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Sample records for annual epidemiologic surveillance

  1. Annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory 1994 epidemiologic surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-80 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  2. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at BNL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  3. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Sandia National Laboratories 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, 1994 morbidity data for the Sandia National Laboratories are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 15-76 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and pay status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  4. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 17-85 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and pay status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  5. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-75 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absences, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  6. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  7. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out

  8. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Pantex Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Pantex Plant from January 1, 1995 through December 31,1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Pantex and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center,located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The data presented apply only to Pantex. The main sections of the report are the same as in previous years; the 1995 report provides additional information describing the work force by age and occupational groups

  9. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Pantex Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Pantex Plant from January 1, 1995 through December 31,1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Pantex and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center,located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The data presented apply only to Pantex. The main sections of the report are the same as in previous years; the 1995 report provides additional information describing the work force by age and occupational groups.

  10. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. A number of DOE sites participate in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Hanford Site from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Hanford and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The information in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site, and the appendices provides additional detail. The report also contains an expanded Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories which gives examples of health conditions in each of the diagnostic categories

  11. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. A number of DOE sites participate in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Hanford Site from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Hanford and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The information in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site, and the appendices provides additional detail. The report also contains an expanded Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories which gives examples of health conditions in each of the diagnostic categories.

  12. Annual report for Hanford Site: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupational and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities.This report provides the final summary for the Hanford Reservation.

  13. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for EG&G Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences resulting from illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This report presents the 1994 morbidity data for the Rocky Flats plant.

  14. Amended annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations and do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated work activities. This report provides a final summary for BNL.

  15. 1997 Savannah River Site annual epidemiologic surveillance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-06-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 1997. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1997 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 199 7 report includes a section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1997.

  16. 1996 Savannah River Site annual epidemiologic surveillance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1996 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 1996 report includes a new section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1996.

  17. Epidemiologic surveillance. [1994] amended annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This amended annual report corrects errors in the initial release of the BNL report for 1994. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized.

  18. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and injuries that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque (SNL-AL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at SNL-AL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The annual report for 1995 has been redesigned from reports for previous years. Most of the information in the previous reports is also in this report, but some material now appears in the appendices instead of the main body of the report. The information presented in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site and the appendices provide more detail. A new section of the report presents trends in health over time. The Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories have been expanded with more examples of diagnoses to illustrate the content of each category. The data presented here apply only to SNL-AL. The DOE sites are varied, so comparisons of SNL-AL with other DOE sites should be made with caution. It is important to keep in mind that many factors can affect the completeness and accuracy of health information collected at the sites as well as affect patterns of illness and injury observed

  19. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and injuries that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque (SNL-AL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at SNL-AL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The annual report for 1995 has been redesigned from reports for previous years. Most of the information in the previous reports is also in this report, but some material now appears in the appendices instead of the main body of the report. The information presented in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site and the appendices provide more detail. A new section of the report presents trends in health over time. The Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories have been expanded with more examples of diagnoses to illustrate the content of each category. The data presented here apply only to SNL-AL. The DOE sites are varied, so comparisons of SNL-AL with other DOE sites should be made with caution. It is important to keep in mind that many factors can affect the completeness and accuracy of health information collected at the sites as well as affect patterns of illness and injury observed.

  20. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out

  1. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  2. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2014–2015 season: annual report from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Puig-Barberà

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN has established a prospective, active surveillance, hospital-based epidemiological study to collect epidemiological and virological data for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres over several consecutive seasons. It focuses exclusively on severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization. A standard protocol is shared between sites allowing comparison and pooling of results. During the 2014–2015 influenza season, the GIHSN included seven coordinating sites from six countries (St. Petersburg and Moscow, Russian Federation; Prague, Czech Republic; Istanbul, Turkey; Beijing, China; Valencia, Spain; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Here, we present the detailed epidemiological and influenza vaccine effectiveness findings for the Northern Hemisphere 2014–2015 influenza season.

  4. Savannah River Site 1997 epidemiologic surveillance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 1997. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1997 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 199 7 report includes a section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1997

  5. Savannah River Site 1996 epidemiologic surveillance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1996 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 1996 report includes a new section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1996

  6. Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services (CSELS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services (CSELS) is to provide scientific service, expertise, skills, and tools in support of...

  7. Culture-independence for surveillance and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, Benjamin C

    2013-09-24

    Culture-independent methods in microbiology (quantitative PCR (qPCR), sequencing, microarrays, direct from sample matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS), etc.) are disruptive technology. Rather than providing the same results as culture-based methods more quickly, more cheaply or with improved accuracy, they reveal an unexpected diversity of microbes and illuminate dark corners of undiagnosed disease. At times, they overturn existing definitions of presumably well-understood infections, generating new requirements for clinical diagnosis, surveillance and epidemiology. However, current diagnostic microbiology, infection control and epidemiology rest principally on culture methods elegantly optimized by clinical laboratorians. The clinical significance is interwoven; the new methods are out of context, difficult to interpret and impossible to act upon. Culture-independent diagnostics and surveillance methods will not be deployed unless the reported results can be used to select specific therapeutics or infection control measures. To cut the knots surrounding the adoption of culture-independent methods in medical microbiology, culture-dependent methods should be supported by consistent culture-independent methods providing the microbial context. This will temper existing biases and motivate appropriate scrutiny of the older methods and results.

  8. Culture-Independence for Surveillance and Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Kirkup

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture-independent methods in microbiology (quantitative PCR (qPCR, sequencing, microarrays, direct from sample matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS, etc. are disruptive technology. Rather than providing the same results as culture-based methods more quickly, more cheaply or with improved accuracy, they reveal an unexpected diversity of microbes and illuminate dark corners of undiagnosed disease. At times, they overturn existing definitions of presumably well-understood infections, generating new requirements for clinical diagnosis, surveillance and epidemiology. However, current diagnostic microbiology, infection control and epidemiology rest principally on culture methods elegantly optimized by clinical laboratorians. The clinical significance is interwoven; the new methods are out of context, difficult to interpret and impossible to act upon. Culture-independent diagnostics and surveillance methods will not be deployed unless the reported results can be used to select specific therapeutics or infection control measures. To cut the knots surrounding the adoption of culture-independent methods in medical microbiology, culture-dependent methods should be supported by consistent culture-independent methods providing the microbial context. This will temper existing biases and motivate appropriate scrutiny of the older methods and results.

  9. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems...... and models for interpreting surveillance data as part of ongoing control or eradication programmes. Two Danish examples are outlined. The first illustrates how models were used in documenting country freedom from disease (trichinellosis) and the second demonstrates how models were of assistance in predicting...

  13. 2003 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Kansas City Plant. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2003 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for the Hanford site. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The prpogram is part of DOE's commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers and includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers.

  16. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2003 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Pantex Plant. DOE is commited to assuring the health and safety of its workers. This includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2003 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Los Alamos National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2003 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2003 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-02

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Brookhaven National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2003 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Y-12. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2003 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the East Tennessee Technology Park (K-25).The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An authoritative source for cancer statistics in the US. We collect incidence, prevalence and survival data and publish reports on these and cancer mortality. For those interested in cancer statistics and surveillance methods.

  6. Lessons learned during active epidemiological surveillance of Ebola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review epidemiological surveillance approaches used during Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Africa in the past fifteen years. Overall, 26 hemorrhagic epidemic outbreaks have been registered in 12 countries; 18 caused by the Ebola virus and eight by the Marburg virus. About 2551 cases ...

