report presents the CEA activity for the year 2006 in these three main areas: Science and technology working for nuclear deterrence and global security (the simulation programs, the nuclear warheads, the nuclear propulsion, the decommissioning, the fighting against nuclear proliferation and monitoring international treaties, the global security); health and information technology (micro and nano technologies and systems); energy from nuclear fission and fusion and other technologies that do not emit greenhouse gases (progress for the nuclear industry, sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste, nuclear systems of the future, new energy technologies). (A.L.B.)

  17. SKB annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. It contains in part 1 an overview of SKB activities in different fields. Part 2 gives a description of the research and development work on nuclear waste disposal performed during 1988. Lectures and publications during 1988 as well as reports issued in the SKB technical report series are listed in part 3. Part 4 contains the summaries of all technical reports issued during 1988. SKB is in charge of a comprehensive research and development program on geological disposal of nuclear waste. The total cost for R and D during 1988 was 123.4 MSEK of which 19.3 MSEK came from participants outside Sweden

  18. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 1996. The activities are developed in 10 chapters and 2 appendices, were are described the activities and the bases of the Argentine Regulatory System. The followings chapters and appendices are: 1.-Evolution of the nuclear regulatory activities in the Argentina since the beginnings in the CNEA. 2.-Regulatory system, laws and regulations. 3.-Institutional relations with national and international organizations. 4. and 5.-Safeguards and inspections of the nuclear installations. 6.-Radiation control of the occupational and public doses. 7.-Radiological emergencies. 8.-Projects and tasks scientific-technological. 9.-Training courses and meetings. 10.-Economic and human recourses. Appendix I.-Regulatory documentation. Appendix II.- Inspections of nuclear installations

  19. Annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report gives a survey of the activities of ECN at The Hague and Petten, Netherlands, in 1982. These activities are concerned with energy generation and development and with scientific and technical applications of thermal neutrons, which are available from the High Flux Reactor and the Low Flux Reactor at Petten. The Energy Study Centre (ESC), a special department of ECN, is engaged with social-economic studies on energy generation and utilization. ESC also investigates the consequences of energy scenarios. The Bureau Energy Research Projects (BEOP) coordinates and administers all national research projects, especially on flywheels, solar energy, wind power and coal combustion. After a survey of staffing and finances the report ends with a list of ECN publications

  20. KWO annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Obrigheim nuclear power station was operated at full load during the year 1986; 7869 operating hours procuded electrical energy of 2795 GWh. This is the best annual result during Obrigheim's operating period. Since commissioning in October 1968, 131595 hours of operation have generated 44074 GWh (gross) and from test operation in March 1969 until the end of 1986, 131179 hours of operation have generated 43,962 GWh. This is an availability of power of 81.5% in this period and a time availability of 83.9%. In 1986, the plant was shut down for 807 hours for the 17th refueling including refurbishing, inspection and repair work. Apart from refueling, the plant had a good time availability and therefore contributed 5% to the safe, economical and environmentally acceptable electricity supply of the Land Baden-Wuerttemberg. (orig./HP)

  1. 2005 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents information on the activities, on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety, of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2005. The main topics are the water measurements associated with the expert's report of Ezeiza, the emergency systems, the environmental control, the institutional relations and the non-proliferation, the training and the public information, the safeguards and the physical protection, the quality assurance in the ARN, the environmental monitoring, and the human and economic resources. Also, this publication has annexes with the following content: the regulatory framework; regulatory documents; inspections to medical, industrial and training installations; international expert's report on the application of the radiological protection international standards of the public at the Ezeiza Atomic Center zone; ethical code

  2. 2006 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents information on the activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina during 2006. The main topic are: the quality assurance of the ARN; the institutional communications; the licensing and inspection of nuclear power plants and critical facilities; the emergency systems; the safeguards and the physical protection; the environmental control; the institutional relations; the training and the public information. Also, this publication have annexes with the following content: the regulatory framework; regulatory documents; inspections to medical, industrial and training installations; measurement and evaluation of the drinking water of Ezeiza; international expert's report on the application of the international standards of radiological protection at the Ezeiza Atomic Center zone; ethical code

  3. 2004 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2004. The main topics are the regulatory framework, the national systems to supervise nuclear installations, the emergency systems, the environmental control, the laboratories of the ARN, the institutional relations and the non-proliferation, the training and the public information, the radiological and the nuclear safety inspections, the safeguards and the physical protection, the quality assurance in the ARN, the environmental monitoring, and the human and economic resources. Also, this publication has four annexes with the following content: regulatory documents; inspections to medical, industrial and training installations; ethical code; measurements and evaluations of the drinking water in Ezeiza (Argentina)

