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Sample records for annual epidemiologic surveillance

  1. Annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory 1994 epidemiologic surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-80 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  2. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at BNL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  3. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Sandia National Laboratories 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, 1994 morbidity data for the Sandia National Laboratories are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 15-76 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and pay status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  4. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 17-85 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and pay status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  5. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-75 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absences, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  6. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out

  7. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  8. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Pantex Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Pantex Plant from January 1, 1995 through December 31,1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Pantex and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center,located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The data presented apply only to Pantex. The main sections of the report are the same as in previous years; the 1995 report provides additional information describing the work force by age and occupational groups

  9. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Pantex Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Pantex Plant from January 1, 1995 through December 31,1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Pantex and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center,located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The data presented apply only to Pantex. The main sections of the report are the same as in previous years; the 1995 report provides additional information describing the work force by age and occupational groups.

  10. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. A number of DOE sites participate in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Hanford Site from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Hanford and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The information in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site, and the appendices provides additional detail. The report also contains an expanded Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories which gives examples of health conditions in each of the diagnostic categories

  11. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. A number of DOE sites participate in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Hanford Site from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Hanford and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The information in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site, and the appendices provides additional detail. The report also contains an expanded Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories which gives examples of health conditions in each of the diagnostic categories.

  12. Amended annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations and do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated work activities. This report provides a final summary for BNL.

  13. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for EG&G Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences resulting from illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This report presents the 1994 morbidity data for the Rocky Flats plant.

  14. Annual report for Hanford Site: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupational and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities.This report provides the final summary for the Hanford Reservation.

  15. 1997 Savannah River Site annual epidemiologic surveillance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-06-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 1997. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1997 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 199 7 report includes a section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1997.

  16. 1996 Savannah River Site annual epidemiologic surveillance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1996 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 1996 report includes a new section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1996.

  17. Epidemiologic surveillance. [1994] amended annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This amended annual report corrects errors in the initial release of the BNL report for 1994. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized.

  18. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and injuries that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque (SNL-AL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at SNL-AL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The annual report for 1995 has been redesigned from reports for previous years. Most of the information in the previous reports is also in this report, but some material now appears in the appendices instead of the main body of the report. The information presented in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site and the appendices provide more detail. A new section of the report presents trends in health over time. The Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories have been expanded with more examples of diagnoses to illustrate the content of each category. The data presented here apply only to SNL-AL. The DOE sites are varied, so comparisons of SNL-AL with other DOE sites should be made with caution. It is important to keep in mind that many factors can affect the completeness and accuracy of health information collected at the sites as well as affect patterns of illness and injury observed

  19. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and injuries that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque (SNL-AL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at SNL-AL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The annual report for 1995 has been redesigned from reports for previous years. Most of the information in the previous reports is also in this report, but some material now appears in the appendices instead of the main body of the report. The information presented in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site and the appendices provide more detail. A new section of the report presents trends in health over time. The Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories have been expanded with more examples of diagnoses to illustrate the content of each category. The data presented here apply only to SNL-AL. The DOE sites are varied, so comparisons of SNL-AL with other DOE sites should be made with caution. It is important to keep in mind that many factors can affect the completeness and accuracy of health information collected at the sites as well as affect patterns of illness and injury observed.

  20. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out

  1. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  2. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. Epidemiological Concepts Regarding Disease Monitoring and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jette

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of epidemiological concepts regarding disease monitoring and surveillance can be found in textbooks on veterinary epidemiology. This paper gives a review of how the concepts: monitoring, surveillance, and disease control strategies are defined. Monitoring and surveillance systems (MO&SS involve measurements of disease occurrence, and the design of the monitoring determines which types of disease occurrence measures can be applied. However, the knowledge of the performance of diagnostic tests (sensitivity and specificity is essential to estimate the true occurrence of the disease. The terms, disease control programme (DCP or disease eradication programme (DEP, are defined, and the steps of DCP/DEP are described to illustrate that they are a process rather than a static MO&SS.

  4. Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, B; La Vieille, S

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance, namely the continuous monitoring of diseases and health determinants in a population, has developed over the past fifteen years, in the sphere of human health as well as in animal health. All epidemiological surveillance networks include the following four stages: data collection, data transmission, data processing and dissemination of information. However, despite this basic similarity, the very many networks existing in France are extremely varied in nature. At the national level, the bodies involved in epidemiological surveillance for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments and, to a lesser degree, the Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer. In the field, the networks rely on the Direction des services vétérinaires, veterinary practitioners, laboratories in each département, and livestock producers' groups (especially animal health protection groups). Some twenty French networks currently in operation are presented in this article according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases, epidemiological surveillance is carried out almost entirely by the Direction générale de la santé and the Directions départementales d'action sanitaire et sociale, the Institut de veille sanitaire and the various Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more of the following broad categories of networks: reporting of notifiable diseases, the CNRs, the network of sentinel doctors, the network of hospital laboratories and departments, and medical causes of death. An example where surveillance is covered by several networks is also presented, namely surveillance for salmonellosis and Salmonella. Lastly, methods for evaluating networks are discussed. PMID:10779198

  5. Savannah River Site 1996 epidemiologic surveillance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1996 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 1996 report includes a new section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1996

  6. Savannah River Site 1997 epidemiologic surveillance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 1997. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1997 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 199 7 report includes a section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1997

  7. Epidemiological surveillance using information technologies in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabe, Xabier Basogain; León, Virgilio Cane; Galvan, Pedro; de Cabral, Margarita Brizuela; Basogain, Miguel Angel Olabe; Gomez-Solaetxe, Miguel A; Larrabe, Juan L

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the early work on a project in Paraguay for epidemiological surveillance using information technologies. This project is a response of our university to a governmental request to establish links of cooperation and development between academic public sectors of Spain and Paraguay. The overall project objective is the promotion ofa healthy citizenry through the application of information and communication technologies to the monitoring of populations vulnerable to febrile syndromes (FS). The goal of this project is to create the infrastructure that will allow the population of the country to easily communicate with health centers and provide information on cases of FS. The telephone network will be the main physical support for this communication. The project was formally initiated in January 2009 with the implementation of the prototype system. During the first half of 2010, the pilot project will be implemented in Asunción, Paraguay.

  8. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2003 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Pantex Plant. DOE is commited to assuring the health and safety of its workers. This includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2003 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-02

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Brookhaven National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2003 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2003 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Los Alamos National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2003 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Kansas City Plant. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2003 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for the Hanford site. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The prpogram is part of DOE's commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers and includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers.

  1. 2003 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Y-12. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2003 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the East Tennessee Technology Park (K-25).The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. [Epidemiologic surveillance for the prevention and control urban violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Eastman, A; Guerrero, R

    1999-01-01

    Violence prevention policies should be based on information, follow-up, research, and analysis, all of which increase the chances of success and make it easier to evaluate interventions. This implies, in turn, that there is a need to create surveillance, research, and prevention models for violence within the sphere of public health and epidemiology, a task that constitutes an integral part of the Pan American Health Organization's Regional Plan of Action Health and Violence. This article describes the objectives of epidemiologic surveillance systems and explains their purpose and scope, along with the barriers that stand in the way of their implementation. It also examines a number of variables and their definitions, the types of analyses and reports that should be generated, and the decisions that can be made on the basis of these reports. Finally, it discusses ethical criteria and describes the experiences of the program known as Desarrollo, Seguridad y Paz (DESEPAZ) in Cali and Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, where an epidemiologic surveillance system against violence has been implemented.

  4. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. Epidemiological Surveillance of Lymphocryptovirus Infection in Wild Bonobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Takemoto, Hiroyuki; Sakamaki, Tetsuya; Tokuyama, Nahoko; Hart, John; Hart, Terese; Dupain, Jef; Cobden, Amy; Mulavwa, Mbangi; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Kaneko, Akihisa; Enomoto, Yuki; Sato, Eiji; Kooriyama, Takanori; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Suzuki, Juri; Saito, Akatsuki; Okamoto, Munehiro; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Furuichi, Takeshi; Akari, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocryptovirus (LCV) is one of the major gena in the herpesvirus family and is widely disseminated among primates. LCVs of human and rhesus macaques are shown to be causative agents of a number of malignant diseases including lymphoma and carcinoma. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) are highly endangered and the least studied species of the great apes. Considering the potential pathogenicity of the LCV that might threaten the fate of wild bonobos, population-based epidemiological information in terms of LCV prevalence in different location of Bonobo's habitats will help propose improved conservation strategies for the bonobos. However, such data are not available yet because it is very difficult to collect blood samples in the wild and thus virtually impossible to conduct sero-epidemiological study on the wild ape. In order to overcome this issue, we focused on evaluating anti-LCV IgA in the feces of bonobos, which are available in a non-invasive manner. Preliminary study showed that anti-LCV IgA but not IgG was efficiently and reproducibly detected in the feces of captive chimpanzees. It is noteworthy that the fecal IgA-positive individuals were seropositive for both anti-LCV IgG and IgA and that the IgA antibodies in both sera and feces were also detectable by Western blotting assay. These results indicate that the detection of fecal anti-LCV IgA is likely a reliable and feasible for epidemiological surveillance of LCV prevalence in the great apes. We then applied this method and found that 31% of wild bonobos tested were positive for anti-LCV IgA antibody in the feces. Notably, the positivity rates varied extensively among their sampled populations. In conclusion, our results in this study demonstrate that LCV is highly disseminated among wild bonobos while the prevalence is remarkably diverse in their population-dependent manner. PMID:27570523

  19. Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahra, Monica M; Enriquez, Rodney P

    2014-12-31

    In 2013, there were 143 laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) analysed by the Australian National Neisseria Network (NNN). This was the lowest number of laboratory confirmed IMD cases referred to the NNN since the inception of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme in 1994. Probable and laboratory confirmed IMD is notifiable in Australia. There were 149 IMD cases notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 2013. Meningococcal serogrouping was determined for 139/143 laboratory confirmed IMD cases; 74.8% (104 cases) were serogroup B infections; 5.8% (8 cases) were serogroup C infections; 8.6% (12 cases) were serogroup W135; and 10.8% (15 cases) were serogroup Y. Primary and secondary disease peaks were observed, respectively, in those aged 4 years or less, and in adolescents (15-19 years). Serogroup B cases predominated in all jurisdictions and age groups, except for those aged 65 years or over where serogroup Y predominated. The overall proportion and number of IMD caused by serogroup B decreased from previous years. The number of cases of IMD caused by serogroup C was low, and has been proportionally stable over recent years. The number of IMD cases caused by W135 and Y serogroups was similar to previous years but the proportion has increased with the overall reduction in numbers of IMD cases. Molecular typing was performed on 92 of the 93 IMD isolates, and 23 of the 50 cases confirmed by nucleic acid amplification testing. In 2013, the most common porA genotype circulating in Australia was P1.7-2,4. All IMD isolates tested were susceptible to ceftriaxone; ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin was observed in 78.5% of isolates.

  20. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of bloodstream infections in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti R; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-09-01

    Infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are particularly problematic, accounting for a substantial number of hospitalizations in these patients. Hospitalizations for BSI and other vascular access infections appear to have increased dramatically in hemodialysis patients since 1993. These infections frequently are related to central venous catheter (CVC) use for dialysis access. Regional initiatives that have shown successful decreases in catheter-related BSIs in hospitalized patients have generated interest in replicating this success in outpatient hemodialysis populations. Several interventions have been effective in preventing BSIs in the hemodialysis setting. Avoiding the use of CVCs in favor of access types with lower associated BSI risk is among the most important. When CVCs are used, adherence to evidence-based catheter insertion and maintenance practices can positively influence BSI rates. In addition, facility-level surveillance to detect BSIs and stimulate examination of vascular access use and care practices is essential to a comprehensive approach to prevention. This article describes the current epidemiology of BSIs in hemodialysis patients and effective prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of these devastating infections.

  1. Cancer Incidence - Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registries Limited-Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SEER Limited-Use cancer incidence data with associated population data. Geographic areas available are county and SEER registry. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and...

  2. Active epidemiological surveillance in the program of poliomyelitis eradication in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main strategy of the worldwide Program of Poliomyelitis Eradication is based on immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine and active epidemiological surveillance aimed to demonstrate the absence of wild poliovirus circulation. The specification of the surveillance in the program, reporting and investigation of certain syndrome – the acute flaccid paralysis - as a specific feature of surveillance of poliomyelitis, is a new experience both for clinicians and epidemiologists. Along with the achieved results, problems in conducting the active epidemiological surveillance in Serbia, applied measures, and suggestions for improving its quality were presented. This experience might help in implementing the active surveillance for some other diseases that could be prevented by vaccine immunization.

  3. Constitution and monitoring of an epidemiological surveillance network with sentinel general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, P

    1994-08-01

    The Réseau National Télé-informatique de surveillance et d'information sur les Maladies Transmissibles (RNTMT) (French communicable diseases computerised surveillance network) comprises a network of sentinel general practitioners (SGP). These benevolent volunteers are responsible for the weekly epidemiological surveillance. Since its creation, 1,700 SGPs have participated in the RNTMT, representing a total of more than 120,000 connections to the RNTMT telematic service center. The principal motivation of these benevolent SGPs was to 'actively participate in public health', although only a minority of them (17.6%) had any training in this field. Such a system, based on the benevolent and voluntary activity of SGPs, requires a good understanding of SGPs' attitudes towards epidemiological surveillance in general and the tool used, in order to quantitatively and qualitatively follow their participation and to provide regular and useful feedback to the surveillance actors.

  4. Using Transactional Big Data for Epidemiological Surveillance : Google Flu Trends and Ethical Implications of ‘Infodemiology’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richterich, Annika; Mittelstadt, Brent; Floridi, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a critique of methodological developments in epidemiological surveillance of influenza enabled by digital technology. While public health surveillance conventionally relies on data from clinical and virological diagnosis or mortality rate statistics, approaches in ‘infodemiolog

  5. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  6. 1998 annual report Office of Occupational Medicine and Medical Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the mission of EH-61 is the prevention of worker illness by fostering outstanding occupational medicine and medical surveillance programs within the DOE complex. The EH-61 annual report for 1998 describes our major activities and achievements as we have worked toward realizing this mission through our main program lines (1) Surveillance; (2) policy(Field SUppOti; (3) Information/Communication; and (4) Research. Some of our major 1998 accomplishments are highlighted below for more details, please consult the corresponding sections of this report. The FORMER BERYLLIUM WORKERS MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM identifies and locates former employees exposed to beryllium and provides enhanced medical monitoring for early identification of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Over Z0,000 current and former workers have been contacted to date, and there have been about 8,8oo responders. More than 100 cases of CBD have been detected. The DOE FORMER WORKERS PROGRAM (FWP) is targeted primarily to former workers who have either retired or left DOE facilities. In FY 1998, there were 10 pilot projects operating at 9 sites. These pilots will validate approaches for medical screening of former employees and health risk communication efforts. When completed in FY 2002, the information gained from the pilots will serve as a basis for projecting funding and resources needed for the FWP in the years ahead. We have helped develop health-related POLICIES/GUIDANCE, that will promote the health of the contractor workforce by addressing current and emerging issues related to occupational health. The RADIATION EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER/TRAINING SITE (REAC/TS) is supported by EH-61 and assists DOE by maintaining state-of-the-art expertise in radiation medicine and biodosimetry. This support provides DOE with a national and international 24-hour response capability for evaluating and managing victims of radiation accidents occurring at its facilities or among the general public. In collaboration

  7. [Current phase of control of epidemiological surveillance of poliomyelitis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello Anchuela, Odorina

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, the last case of indigenous wild virus poliomyelitis occurred in 1988. Since then cases detected by the surveillance system are either imported cases, cases associated with vaccine or OPV derivatives (VDPV). The Plan of Action required for Certificate of Achievement of polio eradication began in 1997. The activities were agreed with the regions and approved by the Inter-territorial Council of Health. The plan integrates epidemiological surveillance and laboratory activities: - Implement an effective surveillance system acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children under 15 years - Achieve and maintain high immunization coverage (95% in the primary series in children under 2 years old). - Environmental monitoring through surveillance of enteroviruses. In the implementation of the Plan in Spain have remained high vaccination coverage and concern to avoid susceptible bags in vulnerable populations. Surveillance System Acute Flaccid Paralysis in children under 15 years has been consistently evaluated by the quality indicators related to the sensitivity, timeliness (in reporting and sampling) and the indicators for epidemiological research and laboratory. The challenges of polio surveillance are introducing cases: imported polio caused by wild poliovirus, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) or poliovirus vaccine. Therefore, all activities should continue until a polio-free world.

  8. Epidemiologic perspective on immune-surveillance in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Daniel William; Olivera J. Finn

    2011-01-01

    Common “themes” in epidemiology related to cancer risk beg a comprehensive mechanistic explanation. As people age, risk for cancer increases. Obesity and smoking increase the risk for many types of cancer. History of febrile childhood diseases lowers the risk for melanomas, leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and ovarian cancer. Increasing number of ovulatory cycles uninterrupted by pregnancies correlate positively with breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer risk while pregnancies and bre...

  9. Overview of molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, A J; Budimir, A; Nashev, D; Sá-Leão, R; van Dijl, J m; Laurent, F; Grundmann, H; Friedrich, A W

    2013-01-01

    Typing methods for discriminating different bacterial isolates of the same species are essential epidemiological tools in infection prevention and control. Traditional typing systems based on phenotypes, such as serotype, biotype, phage-type, or antibiogram, have been used for many years. However, more recent methods that examine the relatedness of isolates at a molecular level have revolutionised our ability to differentiate among bacterial types and subtypes. Importantly, the development of molecular methods has provided new tools for enhanced surveillance and outbreak detection. This has resulted in better implementation of rational infection control programmes and efficient allocation of resources across Europe. The emergence of benchtop sequencers using next generation sequencing technology makes bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) feasible even in small research and clinical laboratories. WGS has already been used for the characterisation of bacterial isolates in several large outbreaks in Europe and, in the near future, is likely to replace currently used typing methodologies due to its ultimate resolution. However, WGS is still too laborious and time-consuming to obtain useful data in routine surveillance. Also, a largely unresolved question is how genome sequences must be examined for epidemiological characterisation. In the coming years, the lessons learnt from currently used molecular methods will allow us to condense the WGS data into epidemiologically useful information. On this basis, we have reviewed current and new molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance of bacterial pathogens in clinical practice, aiming to give an overview of their specific advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23369389

  10. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney Tricou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR, an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated.To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains.In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (P<0.001. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three variants belonging to Africa I and II lineages actively circulated in 2012.These data indicate that canine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country.

  11. Postmortem Diagnosis of Dengue as an Epidemiological Surveillance Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Braga, Deborah Nunes de Melo; da Silva, Lívia Maria Alexandre; Aguiar, Marina Gondim; Castiglioni, Mariana; Silva-Junior, José Udevanier; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho; Pereira, Renata Allana da Costa; Malta, Danielle Lima; Pompeu, Margarida Maria de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Dengue remains a problem in Brazil, and a substantial number of cases that progress to death are not diagnosed by health services. We evaluated the impact of a protocol adopted by the Coroner's Office Rocha Furtado (CO-RF) for the detection of unreported deaths from dengue in Brazil. We evaluated prospectively cases of deaths referred to the CO-RF with suspicion of dengue and those referred with other diagnosis in which the pathologists suspected dengue as the cause of death. Biological material was collected from all bodies autopsied, for which the suspected cause of death was dengue, between January 2011 and December 2012. Of the 214 bodies autopsied, 134 (62.6%) tested positive for dengue; of these cases, 121 were classified as dengue according to the World Health Organization's case definition (1997 or 2009, as appropriate). Thus, CO-RF detected 90 deaths from dengue, which were not suspected during disease progression. This CO-RF protocol, through a combined effort of the surveillance and laboratory teams, increased the detection of fatal dengue cases by 5-fold. This is the largest series of autopsies performed in cases of death related to dengue in the world to date.

  12. 2008 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2008 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2009 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-07-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2007 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2007 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-03-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2007 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2008 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  18. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: mwmcdona@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Chang, Andrew L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  19. Influenza-like illness in a Vietnamese province: epidemiology in correlation with weather factors and determinants from the surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seasonal influenza affects from 5 to 15% of the world's population annually and causes an estimated 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends ‘sentinel surveillance’ for influenza-like illness (ILI because it is simple and calls for standardized methods at a relatively low cost that can be implemented throughout the world. In Vietnam, ILI is a key priority for public health also because of its annually recurring temporal pattern. Two major factors, on which the spread of influenza depends, are the strain of the virus and its rate of mutation, since flu strains constantly mutate as they compete with host immune systems. In the context of global climate change, the role of climatic factors has been discussed, as they may significantly contribute to the cause of large outbreaks of ILI. Objectives: 1 To describe the epidemiology of ILI in Ha Nam province, Vietnam; 2 to seek scientific evidence on the association of ILI occurrence with weather factors in Ha Nam province; and 3 to analyze factors from the Ha Nam ILI surveillance system that contribute to explaining the correlation between the ILI and the weather factors. Design: A data set of 89,270 monthly reported ILI cases from 2008 to 2012 in Ha Nam was used to describe ILI epidemiological characteristics. Spearman correlation analyses between ILI cases and weather factors were conducted to identify which preceding period of months and weather patterns influenced the occurrence of ILI cases. Ten in-depth interviews with health workers in charge of recording and reporting ILI cases at different levels of the ILI surveillance system were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of factors contributing to explaining the relation between the ILI and the weather factors. Results: The results indicated that the ILI occurred annually in all districts of the Ha Nam province in the five studied years. An epidemic occurred in 2009 with the number of

  20. The epidemiology of malignant giant cell tumors of bone: an analysis of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (1975–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Schwartz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant giant cell tumor (GCT of bone is a rare tumor with debilitating consequences. Patients with GCT of bone typically present with mechanical difficulty and pain as a result of bone destruction and are at an increased risk for fracture. Because of its unusual occurrence, little is known about the epidemiology of malignant GCT of bone. This report offers the first reliable population-based estimates of incidence, patient demographics, treatment course and survival for malignancy in GCT of bone in the United States. Using data from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER program, we estimated the overall incidence and determinants of survival among patients diagnosed with malignant GCT of bone from 1975-2004. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate demographic and clinical determinants of survival among malignant GCT cases. Based on analyses of 117 malignant GCT cases, the estimated annual incidence in the United States was 1.6 per 10,000,000 persons per year. Incidence was highest among adults aged 20 to 44 years (2.4 per 10,000,000 per year and most patients were diagnosed with localized (31.6% or regional (29.9% disease compared to distant disease (16.2%. Approximately 85% of patients survived at least 5 years, with survival poorest among older patients and those with evidence of distant metastases at time of diagnosis. The current study represents the largest systematic investigation examining the occurrence and distribution of malignancy in GCT of bone in the general U.S. population. We confirm its rare occurrence and suggest that age and stage at diagnosis are strongly associated with long-term survival.

  1. Surveillance of Environmental Radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to ond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2009. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and

  2. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2004. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the

  3. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  4. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  5. [Differences in influenza epidemics in Osaka City--epidemiological surveillance of infectious disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Shibe, K; Minoshiro, S

    1994-05-01

    Influenza viruses in outpatients with influenza symptoms in Osaka City were analyzed in an epidemiological surveillance of infectious disease between 1989 and 1993. During influenza epidemics a mixed prevalence of several types of influenza viruses existed. Three types of influenza viruses, AH1, AH3 and B, were isolated during the 1990/1991 season. Remarkably the three types of viruses were discovered in samplings collected on the same day and within a narrow area inside a radius of 800-1,000m from the surveyed hospitals. Different types of viruses were detected between brothers and among school children from same housing complexes. Influenza AH3 viruses detected in 1992/1993 season differed in antigenicity from those detected in the 1990/1991 and 1991/1992 seasons. Therefore it appears that mutation of the AH3 virus contributed to the large-scale influenza epidemic which occurred in the 1992/1993 season. PMID:8049514

  6. [Differences in influenza epidemics in Osaka City--epidemiological surveillance of infectious disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Shibe, K; Minoshiro, S

    1994-05-01

    Influenza viruses in outpatients with influenza symptoms in Osaka City were analyzed in an epidemiological surveillance of infectious disease between 1989 and 1993. During influenza epidemics a mixed prevalence of several types of influenza viruses existed. Three types of influenza viruses, AH1, AH3 and B, were isolated during the 1990/1991 season. Remarkably the three types of viruses were discovered in samplings collected on the same day and within a narrow area inside a radius of 800-1,000m from the surveyed hospitals. Different types of viruses were detected between brothers and among school children from same housing complexes. Influenza AH3 viruses detected in 1992/1993 season differed in antigenicity from those detected in the 1990/1991 and 1991/1992 seasons. Therefore it appears that mutation of the AH3 virus contributed to the large-scale influenza epidemic which occurred in the 1992/1993 season.

  7. Epidemiological surveillance - air and health. Surveillance of effects on health linked to air pollution; Surveillance epidemiologique air et sante. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quenel, Ph.; Cassadou, S.; Eilstein, D.; Filleul, L.; Le Goaster, C.; Le Tertre, A.; Medina, S.; Pascal, L.; Prouvost, H.; Saviuc, Ph.; Zeghnoun, A. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France); Declerq, Ch. [Observatoire Regional de Sante Nord Pas de Calais (France)

    1999-03-01

    In the field of air pollution, the France is the first country to be endowed with a device of epidemiological surveillance allowing to to evaluate and monitor the impact of urban air pollution on the health of population. This new approach is based on the analysis of relationship between pollution indicators and health indicators, it leads to confirm the partnership between actors of environment and health, at the national level as well at the local level. It confirms the development of assessment in the field of environmental health. (N.C.)

  8. ELISA as an alternative tool for epidemiological surveillance for dengue in mosquitoes: a report from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuna Srisuphanunt, Ratana Sithiprasasna, Somboon Patpoparn, Watcharee Attatippaholkun & Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dengue fever (DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shocksyndrome (DSS are the re-emerging infectious diseases caused by the four serotypes of dengue(DEN virus, type 1 to 4, belonging to the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. In the absenceof a safe and effective mass immunisation, the prevention and control of dengue outbreaks dependupon the surveillance of cases and mosquito vector. The aim of this work is to test enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA tool for the virological surveillance of dengue.Methods: Virus-infected Aedes mosquitoes were collected from the field in order to serve as anearly warning monitoring tool for dengue outbreaks. In a prospective field study conducted fromApril to September 2000, female adult Aedes mosquitoes were caught from selected dengue-sensitivearea in Chombung district, Ratchaburi province and assayed by ELISA.Result: Approximately 18.3% were found positive for dengue virus.Conclusion: This can imply that ELISA can be an alternative tool for epidemiological surveillancefor dengue in mosquitoes.

  9. Epidemiology of the human immunodeficiency virus in Saudi Arabia; 18-year surveillance results and prevention from an Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mazrou Yagob Y

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background data on HIV epidemiology and preventive measures in Islamic countries is limited. This study describes the results of 18-year of HIV surveillance in Saudi Arabia (SA and the preventive measures implemented from an Islamic perspective. Methods surveillance for HIV has been underway in SA since 1984. Indications for HIV testing include clinical suspicion, screening of contacts of HIV-infected patients, and routine screening of blood and organ donors, prisoners, intravenous drug users, patients with other sexually transmitted infections, and expatriates pre-employment. This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed HIV infections diagnosed in SA from 1984 through 2001. Results a total of 6046 HIV infections were diagnosed, of which 1285 (21.3% cases were Saudi citizens. Over the 18-year surveillance period the number of HIV infections diagnosed annually among Saudi citizens gradually increased and, over the period 1997–2001, it reached to 84 to 142 cases per year. The number of cases per 100,000 population varied widely between regions with a maximum of 74 cases and a minimum of 2 cases. The infection was most common in the age group 20–40 years (74.6% and predominantly affected men (71.6%. The modes of transmission among Saudi citizens and expatriates, respectively, were as follows: heterosexual contact, 487 (37.9% and 1352 (28.4% cases; blood transfusion, 322 (25.0% and 186 (3.9% cases; perinatal transmission, 83 (6.5% and 19 (0.4% cases; homosexual contact, 32 (2.5% and 38 (0.8% cases; intravenous drug use, 17 (1.3% and 33 (0.7% cases; bisexual contact, 10 (0.8% and 14 (0.3% cases; unknown, 334 (26.0% and 3119 (65.5% cases. The number of HIV infections transmitted by blood or blood products transfusion declined to zero by year 2001 and all such infections occurred due to transfusions administered before 1986. At HIV diagnosis, 4502/6046 (74.5% patients had no symptoms, 787 (13.0% patients had non-AIDS defining

  10. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Mondragón, H E; Martin, J; Chacón-Sosa, F

    2000-03-01

    From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state) of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a) lack of communication binationally; b) interrupted medical care due to migration; c) inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d) lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e) deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first project that has successfully demonstrated the technological feasibility of a binational disease control system linking a state in the interior of one country with a state in the interior of another country, rather than just states in the border region. The project also advanced the understanding of health service organizational issues that facilitate or hinder communication, outreach, disease prevention, and

  11. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  12. Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Moncayo

    2009-07-01

    worldwide network of laboratories that carried out basic and applied research supporting the planning and evaluation of national Chagas disease control programmes. The present article reviews the current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and the future challenges in terms of epidemiology, surveillance and health policy.

  13. [The epidemiologic surveillance of malignant mesothelioma in the Lower Iseo Lake area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Pietro Gino; Somigliana, Anna; Caironi, Massimo; Migliori, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Starting from an hospital observation of the mesotheliomas cluster in women living in a lakeside area (Iseo lake, Northern Italy), an epidemiological surveillance of this tumour was performed by the local occupational health service. This cluster wasn't notified, in spite of the relevant number of factories producing asbestos textile materials in this area. From 1977 to august 2006, 45 cases of mesothelioma were detected among the workers of 3 textile industries located in 3 little villages: 14 cases occurred working crocidolite and chrysotile rope and gasket; 20 cases in a textile factory producing cotton garments, that was adjacent to and polluted by the farmer and were asbestos insulation and blankets used for fireproofing are present; 11 cases occurred among women working in silk factories. The mesothelioma cases occurred in the same period in this area, which constituted the recruitment area of the people working in the 3 textile plants (11 villages, about 43,000 inhabitants), are 55.93% of which had been occupationally exposed to asbestos. Out of the dockyard and the asbestos-cement industries, this frequency of occupational exposed workers is the highest never observed in Italy. The majority of the cases (66%) occurred among women working in the textile factories. In a women, producing asbestos textile materials and suffered form peritoneal mesothelioma and pleural plaques, the analysis (by SEM) of asbestos fibre lung burden show 286 million fibres x gr. of dry tissue. Between the 42 mesothelioma cases occurring in the population of the 3 villages where the textile plants was located, we observed only one case with possible environmental exposure to asbestos: a gardener of the village where the manufacturing asbestos ropes and gasket plant is present. In the silk factories, asbestos exposure was probable because of the presence of asbestos insulated pipes. The female pleural mesothelioma standard incidence observed in this area (6.8 x 100,000, 1977-2005) is

  14. Community-onset Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance Programme annual report, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Daly, Denise A; Pearson, Julie C; Nimmo, Graeme R; Collignon, Peter J; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Robinson, James O; Turnidge, John D

    2014-03-01

    negative CA-MRSA infection (55.7 years, 95% CI 50.7-60.6). This shift in the molecular epidemiology of MRSA clones in the Australian community will potentially increase the number of young Australians with skin and soft tissue infections requiring hospitalisation. PMID:25409357

  15. Weighted Activity and Costing of Surveillance and Control in Animal Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duboz Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity based modeling and simulation is a very promising field. It has recently demonstrated its potential from modeling software development methods [9] to the design of low energy sensors. In this position paper, I would like to initiate a reflexion on the use of the weighted activity in the context of financial costing using the formulation recently proposed by X. Hu and B.P. Zeigler [5]. I propose here to formalize a recent approach of costing, the Time-Driven Activity Based Costing [3], using the theoretical modeling framework initiated by B.P. Zeigler [6]. I argue that this specification can potentially improve the traditional model of Time-Driven Activity Based Costing. I illustrate the approach in the context of surveillance and control in animal epidemiology. The demonstration of its effectiveness is not done in this position paper. Nevertheless, as the existing costing systems are designed to support decision making in business management, the scenario based approach proposed in this paper should be very useful to support decisions in complex management situations.

  16. Amelia : A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all conti

  17. Guidelines for a national epidemiological surveillance system of thyroid cancer in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the French Department of Health, a multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Committee, coordinated by the French Public Health Agency analysed the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence in France and outlined the limits of the present case registration system. This Committee set up guidelines to improve the national surveillance system of thyroid cancer. The Committee analysed 4 models for the incidence survey, 3 of which have been excluded: a poor cost-benefit ratio precludes the constitution of a national registry dedicated to thyroid cancer; however, the Committee has recommended this model that still exists for thyroid cancer of the youth(under 19 years old), a national system base exclusively on pathological data would only be relevant after significant improvement of data collection, obligatory of all cases of thyroid cancer is inappropriate considering the fit prognosis of this cancer. A two level system is proposed with continuous registration of incident caes through the National Hospital Discharge survey, specific focused analysis of clinical and pathological data in case of a cluster alert in any given area. Whatever the system, it seems necessary to in general: propose a unique health registration number per patient, improve access to medical data, organize a national standardised collection of pathological findings, follow up the diagnosis practices related to thyroid cancer that have an impact on incidence rates. In conclusion, a reliable incidence survey and a follow up of diagnostic practices and of risk factors may provide a relevant model of epidemiological survey of thyroid cancers in France but such a system requires a long lasting strategic and financial involvement. (author)

  18. [Molecular epidemiologic surveillance and antifungal agent sensitivity of Candida albicans isolated from anesthesia intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülay, Zeynep; Ergon, Cem; Ozkütük, Aydan; Yücesoy, Mine; Biçmen, Meral

    2002-01-01

    Patients in intensive care units (ICU) are at risk of nosocomial infections. The incidence of nosocomial fungal infections has increased in parallel with the increase of nosocomial infections. Candida albicans is the most frequent pathogenic species among the fungi. The aim of this study was to make an epidemiological surveillance of C. albicans urine isolates which were isolated from patients who were hospitalized in ICU between June 2000 and October 2001 by antifungal susceptibility testing and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. For this purpose, 38 C. albicans which were isolated from 29 patients were investigated for amphotericin B and fluconazole susceptibility with the microdilution method. The range of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amphotericin B was between 0.25-1 microgram/ml and MIC50 value was 0.5 microgram/ml and none of the isolates had high (MIC > 1 microgram/ml) MIC values. The MIC values for fluconazole varied between 0.25-16 micrograms/ml and MIC50 value was 1 microgram/ml. While none of the isolates was resistant to fluconazole, two isolates were detected as dose dependent susceptible. RAPD analysis was performed with two different primers in order to investigate clonal relationship, and 22 patterns were detected with one of the primers and 24 patterns were detected with the other. In conclusion, it is thought that the origin of the C. albicans urine isolates were mostly endogenous but exogenous spread might also be considered as isolates that were clonally related were isolated from different patients at the same time interval.

  19. Vigilância epidemiológica: conceitos e institucionalização Epidemiological surveillance: concepts and institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ilk Nunes de Albuquerque

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O artigo expõe, com base em uma revisão da literatura, aspectos relevantes da conceituação e institucionalização da Vigilância Epidemiológica (VE enquanto prática de saúde pública e aborda também, a utilização do termo "vigilância" e a incorporação do qualificativo "epidemiológica". Apresenta-se a VE no contexto da legislação sanitária, com ênfase nas doenças de notificação compulsória, que têm representado ao longo do tempo uma das prioridades do Sistema Nacional de Vigilância Epidemio-lógica. Procuram-se descrever fatores que repercutem na institucionalização da VE, onde se inclui a dificuldade de adoção e/ou redefinição do objeto, métodos e propósitos. Devido à abrangência das suas atribuições no processo de descentralização da saúde, principalmente na instância municipal, esta representa um espaço efetivo tanto para a avaliação da prática da VE, quanto para a compreensão dos mecanismos de abordagem que remetem à utilização de novas terminologias à luz da "Vigilância em Saúde Pública" adotada internacionalmente desde a década de 90.ABSTRACT: This article, based on literature review, addresses relevant conceptual and institutional aspects of Epidemiological Surveillance (ES in public health policies as well as the use of the term "surveillance" and the incorporation of the term "epidemiological". Epidemiological surveillance in the context of sanitary legislation focuses on diseases of mandatory notification to health authorities which in time has become one of the priorities of the National System for Epidemiological Surveillance. There is an effort to describe factors impacting ES institutionalization where the difficulty of adoption and/or object redefinition, methods and proposals are focused. Due to its scope in the process of health decentralization, principally at the municipal level, this represents an effective opportunity not only for the evaluation of ES policies, but

  20. Discussing State-of-the-Art Spatial Visualization Techniques Applicable for the Epidemiological Surveillance Data on the Example of Campylobacter spp. in Raw Chicken Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Rodríguez, C; Appel, B; Kaesbohrer, A; Filter, M

    2016-08-01

    Within the European activities for the 'Monitoring and Collection of Information on Zoonoses', annually EFSA publishes a European report, including information related to the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Germany. Spatial epidemiology becomes here a fundamental tool for the generation of these reports, including the representation of prevalence as an essential element. Until now, choropleth maps are the default visualization technique applied in epidemiological monitoring and surveillance reports made by EFSA and German authorities. However, due to its limitations, it seems to be reasonable to explore alternative chart type. Four maps including choropleth, cartogram, graduated symbols and dot-density maps were created to visualize real-world sample data on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw chicken meat samples in Germany in 2011. In addition, adjacent and coincident maps were created to visualize also the associated uncertainty. As an outcome, we found that there is not a single data visualization technique that encompasses all the necessary features to visualize prevalence data alone or prevalence data together with their associated uncertainty. All the visualization techniques contemplated in this study demonstrated to have both advantages and disadvantages. To determine which visualization technique should be used for future reports, we recommend to create a dialogue between end-users and epidemiologists on the basis of sample data and charts. The final decision should also consider the knowledge and experience of end-users as well as the specific objective to be achieved with the charts. PMID:26404056

  1. Usefulness of double locus sequence typing (DLST) for regional and international epidemiological surveillance of methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, P; Senn, L; Prod'hom, G; Bille, J; Francioli, P; Zanetti, G; Blanc, D S

    2010-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. To differentiate reliably among S. aureus isolates, we recently developed double locus sequence typing (DLST) based on the analysis of partial sequences of clfB and spa genes. In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of DLST for epidemiological investigations of MRSA by routinely typing 1242 strains isolated in Western Switzerland. Additionally, particular local and international collections were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DLST to check the compatibility of DLST with the results obtained by PFGE, and for international comparisons. Using DLST, we identified the major MRSA clones of Western Switzerland, and demonstrated the close relationship between local and international clones. The congruence of 88% between the major PFGE and DLST clones indicated that our results obtained by DLST were compatible with earlier results obtained by PFGE. DLST could thus easily be incorporated in a routine surveillance procedure. In addition, the unambiguous definition of DLST types makes this method more suitable than PFGE for long-term epidemiological surveillance. Finally, the comparison of the results obtained by DLST, multilocus sequence typing, PFGE, Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing and the detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes indicated that no typing scheme should be used on its own. It is only the combination of data from different methods that gives the best chance of describing precisely the epidemiology and phylogeny of MRSA. PMID:19832717

  2. Surveillance of Environmental Radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2010; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R.