  7. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. Gastrointestinal Infections Annual Surveillance Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Agency (PHA)�has a lead role in protecting the population from infection and environmental hazards through a range of core functions including communicable disease surveillance and monitoring, operational support & advice, and education, training and research.�

  2. [Decentralization of epidemiological surveillance in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Ana Coelho de; Mota, Eduardo Luiz Andrade; Felisberto, Eronildo

    2015-04-01

    The study aimed to analyze the relationship between decentralization of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the development of epidemiological surveillance activities in municipalities (counties) in Pernambuco State, Brazil. This was an exploratory descriptive qualitative and quantitative study, including a document search, completion of semi-structured interviews by key informants, and an ecological spatial and time trend study of selected health indicators, covering a 10-year period (2001-2010). The study showed that municipalities adhered to the decentralization process, which was making progress in Pernambuco, but with inequalities and weaknesses in its development. There was also a fluctuation in the time series for the selected indicators. Thus, even though the decentralization of epidemiological surveillance is still incipient in some municipalities, their protagonist role in implementing the activities promotes empowerment at the local level by producing key information for decision-making.

  3. [Prophylactic requirements for sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, B M; Maksimenko, L V; Fedotova, N N; Gololobova, T V; Konovalov, O E

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines the requirements for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance to prevent dental diseases. The investigations pose tasks to medical prevention centers to solve the problems in tooth prophylaxis, such as organizational-and-methodological, sanitary-and-educational, health-improving, and others. The sanitary-and-hygienic requirements for therapeutic-and-prophylactic dental facilities are defined. A procedure for keeping a management protocol for the prevention of tooth diseases is described.

  4. [Epidemiologic surveillance for the prevention and control urban violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Eastman, A; Guerrero, R

    1999-01-01

    Violence prevention policies should be based on information, follow-up, research, and analysis, all of which increase the chances of success and make it easier to evaluate interventions. This implies, in turn, that there is a need to create surveillance, research, and prevention models for violence within the sphere of public health and epidemiology, a task that constitutes an integral part of the Pan American Health Organization's Regional Plan of Action Health and Violence. This article describes the objectives of epidemiologic surveillance systems and explains their purpose and scope, along with the barriers that stand in the way of their implementation. It also examines a number of variables and their definitions, the types of analyses and reports that should be generated, and the decisions that can be made on the basis of these reports. Finally, it discusses ethical criteria and describes the experiences of the program known as Desarrollo, Seguridad y Paz (DESEPAZ) in Cali and Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, where an epidemiologic surveillance system against violence has been implemented.

  5. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2016-12-24

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2015. During the survey period, 1,383 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these, 1,031 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 634 specimens had been collected from children under 5 years of age, while 397 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of samples from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 48.2% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 22.8% of samples, followed by G2P[4] and G1P[8] (9% and 8% respectively). G3P[8] was further divided as equine-like G3P[8] (13.2% of all strains) and other wild-type G3P[8] (9.6%). This report highlights the continued predominance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. Genotype distribution was distinct between jurisdictions using RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states using RotaTeq, while equine-like G3P[8] and G2P[4] were more common in the states and territories using Rotarix. This survey highlights the dynamic change in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, including the emergence of a novel equine-like G3P[8] as a major strain. The prolonged dominance of G12P[8] for a 4th consecutive year further illustrates the unexpected trends in the wild type rotaviruses circulating in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  6. The French surveillance network of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Epidemiological data in France and worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandel, J-P; Peckeu, L; Haïk, S

    2013-09-01

    France, involved for a long time in the epidemiological surveillance of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), created a national network of surveillance in 1991, because of the description of the first cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) linked to a treatment by growth hormone of human origin and the observation of cases of cats infected with the agent of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the United Kingdom (UK). The French surveillance network is integrated into the European network of surveillance since its creation in 1993. As in other countries, sporadic CJD is the most frequent form of TSE in France with an annual mortality rate of 1.44 per million. Genetic forms are most often associated with a mutation at codon 200. Among the cases of iatrogenic CJD, 13 cases of CJD after duramater grafts were observed and 119 related to treatment with growth hormone. France is the country worst affected in Europe and the world by this latter form, before the USA and UK. Since 1996, 27 cases of variant of CJD (vCJD) has been observed, making France the second country in the world most affected after the UK. No cases of transfusion-associated vCJD have been observed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. Epidemiological surveillance of herpes viral encephalitis in Cordoba, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tique, Vaneza; Mattar, Salim; Freire, María; Illian, Eduardo; Camargo, Francisco; Vergara, Oscar; Moraes-Figueiredo, Luiz T

    2016-08-01

    Objective To establish an epidemiological surveillance of viral herpes encephalitis in major hospitals of Monteria, Cordoba. Methods From September 2009 to December 2011, a descriptive study of cases of viral encephalitis was made in three hospitals in the city of Monteria. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 118 patients were included in the study. Clinical aspects, as well as cytochemical and microbiological analysis (Gram stain and culture) of CSF, were used for selecting the patients. Virus detection was performed by using multiplex nested PCR for Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, Epstein Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus and Varicella zoster virus. Results Viral DNA of herpesvirus was detected in the CSFs of 30 (25.4 %) participants, as follows: 22 (18.6 %) Herpes simplex 1 and 2 viruses, 4 (3.3 %) Cytomegalovirus and 1 (0.8 %) Varicella zoster virus. Co-infections were observed in 3 patients (2.5 %), 1 case by HSV-VZV and 2 cases by CMV/HSV. The clinical manifestations of the patients included: headache (18.6 %), fever (14.4 %), asthenia (10.1 %), seizures (9.3 %), vomiting (8.4 %), and stiff neck (5.9 %). Thirty percent of the patients also had HIV-AIDS. A case fatality rate of 20 % was observed for the patients. Conclusions This paper shows that herpesvirus is a cause of infection of the CNS in patients from Cordoba. This study contributes to the epidemiology of encephalitis, as well as to patient management.

  8. [Methodical approaches to studies of the efficiency and quality of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsenko, G I; Manvel'ian, L V; Petruchuk, O E; Chigireva, E I; Berglezova, L N; Mosov, A V

    1999-01-01

    Current methodology and organization of evaluations of the efficiency of specialists and subdivisions of sanitary epidemiological institutions of the first level of managing are presented. The authors propose a method for quantitative evaluation of the efficiency for comparison of compatible and equivalent values. Definitions essential for evaluation of the efficiency the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance are formulated. A demonstration model of computer processing of the data for estimations of efficiency of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance has been developed.

  9. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of bloodstream infections in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti R; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-09-01

    Infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are particularly problematic, accounting for a substantial number of hospitalizations in these patients. Hospitalizations for BSI and other vascular access infections appear to have increased dramatically in hemodialysis patients since 1993. These infections frequently are related to central venous catheter (CVC) use for dialysis access. Regional initiatives that have shown successful decreases in catheter-related BSIs in hospitalized patients have generated interest in replicating this success in outpatient hemodialysis populations. Several interventions have been effective in preventing BSIs in the hemodialysis setting. Avoiding the use of CVCs in favor of access types with lower associated BSI risk is among the most important. When CVCs are used, adherence to evidence-based catheter insertion and maintenance practices can positively influence BSI rates. In addition, facility-level surveillance to detect BSIs and stimulate examination of vascular access use and care practices is essential to a comprehensive approach to prevention. This article describes the current epidemiology of BSIs in hemodialysis patients and effective prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of these devastating infections.

  10. 1998 annual report Office of Occupational Medicine and Medical Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebus, George R.