  4. Annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2001. The report outlines the IAEA activities in the following fields: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management technology, comparative assessment for sustainable energy development; food and agriculture, human health, marine environment and water resources, applications of physical and chemical sciences, nuclear safety, radiation safety, radioactive waste safety, co-ordination of safety activities, safeguards, security of material, verification in Iraq pursuant to UNSC resolutions, management of technical co-operation for development, policy-making, management and support

  5. Nagra annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste reviews the co-operative's activities in the year 2007 and presents an overview of developments in energy policy, planning procedures and funding plans. The selection of sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland is discussed. Various technical questions are briefly addressed and work being carried out in the rock laboratories in the Swiss Alps and Jura mountains is discussed. International co-operation is reviewed and public relations issues are discussed. Finally, organisational structures are described and the financial details for the year 2007 are presented. The report is completed with an appendix containing the co-operative's organigram, waste inventories and listings of publications, addresses and a short glossary

  6. 1985 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report of NIKHEF Amsterdam (Netherlands) research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry are described. Concerning the high-energy physics section (section H) it contains short accounts of experiments carried out at CERN (Geneva) with the Super Proton Synchrotron (WA25, ACCMOR, EHS, CHARM), the proton-antiproton collider (SppS) and LEAR, experiments performed with the DESY (Hamburg) accelerators (Crystal-ball, MARK-J, HERA), the SLAC and LEP experiments and an overview of the activities of the theory group and the technical and instrumentation groups. As for the nuclear physics section (K), short descriptions and (preliminary) results are presented of electron-excitation studies and experiments with pions, muons and antiprotons. Theoretical studies include Coulomb sum rule, sigma-omega model, pion photoproduction and the (e,e'p) reaction. A radiochemical and technical part concludes the report. (Auth.)

  7. Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes achievements of the Institute in 2010 obtained by three Centres and eight Laboratories, namely: (1) Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, (2) Centre of Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry, (3) Centre of Radiobiology and Biological Dosimetry, (4) Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Methods, (5) Laboratory of Material Research, (6) Pollution Control Technologies Laboratory, (7) Laboratory of Stable and Environmental Isotopes, (8) Laboratory for Measurements of Technological Doses, (9) Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Food and (10) Laboratory of Nuclear Control Systems and Methods. In total - 32 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity, international cooperation and publications are presented.

  8. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  9. Annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Tieflagerung (ETG), (development society for underground storage), was founded by the Nuclear Research Centre, Karlsruhe (KfK), and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung, Munich (GSK) in January 1978 for the common task of the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes. This is its first annual report. The research and development work described deal with the following projects: the pilot plant ASSE to store low and medium radioactive wastes, the prototype cavern plant in the salt mine ASSE, the storage of highly active wastes, the Konrad shaft plant as ultimate storage for low activity wastes as well as for activated or contaminated large components from nuclear plants, the elimination of wastes containing tritium by pressing into deep porous strata, the requirements resulting from safety considerations made of all radioactive wastes of various origin for storage, and finally safety studies for the storage of highly active wastes. (RB)

  10. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ''Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,'' is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2

  11. DANSYNC. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DANSYNC is an organisation of Danish users of hard X-ray synchrotron facilities, funded by The Danish Natural Science Research Council. It was founded in the beginning of 1996, and this is the first Annual Report from DANSYNC. Users span from basic physics at Risoe National Laboratory, Oersted Laboratory and Denmarks Technical University over materials science from Risoe National Laboratory to chemistry and biology at Aarhus University, Copenhagen University and Denmarks Technical University, as well as industrial research represented by Haldor Topsoee A/S and space research at Danish Space Research Institute. We do not have an X-ray synchrotron facility in Denmark, so all of this work is carried out at facilities abroad. Clearly the facility at DESY in Hamburg (HASYLAB and EMBL) is of the greatest significance for Danish synchrotron research. Home page: http://www.dansync.dk/dansync/. (LN)

  12. Nagra annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report issued by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, reviews the co-operative's activities in the year 2008 and presents an overview of developments in energy policy, planning procedures and funding plans. Energy policy and the selection of sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland are discussed. Various technical questions are briefly addressed and work being carried out in the rock laboratories in the Swiss Alps and Jura mountains is discussed. International co-operation is reviewed and public relations issues are discussed. Finally, organisational structures are described and Nagra's financial details for the year 2008 are presented and discussed. The report is completed with an appendix containing the co-operative's organigram, waste inventories and listings of publications, addresses and a short glossary