    2011-07-01

    This report is the national summary of the results obtained in surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland in 2010. The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has produced most of the results, but also the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology have delivered results to this report, on gross beta activity in outdoor air and on airborne radioactive substances, respectively. The surveillance programme on environmental radioactivity contains continuous and automated monitoring of external dose rate in air, regular monitoring of radioactive substances and gross beta activity in outdoor air, radioactive substances in deposition, in surface and drinking water, milk, foodstuffs, and in human body. Also a summary of radioactivity surveillance of the Baltic Sea was added in this report since 2002. In 2009, the programme for the surveillance of environmental radiation was expanded to monitor the occurrence of artificial radionuclides in sludge from the wastewater treatment plant in Helsinki. Sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides that enter the environment since many radionuclides in wastewater are enriched during the water treatment process. The results of 2010 show that artificial radionuclides in the environment originate from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and from atmospheric nuclear tests performed in 1950's and 1960's. In addition to these, very small amounts of short-lived artificial radioisotopes in outdoor air at three monitoring stations were detected in 2010 (60Co, 54Mn and 241Am). Their concentrations were, however, so small that their appearance had no impact to human health or the environment. The average annual dose of Finns, received from different radiation sources, is about 3.7 millisievert (mSv). Majority of this annual dose is caused by natural radionuclides in soil and bedrock, and by the cosmic radiation. The exposure to radiation of artificial radionuclides

  3. Epidemiology of Visceral Mycoses: Analysis of Data in Annual of the Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, Toshikazu; Kume, Hikaru; Murase, Setsuko; Yamashita, Eriko; Arisawa, Mikio

    1999-01-01

    The data on visceral mycoses that had been reported in the Annual of the Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan from 1969 to 1994 by the Japanese Society of Pathology were analyzed epidemiologically. The frequency of visceral mycoses among the annual total number of pathological autopsy cases increased noticeably from 1.60% in 1969 to a peak of 4.66% in 1990. Among them, the incidences of candidiasis and aspergillosis increased the most. After 1990, however, the frequency of visceral mycoses dec...

  4. Management of Male Breast Cancer in the United States: A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Emma C., E-mail: emma.fields@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); DeWitt, Peter [Colorado Biostatistics Consortium, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Fisher, Christine M.; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze the stage-specific management of male breast cancer (MBC) with surgery and radiation therapy (RT) and relate them to outcomes and to female breast cancer (FBC). Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for all primary invasive MBC and FBC diagnosed from 1973 to 2008. Analyzable data included age, race, registry, grade, stage, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, type of surgery, and use of RT. Stage was defined as localized (LocD): confined to the breast; regional (RegD): involving skin, chest wall, and/or regional lymph nodes; and distant: M1. The primary endpoint was cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: A total of 4276 cases of MBC and 718,587 cases of FBC were identified. Male breast cancer constituted 0.6% of all breast cancer. Comparing MBC with FBC, mastectomy (M) was used in 87.4% versus 38.3%, and breast-conserving surgery in 12.6% versus 52.6% (P<10{sup −4}). For males with LocD, CSS was not significantly different for the 4.6% treated with lumpectomy/RT versus the 70% treated with M alone (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-3.61; P=.57). Postmastectomy RT was delivered in 33% of males with RegD and was not associated with an improvement in CSS (HR 1.11; 95% CI 0.88-1.41; P=.37). There was a significant increase in the use of postmastectomy RT in MBC over time: 24.3%, 27.2%, and 36.8% for 1973-1987, 1988-1997, and 1998-2008, respectively (P<.0001). Cause-specific survival for MBC has improved: the largest significant change was identified for men diagnosed in 1998-2008 compared with 1973-1987 (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.88; P=.0004). Conclusions: Surgical management of MBC is dramatically different than for FBC. The majority of males with LocD receive M despite equivalent CSS with lumpectomy/RT. Postmastectomy RT is greatly underutilized in MBC with RegD, although a CSS benefit was not demonstrated. Outcomes for MBC are improving, attributable to improved

  5. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  6. Epidemiology and clinical features of vivax malaria imported to Europe: Sentinel surveillance data from TropNetEurop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvy DJM

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is the second most common species among malaria patients diagnosed in Europe, but epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria are limited. The TropNetEurop surveillance network has monitored the importation of vivax malaria into Europe since 1999. Objectives To present epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria collected at European level. Material and methods Data of primary cases of P. vivax malaria reported between January 1999 and September 2003 were analysed, focusing on disease frequency, patient characteristics, place of infection, course of disease, treatment and differences between network-member countries. Results Within the surveillance period 4,801 cases of imported malaria were reported. 618 (12.9% were attributed to P. vivax. European travellers and immigrants were the largest patient groups, but their proportion varied among the reporting countries. The main regions of infection in descending order were the Indian subcontinent, Indonesia, South America and Western and Eastern Africa, as a group accounting for more than 60% of the cases. Regular use of malaria chemoprophylaxis was reported by 118 patients. With 86 (inter-quartile range 41–158 versus 31 days (inter-quartile range 4–133 the median symptom onset was significantly delayed in patients with chemoprophylaxis (p Conclusions TropNetEurop data can contribute to the harmonization of European treatment policies.

  7. Principle of Laboratory Diagnosis and Epidemiological Surveillance on Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Igarashi, Akira

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory diagnoses on viral infection are indispensable in order to obtain precise information on the disease agents, including dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Such information is indispensable for proper clinical case management, epidemiology, and strategy to control viral diseases.

  8. Genomic Epidemiology: Whole-Genome-Sequencing–Powered Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiangyu; den Bakker, Henk C.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    As we are approaching the twentieth anniversary of PulseNet, a network of public health and regulatory laboratories that has changed the landscape of foodborne illness surveillance through molecular subtyping, public health microbiology is undergoing another transformation brought about by so-cal...

  9. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  10. Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    David Durrheim; Cameron Webb; Keith Eastwood; Lutz Ehlkes

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW) Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease clust...

  11. Study of Avian Tuberculosis in a Zoo at the Bogota savannah through Tuberculin Testing and Active Epidemiologic Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rodríguez Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow of wild birds is a weakness in epidemiologic surveillance because of its unknown potential as a source of disease dissemination. The investigation focused on an epidemiological tracking of the mixed wild bird population in a zoo in the Bogota Savannah, where three birds died with a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis. In order to verify the presence of Mycobacterium avium and to plan the required measures to avoid risk factors, a control group of five poultry birds of the Hy Line Brown variety that had already been exposed was used, as well as a sentinel group of the poultry birds from the same batch as the control group, and an external control group of 102 birds from cages near the area of the problem. Retrospective and prospective studies were carried out through histopathological, microbiological, epidemiological and molecular analysis. One hundred percent (100% of the birds from the original cages that died were genotypically diagnosed with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium. Thirty-five percent (35.5% of the sentinel group was affected by Mycobacterium avium, 28.6% by Mycobacterium gordonae, 14.3% by Mycobacterium chelonae and 21.4% by a mycobacterium that is very difficult to classify. The other animals outside the cage showed no evidence of infection. It is concluded that the problematic enclosure is affected by avian tuberculosis, which is of high risk both for birds and for humans. The poultry used as sentinels are excellent infective agent detectors, particularly of mycobacteria present in the environment, and the tuberculin test is a good indicator of infection with this type of microorganisms in poultry.

  12. Epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E: a community-based surveillance study in a rural population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cai Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E is caused by two viral genotype groups: human types and zoonotic types. Current understanding of the epidemiology of the zoonotic hepatitis E disease is founded largely on hospital-based studies. METHODS: The epidemiology of hepatitis E was investigated in a community-based surveillance study conducted over one year in a rural city in eastern China with a registered population of 400,162. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the cohort was 38%. The incidence of hepatitis E was 2.8/10,000 person-years. Totally 93.5% of the infections were attributed to genotype 4 and the rest, to genotype 1. Hepatitis E accounted for 28.4% (102/359 of the acute hepatitis cases and 68.9% (102/148 of the acute viral hepatitis cases in this area of China. The disease occurred sporadically with a higher prevalence during the cold season and in men, with the male-to-female ratio of 3∶1. Additionally, the incidence of hepatitis E increased with age. Hepatitis B virus carriers have an increased risk of contracting hepatitis E than the general population (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.5-4.2. Pre-existing immunity to hepatitis E lowered the risk (relative risk  = 0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.55 and reduced the severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis E in the rural population of China is essentially that of a zoonosis due to the genotype 4 virus, the epidemiology of which is similar to that due to the other zoonotic genotype 3 virus.

  13. Consensus drug resistance mutations for epidemiological surveillance: basic principles and potential controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Robert W; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Bennett, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    Programmes that monitor local, national and regional levels of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance inform treatment guidelines and provide feedback on the success of HIV-1 treatment and prevention programmes. The World Health Organization (WHO) has established a global programme for genotypic surveillance of HIV-1 drug resistance and has recommended the adoption of a consensus definition of genotypic drug resistance. Such a definition is necessary to accurately compare transmitted drug resistance rates across geographical regions and time periods. HIV-1 diversity and the large number of mutations associated with antiretroviral drug resistance complicate the development of a consensus definition for genotypic drug resistance. This paper reviews the data that must be considered to determine which of the many HIV-1 drug resistance mutations are likely to be both sensitive and specific indicators of transmitted drug resistance. The process used to create a previously published list of drug resistance mutations for HIV-1 surveillance is reviewed and alternative approaches to this process are discussed. PMID:18575192

  14. Radiation hygienic annual report 2010. General environmental radioactivity and radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hygienic annual report 2010 includes the following issues: (1) Introduction: Legal aspects of the surveillance, implementation of the radiation protection law, nuclear facility sites in Bavaria, interim storage facilities in Bavaria. (2) Natural radioactivity surveillance: measured data for the exposure paths air, water, food chain land, food chain water, residuals and waste. (3) Radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria: measures for air, precipitation, soils, plants, food chain land, milk and milk products, surface water, food chain water, drinking and ground water; measured data in the vicinity of NNP Isar 1 bd Isar 2 (KKI1/KKI2), NPP Gundremmingen (KGG), NPP Grafenrheinfeld (KKG), research neutron source Muenchen FRM II; emissions, meteorological conditions, spreading calculations.

  15. Radiation hygienic annual report 2012. General environmental radioactivity and radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hygienic annual report 2012 includes the following issues: (1) Introduction: Legal aspects of the surveillance, implementation of the radiation protection law, nuclear facility sites in Bavaria, interim storage facilities in Bavaria. (2) Natural radioactivity surveillance: measured data for the exposure paths air, water, food chain land, food chain water, residuals and waste. (3) Radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria: measures for air, precipitation, soils, plants, food chain land, milk and milk products, surface water, food chain water, drinking and ground water; measured data in the vicinity of NNP Isar 1 bd Isar 2 (KKI1/KKI2), NPP Gundremmingen (KGG), NPP Grafenrheinfeld (KKG), research neutron source Muenchen FRM II; emissions, meteorological conditions, spreading calculations.

  16. Radiation hygienic annual report 2011. General environmental radioactivity and radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hygienic annual report 2011 includes the following issues: (1) Introduction: Legal aspects of the surveillance, implementation of the radiation protection law, nuclear facility sites in Bavaria, interim storage facilities in Bavaria. (2) Natural radioactivity surveillance: measured data for the exposure paths air, water, food chain land, food chain water, residuals and waste. (3) Radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria: measures for air, precipitation, soils, plants, food chain land, milk and milk products, surface water, food chain water, drinking and ground water; measured data in the vicinity of NNP Isar 1 bd Isar 2 (KKI1/KKI2), NPP Gundremmingen (KGG), NPP Grafenrheinfeld (KKG), research neutron source Muenchen FRM II; emissions, meteorological conditions, spreading calculations.

  17. Epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV from poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Peng

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8% were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7% in chicken and 282 (9.1% in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11 and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8. The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%. The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area.

  18. Ionizing radiations and health. Exposures, epidemiological surveillance and sociological monitoring measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper draws attention to the epidemiological effect of natural and artificial ionizing radiation exposures on man. It describes ionizing radiation sources from nuclear facilities and medical establishments. The case here is in the region of La Hague in France where 4800 employees are exposed to ionizing radiations. The topic of leukemia research and thyroid studies for children in the region are discussed. The impact of radiations on fertility, life quality is covered. Finally, national propositions to establish a monitoring measurement system is also discussed including the personnel and the general population exposed

  19. Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Durrheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

  20. Epidemiology of influenza viruses from 2009-2013-A sentinel surveillance report from Union territory of Puducherry, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganesh; Nandhini; Sistla; Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report the i ndings of inl uenza surveillance programme from Union territory of Puducherry and to document the clinical and epidemiological data of inl uenza viruses over a i ve year period from 2009-2013. Methods: Respiratory samples were collected from patients with influenza-like illness from 2009-2013 as part of routine diagnostic and surveillance activity. Detection of pandemic inl uenza A(H1N1) 2009, inl uenza A(H3N2) and inl uenza B was done using Real-time PCR. Results: Of the total 2 247 samples collected from patients with inl uenza-like illness during the study period 287(12.7%) and 92(4.0%) were positive for inl uenza A(H1N1) 2009 and inl uenza A(H3N2) respectively. A subset of 557 of these samples were also tested for inl uenza B and 24(4.3%) were positive. Signii cantly higher positivity rate for both viruses was observed in adults when compared with children. The peak positivity of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 was observed in 2009 followed by 2012, while that of inl uenza A(H3N2) was more uniformly distributed with the exception of 2012. Overall mortality rate due to influenza A(H1N1) 2009 was 7.6% while it was 1% for influenza A(H3N2). Each year influenza-like illness and influenza virus activity coincided with period of high rainfall and low temperature except in the first half of 2012. Conclusions: As the sole referral laboratory in this region, the data provides a comprehensive picture of inl uenza activity. This information will be useful in future planning of the vaccine schedule and inl uenza pandemic preparedness.

  1. Sentinel surveillance of invasive candidiasis in Spain: epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, M C; Tellería, O; Cisterna, R

    2015-01-01

    In order to know the epidemiology and the changes of antifungal resistance in invasive candidiasis (IC) we carried out this prospective study of Candida strains belonging to patients admitted to 26 Spanish hospitals from June 2011 to June 2012 diagnosed with IC. Clinical information and the identity of the Candida species were collected and antifungal susceptibility was tested using broth microdilution in five agents: amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin. A total of 705 cases-isolates were documented. Most of the patients suffered from candidemia and several underlying diseases and more than half of them were neutropenic or under immunosuppressive therapy, factors associated with higher mortality. Thirty percent of global mortality was documented. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species, although an increase of non-C. albicans species was observed. Resistance to fluconazole was of 3.4%, lower than in previous years (6.3%). C. parapsilosis presented a higher MIC90 of echinocandins compared to other species.

  2. Surveillance of Candida spp bloodstream infections: epidemiological trends and risk factors of death in two Mexican tertiary care hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora E Corzo-Leon

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Larger populations at risk, broader use of antibiotics and longer hospital stays have impacted on the incidence of Candida sp. bloodstream infections (CBSI. OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with CBSI in two tertiary care reference medical institutions in Mexico City. DESIGN: Prospective and observational laboratory-based surveillance study conducted from 07/2008 to 06/2010. METHODS: All patients with CBSI were included. Identification and antifungal susceptibility were performed using CLSI M27-A3 standard procedures. Frequencies, Mann-Whitney U test or T test were used as needed. Risk factors were determined with multivariable analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: CBSI represented 3.8% of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Cumulative incidence was 2.8 per 1000 discharges (incidence rate: 0.38 per 1000 patient-days. C. albicans was the predominant species (46%, followed by C. tropicalis (26%. C. glabrata was isolated from patients with diabetes (50%, and elderly patients. Sixty-four patients (86% received antifungals. Amphotericin-B deoxycholate (AmBD was the most commonly used agent (66%. Overall mortality rate reached 46%, and risk factors for death were APACHE II score ≥ 16 (OR = 6.94, CI95% = 2.34-20.58, p<0.0001, and liver disease (OR = 186.11, CI95% = 7.61-4550.20, p = 0.001. Full susceptibility to fluconazole, AmBD and echinocandins among C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence rate in these centers was higher than other reports from tertiary care hospitals from Latin America. Knowledge of local epidemiologic patterns permits the design of more specific strategies for prevention and preemptive therapy of CBSI.

  3. Invasive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: a population-based study from the surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the breast is a rare type of carcinoma that has not been well studied or characterized. Of the limited number of studies reported in the literature, most are case reports. A few small retrospective series studies have been reported. We reviewed data on 142 cases of mammary NEC recorded in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database during 2003–2009 and evaluated disease incidence and patient age, sex, and race/ethnicity; clinicopathologic characteristics; and survival in comparison to invasive mammary carcinoma, not otherwise specified. We also performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify prognostic factors in this disease. Review of the 142 SEER cases revealed that NEC is an aggressive variant of invasive mammary carcinoma. It generally occurred in older women (>60 years); present with larger tumor size (>20 mm), higher histologic grade, and higher clinical stage; and result in shorter overall survival and disease-specific survival than invasive mammary carcinoma, not otherwise specified (IMC-NOS). Overall survival and disease-specific survival were shorter in NEC at each stage than in IMC-NOS of the same stage. Furthermore, when all NEC and IMC-NOS cases were pooled together, neuroendocrine differentiation itself was an adverse prognostic factor independent of other known prognostic factors, including age, tumor size, nodal status, histologic grade, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, and therapy. NEC is a rare but aggressive type of mammary carcinoma. Novel therapeutic approaches should be explored for this uniquely clinical entity

  4. A Seventeen-Year Epidemiological Surveillance Study of Borrelia burgdorferi Infections in Two Provinces of Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Lledó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Serum samples (1,179 from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation bitten by ticks in two regions of northern Spain were IFA-tested for B. burgdorferi antibodies. Positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi were found in 13.3% of the patients; 7.8% were IgM positive, 9.6% were IgG positive, and 4.33% were both IgM and IgG positive. Five species of ticks were identified in the seropositive patients: Dermacentor marginatus (41.17% of such patients Dermacentor reticulatus (11.76%, Rhiphicephalus sanguineus (17.64%, Rhiphicephalus turanicus (5.88% and Ixodes ricinus (23.52%. B. burgdorferi DNA was sought by PCR in ticks when available. One tick, a D. reticulatus male, was found carrying the pathogen. The seroprevalence found was similar to the previously demonstrated in similar studies in Spain and other European countries.

  5. A Comparison of Criteria to Identify Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cases from Medical Records and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Data base, 2007–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Hirko, Kelly A.; Soliman, Amr S; Banerjee, Mousumi; Ruterbusch, Julie; Harford, Joe B; Merajver, Sofia D; Schwartz, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a relatively rare and extremely aggressive form of breast cancer that is diagnosed clinically. Standardization of clinical diagnoses is challenging, both nationally and internationally; moreover, IBC coding definitions used by registries have changed over time. This study aimed to compare diagnostic factors of IBC reported in a U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry to clinical criteria found in the medical records of all invasive ...

  6. Inflammatory and non-inflammatory breast cancer survival by socioeconomic position in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, 1990–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Schlichting, Jennifer A.; Soliman, Amr S; Schairer, Catherine; Schottenfeld, David; Merajver, Sofia D

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been previously reported that patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) experience worse survival than patients with other breast cancer (BC) types, the socioeconomic and ethnic factors leading to this survival difference are not fully understood. The association between county-level percent of persons below the poverty level and BC-specific (BCS) survival for cases diagnosed from 1990 to 2008 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database linked to ce...

  7. [Evaluation of the capability of decentralized management of epidemiological surveillance in the state of Bahia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Silvone Santa Bárbara da Silva; Melo, Cristina Maria Meira de; Costa, Heloniza Oliveira Gonçalves; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi; Ramos, Fernanda Mota; Santana, Mário César Carneiro de; Trindade, Bianca Gonzaga

    2012-04-01

    Evaluative research into the capability of decentralized management of epidemiological vigilance (EV) was conducted in the operational, organizational and sustainable dimensions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The quantitative approach was used in the construction of a baseline, with primary data obtained through an online questionnaire answered by thirty-eight municipal EV managers. In the qualitative approach to analyze the context and assess the management capability of municipalities in two case studies, techniques adapted to the analysis of discursive practices were used. This was done through semi-structured interviews with managers of regional and municipal government, health workers and representatives of the municipal health council. The case studies showed that the municipality with enhanced management capability is that in which the manager has the greatest potential of using the resources of his position, in addition to his ability to control, negotiate and coordinate with other actors. Due to decentralization of EV, considering the shared nature of management between the three spheres of government, there is a marked variation in the management capability of municipalities, determined by social, economic, political inequalities and management mechanisms adopted.

  8. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of hepatitis C virus infections in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti R; Thompson, Nicola D; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States; the prevalence in maintenance hemodialysis patients substantially exceeds that in the general population. In hemodialysis patients, HCV infection has been associated with increased occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and increased mortality. Injection drug use and receipt of blood transfusions before 1992 has accounted for most prevalent HCV infections in the United States. However, HCV transmission among patients undergoing hemodialysis has been documented frequently. Outbreak investigations have implicated lapses in infection control practices as the cause of HCV infections. Preventing these infections is an emerging priority for renal care providers, public health agencies, and regulators. Adherence to recommended infection control practices is effective in preventing HCV transmission in hemodialysis facilities. In addition, adoption of routine screening to facilitate the detection of incident HCV infections and hemodialysis-related transmission is an essential component of patient safety and infection prevention efforts. This article describes the current epidemiology of HCV infection in US maintenance hemodialysis patients and prevention practices to decrease its incidence and transmission.

  9. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  10. Interval colon cancer in a Lynch syndrome patient under annual colonoscopic surveillance: a case for advanced imaging techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxentenko Amy S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lynch syndrome confers increased risk for various malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Colonoscopic surveillance programs have led to reduced incidence of colorectal cancer and reduced mortality from colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy every 1–2 years beginning at age 20–25, or 10 years earlier than the first diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a family, with annual colonoscopy after age 40, is the recommended management for mutation carriers. Screening programs have reduced colon cancer mortality, but interval cancers may occur. Case presentation We describe a 48-year-old woman with Lynch syndrome who was found to have an adenoma with invasive colorectal cancer within one year after a normal colonoscopy. Conclusion Our patient illustrates two current concepts about Lynch syndrome: 1 adenomas are the cancer precursor and 2 such adenomas may be “aggressive,” in the sense that the adenoma progresses more readily and more rapidly to carcinoma in this setting compared to usual colorectal adenomas. Our patient’s resected tumor invaded only into submucosa and all lymph nodes were negative; in that sense, she represents a success for annual colonoscopic surveillance. Still, this case does raise the question of whether advanced imaging techniques are advisable for surveillance colonoscopy in these high-risk patients.

  11. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2011; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2012-08-15

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2011. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air

  12. Epidemiological surveillance of capybaras and ticks on warning area for Brazilian spotted fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-09-01

    epidemiological warning with a strong association of the amplifiers hosts of Rickettsia and tick vectors for the transmission of BSF to humans in this region.

  13. Epidemiology and viral etiology of the influenza-like illness in corsica during the 2012-2013 Winter: an analysis of several sentinel surveillance systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Minodier

    Full Text Available Influenza-like illness (ILI surveillance is important to identify circulating and emerging/reemerging strains and unusual epidemiological trends. The present study aimed to give an accurate picture of the 2012-2013 ILI outbreak in Corsica by combining data from several surveillance systems: general practice, emergency general practice, hospital emergency units, intensive care units, and nursing homes. Twenty-eight respiratory viruses were retrospectively investigated from patients in general practice with ILI. Sequence analysis of the genetic changes in the hemagglutinin gene of influenza viruses (A(H1N1pdm2009, A(H3N2 and B was performed. The trends in ILI/influenza consultation rates and the relative illness ratios (RIRs of having an ILI consultation were estimated by age group for the different surveillance systems analyzed. Of the 182 ILI patients enrolled by general practitioners, 57.7% tested positive for influenza viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggested a genetic drift for influenza B and A(H3N2 viruses. The ILI/influenza surveillance systems showed similar trends and were well correlated. In accordance with virological data, the RIRs of having an ILI consultation were highest among the young (<15 years old and decreased with age. No clusters of acute respiratory illness were declared by the sentinel nursing homes. This study is noteworthy in that it is the first extensive description of the 2012-2013 ILI outbreak in Corsica as monitored through several surveillance systems. To improve ILI surveillance in Corsica, a consortium that links together the complementary regional surveillance ILI systems described here is being implemented.

  14. Environmental surveillance for Waste Management Facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes calendar year 1994 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, performed at Waste Management Facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The major facilities monitored include the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and two surplus facilities. Included are results of the sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program, INEL Environmental Surveillance Program, and the United States Geological Survey. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to ensure compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1994 environmental surveillance data with US Department of Energy derived concentration guides and with data from previous years

  15. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, M.; Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Borsella, B.W.; Wright, K.C.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1995 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring and Water Resources of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, performed at the following Waste Management Facilities: the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and tow surplus facilities. Results of the sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program, Site Environmental Surveillance Program, and the United States Geological Survey at these facilities are included in this report. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1995 environmental surveillance data with US DOE Derived Concentration Guides and with data form previous years.

  16. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2007; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2007-08-15

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2007. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air

  17. 2010 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2007 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2010 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2006 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2006 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. Echinococcus multilocularis: Epidemiology, surveillance and state-of-the-art diagnostics from a veterinary public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conraths, Franz J; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-10-30

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the larval (metacestode) stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is considered one of the most serious parasitic zoonoses in Central and Eastern Europe and is emerging also in large parts of Asia and in North America. The red fox represents the main definitive host of E. multilocularis in Europe, but the raccoon dog, the domestic dog and to a much lesser extent the domestic cat also represent potential definitive hosts. The natural intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis are mainly voles. The spectrum of accidental hosts is broad and includes many species of monkeys, pigs, dogs and humans which get infected by oral uptake of the viable eggs. Yet, human AE is a very rare disease in Europe; incidences have increased in recent years, while the infection is widely distributed in foxes with high prevalences reaching up to 70% in some areas. Generally, infected foxes represent a zoonotic risk, which may be particularly relevant in urban areas. Furthermore, there is concern that the risk for humans to acquire AE may rise due to the suspected geographical spread of the parasite as assessed by infections in its definitive hosts and the high prevalences in some regions. Monitoring and surveillance activities have therefore been initiated in a few European countries. Several diagnostic strategies have been developed and validated in recent years, applying classical worm detection by microscopy, but also immunological (ELISA for coproantigen detection) and molecular tests (copro-DNA detection by PCR). However, there is an urgent need for defining minimal requirements and harmonised approaches for these activities to allow for a reliable assessment of the epidemiological situation in Europe and comparable results from different countries. PMID:26298509

  10. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2003; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2003. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co- operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  11. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2001; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2001. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co

  12. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2002; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2002. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co-operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  13. Surveillance of Environmental Radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2009; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to ond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2009. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air

  14. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2004. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the

  15. Epidemiology of Birth Defects Based on a Birth Defect Surveillance System from 2005 to 2014 in Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Xie

    Full Text Available To describe the epidemiology of birth defects (BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan Province, China, between 2005 and 2014.The BD surveillance data of perinatal infants (for stillbirth, dead fetus or live birth between 28 weeks of gestation and 7 days after birth were collected from 52 registered hospitals of Hunan between 2005 and 2014. The prevalence rates of BDs with 95% confidence interval (CI and crude odds ratio (ORs were calculated to examine the associations of infant gender, maternal age, and region (urban vs rural with BDs.From 2005 to 2014, there were a total of 925413 perinatal infants of which 17753 had BDs, with the average prevalence of 191.84 per 10000 PIs (perinatal infants, showing a significant uptrend. The risks of BDs are higher in urban areas versus rural areas (OR = 1.20, in male infants versus female infants (OR = 1.19, and in mothers above age 35 versus those below age 35 (OR = 1.24. The main five types of BDs are Congenital heart defects (CHD, Other malformation of external ear (OMEE, Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of kidney (CMK, and Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTE. From 2005 to 2014, the prevalence rates (per 10000 PIs of CHD and CMK increased significantly from 22.56 to 74 (OR = 3.29, 95%CI: 2.65-4.11 and from 7.61 to 14.62 (OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.30-2.84, respectively; the prevalence rates of congenital hydrocephalus and neural tube defects (NTDs decreased significantly from 11.8 to 5.29 (OR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.31-0.65 and from 7.87 to 1.74 (OR = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.13-0.38, respectively.The prevalence rates of specific BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan have changed in the last decade. Urban pregnant women, male perinatal infants, and mothers above age 35 present different prevalence rates of BDs. Wider use of new diagnosis technology, improving the ability of monitoring, strengthening the publicity and education are important to reduce the prevalence of BDs.

  16. Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis Validating COG Risk Stratifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) are a heterogeneous group of sarcomas that encompass over 35 histologies. With an incidence of ∼500 cases per year in the United States in those <20 years of age, NRSTS are rare and therefore difficult to study in pediatric populations. We used the large Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to validate the prognostic ability of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk classification system and to define patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Methods and Materials: From SEER data from 1988 to 2007, we identified patients ≤18 years of age with NRSTS. Data for age, sex, year of diagnosis, race, registry, histology, grade, primary size, primary site, stage, radiation therapy, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Patients with nonmetastatic grossly resected low-grade tumors of any size or high-grade tumors ≤5 cm were considered low risk. Cases of nonmetastatic tumors that were high grade, >5 cm, or unresectable were considered intermediate risk. Patients with nodal or distant metastases were considered high risk. Results: A total of 941 patients met the review criteria. On univariate analysis, black race, malignant peripheral nerve sheath (MPNST) histology, tumors >5 cm, nonextremity primary, lymph node involvement, radiation therapy, and higher risk group were associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). On multivariate analysis, MPNST histology, chemotherapy-resistant histology, and higher risk group were significantly poor prognostic factors for OS and CSS. Compared to low-risk patients, intermediate patients showed poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.53-10.47, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 6.27; 95% CI: 3.44-11.43, P<.001), and high-risk patients had the worst OS (HR: 13.35, 95% CI: 8.18-21.76, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 14.65, 95% CI: 8.49-25.28, P<.001). Conclusions: The current COG risk group

  17. Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis Validating COG Risk Stratifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waxweiler, Timothy V., E-mail: timothy.waxweiler@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rusthoven, Chad G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Proper, Michelle S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Billings Clinic, Billings, Montana (United States); Cost, Carrye R. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Cost, Nicholas G. [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Donaldson, Nathan [Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Garrington, Timothy; Greffe, Brian S. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Heare, Travis [Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Macy, Margaret E. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Liu, Arthur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) are a heterogeneous group of sarcomas that encompass over 35 histologies. With an incidence of ∼500 cases per year in the United States in those <20 years of age, NRSTS are rare and therefore difficult to study in pediatric populations. We used the large Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to validate the prognostic ability of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk classification system and to define patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Methods and Materials: From SEER data from 1988 to 2007, we identified patients ≤18 years of age with NRSTS. Data for age, sex, year of diagnosis, race, registry, histology, grade, primary size, primary site, stage, radiation therapy, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Patients with nonmetastatic grossly resected low-grade tumors of any size or high-grade tumors ≤5 cm were considered low risk. Cases of nonmetastatic tumors that were high grade, >5 cm, or unresectable were considered intermediate risk. Patients with nodal or distant metastases were considered high risk. Results: A total of 941 patients met the review criteria. On univariate analysis, black race, malignant peripheral nerve sheath (MPNST) histology, tumors >5 cm, nonextremity primary, lymph node involvement, radiation therapy, and higher risk group were associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). On multivariate analysis, MPNST histology, chemotherapy-resistant histology, and higher risk group were significantly poor prognostic factors for OS and CSS. Compared to low-risk patients, intermediate patients showed poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.53-10.47, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 6.27; 95% CI: 3.44-11.43, P<.001), and high-risk patients had the worst OS (HR: 13.35, 95% CI: 8.18-21.76, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 14.65, 95% CI: 8.49-25.28, P<.001). Conclusions: The current COG risk group

  18. Radiation therapy improves survival in rectal small cell cancer - Analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare neoplasm with scant literature to guide treatment. We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to investigate the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of this cancer. The SEER database (National Cancer Institute) was queried for locoregional cases of small cell rectal cancer. Years of diagnosis were limited to 1988–2010 (most recent available) to reduce variability in staging criteria or longitudinal changes in surgery and radiation techniques. Two month conditional survival was applied to minimize bias by excluding patients who did not survive long enough to receive cancer-directed therapy. Patient demographics between the RT and No-RT groups were compared using Pearson Chi-Square tests. Overall survival was compared between patients who received radiotherapy (RT, n = 43) and those who did not (No-RT, n = 28) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate important covariates. Median survival was significantly longer for patients who received radiation compared to those who were not treated with radiation; 26 mo vs. 8 mo, respectively (log-rank P = 0.009). We also noted a higher 1-year overall survival rate for those who received radiation (71.1% vs. 37.8%). Unadjusted hazard ratio for death (HR) was 0.495 with the use of radiation (95% CI 0.286-0.858). Among surgery, radiotherapy, sex and age at diagnosis, radiation therapy was the only significant factor for overall survival with a multivariate HR for death of 0.393 (95% CI 0.206-0.750, P = 0.005). Using SEER data, we have identified a significant survival advantage with the use of radiation therapy in the setting of rectal small cell carcinoma. Limitations of the SEER data apply to this study, particularly the lack of information on chemotherapy usage. Our findings strongly support the use of radiation therapy for patients with locoregional small cell rectal cancer

  19. [Epidemiological surveillance of malignant mesothelioma cases in Italy: incidence and asbestos exposure figures by the Italian mesothelioma registry (ReNaM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Binazzi, Alessandra; Cauzillo, Gabriella; Chellini, Elisabetta; De Zotti, Renata; Gennaro, Valerio; Menegozzo, Massimo; Mensi, Carolina; Merler, Enzo; Mirabelli, Dario; Musti, Marina; Pannelli, Franco; Romanelli, Antonio; Scarselli, Alberto; Tosi, Sergio; Tumino, Rosario; Nesti, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The Study describes the epidemiological surveillance of mesothelioma cases carried out by the Italian mesothelioma register (ReNaM). A Regional Operating Centre (COR) is present in nearly all Italian regions (17 out of 20) and it collects malignant mesothelioma cases and investigate the modalities of asbestos exposure by using a structured questionnaire. The register produces malignant mesothelioma incidence measures and analyses of the modalities of the asbestos exposure. The standardized incidence rate of malignant mesothelioma in 2001 was 2.98 (in 100,000 inhabitants) among men and 0.98 among women; a professional (certain, probable, possible) exposure has been detected in 67.4% of defined cases. In addition to the conventional sectors (shipbuilding, railways repair and demolition, asbestos-cement production), also textile, building, transport, chemical and glass industries, petroleum and sugar refineries, electricity production and distribution plants are getting involved. Despite the absence of some regions completing the national coverage and the non homogeneity in collecting and coding data, the epidemiological surveillance of malignant mesothelioma carried out by ReNaM is an important tool for the scientific knowledge and the prevention of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:18050854

  20. Phocomelia: A Worldwide Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Series of Cases From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes. PMID:22002800

  1. Research initiatives in ionizing radiation research United States Department of Energy, Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginevan, M.E.

    1992-06-01

    This outline reports covers the following points: US DOE/US DHHS memo of understanding and the future of major epidemiologic studies; dose reconstruction at DOE sites; RERF: current status; internal emitters studies; development of the CEDR database; Biostatistical studies.

  2. La información en tiempo real: Una herramienta necesaria en vigilancia epidemiológica Real time information: A necessary tool in epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González Morán

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2004 se está desarrollando un sistema electrónico para la vigilancia epidemiológica en la Comunidad Valenciana y su análisis (AVE, que permite recoger en tiempo real los datos de las enfermedades de declaración obligatoria (EDO, de los brotes, y de las alertas, su análisis y la difusión de la información a los usuarios de forma automatizada. Dentro del territorio de la Comunidad Valenciana, las actividades de vigilancia se llevan a cabo en 17 Unidades de Vigilancia, de acuerdo con la desagregación sanitaria de la comunidad, que actúan como primer nivel especializado de la vigilancia. El sistema de vigilancia electrónico es operativo para todas esas unidades e igualmente cubre a los facultativos de atención primaria y especializada, capacitándoles para completar la información clínica de los casos de enfermedades, que son detectados a partir de los datos sociodemográficos del Sistema de Información Ambulatoria (SIA. La incorporación de los resultados microbiológicos se realiza automáticamente, a través de la Red de Vigilancia Microbiológica de la Comunidad Valenciana. El análisis de los casos, los brotes y las alertas se lleva a cabo por medio de una serie de algoritmos que permite la creación de avisos dirigidos al epidemiólogo. Desde los servicios centrales se tiene acceso a todo el sistema para el análisis de la información y el control de la calidad del sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica. La aplicación ha conseguido disminuir el tiempo de declaración de los datos y aumentar la exhaustividad de esa declaración de manera significativa.Since 2004 an electronic epidemiological surveillance system (AVE has been developed and implemented for infectious diseases in the autonomous region of Valencia that allows data collection from notifiable diseases in real time concerning outbreaks and alerts, as well as analysis and dissemination of the information. Within the autonomous region of Valencia, the

  3. Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2016-01-01

    More than 250,000 new cases of primary malignant brain tumors are diagnosed annually worldwide, 77% of which are gliomas. A small proportion of gliomas are caused by the inheritance of rare high-penetrance genetic variants or high-dose radiation. Since 2009, inherited genetic variants in 10 regions near eight different genes have been consistently associated with glioma risk via genome-wide association studies. Most of these variants increase glioma risk by 20-40%, but two have higher relative risks. One on chromosome 8 increases risk of IDH-mutated gliomas sixfold and another that affects TP53 function confers a 2.5-fold increased risk of glioma. Functions of some of the other risk variants are known or suspected, but future research will determine functions of other risk loci. Recent progress also has been made in defining subgroups of glioma based on acquired alterations within tumors. Allergy history has been consistently associated with reduced glioma risk, though the mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Future studies will need to be large enough so that environmental and constitutive genetic risk factors can be examined within molecularly defined, etiologically homogeneous subgroups.

  4. Australia's notifiable disease status, 2013: Annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, 65 diseases and conditions were nationally notifiable in Australia. States and territories reported a total of 224,434 notifications of communicable diseases to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, a decrease of 8% on the number of notifications in 2012. In 2013, the most frequently notified diseases were sexually transmissible infections (100,949 notifications, 45% of total notifications), vaccine preventable diseases (59,630 notifications, 26.6% of total notifications), and gastrointestinal diseases (32,536 notifications, 14.5% of total notifications). There were 17,919 notifications of bloodborne diseases; 10,831 notifications of vectorborne diseases; 1,932 notifications of other bacterial infections; 634 notifications of zoonoses and 3 notifications of quarantinable diseases. PMID:26620352

  5. Australia's notifiable disease status, 2014: Annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, 69 diseases and conditions were nationally notifiable in Australia. States and territories reported a total of 275,581 notifications of communicable diseases to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, an increase of 22% on the number of notifications in 2013. In 2014, the most frequently notified diseases were sexually transmissible infections (105,719 notifications, 38% of total notifications), vaccine preventable diseases (101,400 notifications, 37% of total notifications), and gastrointestinal diseases (40,367 notifications, 15% of total notifications). There were 17,411 notifications of bloodborne diseases; 8,125 notifications of vectorborne diseases; 1,942 notifications of other bacterial infections; 615 notifications of zoonoses and 2 notifications of quarantinable diseases. Commun Dis Intell 2016;40(1):E48-E145. PMID:27080029

  6. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  7. Information on radiation treatment in patients with breast cancer: the advantages of the linked medicare and SEER data. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Freeman, J L; Goodwin, J S

    1999-05-01

    Several studies have found underutilization of radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer; but there are concerns about the completeness of various databases on radiotherapy. We used the linked Medicare-SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) database to compare information on receipt of radiotherapy after diagnosis of breast cancer. More than 18% of women identified by Medicare data as receiving radiotherapy were not so identified by SEER, and 7% of those identified as receiving radiotherapy by SEER were not identified by Medicare. Risk of discordance on radiotherapy information between the two data sets was especially high in women receiving breast-conserving surgery. The combined SEER-Medicare database gives a more complete picture on the use of radiotherapy. The previously reported geographic variations in the use of radiotherapy for breast cancer may be due in part to underreporting of radiotherapy in some areas.