    1999-01-01

    the mission of EH-61 is the prevention of worker illness by fostering outstanding occupational medicine and medical surveillance programs within the DOE complex. The EH-61 annual report for 1998 describes our major activities and achievements as we have worked toward realizing this mission through our main program lines (1) Surveillance; (2) policy(Field SUppOti; (3) Information/Communication; and (4) Research. Some of our major 1998 accomplishments are highlighted below for more details, please consult the corresponding sections of this report. The FORMER BERYLLIUM WORKERS MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM identifies and locates former employees exposed to beryllium and provides enhanced medical monitoring for early identification of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Over Z0,000 current and former workers have been contacted to date, and there have been about 8,8oo responders. More than 100 cases of CBD have been detected. The DOE FORMER WORKERS PROGRAM (FWP) is targeted primarily to former workers who have either retired or left DOE facilities. In FY 1998, there were 10 pilot projects operating at 9 sites. These pilots will validate approaches for medical screening of former employees and health risk communication efforts. When completed in FY 2002, the information gained from the pilots will serve as a basis for projecting funding and resources needed for the FWP in the years ahead. We have helped develop health-related POLICIES/GUIDANCE, that will promote the health of the contractor workforce by addressing current and emerging issues related to occupational health. The RADIATION EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER/TRAINING SITE (REAC/TS) is supported by EH-61 and assists DOE by maintaining state-of-the-art expertise in radiation medicine and biodosimetry. This support provides DOE with a national and international 24-hour response capability for evaluating and managing victims of radiation accidents occurring at its facilities or among the general public. In collaboration

  11. Epidemiological trends in 1452 cases of retinoblastoma from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Michael T; Chau, Felix Y; Shapiro, Michael J; Leiderman, Yannek I

    2017-12-01

    To assess retinoblastoma epidemiological trends in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. All cases of retinoblastoma in the SEER database from 1973 to 2009 were identified. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed for pathological grade, patient age, sex, year of diagnosis, and treatment modality. Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the impact of patient and tumour characteristics on survival. 1452 cases of retinoblastoma were analyzed. The mean patient age at diagnosis was 1.44 years. The tumour was unilateral in 71.0% and bilateral in 29.0%. The mean follow-up was 129.1 months. Overall survival increased during the study interval. Patients with bilateral tumours were diagnosed at an earlier age (0.46 years) than patients with unilateral disease (1.77 years; p retinoblastoma (90.3% 10-year overall survival) was associated with decreased overall survival than unilateral retinoblastoma (96.1% 10-year overall survival). Bilateral retinoblastoma was also associated with an increased incidence of nonocular malignancies (7.8%) compared with unilateral retinoblastoma (1.3%; p retinoblastoma tumour features such as tumour stage, pathological grade, and laterality with patient characteristics such as age at diagnosis, overall survival, and second malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Sanitary and epidemiological examination of foods under carrying sanitary and epidemiological surveillance on the customer border and at in the territory of the Customers Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, B P; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V; Chigireva, É I

    2011-01-01

    The article concerns peculiarities of sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic examination of foods under carrying of sanitary-epidemiologic surveillance on the customer border and of the custom territory of the Customers Union of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and Byelorussia.

  13. Active epidemiological surveillance in the program of poliomyelitis eradication in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main strategy of the worldwide Program of Poliomyelitis Eradication is based on immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine and active epidemiological surveillance aimed to demonstrate the absence of wild poliovirus circulation. The specification of the surveillance in the program, reporting and investigation of certain syndrome – the acute flaccid paralysis - as a specific feature of surveillance of poliomyelitis, is a new experience both for clinicians and epidemiologists. Along with the achieved results, problems in conducting the active epidemiological surveillance in Serbia, applied measures, and suggestions for improving its quality were presented. This experience might help in implementing the active surveillance for some other diseases that could be prevented by vaccine immunization.

  14. Epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in Germany - insights from 10 years of surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielke, Anika; Rosner, Bettina M; Stark, Klaus

    2014-01-15

    Campylobacteriosis caused by Campylobacter spp. is the most common notifiable bacterial gastrointestinal disease in Germany and a major problem in many other European countries as well. In contrast to other infectious diseases, e.g., salmonellosis, the annual number of notified campylobacteriosis cases has increased in Germany and other European countries from 2001-2010. National surveillance data from 2001 through 2010 were the basis of a detailed description of the epidemiological pattern of Campylobacter infections in Germany. Special focus was placed on geographical distribution and time trends of Campylobacter infections as well as the identification of risk groups. In total, 588,308 cases of campylobacteriosis were recorded during the observed time period. The mean annual incidence increased from 67 cases/100,000 population in 2001 to 80/100,000 population in 2010. Almost 92% of the notified Campylobacter infections were acquired in Germany. A seasonal distribution was observed with a large peak in the summer months and a small peak in January. Incidence was highest in children ≤4 years and young adults 20-29 years of age. Especially young children living in rural regions in Germany seemed to be at high risk of Campylobacter infection. Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Germany, and has been of rising public health concern. There is a need for enhanced prevention of Campylobacter infections and the data presented here may contribute to better target prevention measures with focus on identified risk groups such as children and young adults.

  15. Using Transactional Big Data for Epidemiological Surveillance : Google Flu Trends and Ethical Implications of ‘Infodemiology’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richterich, Annika; Mittelstadt, Brent; Floridi, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a critique of methodological developments in epidemiological surveillance of influenza enabled by digital technology. While public health surveillance conventionally relies on data from clinical and virological diagnosis or mortality rate statistics, approaches in

  16. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma: target population for surveillance and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, An; Hallouch, Oussama; Chernyak, Victoria; Kamaya, Aya; Sirlin, Claude B

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates of liver cancer vary widely between geographic regions and are highest in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, the incidence of HCC has increased since the 1980s. HCC detection at an early stage through surveillance and curative therapy has considerably improved the 5-year survival. Therefore, medical societies advocate systematic screening and surveillance of target populations at particularly high risk for developing HCC to facilitate early-stage detection. Risk factors for HCC include cirrhosis, chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), excess alcohol consumption, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, family history of HCC, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Medical societies utilize risk estimates to define target patient populations in which imaging surveillance is recommended (risk above threshold) or in which the benefits of surveillance are uncertain (risk unknown or below threshold). All medical societies currently recommend screening and surveillance in patients with cirrhosis and subsets of patients with chronic HBV; some societies also include patients with stage 3 fibrosis due to HCV as well as additional groups. Thus, target population definitions vary between regions, reflecting cultural, demographic, economic, healthcare priority, and biological differences. The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) defines different patient populations for surveillance and for diagnosis and staging. We also discuss general trends pertaining to geographic region, age, gender, ethnicity, impact of surveillance on survival, mortality, and future trends.

  17. 76 FR 17657 - Medical Device Epidemiology Network 2011: Second Annual Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...] Medical Device Epidemiology Network 2011: Second Annual Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug... public workshop entitled ``Medical Device Epidemiology Network (MDEpiNet) 2011: Second Annual Public... and to facilitate discussion among FDA and all stakeholders with expertise in epidemiology and health...

  18. Improving semantic interoperability of big data for epidemiological surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Dockhorn Costa, P.; Zelm, Martin; Doumeingts, Guy; Mendonca, Joao Pedro

    Future disease outbreaks may spread faster and stronger than recent epidemics, such as Zika, Ebola and Influenza. The integration of multiple existing Early Warning Systems (EWS) is a requirement to support disease surveillance in combating infectious disease outbreaks. In this direction, numerous

  19. Usage of risk management system for improvement of sanitary-epidemiological control and surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Karelin; G. B. Yeremin; I. V. May; A. Yu. Lomtev; A. V. Kiselev; N. A. Mozzhukhina

    2015-01-01

    The article reviewsthe possibility to work out and introduce risk-oriented model for control and surveillance in the field of the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population in the Russian Federation. In implementation of risk-oriented approaches, choice of a model is of importance. If the static model is the starting one, then in the future, the dynamic model will be the most promising allowing for assessment of stability of the sanitary-epidemiologic situation in time. Introductio...