  13. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is a collection of short communications being a review of the scientific activity of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw in 1992. The papers are gathered in several branches as follows: radiation chemistry and physics (17), radiochemistry, stable isotopes and nuclear analytical methods (20), radiobiology (7). The last biggest chapter on nuclear technologies and methods has been diluted into four smaller groups concerning: process engineering (5), material engineering, structural studies, diagnostics (17); radiation technologies (7) and nuclear control systems (6). The annual report contains also a general information about the Institute, the full list of scientific papers published, patents granted and their applications, conferences organized by INCT, Ph.D. and D.Sc. thesis as well as list of projects granted by Committee of Scientific Research

  14. PSI annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report at hand renders an account of the first year of PSI, which arose from the fusion of EIR and SIN, at the beginning of 1988. The since then more wide-spread field of activity makes a new form for the annual report necessary, because - specially in the case of the SIN reports - a relatively detailed, scientifically technical presentation would be too extensive and not of interest to all its readers. Therefore, a shorter and generally comprehensive report on the activities in each area of research - abridged by relevant information of administrative nature about the institute, is given. Additionally, each of the five areas of research are to submit, in leisurely sequence, a newsletter addressed to professionals. 64 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Annual report 83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report from the Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin gathers the different department activity reports. The scientific activity of the Institut is grouped into ''colleges'' with particular interests: one has been active in various fields of condensed matter and nuclear physics research. Work of another covers nuclear structure studies, fission, ultracold neutrons, neutron-antineutrino oscillation. Experiments carried in another relate to studies of lattice dynamics, magnetic and structural phase transitions and magnetic excitations. Fundamental physics of quantum liquids to the applied field of irradiation damage in solids is the scientific field of another. Biochemistry, chemistry, crystal and magnetic structure are also studied. In instruments and methods department among the highlights of the year are: monochromators, polarisers and mirrors, sample environments

  16. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report issued by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste reviews the co-operative's activities in the year 2009 and presents an overview of developments in legislation, planning procedures and funding plans. The selection of sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland is discussed, as is regional participation in the site selection procedures. Various technical questions are briefly addressed and work being carried out in the rock laboratories in the Swiss Alps and Jura mountains is discussed. International co-operation is reviewed and public relations issues are discussed. International collaboration in the area of radioactive waste disposal is discussed. Finally, organisational structures are described and the financial details for the year 2009 are presented. The report is completed with an appendix containing waste inventories, predicted waste volumes and listings of publications, addresses and a short glossary

  17. Annual report for 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts of the work done in the named Laboratory together with a list of publications and reports. The abstracts concern deep-inelastic and transfer reactions, compound-nucleus reactions including fusion and fission, reactions with light and with polarized particles, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and coulomb excitation, atomic physics, the irradiation of biological systems, nuclear structure, nuclear reaction theory, dissipative reactions, accelerator developments, the superconducting sector-cyclotron SuSe, the synchrotron-radiation source Little Erna, detectors, technology, the on-line computer system, the online-offline programming system GOOPSY, the megachannel analyzer for the acquisition of multidimensional events MADAME, and the central monitoring and control system ZUeSS. (HSI)

  18. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report provides information on the energies and raw materials policy for 2002. The first part, devoted to the supplying safety, deals with the petroleum situation in 2002, the new perspectives for the continental shelf exploitation, the heavy metals prices evolution and the renewable energies promotion. The second part on the markets opening presents the new legislation of the energy markets, the new juridical framework of the natural gas transportation network, EdF, GdF and the National Company of the Rhone situation, the markets liberalization. The third part deals with the today subjects as the sustainable development, the nuclear situation, the high voltage power lines and the environment, the end of the mines exploitation in France, the energy policy facing the climatic change, the National Debate on the energies, the directive on the energy efficiency of buildings. (A.L.B.)

  19. Nagra annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M. (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    This annual report issued by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, reviews the co-operative's activities in the year 2008 and presents an overview of developments in energy policy, planning procedures and funding plans. Energy policy and the selection of sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland are discussed. Various technical questions are briefly addressed and work being carried out in the rock laboratories in the Swiss Alps and Jura mountains is discussed. International co-operation is reviewed and public relations issues are discussed. Finally, organisational structures are described and Nagra's financial details for the year 2008 are presented and discussed. The report is completed with an appendix containing the co-operative's organigram, waste inventories and listings of publications, addresses and a short glossary.

  20. Uranium industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.