  8. Epidemiological Surveillance of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Spain in 2004-2012: Relevance of Transmission Clusters in the Propagation of Resistance Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Vega

    Full Text Available Our objectives were to carry out an epidemiological surveillance study on transmitted drug resistance (TDR among individuals newly diagnosed of HIV-1 infection during a nine year period in Spain and to assess the role of transmission clusters (TC in the propagation of resistant strains. An overall of 1614 newly diagnosed individuals were included in the study from January 2004 through December 2012. Individuals come from two different Spanish regions: Galicia and the Basque Country. Resistance mutations to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI and protease inhibitors (PI were analyzed according to mutations included in the surveillance drug-resistance mutations list updated in 2009. TC were defined as those comprising viruses from five or more individuals whose sequences clustered in maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees with a bootstrap value ≥90%. The overall prevalence of TDR to any drug was 9.9%: 4.9% to nucleoside RTIs (NRTIs, 3.6% to non-nucleoside RTIs (NNRTIs, and 2.7% to PIs. A significant decrease of TDR to NRTIs over time was observed [from 10% in 2004 to 2% in 2012 (p=0.01]. Sixty eight (42.2% of 161 sequences with TDR were included in 25 TC composed of 5 or more individuals. Of them, 9 clusters harbored TDR associated with high level resistance to antiretroviral drugs. T215D revertant mutation was transmitted in a large cluster comprising 25 individuals. The impact of epidemiological networks on TDR frequency may explain its persistence in newly diagnosed individuals. The knowledge of the populations involved in TC would facilitate the design of prevention programs and public health interventions.

  9. The epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients in China: surveillance data from 2006 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare, rapidly progressive fatal central nervous system disorder, which consists of three main catalogues: sporadic, familial, and iatrogenic CJD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In China, the surveillance for CJD started in 2006, covering 12 provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs and 15 hospitals. From 2006 to 2010, 624 suspected patients were referred to China CJD surveillance. The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of sporadic CJD (sCJD were analysed. Both groups of probable and possible sCJD showed highest incidences in the population of 60 to 69 year-olds. The most common presenting symptoms were progressive dementia and mental-related symptoms (neurological symptoms including sleeping turbulence, depression, anxiety and stress. Among the four main clinical manifestations, myoclonus was more frequently observed in the probable sCJD patients. About 2/3 of probable sCJD cases showed positive 14-3-3 in CSF and/or periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWC in electroencephalography (EEG. The presence of myoclonus was significantly closely related with the appearance of PSWC in EEG. Polymorphisms of codon 129 in PRNP of the notified cases revealed a highly predominant M129M genotype in Han Chinese. Among 23 genetic human prion diseases, ten were D178N/M129M Fatal familial insomnia (FFI and five were T188K genetic CJD (gCJD, possibly indicating a special distribution of gCJD-related mutations in Han Chinese. CONCLUSION: From the period of 2006 to 2010, 261 patients were diagnosed as sCJD and 23 patients were diagnosed as genetic human prion diseases in China. The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory analysis data were consistent with the characteristics of sporadic CJD, which provide insight into the features of CJD in China.

  10. Amelia: A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; CUEVAS, LOURDES; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BIANCHI, FABRIZIO; CANFIELD, MARK A.; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all continents but Africa, from 1968 to 2006, depending on the program. Reported clinical information on cases was thoroughly reviewed to identify those strictly meeting the definition of amelia. Those with amniotic bands or limb-body wall complex were excluded. The primary epidemiological analyses focused on isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). A total of 326 amelia cases were ascertained among 23,110,591 live births, stillbirths and (for some programs) elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The overall total prevalence was 1.41 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.57). Only China Beijing and Mexico RYVEMCE had total prevalences, which were significantly higher than this overall total prevalence. Some under-registration could influence the total prevalence in some programs. Liveborn cases represented 54.6% of total. Among monomelic cases (representing 65.2% of nonsyndromic amelia cases), both sides were equally involved, and the upper limbs (53.9%) were slightly more frequently affected. One of the most interesting findings was a higher prevalence of amelia among offspring of mothers younger than 20 years. Sixty-nine percent of the cases had MCA or syndromes. The most frequent defects associated with amelia were other types of musculoskeletal defects, intestinal, some renal and genital defects, oral clefts, defects of cardiac septa, and anencephaly. PMID:22002956

  11. Influenza surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghendon, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of influenza surveillance are: collection of influenza virus isolates and analysis of their antigenic characteristics so that the most appropriate virus variants can be recommended as constituents of influenza vaccines for use during the next epidemiological season; collection and analysis of information on influenza morbidity and mortality; and earliest possible detection of influenza epidemics. Exact estimates of the specific morbidity and mortality due to influenza are ...

  12. An integrative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus carriers in Vietnam achieved through targeted surveillance and molecular epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multidisciplinary, molecular and conventional epidemiological approach was applied to an investigation of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in Vietnam. Within the study space, it was found that 22.3 percent of sampled ruminants had previously been infected with FMD virus (FMDV) and that 2.4 percent w...

  13. Bladder Exstrophy: An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIFFEL, CSABA; CORREA, ADOLFO; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; CSÁKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; OLNEY, RICHARD S.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We used data from 22 participating member programs of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). All cases were reviewed and classified as isolated, syndrome, and multiple congenital anomalies. We estimated the total prevalence of BE and calculated the frequency and odds ratios for various maternal and case characteristics. A total of 546 cases with BE were identified among 26,355,094 births. The total prevalence of BE was 2.07 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.90–2.25) and varied between 0.52 and 4.63 among surveillance programs participating in the study. BE was nearly twice as common among male as among female cases. The proportion of isolated cases was 71%. Prevalence appeared to increase with increasing categories of maternal age, particularly among isolated cases. The total prevalence of BE showed some variations by geographical region, which is most likely attributable to differences in registration of cases. The higher total prevalence among male cases and older mothers, especially among isolated cases, warrants further attention. PMID:22002949

  14. Evaluation of two influenza surveillance systems in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Budgell

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation recommends outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI and inpatient severe acute respiratory illness (SARI surveillance. We evaluated two influenza surveillance systems in South Africa: one for ILI and another for SARI.The Viral Watch (VW programme has collected virological influenza surveillance data voluntarily from patients with ILI since 1984 in private and public clinics in all 9 South African provinces. The SARI surveillance programme has collected epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance data since 2009 in public hospitals in 4 provinces by dedicated personnel. We compared nine surveillance system attributes from 2009-2012.We analysed data from 18,293 SARI patients and 9,104 ILI patients. The annual proportion of samples testing positive for influenza was higher for VW (mean 41% than SARI (mean 8% and generally exceeded the seasonal threshold from May to September (VW: weeks 21-40; SARI: weeks 23-39. Data quality was a major strength of SARI (most data completion measures >90%; adherence to definitions: 88-89% and a relative weakness of the VW programme (62% of forms complete, with limited epidemiologic data collected; adherence to definitions: 65-82%. Timeliness was a relative strength of both systems (e.g. both collected >93% of all respiratory specimens within 7 days of symptom onset. ILI surveillance was more nationally representative, financially sustainable and expandable than the SARI system. Though the SARI programme is not nationally representative, the high quality and detail of SARI data collection sheds light on the local burden and epidemiology of severe influenza-associated disease.To best monitor influenza in South Africa, we propose that both ILI and SARI should be under surveillance. Improving ILI surveillance will require better quality and more systematic data collection, and SARI surveillance should be expanded to be more nationally representative, even if this requires scaling

  15. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  16. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Puig-Barberà

    Full Text Available The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations.Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression.5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2, 362 A(H1N1, 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B. The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33-2.02], asthma (2.25 [1.67-3.03], immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23-4.11], renal disease (2.11 [1.48-3.01], liver disease (1.94 [1.18-3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58-5.59], and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48-5.94]. Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48-0.77].Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza virus in patients hospitalized with influenza

  17. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Natividad-Sancho, Angels; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A.; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; El Guerche-Séblain, Clotilde; Mira-Iglesias, Ainara; Kisteneva, Lidiya; Stolyarov, Kirill; Yurtcu, Kubra; Feng, Luzhao; López-Labrador, Xavier; Burtseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations. Methods Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Findings 5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2), 362 A(H1N1), 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B). The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33–2.02]), asthma (2.25 [1.67–3.03]), immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23–4.11]), renal disease (2.11 [1.48–3.01]), liver disease (1.94 [1.18–3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58–5.59]), and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48–5.94]). Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48–0.77]). Conclusions Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza

  18. Example of Occupational Surveillance in a Telemedicine Setting: Application of Epidemiologic Methods at NASA Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Ruffaner, Lanie M.; Wear, Mary L.; Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence; Lee, Lesley R.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, NASA implemented Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, a formal occupational surveillance program for the U.S. astronaut corps. Because of the nature of the space environment, space medicine presents unique challenges and opportunities for epidemiologists. One such example is the use of telemedicine while crewmembers are in flight, where the primary source of information about crew health is verbal communication between physicians and their crewmembers. Due to restricted medical capabilities, the available health information is primarily crewmember report of signs and symptoms, rather than diagnoses. As epidemiologists at NASA, Johnson Space Center, we have shifted our paradigm from tracking diagnoses based on traditional terrestrial clinical practice to one in which we also incorporate reported symptomology as potential antecedents of disease. In this presentation we describe how characterization of reported signs and symptoms can be used to establish incidence rates for inflight immunologic events. We describe interdisciplinary data sources of information that are used in combination with medical information to analyze the data. We also delineate criteria for symptom classification inclusion. Finally, we present incidence tables and graphs to illustrate the final outcomes. Using signs and symptoms reported via telemedicine, the epidemiologists provide summary evidence regarding incidence of potential inflight medical conditions. These results inform our NASA physicians and scientists, and support evaluation of the occupational health risks associated with spaceflight.

  19. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. PMID:27469420

  20. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of bovine Trypanosomosis and epidemiological surveillance in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporadic outbreaks of bovine Trypanosomiasis have been reported in Bolivia since 1996 when T.vivax and T.evansi were identified for the first time by parasitological means. However, comprehensive epidemiological information concerning T.vivax and T.evansi in the country is lacking. Current parasitological and serological diagnostic methods for Trypanosomiasis have important limitations either in their sensitivity or specificity, which can result in unreliable data when applied in epidemiological studies. PCR assays are a recently developed procedure that might help to overcome the constraints of parasitological and serological assays. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate PCR assays as a diagnostic tool for epidemiological studies in Bolivia. PCR assays for diagnosis of Trypanosome infection in cattle were evaluated for their ability to detect Trypanosome DNA in blood spots samples collected from cattle in four different provinces from the Bolivian lowlands and the results compared with those obtained with standard parasitological (Micro Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique (HCT) and stained smears) and serological methods (Card Agglutination Test for T.evansi (CATT), and Antibody ELISAs for T.vivax and T. congolense). Kappa agreement analysis showed a significant agreement between PCR assays and results from parasitological methods but there was no agreement when PCR was compared with serological assays. Some samples from T.vivax smear positive animals were negative by PCR, therefore modifications to the PCR assay conditions were undertaken to try to improve agreement between PCR and parasitological assays. Changes in the template DNA concentration or the use of an alternative primer sets resulted in improvements in the PCR detection rate, but not all the parasitologically positive samples were detected by PCR. Results from PCR assays for T.vivax and T.evansi were combined with results from parasitological and serological assays to provide

  1. Sanitary surveillance in France in relation with the Chernobylsk accident. Updated situation on thyroid cancers and epidemiological studies during 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children has been reported since 1990 in areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine which have been highly contaminated during the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A similar increase is now observed in young adults in the same areas. In France, thyroid cancer is characterized by low occurrence and good prognosis. However, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing for more than 20 years, and in 1986, the Chernobyl cloud of radioactive dust crossed the French territory. Thus, the National institute for public health surveillance (I.n.V.S.) carried out several studies to evaluate whether the incidence increase in thyroid cancer is related to radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Since 2000, the I.n.V.S. is in charge of a national multidisciplinary approach involving a wide range of public health actors, including the French network of cancer registries (Francim). Since 2003, the I.n.V.S. has been working on improving the surveillance system according to the actions described in the national cancer plan 2003-2007. The I.n.V.S. has increased its financial contribution to cancer registries including the national registry of solid tumors in children, which was created in 2000. The Institute is also working on the implementation of a multi source system for the national cancer surveillance in link with cancer registries. For the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, the I.n.V.S. is publishing updated results from the latest research conducted in close collaboration with the partners. These results do not support the initial hypothesis of a potential 'Chernobyl effect' in France. The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer is also reported in most of developed countries. Practices in cancer diagnosis and the increased rate of total thyroidectomy for benign lesion may lead pathologists to unexpectedly discover small thyroid tumors. This fact is likely to explain most of the incidence increase. The wide

  2. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  3. Morbidity, surveillance and epidemiology of scorpion sting, cutaneous leishmaniasis and pediculosis capitis in Bandar-mahshahr County, Southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Mohammad-Hossein Feizhaddad; Mohammad Abdehpanah

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study epidemiologic features of scorpion stings, patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and pediculosis capitis cases inBandar-mahshahrCounty,SouthwesternIran, during2008-2009.Methods:A descriptive study was conducted on the referred individuals with stung scorpions, pediculosis capitis and cutaneous leishmaniasis attending health centers fromBandar-mahshahrCounty in2008.The patients' medical records with epidemiologic and demographic data were collected.UsingSPSS, we have attempted to summarize statistics, namely frequencies and percentages.Results:A total of135 scorpion stings patients were studied.Of these,34.8% were female and65.2% male.Most of theScorpion stings were recorded in the21-30 year age group(37.8%).A total of82 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied in this assignment that all cases have been reported from urban health centers.Considering number of wounds on the body the maximum of the patients(37.6%) had only one lesion.In this study, 12 referred patients from the health centers were studied for pediculosis capitis.According to obtained information one of the patients was male and11 patients were female.Conclusions:Some important measures, such aseducation, health promotion and public participation should be implemented for preventing of these diseases.

  4. Sampling Methodologies for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Latin America: An Empiric Comparison of Convenience Sampling, Time Space Sampling, and Respondent Driven Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, J. L.; Konda, K. A.; Silva-Santisteban, A.; Peinado, J; Lama, J. R.; Kusunoki, L; Perez-Brumer, A.; Pun, M; Cabello, R; Sebastian, J. L.; Suarez-Ognio, L.; Sanchez, J

    2014-01-01

    Alternatives to convenience sampling (CS) are needed for HIV/STI surveillance of most-at-risk populations in Latin America. We compared CS, time space sampling (TSS), and respondent driven sampling (RDS) for recruitment of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. During concurrent 60-day periods from June–August, 2011, we recruited MSM/TW for epidemiologic surveillance using CS, TSS, and RDS. A total of 748 participants were recruited through CS, 233 through T...

  5. Adoption of Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer From 2000 to 2006: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Patterns-of-Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The German rectal study determined that preoperative radiation therapy (RT) as a component of combined-modality therapy decreased local tumor recurrence, increased sphincter preservation, and decreased treatment toxicity compared with postoperative RT for rectal cancer. We evaluated the use of preoperative RT after the presentation of the landmark German rectal study results and examined the impact of tumor and sociodemographic factors on receiving preoperative RT. Methods and Materials: In total, 20,982 patients who underwent surgical resection for T3-T4 and/or node-positive rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2000 through 2006 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results tumor registries. We analyzed trends in preoperative RT use before and after publication of the findings from the German rectal study. We also performed multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with receiving preoperative RT. Results: Among those treated with RT, the proportion of patients treated with preoperative RT increased from 33.3% in 2000 to 63.8% in 2006. After adjustment for age; gender; race/ethnicity; marital status; Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; county-level education; T stage; N stage; tumor size; and tumor grade, there was a significant association between later year of diagnosis and an increase in preoperative RT use (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26/y increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.29). When we compared the years before and after publication of the German rectal study (2000-2003 vs. 2004-2006), patients were more likely to receive preoperative RT than postoperative RT in 2004-2006 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-2.59). On multivariate analysis, patients who were older, who were female, and who resided in counties with lower educational levels had significantly decreased odds of receiving preoperative RT. Conclusions: After the publication of the landmark German rectal

  6. The use of a mobile laboratory unit in support of patient management and epidemiological surveillance during the 2005 Marburg Outbreak in Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Grolla

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marburg virus (MARV, a zoonotic pathogen causing severe hemorrhagic fever in man, has emerged in Angola resulting in the largest outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF with the highest case fatality rate to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A mobile laboratory unit (MLU was deployed as part of the World Health Organization outbreak response. Utilizing quantitative real-time PCR assays, this laboratory provided specific MARV diagnostics in Uige, the epicentre of the outbreak. The MLU operated over a period of 88 days and tested 620 specimens from 388 individuals. Specimens included mainly oral swabs and EDTA blood. Following establishing on site, the MLU operation allowed a diagnostic response in <4 hours from sample receiving. Most cases were found among females in the child-bearing age and in children less than five years of age. The outbreak had a high number of paediatric cases and breastfeeding may have been a factor in MARV transmission as indicated by the epidemiology and MARV positive breast milk specimens. Oral swabs were a useful alternative specimen source to whole blood/serum allowing testing of patients in circumstances of resistance to invasive procedures but limited diagnostic testing to molecular approaches. There was a high concordance in test results between the MLU and the reference laboratory in Luanda operated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The MLU was an important outbreak response asset providing support in patient management and epidemiological surveillance. Field laboratory capacity should be expanded and made an essential part of any future outbreak investigation.

  7. Application of geographical information system technology to epidemiological surveillance and prevention and cure decision-making for SARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jian-hui; QU Jing-hui; XU De-zhong; YAN Yong-ping; ZHANG Heng; ZHANG Zhi-ying

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To expound geographical information system (GIS) technology is a very important tool when it was employed to assist to present the distribution by time and place and the model of transmission of infectious disease. Methods: We illustrated the assistant decision-making support function of GIS with an example of the spatial decision support system for SARS controlling in Shaanxi province of China which was developed by us. Results: The spatial decision support system established by applying GIS technology fulfilled the needs of real-time collection and management and dissemination SARS information and of surveillance and analysis the epidemic situation of SARS. Conclusion: Occurrence and epidemic of diseases, implement prevention and intervention measures and collocation hygienic resources are all with the characteristic of the variation of time and space, therefore, GIS technology has become a powerful tool for identifying risk factors of diseases, providing clues of causation of diseases, evaluating the effects of intervention measures and drawing a health management plan.

  8. Trends in survival outcomes of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia in elderly patients: analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guru Murthy, Guru Subramanian; Venkitachalam, Raji; Mehta, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in the elderly population is generally considered to have a poor prognosis. It is unclear whether their survival has improved in the current era. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we selected 717 elderly patients (age≥60) with B-ALL diagnosed between 1992 and 2011. Overall survival (OS) was compared based on their period of diagnosis and age. Patients in the age group 60-69 had an improvement in OS over time, both 1-year OS (49.4% in 2002-2011 vs. 33.1% in 1992-2001) and 5-year OS (20.4% in 2002-2011 vs. 8.1% in 1992-2001, p=0.002). Patients≥70 years had no significant improvement in 1-year OS or 5-year OS (5-year OS 5.5% in 1992-2001 vs. 9.7% in 2002-2011, p=0.326). Hence, there are discrepancies in the improvement of OS among elderly patients with B-ALL. Further focus of research in elderly patients with B-ALL is needed to improve their outcome.

  9. Comparing adult and pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, 1988-2005: an analysis of 21 734 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzeh, Faiha; Rihani, Rawad; Howard, Scott; Sultan, Iyad

    2010-12-01

    We analyzed data from 18 898 adults (age ≥20 years) and 2836 children/adolescents reported in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database as having Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), diagnosed from 1988 to 2005. The nodular sclerosis subtype was significantly more common in the pediatric age group (76% in children/adolescents vs. 61% in adults, p < 0.001). The mixed cellularity subtype was more prevalent in children <10 years old (22%), but less likely in older children/adolescents (8.5%). Systemic symptoms were reported in 39% of children/adolescents and in 48% of adults (p < 0.001). Children/adolescents had significantly better HL-specific survival than adults (5-year survival rate, 96% ± 0.4% vs.88% ± 0.3%, p < 0.001). Using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model in patients with classical HL, the prognostic factors significantly impacting survival were age, histology, stage, B symptoms, year of diagnosis, and race. The only adverse prognostic factors that were significant when this analysis was restricted to children/adolescents were stage IV disease and the presence of B symptoms. In conclusion, several differences in clinicopathologic features and outcomes were identified between children/adolescents and adults with HL, and this was particularly noted in young children (<10 years). PMID:21054151

  10. Molecular methods for the detection of human papillomavirus infection: new insights into their role in diagnostics and epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs comprise more than 180 genotypes. HPV infection is mainly diagnosed by molecular methods. The aim of our study was to review the main molecular methods used to diagnose HPV infection, underscoring their characteristics. Several methods have been developed for molecular diagnosis of Papilloma infection, such as those based on PCR technique. Another commercial non-PCR based diagnostic method is Hybrid Capture test; it is the only commercially available HPV DNA detection test approved by the FDA. Several Authors have suggested that viral load and E6/E7 transcripts could be used as surrogate markers of persistent HPV infection, being more specific predictors of progressive disease than the simple presence of HPV DNA. Validating clinical sensitivity and specificity of each technique and improving the interpretation of the results are essential; consequently, there is a clear need for well characterized international quality control panels to compare the various diagnostic methods. HPV DNA testing could be useful both as a primary screening test, alone or in combination with a Pap smear, for the early detection of cervical cancer precursors, and as triage test to select women with minor cytological abnormalities who will need further follow-up and to predict possible treatment failure in women with diagnosed high-grade intraepithelial lesions who have undergone excisional therapy. In the next future surveillance for HPV infections, based on these molecular methods, could represent an important step for the development of primary and secondary prophylactic interventions, such as new vaccines targeted to genotypes who might replace those previously prevalent.

  11. Cyclopia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, Iêda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopia is characterized by the presence of a single eye, with varying degrees of doubling of the intrinsic ocular structures, located in the middle of the face. It is the severest facial expression of the holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with cyclopia. Data originated in 20 Clearinghouse (ICBDSR) affiliated birth defect surveillance systems, reported according to a single pre-established protocol. A total of 257 infants with cyclopia were identified. Overall prevalence was 1 in 100,000 births (95%CI: 0.89–1.14), with only one program being out of range. Across sites, there was no correlation between cyclopia prevalence and number of births (r = 0.08; P=0.75) or proportion of elective termination of pregnancy (r= −0.01; P=0.97). The higher prevalence of cyclopia among older mothers (older than 34) was not statistically significant. The majority of cases were liveborn (122/200; 61%) and females predominated (male/total: 42%). A substantial proportion of cyclopias (31%) were caused by chromosomal anomalies, mainly trisomy 13. Another 31% of the cases of cyclopias were associated with defects not typically related to HPE, with more hydrocephalus, heterotaxia defects, neural tube defects, and preaxial reduction defects than the chromosomal group, suggesting the presence of ciliopathies or other unrecognized syndromes. Cyclopia is a very rare defect without much variability in prevalence by geographic location. The heterogeneous etiology with a high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities, and female predominance in HPE, were confirmed, but no effect of increased maternal age or association with twinning was observed. PMID:22006661

  12. A novel monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic assay for epidemiological surveillance of the vector snails of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Annia; Hernández, Hilda M; Marcet, Ricardo; Vázquez, Antonio A; Figueredo, Mabel; Sánchez, Jorge; Otero, Oscar; Sarracent, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    Fasciolosis is a globally distributed snail-borne disease which requires economic consideration due to its enormous impact on veterinary medicine. During recent decades, this parasitosis has also shown increasing prevalence in human populations worldwide. The dissemination and successful transmission of fasciolosis ultimately depends on the existence of susceptible snails that act as intermediate hosts. Therefore, to accomplish effective control of this disease, surveillance and detection of the infected intermediate host would be essential. The screening of trematodes within snails using classical parasitological examination of the larvae can be unreliable (sensitivity and specificity vary depending on the time of infection and the experience of the observer) and relatively costly when using molecular biological methods during large-scale monitoring. Here we propose a novel monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic assay to detect ongoing Fasciola hepatica infection in lymnaeid snails. Anti-F. hepatica rediae mouse monoclonal antibodies were generated and used to develop a double monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for parasite detection. Fasciola hepatica-infected and uninfected laboratory-reared Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella were used for assessment of the developed ELISA. Experimentally infected snails were dissected and examined for parasite larvae as the "gold standard" method. Sensitivity results were 100% for both snail species, while specificity was 98% for G. cubensis and 100% for P. columella. No cross-reactivity was detected in lymnaeids infected with Trichobilharzia sp. or Cotylophoron sp. The ELISA enabled detection of the infection from day 8 p.i. in G. cubensis while in P. columella it was noted as early as day 4. To our knowledge no previous immunoassays have been reported to detect helminth-infected snails and the developed sandwich ELISA method is therefore suggested for infection status validation in natural populations of lymnaeid

  13. Guidelines for a national epidemiological surveillance system of thyroid cancer in France; Recommandations pour la mise en place d'un dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique nationale des cancers thyroidiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    At the request of the French Department of Health, a multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Committee, coordinated by the French Public Health Agency analysed the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence in France and outlined the limits of the present case registration system. This Committee set up guidelines to improve the national surveillance system of thyroid cancer. The Committee analysed 4 models for the incidence survey, 3 of which have been excluded: a poor cost-benefit ratio precludes the constitution of a national registry dedicated to thyroid cancer; however, the Committee has recommended this model that still exists for thyroid cancer of the youth(under 19 years old), a national system base exclusively on pathological data would only be relevant after significant improvement of data collection, obligatory of all cases of thyroid cancer is inappropriate considering the fit prognosis of this cancer. A two level system is proposed with continuous registration of incident caes through the National Hospital Discharge survey, specific focused analysis of clinical and pathological data in case of a cluster alert in any given area. Whatever the system, it seems necessary to in general: propose a unique health registration number per patient, improve access to medical data, organize a national standardised collection of pathological findings, follow up the diagnosis practices related to thyroid cancer that have an impact on incidence rates. In conclusion, a reliable incidence survey and a follow up of diagnostic practices and of risk factors may provide a relevant model of epidemiological survey of thyroid cancers in France but such a system requires a long lasting strategic and financial involvement. (author)

  14. Is Primary Prostate Cancer Treatment Influenced by Likelihood of Extraprostatic Disease? A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Patterns of Care Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Jordan A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wang, Andrew Z. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Rosenman, Julian G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Carpenter, William R. [University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Godley, Paul A. [University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To examine the patterns of primary treatment in a recent population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients, stratified by the likelihood of extraprostatic cancer as predicted by disease characteristics available at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 157,371 patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 with clinically localized and potentially curable (node-negative, nonmetastatic) prostate cancer, who have complete information on prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and clinical stage, were included. Patients with clinical T1/T2 disease were grouped into categories of <25%, 25%-50%, and >50% likelihood of having extraprostatic disease using the Partin nomogram. Clinical T3/T4 patients were examined separately as the highest-risk group. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient group and receipt of each primary treatment, adjusting for age, race, year of diagnosis, marital status, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database region, and county-level education. Separate models were constructed for primary surgery, external-beam radiotherapy (RT), and conservative management. Results: On multivariable analysis, increasing likelihood of extraprostatic disease was significantly associated with increasing use of RT and decreased conservative management. Use of surgery also increased. Patients with >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer had almost twice the odds of receiving prostatectomy as those with <25% likelihood, and T3-T4 patients had 18% higher odds. Prostatectomy use increased in recent years. Patients aged 76-80 years were likely to be managed conservatively, even those with a >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer (34%) and clinical T3-T4 disease (24%). The proportion of patients who received prostatectomy or conservative management was approximately 50% or slightly higher in all groups. Conclusions: There may be underutilization of RT in older prostate cancer patients and those with likely

  15. Neoadjuvant Radiation Is Associated With Improved Survival in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: An Analysis of Data From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation has been investigated in several trials as a strategy for downstaging locally advanced disease to resectability. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of neoadjuvant radiation therapy (RT) vs. other treatments on long-term survival for patients with resectable pancreatic cancer in a large population-based sample group. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry database (1994-2003) was queried for cases of surgically resected pancreatic cancer. Retrospective analysis was performed. The endpoint of the study was overall survival. Results: Using Kaplan-Meier analysis we found that the median overall survival of patients receiving neoadjuvant RT was 23 months vs. 12 months with no RT and 17 months with adjuvant RT. Using Cox regression and controlling for independent covariates (age, sex, stage, grade, and year of diagnosis), we found that neoadjuvant RT results in significantly higher rates of survival than other treatments (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.79; p = 0.001). Specifically comparing adjuvant with neoadjuvant RT, we found a significantly lower HR for death in patients receiving neoadjuvant RT rather than adjuvant RT (HR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.90; p = 0.03). Conclusions: This analysis of SEER data showed a survival benefit for the use of neoadjuvant RT over surgery alone or surgery with adjuvant RT in treating pancreatic cancer. Therapeutic strategies that use neoadjuvant RT should be further explored for patients with resectable pancreatic cancer

  16. Is Primary Prostate Cancer Treatment Influenced by Likelihood of Extraprostatic Disease? A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Patterns of Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the patterns of primary treatment in a recent population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients, stratified by the likelihood of extraprostatic cancer as predicted by disease characteristics available at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 157,371 patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 with clinically localized and potentially curable (node-negative, nonmetastatic) prostate cancer, who have complete information on prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and clinical stage, were included. Patients with clinical T1/T2 disease were grouped into categories of 50% likelihood of having extraprostatic disease using the Partin nomogram. Clinical T3/T4 patients were examined separately as the highest-risk group. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient group and receipt of each primary treatment, adjusting for age, race, year of diagnosis, marital status, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database region, and county-level education. Separate models were constructed for primary surgery, external-beam radiotherapy (RT), and conservative management. Results: On multivariable analysis, increasing likelihood of extraprostatic disease was significantly associated with increasing use of RT and decreased conservative management. Use of surgery also increased. Patients with >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer had almost twice the odds of receiving prostatectomy as those with 50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer (34%) and clinical T3–T4 disease (24%). The proportion of patients who received prostatectomy or conservative management was approximately 50% or slightly higher in all groups. Conclusions: There may be underutilization of RT in older prostate cancer patients and those with likely extraprostatic disease. Because more than half of prostate cancer patients do not consult with a radiation oncologist, a multidisciplinary consultation may affect the treatment decision-making process.

  17. 中国2005-2008年肾综合征出血热监测及疫情分析%Epidemiology and surveillance programs on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Mainland China, 2005-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芹; 周航; 韩仰欢; 王晓芳; 王世文; 殷文武; 李群; 许真

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiologic and surveillance data of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HERS) in China, from 2005 to 2008, to describe the epidemiology and trend of HERS. Methods Descriptive epidemiology were studied to analyze the surveillance data from 2005 to 2008, collected from both the internet-based national notifiable disease reporting system and 40 HFRS sentinel sites developed since 2005 in 40 counties around China. Results A total of 56 077 HERS cases and 692 deaths reported in China with case fatality rate as 1.23%. Morbidity and mortality had been annually decreasing since 2004. The top 7 provinces with HFRS cases were Heilongjiang, Lianning, Jilin, Shandong, Shaanxi, Hebei and Zhejiang, which had a total of 44 081 cases reported, accounting for 78.61% of the total number of cases, in the nation. More cases were reported in spring and autumn-winter season, with the peak in November. Cases reported in males were 3.13 times of the females and most cases seen in young and middle-aged farmers. The density and the virus carrying rate of animal hosts and the distribution of dominant species were relatively stable and similar to the previous findings. Apodemus agrarius and Rattus norvegicus were still the most common and predominant animal hosts. No genetic mutation of Hantavirus was detected in the surveillance program. Conclusion The continuous descending trend of the HERS epidemics could be related to the successful strategies on comprehensive prevention and control measures, as controlling the number of rodents and vectors, carrying out HERS vaccination campaign and health education by the local health care takers in the recent years. Implementation of the new national Expanded Program of Immunization on HFRS vaccine in high-risk areas may further reduce the epidemics. However,both the density and the virus carried rate among the host animals remain high in some areas, together with the emergence of new epidemic areas, all call for more

  18. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1986-12-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the causative agent Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The geographic range of the infectious stage of C. Shasta has been extended to include the Snake River to the Oxbow and Hells Canyon Dams. These are the farthest upriver sites tested. Infections of ceratomyxosis were also initiated in the east fork of the Lewis River and in the Washougal River in Washington. Laboratory studies with this parasite failed to indicate that tubeficids are required in its life cycle. Bacterial kidney disease has been demonstrated in all life stages of salmonids: in the eggs, fry, smolts, juveniles and adults in the ocean, and in fish returning to fresh water. Monoclonal antibodies produced against R. salmoninarum demonstrated antigenic differences among isolates of the bacterium. Monoclonal antibodies also showed antigens of R. salmoninarum which are similar to those of a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. A demonstration project at Round Butte Hatchery showed U V treatment to be an effective method for reducing the microbial population of the water supply and could reduce risks of IHNV. Tangential flow filtration was used successfully to concentrate IHNV from environmental water. At Round Butte Hatchery the carrier rate of IHNV in adults was very low and there was no subsequent mortality resulting from IHN in juveniles.

  19. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Gymnastics Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen W; Covassin, Tracey; Dick, Randall; Nassar, Lawrence G; Agel, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's gymnastics and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: In the 1988–1989 academic year, 112 schools were sponsoring varsity women's gymnastics teams, with approximately 1550 participants. By 2003–2004, the number of varsity teams had decreased 23% to 86, involving 1380 participants. Significant participation reductions during this time were particularly apparent in Divisions II and III. Main Results: A significant annual average decrease was noted in competition (−4.0%, P < .01) but not in practice (−1.0%, P = .35) injury rates during the sample period. Over the 16 years, the rate of injury in competition was more than 2 times higher than in practice (15.19 versus 6.07 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures; rate ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 2.8). A total of 53% of all competition and 69% of all practice injuries were to the lower extremity. A participant was almost 6 times more likely to sustain a knee internal derangement injury in competition than in practice (rate ratio = 5.7, 95% CI = 4.5, 7.3) and almost 3 times more likely to sustain an ankle ligament sprain (rate ratio = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.1, 3.4). The majority of competition injuries (approximately 70%) resulted from either landings in floor exercises or dismounts. Recommendations: Gymnasts with a previous history of ankle sprain should either wear an ankle brace or use prophylactic tape on their ankles to decrease the risk of recurrent injury. Preventive efforts may incorporate more neuromuscular training and core stability programs in the off-season and preseason conditioning to enhance proper landing and skill mechanics. Equipment manufacturers are encouraged to reevaluate the design of the landing mats to allow for better absorption of forces. PMID:17710171

  20. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has been conducting a study concerning the epidemiology and control of three fish pathogens which cause major disease problems in salmonids of the Columbia River basin. The pathogens studied include Cera to myxa Shasta, the myxosporean parasite which causes ceratomyxosis; Renibacterium salmoninarum, the bacterium which is the etiological agent of bacterial kidney disease; and the rhabdovirus which causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). During this project, the host and geographic range of C. Shasta have been more precisely determined and the known geographic range has been significantly expanded. The effects of the parasite on fish migrating through the Columbia River and on their introduction into salt water have been examined. Similar studies have been conducted with R. salmoninarum and it has been shown that bacterial kidney disease occurs at all life stages of salmonids and is responsible for mortality in both fresh and salt water. It has also been demonstrated that different isolates of R. salmoninarum have different antigenic composition. Results of demonstration projects designed to control IHN by using UV treated water for early rearing of salmonid fry were equivocal. The scope of the project was considerably narrowed and focused during the past two years The project has concentrated on a study concerning the biology of C. Shasta and the identification of potential chemotherapeutants for control of bacterial kidney disease. The emphasis of work on C. Shasta has been its pathogenesis. This aspect of the parasite has been investigated using histopathologic and immunologic methodology. Mode of transmission, the nature of the infectious stage, and potential intermediate hosts of the parasite have also been areas of active research. Classes of chemotherapeutants with the highest potential for efficacy against R. salmoninarum have been

  1. Effect of radiotherapy on survival of women with locally excised ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian GW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo-Wei Qian,1,* Xiao-Jian Ni,1,* Zheng Wang,2 Yi-Zhou Jiang,1 Ke-Da Yu,1 Zhi-Ming Shao1 1Department of Breast Surgery, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Cancer Center and Cancer Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although it has been previously reported that radiotherapy (RT effectively reduced the incidence of local recurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS following breast-conserving surgery (BCS, little is known about the effect of RT on survival of patients with locally excised DCIS. Patients and methods: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry data, we selected 56,968 female DCIS patients treated with BCS between 1998 and 2007. Overall survival (OS and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS were compared among patients who received RT or no RT using the Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Median follow-up was 91 months. In the multivariable model, patients receiving postoperative RT had better OS than those undergoing BCS alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53–0.67, P<0.001. This pattern remained after stratification by estrogen receptor (ER status and age. In contrast, RT delivery was not significantly associated with improved BCSS (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48–1.03, P=0.073. However, after stratifying by the above two variables, RT contributed to better BCSS in ER-negative/borderline patients (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19–0.88, P=0.023 and younger patients (≤50 years old; HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91, P=0.030. Conclusion: Our analysis confirms the beneficial effect of RT on OS in women with locally excised DCIS and reveals the specific protective effect of RT on BCSS in ER-negative/borderline and younger patients. Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ, breast cancer, breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy, survival

  2. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors: a population-based clinical outcomes study involving 174 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) are rare, highly malignant embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) accounting for 20% of CNS tumors in children under the age of 3. This study examines a large cohort of ATRT patients to determine demographic, clinical, and pathologic factors which impact prognosis and survival. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted on 174 ATRT patients (171 pediatric patients age <20 and 3 adult patients age ≥20) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2010). Standard statistical methodology was used. A total of 174 ATRT cases (mean age of 2.84 years) were identified. ATRT had a higher incidence in males (56.3%), Caucasians (59.1%), and children <3 years of age (80.5%), P<0.001. The most common primary sites were the cerebellum (17.8%), ventricles (16.1%), and frontal lobe (12.6%). Mean overall survival was 3.2±0.4 years, while overall and cancer-specific mortality were 63.2% and 56.3%, respectively, P=0.005. Most ATRT cases were treated with surgery alone (58.0%), followed by a combination of surgery and radiation (34.3%), no treatment (6.5%), and radiation alone (1.2%). The use of combination therapy has increased significantly (16.1%) since 2005 (P<0.001), while primary surgical resection and radiation therapy rates remain relatively unchanged. The longest survival was observed among ATRT patients receiving combination therapy (5.9±0.7 years), followed by radiation alone (2.8±1.2 years), and surgery alone (1.9±0.4 years), P<0.001. Multivariable analysis identified only distant metastases (OR =4.6) as independently associated with increased mortality, whereas combination therapy (OR =0.4) was associated with reduced mortality, P<0.005. ATRT is a rare and highly aggressive embryonal malignancy of the CNS that presents more often as locoregional tumors >4 cm in male Caucasian children of age <3 years, involving the cerebellum, ventricles, or frontal lobe. Combination therapy

  3. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Claude Bourgeois

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective: To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design: Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national; all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results: Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic, United States (Alaska] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7 and commercial software (n=6. Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion: This review successfully establishes

  4. Annual surveillance by CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound for ovarian cancer in both high-risk and population risk women is ineffective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodward, E R; Sleightholme, H V; Considine, A M;

    2007-01-01

    and local cancer registry data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ovarian cancers occurring in study population. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of TVU, and CA125 as a screening tool for ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Four ovarian cancers and one endometrial......OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of annual CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) scan as surveillance for ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Retrospective audit. SETTING: NHS Trust. POPULATION: Three hundred and forty-one asymptomatic women enrolled for ovarian cancer screening: 179 were in a high......-risk group (>10% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer), 77 in a moderate risk group (4-10% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer) and 71 in a near population risk group (

  5. 2004-2010年秦皇岛市法定传染病疫情监测分析%Epidemiological surveillance and analysis on notifiable diseases in Qinhuangdao City from 2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周马; 任敏; 张凯

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the epidemiological law of infectious disease in Qinhuangdao City, providing a basis for accurately judging the epidemic trend of infectious diseases and effectively developing the prevention measures. [Methods] The data were collected from National Disease Surveillance Management System. The distribution of time, regional and population of notifiable diseases in Qinhuangdao City during 2004-2010 was analyzed by descriptive epidemiological method. [Results]During the seven years, no class A notifiable disease had been reported. The average annual incidence rate of notifiable diseases in 2009 was the highest (352.06/lakh) , and that in 2005 was the lowest (195.53/lakh). Class B notifiable diseases had a smooth tendency, and the incidence rate of Class C notifiable diseases rose significantly in 2009 and 2010. The epidemic trend of notifiable diseases changed as the change of incidence rate of Class C notifiable diseases. The diseases had increasing incidence rate were mainly acute respiratory infectious disease and supplementary notifiable diseases, and most of patients with acute respiratory infectious disease were children and adolescents. Farmer and adult male were the high risk population. Hepatitis C in Qinglong county and rabies in Funing county have maintained epidemic condition. Most of syphilis cases occurred in urban area. [ Conclusion] The related department should pay attention to the prevention and control of rabies, hepatitis C, sexually transmitted disease and acute respiratory infectious disease, to prevent the spread of the epidemic, even the public health emergencies.%目的 探讨秦皇岛市传染病流行规律,为准确判断传染病发病趋势和制定有效的传染病预防控制策略提供依据.方法 利用国家疾病监测系统中的监测数据,用描述性流行病学方法对秦皇岛市2004-2010年的法定传染病三间分布资料进行描述和分析.结果 2004-2010年中,秦皇岛市无甲类传

  6. NATIONAL IMPACTS OF CHANGES IN LIVESTOCK DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Hillberg Seitzinger; Paarlberg, Philip L.; Kenneth H. Mathews, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This research estimates the U.S. economic welfare effects of livestock disease surveillance. One type of surveillance considers livestock diseases already in the United States. Annual national economic welfare increases $1.4 billion on average compared with a Federal surveillance budget for endemic diseases of $300 million annually. Other surveillance deals with reducing the risk of foreign animal diseases entering and becoming established. The estimated annual gain to producers from surveill...