  20. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  1. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2007. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water

  2. Epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in Germany – insights from 10 years of surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis caused by Campylobacter spp. is the most common notifiable bacterial gastrointestinal disease in Germany and a major problem in many other European countries as well. In contrast to other infectious diseases, e.g., salmonellosis, the annual number of notified campylobacteriosis cases has increased in Germany and other European countries from 2001–2010. Methods National surveillance data from 2001 through 2010 were the basis of a detailed description of the epidemiological pattern of Campylobacter infections in Germany. Special focus was placed on geographical distribution and time trends of Campylobacter infections as well as the identification of risk groups. Results In total, 588,308 cases of campylobacteriosis were recorded during the observed time period. The mean annual incidence increased from 67 cases/100,000 population in 2001 to 80/100,000 population in 2010. Almost 92% of the notified Campylobacter infections were acquired in Germany. A seasonal distribution was observed with a large peak in the summer months and a small peak in January. Incidence was highest in children ≤4 years and young adults 20–29 years of age. Especially young children living in rural regions in Germany seemed to be at high risk of Campylobacter infection. Conclusions Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Germany, and has been of rising public health concern. There is a need for enhanced prevention of Campylobacter infections and the data presented here may contribute to better target prevention measures with focus on identified risk groups such as children and young adults. PMID:24422983

  3. [Epidemiologic surveillance of measles and rubella in Campinas (SP), Brazil: the reliability of the data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Eliana Nogueira Castro; Silva, Eliete Maria

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate and validate the information concerning measles and rubella from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System (BNDNS) (Sistema Nacional de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, or SINAN) for Campinas, a large city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, using as a reference the data from a control system, the Syndromic Surveillance System for Fever and Exanthem (SSSFE) (Sistema de Vigilância Sindrômica de Febre e Exantema, or VigiFEx), which operated from May 2003 through June 2004. In our study we compared: (1) annual data from BNDNS for the years 1999 through 2003 and (2) data from BNDNS and data from SSSFE for the period of June 2003 through May 2004. We analyzed the rate of completion for key fields (record number, date of notification, and city of notification) as well as for name of disease, date of first symptoms, name of patient, birth date and age, sex, city of residence, date of investigation, immunization history, presence of exanthem, date at start of exanthem, presence of fever, suspected cases among pregnant women, signs and symptoms, date of collection of first sample, results with the sample, virus isolation, final classification, criteria for confirmation/exclusion of cases, diagnosis of excluded patients, development of the case, and date of closure. The level of agreement between the recorded cases in the two data banks was also analyzed. From June 2003 through May 2004, 211 suspected cases of measles or rubella were identified in SSSFE and 275 in BNDNS. All the records had complete information concerning the three key fields. The rate of completion was also 100% for patient name, disease, and city of residence. The completion rate was higher than 95% for date of investigation, measles vaccine, measles and rubella vaccine, and rubella vaccine. A lower completion rate was found for other vaccination variables (number of doses and date of last dose) and for exanthem, fever, and date of start of exanthem. The two information

  4. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2011. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water

  5. Lessons learned during active epidemiological surveillance of Ebola and Marburg viral hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaranga, Yokouide; Kone, Mamadou Lamine; Formenty, Pierre; Libama, Francois; Boumandouki, Paul; Woodfill, Celia J I; Sow, Idrissa; Duale, Sambe; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Yada, Adamou

    2010-03-01

    To review epidemiological surveillance approaches used during Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Africa in the past fifteen years. Overall, 26 hemorrhagic epidemic outbreaks have been registered in 12 countries; 18 caused by the Ebola virus and eight by the Marburg virus. About 2551 cases have been reported, among which 268 were health workers (9,3%). Based on articles and epidemic management reports, this review analyses surveillance approaches, route of introduction of the virus into the population (urban and rural), the collaboration between the human health sector and the wildlife sector and factors that have affected epidemic management. Several factors affecting the epidemiological surveillance during Ebola and Marburg viruses hemorrhagic epidemics have been observed. During epidemics in rural settings, outbreak investigations have shown multiple introductions of the virus into the human population through wildlife. In contrast, during epidemics in urban settings a single introduction of the virus in the community was responsible for the epidemic. Active surveillance is key to containing outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg viruses Collaboration with those in charge of the conservation of wildlife is essential for the early detection of viral hemorrhagic fever epidemics. Hemorrhagic fever epidemics caused by Ebola and Marburg viruses are occurring more and more frequently in Sub-Saharan Africa and only an adapted epidemiological surveillance system will allow for early detection and effective response.

  6. Epidemiology of measles in Blantyre, Malawi: analyses of passive surveillance data from 1996 to 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Dunga, A.; Broadhead, R. L.; Brabin, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    Measles surveillance data in Blantyre, Malawi were reviewed for 1996-8 to describe the epidemiology of infection and to estimate vaccine efficacy (VE) by the screening method. A total of 674 measles cases were reported to the Blantyre District Health Office during this period. Age distribution

  7. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2008 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2009 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-07-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2007 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-03-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2008 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2007 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2008 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. Heroin and fentanyl overdoses in Kentucky: Epidemiology and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova, Svetla; Costich, Julia F; Bunn, Terry L; Luu, Huong; Singleton, Michael; Hargrove, Sarah L; Triplett, Jeremy S; Quesinberry, Dana; Ralston, William; Ingram, Van

    2017-08-01

    The study aims to describe recent changes in Kentucky's drug overdose trends related to increased heroin and fentanyl involvement, and to discuss future directions for improved drug overdose surveillance. The study used multiple data sources (death certificates, postmortem toxicology results, emergency department [ED] records, law enforcement drug submissions, and prescription drug monitoring records) to describe temporal, geographic, and demographic changes in drug overdoses in Kentucky. Fentanyl- and heroin-related overdose death rates increased across all age groups from years 2011 to 2015 with the highest rates consistently among 25-34-year-olds. The majority of the heroin and fentanyl overdose decedents had histories of substantial exposures to legally acquired prescription opioids. Law enforcement drug submission data were strongly correlated with drug overdose ED and mortality data. The 2016 crude rate of heroin-related overdose ED visits was 104/100,000, a 68% increase from 2015 (62/100,000). More fentanyl-related overdose deaths were reported between October, 2015, and September, 2016, than ED visits, in striking contrast with the observed ratio of >10 to 1 heroin-related overdose ED visits to deaths. Many fatal fentanyl overdoses were associated with heroin adulterated with fentanyl; fentanyl and other synthetic drugs. In order to inform coordinated public health and safety responses, drug overdose surveillance must move from a reactive to a proactive mode, utilizing the infrastructure for electronic health records. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Three decades of hospital epidemiology and the challenge of integrating Health Surveillance: reflections from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Pereira, Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a reflection on the uses and future prospects of hospital-based health surveillance based on the account of a pioneering experience in hospital epidemiology, the epidemiology service at the Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado - HFSE, which served as the basis for the creation of epidemiologic surveillance units in municipal and state hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The epidemiology service has combined epidemiological surveillance, continuing education, in-service training, research, and health service evaluation since 1986. The service is part of the national epidemiological surveillance network and was responsible for the notification of 55,747 cases between 1986 and 2016, most of which were the result of active search. The integration of various levels of health surveillance and health care makes classical control activities more agile and provides instruments for measuring. The important role played by the service in human resources training is evident in the training of 1,835 medical interns and 78 residents up to 2016. In addition, this experience has served as the basis for the implantation of several other hospital epidemiological surveillance units. Current challenges include the promotion of effective communication and coordination among the other health surveillance committees.