  7. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L

    2000-12-15

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  8. FY 1994 annual summary report of the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program was initiated to manage former waste management and environmental research sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. The S and M Program is responsible for managing designated sites/facilities from the end of their operating lives until final disposition or site stabilization. To effectively manage and perform the various S and M Program responsibilities, five summary-level work breakdown structure (WBS) elements have been established: S and M Preliminary Investigations, Special Projects, Routine S and M, Inactive Groundwater Wells, and Project Management. Routine S and M activities were conducted as scheduled throughout fiscal years (FY) 1994 at applicable inactive waste management (WM) and other contaminated areas. Overall, the ER S and M Program maintains 47 facilities, performs vegetation maintenance on approximately 230 acres, maintains 54 inactive tanks, and provides overall site management on over 700 acres. In addition to the routine S and M activities, detailed site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the ER S and M Program. This document provides a summary of the FY 1994 ORNL ER S and M Program accomplishments.

  9. Sirenomelia : An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orioli, Ieda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system m

  10. Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya Jatesadapattaya Kaewpitoon; Chutikan Philasri; Ratana Leksomboon; Chanvit Maneenin; Samaporn Sirilaph; Prasit Pengsaa

    2006-01-01

    Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species,and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology,Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health,Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998.In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket,Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas.

  11. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings-opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Alotaibi, Badriah; Yezli, Saber; Dar, Osman; Bieh, Kingsley; Bates, Matthew; Tayeb, Tamara; Mwaba, Peter; Shafi, Shuja; McCloskey, Brian; Petersen, Eskild; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events. PMID:26873277

  12. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings—opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin Zumla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360 000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events.

  13. Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rates Geography Seasonality Persons at Risk Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Q Fever in ... CDC–INFO Q Fever Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Prevention Other Ricketssial ...

  14. Presence, Distribution, and Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Small Animal Teaching Hospital: A Year-Long Active Surveillance Targeting Dogs and Their Environment

    OpenAIRE

    van Balen, Joany; Kelley, Christina; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, Jonathan; Wittum, Thomas E.; Hoet, Armando E

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to be present in small animal veterinary clinical environments. However, a better understanding of the ecology and dynamics of MRSA in these environments is necessary for the development of effective infectious disease prevention and control programs. To achieve this goal, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance program was established at The Ohio State University (OSU) Veterinary Medical Center to describe the spatial and molecular epid...

  15. Sampling methodologies for epidemiologic surveillance of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Latin America: an empiric comparison of convenience sampling, time space sampling, and respondent driven sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J L; Konda, K A; Silva-Santisteban, A; Peinado, J; Lama, J R; Kusunoki, L; Perez-Brumer, A; Pun, M; Cabello, R; Sebastian, J L; Suarez-Ognio, L; Sanchez, J

    2014-12-01

    Alternatives to convenience sampling (CS) are needed for HIV/STI surveillance of most-at-risk populations in Latin America. We compared CS, time space sampling (TSS), and respondent driven sampling (RDS) for recruitment of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. During concurrent 60-day periods from June-August, 2011, we recruited MSM/TW for epidemiologic surveillance using CS, TSS, and RDS. A total of 748 participants were recruited through CS, 233 through TSS, and 127 through RDS. The TSS sample included the largest proportion of TW (30.7 %) and the lowest percentage of subjects who had previously participated in HIV/STI research (14.9 %). The prevalence of newly diagnosed HIV infection, according to participants' self-reported previous HIV diagnosis, was highest among TSS recruits (17.9 %) compared with RDS (12.6 %) and CS (10.2 %). TSS identified diverse populations of MSM/TW with higher prevalences of HIV/STIs not accessed by other methods. PMID:24362754

  16. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

    OpenAIRE

    White, Dennis J

    1991-01-01

    Investigation of the epidemiology of Lyme disease depends upon information generated from several sources. Human disease surveillance can be conducted by both passive and active means involving physicians, public health agencies and laboratories. Passive and active tick surveillance programs can document the extent of tick-borne activity, identify the geographic range of potential vector species, and determine the relative risk of exposure to Lyme disease in specific areas. Standardized labor...

  17. 急性弛缓性麻痹病例现场流行病学监测与质量评价%Field Epidemiological Surveillance and Quality Assessment for Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅志强; 张俊书; 范富云; 徐健

    2001-01-01

    AFP case reporting and epidemiological survey are the main contents of field epidemiological surveillance, also are the basis and premise for assessment of sensitivity and specificity of AFP case surveillance system. AFP case reported rates were>1/100,000 in our province since 1995 and was 1.51/100,000 in 1999. Five indicators for field surveillance met or exceeded the state-established lower limit indicator of 80% since 1996 and was>96.0% in 1999. Of 697 AFP cases reported in 1993~1999, 8 kinds of diseases were classified, in which non-polio enterovirus took the first place (43.33%), Guillan-Barre syndrome came the second (27.12%). The last polio case confirmed virologically occurred on April 4, 1992 which was the last wild poliovirus case since supplementary immunization campaigns have been performed in our province.%急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例报告和流行病学调查,是现场流行病学监测的主要内容,是评价AFP病例监测敏感性和特异性的基础和前提。据此,对山西省1993~1999年AFP病例监测的质量进行了评估。山西省AFP病例报告发病率从1995年起已>1/10万,1999年为1.51/10万;现场监测的5项指标,从1996年起都达到了规定的要求,1999年都>96.0%。最后1例病毒学确诊的脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)病例发生于1992年4月。1993~1999年697例AFP病例,临床诊断以非脊灰肠道病毒感染最多,占43.33%;其次为格林-巴利综合征,占27.12%。表明山西省AFP病例监测的质量是好的。

  18. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  19. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  20. Exposure to ionizing radiations having a medical origin. Propositions for the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population; Exposition aux rayonnements ionisants d'origine medicale. Propositions pour la mise en place et le developpement d'activites de surveillance epidemiologique en population generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    This report gives propositions relative to the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population in relation with medical exposure to ionizing radiations. It is intended for the General Direction of Health and General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. These propositions have been elaborated by a work group coordinated and run by InVS and gathering the following organisms: French Agency of sanitary safety of health products (A.F.S.S.A.P.S.), Center of Quality Assurance of technological applications in the area of health (C.A.A.T.S.), Direction of Hospitals and Care organization (D.H.O.S.), General Direction of Health (D.G.S.), General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (D.G.S.N.R.), National Federation of radiologists physicists (F.N.M.R.), institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.), INSERM 'epidemiology of cancers', French Society of Biology and Nuclear Medicine (S.F.B.M.N.), French Society of Medical Physics (S.F.P.M.), French Society of Radiology (S.F.R.). (N.C.)

  1. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  2. Understanding young adult physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in community colleges and 4-year post-secondary institutions: A cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lust Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions. The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. Results The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. Conclusions These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions.

  3. Interaction between epidemiology and laboratory sciences in the study of birth defects: Design of birth defects risk factor surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynberg, M.C.; Khoury, M.J. (Dept. of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Despite years of research, the etiology of most birth defects remains largely unknown. Interview instruments have been the major tools in the search for environmental causes of birth defects. Because of respondents' problems with recognition and recall, interviews are limited in their capacity to measure certain exposures. Laboratory scientists can have a major impact on defining markers of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The Centers for Disease Control is starting a case-control study of serious birth defects on the basis of a population-based surveillance system for birth defects diagnosed during the first year of life in metropolitan Atlanta, Each year, 300 infants with selected birth defects (case subjects) and 100 population-based control subjects (infants without birth defects) will be enrolled in an ongoing study that will supplement surveillance. In addition to conducting extensive maternal interviews, we will collect blood and urine specimens from case and control subjects and their mothers for laboratory testing. Eventually, some environmental sampling may be incorporated. Particular areas of emphasis are (1) nutritional factors, specifically measuring maternal folic acid levels and other micronutrients (e.g., zinc) to explore their role in the etiology of neural tube defects, (2) substance use, specifically measuring cocaine metabolites in the blood and urine to explore their role for specific vascular disruption defects, and (3) environmental factors such as pesticides and aflatoxins, to explore their potential relationships with specific defects. In addition, a DNA bank will be maintained to evaluate the role of specific candidate genes in the etiology of birth defects. The development and testing of these methods could be useful to assess the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of birth defects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Extended result reading window in lateral flow tests detecting exposure to Onchocerca volvulus: a new technology to improve epidemiological surveillance tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Golden

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus (Ov. An estimated 180 million people are at risk for Ov infection, and 37 million people are infected, mostly in Africa. A lateral flow-based assay to detect human IgG4 antibodies to the Ov-specific antigen Ov-16 was developed as a rapid tool to detect exposure to Ov. The test, when performed on 449 sera specimens from patients with microfiladermia and Ov-negative patients, has a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% confidence interval: 86.2%-92.0%, and specificity of 97% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%-98.6%. Because the intended use of the test is for surveillance, it is highly desirable to have a stable, long-lasting result. An extended read window is thus desirable for a high-volume, busy workflow and facilitates post-surveillance quality assurance. The main restriction on achieving an extended read window for this assay was the erythrocyte lysis that can alter the signal-to-noise ratio, especially in those with low IgG4 levels (weak positives. We describe a test housing that incorporates a user-independent feature driven by assay fluid and an expanding wick that detaches the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose used in the assay, but before hemolysis occurs. We demonstrated material functionality at extreme operational conditions (37°C, 80% relative humidity and a read window of a minimum of 70 days. The fluid-driven assay device performs equally as well with whole blood as with plasma, as demonstrated with 100 spiked clinical specimens (with a correlation coefficient of 0.96. We show a novel, inexpensive, and simple approach to actuating the detachment of the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose test with no impact on the performance characteristics of the test.

  5. Sirenomelia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORIOLI, IÊDA M.; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; ARTEAGA-VAZQUEZ, JAZMIN; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BOTTO, LORENZO D.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; CORREA, ADOLFO; CSAKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LÓPEZ-CAMELO, JORGE S.; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.

    2015-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and were reported according to a single pre-established protocol. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and reviewed centrally. A total of 249 cases with sirenomelia were identified among 25,290,172 births, for a prevalence of 0.98 per 100,000, with higher prevalence in the Mexican registry. An increase of sirenomelia prevalence with maternal age less than 20 years was statistically significant. The proportion of twinning was 9%, higher than the 1% expected. Sex was ambiguous in 47% of cases, and no different from expectation in the rest. The proportion of cases born alive, premature, and weighting less than 2,500 g were 47%, 71.2%, and 88.2%, respectively. Half of the cases with sirenomelia also presented with genital, large bowel, and urinary defects. About 10–15% of the cases had lower spinal column defects, single or anomalous umbilical artery, upper limb, cardiac, and central nervous system defects. There was a greater than expected association of sirenomelia with other very rare defects such as bladder exstrophy, cyclopia/holoprosencephaly, and acardia-acephalus. The application of the new biological network analysis approach, including molecular results, to these associated very rare diseases is suggested for future studies. PMID:22002878

  6. Extended result reading window in lateral flow tests detecting exposure to Onchocerca volvulus: a new technology to improve epidemiological surveillance tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Allison; Steel, Cathy; Yokobe, Lindsay; Jackson, Emily; Barney, Rebecca; Kubofcik, Joseph; Peck, Roger; Unnasch, Thomas R; Nutman, Thomas B; de los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2013-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus (Ov). An estimated 180 million people are at risk for Ov infection, and 37 million people are infected, mostly in Africa. A lateral flow-based assay to detect human IgG4 antibodies to the Ov-specific antigen Ov-16 was developed as a rapid tool to detect exposure to Ov. The test, when performed on 449 sera specimens from patients with microfiladermia and Ov-negative patients, has a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% confidence interval: 86.2%-92.0%), and specificity of 97% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%-98.6%). Because the intended use of the test is for surveillance, it is highly desirable to have a stable, long-lasting result. An extended read window is thus desirable for a high-volume, busy workflow and facilitates post-surveillance quality assurance. The main restriction on achieving an extended read window for this assay was the erythrocyte lysis that can alter the signal-to-noise ratio, especially in those with low IgG4 levels (weak positives). We describe a test housing that incorporates a user-independent feature driven by assay fluid and an expanding wick that detaches the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose used in the assay, but before hemolysis occurs. We demonstrated material functionality at extreme operational conditions (37°C, 80% relative humidity) and a read window of a minimum of 70 days. The fluid-driven assay device performs equally as well with whole blood as with plasma, as demonstrated with 100 spiked clinical specimens (with a correlation coefficient of 0.96). We show a novel, inexpensive, and simple approach to actuating the detachment of the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose test with no impact on the performance characteristics of the test. PMID:23935960

  7. Sentinel surveillance for travellers' diarrhoea in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvotham Tinnu S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem among international travellers and much of the burden falls on general practitioners. We assessed whether sentinel surveillance based in primary care could be used to monitor changes in the epidemiology of travellers' diarrhoea. Methods A sentinel surveillance scheme of 30 volunteer general practices distributed throughout Wales provides weekly reports of consultations for eight infectious diseases to the national Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. Travellers' diarrhoea was introduced as a new reportable infection in July 2002. Results Between 1 July 2002 and 31 March 2005 there were 90 reports of travellers' diarrhoea. The mean annual consultation rate was 15.2 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval: 12.2–18.7, with the highest rates in summer, in people aged 15–24 years, and in travellers to Southern Europe. A higher proportion of travellers than expected had visited destinations outside Europe and North America when compared to the proportion of all United Kingdom travellers visiting these destinations (38% vs. 11%; Chi2 = 53.3, p Conclusion Sentinel surveillance has the potential to monitor secular trends in travellers' diarrhoea and to help characterise population groups or travel destinations associated with higher risk.

  8. 2006-2009年四川省监测哨点伤害流行特征变化趋势%Epidemiological trend of injury in surveillance area in Sichuan province,2006-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易光辉; 邓颖; 高亚礼

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and trend of injury in urban and rural areas under surveillance in Sichuan. Methods The survey was conducted among the patients diagnosed as injury in the first medical care seeking in sentinel hospitals from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009 to understand the distribution and pattern of injury incidence. Results Injury occurred in all age groups and both in males and in females. The mostly affected people were young males aged 25 - 44 years old. The time of incidence peak of injury in urban area differed with that in rural area. In Qingyang district of Chengdu , the case numbers and proportions of traffic accident, blunt injury and selfharm/suicide declined by years, but the case number and proportion of animal bite increased by years, The proportion of self-harm/suicide of women in Miyi county dcclined by years too. Conclusion The epidemiological characteristics and trend of injury differed between urban area and rural area in surveillance area in Sichuan, which is with significance to guide the development of prevention and control measures.%目的 通过对四川省城市与农村伤害监测哨点监测资料进行比较分析,了解当地伤害发生的特征和变化规律.方法 将2006年1月1日至2009年12月31日到监测医院就诊且被诊断为伤害的首诊患者作为监测对象进行调查,分析伤害发生的分布和规律.结果 不同性别人群各年龄段都有伤害发生,最危险的人群为25~44岁的男性,城市与农村伤害发生的高峰时段不同.青羊区车祸、钝器伤、自残/自杀发生的例数、构成比逐年减少,但动物伤的例数和构成比逐年增加,米易县女性自残/自杀构成比也逐年减少.结论 四川省伤害监测点2006-2009年城市与农村伤害流行特征的变化趋势不同,这些变化对制定防制方案有指导性意义.

  9. Lessons from the epidemiological surveillance program, during the influenza A (H1N1 virus epidemic, in a reference university hospital of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Moretti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The case definition of influenza-like illness (ILI is a powerful epidemiological tool during influenza epidemics. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the impact of two definitions used as epidemiological tools, in adults and children, during the influenza A H1N1 epidemic. Patients were included if they had upper respiratory samples tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction during two periods, using the ILI definition (coughing + temperature > 38ºC in period 1, and the definition of severe acute respiratory infection (ARS (coughing + temperature > 38ºC and dyspnoea in period 2. RESULTS: The study included 366 adults and 147 children, covering 243 cases of ILI and 270 cases of ARS. Laboratory confirmed cases of influenza were higher in adults (50% than in children (21.6% ( p < 0.0001 and influenza infection was more prevalent in the ILI definition (53% than ARS (24.4% (p < 0.0001. Adults reported more chills and myalgia than children (p = 0.0001. Oseltamivir was administered in 58% and 46% of adults and children with influenza A H1N1, respectively. The influenza A H1N1 case fatality rate was 7% in adults and 8.3% in children. The mean time from onset of illness until antiviral administration was 4 days. CONCLUSIONS: The modification of ILI to ARS definition resulted in less accuracy in influenza diagnosis and did not improve the appropriate time and use of antiviral medication.

  10. Prevalence and Trends of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in Hospitalized Patients in South Africa, 2010 to 2012: Laboratory-Based Surveillance Mapping of Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Perovic

    Full Text Available We aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding on recent antimicrobial resistance trends and molecular epidemiology trends of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB.Thirteen academic centres in South Africa were included from June 2010 until July 2012. S. aureus susceptibility testing was performed on the MicroScan Walkaway. Real-time PCR using the LightCycler 480 II was done for mecA and nuc. SCCmec and spa-typing were finalized with conventional PCR. We selected one isolate per common spa type per province for multilocus sequence typing (MLST.S. aureus from 2709 patients were included, and 1231 (46% were resistant to methicillin, with a significant decline over the three-year period (p-value = 0.003. Geographical distribution of MRSA was significantly higher in Gauteng compared to the other provinces (P<0.001. Children <5 years were significantly associated with MRSA with higher rates compared to all other age groups (P = 0.01. The most prevalent SCCmec type was SCCmec type III (531 [41%] followed by type IV (402 [31%]. Spa-typing discovered 47 different spa-types. The five (87% most common spa-types were t037, t1257, t045, t064 and t012. Based on MLST, the commonest was ST612 clonal complex (CC8 (n = 7 followed by ST5 (CC5 (n = 4, ST36 (CC30 (n = 4 and ST239 (CC8 (n = 3.MRSA rate is high in South Africa. Majority of the isolates were classified as SCCmec type III (41% and type IV (31%, which are typically associated with hospital and community- acquired infections, respectively. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a variety of hospital-acquired MRSA clones in South Africa dominance of few clones, spa 037 and 1257. Monitoring trends in resistance and molecular typing is recommended to detect changing epidemiological trends in AMR patterns of SAB.

  11. Prevalence and Trends of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in Hospitalized Patients in South Africa, 2010 to 2012: Laboratory-Based Surveillance Mapping of Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovic, Olga; Iyaloo, Samantha; Kularatne, Ranmini; Lowman, Warren; Bosman, Noma; Wadula, Jeannette; Seetharam, Sharona; Duse, Adriano; Mbelle, Nontombi; Bamford, Colleen; Dawood, Halima; Mahabeer, Yesholata; Bhola, Prathna; Abrahams, Shareef; Singh-Moodley, Ashika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding on recent antimicrobial resistance trends and molecular epidemiology trends of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB). Methods Thirteen academic centres in South Africa were included from June 2010 until July 2012. S. aureus susceptibility testing was performed on the MicroScan Walkaway. Real-time PCR using the LightCycler 480 II was done for mecA and nuc. SCCmec and spa-typing were finalized with conventional PCR. We selected one isolate per common spa type per province for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results S. aureus from 2709 patients were included, and 1231 (46%) were resistant to methicillin, with a significant decline over the three-year period (p-value = 0.003). Geographical distribution of MRSA was significantly higher in Gauteng compared to the other provinces (P<0.001). Children <5 years were significantly associated with MRSA with higher rates compared to all other age groups (P = 0.01). The most prevalent SCCmec type was SCCmec type III (531 [41%]) followed by type IV (402 [31%]). Spa-typing discovered 47 different spa-types. The five (87%) most common spa-types were t037, t1257, t045, t064 and t012. Based on MLST, the commonest was ST612 clonal complex (CC8) (n = 7) followed by ST5 (CC5) (n = 4), ST36 (CC30) (n = 4) and ST239 (CC8) (n = 3). Conclusions MRSA rate is high in South Africa. Majority of the isolates were classified as SCCmec type III (41%) and type IV (31%), which are typically associated with hospital and community- acquired infections, respectively. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a variety of hospital-acquired MRSA clones in South Africa dominance of few clones, spa 037 and 1257. Monitoring trends in resistance and molecular typing is recommended to detect changing epidemiological trends in AMR patterns of SAB. PMID:26719975

  12. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  13. Five-year trends in epidemiology and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, St. Petersburg, Russia: results from perinatal HIV surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissin Dmitry M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Russia has increasingly involved reproductive-aged women, which may increase perinatal HIV transmission. Methods Standard HIV case-reporting and enhanced perinatal HIV surveillance systems were used for prospective assessment of HIV-infected women giving birth in St. Petersburg, Russia, during 2004-2008. Trends in social, perinatal, and clinical factors influencing mother-to-child HIV transmission stratified by history of injection drug use, and rates of perinatal HIV transmission were assessed using two-sided χ2 or Cochran-Armitage tests. Results Among HIV-infected women who gave birth, the proportion of women who self-reported ever using injection drugs (IDUs decreased from 62% in 2004 to 41% in 2008 (P P P P for trend Conclusions Reduced proportion of IDUs and improved clinical services among HIV-infected women giving birth were accompanied by decreased perinatal HIV transmission, which can be further reduced by increasing outreach and HIV testing of women before and during pregnancy.

  14. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance as...

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of human prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cao; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Human prion diseases are a group of transmissible, progressive, and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders, which include Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia. Human prion diseases affect approximately 1-2 persons per million worldwide annually, occurring in sporadic, inherited, and acquired forms. These diseases have attracted both scientific and public attention not only because of their mysterious pathogen, but also due to their considerable threat to public health since the emergence of the variant CJD.There are still no specific therapeutic and prophylactic interventions available for prion diseases, thus active surveillance of human prion diseases is critical for disease control and prevention. Since 1993, CJD surveillance systems have been established in many countries and regions, and several long-term multinational cooperative projects have been conducted.In this paper, the epidemiological characteristics of various human prion diseases and the active surveillance systems pertaining to them in different countries and regions are summarized and reviewed. PMID:27251305

  16. Analysis on Surveillance of Measles Epidemiology in Jiangxi Province%江西省麻疹流行病学监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 涂秋凤; 邹秋平

    2001-01-01

    为进一步了解江西省麻疹流行状况,以达到控制麻疹的目的,对江西省1999年至2000年1~10月的麻疹流行病学监测资料进行了分析。结果显示,全省报告麻疹3!184例,死亡1例。麻疹发病主要在15岁以下儿童,7~10岁为麻疹高发年龄段,有免疫史的麻疹病例集中在4~10岁。麻疹病例分布广泛,流行模式为散发与暴发并存,局部麻疹暴发影响了全省麻疹发病强度。预防和控制麻疹暴发是我省目前控制麻疹的基本策略。%We analyzed the surveillance data of measles from January 1999 to October 2000 in Jiangxi Province for the aim of measles control. The results showed that 3*!184 measles cases were reported from the province and 1 reported case died. Most of the reported measles cases were under 15 years old. The incidence of measles in age group between 7-10 years old was higher than that in other age groups and most of the reported cases having vaccination histroy were 4-10 year old children. Both the sporadic and epidemic measles in some districts existed at the same time and the reported measles cases extensively distributed in all districts of Jiangxi Province. The outbreaks of measles in some districts had affected the morbidity of measles of the whole province To prevent and control measles outbreak are the main effective measures to control this disease.

  17. Evolution and molecular epidemiology of classical swine fever virus during a multi-annual outbreak amongst European wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Katja V; Gabriel, Claudia; Dimna, Mireille Le; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie; Staubach, Christoph; Merboth, Matthias; Beer, Martin; Blome, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever is a viral disease of pigs that carries tremendous socio-economic impact. In outbreak situations, genetic typing is carried out for the purpose of molecular epidemiology in both domestic pigs and wild boar. These analyses are usually based on harmonized partial sequences. However, for high-resolution analyses towards the understanding of genetic variability and virus evolution, full-genome sequences are more appropriate. In this study, a unique set of representative virus strains was investigated that was collected during an outbreak in French free-ranging wild boar in the Vosges-du-Nord mountains between 2003 and 2007. Comparative sequence and evolutionary analyses of the nearly full-length sequences showed only slow evolution of classical swine fever virus strains over the years and no impact of vaccination on mutation rates. However, substitution rates varied amongst protein genes; furthermore, a spatial and temporal pattern could be observed whereby two separate clusters were formed that coincided with physical barriers. PMID:26684209

  18. Lung cancer epidemiology in New Mexico uranium miners. First annual report, 1 April 1983-1 January 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Technical Progress Report for the first nine months of the contract Lung Cancer Epidemiology in New Mexico Uranium Miners describes by task the activities finished or begun since April, 1983. Data collection during the period has included copying all available Grants Clinic examination records for miners in the current study cohort, for completion of smoking and mining histories, and abstracting, coding, and verifying 500 of these records; copying all State Mine Inspector reports and abstracting, coding, and verifying 225 of these records; coding, verifying, and keying all except one batch of employment histories from companies, and tracing gaps in histories through company personnel logs; receipt of output from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health with information on New Mexico miners included in the US Public Health Service Colorado Plateau study; and updating some 30 miners from status unknown to status known by means of new information from personnel offices, the Grants Clinic, and interviews in the community. In order to examine the feasibility of a study of later miners, we have created a computer file of working level months (WLM) records, cumulated WLM for each miner for each year, and cumulated WLM for each miner over the years 1967 to 1982. We have records for 10,516 miners not in the current cohort, most of whom began mining in the 1970's. They have relatively low WLM because of their later, briefer mining experience. We have not yet done power calculations based on complete WLM data, 1967 to 1982. We have also not yet collected Grants Clinic examination records for all these miners

  19. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  20. Reconstruction of 60 Years of Chikungunya Epidemiology in the Philippines Demonstrates Episodic and Focal Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salje, Henrik; Cauchemez, Simon; Alera, Maria Theresa; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Lago, Catherine B; Villa, Daisy; Klungthong, Chonticha; Tac-An, Ilya A; Fernandez, Stefan; Velasco, John Mark; Roque, Vito G; Nisalak, Ananda; Macareo, Louis R; Levy, Jens W; Cummings, Derek; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-02-15

    Proper understanding of the long-term epidemiology of chikungunya has been hampered by poor surveillance. Outbreak years are unpredictable and cases often misdiagnosed. Here we analyzed age-specific data from 2 serological studies (from 1973 and 2012) in Cebu, Philippines, to reconstruct both the annual probability of infection and population-level immunity over a 60-year period (1952-2012). We also explored whether seroconversions during 2012-2013 were spatially clustered. Our models identified 4 discrete outbreaks separated by an average delay of 17 years. On average, 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-37%) of the susceptible population was infected per outbreak, with >50% of the entire population remaining susceptible at any point. Participants who seroconverted during 2012-2013 were clustered at distances of 350 000 infections were missed by surveillance systems. Serological studies could supplement surveillance to provide important insights on pathogen circulation.

  1. 重庆地区动物携带Nipah病毒和Hendra病毒的检测%Epidemiological surveillance of Henipavirus in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丹; 谢鹏; 曾志磊; 朱丹; 陈晓; 余建萍; 徐鸣明; 张英英; 展群岭; 翟红

    2008-01-01

    目的 本研究拟建立一步法实时RT-PCR检测Nipah病毒(Nipah virus,NiV)和Hen-dra病毒(Hendra virus,HeV)的方法 ,对采集自中国重庆地区动物外周血样本进行NiV和HeV检测,以获得我国重庆地区的NiV和HeV的病毒流行病学资料.方法 2007年6月起至2008年6月,采集自重庆地区饲养的猪外周血标本580份、奶牛外周血标本250份、山羊外周血标本180份,密度梯度离心法分离外周血淋巴细胞,Trizol法提取细胞总RNA.用已建立的NiV和HeV一步法实时RT-PCR检测方法 ,对RNA样本进行NiV和HeV检测.对阳性样本进行PCR产物序列鉴定及序列分析等研究,在可能的情况下进行病毒分离培养,并提交流行病学调查报告.结果 对采集自中国重庆地区饲养的3种动物的样本进行NiV和HeV核酸检测,成功进行了一步法实时RT-PCR反应,所有样本荧光扩增曲线均无Takeoff点,曲线平坦,判为阴性结果 .结论 初步流行病学研究提示我国重庆地区饲养的动物猪、牛、羊中NiV和HeV未发现阳性.%Objective To establish nucleic acid testing techniques for detecting Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV), and to test the NiV and HeV in peripheral blood collected from domestic pigs, cows and goats in Chongqing. Methods Peripheral blood samples of 580 domestic pigs, 250 cows, 180 goats were collected from Chongqing since June 2007 to June 2008. The lymphocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation and total RNA was extracted using Trizol method for detection of NiV and HeV with one-step real-time RT-PCR. Sequence identification and analysis were performed for positive PCR prod-ucts. Virus isolation and culture were adopted for positive samples, and epidemiologic reports were submit-ted. Results Nucleic acid detections searching for NiV and HeV were successfully performed in animal blood samples collected from Chongqing. "Takeoff points" were not found in fluorescence amplification curves of all samples

  2. Epidemiología descriptiva de meningitis no meningocócicas bacterianas de la provincia de Zaragoza (1999-2004: evaluación de su sistema de vigilancia Descriptive epidemiology of non-meningococcal bacterial meningitis in the province of Saragossa [Spain] from 1999 to 2004: evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Varela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las meningitis no meningocócicas bacterianas (MnMB y evaluar el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (SVE en la provincia de Zaragoza entre 1999 y 2004. Métodos: Se utilizó el registro de enfermedades de declaración obligatoria (EDO y el conjunto mínimo básico de datos (CMBD. Se evaluó el SVE utilizando criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, estimando la exhaustividad mediante captura-recaptura. Resultados: Se notificaron 111 casos de MnMB (62,2% en hombres. La edad media fue de 40,7 años. La mayor proporción de casos (16,5% fue en niños menores de 2 años. La forma clínica en el 81,1% de los casos fue la meningitis; el 70,3% fue diagnosticada por cultivo. Aparecieron Streptococcus en el 54% de los casos (el 82% por S. pneumoniae, enterobacterias en el 5,4%, Lysteria y Staphylococcus en el 4,5%, Pseudomona aeruginosa en el 1,8%, y Haemophilus influenzae en el 0,9%. La incidencia por 100.000 habitantes fue entre 1,6 en 2004 y 2,6 en 2001. La letalidad fue del 7,3%. La exhaustividad del sistema EDO fue máxima en el año 2001 (del 84,4%. La exhaustividad conjunta con CMBD fue superior al 85% y la oportunidad fue de 2 días. La aceptabilidad del sistema fue buena, ya que el 75% de las variables estaban cumplimentadas en el 97% de las encuestas. Conclusiones: Se destaca la relevancia de la evaluación del SVE en función de sus resultados. Las MnMB debidas a S. pneumoniae representan un grupo significativo y su letalidad es elevada. La exhaustividad del SVE en Zaragoza supera el 80%, al considerar EDO y CMBD. La incorporación del CMBD en la vigilancia facilitaría una aproximación a la incidencia real de algunas EDO.Objectives: To describe non-meningococcal bacterial meningitis (nMM and to evaluate the Epidemiological Surveillance System (ESS in the province of Saragossa (Spain between 1999 and 2004. Methods: Information was obtained from the register of diseases subject to mandatory reporting

  3. Study on epidemiological surveillance of Legionella in Guangxi%广西军团菌流行病学监测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玫; 廖和壮; 权怡; 蓝如束; 周凌云; 梁大斌; 黄君; 邵祝军

    2013-01-01

    positive rate of 44.23%was found in hotels, followed by hospitals (40.00%). Of the 97 strains of Legionella pneumophila isolated, 55.67% was LP1 and 44.33% was LP2-15. A total of 36 genotypes was found in those 40 strains of LP1 using the assay of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), suggesting that diverse genotypes has been found and no predominant genotype has been detected. Conclusions Although there was no patient infected with legionella was detected in this study, the high prevalence of legionella bacteria in water in public is a potential threaten to the health of the population. It is necessary to strength the surveillance and health supervision on population and central air conditioning system in public.

  4. Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report for 1976, volume 1: nonradiological environmental surveillance report; II: summary of operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-radiological environmental surveillance program including thermal and chemical effluents, water quality, fish populations, benthos, fish impingement, gas-bubble disease, and plankton, fish larvae and fish egg entrainment is described. Information is also presented concerning operations, personnel radiation exposures, and fuel examinations

  5. Trends in the Utilization of Adjuvant Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy and/or External Beam Radiation Treatment in Stage I and II Endometrial Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The optimal adjuvant radiation treatment for endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains controversial. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VB) has emerged as an increasingly common treatment modality. However, the time trends for using VB, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), or combined therapy (VB+EBRT) have not been well characterized. We therefore examined the utilization trends of VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT for adjuvant RT in International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology (FIGO) stage I and II EC over time. Methods and Materials: We evaluated treatment patterns for 48,122 patients with EC diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2005, using the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) public use database. Chi-squared tests were used to assess differences by radiation type (VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT) and various demographic and clinical variables. Results: Analyses were limited to 9,815 patients (20.4%) with EC who met the inclusion criteria. Among women who received adjuvant RT, the proportion receiving VB increased yearly (12.9% in 1995 compared to 32.8% in 2005 (p < 0.0001). The increasing use of VB was proportional to the decreasing use of EBRT (56.1% in 1995 to 45.8% in 2005; p < 0.0001) and VB+EBRT (31.0% in 1995 to 21.4% in 2005; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This population-based report demonstrates an increasing trend in the use of VB in the adjuvant setting after hysterectomy for treatment of women with FIGO stage I II EC. VB alone appears to be replacing pelvic EBRT and VB+EBRT therapy in the management of stage I–II EC.

  6. Trends in the Utilization of Adjuvant Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy and/or External Beam Radiation Treatment in Stage I and II Endometrial Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Mehul K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Cote, Michele L. [Karmanos Cancer Institute and Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Ali-Fehmi, Rouba [Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Buekers, Thomas; Munkarah, Adnan R. [Department of Women' s Health Services, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Elshaikh, Mohamed A., E-mail: melshai1@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The optimal adjuvant radiation treatment for endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains controversial. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VB) has emerged as an increasingly common treatment modality. However, the time trends for using VB, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), or combined therapy (VB+EBRT) have not been well characterized. We therefore examined the utilization trends of VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT for adjuvant RT in International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology (FIGO) stage I and II EC over time. Methods and Materials: We evaluated treatment patterns for 48,122 patients with EC diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2005, using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) public use database. Chi-squared tests were used to assess differences by radiation type (VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT) and various demographic and clinical variables. Results: Analyses were limited to 9,815 patients (20.4%) with EC who met the inclusion criteria. Among women who received adjuvant RT, the proportion receiving VB increased yearly (12.9% in 1995 compared to 32.8% in 2005 (p < 0.0001). The increasing use of VB was proportional to the decreasing use of EBRT (56.1% in 1995 to 45.8% in 2005; p < 0.0001) and VB+EBRT (31.0% in 1995 to 21.4% in 2005; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This population-based report demonstrates an increasing trend in the use of VB in the adjuvant setting after hysterectomy for treatment of women with FIGO stage I-II EC. VB alone appears to be replacing pelvic EBRT and VB+EBRT therapy in the management of stage I-II EC.

  7. La influenza en Costa Rica 2003-2006, un tema fundamental para la vigilancia epidemiológica actual Influenza in Costa Rica 2003-2006, a fundamental issue for the current epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Patricia Carvajal Muñoz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Anualmente la influenza causa aproximadamente 3,5 millones de casos severos en el mundo. Objetivo: Describir y analizar la situación epidemiológica de la influenza y apoyar el fortalecimiento de su sistema de vigilancia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Se calculó incidencia, riesgo relativo (RR, intervalo de confianza al 95 % (IC 95 % y número de egresos con sus promedios móviles, tasas de egreso hospitalario de influenza y neumonía. Fuentes de datos: los registros de notificación colectiva del Ministerio de Salud, la base de datos de egresos hospitalarios del Seguro Social y los registros de la vigilancia centinela del Centro Nacional de Influenza. Resultados: La incidencia anual mostró tendencia al aumento (R2 = 0,9 con picos en marzo a abril, junio a septiembre y agosto a diciembre. Las tasas anuales de egreso hospitalario mostraron tendencia a disminuir (R2 =0,9 con picos en marzo a mayo, julio a septiembre y septiembre a octubre. El pico de aislamientos del laboratorio se presentó en el segundo semestre de cada año, más frecuente en los meses de julio, agosto y septiembre. Discusión: Se cotejaron los datos de la vigilancia, los egresos hospitalarios y el laboratorio, los resultados no fueron suficientes para concluir si la influenza muestra estacionalidad. Se sugiere realizar un estudio del sistema de vigilancia de influenza para mejorar la calidad y el registro de los datos ya que es fundamental conocer la estacionalidad de la influenza y sus cambios para respaldar las intervenciones correspondientes y sus modificaciones.Influenza causes approximately 3,5 million cases of severe illness each year worldwide. Objective: To describe and analyze the influenza epidemiological situation in the past four years in order to support enhancement of the influenza surveillance system in Costa Rica. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted. Incidence and hospital discharge rates were calculated. Sources of data

  8. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  9. Annual summary report on the surveillance and maintenence plan for Waste Area Groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) of 75 sites was conducted by the Remedial Action Section for the Environmental Restoration Program for surplus facilities and sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. S ampersand M activities on these facilities and sites was started at the end of their operating life and will continue until final facility disposal or site stabilization. The objectives of the Waste Area Grouping S ampersand M Program are met by maintaining a program of routine S ampersand M as well as by implementing interim corrective maintenance when deemed necessary as a result of site surveillance. This report briefly presents this program's activities and includes tables indicating tank levels and dry well data for FY 1992

  10. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  11. Epidemiologic analysis of communicable disease outbreak surveillance system in Shenzhen from 2009 to 2010%2009~2010年深圳市传染病暴发疫情监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢旭; 李媛; 吕秋莹

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess the running status of online report communicable disease outbreak surveillance system in Shenzhen and analyze the monitoring results.Methods The monitoring data of notifiable non-notifiable communicable diseases (NCDs)directly online reported from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed by using descriptive epidemiological method.Results There were 292 outbreaks of communicable diseases and 4043 cases in 2010 mainly concentrated in primary schools and middle schools and kindergartens in Shenzhen including hand-foot-mouth disease,influenza,acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis fever,small pocks and influenza A (H1N1),etc..There was a drop of 42.97% in number of outbreaks and an increase of 5.34% in case number.The outbreak peak of the communicable diseases were from March to June and September.Conclusions The number of outbreaks of communicable diseases in 2010 was significantly reduced compared to 2009.The direct online report communicable disease surveillance system maintains and runs soundly and effectively in monoitoring communicable diseases in Shenzhen City.%目的 分析深圳市2009~2010年暴发疫情监测结果,评价两年暴发疫情发生情况.方法 对法定传染病疫情及常见的非法定传染病疫情报告建立主动监测网络直报系统,应用描述性流行病学方法,从深圳市暴发疫情监测系统导出2009及2010年的监测数据Excel报表,利用SPSS 13.0进行统计分析.结果 深圳市2010年聚集性病例及暴发疫情共报告292起,总病例数4043例,分别较2009年下降42.97%和上升5.34%.2010年暴发疫情集中在手足口病、流感、急性出血性结膜炎、水痘和甲型H1N1流感等为主的呼吸道和接触传播传染病,暴发疫情多集中发生在中小学和幼儿园等集体单位;2010年传染病暴发疫情的高峰分别发生在3~6月和9月,这与同年散发疫情分布有所区别.结论 深圳市2010年传染病暴发疫情较2009年起数下降明显,流行特征亦有所区

  12. Quality in epidemiological surveillance of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Wilkinson, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    The reporting of scientific results (in the field of contact dermatitis/allergy) should include a description of the methods used, including, but not limited to, standardized patch testing. Several aspects always need to be reported, such as duration of exposure, reading times, vehicle, and conce......The reporting of scientific results (in the field of contact dermatitis/allergy) should include a description of the methods used, including, but not limited to, standardized patch testing. Several aspects always need to be reported, such as duration of exposure, reading times, vehicle......, performed, and reported, issues such as selection of patients and sample size and their impact on power and precision, the role of misclassification and potential conflicts of interests need to be addressed and discussed, respectively. Retrospectively, when a study is read and analysed, all relevant aspects...

  13. [Epidemiological surveillance of febrile rash illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Gabriela Fidela; Rojas-Mendoza, Teresita; Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Maldonado-Burgos, Martha Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: en 2011 se detectaron tres casos importados de sarampión, por lo que se intensificó la vigilancia epidemiológica con emisión de alertas epidemiológicas. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el fenómeno de la intensificación de la vigilancia epidemiológica de enfermedad febril exantemática ante la importación de casos confirmados de sarampión en el territorio nacional en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Métodos: se obtuvieron los casos del sistema especial de vigilancia epidemiológica de 2011, se compararon con el año previo. Se determinó t de Student para diferencia de medias, prueba de Wilson para proporciones; ambas con un valor alfa del 0.05. Resultados: en 2011 se notificaron 2786 casos de enfermedad febril exantemática, 51.2 % más casos que el año anterior; el número de casos reportados con relación a los esperados aumentó en 29 de las 35 Delegaciones del IMSS con un incremento en el promedio de casos notificados a partir de la semana 26. El 67.4 % de los casos notificados se concentró en los menores de 5 años de edad. Conclusiones: se apreció un incremento importante de casos notificados de enfermedad febril exantemática en comparación con el año previo. El Instituto cuenta con un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica de enfermedad febril exantemática robusto y flexible, que ha permitido identificar riesgos a la población.

  14. Vigilância epidemiológica do tracoma em instituição de ensino na cidade de São Paulo, SP Epidemiological surveillance of trachoma in a school in an urban area in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma H. Medina

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar as condições de vigilância epidemiológica do tracoma desencadeadas a partir da detecção de um caso de tracoma inflamatório na APAE - SP. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram submetidos a exame ocular 1.009 pessoas entre alunos, funcionários e comunicantes intradomiciliares. Os controles de tratamento foram realizados em uma instituição, por 4 vezes, em intervalos de 45 dias. RESULTADOS: A prevalência total foi de 5,9%, sendo 5,1% de tracoma folicular (TF, 0,3% de tracoma folicular intenso (TF/TI e 0,5% de tracoma cicatricial (TS. No primeiro controle 45,5% dos casos apresentou alta clínica e 40,0% manteve tratamento. No último controle 20,0% apresentou alta curado sem cicatrizes. A taxa de faltosos alcançou 38,2%. A distribuição espacial dos casos secundários mostrou ampla dispersão na Grande São Paulo, indicando que o tracoma deve estar disseminado por toda a região. DISCUSSÃO/CONCLUSÕES: As ações de controle do tracoma não apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, provavelmente devido ao prolongado tempo de tratamento e acompanhamento. Estratégias de intervenção clínica devem ser desenvolvidas para melhor controle da doença.INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological surveillance activities undertaken after the detection of an active trachoma case in the APAE-SP are described. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 1,009 pupils, employees and household contacts had an eye examination. Treatment control was carried out at the institution 4 times at 45 day-intervals. RESULTS: The overall prevalence was of 5.9%, 5.1% being of follicular trachoma (TF, 0.3% of intense trachoma (TF/TI and 0.5% of cicatricial trachoma (TS. At the first control exercise 45.5% of the trachoma cases had no signs of the disease and 40.0% underwent treatment. At the last control exercise 20% were found to have been cured with no vestigial scars. Non-attendance was of 38.2%. The distribution of secondary cases showed great dispersion, suggesting

  15. 2006-2010年闵行区疟疾疫情监测及流行特征分析%Analysis on malaria surveillance and epidemiological characteristics, during 2006-2010 in Minhang District, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文平; 刘丽军; 席韵; 申惠国; 王婉洋; 俞李萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Minhang District, during 2006-2010, and to provide scientific evidence for malaria prevention and control, as well as eliminating program in 2015. Methods Monitoring data on malaria epidemics were collected and analyzed by epidemiologic studies. Results 115 cases of malaria were totally reported, with no death or critical patients. The total incidence rate was 0.62/100 000, and there was a decline trend, with 1. 66/100 000, 1. 92/100 000, 1.54/100 000, 0. 75/100 000 and 0. 32/100 000 each year respectively. There were 104 imported cases infected from abroad or other provinces, which was 9. 45 fold as many as indigenous cases. Cases from Anhui Province was 85, which accounted 81.73% of imported cases. There were 18 relapsing cases, accounting 15.65%. There were 4 falciparum malaria, all infected from abroad. Malaria cases primar-ily were youth-middle aged, students and migrant workers, accounting for 57.39% , 40.00% and 20.00% respectively. There was a decline trend of positive rate of plasmodium in fever cases year by year. Vectors of malaria surveillance-anopheles sinensis still existed in malaria surveillance spots. Conclusions The incidence rate of malaria is decreasing in these years. As there were still indigenous cases and Anopheles sinensis, we should strengthen control measures on import-ed malaria cases from abroad and Anhui Province.%目的 分析闵行区2006-2010年疟疾疫情流行特征,为科学防治疟疾和消除疟疾目标提供依据.方法 收集2006-2010年疟疾监测数据、疫情流行病学调查资料和全国疟疾监测点数据进行统计分析.结果 5年间闵行区共发生疟疾115例,平均发病率为0.62/10万,未出现疫情暴发和危重、死亡病例.各年发病率总体呈下降趋势,分别为1.66/10万、1.92/10万、1.54/10万、0.75/10万和0.32/10万.输入性病例是本地病例的9.45倍(104/11),输入性病例以安徽籍病例为主,占81

  16. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  17. Improved Global Capacity for Influenza Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outin-Blenman, Sajata; Moen, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    During 2004–2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with 39 national governments to strengthen global influenza surveillance. Using World Health Organization data and program evaluation indicators collected by CDC in 2013, we retrospectively evaluated progress made 4–9 years after the start of influenza surveillance capacity strengthening in the countries. Our results showed substantial increases in laboratory and sentinel surveillance capacities, which are essential for knowing which influenza strains circulate globally, detecting emergence of novel influenza, identifying viruses for vaccine selection, and determining the epidemiology of respiratory illness. Twenty-eight of 35 countries responding to a 2013 questionnaire indicated that they have leveraged routine influenza surveillance platforms to detect other pathogens. This additional surveillance illustrates increased health-system strengthening. Furthermore, 34 countries reported an increased ability to use data in decision making; data-driven decisions are critical for improving local prevention and control of influenza around the world. PMID:27192395

  18. 2004-2010年上海市闵行区麻疹监测系统中风疹病例特点分析%Epidemiological characteristics of rubella detected by measles surveillance system in Minhang district in Shanghai,2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许慧琳; 张莉萍; 刘爱选; 杜艳; 金宝芳; 王烨; 李捷

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiology of rubella in Minhang district and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of rubella. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of rubella obtained from measles surveillance system f in Minhang from 2004 to 2009. Results The average annual incidence of rubella was 1.06/lakh during this period. The incidence peak was during April-June of a year, the cases occurred during this period accounted for 84.21% ofthe total cases. The cases among local population aged20-29 and 30-39 years accounted for 25. 64% and 53. 85% of the total respectively. The cases in floating population were mainly distributed in age groups of 5 -9,10-14 and 20-29 years old, accounting for 31.91%, 11.70% and 35.11% of the total respectively. The cases in child bearing aged women ( 15 -49 years old) accounted for 62. 26% of the total cases in females. Conclusion Young adults and the children in floating population were the risk populations to be infected with rubella. It is necessary to strengthen the health education and conduct re-vaccination of measles and rubella among these populations.%目的 了解上海市闵行区2004-2010年风疹流行病学特征,为控制风疹提供依据.方法 利用麻疹监测系统资料,进行描述性流行病学分析.结果 闵行区2004-2010年风疹年均发病率为1.06/10万,4-6月为发病高峰,占总病例数的84.21%,本市20~39岁及30~39岁年龄组病例数分别占总病例数的25.64%和53.85%;外来人口病例主要集中在5~9岁、10~14岁和20~29岁3个年龄段,占总病例数的比例分别为31.91%、11.70%和35.11%,15~49岁的育龄期妇女占女性病例数的62.26%.结论 青壮年及外来流动儿童是风疹发病的重点人群,应加强卫生宣教,在育龄妇女及外来流动儿童中积极实施风疹疫苗补种.

  19. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  20. Surveillance for Neisseria meningitidis Disease Activity and Transmission Using Information Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sohail Ahmed

    Full Text Available While formal reporting, surveillance, and response structures remain essential to protecting public health, a new generation of freely accessible, online, and real-time informatics tools for disease tracking are expanding the ability to raise earlier public awareness of emerging disease threats. The rationale for this study is to test the hypothesis that the HealthMap informatics tools can complement epidemiological data captured by traditional surveillance monitoring systems for meningitis due to Neisseria meningitides (N. meningitides by highlighting severe transmissible disease activity and outbreaks in the United States.Annual analyses of N. meningitides disease alerts captured by HealthMap were compared to epidemiological data captured by the Centers for Disease Control's Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs for N. meningitides. Morbidity and mortality case reports were measured annually from 2010 to 2013 (HealthMap and 2005 to 2012 (ABCs.HealthMap N. meningitides monitoring captured 80-90% of alerts as diagnosed N. meningitides, 5-20% of alerts as suspected cases, and 5-10% of alerts as related news articles. HealthMap disease alert activity for emerging disease threats related to N. meningitides were in agreement with patterns identified historically using traditional surveillance systems. HealthMap's strength lies in its ability to provide a cumulative "snapshot" of weak signals that allows for rapid dissemination of knowledge and earlier public awareness of potential outbreak status while formal testing and confirmation for specific serotypes is ongoing by public health authorities.The underreporting of disease cases in internet-based data streaming makes inadequate any comparison to epidemiological trends illustrated by the more comprehensive ABCs network published by the Centers for Disease Control. However, the expected delays in compiling confirmatory reports by traditional surveillance systems (at the time of writing, ABCs data

  1. The Descriptive Epidemiology of Yersiniosis: A Multistate Study, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Apurba; Komatsu, Kenneth; Roberts, Matthew; Collins, Jim; Beggs, Jennifer; Turabelidze, George; Safranek, Tom; Maillard, Jean-Marie; Bell, Linda J.; Young, David; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Klos, Rachel F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Yersiniosis, a foodborne infection of zoonotic origin caused by the bacteria Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, is a reportable disease in 38 states. Both sporadic and foodborne outbreaks of yersiniosis have been reported in the U.S., with annual occurrence of an estimated 98,000 episodes of illness, 533 hospitalizations, and 29 deaths. We analyzed surveillance data from nine non-FoodNet-participating U.S. states during the period 2005–2011 to describe the epidemiology of this disease. Methods As part of a passive surveillance system, laboratory-confirmed cases of yersiniosis were reported to state health departments in Arizona, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina, South Carolina, Washington, and Wisconsin. We calculated overall, age-, and race-specific annual incidence rates per 100,000 population using 2010 Census data as the denominator. We used Poisson regression to examine seasonal variation and annual incidence trends by race, age group, and overall. Results The average annual incidence of yersiniosis was 0.16 cases per 100,000 population during 2005–2011. We observed a statistically significant decreasing annual trend of yersiniosis incidence among African Americans <5 years of age (p<0.01), whereas white people aged 19–64 years (p=0.08) and Hispanic people (p=0.05) had an overall increasing annual incidence of yersiniosis. We observed higher incidence during October–December (p<0.01) and January–March (p=0.03) quarters among African Americans, whereas white people had a higher incidence during April–June (p=0.05). Conclusion This multistate analysis revealed differences in the epidemiology of yersiniosis by race/ethnicity that may be useful for future research and prevention efforts. While this study was consistent with the FoodNet report in recognizing the high and declining incidence among African American children and winter seasonality among African Americans, our study also identified

  2. Analysis of pathogen surveillance and epidemiologic characteristics of influenza in Huizhou%惠州市流感病原学监测及流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方巧云; 琚雄飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Based on analysis of influenza monitoring results in Huizhou from 2009 to 2011, to understand the pathogenic characteristics and epidemic situation of influenza, so as to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of influenza. Methods; The epidemiological and etiological data of influenza in Huizhou from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed to explore the epidemic pattern. Results; A total of 55661 influenza - like illness (ILI) cases were reported from 2009 to 2011, accounting for 7. 91% of the total outpatient cases, and most cases occurred a-mong children aged ≤15 years (78. 28% ) , influenza occurred all the year round. One thousand, seven hundred and sixty - eight specimens were collected from influenza - like patients, from which 516 cases of influenza viruses were detected with the isolation rate of 29.19% by real - time PCR. Thereinto, 220 cases were identified as novel human influenza A ( H1N1) virus (42.64% ) , 172 cases (33. 33% ) were influenza A( H3N2) subtype, 27 cases (5.23% ) were influenza A( HINl) subtype and 95 cases (18.41% ) were influenza B virus. A total of 65 strains of influenza virus were isolated with the positive rate of 3. 68%. Conclusion; The influenza activity in Huizhou from 2009 to 2011 was relatively stable without large - scale outbreaks, but it is still necessary to enhance the influenza surveillance in Huizhou to prevent and control influenza.%目的:分析惠州市2009年-2011年流感监测结果,掌握惠州市流感样病例的病原学特征和流感的流行动态,为预测和防控流感的流行提供科学依据.方法:分析惠州市2009年-2011年流感流行病学、病原学资料,探索流感流行规律.结果:惠州市2009年-2011年共报告ILI 55661例,ILI%为7.91%,病例主要集中在15岁以下年龄组(占78.28%);全年均有病例发生.3年共采集1768例流感样病例,516例核酸检测阳性,总阳性率为29.19%,其中新甲型H1N1流感占42.64%,甲型(H3N2亚型)占33.33%,

  3. 中毒伤害住院病例748例流行特征分析%Epidemiology analysis of 748 poisoning cases in hospital injury surveillance system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 张吉玉; 郭晓雷; 徐爱强; 付振涛; 高丛丛

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解山东省部分地区中毒病例流行特征,为以后的干预工作提供依据。方法收集2012年山东省部分住院伤害监测点中毒伤害病例的一般信息、中毒事件基本情况、临床信息等,利用SPSS18.0软件进行统计分析。结果共收集中毒病例748例,占全部住院伤害监测病例的4.90%。中毒类型最多的为农药中毒,占66.58%,其次分别为一氧化碳中毒(16.44%)、药物中毒(10.70%)、腐蚀伤(3.21%)、酒精中毒(1.34%)、其他中毒(1.74%)。男女性别比为0.63∶1;其中,腐蚀伤、酒精中毒、其他中毒男性明显多于女性。患者以青壮年从事农牧渔水利业人员为主。伤害意图分布中,农药中毒和药物中毒以自残/自杀为主,其他类型中毒以非故意(意外事故)为主。住宅是中毒发生的主要地点。中毒时的活动以特指的活动和生命必需活动为主。病例的结局主要是治疗后回家。结论农药中毒、一氧化碳中毒和药物中毒是我省部分地区中毒伤害的主要原因,是将来干预的重点领域;女性更容易受到化学制品或其他物质的危害,是将来干预的重点人群。%Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of poisoning cases of Shandong province and provide the basis for intervention. Methods Data from the hospital injury surveillance system in 2012 was analyzed by SPSS18.0. Results There were 748 poisoning cases reported by the hospital injury surveillance system in 2012. The most poi-soning type was pesticide poisoning, accounting for 66.58%, followed by carbon monoxide poisoning(16.44%), drug poisoning (10.70%), corrosive injury(3.21%), alcoholic poisoning (1.34%), other type of poisoning (1.74%). The male to female ratio was 0.63∶1. Corrosive injury, alcoholic poisoning,poisoning by other of men were more than women. Young adult patients en-gaged in animal husbandry and fishery water

  4. Epidemiologic characteristics of fall in old population: Results from national injury surveillance in China, 2014%2014年全国伤害监测系统老年跌倒/坠落病例特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耳玉亮; 段蕾蕾; 叶鹏鹏; 汪媛; 纪翠蓉; 邓晓; 高欣; 金叶; 王临虹

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解2014年全国伤害监测系统(NISS)≥60岁老年人跌倒/坠落病例分布特征,为制定老年人跌倒/坠落预防控制策略措施提供依据.方法 对2014年因跌倒/坠落首次在NISS监测点医院门/急诊室就诊的≥60岁老年人病例,采用全国伤害管理软件统一录入监测数据,利用SPSS 19.0软件进行描述性分析.结果 2014年老年人跌倒/坠落病例41 073例,占该人群全部非故意伤害病例的52.81%,且该比例随年龄增长而增大.病例性别比为0.77;女性比例随年龄增大而增加.老年人跌倒/坠落发生高峰时间段是8:00-11:59(占全天病例的33.31%).跌倒/坠落发生地点构成前三位是家中(55.66%)、公共居住场所(20.52%)、公路/街道(11.64%).跌倒/坠落发生时活动的构成前两位是休闲活动(68.94%)和家务/学习(16.14%).受伤部位构成前三位的是下肢(29.28%)、头部(24.40%)、躯干(20.04%).跌倒/坠落造成挫伤/擦伤为主(45.76%),其次是骨折(29.52%)、扭伤/拉伤(13.28%).跌倒/坠落伤害的严重程度以轻度为主(64.20%),随年龄增加,中重度伤害比例逐渐增加.结论 跌倒/坠落是我国老年人伤害的主要原因,其在老年人群全部非故意伤害中的构成比例随年龄增大而增加;跌倒/坠落预防应作为老年人伤害预防控制的优先工作.%Objective To understand the epidemiologic characteristics of fall in people aged ≥60 years in China and provide evidence for the development of prevention and control measures of fall in old population.Methods Data of fall in people aged ≥60 years in China in 2014 were collected from National Injury Surveillance System (NISS) for the descriptive epidemiologic analysis.Results A total of 41 073 fall cases were reported in people aged ≥60 years in 2014,accounting for 52.81% of total unintentional injuries in this population.The fall to unintentional injury ratio was higher in older age group

  5. 中国2011-2014年发热伴血小板减少综合征流行特征分析%Epidemiological analysis on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome under the national surveillance data from 2011 to 2014, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昱; 周航; 牟笛; 殷文武; 余宏杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological features and surveillance management programs on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in China from 2011 to 2014.Methods The analysis of epidemiological characteristics and surveillance management programs was based on the annual reporting data collected from the National Disease Reporting Information System while the description of cluster incidents was based on those reports collected from the Public Health Emergency Information Management System (PHEIMS).Association between age groups and fatality rate was tested under the Cochran-Armitage Trend Test.The difference of fatality rates between differing groups was analyzed,using the chi-square test,with statistical significance on α=0.05.Results Between 2011 and 2014,5 352 suspected,probable and lab-confirmed cases of SFTS were reported in 23 provinces,of which 16 provinces reported 2 750 lab-confirmed cases with a fatality of 7.9%,accounting for 51.4% of all the cases,nation-wide.Henan,Shandong,Hubei,Anhui,Liaoning,Zhejiang and Jiangsu reported 99.3% of those lab-confirmed cases.The period between April and October appeared the epidemic season,with its peak from May to July.Most cases were farmers,accounted for 88.3% of the lab-confirmed cases.People at the age between 50-74 occupied 67.6% of all the cases.Fatality of the disease continually increased from 3.7% in the age group 40-44 to 13.5% in the age group older than 80.Fatality rates appeared statistically different between the groups with or without misdiagnosis,with OR as 3.06 (95%CI:1.61-5.90).Secondary cases of the cluster incidents were most likely to result from contacting the blood of the index cases.Conclusion Number of reported SFTS cases showed a rising trend in China.Henan,Hubei,Anhui,Shandong and Liaoning provinces appeared at high risk of the disease.Geographical distribution of the SFTS cases' seemed highly sporadic,with May to July being the peak season.Farmers and elderly

  6. Mapping hypoendemic, seasonal malaria in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh: a prospective surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Gregory

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently the Chittagong Hill tracts have been hyperendemic for malaria. A past cross-sectional RDT based survey in 2007 recorded rates of approximately 15%. This study was designed to understand the present epidemiology of malaria in this region, to monitor and facilitate the uptake of malaria intervention activities of the national malaria programme and to serve as an area for developing new and innovative control strategies for malaria. Methods This research field area was established in two rural unions of Bandarban District of Bangladesh north of Bandarban city, which are known to be endemic for malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. The project included the following elements: a a demographic surveillance system including an initial census with updates every four months, b periodic surveys of knowledge attitude and practice, c a geographic information system, d weekly active and continuous passive surveillance for malaria infections using smears, rapid tests and PCR, f monthly mosquito surveillance, and e daily weather measures. The programme included both traditional and molecular methods for detecting malaria as well as lab methods for speciating mosquitoes and detecting mosquitoes infected with sporozoites. Results The demographic surveillance enumerated and mapped 20,563 people, 75% of which were tribal non-Bengali. The monthly mosquito surveys identified 22 Anopheles species, eight of which were positive by circumsporozoite ELISA. The annual rate of malaria was close to 1% with 85% of cases in the rainy months of May-October. Definitive clustering identified in the low transmission season persisted during the high transmission season. Conclusion This demographically and geographically defined area, near to the Myanmar border, which is also hypoendemic for malaria, will be useful for future studies of the epidemiology of malaria and for evaluation of strategies for malaria control including new drugs and

  7. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Thamattoor

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively.Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity.The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR:1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI:1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54 compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62 or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01 compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05 and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04.Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among

  8. Public Health Surveillance for Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health systems have relied on public health surveillance to plan health programs, and extensive surveillance systems exist for health behaviors and chronic disease. Mental health has used a separate data collection system that emphasizes measurement of disease prevalence and health care use. In recent years, efforts to integrate these systems have included adding chronic disease measures to the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys and depression measures to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; other data collection systems have been similarly enhanced. Ongoing challenges to integration include variations in interview protocols, use of different measures of behavior and disease, different interval reference periods, inclusion of substance abuse disorders, dichotomous vs continuous variables, and approaches to data collection. Future directions can address linking surveillance efforts more closely to the needs of state programs, increasing child health measurements in surveys, and improving knowledge dissemination from survey analyses.

  9. Dengue: inquérito populacional para pesquisa de anticorpos e vigilância virológica no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Dengue: sero-epidemiological survey and virological surveillance in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgília Luna Castor de Lima

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a epidemiologia do dengue no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, por meio de um inquérito populacional aleatório realizado em 1998, visando à detecção dos níveis de anticorpos para dengue, e de dados de vigilância epidemiológica do período de 1996 a 2003, com ênfase na vigilância virológica. Foram coletadas 1.260 amostras, por meio de punção digital, utilizando-se papel de filtro, sendo as amostras testadas pelo teste imunoenzimático em culturas celulares infectadas (EIA-ICC. Observou-se que a prevalência de soro reagentes (14,79% é mais baixa que as encontradas em outros inquéritos realizados no país e superior às encontradas em dois inquéritos realizados em cidades do Estado de São Paulo. Detectou-se uma prevalência de soro reagentes muito superior à incidência de casos notificados e confirmados laboratorialmente durante as epidemias de 1996, 1997 e 1998. Não se encontrou proporcionalidade entre a prevalência de anticorpos para dengue e a incidência de casos durante a epidemia nos diferentes Distritos de Saúde da cidade. Sugerem-se um estudo aprofundado do significado dos indicadores de transmissão utilizados em epidemias e uma vigilância virológica mais intensa, principalmente em anos com níveis de transmissão baixos.The epidemiology of dengue in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, was studied in 1998 using a randomized sero-epidemiological survey. Epidemiological surveillance data from 1996-2003 were also analyzed, with an emphasis on virological surveillance. 1,260 individuals participated in the survey and had blood samples drawn by finger stick on filter paper. Blood samples were tested by EIA-ICC, an enzyme immunoassay using infected cells as antigen. Dengue antibody prevalence (14.79% was lower than in other surveys in other States of Brazil, but higher than in two other serological surveys in São Paulo State. Dengue antibody prevalence was far higher than the reported

  10. 1994 annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This amended annual report corrects errors in the initial release of the BNL report for 1994. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized

  11. Possibilidades e limites do trabalho de vigilância epidemiológica no nível local em direção à vigilância à saúde Possibilidades y límites del trabajo de vigilanica epidemiologica en los servicios sanitarios hacia la vigilancia de la salud Possibilities and limits of epidemiological surveillance at the local level towards health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Maria Rodrigues

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como marco referencial o processo de trabalho em saúde e em enfermagem, e como objetivos descrever e analisar as ações de Vigilância Epidemiológica (VE desenvolvidas em uma unidade de saúde, buscando identificar o quanto se aproximam da estratégia de Vigilância à Saúde (VS. Utilizou-secomo referência um check-list elaborado com base nas ações de VE preconizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que na unidade de saúde estudada, as ações de VE restringiam-se à notificação e ao controle das doenças transmissíveis e que o trabalho da enfermeira na VE caracteriza-sepor atividades burocráticas. Conclui-sepela necessidade de se ampliarem as discussões sobre as formas de operacionalização da VS nos serviços de saúde.La investigación tuvo los objetivos de describir las acciones de Vigilancia Epidemiologica desarolladas en un servicio sanitário de atención primaria y analisarias desde concepciones del processo salud-enfermidad y del proceso de trabajo en salud y en enfernmeira a fin de identificar en que medida las acciones se acercam de la estrategia de Vigilancia de la salud. Como referencia se uso un listado de chequeo com las acciones de la Vigilancia Epidemiologica que son preconizadas por el Ministerio de salud de Brazil. Los dados han demuenstrado que en el servicio investigado las acciones de Vigilancia Epidemiológica se limitam a la notificación y al control de las enfermedades transmissibles. Los resultados también muestraron que el trabajo de la enfermeria em la Vigilancia Epidemiologica se caracteriza por ias actividades burocráticas . La conclusón es que la necesidad de se extender las discusiones acerca de las formas de operar la Vigilancia de la salud en los servicios sanitarios.The aim of this study is to describe and analyze Epidemiological Surveillance activities (ES developed in a Health Care Unit and to identify their adherence to recommended Health Surveillance

  12. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27389614

  13. 2004-2010年郑州市金水区急性弛缓性麻痹病例流行病学分析与监测系统评价%Epidemiological analysis on acute flaccid paralysis cases and evaluation on its surveillance system in jinshui district of Zhengzhou from 2004 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩焕侠; 杨雯雯; 张书彦; 王豪佳; 谷园园; 李瑞燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过分析郑州市金水区急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例的流行病学特征及监测系统敏感性,巩固和维持无脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)状态,指导本区消灭脊灰工作.方法 应用中国免疫规划监测信息管理系统软件对数据进行统计分析.结果 2004 -2010年共报告AFP病例698例,其中本地病例58例,年报告发病率为3.67/10万~11.62/10万,5岁以下儿童占发病数的96.55%,有17.24%的儿童未全程免疫或免疫史不详;无脊灰病毒野毒株检出和脊髓灰质炎病例报告.结论 AFP发病趋于小年龄化,易感人群依然存在,病例及时就诊率低,应广泛开展家长课堂和社区健康教育,提高家长的免疫接种意识和及时就诊率,同时加强查漏补种和强化免疫工作,提高疫苗免疫覆盖率.%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characters of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and the sensitivity of monitoring System in Jinshui district of Zhengzhou city, so as to maintain poliomyelitis - free environment and guide us to exterminate the poliomyelitis. Methods All the data were analyzed by China surveillance system of information on national immunization program. Results Totally 698 AFP cases were reported in the period from 2004 to 2010, in which the local cases were 58. The annual report incidence of AFP was from 3. 67 per 100000 to 11. 62 per 100000. The 96. 55% of AFP cases were the children under 5 years old. The children who were not full immunization or were not unknowing immune history hold 17. 24%. No wild - type poliovirus or poliomyelitis case were found. Conclusions The AFP case tends to the group of little children. In addition, the susceptible population still exists. The rate of timely consultancy was low. So, in order to improve the parents conscious of immunization and the rate of timely consultancy, we should launch parents - classroom and community health education extensively. In the meanwhile, the omissions searching and replant

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  15. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  16. The value of information: Current challenges in surveillance implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    remains variable. Political and legal issues are also influential. A particular challenge exists during outbreaks when surveillance needs to be conducted under emergency conditions. Decision support systems can help make epidemiologically and economically sound choices amongst surveillance options. However, contingency planning is advisable so that pre-defined options allow for rapid decision making. PMID:26021437

  17. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... of activists remains under-researched. This presentation explores visibility as a prerequisite and an obstacle to political participation. The dual capacity of visibility in social media enables both surveillance and counter-surveillance by making not only the surveilled actor, but also the surveilling actor......’ surveillance of anti-capitalist activists in social media....

  18. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  19. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  20. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Sauvageot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org.During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0-10% (median, 1% by country.Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  1. Case based measles surveillance in Pune: evidence to guide current and future measles control and elimination efforts in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Sekhar Bose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011 are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. METHODS: Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. RESULTS: Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1. CONCLUSION: Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination.

  2. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  3. Annual effective dose due to residential radon progeny in Sweden: Evaluations based on current risk projections models and on risk estimates from a nation-wide Swedish epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective dose per unit radon progeny exposure to Swedish population in 1992 is estimated by the risk projection model based on the Swedish epidemiological study of radon and lung cancer. The resulting values range from 1.29 - 3.00 mSv/WLM and 2.58 - 5.99 mSv/WLM, respectively. Assuming a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m3, an equilibrium factor of 0.4 and an occupancy factor of 0.6 in Swedish houses, the annual effective dose for the Swedish population is estimated to be 0.43 - 1.98 mSv/year, which should be compared to the value of 1.9 mSv/year, according to the UNSCEAR 1993 report. 27 refs, tabs, figs

  4. Annual effective dose due to residential radon progeny in Sweden: Evaluations based on current risk projections models and on risk estimates from a nation-wide Swedish epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, M. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Lagarde, F. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine; Falk, R.; Swedjemark, G.A. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Effective dose per unit radon progeny exposure to Swedish population in 1992 is estimated by the risk projection model based on the Swedish epidemiological study of radon and lung cancer. The resulting values range from 1.29 - 3.00 mSv/WLM and 2.58 - 5.99 mSv/WLM, respectively. Assuming a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m{sup 3}, an equilibrium factor of 0.4 and an occupancy factor of 0.6 in Swedish houses, the annual effective dose for the Swedish population is estimated to be 0.43 - 1.98 mSv/year, which should be compared to the value of 1.9 mSv/year, according to the UNSCEAR 1993 report. 27 refs, tabs, figs.

  5. A novel web informatics approach for automated surveillance of cancer mortality trends✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Xu, Songhua

    2016-01-01

    Cancer surveillance data are collected every year in the United States via the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). General trends are closely monitored to measure the nation's progress against cancer. The objective of this study was to apply a novel web informatics approach for enabling fully automated monitoring of cancer mortality trends. The approach involves automated collection and text mining of online obituaries to derive the age distribution, geospatial, and temporal trends of cancer deaths in the US. Using breast and lung cancer as examples, we mined 23,850 cancer-related and 413,024 general online obituaries spanning the timeframe 2008–2012. There was high correlation between the web-derived mortality trends and the official surveillance statistics reported by NCI with respect to the age distribution (ρ = 0.981 for breast; ρ = 0.994 for lung), the geospatial distribution (ρ = 0.939 for breast; ρ = 0.881 for lung), and the annual rates of cancer deaths (ρ = 0.661 for breast; ρ = 0.839 for lung). Additional experiments investigated the effect of sample size on the consistency of the web-based findings. Overall, our study findings support web informatics as a promising, cost-effective way to dynamically monitor spatiotemporal cancer mortality trends. PMID:27044930

  6. A novel web informatics approach for automated surveillance of cancer mortality trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Xu, Songhua

    2016-06-01

    Cancer surveillance data are collected every year in the United States via the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). General trends are closely monitored to measure the nation's progress against cancer. The objective of this study was to apply a novel web informatics approach for enabling fully automated monitoring of cancer mortality trends. The approach involves automated collection and text mining of online obituaries to derive the age distribution, geospatial, and temporal trends of cancer deaths in the US. Using breast and lung cancer as examples, we mined 23,850 cancer-related and 413,024 general online obituaries spanning the timeframe 2008-2012. There was high correlation between the web-derived mortality trends and the official surveillance statistics reported by NCI with respect to the age distribution (ρ=0.981 for breast; ρ=0.994 for lung), the geospatial distribution (ρ=0.939 for breast; ρ=0.881 for lung), and the annual rates of cancer deaths (ρ=0.661 for breast; ρ=0.839 for lung). Additional experiments investigated the effect of sample size on the consistency of the web-based findings. Overall, our study findings support web informatics as a promising, cost-effective way to dynamically monitor spatiotemporal cancer mortality trends. PMID:27044930

  7. How to define surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to explore and compare ways of defining surveillance. In order to give meaning to concepts that describe the realities of society, social theory is needed. Therefore social theory is employed in this paper for discussing ways of defining surveillance. “Living in ‘surveillance societies’ may throw up challenges of a fundamental – ontological – kind” (Lyon, 1994, p.19. Social theory is a way of clarifying such ontological questions that concern the basic nature and reality of surveillance. A distinction between neutral and negative concepts of surveillance is drawn. Some potential disadvantages of neutral concepts of surveillance are outlined. This paper wants to contribute to the discussion of how to best define surveillance and wants to show that one of the main theoretical differences and questions in surveillance theory is if surveillance should be defined as a negative or a neutral concept.

  8. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  9. Endodontic Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials.

  10. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  11. Colorectal cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease: A critical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra; Desai; Nutan; Desai

    2014-01-01

    Colonoscopic surveillance is advocated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) for detection of dys-plasia. There are many issues regarding surveillance in IBD: the risk of colorectal cancer seems to be de-creasing in the majority of recently published studies, necessitating revisions of surveillance strategy; surveil-lance guidelines are not based on concrete evidence; commencement and frequency of surveillance, cost-effectiveness and adherence to surveillance have been issues that are only partly answered. The traditional technique of random biopsy is neither evidence-based nor easy to practice. Therefore, highlighting abnormal areas with newer technology and biopsy from these areas are the way forward. Of the newer technology, digital mucosal enhancement, such as high-definition white light endoscopy and chromoendoscopy(with magnification) have been incorporated in guidelines. Dyeless chromoendoscopy(narrow band imaging) has not yet shown potential, whereas some forms of digital chromoendoscopy(i-Scan more than Fujinon intelligent color enhancement) have shown promise for colonoscopic surveillance in IBD. Other techniquessuch as autofluorescence imaging, endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy need further evidence. Surveillance with genetic markers(tissue, serum or stool) is at an early stage. This article discusses changing epidemiology of colorectal cancer development in IBD and critically evaluates issues regarding colonoscopic surveillance in IBD.

  12. Epidemiological characteristics of salmoneilosis in Vojvodina

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Vladimir; Stefanović Slavica; Đurić Predrag

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Salmonella infections are the most common food-born diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Epidemics of salmonellosis occur after eating improperly cooked contaminated foods. Material and methods A descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze epidemiological characteristics of salmonellosis in Vojvodina in the period 1978-2003. Results During this period there were 26 851 cases of salmonellosis (mean annual incidence of 51.1/100 000 and mean annual mortality of 0....

  13. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa

  14. Surveillance for outbreaks of respiratory tract infections in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, M; McGeer, A; McArthur, M; Peeling, R. W.; Petric, M; Simor, A E

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of respiratory tract infections are common in long-term care facilities for older people. The objective of our study was to determine both the frequency of such outbreaks and their clinical and epidemiological features. METHODS: Prospective surveillance for outbreaks of respiratory tract infections and a retrospective audit of surveillance records were conducted in 5 nursing homes in metropolitan Toronto over 3 years. The clinical manifestations of infected residents wer...

  15. Injury & illness surveillance study: London 2012 Olympic Summer Games

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Injury surveillance provides not only important epidemiological information, but also direction for injury prevention. During the 2004 Olympic Games, the eight international team sports federations (FIBA, FIFA, FINA, the FIH, the FIVB, IBAF, the IHF and the ISF) participated in a study on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in all 14 team sport tournaments using an established injury-surveillance system. The acceptance and compliance of the project was excellent, as demonstrated by ...

  16. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  17. Epidemiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGivern, Mark R.; Best, Kate E.; Rankin, Judith;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Published prevalence rates of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) vary. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of CDH using data from high-quality, population-based registers belonging to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT). METHODS: Cases of CDH...

  18. The changing landscape of rabies epidemiology and control

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Cleaveland; Hawthorne Beyer; Katie Hampson; Daniel Haydon; Felix Lankester; Tiziana Lembo; Francois-Xavier Meslin; Michelle Morters; Zacharia Mtema; Maganga Sambo; Sunny Townsend

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, major progress has been made in our understanding of critical aspects of rabies epidemiology and control. This paper presents results of recent research, highlighting methodological advances that have been applied to burden of disease studies, rabies epidemiological modelling and rabies surveillance. These results contribute new insights and understanding with regard to the epidemiology of rabies and help to counteract misperceptions that currently hamper rabies contro...

  19. Epidemiological criminology

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatović Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Paper deals with one of so-called „new criminologies“ - specific amalgam composed by criminological and epidemiological experiences. First of all, the author points the main characteristics of these two sciences and their connections. After such explanations, he give examples of famous research in the field of ‘epidemiological criminology’. They show how many important issues in criminology has been neglected until the end of the twentieth century (evaluati...