  14. Overview of molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, A J; Budimir, A; Nashev, D; Sá-Leão, R; van Dijl, J m; Laurent, F; Grundmann, H; Friedrich, A W

    2013-01-24

    Typing methods for discriminating different bacterial isolates of the same species are essential epidemiological tools in infection prevention and control. Traditional typing systems based on phenotypes, such as serotype, biotype, phage-type, or antibiogram, have been used for many years. However, more recent methods that examine the relatedness of isolates at a molecular level have revolutionised our ability to differentiate among bacterial types and subtypes. Importantly, the development of molecular methods has provided new tools for enhanced surveillance and outbreak detection. This has resulted in better implementation of rational infection control programmes and efficient allocation of resources across Europe. The emergence of benchtop sequencers using next generation sequencing technology makes bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) feasible even in small research and clinical laboratories. WGS has already been used for the characterisation of bacterial isolates in several large outbreaks in Europe and, in the near future, is likely to replace currently used typing methodologies due to its ultimate resolution. However, WGS is still too laborious and time-consuming to obtain useful data in routine surveillance. Also, a largely unresolved question is how genome sequences must be examined for epidemiological characterisation. In the coming years, the lessons learnt from currently used molecular methods will allow us to condense the WGS data into epidemiologically useful information. On this basis, we have reviewed current and new molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance of bacterial pathogens in clinical practice, aiming to give an overview of their specific advantages and disadvantages.

  15. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2000. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces

  16. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2002. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co-operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  17. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2004. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the

  18. Veterinarians as practitioners and as key players in epidemiological surveillance: two tasks, two paradigms to be reconciled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calavas, D; Collin, E; Hendrikx, P

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary practitioners are often involved in epidemiological surveillance systems, where their task is to detect animals suspected of suffering from diseases subject to surveillance and to include them in surveillance. However, these two tasks--practising veterinary medicine and taking part in surveillance--are based on different paradigms. Faced with a sick animal, a practitioner tries to maximise the probability of a correct diagnosis, whereas, when implementing surveillance, a veterinarian is required to maximise the inclusion of suspected cases in surveillance systems. Based on an analysis of the difficulties and problems posed by these coexisting tasks, the authors propose potential solutions through veterinary education and training. The implementers and coordinators of epidemiological surveillance systems must take these factors into account.

  19. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricou, Vianney; Bouscaillou, Julie; Kamba Mebourou, Emmanuel; Koyanongo, Fidèle Dieudonné; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR), an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated. Methods To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains. Results In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (Pcanine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country. PMID:26859829

  20. Postmortem Diagnosis of Dengue as an Epidemiological Surveillance Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Braga, Deborah Nunes de Melo; da Silva, Lívia Maria Alexandre; Aguiar, Marina Gondim; Castiglioni, Mariana; Silva-Junior, José Udevanier; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho; Pereira, Renata Allana da Costa; Malta, Danielle Lima; Pompeu, Margarida Maria de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Dengue remains a problem in Brazil, and a substantial number of cases that progress to death are not diagnosed by health services. We evaluated the impact of a protocol adopted by the Coroner's Office Rocha Furtado (CO-RF) for the detection of unreported deaths from dengue in Brazil. We evaluated prospectively cases of deaths referred to the CO-RF with suspicion of dengue and those referred with other diagnosis in which the pathologists suspected dengue as the cause of death. Biological material was collected from all bodies autopsied, for which the suspected cause of death was dengue, between January 2011 and December 2012. Of the 214 bodies autopsied, 134 (62.6%) tested positive for dengue; of these cases, 121 were classified as dengue according to the World Health Organization's case definition (1997 or 2009, as appropriate). Thus, CO-RF detected 90 deaths from dengue, which were not suspected during disease progression. This CO-RF protocol, through a combined effort of the surveillance and laboratory teams, increased the detection of fatal dengue cases by 5-fold. This is the largest series of autopsies performed in cases of death related to dengue in the world to date. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Postmortem Diagnosis of Dengue as an Epidemiological Surveillance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Nunes de Melo Braga, Deborah; Maria Alexandre da Silva, Lívia; Gondim Aguiar, Marina; Castiglioni, Mariana; Silva-Junior, José Udevanier; Montenegro de Carvalho Araújo, Fernanda; Allana da Costa Pereira, Renata; Malta, Danielle Lima; Pompeu, Margarida Maria de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Dengue remains a problem in Brazil, and a substantial number of cases that progress to death are not diagnosed by health services. We evaluated the impact of a protocol adopted by the Coroner's Office Rocha Furtado (CO-RF) for the detection of unreported deaths from dengue in Brazil. We evaluated prospectively cases of deaths referred to the CO-RF with suspicion of dengue and those referred with other diagnosis in which the pathologists suspected dengue as the cause of death. Biological material was collected from all bodies autopsied, for which the suspected cause of death was dengue, between January 2011 and December 2012. Of the 214 bodies autopsied, 134 (62.6%) tested positive for dengue; of these cases, 121 were classified as dengue according to the World Health Organization's case definition (1997 or 2009, as appropriate). Thus, CO-RF detected 90 deaths from dengue, which were not suspected during disease progression. This CO-RF protocol, through a combined effort of the surveillance and laboratory teams, increased the detection of fatal dengue cases by 5-fold. This is the largest series of autopsies performed in cases of death related to dengue in the world to date. PMID:26598561

  2. [Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet celebrates 75 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, G V; Brashkov, A A

    2010-08-01

    The history of the Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet begun in the 1 April 1935 when the sanitary-epidemiological laboratory was founded. The article is concerned with the different stages of vivid development of this institute during 75 years. During this period organization, establishment and the name were changed many times. Since 2002 it got the current name and represents the scientific-methods institution which can solve the issues of sanitary-hygienic and antiepidemic supply of military personnel of the navy. Special attention is given to the high-readiness force.

  3. Comparative epidemiology of influenza A and B viral infection in a subtropical region: a 7-year surveillance in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iha, Yoshikazu; Kinjo, Takeshi; Parrott, Gretchen; Higa, Futoshi; Mori, Hideaki; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-11-08

    The epidemic patterns of influenza B infection and their association with climate conditions are not well understood. Influenza surveillance in Okinawa is important for clarifying transmission patterns in both temperate and tropical regions. Using surveillance data, collected over 7 years in the subtropical region of Japan, this study aims to characterize the epidemic patterns of influenza B infection and its association with ambient temperature and relative humidity, in a parallel comparison with influenza A. From January 2007 until March 2014, two individual influenza surveillance datasets were collected from external sources. The first dataset, included weekly rapid antigen test (RAT) results from four representative general hospitals, located in the capital city of Okinawa. A nation-wide surveillance of influenza, diagnosed by RAT results and/or influenza-like illness symptoms, included the age distribution of affected patients and was used as the second dataset. To analyze the association between infection and local climate conditions, ambient temperature and relative humidity during the study period were retrieved from the Japanese Meteorological Agency website. Although influenza A maintained high number of infections from December through March, epidemics of influenza B infection were observed annually from March through July. The only observed exception was 2010, when the pandemic strain of 2009 dominated. During influenza B outbreaks, influenza patients aged 5 to 9 years old and 10 to 14 years old more frequently visited sentinel sites. Although both ambient temperature and relative humidity are inversely associated with influenza A infection, influenza B infection was found to be directly associated with high relative humidity. Further studies are needed to elucidate the complex epidemiology of influenza B and its relationship with influenza A. In the subtropical setting of Okinawa, epidemics of influenza B infection occur from March to July following

  4. Epidemiological surveillance of tegumentary leishmaniasis: local territorial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Valdenir Bandeira; Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Vargas, Waldemir Paixão