  20. Endodontic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  1. [Surveillance in Spain 3 years since the enactment of the Public Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousa, Anxela; Godoy, Pere; Aragonés, Nuria; Cano, Rosa; Sierra, María José; González, Francisco; Mayoral, José María

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Epidemiological Surveillance Working Group of the Sociedad Española de Epidemiología (Spanish Society of Epidemiology), carried out a descriptive study in order to evaluate the level of development of the Spanish Public Health Law since its enactment in 2011. A survey collecting data on the existence of information systems and other aspects pertaining to each surveillance section included in the law was sent to all 19 autonomous communities and cities. All regional authorities reported the presence of an information system for communicable diseases, and six also reported an information system for social factors. 18 reported that at least one chronic disease was subject to surveillance and 14 confirmed surveillance of some of its determinants. They all systematically analysed the data derived from the communicable diseases. There is room for improvement in Public Health surveillance in Spain, and action should be aimed at the main health problems. PMID:27137775

  2. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  3. Sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica para el paciente diabético; el uso de tecnología computacional en la calidad de la atención médica Epidemiologic surveillance of diabetic patients; use of computer technology in the quality of medical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Alberto Rascón-Pacheco

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Presentar un instrumento que permita llevar a cabo la vigilancia epidemiológica y evaluar la calidad de la atención a la diabetes mellitus en el primer nivel de atención. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este estudio se realizó del 1 de enero de 1998 al 30 de junio de 1999, en la Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, en Hermosillo, Sonora. Se diseñó un formato único de reporte compuesto por los diferentes elementos que integran el sistema para la atención del paciente diabético en una Unidad de Medicina Familiar del IMSS. RESULTADOS: Se desarrolló e implementó un paquete de computación (software que permite la captura de los datos de dicho formato y la generación de reportes, de tipo individual y grupal, sobre el cumplimiento de citas, antecedentes personales patológicos y no patológicos, evolución de signos y síntomas, exámenes de laboratorio y el manejo terapéutico. CONCLUSIONES: La sistematización de datos en forma electrónica favorece la obtención de información confiable y permanente para la vigilancia de los procesos en la atención integral del paciente diabético.OBJECTIVE: To describe an instrument for epidemiologic surveillance of diabetes mellitus and evaluating the quality of care in primary health care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted from January 1, 1998, to June 30, 1999, at the Epidemiology and Health Services Research Unit of the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS, in Hermosillo, Sonora. A single data collection form was designed, which contains items included in the diabetes care clinic of the Unit of Family Medicine of the Mexican Institute of Social Security. RESULTS: We developed and implemented a software program to enter data from the paper format and to generate individual and group reports on attendance to scheduled medical visits, medical history, evolution of signs and symptoms, laboratory tests, and

  4. Lung cancer epidemiology in New Mexico uranium miners: Third annual report for the period 1 April 1985-15 December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Technical Progress Report for the first 32 months of the contract ''Lung Cancer Epidemiology in New Mexico Uranium Miners''describes by task the activities finished or begun since April, 1983. For the retrospective cohort study of miners with first underground experience before 1971, abstracting and entering of all the Grants Clinic smoking and mining histories has been completed, and editing is under way. All company-reported Working Level Months (WLM) data for 1967 to 1982 have been abstracted, keyed, and edited. For earlier years, the data base of working level measurements obtained from state agencies is also completed. Further follow-up of the cohort has been accomplished through the Social Security Administration and the National Death Index. Death certificates have been received for 345 deceased cohort members. For feasibility evaluation of a prospective cohort study of miners with first underground experience after 1970, refinements of previous projections of available subjects have been made. An estimated 10,447 persons are available but with low mean cumulative exposures. Grants Clinic information for all miners has been collected on microfilm. Finally, planning for analysis has continued. To calculate comparison mortality rates, it is necessary to derive population estimates for New Mexico from 1957 through 1982. This task has been completed, and racial/ethnic group-specific rates have been computed for 1958 to 1982. Alternative statistical approaches for data analysis are being considered. 5 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  5. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  6. Epidemiological analysis on acute flaccid paralysis cases and evaluation on surveillance system in Nanchang City from 2008-2011%2008-2011年南昌市急性弛缓性麻痹病例流行病学分析及监测系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文海蓉; 张艳霞; 彭时辉; 甘仰本; 廖征

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases in Nanchang City in recent years,learn its epidemic law,and understand the surveillance status of AFP in Nanchang City.[Methods] The data of AFP cases in Nanchang City from 2008-2011 were analyzed retrospectively.EPIinfo software and Excel software were applied in statistical analysis.[Results] During 2008-2011,a total of 299 AFP cases were reported in Nanchang City,including 78 local AFP cases.The average reported incidence rate of children aged 0-14 years old was 1.94/lakh.There was no obvious summer/autumn peak.Most of patients were young children,and patients under 5 years old accounted for 74.36%,the local AFP male to female ratio was 2.55∶1.All indexes of AFP monitoring have reached the national requirements,and the quality of AFP surveillance maintained at a high level.[Conclusion] AFP surveillance has gained some effects in Nanchang City.However,it is necessary to strengthen the AFP monitoring,to maintain polio-free status.%目的 通过分析南昌市近年急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例流行病学特点,掌握其流行规律,了解该市对AFP的监测情况.方法 对南昌市2008-2011年AFP病例进行回顾性分析,应用EPIinfo软件和Excel软件进行统计分析.结果 2008-2011年全市共报告15岁以下的AFP病例299例,报告该户籍地AFP病例78例,0~ 14岁儿童平均报告发病率为1.94/10万.无明显的夏秋季发病高峰,发病以儿童为主,5岁以下占74.36%,AFP病例男女之比为2.55∶1,AFP监测各项指标均达到国家要求,AFP病例监测质量均处于较好水平.结论 该市AFP监测工作取得成效,但还应继续加强AFP监测力度,维持无脊灰状态.

  7. Surveillance of influenza in Iceland during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsdottir, G; Gudnason, T; Ólafsson, Ö; Baldvinsdottir, G E; Atladottir, A; Löve, A; Danon, L; Briem, H

    2010-12-09

    In a pandemic setting, surveillance is essential to monitor the spread of the disease and assess its impact. Appropriate mitigation and healthcare preparedness strategies depend on fast and accurate epidemic surveillance data. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, rapid improvements in influenza surveillance were made in Iceland. Here, we describe the improvements made in influenza surveillance during the pandemic , which could also be of great value in outbreaks caused by other pathogens. Following the raised level of pandemic influenza alert in April 2009, influenza surveillance was intensified. A comprehensive automatic surveillance system for influenza-like illness was developed, surveillance of influenza-related deaths was established and laboratory surveillance for influenza was strengthened. School absenteeism reports were also collected and compared with results from the automatic surveillance system. The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) was diagnosed in Iceland in May 2009, but sustained community transmission was not confirmed until mid-August. The pandemic virus circulated during the summer and early autumn before an abrupt increase in the number of cases was observed in October. There were large outbreaks in elementary schools for children aged 6–15 years throughout the country that peaked in late October. School absenteeism reports from all elementary schools in Iceland gave a similar epidemiological curve as that from data from the healthcare system. Estimates of the proportion of the population infected with the pandemic virus ranged from 10% to 22%. This study shows how the sudden need for improved surveillance in the pandemic led to rapid improvements in data collection in Iceland. This reporting system will be improved upon and expanded to include other notifiable diseases, to ensure accurate and timely collection of epidemiological data.

  8. Surveillance of influenza in Iceland during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsdottir, G; Gudnason, T; Ólafsson, Ö; Baldvinsdottir, G E; Atladottir, A; Löve, A; Danon, L; Briem, H

    2010-12-01

    In a pandemic setting, surveillance is essential to monitor the spread of the disease and assess its impact. Appropriate mitigation and healthcare preparedness strategies depend on fast and accurate epidemic surveillance data. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, rapid improvements in influenza surveillance were made in Iceland. Here, we describe the improvements made in influenza surveillance during the pandemic , which could also be of great value in outbreaks caused by other pathogens. Following the raised level of pandemic influenza alert in April 2009, influenza surveillance was intensified. A comprehensive automatic surveillance system for influenza-like illness was developed, surveillance of influenza-related deaths was established and laboratory surveillance for influenza was strengthened. School absenteeism reports were also collected and compared with results from the automatic surveillance system. The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) was diagnosed in Iceland in May 2009, but sustained community transmission was not confirmed until mid-August. The pandemic virus circulated during the summer and early autumn before an abrupt increase in the number of cases was observed in October. There were large outbreaks in elementary schools for children aged 6–15 years throughout the country that peaked in late October. School absenteeism reports from all elementary schools in Iceland gave a similar epidemiological curve as that from data from the healthcare system. Estimates of the proportion of the population infected with the pandemic virus ranged from 10% to 22%. This study shows how the sudden need for improved surveillance in the pandemic led to rapid improvements in data collection in Iceland. This reporting system will be improved upon and expanded to include other notifiable diseases, to ensure accurate and timely collection of epidemiological data. PMID:21163181

  9. Tools for surveillance system evaluation: Reviewing the need for participatory approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Calba, Clémentine; Grobois, Vladimir; Peyre, Marisa; Hoinville, Linda; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Saegerman, Claude; Goutard, Flavie

    2013-01-01

    While the need for effective animal health surveillance is widely recognised for diseases management, most veterinary services are facing significant budget constraints. There is a real need to develop cost-effective surveillance systems. To ensure quality of these systems, there is a further need to design comprehensive, timely, effective and affordable evaluation frameworks. Depending on epidemiological, sociological and economic factors, animal diseases surveillance systems can be complex,...

  10. Gynaekologisk epidemiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...... Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy...

  11. Tuberculosis among Healthcare Workers in Southeastern China: A Retrospective Study of 7-Year Surveillance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The baseline prevalence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB among general healthcare workers (HCWs in southeastern China remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective study based on the TB surveillance data in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2011, which were extracted from the national Tuberculosis Information Management System (TIMS. We calculated and compared annual notification rates of different occupational groups and analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The annual TB notification rates among general HCWs declined steadily from 2005 to 2011. On average, HCWs showed annual TB notification rates lower than the general population but higher than teachers. Recorded HCW TB patients averaged 35.5 years of age, with females outnumbering males (58.0% > 42.0%. The proportion of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB was higher among male than in the female patients (88.5% > 83.4%, P = 0.031. Our study suggested that general HCWs run a higher occupational risk than teachers although the two groups are socioeconomically comparable and that the priority should be given to the young female HCWs for TB prevention in healthcare institutions.

  12. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) System, in particular. It brings out the multiple s...

  13. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology of invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in paediatric patients after the introduction of 13-valent conjugate vaccine in a nationwide surveillance study conducted in Japan in 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Satoshi; Fujisawa, Takao; Ito, Yutaka; Chang, Bin; Suga, Shigeru; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ohnishi, Makoto; Ihara, Toshiaki; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal infection in children is a major public health problem worldwide, including in Japan. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 (PCV7) was licensed for use in Japan in 2010 followed by PCV13 in 2013. This report includes the results of a nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and non-IPD in paediatric patients from January 2012 to December 2014. We collected 343 isolates from 337 IPD patients and 286 isolates from 278 non-IPD patients. Of the IPD isolates, the most identified serotypes included 19A, 24F, and 15A. The prevalence of non-PCV13 serotype isolates increased significantly from 2012 to 2014 (51.6-71.4%, p=0.004). Serotypes 19A, 15A and 35B were highly non-susceptible to penicillin, and the rates of non-susceptible isolates from IPD patients to penicillin and cefotaxime significantly declined during the study period (p=0.029 and p=0.013, respectively). The non-susceptible rate to meropenem increased, particularly for serotype 15A. The IPD isolates comprised clonal complex (CC) 3111 (93.8% was serotype 19A) followed by CC2572 (81.5% was serotype 24F) and CC63 (97.1% was serotype 15A). CC3111, CC63 and CC156 (33.3% was serotype 23A, 28.6% was serotype 6B, and 14.3% was serotype 19A) were highly non-susceptible to penicillin. Of the non-IPD isolates, the most identified serotypes included 19A, 15A, and 3. In conclusion, the introduction of PCV7 and PCV13 resulted in increasing non-PCV13 serotypes and clones, including antimicrobial resistant serotypes 15A and CC63 (Sweden(15A)-25 clone). PMID:26602268

  14. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  15. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  16. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  17. 江西省黄鼬和鼬獾狂犬病流行病学监测%Epidemiological surveillance of rabies in yellow mongooses (Mustela sibirica) and ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敬慧; 张守峰; 刘晔; 陈奇; 苗富春; 王林栋; 李易潞; 扈荣良

    2012-01-01

    目的 为确定江西省除鼬獾外夜行肉食类野生动物黄鼬是否携带狂犬病病毒,对该地区黄鼬和鼬獾进行狂犬病流行病学监测,分析其感染状况.方法 在江西部分地区采集黄鼬和鼬獾脑组织样品,直接免疫荧光法(FAT)检测样品中狂犬病毒抗原,小鼠颅内接种实验(MIT)分离病毒,RT-PCR扩增其核蛋白和糖蛋白全基因进行测定,并与我国其他地区狂犬病病毒的核酸序列进行对比分析.结果 黄鼬脑组织样品FAT结果 阳性率为0(0/1 102),鼬獾阳性率为1.9 %(4/210).经MIT分离到4株狂犬病病毒之间N基因和G基因的同源性较高,分别为99.6%~100%和99.7%~100%,与浙江和江西其它鼬獾狂犬病病毒分离株同源性为96.0%~99.3%和98.7%~99.1%,与浙江和福建犬源分离株(ZJ-QZ,D01,FJ008,FJ009等)同源性为88.2%~88.8%和87.6%~87.7%.结论 采样地区黄鼬样品中未发现狂犬病病毒感染,而鼬獾感染狂犬病病毒阳性率较高,说明其种群内存在狂犬病的流行;犬与鼬獾狂犬病病毒株同源性较低,二者交叉传播或溢出的可能性较低;黄鼬和鼬獾尽管同属夜行动物,但二者交互感染的可能性很低.有必要对该地区野生动物狂犬病进行长期监测.%To found out the background of rabies in yellow mongooses facing the damager of spread in wildlife , we con-ducted the surveillance of rabies in yellow mongooses and ferret badgers in Jiangxi Province . Yellow mongoose heads and ferret badger heads were randomly collected in Jiangxi Province . The samples were detected by direct immunofluorescence antibody test (FAT) and rabies virus was isolated through Mouse Inoculation Test (MIT) . Full genome of N gene and G gene were amplified by RT-PCR and then sequenced . No positive sample was found from 1 102 yellow mongooses. Four positive samples were identified from ferret badgers with a positive ratio as 1 .9% (4/210) . Four rabies virus strains were isolated (JX12-64 , JX12

  18. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  19. Epidemiology of childhood Guillan-Barre syndrome in the north west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karegarmaher Mohammad H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims This study was carried out to investigate the incidence, annual time trend and some epidemiological and clinical features of Guillain-Barre syndrome in children in the north west of Iran. Materials and methods In this population-based cross sectional research, epidemiological and clinical features of 143 cases with Guillain-Barre syndrome between 2001 and 2006 were studied. The setting of the study was Tabriz Children Medical Centre, the major University-Hospital located in Tabriz city of the East Azarbaijan province covering whole region. Data collected included age, gender, chronological information, preceding events, functional grade of motor deficit. Results The mean age (standard deviation of subjects was 5.4 (3.6 years. The male/female ratio was 1.3. The average annual incidence rate was 2.27 per 100 000 population of 15 years children (CI95%: 1.9–2.6. The majority of cases occurred in March, July and November and the highest proportion of the syndrome was observed in winter (29 percent, P > 0.10. Conclusion The results indicated that an unexpected high incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome has occurred in 2003 in the region. We concluded that a monitoring and surveillance system for Guillain-Barre syndrome is essential to set up in this region.

  20. Epidemiological trends of dengue disease in Mexico (2000-2011: a systematic literature search and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gómez Dantés

    Full Text Available This systematic literature review describes the epidemiology of dengue disease in Mexico (2000-2011. The annual number of uncomplicated dengue cases reported increased from 1,714 in 2000 to 15,424 in 2011 (incidence rates of 1.72 and 14.12 per 100,000 population, respectively. Peaks were observed in 2002, 2007, and 2009. Coastal states were most affected by dengue disease. The age distribution pattern showed an increasing number of cases during childhood, a peak at 10-20 years, and a gradual decline during adulthood. All four dengue virus serotypes were detected. Although national surveillance is in place, there are knowledge gaps relating to asymptomatic cases, primary/secondary infections, and seroprevalence rates of infection in all age strata. Under-reporting of the clinical spectrum of the disease is also problematic. Dengue disease remains a serious public health problem in Mexico.

  1. Digital epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Salathé

    Full Text Available Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.

  2. Arthropod Surveillance Programs: Basic Components, Strategies, and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Rochon, Kateryn; Duehl, Adrian J.; Anderson, John F.; Barrera, Roberto; Su, Nan-Yao; Gerry, Alec C.; Obenauer, Peter J.; Campbell, James F.; Lysyk, Tim J.; Allan, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. Herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium “Advancements in arthropod monitoring technology, techniques, and analysis” presented at the 58th annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in San Diego, CA. Interdisciplinary examples of arthropod monitorin...

  3. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  4. [The Surveillance in Health Basic: perspectives to reach the Surveillance in Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Liliam Saldanha; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita

    2010-09-01

    The Surveillance in Health is constituted as an Assistance Model with potential to reorganize the working processes. This study was developed to identify and analyze surveillance practices in the Primary Health Care field, in a region of São Paulo City-Brazil. Interviews were performed with 14 individual, from February to April 2006: health workers and administrators who had been operating in the Epidemiologic Surveillance area of health basic units. The speeches were analyzed based on the social theory of the health-disease process and by the materialistic interpretation of the labor process. It was verified that their work was fragmented. The precariousness of the working structure, the lack of professional qualification and of management-political support, besides the lack of participation from the population were all identified as barriers that limit health surveillance practices. It was concluded that, in a local level, there is a potential to change the organization of the working process in health and meet the health needs of the population through a Health Surveillance Model. PMID:20964059

  5. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, ASM Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Black, Robert E.; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n = 297) of eligible cases (n = 375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance. PMID:27096958

  6. A aids no Estado de São Paulo: as mudanças no perfil da epidemia e perspectivas da vigilância epidemiológica AIDS in the State of São Paulo: changes in the profile of the epidemic and prospects for epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Janilde Seabra Santos

    2002-12-01

    few countries in the world that has free distribution of combination antiretroviral therapy. In Brazil, AIDS mortality has been falling since 1996, and has been substantially affected by access to AIDS treatment. In this paper, data on STD and AIDS, collected from the epidemiological surveillance system of the State of São Paulo, were analyzed with the purpose of describing the profile of the AIDS epidemic, and discussing the way this disease affects women and young, poor and heterosexual persons. Until 12/31/2001, 106,873 cases were reported in the State of São Paulo, which was about 50% of the cases reported in the country as a whole. The highest incidence rates occur among individuals between 30 and 39 years of age. The number of cases and deaths has grown slightly in older individuals. AIDS affects all, the rich and the poor, but in past years it has been increasing in individuals with fewer years of education and non-qualified occupations. The increase in cases among heterosexual men and the fact that this mode of exposure is the most frequent among women corroborates the importance of heterosexual transmission in the AIDS epidemic. The STD and AIDS epidemiological surveillance system in Brazil is based mainly upon cases reported, and it has been used as the main source of information on the AIDS epidemic. These epidemiological surveillance data support the study of trends, prevention and care planning, and provides the means to promote information on AIDS to the population. Such data reflect the status of HIV several years after infection occurred, and this gap tends to grow due to many factors, such as antiretroviral therapy and others. In this manner, data take longer to enter the information system, and therefore, such information becomes increasingly distant from the actual magnitude of HIV infection. Other strategies for acknowledging trends of HIV infections are necessary in order to make its control more effective. Examples are reporting HIV infection

  7. Epidemiology and microbiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections:analysis of 482 cases from a retrospective surveillance study%医院获得性血流感染的流行病学和病原学特征分析:482例感染病例的回顾性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-nong WU; Tie-er GAN; Yue-xian ZHU; Jun-min CAO; Cong-hua JI; Yi-hua WU; Bin LV

    2015-01-01

    分析某三级中医院医院获得性血流感染(nBSIs)的流行病学和病原学特征,探索影响28天病死率的相关危险因素。%In many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) hospitals, most patients are elderly with chronic diseases. Nosocomial bloodstream infections (nBSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. A retrospective sur-veillance study was performed to examine the epidemiology and microbiology of nBSIs in a TCM hospital from 2009 to 2011. A total of 482 patients with nBSIs were included in the study period. The incidence rate was 5.7/1000 admissions. Escherichia coli (25.5%) was the most common Gram-negative and coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) (14.1%) was the most common Gram-positive organism isolated. One-third of the E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the nBSIs were the third-generation cephalosporin-resistant. Half of the Acinetobacter species isolates were resistant to imipenem. Of all the CoNS isolates, 90.7%were resistant to methicillin. Carbapenems and glyco-peptide were the most frequently used for nBSI therapy. Only about one-third of patients (157/482) received appro-priate empirical therapy. Septic shock, hemodialysis, Pitt bacteremia score>4, urinary tract infection, and appropriate empirical therapy were most strongly associated with 28-d mortality. The incidence of nBSIs was low in the TCM hospital but the proportion of nBSIs due to antibiotic-resistant organisms was high. A high Pitt bacteremia score was one of the most important risk factors for mortality in nBSIs. Therefore, the implementation of appropriate empirical therapy is crucial to improve the clinical outcome of nBSIs.

  8. Epidemiologic research program: Selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is a current listing of scientific reports from epidemiologic and related activities sponsored by the Department of Energy. The Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance now is the departmental focal point for these activities and any others relating to the study of human health effects. The Office's mission is evolving to encompass the new role of the Department in environmental restoration, weapons dismantlement and nuclear material storage, and development of new energy technologies. Publications in these areas will be included in future editions of the bibliography. The present edition brings the listing up to date, and should facilitate access to specific reports. The program has been divided into several general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers; studies on internally deposited alpha emitters; medical/histologic studies; studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage; community health surveillance studies; and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible

  9. Surveillance of diarrheal bacteria and their epidemiological chracteristics in Yunan military area%云南战区腹泻病原菌监测及流行病学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚山; 张朝雄; 周丽华; 胡挺松; 刘德华; 王霞; 易昌清; 古良琪; 石清明; 邓波; 李丽娇; 王意银; 范泉水; 朱姝媛; 朱琼媛; 李明; 邱薇; 王惠萱; 赵丽芝; 秦海燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 对云南战区腹泻病原菌进行监测,掌握其腹泻病原谱的构成和流行病学特征,为军队和地方腹泻病的防控及诊治提供重要依据.方法 采集监测点肠道门诊腹泻患者新鲜粪便标本,按统一制定的监测方案,操作规程检测志贺菌、沙门菌、致泻性大肠埃希菌(EIEC、ETEC、EPEC、EHEC、EAggEC)、小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌、空肠弯曲菌、霍乱弧菌、副溶血弧菌、气单胞菌、类志贺邻单胞菌以及其它肠道病原菌.结果 从588例腹泻患者粪便标本中检出各类病原菌220株,检出率为37.41%.其中肺炎克雷伯菌居首位(6.80%)、费劳地枸橼酸菌次之(5.95%)、居第三位的是志贺菌(4.25%)、列第四位的是奇异变形菌和阴沟肠杆菌(3.23%)、排第五至第七位的分别是产酸克雷伯菌(2.89%)、侵袭性大肠杆菌(2.21%)和气单胞菌(1.53%).不同年龄组检出率为29.11%~48.34%之间,其中36~45岁年龄组检出率最高,男女性别间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).病原检出率5、8、9月份较高.结论 通过对腹泻病原菌监测,了解腹泻病原菌的组成,建立病原谱,掌握其流行病学特征,为军队和地方腹泻病的研究、防控、流行病学调查等提供重要参考资料.%Aim To monitor the diarrheal pathogens and investigate their epidemiological characteristics in Yunan Province for offer evidence of control activities. Methods Fresh stool samples were collected from outpatients and the pathogens of Shigella,Salmonella,diarrheogenic Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica,Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ,Aeromonas ,Plesimonas shigelloides and other intestinal pathogens were detected accoding to the uniform monitoring scheme and procedures. Results Totally 220 strains were detected from 588 diarrheal outpatients with positive rate of 37.4% ,including Klebsiella pneumoniae ranking the first, followed by Citrobacter freundii ( 5.95 ), Shigella

  10. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  11. Heart failure: Epidemiology and prevention in India

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Mark D; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2010-01-01

    Reliable estimates of heart failure are lacking in India because of the absence of a surveillance programme to track incidence, prevalence, outcomes and key causes of heart failure. Nevertheless, we propose that the incidence and prevalence rates of heart failure are rising due to population, epidemiological and health transitions. Based on disease-specific estimates of prevalence and incidence rates of heart failure, we conservatively estimate the prevalence of heart failure in India due to ...

  12. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  13. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can be diagnosed and begin in childhood. Mental disorders among children are described ...

  14. 利用妇幼卫生监测资料评价妇幼卫生年报儿童与孕产妇死亡数据%Evaluation of the data of children and maternal death from the national annual report system of MCH using the data based on the surveillance system of MCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪; 任正洪; 安琳

    2011-01-01

    目的:发现妇幼卫生年报报告的儿童死亡率和孕产妇死亡率可能存在的问题,为评价妇幼卫生年报数据质量提供一定的线索.方法:对1996~2009年我国妇幼卫生监测和妇幼卫生年报提供的儿童与孕产妇死亡率进行趋势描述,并对两数据源相应指标进行Spearman相关分析,最后计算两数据源相应指标相差的比例.结果:我国妇幼卫生年报数据反映了与监测数据所揭示的相同的死亡率变化趋势,两数据源的相应死亡率呈高度正相关.年报儿童死亡率普遍比监测数据低1/3~1/2,两数据源孕产妇死亡率相差较少,但近年有增加的趋势.结论:妇幼卫生年报数据能够反映儿童和孕产妇死亡率的变化趋势,但可能存在漏报,建议开展儿童与孕产妇死亡漏报的大型专项调查.%Objective; To find the probable problems existing in the mortality of children and maternal mortality from the national annual report system of maternity and child hygiene (MCH) , provide a certain clue for evaluating the quality of data based on the national annual report system of MCH. Methods: The change trends of mortality of children and maternal mortality provided by the surveillance system of MCH and the national annual report system of MCH were described, then the relevant indexes of two data sources were analyzed by Spearman correlation analysis, finally, the proportions of differences of relevant indexes of two data sources were calculated. Results; The data based on national annual report system of MCH reflected the same changing trend of the mortalities revealed by the surveillance system of MCH, and they were highly positively correlated with each other. The mortality of children from the national annual report system of MCH was lower than that from the surveillance system of MCH by 1/3 ~ 1/2, the difference of maternal mortality from the two data sources was low, but it showed a increasing trend in recent years. Conclusion

  15. Epidemiology of emerging foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Giusti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases still represent an important global public health issue, including Europe and Italy, which endangers the health of the population and leads to socio-economic costs and a threat to the market trend. In developed countries it is estimated that up to one third of the population are affected by microbiological foodborne diseases each year. In these countries, it has been observed that traditional infectious foodborne diseases have decreased while re-emerging and emerging pathogens like Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Norovirus and Hepatitis A virus have increased. In 2004, in Italy the incidence for Listeriosis was 0.06 per 100,000 population and is included among the statutory notifiable diseases. E. coli O157:H7 is not subject to statutory notification in Italy; however, a voluntary national surveillance system for HUS in paediatric patients and for VTEC, has lead to the notification of 429 paediatric HUS cases and 344 clinical cases of VTEC from 1988 to 2004. Data on campylobacteriosis are available thanks to the voluntary notifications received from the Enternet Laboratories: 582 cases were isolated from human clinical specimens in 2004. Furthermore, data from a specific surveillance system for acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA shows that the incidence of reported cases in Italy is declining. The necessity to alert the authorities responsible for epidemiological surveillance nationally remains paramount. Communication as well as educational campaigns aimed at different target groups, for example consumers, will play an important role in the prevention of foodborne diseases.

  16. EDF's surveillance on fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has 58 PWR reactors requiring an annual supply of approximately 2,300 fuel assemblies. The issues of safety and reliability are important concerning the fuel given the risk of generic manufacturing issues. Being a nuclear power operator, EDF is responsible for the safety of the fuel being used in their vessels. EDF is subject to a French law which requires in particular the surveillance of the manufacture of the components involved in safety. This law is in some way an opportunity. It permits the entities involved to have an influence on the quality of components supplied which is an important condition to exercise an operational responsibility. EDF has applied for 30 years surveillance of the manufacturing processes of suppliers of fuel assemblies and contracts have specific clauses in order to organize this surveillance. In order to focus the surveillance on important matters, critical characteristics of the fuel have been determined between EDF and the suppliers to ensure the safety requirements. Activities related to the manufacturing and having an influence on these characteristics are subject to the surveillance required by regulation authorities. In order to obtain fuel assemblies that fulfill the safety requirements, EDF considers that several aspects need to be treated correctly: - The clear and sufficient definition of the components that constitutes the assembly (technical file: drawings and specifications), a definition which takes into account as far as possible the critical characteristics. - The demonstration of the efficiency, in terms of results, of complex manufacturing or controls steps (equipment qualification) included in the global manufacturing process (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The definition of manufacturing processes (manufacturing quality plan) and the demonstration of their efficiency (qualification of manufacturing processes) to produce components that meet safety requirements

  17. Integrating Remote Sensing and Disease Surveillance to Forecast Malaria Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Beyane, B.; DeVos, M.; Liu, Y.; Merkord, C. L.; Mihretie, A.

    2015-12-01

    Advance information about the timing and locations of malaria epidemics can facilitate the targeting of resources for prevention and emergency response. Early detection methods can detect incipient outbreaks by identifying deviations from expected seasonal patterns, whereas early warning approaches typically forecast future malaria risk based on lagged responses to meteorological factors. A critical limiting factor for implementing either of these approaches is the need for timely and consistent acquisition, processing and analysis of both environmental and epidemiological data. To address this need, we have developed EPIDEMIA - an integrated system for surveillance and forecasting of malaria epidemics. The EPIDEMIA system includes a public health interface for uploading and querying weekly surveillance reports as well as algorithms for automatically validating incoming data and updating the epidemiological surveillance database. The newly released EASTWeb 2.0 software application automatically downloads, processes, and summaries remotely-sensed environmental data from multiple earth science data archives. EASTWeb was implemented as a component of the EPIDEMIA system, which combines the environmental monitoring data and epidemiological surveillance data into a unified database that supports both early detection and early warning models. Dynamic linear models implemented with Kalman filtering were used to carry out forecasting and model updating. Preliminary forecasts have been disseminated to public health partners in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia and will be validated and refined as the EPIDEMIA system ingests new data. In addition to continued model development and testing, future work will involve updating the public health interface to provide a broader suite of outbreak alerts and data visualization tools that are useful to our public health partners. The EPIDEMIA system demonstrates a feasible approach to synthesizing the information from epidemiological

  18. Communicable disease epidemiology training in Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aavitsland, P; Andresen, S

    2001-03-01

    The five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have a long tradition of collaboration in communicable disease epidemiology and control. The state epidemiologists and the immunisation programme managers have met regularly to discuss common challenges and exchange experiences in surveillance and control of communicable diseases. After the three Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) regained independence in 1991 and the Soviet Union dissolved, contacts were made across the old iron curtain in several areas, such as culture, education, business, military and medicine. Each of the Nordic communicable disease surveillance institutes started projects with partners in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania or the Russian Federation. The projects were in such diverse areas as HIV surveillance and prevention, vaccination programmes and antibiotic resistance. PMID:11682716

  19. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyne Picard-Meyer; Emmanuelle Robardet; Laurent Arthur; Gérald Larcher; Christine Harbusch; Alexandre Servat; Florence Cliquet

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed p...

  20. Experiencias en la vigilancia epidemiológica de agentes patógenos transmitidos por alimentos a través de electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE en el Perú Experiences in the epidemiological surveillance of foodborne pathogens by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz Zamudio

    2011-03-01

    allows the discrimination between different bacterial isolates which are epidemiologically related. The Instituto Nacional de Salud del Perú (INS is part of the WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network (WHO-GFN and of the PulseNet Latin American and Caribbean Net (PN-AL & C, with whom it shares the genetic profiles of the isolated pathogenic strains, so that it is possible to compare de genotypes of similar strains found in different countries and to identify the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks in the region, strengthening the regional system of epidemiological surveillance and generating a rapid, coordinated response between the countries. We present the two last years´ experience including the advances in the use of these strategic tools that have allowed us to characterize genotype patterns implicated in foodborne diseases from isolates recovered in the laboratory network of Peru.

  1. Epidemiology of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Merav; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Valk, Gerlof D

    2015-01-01

    Formerly named carcinoids, neuroendocrine tumors originate from diffuse endocrine cells, can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pancreas and bronchopulmonary (BP) tree, and have a wide range of malignant potential. This chapter summarizes the data available on the epidemiology of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) from around the world, including the relative frequency according to organ of origin, annual incidence rates (IR) and trends in IR at the various anatomic sites, age and stage at presentation, racial and gender differences in IR and 5-year survival rates. Over time, changes have been made in the classification and registration of NEN, both in the same registry and across the globe, thus confounding the possibility to draw conclusions as to the true rise in IR of NEN that is observed all over the world. BP NEN has become the most common site in many western countries, while NEN of the rectum is more common in the Far East. In some countries, appendiceal NEN is the most common site in females. When compared to adenocarcinoma of the same location, the prognosis of NEN patients is better. Five-year survival rates are highest for NEN originating in the rectum and appendix, but lower in small intestinal and pancreatic NEN. Future research is needed to understand the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to NEN epidemiology. PMID:26303701

  2. Improving national surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis in Denmark through electronic reporting of specific antibody index testing from 2010 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram Benny; Espenhain, L; Mølbak, K;

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the results of automated surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Denmark using the national microbiology database (MiBa), and to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed LNB at a national level. MiBa-based surveillance includes electronic transfer of...

  3. Epidemiology of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (IBD) What is IBD? Addressing IBD Epidemiology Epidemiology of the IBD Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 5:1424-9. 2 Loftus EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental ...

  4. The study of parasite sharing for surveillance of zoonotic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Maxwell J.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    Determining the factors that influence the transmission of parasites among hosts is important for directing surveillance of animal parasites before they successfully emerge in humans, and increasing the efficacy of programs for the control and management of zoonotic diseases. Here we present a review of recent advances in the study of parasite sharing, wildlife ecology, and epidemiology that could be extended and incorporated into proactive surveillance frameworks for multi-host infectious diseases. These methods reflect emerging interdisciplinary techniques with significant promise for the identification of future zoonotic parasites and unknown reservoirs of current zoonoses, strategies for the reduction of parasite prevalence and transmission among hosts, and decreasing the burden of infectious diseases.

  5. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  6. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  7. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective.

  8. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  9. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  10. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbraith, J.C.; Valiquette, G.; Kennedy, K.J.;

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance...... episodes of S. aureus BSI were identified. The overall annual incidence rate for S. aureus BSI was 26.1 per 100 000 population, and those for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 24.2 and 1.9 per 100 000, respectively. Although the overall incidence...... of community-onset MSSA BSI (15.0 per 100 000) was relatively similar across regions, the incidence rates of hospital-onset MSSA (9.2 per 100 000), community-onset MRSA (1.0 per 100 000) and hospital-onset MRSA (0.8 per 100 000) BSI varied substantially. Whereas the overall incidence of S. aureus BSI did...

  11. Environmental Surveillance. An Additional/Alternative Approach for Virological Surveillance in Greece?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Vantarakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection of viruses in the sewage of an urban city by nucleic acid amplification techniques allows the identification of the viral strains that are circulating in the community. The aim of the study was the application of such detection which gives useful data on the distribution, spread, and frequency of these viruses, supporting epidemiological studies of the related viral infections. A two year (2007–2009 survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of human adenoviruses (hAdV, hepatitis A viruses (HAV, hepatitis E viruses (HEV, noroviruses (NoV, and human polyomaviruses (hPyV in sewage samples collected from the inlet of a municipal biological wastewater treatment plant located in southwestern Greece. PCR methods were used for this survey. In total, viruses have been detected in 87.5% (42/48 of the analyzed sewage samples. Analytically, DNA viruses, hAdVs and hPyVs have been detected in 45.8% (22/48 and 68.8% (33/48 of the samples, respectively. As it concerns RNA viruses, HAV was detected in 8.3% (4/48, NoVs in 6.3% (3/48, while HEV has not been detected at all. After sequencing, AdVs were typed as Ad8, Ad40 and Ad41, while both JC and BK hPyVs have been recognized. All NoVs have been identified as GII4, while HAV was typed as genotype IA. Similar long-term studies could be undertaken in countries such as Greece in order to offer a valuable and complementary tool to current problematic epidemiological surveillance systems. This study demonstrates the advantages of environmental surveillance as a tool to determine the epidemiology of viruses circulating in a given community. To our knowledge this was the first of its kind study performed in Greece in order to establish this new way of surveillance.

  12. Developing a surveillance system for HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from other interventions, surveillance remains a major focus of the national response to HIV/AIDS. However, with a shift in the epidemic pattern, the existing surveillance strategies are barely insufficient and long-term structural changes are desirable. This article provides a conceptual framework for developing a scientific system for HIV surveillance in Pakistan. Second generation surveillance system including repeated cross-sectional surveys in high risk population groups are suggested to collect behavioral and serological data at regular intervals on an annual basis to monitor the epidemic trend as well as the associated behaviors. In addition, multiple data resources have been highlighted, which could be coordinated to describe the epidemic pattern in the country. This information should form the basis for national prevention planning and ought to be used for making sensible choices through which prevention efforts are most likely to reduce new infections. (author)

  13. Invasive meningococcal disease in Malta: an epidemiological overview, 1994-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Mark; Spiteri, Gianfranco; Calleja, Neville; Haider, Julie; Gray, Stephen J; Melillo, Jackie Maistre; Mamo, Julian; Cuschieri, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Since 1996, Malta has experienced an upsurge of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) following an almost 30 year period with a negligible number of annually reported cases. We reviewed the 233 IMD cases notified during a 14 year period (1994-2007), and analysed epidemiological and laboratory surveillance data. The crude incidence per 100,000 inhabitants peaked in 2000 at 8.1 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 5.7-11.6] and again in 2006 at 8.9 (95 % CI 6.4-12.4), thereby placing Malta amongst the countries with the highest incidence of the disease in Europe. Of the total cases, 137 (59 %) were confirmed and 30 (13 %) were classified as probable. However, 66 cases (28 %) had no laboratory evidence of the disease and were classified as possible. Information on the serogroup was available for 114 cases. Serogroup B formed the largest proportion (76 %, n=87) followed by serogroup C (16 %, n=18). B : 4 : P1.19,15 strains (n=46) predominated throughout the study period since their first identification in 1998. With 28 deaths attributed to IMD, the overall case fatality rate was 12 %. Apart from stressing the importance of maintaining high vigilance for IMD, our findings underscore the importance of enhancing laboratory surveillance of the disease, including characterization of the meningococci. Until vaccines against a broad range of serogroup B meningococci become available for universal use, the main methods of control remain the early treatment of cases and the prevention of secondary cases.

  14. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked ......, and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?...

  15. Cryptosporidium: from laboratory diagnosis to surveillance and outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers R.M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The burden of disease caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is unknown. However, routine laboratory diagnosis and surveillance enables the basic epidemiology to be described, changes to be monitored and under-ascertainment to be measured. Although the two main species involved in human disease in developed countries, Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis, have differing epidemiologies and risk factors, national surveillance is generally from isolates identified to the genus level only. Enhancing the data by typing, at least to identify the isolates to the species level, removes some of the noise generated and better identifies the risks than when reports are not species-specific. This level of identification is also valuable for outbreak investigations, but further investigation of the population genetics of C. parvum and C. hominis is required for the development of more readily applied subtyping tools.