    2017-06-26

    To propose a new operational unit in the locality scale capable of subsidizing the construction of an information system to control the transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis at this scale, in a region of high endemicity of the Atlantic Forest. We examined the adequacy of data and instruments in an area of high endemicity in the Atlantic Forest located in the South of the State of Rio de Janeiro from 1990 to 2012. The study proposed an operational unit called Local Surveillance Unit to make all used databases compatible by adjusting census sectors. This enabled the overlap and comparison of information in different periods. The spreading process of the transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Baía da Ilha Grande region does not depend on great population movements, and can occur in areas with population growth or decrease. The data information system allowed the adequate identification and characterization of the place of residence. We identified relevant characteristics of the place of transmission, such as self-limited in time and not associated with recent deforestation. The results also highlight the lack of synchronicity in the case production in territorial units involved in the endemic-epidemic process, noting that this process is in constant motion. The transmission process seems more connected to the presence and movement of rodents that move continuously in the region than to the local density of vectors or the permanence of infected dogs at home. New control strategies targeted at the foci of transmission must be considered. The construction of a new operational unit, called Local Surveillance Unit, was instrumental in the endemic-epidemic process analysis. Propor uma nova unidade operacional na escala de localidade capaz de subsidiar a construção de um sistema de informação orientado para o controle da transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar nesse nível. Uma região de alta endemicidade da Mata Atlântica no sul do estado do Rio de

  5. Epidemiological surveillance in dairy farms in the Pastaza province of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Ruano, M; Lam Romero, F V; Benítez Jiménez, D; Ríos Núñez, S; Vargas Burgos, J C; Quinteros Pozo, R; Rodríguez Villafuerte, X

    2016-12-01

    A survey was carried out on dairy cattle farms in Pastaza province to analyse the degree of compliance with epidemiological surveillance activities (based on the main technical aspects in Ecuador's Guide to Good Dairy Farming Practices) and to assess the reduction of the risk of introducing disease into dairy cattle. Visits were made to 70 dairy and dual-purpose beef/dairy farms, where the survey was conducted to evaluate technical aspects relating to epidemiological surveillance and the risk of introducing disease. In only one of the nine areas of application covered in the guide was compliance with technical requirements greater than 70%: milking and milk handling (78.59%). In the following areas, a compliance rate of 40-65% was achieved: records and traceability; siting of livestock farms and infrastructure, facilities and equipment; use and quality of water and animal feed; and management of veterinary products and agricultural pesticides. In the remaining areas, the compliance rate was less than 20%. On average, there was only 27.96% compliance with the technical elements evaluated. The results show that current guidelines for good dairy farming practices can be used to evaluate basic aspects of epidemiological surveillance and of the reduction of the risk of introducing disease into dairy farms. They also reveal shortcomings in these aspects in the Amazonian province of Pastaza, which need to be addressed appropriately to reduce their negative impact on animal health. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  6. [Implementation of a community tele-epidemiological surveillance system using information and communication technologies in Paraguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Pedro; Cane, Virgilio; Samudio, Margarita; Cabello, Agueda; Cabral, Margarita; Basogain, Xavier; Rivas, Ronald; Hilario, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Report preliminary results of the application of the BONIS system in community tele-epidemiological surveillance in Paraguay. A study of viability and implementation carried out in the Family Health Unit located in Bañado Sur in the city of Asunción by the Paraguay River. The system automatically records personal data and symptoms of individuals who make telephone reports, and suspected cases of dengue are classified and prioritized. This information goes to community agents for follow-up and to specialists in charge of epidemiological surveillance. From April 2010 to August 2011, 1 028 calls to the system were logged. Of 157 reported cases of fever, home visits were made to 140 (89.2%); of these, fever and headache or body ache were confirmed in 52 (37.1%) cases, and headache or body ache without fever in 58 (41.4%) cases. Community agents referred 49 (35.0%) of them for medical consultation and blood tests, and they took blood samples in the homes of 19; of these, 56 (82.3%) were positive for dengue and 12 (17.4%) for influenza. Paraguay has a low-cost community tele-epidemiological surveillance system based on information and communication technologies and open-source software, which is scalable to other health symptoms and disorders of interest. To enable its acceptance and application, education programs should be developed to strengthen the management and promotion of community health.

  7. Molecular surveillance of norovirus, 2005-16: an epidemiological analysis of data collected from the NoroNet network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Janko; de Graaf, Miranda; Al-Hello, Haider; Allen, David J; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Brytting, Mia; Buesa, Javier; Cabrerizo, Maria; Chan, Martin; Cloak, Fiona; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Guix, Susana; Hewitt, Joanne; Iritani, Nobuhiro; Jin, Miao; Johne, Reimar; Lederer, Ingeborg; Mans, Janet; Martella, Vito; Maunula, Leena; McAllister, Georgina; Niendorf, Sandra; Niesters, Hubert G; Podkolzin, Alexander T; Poljsak-Prijatelj, Mateja; Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Reuter, Gábor; Tuite, Gráinne; Kroneman, Annelies; Vennema, Harry; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2018-01-01

    The development of a vaccine for norovirus requires a detailed understanding of global genetic diversity of noroviruses. We analysed their epidemiology and diversity using surveillance data from the NoroNet network.

  8. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Matthew; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina Maria; Noonan, Gary; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT). According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  9. [Center of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Central military district celebrates 70 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedniakov, V V; Kunaev, A V

    2012-04-01

    The history of the centre of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Central military district stationed in Kazan is stated shortly. This institution originated in 104th sanitary and epidemiological detachment, which was formed in May 1942 in complement of Bryansk Navy. During 1942-1945 104th SED was allotted to Braynsk, Central, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Belarus's fronts. Nowadays this Center in Kazan is component part of the united territorial system of medical supply of troops stationed in republic of Tatarstan, Udmurtiya, Chuvashiya, Mariy Al. It is modern profile institution where work highly skilled physicians and medical stuff of medium-level. Employees of the center have great experience in realization of prophylactic and anti-epidemiological actions.

  10. Introduction of software tools for epidemiological surveillance in infection control in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoa, Gabriel; Vallejo, Marta; Blanco, Víctor M; Correa, Adriana; de la Cadena, Elsa; Villegas, María Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) are a challenge for patient safety in the hospitals. Infection control committees (ICC) should follow CDC definitions when monitoring HAI. The handmade method of epidemiological surveillance (ES) may affect the sensitivity and specificity of the monitoring system, while electronic surveillance can improve the performance, quality and traceability of recorded information. Objective: To assess the implementation of a strategy for electronic surveillance of HAI, Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Consumption by the ICC of 23 high-complexity clinics and hospitals in Colombia, during the period 2012-2013. Methods: An observational study evaluating the introduction of electronic tools in the ICC was performed; we evaluated the structure and operation of the ICC, the degree of incorporation of the software HAI Solutions and the adherence to record the required information. Results: Thirty-eight percent of hospitals (8/23) had active surveillance strategies with standard criteria of the CDC, and 87% of institutions adhered to the module of identification of cases using the HAI Solutions software. In contrast, compliance with the diligence of the risk factors for device-associated HAIs was 33%. Conclusions: The introduction of ES could achieve greater adherence to a model of active surveillance, standardized and prospective, helping to improve the validity and quality of the recorded information. PMID:26309340

  11. Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    continued surveillance to understand the evolving impact of VRE within the MHS. iii iii VRE in the MHS: Annual Summary 2016 Prepared June 2017...rates stratified by gender . 1,8 This gender disparity is not as apparent during 2016 (1.52 infections per 100,000 males vs. 1.24 infections per

  12. [Design and implementation of an epidemiological surveillance system for mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Judith Scharager; Contreras Escudero, Lorena

    2002-02-01

    To design and test a surveillance system to detect and rank the most significant mental health problems in a community and to establish their association with the living conditions in that community. The system was designed and tested at a primary health care center in the community of La Florida, which is in the metropolitan region of Santiago, the capital of Chile. The health problems that were under surveillance, with monthly monitoring, were: addiction (to alcohol, tobacco, and benzodiazepines or other drugs), violence (domestic violence and sexual abuse, real or suspected), and disorders in children (attention deficit and behavioral disorders). By means of a computerized geographical information system (GIS), those surveillance data were combined with other data. These other data included sociodemographic information on the persons who went to the health center for care as well as data on local risk factors and protective factors for health problems, some of which are indicators of the local residents' living conditions. The proposed epidemiological surveillance system, which takes into account local living conditions and environmental variables, is a good tool for health action. The proposed system also complements the incomplete perspective of monitoring systems, which do not include variables describing the local context and that focus only on health problems. The information synthesized in the GIS maps makes it possible to simultaneously display different layers of information on factors related to the health problems studied, linked to a specific area and all its environmental variables, in an easy-to-read, self-explanatory format. These results and the concurring opinions of the participating physicians show that the experimental system effectively met the basic requirements of an epidemiological surveillance system of this kind.

  13. Needs assessment for performance improvement of personnel in charge of epidemiological surveillance in Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Priotto

    Full Text Available In line with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005, the Morocco health surveillance system has been reinforced via infrastructure strengthening and decentralization in its regions. To plan for personnel capacity reinforcement actions, a national workforce needs assessment was conducted by the National Epidemiological Surveillance Service and the World Health Organization.The assessment used an ad-hoc method comprising two stages: (1 A survey via a standardized electronic questionnaire, administered to all staff in regional and provincial surveillance teams. Data collected included demographics, basic qualification, complementary training, perceived training needs, and preferred training modalities. Individuals were asked to grade, on a nine-point scale, their perception of importance of a given list of tasks and of their capacity to perform them. The gap between perceptions was quantified and described. (2 Field visits to national, regional and provincial sites for direct observation and opinion gathering on broader issues such as motivators, barriers, and training needs from the local perspective.Questionnaire respondents were 122/158 agents at 78 surveillance units countrywide. Mean age was 43.6 years and job longevity 5.7 years. Only 53% (65/122 had epidemiology training, posted in 62% (48/78 of the structures. Self-assessed capacity varied by basic qualification and by structure level (regional vs. provincial. The gap between the importance granted to a task and the perceived capacity to perform it was sizable, showing an uneven distribution across competency domains, regions, surveillance level and staff's basic qualification. From the opinions gathered, a problem of staff demotivation and high turnover emerged clearly.Our method was successful in revealing specific details of the training needs countrywide. A national strategy is needed to ensure rational planning of training, personnel motivation and long-term sustainability. In

  14. Comparative genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter: application in routine public health surveillance and epidemiological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleihauf, E; Mutschall, S; Billard, B; Taboada, E N; Haldane, D

    2017-01-01

    A subtyping methodology for Campylobacter, Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting (CGF40), has been described recently. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of CGF40 as a tool to enhance routine public health surveillance of campylobacteriosis. Isolates of Campylobacter from across the province were requested and sent for CGF40 subtyping. Epidemiological data from cases reported to public health officials in Nova Scotia, Canada, from January 2012 to March 2015 were linked with blinded CGF40 subtyping results. CGF40 was epidemiologically valid; subtyping discerned known epidemiologically related isolates and augmented case-finding. Predominant sources and locations of subtype detection from the national reference database showed some study subtypes were rare and even novel to the database, while others were more commonly identified over multiple years and with exposures locally and internationally. A case-case study design was applied to examine risk factors for the most common CGF40 subtypes detected. Differences in the epidemiology of different CGF40 subtypes were observed. Statistically significant associations were noted for specific subtypes with rural residence, local exposure, contact with a pet dog or cat, contact with chickens, and drinking unpasteurized milk. With prospective use, CGF40 could potentially identify unrecognized outbreaks and contribute to epidemiological investigations of case clusters.

  15. A clinical registry of dementia based on the principle of epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turbau Josefina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional epidemiological studies do not allow elucidating the reality of referral and diagnosis patterns of dementia in routine clinical practice within a defined territory. This information is useful and necessary in order to plan and allocate healthcare resources. This paper presents the results from a dementia case registry based on epidemiological surveillance fundamentals. Methods Standardised registry of dementia diagnoses made in 2007 by specialised care centres in the Health Region of Girona (RSG (Spain, which encompasses an area of 5,517 sq. km and a reference population of 690,207 inhabitants. Results 577 cases of dementia were registered, of which 60.7% corresponded to cases of Alzheimer's disease. Presenile dementia accounted for 9.3% of the cases. Mean time between the onset of symptoms and clinical diagnosis was 2.4 years and the severity of the dementia was mild in 60.7% of the cases. High blood pressure, a family history of dementia, dislipidemia, and a past history of depression were the most common conditions prior to the onset of the disease (>20%. Conclusion The ReDeGi is a viable epidemiological surveillance device that provides information about the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients diagnosed with dementia in a defined geographical area.

  16. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; McDonald, Mark W.; Chang, Andrew L.; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  17. Hepatitis E virus infection in Europe: surveillance and descriptive epidemiology of confirmed cases, 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, Esther J; Couturier, Elisabeth; Faber, Mirko; Said, Bengü; Ijaz, Samreen; Tavoschi, Lara; Takkinen, Johanna; Adlhoch, Cornelia

    2017-06-29

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an under-recognised cause of acute hepatitis in high-income countries. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of testing, diagnosis, surveillance activities, and data on confirmed cases in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). A semi-structured survey was developed and sent to 31 EU/EEA countries in February 2016, 30 responded. Twenty of these countries reported that they have specific surveillance systems for HEV infection. Applied specific case definition for HEV infection varied widely across countries. The number of reported cases has increased from 514 cases per year in 2005 to 5,617 in 2015, with most infections being locally acquired. This increase could not be explained by additional countries implementing surveillance for HEV infections over time. Hospitalisations increased from less than 100 in 2005 to more than 1,100 in 2015 and 28 fatal cases were reported over the study period. EU/EEA countries are at different stages in their surveillance, testing schemes and policy response to the emergence of HEV infection in humans. The available data demonstrated a Europe-wide increase in cases. Standardised case definitions and testing policies would allow a better understanding of the epidemiology of HEV as an emerging cause of liver-related morbidity. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  18. London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: public health surveillance and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Brian; Endericks, Tina; Catchpole, Mike; Zambon, Maria; McLauchlin, Jim; Shetty, Nandini; Manuel, Rohini; Turbitt, Deborah; Smith, Gillian; Crook, Paul; Severi, Ettore; Jones, Jane; Ibbotson, Sue; Marshall, Roberta; Smallwood, Catherine A H; Isla, Nicolas; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Barbeschi, Maurizio; Heymann, David L; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2014-06-14