  16. Review on the epidemiology and dynamics of BSE epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducrot, C.; Calavas, D.; Arnold, M.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Heim, D.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes how the comprehensive surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and studies carried out on these data has enhanced our knowledge of the epidemiology of BSE. Around 7 000 BSE cases were detected through the screening of about 50 million cattle with rapid tests in Euro

  17. Consumo de sustancias y suicidios en México: resultados del sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica de las adicciones, 1994-2006 Substance use in suicides in Mexico: results of the epidemiological surveillance system of addictions, 1994-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Ocampo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación que existe entre el consumo y número de sustancias y la presentación del suicidio. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los datos se tomaronde la cédula forense del Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de las Adicciones entre 1994 y 2006 de 27 entidades federativas participantes en México. RESULTADOS: El suicidio se presentó en 8.7% de las defunciones por causa violenta en el periodo de estudio. En los hombres se observó que a medida que aumentaba el número de sustancias se elevaba la posibilidad para fallecer por suicidio, en comparación con los decesos por otras causas (una sustancia: RM= 1.8; dos o más: RM= 3.3. En las mujeres, dicha posibilidad se mantiene prácticamente igual en relación con el aumento del número de sustancias detectadas (una sustancia: RM= 3.2; dos o más: RM= 3.6. CONCLUSIÓN: El consumo de sustancias es un factor importante vinculado con el suicidio en los sujetos cuya causa de defunción fue dictaminada por el Servicio Médico Forense mexicano.OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between substance use and the number of substances with the presentation of suicide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were taken from the forensic certificate of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Addictions in the period between 1994 and 2006 from 27 states in Mexico. RESULTS: Suicide was detected in 8.7% of the violent deaths during the study period. Among men, it was observed that the increased number of substances increased the possibility for death by suicide, compared to deaths from other causes (one substance: OR = 1.8; two or more: OR = 3.3. In women, that possibility remains virtually unchanged with the increase in the number of substances detected (one substance: OR = 3.2; two or more: OR = 3.6. DISCUSSION: The use of substances is a major factor associated with suicide in the population whose cause of death was issued by the Mexican Forensic Medical Services.

  18. Population-based surveillance of pediatric pneumonia: use of spatial analysis in an urban area of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana Lúcia Sampaio Sgambatti de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the spatial distribution of childhood community-acquired pneumonia detected through prospective surveillance in Goiânia, Brazil. Three spatial analysis techniques were applied to detect intra-urban geographic aggregation of pneumonia cases: Kernel method, nearest neighbor hierarchical technique, and spatial scan statistic. A total of 724 pneumonia cases confirmed by chest radiography were identified from May 2000 to August 2001. All cases were geocoded on a digital map. The annual pneumonia risk rate was estimated at 566 cases/100,000 children. Analysis using traditional descriptive epidemiology showed a mosaic distribution of pneumonia rates, while GIS methodologies showed a non-random pattern with hot spots of pneumonia. Cluster analysis by spatial scan statistic identified two high-risk areas for pneumonia occurrence, including one most likely cluster (RR = 2.1; p < 0.01 and one secondary cluster (RR = 1.3; p = 0.01. The data used for the study are in line with recent WHO-led efforts to improve and standardize pediatric pneumonia surveillance in developing countries and show how GIS and spatial analysis can be applied to discriminate target areas of pneumonia for public heath intervention.

  19. High dengue case capture rate in four years of a cohort study in Nicaragua compared to national surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Standish

    Full Text Available Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions; however, under-reporting of cases to national surveillance systems hinders accurate knowledge of disease burden and costs. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases identified through the Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study (PDCS were compared to those reported from other health facilities in Managua to the National Epidemiologic Surveillance (NES program of the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health. Compared to reporting among similar pediatric populations in Managua, the PDCS identified 14 to 28 (average 21.3 times more dengue cases each year per 100,000 persons than were reported to the NES. Applying these annual expansion factors to national-level data, we estimate that the incidence of confirmed pediatric dengue throughout Nicaragua ranged from 300 to 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. We have estimated a much higher incidence of dengue than reported by the Ministry of Health. A country-specific expansion factor for dengue that allows for a more accurate estimate of incidence may aid governments and other institutions calculating disease burden, costs, resource needs for prevention and treatment, and the economic benefits of drug and vaccine development.

  20. Resistance trends among clinical isolates in China reported from CHINET surveillance of bacterial resistance, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, F-P; Guo, Y; Zhu, D-M; Wang, F; Jiang, X-F; Xu, Y-C; Zhang, X-J; Zhang, C-X; Ji, P; Xie, Y; Kang, M; Wang, C-Q; Wang, A-M; Xu, Y-H; Shen, J-L; Sun, Z-Y; Chen, Z-J; Ni, Y-X; Sun, J-Y; Chu, Y-Z; Tian, S-F; Hu, Z-D; Li, J; Yu, Y-S; Lin, J; Shan, B; Du, Y; Han, Y; Guo, S; Wei, L-H; Wu, L; Zhang, H; Kong, J; Hu, Y-J; Ai, X-M; Zhuo, C; Su, D-H; Yang, Q; Jia, B; Huang, W

    2016-03-01

    With the aim of gathering temporal trends on bacterial epidemiology and resistance from multiple laboratories in China, the CHINET surveillance system was organized in 2005. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to a unified protocol using the Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems. Results were analyzed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2014 definitions. Between 2005 and 2014, the number of bacterial isolates ranged between 22,774 and 84,572 annually. Rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production among Escherichia coli isolates were stable, between 51.7 and 55.8%. Resistance of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and cefoperazone/sulbactam decreased with time. Carbapenem resistance among K. pneumoniae isolates increased from 2.4 to 13.4%. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains against all of antimicrobial agents tested including imipenem and meropenem decreased with time. On the contrary, resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii strains to carbapenems increased from 31 to 66.7%. A marked decrease of methicillin resistance from 69% in 2005 to 44.6% in 2014 was observed for Staphylococcus aureus. Carbapenem resistance rates in K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii in China are high. Our results indicate the importance of bacterial surveillance studies.

  1. The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in the Canadian North from 1999 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Helferty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . The International Circumpolar Surveillance network is a population-based surveillance system that collects data on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in Northern Canada. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was first introduced in some regions of Northern Canada in 2002, followed by 10-valent (2009 and 13-valent (PCV-13 vaccines (2010. A 23-valent polysaccharide (PPV-23 vaccine was first introduced in 1988 for special populations and adults aged 65 years and older. To describe the epidemiology in the context of pneumococcal vaccination programs, we analysed surveillance data from Northern Canada from 1999 to 2010. Methods . A standardized case report form capturing demographic and clinical information was completed for all IPD cases in Northern Canada meeting the national case definition. Isolates were sent to a reference laboratory for confirmation, serotyping and antimicrobial resistance testing. Both laboratory and epidemiological data were sent to the Public Health Agency of Canada for analysis. Population denominators were obtained from Statistics Canada. Results . From 1999 to 2010, 433 IPD cases were reported (average 36 cases per year. Incidence was greatest among infants aged <2 years and among those aged 65 years and older, with an average annual incidence of 133 and 67 cases per 100,000 population, respectively. After a peak in incidence in 2008, rates among infants have declined. Incidence rates varied from 2 to 16 times greater, depending on the year, among Aboriginals compared to non-Aboriginals. Hospitalization was reported in 89% of all cases and the case fatality ratio was 6.0%. Clinical manifestations varied, with some patients reporting >1 manifestation. Pneumonia was the most common (70%, followed by bacteremia/septicaemia (30% and meningitis (8%. Approximately, 42% of cases aged <2 years in 2009 and 2010 had serotypes covered by the PCV-13. In addition, the majority (89% of serotypes isolated in cases

  2. Disease Surveillance on Complex Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Jose L.; Srinivasan, Ravi; Brownstein, John S.; Galvani, Alison P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2016-01-01

    As infectious disease surveillance systems expand to include digital, crowd-sourced, and social network data, public health agencies are gaining unprecedented access to high-resolution data and have an opportunity to selectively monitor informative individuals. Contact networks, which are the webs of interaction through which diseases spread, determine whether and when individuals become infected, and thus who might serve as early and accurate surveillance sensors. Here, we evaluate three strategies for selecting sensors—sampling the most connected, random, and friends of random individuals—in three complex social networks—a simple scale-free network, an empirical Venezuelan college student network, and an empirical Montreal wireless hotspot usage network. Across five different surveillance goals—early and accurate detection of epidemic emergence and peak, and general situational awareness—we find that the optimal choice of sensors depends on the public health goal, the underlying network and the reproduction number of the disease (R0). For diseases with a low R0, the most connected individuals provide the earliest and most accurate information about both the onset and peak of an outbreak. However, identifying network hubs is often impractical, and they can be misleading if monitored for general situational awareness, if the underlying network has significant community structure, or if R0 is high or unknown. Taking a theoretical approach, we also derive the optimal surveillance system for early outbreak detection but find that real-world identification of such sensors would be nearly impossible. By contrast, the friends-of-random strategy offers a more practical and robust alternative. It can be readily implemented without prior knowledge of the network, and by identifying sensors with higher than average, but not the highest, epidemiological risk, it provides reasonably early and accurate information. PMID:27415615

  3. Disease Surveillance on Complex Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Jose L; Srinivasan, Ravi; Brownstein, John S; Galvani, Alison P; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2016-07-01

    As infectious disease surveillance systems expand to include digital, crowd-sourced, and social network data, public health agencies are gaining unprecedented access to high-resolution data and have an opportunity to selectively monitor informative individuals. Contact networks, which are the webs of interaction through which diseases spread, determine whether and when individuals become infected, and thus who might serve as early and accurate surveillance sensors. Here, we evaluate three strategies for selecting sensors-sampling the most connected, random, and friends of random individuals-in three complex social networks-a simple scale-free network, an empirical Venezuelan college student network, and an empirical Montreal wireless hotspot usage network. Across five different surveillance goals-early and accurate detection of epidemic emergence and peak, and general situational awareness-we find that the optimal choice of sensors depends on the public health goal, the underlying network and the reproduction number of the disease (R0). For diseases with a low R0, the most connected individuals provide the earliest and most accurate information about both the onset and peak of an outbreak. However, identifying network hubs is often impractical, and they can be misleading if monitored for general situational awareness, if the underlying network has significant community structure, or if R0 is high or unknown. Taking a theoretical approach, we also derive the optimal surveillance system for early outbreak detection but find that real-world identification of such sensors would be nearly impossible. By contrast, the friends-of-random strategy offers a more practical and robust alternative. It can be readily implemented without prior knowledge of the network, and by identifying sensors with higher than average, but not the highest, epidemiological risk, it provides reasonably early and accurate information. PMID:27415615

  4. Genomic epidemiology of the haitian cholera outbreak: a single introduction followed by rapid, extensive, and continued spread characterized the onset of the epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eppinger, Mark; Pearson, Talima; Koenig, Sara S. K.;

    2014-01-01

    collection and provides strong molecular evidence that points to a nonindigenous source of the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak and refines epidemiological standards used in outbreak investigations for outbreak inclusion/exclusion following the concept of genomic epidemiology. The generated phylogenomic data...... have major public health relevance in translating sequence-based information to assist in future diagnostic, epidemiological, surveillance, and forensic studies of cholera....

  5. Spatial Bayesian surveillance for small area case event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotejanaprasert, Chawarat; Lawson, Andrew; Bolick-Aldrich, Susan; Hurley, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    There has been little development of surveillance procedures for epidemiological data with fine spatial resolution such as case events at residential address locations. This is often due to difficulties of access when confidentiality of medical records is an issue. However, when such data are available, it is important to be able to affect an appropriate analysis strategy. We propose a model for point events in the context of prospective surveillance based on conditional logistic modeling. A weighted conditional autoregressive model is developed for irregular lattices to account for distance effects, and a Dirichlet tessellation is adopted to define the neighborhood structure. Localized clustering diagnostics are compared including the proposed local Kullback-Leibler information criterion. A simulation study is conducted to examine the surveillance and detection methods, and a data example is provided of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma data in South Carolina. PMID:27566768

  6. Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields. 1: Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude; 2: Field characteristics from waveform measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methner, M.M.; Bowman, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    Recent epidemiologic research has suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) may be associated with leukemia, brain cancer, spontaneous abortions, and Alzheimer`s disease. A walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient ELF-MF levels was developed for use in conducting occupational hazard surveillance. This survey was designed to determine the range of MF levels at different industrial facilities so they could be categorized by MF levels and identified for possible subsequent personal exposure assessments. Industries were selected based on their annual electric power consumption in accordance with the hypothesis that large power consumers would have higher ambient MFs when compared with lower power consumers. Sixty-two facilities within thirteen 2-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) were selected based on their willingness to participate. A traditional industrial hygiene walkaround survey was conducted to identify MF sources, with a special emphasis on work stations.

  7. TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

  8. Infectieziekten Surveillance Informatie Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger MJW; van Pelt W; CIE

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands an electronic network has been proposed for structured data transfer and communication concerning the control of infectious diseases. This project has been baptized ISIS (Infectious diseases Surveillance Information System). It is an initiative of the Dutch Government. ISIS wil

  9. The reporting of race and ethnicity in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    OpenAIRE

    Buehler, J W; Stroup, D F; Klaucke, D N; Berkelman, R L

    1989-01-01

    The authors used 1987 data from the Epidemiologic Surveillance Project (ESP) of the Centers for Disease Control to examine the completeness of race-ethnicity reporting in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. And, to the extent possible, they used ESP to assess racial and ethnic disparities in the occurrence of selected notifiable infectious diseases. For the 30 reporting areas (29 States and the District of Columbia) that provided data to ESP for all of calendar year 1987, ap...

  10. WHO Regional Office for Europe guidance for influenza surveillance in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C S; Andraghetti, R.; Paget, J

    2009-01-01

    Recent international mandates, and the emergent circulation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in human populations, call for strengthening influenza surveillance to better target seasonal influenza control programmes and support pandemic preparedness. This document provides technical guidance to establish sentinel site surveillance to assess the virologic and epidemiologic characteristics of respiratory disease leading to outpatient consultation or hospitalization that may be caused by influenza ...

  11. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  12. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari...

  13. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  14. The changing landscape of rabies epidemiology and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cleaveland

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, major progress has been made in our understanding of critical aspects of rabies epidemiology and control. This paper presents results of recent research, highlighting methodological advances that have been applied to burden of disease studies, rabies epidemiological modelling and rabies surveillance. These results contribute new insights and understanding with regard to the epidemiology of rabies and help to counteract misperceptions that currently hamper rabies control efforts in Africa. The conclusion of these analyses is that the elimination of canine rabies in Africa is feasible, even in wildlife-rich areas, through mass vaccination of domestic dogs and without the need for indiscriminate culling to reduce dog population density. Furthermore, the research provides valuable practical insights that support the operational planning and design of dog vaccination campaigns and rabies surveillance measures.

  15. The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in older adults from 2007 to 2014 in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shalini; Policarpio, Michelle E.; Wong, Kenney; Gubbay, Jonathan; Fediurek, Jill; Deeks, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Ontario, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been sequentially introduced into the publicly funded childhood vaccination program since 2005. A 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) has been routinely recommended for adults aged 65 years and older since 1996. To determine the effect of herd immunity, we examined the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults aged 65 years and older. Methods: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a provincially reportable disease. We were therefore able to conduct a descriptive epidemiologic analysis that included assessing time trends for patients aged 65 years and older using surveillance data from 2007 to 2014. Using serotype information within the surveillance data, cases were grouped into categories according to vaccine type and periods and then compared using Poisson regression. Results: A total of 3825 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were reported among adults aged 65 years and older, for an overall annualized incidence of 25.4 cases per 100 000 population. There was a decrease in incidence due to serotypes included in 7-valent PCV (3.0 to 0.7 cases per 100 000 population) (p herd immunity from the childhood program. A burden of illness due to unique PPV23 serotypes and those that are not covered by a vaccine exists and has increased over time. PMID:27730119

  16. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-01

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  17. Influenza in outpatient ILI case-patients in national hospital-based surveillance, Bangladesh, 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Uz Zaman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent population-based estimates in a Dhaka low-income community suggest that influenza was prevalent among children. To explore the epidemiology and seasonality of influenza throughout the country and among all age groups, we established nationally representative hospital-based surveillance necessary to guide influenza prevention and control efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory illness sentinel surveillance in 12 hospitals across Bangladesh during May 2007-December 2008. We collected specimens from 3,699 patients, 385 (10% which were influenza positive by real time RT-PCR. Among the sample-positive patients, 192 (51% were type A and 188 (49% were type B. Hemagglutinin subtyping of type A viruses detected 137 (71% A/H1 and 55 (29% A/H3, but no A/H5 or other novel influenza strains. The frequency of influenza cases was highest among children aged under 5 years (44%, while the proportions of laboratory confirmed cases was highest among participants aged 11-15 (18%. We applied kriging, a geo-statistical technique, to explore the spatial and temporal spread of influenza and found that, during 2008, influenza was first identified in large port cities and then gradually spread to other parts of the country. We identified a distinct influenza peak during the rainy season (May-September. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our surveillance data confirms that influenza is prevalent throughout Bangladesh, affecting a wide range of ages and causing considerable morbidity and hospital care. A unimodal influenza seasonality may allow Bangladesh to time annual influenza prevention messages and vaccination campaigns to reduce the national influenza burden. To scale-up such national interventions, we need to quantify the national rates of influenza and the economic burden associated with this disease through further studies.

  18. Use of population-based surveillance to define the high incidence of shigellosis in an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N Njuguna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Shigella causes an estimated 160 million infections and >1 million deaths annually. However, limited incidence data are available from African urban slums. We investigated the epidemiology of shigellosis and drug susceptibility patterns within a densely populated urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya through population-based surveillance. METHODS: Surveillance participants were interviewed in their homes every 2 weeks by community interviewers. Participants also had free access to a designated study clinic in the surveillance area where stool specimens were collected from patients with diarrhea (≥3 loose stools within 24 hours or dysentery (≥1 stool with visible blood during previous 24 hours. We adjusted crude incidence rates for participants meeting stool collection criteria at household visits who reported visiting another clinic. RESULTS: Shigella species were isolated from 262 (24% of 1,096 stool specimens [corrected]. The overall adjusted incidence rate was 408/100,000 person years of observation (PYO with highest rates among adults 34-49 years old (1,575/100,000 PYO. Isolates were: Shigella flexneri (64%, S. dysenteriae (11%, S. sonnei (9%, and S. boydii (5%. Over 90% of all Shigella isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and sulfisoxazole. Additional resistance included nalidixic acid (3%, ciprofloxacin (1% and ceftriaxone (1%. CONCLUSION: More than 1 of every 200 persons experience shigellosis each year in this Kenyan urban slum, yielding rates similar to those in some Asian countries. Provision of safe drinking water, improved sanitation, and hygiene in urban slums are needed to reduce disease burden, in addition to development of effective Shigella vaccines.

  19. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions. PMID:25514524

  20. 1998 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 1998. The activities are developed in 11 chapters and 2 appendixes, where are describing the activities and the bases of the Argentine Regulatory System. The following chapters and the appendixes are: 1.-Evolution of the nuclear regulatory activities in the Argentina. 2.-Regulatory system, laws, transport of radioactive materials, safety at the management of radioactive wastes, regulatory documents issued. 3.-Institutional relations with national and international organizations. 4.-Inspections and evaluations of the radiological and nuclear safety. 5.-Inspections and evaluations of safeguards and physical protection. 6.-Occupational surveillance. 7.-Environmental surveillance. 8.-Radiological emergencies. 9.-Scientific and technological activities. 10.-Training and technical information. 11.-Human and economic resources. Appendix 1.-Documents and regulatory licensings. Appendix 2.-Inspections to radioactive facilities

  1. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  2. [Update on the epidemiology of malaria in French Guiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carme, B; Ardillon, V; Girod, R; Grenier, C; Joubert, M; Djossou, F; Ravachol, F

    2009-02-01

    The last study describing the epidemiology of malaria in French Guiana was published 20 years ago. Yet French Guiana in the Americas along with Mayotte in the Indian Ocean is the only French territory with persisting endemic malaria. The purpose of this study is to provide an update based on official malaria surveillance data as well as on information from hospital records and various field surveys that have been carried out in recent years. Due to recurrent problems in collecting thorough, continuous, and consistent data, exact determination of incidence by plasmodium species has always been difficult in French Guiana. These problems include not only the remote location of endemic areas and intense unpredictable migration patterns but also poor data collection methods that do not always ensure consistency and homogeneity. Another factor hindering thorough collection of conventional epidemiological data is the requirement for rapid effective treatment in remote regions. The overall incidence of malaria in French Guiana appears to have remained stable since the beginning of the decade with an average of 3,920 case reports per year for an incidence rate of 20 per thousand, noting that three fourths of the 206,000 inhabitants of French Guiana live outside of endemic areas. Overall involvement of P. falciparum and P. vivax appears to be equal with P. malariae accounting for only 2.6% of cases. Trends in recent years indicate an increase in the number of cases involving P. vivax especially in the eastern zones, i.e. in the Oyapock focus where annual incidences in children have reached up to 500 per thousand and in the whole region located between Saint Georges and Cayenne. Conversely a decrease in endemic levels has been observed in western areas, especially for P. falciparum in the upper and middle focuses of the Maroni. Most zones now causing problems are located near migration points, particularly in relation with clandestine gold panning activities. In the coastal

  3. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  4. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  5. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C System, in particular. It brings out the multiple sub-systems onboard the aircraft comprising the AEW&C system and their spectral coverage. Co-location of several systems has its own problems and resolving them in terms of geometric location, frequency band and time of operation are covered. AEW&C, being an airborne system, has several other requirements  including minimal weight, volume and power considerations, lightning protection, streamlining, structural integrity, thermal management, vibration tolerance, corrosion prevention, erosion resistance, static charge discharge capability, bird strike resilience, etc. The methods adopted to cater to all these requirements in the microwave systems that are used in the AEW&C system are discussed. Paper ultimately speaks of the microwave systems that are designed and developed for the Indian AEW&C system to surmount these unusual constraints.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.138-144, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4255

  6. Supportive housing and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment - safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on 'security', the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  7. Characterization of regional influenza seasonality patterns in China and implications for vaccination strategies: spatio-temporal modeling of surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complexity of influenza seasonal patterns in the inter-tropical zone impedes the establishment of effective routine immunization programs. China is a climatologically and economically diverse country, which has yet to establish a national influenza vaccination program. Here we characterize the diversity of influenza seasonality in China and make recommendations to guide future vaccination programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compiled weekly reports of laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B infections from sentinel hospitals in cities representing 30 Chinese provinces, 2005-2011, and data on population demographics, mobility patterns, socio-economic, and climate factors. We applied linear regression models with harmonic terms to estimate influenza seasonal characteristics, including the amplitude of annual and semi-annual periodicities, their ratio, and peak timing. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling and hierarchical clustering were used to identify predictors of influenza seasonal characteristics and define epidemiologically-relevant regions. The annual periodicity of influenza A epidemics increased with latitude (mean amplitude of annual cycle standardized by mean incidence, 140% [95% CI 128%-151%] in the north versus 37% [95% CI 27%-47%] in the south, p0.6 in provinces located within 27.4°N-31.3°N, slope of latitudinal gradient with latitude -0.016 [95% CI -0.025 to -0.008], p<0.001. In contrast, influenza B activity predominated in colder months throughout most of China. Climate factors were the strongest predictors of influenza seasonality, including minimum temperature, hours of sunshine, and maximum rainfall. Our main study limitations include a short surveillance period and sparse influenza sampling in some of the southern provinces. CONCLUSIONS: Regional-specific influenza vaccination strategies would be optimal in China; in particular, annual campaigns should be initiated 4-6 months apart in Northern and Southern China

  8. Adolescent homicide victimization in Johannesburg, South Africa: incidence and epidemiological characteristics (2001-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of adolescent homicides (15-19 years) in Johannesburg, South Africa. A retrospective population-based study was conducted on cases drawn from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. A total of 590 adolescent homicides were registered for 2001-2009 corresponding to an average annual homicide rate of 23.4/100,000. The average annual rate was 39.8/100,000 for males and 7.9/100,000 for females. Black and coloured adolescents had the highest homicide rates. There was a considerable decline in the firearm homicide rates over the study period. In contrast, sharp instrument and blunt force homicides increased. Public places were the predominant scenes for male deaths, while female homicides occurred primarily in residential locations. Most male homicides took place over weekend nights. Alcohol was a prominent feature of homicides. The high homicide rates reported in this study underscore the need to develop interventions directed specifically at adolescents. Prevention efforts are required to pay particular attention to black and coloured adolescent males, and to address the availability of weapons and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:26076731

  9. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  10. Methods for observational post-licensure medical product safety surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer C; Cook, Andrea J; Yu, Onchee; Zhao, Shanshan; Jackson, Lisa A; Psaty, Bruce M

    2015-04-01

    Post-licensure medical product safety surveillance is important for detecting adverse events potentially not identified pre-licensure. Historically, post-licensure safety monitoring has been accomplished using passive reporting systems and by conducting formal Phase IV randomized trials or large epidemiological studies, also known as safety surveillance or pharmacovigilance studies. However, crucial gaps in the safety evidence base provided by these approaches have led to high profile product withdrawals and growing public concern about unknown health risks associated with licensed products. To address the limitations of existing surveillance systems and to facilitate more accurate and rapid detection of safety problems, new systems involving active surveillance of large, population-based cohorts using observational health care databases are being developed. In this article, we review common statistical methods that have been employed previously for post-licensure safety monitoring, including data mining and sequential hypothesis testing, and assess which methods may be promising for potential use within this newly proposed prospective observational cohort monitoring framework. We discuss gaps in existing approaches and identify areas where methodological development is needed to improve the success of safety surveillance efforts in this setting.

  11. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  12. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  13. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  14. Zoonotic transmission of rotavirus: surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóró, Renáta; Farkas, Szilvia L; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2015-01-01

    Group A rotavirus (Rotavirus A, RVA) is the main cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea in humans and numerous animal species. RVA shows vast diversity and a variety of human strains share genetic and antigenic features with animal origin RVA strains. This finding suggests that interspecies transmission is an important mechanism of rotavirus evolution and contributes to the diversity of human RVA strains. RVA is responsible for half a million deaths and several million hospitalizations worldwide. Globally, two rotavirus vaccines are available for routine use in infants. These vaccines show a great efficacy profile and induce protective immunity against various rotavirus strains. However, little is known about the long-term evolution and epidemiology of RVA strains under selective pressure related to vaccine use. Continuous strain surveillance in the post-vaccine licensure era is needed to help better understand mechanisms that may affect vaccine effectiveness. PMID:26428261

  15. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  16. Influenza epidemiology in Italy two years after the 2009–2010 pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo; Amicizia, Daniela; Bella, Antonino; Donatelli, Isabella; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Panatto, Donatella; Lai, Piero Luigi

    2013-01-01

    vaccination coverage was low, never exceeding 20% of the Italian population. Among the elderly, coverage rates grew from 40% in 1999 to almost 70% in 2005–2006, but subsequently decreased, in spite of the pandemic; this trend reveals a slight, though constant, decline in compliance with vaccination. Our data confirm that 2009 pandemics had had a spread particularly important in infants and schoolchildren, and this fact supports the strategy to vaccinate schoolchildren at least until 14 y of age. Furthermore, the low levels of vaccination coverage in Italy reveal the need to improve the catch-up of at-risk subjects during annual influenza vaccination campaigns, and, if possible, to extend free vaccination to at least all 50–64-y-old subjects. Virologic and epidemiological surveillance remains critical for detection of evolving influenza viruses and to monitor the health and economic burden in all age class annually. PMID:23292210

  17. A vigilância epidemiológica e a perspectiva de trabalho no território: Secretaria Municipal de Saúde - Ribeirão Preto La vigilancia epidemiológica y la perspectiva de trabajo en el territorio: secretaria municipal de salud de Ribeirão Preto Epidemiological surveillance and the perspective of working in the territory: Ribeirão Preto Municipal Health Secretariat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa

    2002-01-01

    acciones de la Vigilancia Epidemiológica están relacionadas con la perspectiva de un trabajo en el territorio en la construcción de la Vigilancia en la Salud, asegurando el contenido técnico de esas acciones y la participación de diferentes categorías profesionales en un mismo proyecto de trabajo que no necesita ser ejecutada por todos los profesionales en el proceso de producción, espacio y tiempo.This study aimed at analyzing the conformation of the Epidemiological Surveillance Service in Ribeirão Preto Municipal Health Secretariat under the orientation of the principles established by the Unified Health System and the perspective of Health Surveillance in face of the health care municipalization process occurring in the 1990s through the following dimensions: territory; problems; intersectoriality based on positive health concepts and on the paradigm of social health production. By means of a qualitative approach, bibliographical and documentation sources as well as 17 semi-structured interviews were used. Data were analyzed through the thematic analysis technique by which the following themes were identified: from "Monitoring" to "Educating and Preventing": practice in Epidemiological Surveillance -- a proposal to work in the territory. It was concluded that the potentiality of actions related to Epidemiological Surveillance is associated with the perspective of working in the territory for the construction of Health Surveillance in order to assure the technical content of those actions as well as the participation of different professional categories in the same work project, which will not necessarily be performed by all professionals in the same health production process, territory or time.

  18. Gender-specific epidemiology of diabetes: a representative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anne W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes and its associated complications are part of a chronic disease global epidemic that presents a public health challenge. Epidemiologists examining health differences between men and women are being challenged to recognise the biological and social constructions behind the terms 'sex' and/or 'gender', together with social epidemiology principles and the life course approach. This paper examines the epidemiology of a population with diabetes from the north-west metropolitan region of South Australia. Methods Data were used from a sub-population with diabetes (n = 263, from 4060 adults aged 18 years and over living in the north-west suburbs of Adelaide, South Australia. Eligible respondents were asked to participate in a telephone interview, a self-report questionnaire and a biomedical examination. Diabetes (undiagnosed and diagnosed was determined using self-reported information and a fasting blood test administered to participants. Data were analysed using SPSS (Version 10.0 and EpiInfo (Version 6.0. Results Factors associated with diabetes for both men and women were being aged 40 years and over, and having a low gross annual household income, obesity and a family history of diabetes. In addition, being an ex-smoker and having low cholesterol levels were associated with diabetes among men. Among women, having a high waist-hip ratio, high blood pressure and reporting a previous cardiovascular event or mental health problem were associated with diabetes. Conclusion The results found that men and women with diabetes face different challenges in the management of their condition. Public health implications include a need for quality surveillance data, including epidemiological life course, social, behavioural, genetic and environmental factors. This will enrich the evidence base for health promotion professionals and allow policy makers to draw inferences and conclusions for interventions and planning purposes.

  19. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  20. Mohnarin annual report of 2009:bacterial drug resistance surveillance of outpatients and emergency patients%Mohnarin2009年度报告:门急诊患者来源细菌耐药监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯芳; 吕媛

    2011-01-01

    were collected during the survey period in 114 hospitals, which included 6109(61.5% ) gram - negative bacterial strains and 3820(38.5% ) gram - positive bacterial strains.E.coli, K.pneumoniae, S.aureus, P.aeruginosa and S.epidermidis were the most common isolates.The incidences of methicillin - resistant S.aureus ( MRSA), S.epidermidis ( MRSE ) and S.haemolyticus were 45.6%, 69.8% and 68.1%, respectively.No vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus strains were found.There were 1.2% of E.faecalis and 3.1% of E.faecium resistant to vancomycin No linezolid resistant Enterococcus strains were found.The rate of penicillin sensitive Strep.pneumoniae is above 60%.Fifty - one point sevent percent of E.coli and 45.9% of K.pneumoniae isolates were the strains producing extended spectrum - β - lactamases (ESBLs).Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were still highly sensitive to imipenem and meropenem.The average resistance rates were less than 1%.About 20% of P.aeruginosa strains were resistant to the two carbapenems,while the drug resistance rate of A.baumannii was above 50%.Conclusion E.coli, K.pneumoniae, S.aureus and P.aeruginosa were the most common isolates in outpatients and emergency patients in China.MRSA incidence of overall bacteria collection surveillance is lower than the result last year, but ESBLs positive rates of E.coli and K.pneumoniae are higher than the results of last year of overall bacteria collection surveillance.

  1. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events. PMID:27314657

  2. Self-Surveillance Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jerry; Shilton, Katie; Estrin, D; Burke, Jeffrey A; Hansen, Mark,

    2011-01-01

    It has become cliché to observe that new information technologies endanger privacy. Typically, the threat is viewed as coming from Big Brother (the government) or Company Man (the firm). But for a nascent data practice we call “self-surveillance,” the threat may actually come from ourselves. Using various existing and emerging technologies, such as GPS-enabled smartphones, we are beginning to measure ourselves in granular detail – how long we sleep, where we drive, what we breathe, what w...

  3. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; Pelt W van; Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan; CIE

    1996-01-01

    In the Project Surveillance Hospital Acquired Infections a surveillance system in a national network of hospitals is being developed and implemented. In the project surveillance of hospital acquired infections is implemented in components: surveillance of surgical wound infections, surveillance of i

  4. How to make epidemiological training infectious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    Full Text Available Modern infectious disease epidemiology builds on two independently developed fields: classical epidemiology and dynamical epidemiology. Over the past decade, integration of the two fields has increased in research practice, but training options within the fields remain distinct with few opportunities for integration in the classroom. The annual Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data (MMED at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences has begun to address this gap. MMED offers participants exposure to a broad range of concepts and techniques from both epidemiological traditions. During MMED 2010 we developed a pedagogical approach that bridges the traditional distinction between classical and dynamical epidemiology and can be used at multiple educational levels, from high school to graduate level courses. The approach is hands-on, consisting of a real-time simulation of a stochastic outbreak in course participants, including realistic data reporting, followed by a variety of mathematical and statistical analyses, stemming from both epidemiological traditions. During the exercise, dynamical epidemiologists developed empirical skills such as study design and learned concepts of bias while classical epidemiologists were trained in systems thinking and began to understand epidemics as dynamic nonlinear processes. We believe this type of integrated educational tool will prove extremely valuable in the training of future infectious disease epidemiologists. We also believe that such interdisciplinary training will be critical for local capacity building in analytical epidemiology as Africa continues to produce new cohorts of well-trained mathematicians, statisticians, and scientists. And because the lessons draw on skills and concepts from many fields in biology--from pathogen biology, evolutionary dynamics of host--pathogen interactions, and the ecology of infectious disease to bioinformatics, computational biology, and

  5. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  6. [Chronic diseases as a priority for the public health surveillance system in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral Cortes, José María; Aragonés Sanz, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Sierra Moros, María José; Cano Portero, Rosa; González Moran, Francisco; Pousa Ortega, Ánxela

    2016-01-01

    At present, epidemiological surveillance in Spain remains focused on the communicable diseases included in the list of notifiable diseases. However, there has been a change in epidemiological pattern that predominated until the last few decades of the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, which used to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, have given way to a predominance of chronic diseases. In this regard, progress has been made in the drafting and adoption of specific legal regulations on public health monitoring. However, Spain has yet to develop this legislation which, among other elements, includes the mandate to organize the surveillance of non-communicable diseases in Spain. This article aims to describe some points that should be considered in the development of a national surveillance system linked to existing strategies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases. PMID:26832857

  7. EVMS Self-Surveillance of Remote Handled Low Level Waste (RHLLW) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Nelson; Kimberly Case; Linda Hergesheimer; Maxine Johnson; Doug Parker; Rick Staten; Scott taylor

    2013-07-01

    DOE G 413.3-10A, Section 3.a states: “The Contractor has primary responsibility for implementing and maintaining a surveillance program to ensure continued compliance of the system with ANSI/EIA-748B. DOE O 413.3B requires the FPD to ensure the contractor conducts a Self-Surveillance annually. This annual Self-Surveillance,…should cover all 32 guidelines of the ANSI/EIA748B. Documentation of the Self-Surveillance is sent to the CO and the PMSO (copy to OECM) confirming the continued compliance of their EVMS ANSI/EIA748B...” This review, and the associated report, is deemed to satisfy this requirement.

  8. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    National and international disease outbreaksAfrican horse sickness in South AfricaRising EHV-1 abortion cases in the UKSummary of surveillance testing, January to March 2016 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27474057

  9. Tracking Pertussis and Evaluating Control Measures through Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance, Emerging Infections Program, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoff, Tami H; Baumbach, Joan; Cieslak, Paul R

    2015-09-01

    Despite high coverage with pertussis-containing vaccines, pertussis remains endemic to the United States. There have been increases in reported cases in recent years, punctuated by striking epidemics and shifting epidemiology, both of which raise questions about current policies regarding its prevention and control. Limited data on pertussis reported through the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System have proved insufficient to answer these questions. To address shortcomings of national pertussis data, the Emerging Infections Program at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance (EPS), which is characterized by systematic case ascertainment, augmented data collection, and collection of Bordetella pertussis isolates. Data collected through EPS have been instrumental in understanding the rapidly evolving epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of pertussis and have contributed essential information regarding pertussis vaccines. EPS also serves as a platform for conducting critical and timely evaluations of pertussis prevention and control strategies, including targeting of vaccinations and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26291475

  10. Mind the scales: Harnessing spatial big data for infectious disease surveillance and inferences

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Elizabeth C; Goldlust, Sandra; Kraemer, John D; Lawson, Andrew B; Bansal, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    Spatial big data have the "velocity," "volume," and "variety" of big data sources and additional geographic information about the record. Digital data sources, such as medical claims, mobile phone call data records, and geo-tagged tweets, have entered infectious disease epidemiology as novel sources of data to complement traditional infectious disease surveillance. In this work, we provide examples of how spatial big data have been used thus far in epidemiological analyses and describe opportunities for these sources to improve public health coordination and disease mitigation strategies. In addition, we consider the technical, practical, and ethical challenges with the use of spatial big data in infectious disease surveillance and inference. Finally, we discuss the implications of the rising use of spatial big data in epidemiology to health risk communications, across-scale public health coordination, and public health policy recommendation.

  11. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  12. Epidemiological trends of RF/RHD in school children of Shimla in north India

    OpenAIRE

    Negi, Prakash Chand; Kanwar, Anubhav; Chauhan, Renu; Asotra, Sanjeev; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Bhardwaj, Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: There are no active surveillance studies reported from South East Asian Region to document the impact of change in socio-economic state on the prevalence of rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease (RF/RHD) in children. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the epidemiological trends of RF/RHD in school children of Shimla city and adjoining suburbs in north India and its association with change in socio-economic status. Methods: Active surveillance studies were ...

  13. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Pacific, 2000 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Viney

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tuberculosis (TB poses a significant public health challenge in the 22 Pacific island countries and territories. Using TB surveillance data and World Health Organization (WHO estimates from 2000 to 2013, we summarize the epidemiology of TB in the Pacific. Methods: This was a descriptive study of incident TB cases reported annually by Pacific island national TB programmes to WHO. We counted cases and calculated proportions and case notification rates per 100 000 population. We calculated the proportion of TB patients who completed TB treatment and summed estimates of national incidence, prevalence and mortality, provided by WHO, to produce regional incidence, prevalence and mortality rates per 100 000 population. Results: Estimated TB incidence in the Pacific has remained high but stable from 2000 to 2013; estimated prevalence and mortality have fallen by 20% and 47%, respectively. The TB case notification rate increased by 58%, from 146 to 231 per 100 000 population in the same time period. In 2013, 24 145 TB cases were notified, most (94% or 22 657 were from Papua New Guinea. Kiribati had the highest TB case notification rate at 398 cases per 100 000 population. TB case notification rates were also high in Papua New Guinea, the Marshall Islands and Tuvalu (309, 283 and 182, respectively. Discussion: TB in the Pacific is improving in some areas; however, high rates affect many countries and the estimated regional incidence rate is stable. To further reduce the burden of TB, a combination of dedicated public health and system-wide approaches are required along with poverty reduction and social protection initiatives.

  14. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  15. Video surveillance at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark R.; Pollak, Joshua B.; Ralph, Scott; Snorrason, Magnus S.

    2005-05-01

    The interpretation of video imagery is the quintessential goal of computer vision. The ability to group moving pixels into regions and then associate those regions with semantic labels has long been studied by the vision community. In urban nighttime scenarios, the difficulty of this task is simultaneously alleviated and compounded. At night there is typically less movement in the scene, which makes the detection of relevant motion easier. However, the poor quality of the imagery makes it more difficult to interpret actions from these motions. In this paper, we present a system capable of detecting moving objects in outdoor nighttime video. We focus on visible-and-near-infrared (VNIR) cameras, since they offer low cost and very high resolution compared to alternatives such as thermal infrared. We present empirical results demonstrating system performance on a parking lot surveillance scenario. We also compare our results to a thermal infrared sensor viewing the same scene.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Rotaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagomi, Osamu

    2004-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses emerged a little over 25 years ago as a fascinating branch of science that utilized then cutting-edge technology of RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular epidemiology, as I have observed it closely almost since its dawn, is an ever-evolving discipline which has incorporated the advances of the related sciences including molecular evolutionary biology and ecology, while it is firmly and deeply rooted in the edifice of epidemiology of infectious...

  17. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  18. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance. PMID:6110574

  19. Epidemiologi for sundhedspersonale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En introduktion til fagområdet Epidemiologi. Målgruppen er studerende på mellemlange videregående uddannelser. Bogen består af følgende afsnit: Indledning, beskrivelse, analyse, intervention og anvendt epidemiologi. Herunder: Erhvervsepidemiologi......En introduktion til fagområdet Epidemiologi. Målgruppen er studerende på mellemlange videregående uddannelser. Bogen består af følgende afsnit: Indledning, beskrivelse, analyse, intervention og anvendt epidemiologi. Herunder: Erhvervsepidemiologi...

  20. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs 3 (ESNIP 3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Scott M.; Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    sequencing using the latest technology. The virus bank and electronic database will be expanded and formally curated with relevant SIV isolates together with information for global dissemination within and out with the consortium to the wider scientific and veterinary community. Conclusions: All data...... influenza virus (SIV) experimentally and in the field. Three work packages aim to increase knowledge of the epidemiology and evolution of SIV in European pigs to inform changes in disease trends and variation in contemporary viruses through organised field surveillance programmes. Results: An inventory...... of the programmes that are currently active in fifteen of the partners showed that passive surveillance was primarily used. Detected virus strains will be characterised by antigenic cartography (informing better evidence-based approaches for selection of vaccine strains) and genetically through full genome...

  1. Integrating results of laboratory surveillance of human illness and monitoring of animals and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost-efficient monitoring of food contamination and surveillance of foodborne diseases requires a coordinated multidisciplinary approach with the participation of stakeholders from all sectors of the 'farm-to-consumption' continuum including the public health sector. To facilitate communication and coordination, establishment of a coordinating body with the participation of relevant stakeholders is recommended. Furthermore, relevant surveillance data from all stages in the food production chain and from the surveillance of human disease should be continuously collected and analysed to evaluate trends and sources of foodborne disease. The establishment of a dedicated multidisciplinary surveillance unit involving epidemiological and microbiological expertise from all sectors can facilitate this type of coherent data analysis and feed back. Systems such as these can be operated at the national, regional and global levels. (author)

  2. Epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Brazil: a hierarchical model

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Teresa; Reis-Santos, Bárbara; Bertolde, Adelmo; Johnson, John L.; Riley, Lee W.; Maciel, Ethel Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Background Although extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is less frequent than Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) and is a secondary target for national TB control programs, its significance has increased worldwide during the HIV epidemic. The objective of this study was to examine the epidemiology of EPTB in Brazil between 2007 and 2011. Methods Cross-sectional study involving all cases of TB reported to the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (Sistema de Informações de Agravo de Notif...

  3. 'Next-Generation' Surveillance: An Epidemiologists' Perspective on the Use of Molecular Information in Food Safety and Animal Health Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, P; Stärk, K D C; Dufour, S; Zadoks, R N

    2016-08-01

    Advances in the availability and affordability of molecular and genomic data are transforming human health care. Surveillance aimed at supporting and improving food safety and animal health is likely to undergo a similar transformation. We propose a definition of 'molecular surveillance' in this context and argue that molecular data are an adjunct to rather than a substitute for sound epidemiological study and surveillance design. Specific considerations with regard to sample collection are raised, as is the importance of the relation between the molecular clock speed of genetic markers and the spatiotemporal scale of the surveillance activity, which can be control- or strategy-focused. Development of standards for study design and assessment of molecular surveillance system attributes is needed, together with development of an interdisciplinary skills base covering both molecular and epidemiological principles. PMID:26537766

  4. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  5. Digital epidemiology reveals global childhood disease seasonality and the effects of immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Kevin M.; Martinez-Bakker, Micaela Elvira; Helm, Barbara; Stevenson, Tyler J.

    2016-01-01

    Public health surveillance systems are important for tracking disease dynamics. In recent years, social and real-time digital data sources have provided new means of studying disease transmission. Such affordable and accessible data have the potential to offer new insights into disease epidemiology at national and international scales. We used the extensive information repository Google Trends to examine the digital epidemiology of a common childhood disease, chicken pox, caused b...

  6. Standard protocol for demographic and epidemiological survey to be carried out for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the standard procedures for conducting demographic and epidemiological studies for nuclear facilities. These studies are required to be carried out to prepare baseline data, the impact of the facility and the risk factors for the population residing in the vicinity of facility. This document includes the basic elements of these type surveys, their methodology and statistical analysis of the data collected during demographic and epidemiological surveillance. (author)

  7. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poff, Ben [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hjeresen, Denny [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Isaacson, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Scot [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morgan, Terry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Paulson, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salzman, Sonja [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rogers, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) environmental organization, as required by US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2009. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (air in Chapter 4; water and sediments in Chapters 5 and 6; soils in Chapter 7; and foodstuffs and biota in Chapter 8) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. The new Chapter 10 describes the Laboratory’s environmental stewardship efforts and provides an overview of the health of the Rio Grande. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory’s technical

  8. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) environmental organization, as required by US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.IA, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory's efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory's major environmental programs. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory's compliance status for 2005. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, Air; Chapters 5 and 6, Water and Sediments; Chapter 7, Soils; and Chapter 8, Foodstuffs and Biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9, new for this year, provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list ofacronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory's technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information.

  9. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gallagher, Pat [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hjeresen, Denny [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Isaacson, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johson, Scot [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morgan, Terry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Paulson, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rogers, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2009-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) Environmental Programs Directorate, as required by US Department of Energy Order 450.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2007. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, air; Chapters 5 and 6, water and sediments; Chapter 7, soils; and Chapter 8, foodstuffs and biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory’s technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information.

  10. Trends in animal rabies surveillance in the endemic state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael E Oviedo-Pastrana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a viral zoonosis affecting mammal species and causes large economic losses. Included among the neglected diseases, it is still insufficiently addressed by governments and the international community, despite formal surveillance and control programs. This study used a dataset of 10,112 rabies diagnoses in animals provided by the Brazilian passive surveillance system from 2001 to 2012. The positivity rate of the tested samples was 26.4%, and a reduction in the total samples sent during the last six years was observed. The kernel density map indicated case concentration in the south region and a decrease in density of rabies cases in the second period studied (2007 to 2012. The directional trend of positive rabies diagnoses remained in the south region, as shown by the standard deviational ellipse. The spatial scan statistic identified three large clusters of positive diagnoses, one in the first period (2001-2006 and two in the second period (2007-2012, indicating an expansion of risk areas. The decrease in rabies cases from 2006 to 2012 does not necessarily reflect lower viral circulation or improvement in actions by epidemiological surveillance; this decrease could indicate a deficiency in epidemiological surveillance during the observation period due to the increase in the silent areas. Surveillance should maintain an increasing or constant number of tests during the years in addition to a reduction in the number of outbreaks of rabies, which would indicate a lower positivity rate. The findings in this study indicate deterioration in the effectiveness of the passive surveillance for rabies. The number of rabies cases, total number of tests performed and positivity rate are good indicators for evaluating passive surveillance. This paper can function as a guide for the assessment and improvement of the actions in passive surveillance of rabies.

  11. Fuel performance annual report for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report, the thirteenth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1990 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience and trends, fuel problems high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided . References to additional, more detailed information, and related NRC evaluations are included where appropriate

  12. Vaccine epidemiology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  13. Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in the Western Pacific Region: update with 2013 case notification data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hiatt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the year 2000, tuberculosis (TB prevalence in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region decreased 36%. However, there were an estimated 1.6 million TB cases in the Region in 2013. This study describes a regional analysis using the WHO global TB database data from 2000 to 2013. Methods: TB surveillance data are annually collected from 36 countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region using a web-based system. TB case notifications, treatment outcomes and information on TB/HIV coinfection are analysed descriptively. Stratified analysis of the TB data by age, sex and countries and areas were conducted. Results: Countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region notified 1.3 million new and relapse TB cases in 2013. TB notification rate increased in the early 2000s, stabilized for several years and declined recently. Country-specific TB notification rates declined over time for all age groups in most countries. TB treatment success rates remain high in the Region with 16 countries reaching or maintaining 85% (or higher in 2013. HIV testing among TB cases has increased gradually with approximately 11 000 HIV-positive TB cases diagnosed each year since 2009. Discussion: The results suggest that true TB incidence is possibly declining. Treatment success rates have remained high for six of seven high-burden countries. TB surveillance data analysis is an important source of programmatic and epidemiological information. Careful interpretation of these findings can provide useful insight for programmatic decision-making. While the TB burden remains immense, national TB programmes must evolve and adapt to build upon previous efforts.

  14. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983-2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  15. Breast cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  16. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  17. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  18. Influenza epidemiology in Italy two years after the 2009-2010 pandemic: need to improve vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo; Amicizia, Daniela; Bella, Antonino; Donatelli, Isabella; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Panatto, Donatella; Lai, Piero Luigi

    2013-03-01

    , never exceeding 20% of the Italian population. Among the elderly, coverage rates grew from 40% in 1999 to almost 70% in 2005-2006, but subsequently decreased, in spite of the pandemic; this trend reveals a slight, though constant, decline in compliance with vaccination. Our data confirm that 2009 pandemics had had a spread particularly important in infants and schoolchildren, and this fact supports the strategy to vaccinate schoolchildren at least until 14 y of age. Furthermore, the low levels of vaccination coverage in Italy reveal the need to improve the catch-up of at-risk subjects during annual influenza vaccination campaigns, and, if possible, to extend free vaccination to at least all 50-64-y-old subjects. Virologic and epidemiological surveillance remains critical for detection of evolving influenza viruses and to monitor the health and economic burden in all age class annually.

  19. The Effectiveness of IMF Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Biagio Bossone

    2008-01-01

    IMF surveillance of the international monetary and financial system is a global public good. Its effectiveness depends critically on the dynamics that underpin the mechanisms governing the IMF and global finance. These dynamics, in turn, reflect the interests and power of influence of countries (especially the largest), their cooperative attitude and international relations. Assessing the effectiveness of IMF surveillance, therefore, demands a clear understanding of the IMF and global financi...

  20. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  1. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). PMID:23327375

  2. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  3. WHO - IPHECA: Epidemiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1991 the World Health Assembly endorsed the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) under the auspices of WHO. Five pilot projects have been carried out within IPHECA in the study territories of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in a period from 1991 to 1994. This pilot projects dealt with the detection and treatment of leukaemia and related diseases (Haematology Project), thyroid disorders (Thyroid project), brain damage during exposure 'in-utero' (Brain Damage 'in-Utero' project) and with the development of the Chernobyl registries (Epidemiological Registry Project). A fifth pilot project on oral health was performed only in Belarus. Epidemiological investigations have been an important component of all IPHECA pilot projects. Within 'Epidemiological Registry' Project such investigations have been the principal activity. But with respect to other IPHECA projects it was carried out in addition to main objectives relating to medical monitoring, early diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases included in project protocols. To support the epidemiological investigations within IPHECA, WHO supplied 41 computers in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine and provided training for specialists from these countries in internationally recognized centres. The training programmes and host countries were as follows: standardization of epidemiological investigations (United Kingdom), radiation epidemiology (Russia), development of software (United Kingdom), principles of epidemiological investigations (The Czech Republic), cohort investigations (Japan)

  4. “What the Eyes Don’t See, the Heart Doesn’t Grieve Over”: Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Bloodstream Infections following Cardiac Catheterization

    OpenAIRE

    Dicks, Kristen V.; Staheli, Russell; Anderson, Deverick J.; Miller, Becky A.; Jones, W. Schuyler; Harrison, J. Kevin; Sexton, Daniel J.; Moehring, Rebekah W.; Chen, Luke F.

    2012-01-01

    No standard definition exists for surveillance and characterization of the epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) after cardiac catheterization (CC) procedures. We proposed a novel case definition and determined the epidemiology and risk factors of BSIs after CC procedure using this new definition.

  5. Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, R J; Davis, P M; Meadow, S R; Sibert, J R

    1996-07-01

    A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period to discuss any of the above conditions. A total of 128 cases were identified: 55 suffered Munchausen syndrome by proxy alone, 15 poisoning, and 15 suffocation; 43 suffered more than one type of abuse. The majority of children were aged under 5 years, the median age being 20 months. On 85% of occasions the perpetrator was the child's mother. In 42% of families with more than one child, a sibling had previously suffered some form of abuse. Eighty five per cent of notifying paediatricians considered the probability of their diagnosis as virtually certain before a case conference was convened. The commonest drugs used to poison were anticonvulsants; opiates were the second commonest. Sixty eight children suffered severe illness of whom eight died. The combined annual incidence of these conditions in children aged under 16 years is at least 0.5/100,000, and for children aged under 1, at least 2.8/100,000.

  6. Epidemiological profile of tuberculosis in the city of Belo Horizonte (MG, from 2002 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dener Carlos dos Reis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, from 2002 to 2008. Methods: For descriptive epidemiological study, the data were obtained from the municipal National Health Surveillance System, after obtaining approval from the Research Ethics Committee at the City Health Department. Incidence coefficient, average rates and stratified data analysis with significance level of p ≤ 0.05 were calculated. Results: About 7.590 new tuberculosis cases were reported between 2002 and 2008. There was a slight reduction in the number of cases throughout the historical trend, with an average annual incidence rate of 46/100,000 inhabitants. The study also showed a male gender ratio of 1.84:1, a higher incidence coefficient in the age group between 40 and 59 years old (73/100,000 and a higher incidence of tuberculosis among people who only had primary education level. Pulmonary tuberculosis was the most prevalent form in every year of the study (p < 0,001. Among the cases reported with associated diseases, alcoholism was registered in 47.9% and AIDS in 34.5%. Between 2002 and 2008, there was an increasing trend of cases treated under Directly Observed Treatment, accounting for 29.5% in total. Cure percentage rate was below the expected result (67.3% and non-adherence to treatment showed a high total percentage (17.9%. Conclusion: The results indicated that tuberculosis control actions need to be intensified with investments on professional training, systemic audits of the information system, improved integration between AIDS/tuberculosis programs and raising awareness of the disease with the goal of mobilizing the society.

  7. A multicentre analysis of epidemiology of the nosocomial bloodstream infections in Japanese university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M

    2013-09-01

    Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The current study analysed data from a concurrent surveillance programme to examine the current epidemiological trends for nosocomial BSIs at 22 Japanese university hospitals from 1 April 2008 to 31 March 2012. The number of blood culture sets taken, the rate of multiple blood culture sets and the rates of antibiotic-resistant isolates among six major nosocomial BSI pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida spp.) not including coagulase-negative staphylococci, were evaluated. The clinical characteristics of nosocomial BSIs caused by these pathogens were also collected for 2941 patients. The number of blood culture sets taken per bed increased during the 4-year study period (from 4.07 in 2008 to 5.37 in 2011), and the rates of multiple blood culture sets also increased (from 29.9% in 2008 to 50.0% in 2011). Methicillin resistance was detected in 50.2% of S. aureus isolates. The prevalence rates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates increased annually during the study period, and the average prevalence rates were 12.3% and 5.8%, respectively. The overall crude mortality of nosocomial BSIs due to the six pathogens evaluated was 24.5% (43.2% in ICU settings and 20.5% in non-ICU settings). Thus, our multicentre study evaluated the current epidemiological trends for nosocomial BSIs, and we found that further efforts are needed to increase the use of multiple blood culture sets and improve the prognosis of nosocomial BSIs in Japanese university hospitals.

  8. Epidemiology of whooping cough & typing of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, Nicolas; Guiso, Nicole

    2013-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative human-restricted bacterium that evolved from the broad-range mammalian pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica. It causes whooping cough or pertussis in humans, which is the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease worldwide. The introduction of the pertussis whole-cell vaccination for young children, followed by the introduction of the pertussis acellular vaccination (along with booster vaccination) for older age groups, has affected the bacterial population and epidemiology of the disease. B. pertussis is relatively monomorphic worldwide, but nevertheless, different countries are facing different epidemiological evolutions of the disease. Although it is tempting to link vaccine-driven phenotypic and genotypic evolution of the bacterium to epidemiology, many other factors should be considered and surveillance needs to continue, in addition to studies investigating the impact of current clinical isolates on vaccine efficacy.

  9. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology.

  10. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: A critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Elbers, Armin R W; Hendrikx, Pascal; Enoe, Claes; Kirkeby, Carsten; Hoinville, Linda; Lindberg, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom, part of the CoVetLab network). A qualitative assessment was then performed focusing on surveillance directed particularly to BTV-8. Information regarding surveillance activities were reviewed for the years 2008 and 2012. The results were then complemented with a critical scoping review of the literature aimed at identifying disease surveillance strategies and methods that are currently suggested as best suited to target vector-borne diseases in order to guide future development of surveillance in the countries in question. Passive surveillance was found to be efficient for early detection of diseases during the early phase of introduction into a free country. However, its value diminished once the disease has been established in a territory. Detection of emerging diseases was found to be very context and area specific, and thus active surveillance designs need to take the available epidemiological, ecological and entomological information into account. This was demonstrated by the effectiveness of the bulk milk surveillance in detecting the first case in Sweden, highlighting the need for output based standards to allow the most effective, context dependent, surveillance strategies to be used. Preparedness was of fundamental importance in determining the timeliness of detection and control in each country and that this in turn was heavily influenced by knowledge of emerging diseases in neighboring countries. Therefore it is crucial to share information on outbreaks between researchers and decision-makers and across borders continuously in order to react timely in case of an outbreak. Furthermore, timely reaction to an outbreak was heavily influenced by

  11. [Planning, realization and evaluation of post-marketing surveillance studies. Recommendations of the Society for Phytotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, K; Loew, D; Schneider, B; Kemper, F H

    1997-08-01

    Post-marketing-surveillance studies with herbal drugs usually are prospective prescription-epidemiological studies, which should allow statements on quality, efficacy and safety. Until now neither laws nor concrete normative guidelines for the methodology and the evaluation of post-marketing-surveillance studies are existing which could be used for pharmacovigilance. In the present paper guidelines for planning, realisation and evaluation are presented which should allow studies of high quality. The essential components required for the investigational plan are focussed. Also recommendations on the obligatory, optional and special components of the study protocols are made. Additionally statistical methods which allow the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy are presented.

  12. An epidemiological network model for disease outbreak detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Y Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced disease-surveillance systems have been deployed worldwide to provide early detection of infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. New methods that improve the overall detection capabilities of these systems can have a broad practical impact. Furthermore, most current generation surveillance systems are vulnerable to dramatic and unpredictable shifts in the health-care data that they monitor. These shifts can occur during major public events, such as the Olympics, as a result of population surges and public closures. Shifts can also occur during epidemics and pandemics as a result of quarantines, the worried-well flooding emergency departments or, conversely, the public staying away from hospitals for fear of nosocomial infection. Most surveillance systems are not robust to such shifts in health-care utilization, either because they do not adjust baselines and alert-thresholds to new utilization levels, or because the utilization shifts themselves may trigger an alarm. As a result, public-health crises and major public events threaten to undermine health-surveillance systems at the very times they are needed most. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this challenge, we introduce a class of epidemiological network models that monitor the relationships among different health-care data streams instead of monitoring the data streams themselves. By extracting the extra information present in the relationships between the data streams, these models have the potential to improve the detection capabilities of a system. Furthermore, the models' relational nature has the potential to increase a system's robustness to unpredictable baseline shifts. We implemented these models and evaluated their effectiveness using historical emergency department data from five hospitals in a single metropolitan area, recorded over a period of 4.5 y by the Automated Epidemiological Geotemporal Integrated Surveillance real-time public health-surveillance

  13. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Brazil: what research is needed based on trends, surveillance, and control experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Glória Teixeira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue epidemics account annually for several million cases and deaths worldwide. The high endemic level of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form correlates to extensive domiciliary infestation by Aedes aegypti and multiple viral serotype human infection. This study analyzed serial case reports registered in Brazil since 1981, describing incidence evolutionary patterns and spatial distribution. Epidemic waves followed the introduction of every serotype (DEN 1 to 3, and reduction in susceptible individuals possibly accounted for decreasing case frequency. An incremental expansion of affected areas and increasing occurrence of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form with high case fatality were noted in recent years. In contrast, efforts based solely on chemical vector control have been insufficient. Moreover, some evidence demonstrates that educational measures do not permanently modify population habits. Thus, as long as a vaccine is not available, further dengue control depends on potential results from basic interdisciplinary research and intervention evaluation studies, integrating environmental changes, community participation and education, epidemiological and virological surveillance, and strategic technological innovations aimed to stop transmission.

  14. Salmonella enterica Infections in the United States and Assessment of Coefficients of Variation: A Novel Approach to Identify Epidemiologic Characteristics of Individual Serotypes, 1996-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Boore

    Full Text Available Despite control efforts, salmonellosis continues to cause an estimated 1.2 million infections in the United States (US annually. We describe the incidence of salmonellosis in the US and introduce a novel approach to examine the epidemiologic similarities and differences of individual serotypes.Cases of salmonellosis in humans reported to the laboratory-based National Salmonella Surveillance System during 1996-2011 from US states were included. Coefficients of variation were used to describe distribution of incidence rates of common Salmonella serotypes by geographic region, age group and sex of patient, and month of sample isolation.During 1996-2011, more than 600,000 Salmonella isolates from humans were reported, with an average annual incidence of 13.1 cases/100,000 persons. The annual reported rate of Salmonella infections did not decrease during the study period. The top five most commonly reported serotypes, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Javiana, accounted for 62% of fully serotyped isolates. Coefficients of variation showed the most geographically concentrated serotypes were often clustered in Gulf Coast states and were also more frequently found to be increasing in incidence. Serotypes clustered in particular months, age groups, and sex were also identified and described.Although overall incidence rates of Salmonella did not change over time, trends and epidemiological factors differed remarkably by serotype. A better understanding of Salmonella, facilitated by this comprehensive description of overall trends and unique characteristics of individual serotypes, will assist in responding to this disease and in planning and implementing prevention activities.

  15. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in Denmark during 2003 and 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luca-Harari, B.; Linden, M. van der; Staum-Kattoft, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Active surveillance of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections was conducted in Denmark during 2003 and 2004 as a part of the Strep-EURO initiative. The main objective was to improve understanding of the epidemiology of invasive GAS disease in Denmark. During the 2 years, 278 cases were r...

  16. Tuberculosis epidemiology in six provinces of Vietnam after the introduction of the DOTS strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Huong; B.D. Duong; N.V. Co; H.T. Quy; L.B. Tung; J.F. Broekmans; M.C. Bosman; C. Verhage; N. Kalisvaart; M.W. Borgdorff; F.G.J. Cobelens

    2006-01-01

    SETTING: Six Provinces in Vietnam where the DOTS strategy was introduced in 1989. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of improved tuberculosis (TB) control on TB epidemiology in Vietnam. METHODS: Data from the surveillance system in the period 1990-2003 were analysed to assess trends of notification rat

  17. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  18. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  19. Genetic epidemiology of diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Permutt, M. Alan; Wasson, Jonathon; Cox, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Conventional genetic analysis focuses on the genes that account for specific phenotypes, while traditional epidemiology is more concerned with the environmental causes and risk factors related to traits. Genetic epidemiology is an alliance of the 2 fields that focuses on both genetics, including allelic variants in different populations, and environment, in order to explain exactly how genes convey effects in different environmental contexts and to arrive at a more complete comprehension of t...

  20. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  1. 1999 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents information on the main activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina during 1999, on radiation protection and nuclear safety. The work is developed in 9 chapters, 1 summary and 2 appendixes, where a description of the following activities and the bases of the Argentina Regulatory Systems are given: 1. Evolution of the nuclear regulatory activities in Argentina. Organic structures, tasks and budget. 2. Regulatory system, laws, transport of radioactive materials, safety at the management of radioactive wastes, regulatory documents issued. 3. Institutional relations with national and international organizations. 4. Inspection and evaluations of nuclear installations. Safeguards and physical protection. 5. Occupational and environmental surveillance. 6. Radiological emergencies. 7. Scientific and technological activities. Nuclear Regulatory Authority's laboratories. 8. Training, technical information and software development. 9. Radioactive facilities inspections

  2. Candidaemia in an Irish tertiary referral hospital: epidemiology and prognostic factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boo, T W

    2012-02-03

    There were two parts to this study. Part 1 evaluated the epidemiology of Candida bloodstream isolates within the Southern Health Board (SHB) of Ireland from 1992 to 2003 by retrospective surveillance of all such isolates of patients reported from SHB hospitals to our laboratory database during that period. Part 2 reviewed candidaemia cases occurring in Cork University Hospital (CUH) from 1999 to 2003 using surveillance of all positive blood culture isolates in CUH microbiology laboratory during the 5-year period. In part 1, 250 Candida bloodstream isolates were reported in the SHB over 12 years. There was a pattern of decreasing percentage of C. albicans with time. Whereas in part 2, 63 cases of candidaemia were identified in CUH from 1999 to 2003. Candida albicans constituted 50% of all isolates, while C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata accounted for 21.2% and 18.2% respectively. Average annual incidence rate was 0.48 episodes\\/1000 admissions and 0.70 episodes\\/10 000 patient-days. Vascular catheters were the commonest source of candidaemia (61.9%) followed by the urinary tract (12.7%). Risk factors included exposure to multiple antibiotics (75%); central vascular catheterization (73%); multiple colonization sites (71%); severe gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction (54%) and acute renal failure (43%). Crude 7-day and 30-day mortality rates were 20.6% and 39.7% respectively. Logistic regression multivariate analysis identified the following to be independent predictors for mortality: age > or =65 years [odds ratio (OR) 7.2, P = 0.013]; severe GI dysfunction (OR 10.6, P = 0.01); acute renal failure (OR 7.6, P = 0.022); recent\\/concurrent bacteraemia (OR 5.2, P = 0.042); endotracheal intubation (OR 7.7, P = 0.014); while major surgery was associated with a better prognosis (OR 0.05, P = 0.002). Appropriate antifungal treatment was also found to be associated with survival (Fisher\\'s exact test, P < 0.001). The epidemiology of Candida bloodstream isolates within our

  3. Designing serological surveillance programmes to document freedom from disease with special reference to exotic viral diseases of pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, K.D.C.; Mortensen, S.; Olsen, A.M.;

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance programmes based on laboratory screening tests are increasingly used to document freedom from disease in order to facilitate trade, The following aspects must be considered when designing such programmes: diseases to be selected; epidemiology of the diseases; unit of analysis (animal...

  4. Epidemiological and molecular approaches for management of a measles outbreak in Liguria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, A; Alicino, C; Patria, A G; Parodi, V; Carloni, R; Turello, V; Comaschi, M; Moscatelli, P; Orengo, G; Martini, M; De Florentiis, D

    2010-06-01

    Since March 2010 a measles outbreak has been occurred in Genoa, Liguria, an administrative Region in Northern Italy. Epidemiological and molecular data on the outbreak, obtained from the passive mandatory notification system, the laboratory surveillance and an innovative syndrome surveillance system, were investigated. Overall 39 cases were reported in the urban area. Information about demography, vaccination status, hospitalization and geographic distribution of measles cases are available. 19 cases (48.7%) were laboratory-confirmed and were characterized by sequence analysis: 18 strains belonged to genotype D8, so identifying a new measles variant within the Liguria population. Adopted control measures seem to have limited viral circulation. The outbreak allowed to test the efficacy of the 3 surveillance systems active in Liguria, highlighting their advantages and some important limitations. More efforts are needed to collect and integrate any epidemiological and virological available data in order to better describe the local measles transmission dynamics.

  5. Enhanced surveillance program FY97 accomplishments. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.; Laake, B. [comp.

    1997-10-01

    This annual report is one volume of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP) FY97 Accomplishments. The complete accomplishments report consists of 11 volumes. Volume 1 includes an ESP overview and a summary of selected unclassified FY97 program highlights. Volume 1 specifically targets a general audience, reflecting about half of the tasks conducted in FY97 and emphasizing key program accomplishments and contributions. The remaining volumes of the accomplishments report are classified, organized by program focus area, and present in technical detail the progress achieved in each of the 104 FY97 program tasks. Focus areas are as follows: pits; high explosives; organics; dynamics; diagnostics; systems; secondaries; nonnuclear materials; nonnuclear components; and Surveillance Test Program upgrades.

  6. Análise da situação da poliomielite em uma amostra de crianças da cidade de São Paulo, com o auxílio de um parâmetro de vigilância epidemiológica Analysis of the poliomyelitis situation in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil by means of an epidemiologic surveillance parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E. Stewien

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available A situação da poliomielite é analisada em uma amostra de crianças de 0-10 anos de idade da cidade de São Paulo, assistidas pelo Hospital Menino Jesus, com o auxílio de um parâmetro de vigilância epidemiológica - o fator r da dinâmica da imunização. Os resultados de um recente inquérito soro-epidemiológico foram transformados matematicamente na curva de crescimento expressa pela função exponencial y = a+(1-a (1-rt, aumentando-se, com isto, consideravelmente o valor informativo do inquérito. A análise mostrou que pela vacinação oral se imunizaram efetivamente cerca de 50% e 60% do total dos indivíduos da população infantil de 0-10 anos de idade contra os poliovírus dos tipos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Além disto, houve em decorrência da circulação de poliovírus, nesta população, em média, cerca de 85 infecções com poliovírus do tipo 1 e 70 infecções com o poliovírus do tipo 2, por 1.000 habitantes, por ano. Tendo em vista que o coeficiente de morbidade da poliomielite alcança cifras da ordem 31 e 27 casos por 100.000 habitantes, respectivamente nos grupos etários de 0-1 e 1-2 anos de idade, os autores recomendam que não sejam poupados esforços no sentido de que as crianças sejam efetivamente vacinadas dentro do esquema de imunização estabelecido, recebendo a 1ª dose da vacina já aos 2 ou 3 meses de idade.The situation of poliomyelitis in the city of São Paulo is analysed by means of an epidemiologic surveillance parameter - the "r" factor of immunization events. The results of a recent sero-epidemiologic survey realized in this City were transformed into the catalytic growth curve y = a + (1 - a (1 - e-rt. The informative value of the survey is therefore considerably enhanced. The analysis showed that about 50% and 60% of the population of children 0-10 years old were immunized by oral polio vaccination against type 1 and 2 polioviruses, respectivilly-Further, the average rate of effective contacts

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGI TERPADU AVIAN INFLUENZA (FLU BURUNG BERBASIS TINDAKAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT DALAM RESPON PANDEMI INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denas Symond

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The term surveillance is used in two rather different ways. First, surveillance can mean the continuous security of the factors that determine the occurrence and distribution of disease and other conditions of ill health The second use of the term refers to a special reporting system which is set u for a particularly important health problem or disease, for example the spread of communicable diseases in an epidemic like Avian Influenza (AI or ( H5N1 . Such a surveillance system like AI aim to provide quickly information which can be analyzed to determine frequency and to answer like questions: who, where and when.AI epidemiological surveillance has a number of major steps: (I to identify and confirm outbreaks to ensure that effective action to control the disease is being taken (2 to investigate diseases by clinics and laboratory (3 to investigate and confirm the cases (4 Data collection and public health consolidation (5 Data analysis (6 Feedback (7 Following step is taken . District health officer (DHO and District veterinary officer (DVO can use integrated AI surveillance epidemiological to collect such information to support the management and evaluation health activities to prevent community from AI disease. It can be concluded, DHO and DVO may participate together in and use local reporting and surveillance system to combat AI in community

  8. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Nisha N; Maves, Ryan C; Sebeny, Peter; Kasper, Matthew R; Riddle, Mark S; Wu, Max; Lee, James E; Schnabel, David; Bowden, Robert; Oaks, Edwin V; Ocaña, Victor; Acosta, Luis; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Lanata, Claudio; Ochoa, Theresa; Aguayo, Nicolás; Bernal, Maruja; Meza, Rina; Canal, Enrique; Gregory, Michael; Cepeda, David; Listiyaningsih, Erlin; Putnam, Shannon D; Young, Sylvia; Mansour, Adel; Nakhla, Isabelle; Moustafa, Manal; Hassan, Khaled; Klena, John; Bruton, Jody; Shaheen, Hind; Farid, Sami; Fouad, Salwa; El-Mohamady, Hanan; Styles, Timothy; Shiau, L C D R Danny; Espinosa, Benjamin; McMullen, Kellie; Reed, Eva; Neil, Donald; Searles, Doug; Nevin, Remington; Von Thun, Annette; Sessions, Cecili

    2011-03-04

    The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC) is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  9. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: Current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Matthew R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  10. Poor adherence and low persistency rates for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Chen, Vincent; Vu, Vinh; Le, An; Nguyen, Linda; Zhao, Changqing; Wong, Carrie R.; Nguyen, Nghia; Li, Jiayi; Zhang, Jian; Trinh, Huy; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our goal was to examine rates and predictors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance adherence and persistency, since studies of such adherence and persistency in patients with chronic hepatitis (CHB) are currently limited. Consecutive CHB patients (N = 1329) monitored for ≥1 year at 4 US clinics from January 1996 to July 2013 were retrospectively studied. Surveillance adherence was evaluated based on the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines. Kaplan–Meier method was used to analyze surveillance persistency of 510 patients who had initially fair adherence (having at least annual surveillance imaging with further follow-up). Mean age was 48, with the majority being male (58%), Asian (92%), foreign-born (95%), and medically insured (97%). Patients with cirrhosis and those seen at university liver clinics were more likely to have optimal HCC surveillance than those without cirrhosis and those seen at community clinics (38.4% vs 21.6%, P <0.001 and 33.5% vs 14.4%, P < 0.001, respectively). HCC diagnosed in optimally adherent patients trended toward smaller tumor size (P < 0.08). On multivariate analysis also inclusive of age, sex, clinical visits, cirrhosis, clinic setting and antiviral therapy use, strong independent predictors for having at least annual imaging were a history of more frequent clinical visits (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5, P < 0.001) and university-based care (OR = 5.2, P < 0.001). Even for those with initially fair adherence, persistency dropped to 70% at 5 years. Adherence and persistency to HCC surveillance in CHB patients is generally poor. More frequent clinic visits and university-based settings were significant and strong predictors of at least annual HCC surveillance adherence. PMID:27583921

  11. Molecular Epidemiology for Vector Research on Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Kato

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by the genus Leishmania transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. Surveillance of the prevalence of Leishmania and responsive vector species in endemic and surrounding areas is important for predicting the risk and expansion of the disease. Molecular biological methods are now widely applied to epidemiological studies of infectious diseases including leishmaniasis. These techniques are used to detect natural infections of sand fly vectors with Leishmania protozoa and are becoming powerful tools due to their sensitivity and specificity. Recently, genetic analyses have been performed on sand fly species and genotyping using PCR-RFLP has been applied to the sand fly taxonomy. In addition, a molecular mass screening method has been established that enables both sand fly species and natural leishmanial infections to be identified simultaneously in hundreds of sand flies with limited effort. This paper reviews recent advances in the study of sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis, using molecular biological approaches.

  12. Total Process Surveillance (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    analytical redundancy is of significant importance in order to obtain the maximum amount of information as to the state of the plant. A further logical step in this theory is the accommodation of failed or damaged transducers by deriving their measurement information from the available remaining transducers. A system capable of providing a clear and improved picture of the plant's behaviour under a range of normal and off-normal operating conditions would thus be of significant economical and safety benefit. In summary: A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical redundancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. The TOPS system provides a structured and complete means for plant data management under both normal and off-normal operating conditions and thus will significantly assist the operator during severe accident management

  13. A profile of Injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10

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    Wainiqolo Iris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

  14. Cost analysis of an integrated disease surveillance and response system: case of Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touré Kandioura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR. This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and approaches to better detect and respond to the region's priority communicable disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incremental costs of establishing and subsequently operating activities for detection and response to the priority diseases under the IDSR. Methods We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Results Over the period studied (2002–2005, the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines, service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR.

  15. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  16. Surveillance strategies for foot and mouth disease to prove absence of disease and absence of viral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, V; Giovannini, A; Zepeda, C

    2012-12-01

    Free trade of animals and their products is based on the international or bilateral recognition of the health status of the animal populations being traded. This recognition is based on documentation of their health status by the exporting country, based on the results of continuing surveillance. According to the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), this may be based on various methods of surveillance, such as: documenting non-specific surveillance (clinical surveillance, passive notification of suspect cases, etc.); documenting activities that increase the sensitivity of non-specific surveillance (training activities, rewards/sanctions for notification/failure to notify, etc.); documenting all specific surveillance and its results (random surveys, targeted and risk-based surveillance, convenience-testing activities, etc.). Usually, the infection is the subject of the declaration of freedom. While clinical and passive surveillance can provide a high level of confidence that foot and mouth disease (FMD) infection is absent, this is not the case in vaccinated populations. In these populations, specific surveillance becomes much more important than non-specific clinical surveillance. Specific surveillance is severely restricted by the performance of the test(s) employed. The imperfect specificity of any serological test is further complicated when techniques to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) are used, because imperfect purification of the antigen used for vaccination may foster the production of undesired antibodies in the vaccinated animals. The authors discuss various approaches to overcome this problem; their merits and flaws in documenting the absence of infection or virus circulation for animal diseases in general, and for FMD in particular. Particular attention is paid to finding methods that can be applied in a variety of epidemiological conditions and organisational structures, since these

  17. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilston, Natasha; Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data. PMID:19878588

  18. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skelly Chris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data.

  19. Surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionising radiation: Rimed pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project so-called RIMED aimed to set up epidemiological surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionizing radiation. A pilot study was conducted in a sample of hospital personnel to examine the possibility of identifying exposed subjects in order to analyse mortality patterns according to occupational characteristics such as medical departments or occupations in a historical cohort. Seven hospitals participated in this pilot study. Health-care workers who had worn a dosimeter up to December 2003 were to be included in this cohort. The subjects' identification data were obtained from the SISERI (Systeme d'information de la surveillance de l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants - Ionizing Radiation Exposure Monitoring Information System) database managed by the Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN). The SISERI system was in a 'pilot' phase in 2004. According to SISERI database, a total of 5126 subjects were found to have worn a dosimeter up to December 2003. The subjects' identification data were completed by the administrative services of the hospitals and occupational physicians searched for subjects' occupational data. Information required for the vital status search was satisfactorily completed only for 38% of the cohort subjects. This pilot study showed that obtaining data from SISERI database completed by hospital administrative data in 2004 led to a database of insufficient quality for epidemiological surveillance. The Institut de veille sanitaire (French Institute of Public Health Surveillance) recommends that transmission by the employers of some specific personal or occupational data of the exposed subjects should be made compulsory. In this way, SISERI system should be able to constitute any database with required quality for epidemiological surveillance of ionizing radiation exposed subjects. (authors)

  20. Prospective Whole-Genome Sequencing Enhances National Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, Jason C.; Mercoulia, Karolina; Tomita, Takehiro; Easton, Marion; Li, Hua Y.; Bulach, Dieter M.; Stinear, Timothy P.; Seemann, Torsten; Benjamin P Howden

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has emerged as a powerful tool for comparing bacterial isolates in outbreak detection and investigation. Here we demonstrate that WGS performed prospectively for national epidemiologic surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes has the capacity to be superior to our current approaches using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), binary typing, and serotyping. Initially 423 ...