    Mass gatherings are regarded as potential risks for transmission of infectious diseases, and might compromise the health system of countries in which they are hosted. The evidence for increased transmission of infectious diseases at international sporting mass gatherings that attract many visitors from all over the world is not clear, and the evidence base for public health surveillance, epidemiology, and response at events such as the Olympics is small. However, infectious diseases are a recognised risk, and public health planning is, and should remain, a crucial part of the overall planning of sporting events. In this Series paper, we set out the planning and the surveillance systems that were used to monitor public health risks during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games in the summer of 2012, and draw attention to the public health issues-infectious diseases and chemical, radiation, and environmental hazards-that arose. Although the absolute risk of health-protection problems, including infectious diseases, at sporting mass gatherings is small, the need for reassurance of the absence of problems is higher than has previously been considered; this could challenge conventional public health surveillance systems. Recognition of the limitations of health-surveillance systems needs to be part of the planning for future sporting events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surveillance in a Telemedicine Setting: Application of Epidemiologic Methods at NASA Johnson Space Center Adriana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Ruffaner, Lanie; Wear, Mary; Crucian Brian; Sams, Clarence; Lee, Lesley R.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Space medicine presents unique challenges and opportunities for epidemiologists, such as the use of telemedicine during spaceflight. Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are limited due to severe restrictions on power, volume, and mass. Consequently, inflight health information is based heavily on crewmember (CM) self-report of signs and symptoms, rather than formal diagnoses. While CM's are in flight, the primary source of crew health information is verbal communication between physicians and crewmembers. In 2010 NASA implemented the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, an occupational surveillance program for the U.S. Astronaut corps. This has shifted the epidemiological paradigm from tracking diagnoses based on traditional terrestrial clinical practice to one that incorporates symptomatology and may gain a more population-based understanding of early detection of disease process.

  20. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship: Use of Administrative and Surveillance Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Marci; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Morgan, Daniel J; Lee, Grace M

    2016-11-01

    Administrative and surveillance data are used frequently in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship (HE&AS) research because of their wide availability and efficiency. However, data quality issues exist, requiring careful consideration and potential validation of data. This methods paper presents key considerations for using administrative and surveillance data in HE&AS, including types of data available and potential use, data limitations, and the importance of validation. After discussing these issues, we review examples of HE&AS research using administrative data with a focus on scenarios when their use may be advantageous. A checklist is provided to help aid study development in HE&AS using administrative data. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-10.

  1. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lozier

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT. According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age < 60 years with CKD, without type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  2. Epidemiology of malignant mesothelioma in Italy: surveillance systems, territorial clusters and occupations involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Binazzi, Alessandra; Bonafede, Michela; Di Marzio, Davide; Scarselli, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    As a legacy of the large asbestos consumption until the definitive ban in 1992, Italy is currently suffering a severe epidemic of asbestos related diseases. The aim of this paper is to describe the surveillance system for mesothelioma incidence and to provide evidences regarding the occurrence of the disease in Italy and the circumstances of asbestos exposure. Italian National Register of Malignant Mesotheliomas (ReNaM) is a permanent surveillance system of mesothelioma incidence, with Regional Operating Centres (CORs) active in each Italian region, identifying incident malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases from health care structures. Occupational history, lifestyle habits and residential history are obtained using a standardised questionnaire, administered by a trained interviewer, to the subject or to the next of kin. Descriptive epidemiological figures, occupations involved in exposures and territorial maps of MM cases have been produced. At December 2016, ReNaM has collected 27,356 MM cases for the incidence period between 1993 and 2015. The modalities of exposure to asbestos have been investigated for 21,387 (78%) and an occupational exposure has been defined for around 70% of interviewed cases (14,818). Non-occupational exposure is still relevant with 4.9% and 4.4% of cases for which respectively a familial exposure (due to the cohabitation with an occupational exposed subject) and an environmental exposure (due to the residence near a contaminated site) has been detected. The epidemiological surveillance of MM incident cases, by the means of a national register for estimating the occurrence of the disease and identifying the circumstances of asbestos exposure, is a relevant tool for preventing asbestos exposure, for supporting the effectiveness of insurance system and for estimating reliable epidemiological figures.

  3. Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Infections in the Military Health System, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    7 Statistical Analysis...the definition criteria. Table 1. Invasive and Non-Invasive Infection Classification for Acinetobacter Species Infections Accessing the MHS...the definitions for epidemiologic infection classifications. 5 Acinetobacter in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared May 2017

  4. INFLUENZA SURVEILLANCE IN RUSSIA BASED ON EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND LABORATORY DATA FOR THE PERIOD FROM 2005 TO 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Sominina; Burtseva, Elena; Eropkin, Mikhail; Karpova, Ludmila; Zarubaev, Vladimir; Smorodintseva, Elizaveta; Konovalova, Nadezhda; Danilenko, Daria; Prokopetz, Alexandra; Grudinin, Mikhail; Pisareva, Maria; Anfimov, Pavel; Stolyarov, Kirill; Kiselev, Oleg; Shevchenko, Elena; Ivanova, Valeriya; Trushakova, Svetlana; Breslav, Nataliya; Lvov, Dmitriy; Klimov, Alexander; Moen, Ann; Cox, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Exchange of information on and sharing of influenza viruses through the GISRS network has great significance for understanding influenza virus evolution, recognition of a new pandemic virus emergence and for preparing annual WHO recommendations on influenza vaccine strain composition. Influenza surveillance in Russia is based on collaboration of two NICs with 59 Regional Bases. Most epidemiological and laboratory data are entered through the internet into the electronic database at the Research Institute of Influenza (RII), where they are analyzed and then reported to the Ministry of Public Health of Russia. Simultaneously, data are introduced into WHO’s Flu Net and Euro Flu, both electronic databases. Annual influenza epidemics of moderate intensity were registered during four pre-pandemic seasons. Children aged 0–2 and 3–6 years were the most affected groups of the population. Influenza registered clinically among hospitalized patients with respiratory infections for the whole epidemic period varied between 1.3 and 5.4% and up but to 18.5–23.0% during the peak of the two pandemic waves caused by influenza A(H1N1) pdm 09 virus and to lesser extent (2.9 to 8.5%) during usual seasonal epidemics. Most epidemics were associated with influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and B co-circulation. During the two pandemic waves (in 2009–2010 and 2010–2011) influenza A(H1N1) pdm 09 predominated. It was accompanied by a rapid growth of influenza morbidity with a significant increase of both hospitalization and mortality. The new pandemic virus displaced the previous seasonal A(H1N1) virus completely. As a rule, most of the influenza viruses circulating in Russia were antigenic ally related to the strains recommended by WHO for vaccine composition for the Northern hemisphere with the exception of two seasons when an unexpected replacement of the influenza B Victoria lineage by Yamagata lineage (2007–2008) and the following return of Victoria lineage viruses (2008–2009) was

  5. Comparative epidemiology of influenza A and B viral infection in a subtropical region: a 7-year surveillance in Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Iha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic patterns of influenza B infection and their association with climate conditions are not well understood. Influenza surveillance in Okinawa is important for clarifying transmission patterns in both temperate and tropical regions. Using surveillance data, collected over 7 years in the subtropical region of Japan, this study aims to characterize the epidemic patterns of influenza B infection and its association with ambient temperature and relative humidity, in a parallel comparison with influenza A. Methods From January 2007 until March 2014, two individual influenza surveillance datasets were collected from external sources. The first dataset, included weekly rapid antigen test (RAT results from four representative general hospitals, located in the capital city of Okinawa. A nation-wide surveillance of influenza, diagnosed by RAT results and/or influenza-like illness symptoms, included the age distribution of affected patients and was used as the second dataset. To analyze the association between infection and local climate conditions, ambient temperature and relative humidity during the study period were retrieved from the Japanese Meteorological Agency website. Results Although influenza A maintained high number of infections from December through March, epidemics of influenza B infection were observed annually from March through July. The only observed exception was 2010, when the pandemic strain of 2009 dominated. During influenza B outbreaks, influenza patients aged 5 to 9 years old and 10 to 14 years old more frequently visited sentinel sites. Although both ambient temperature and relative humidity are inversely associated with influenza A infection, influenza B infection was found to be directly associated with high relative humidity. Conclusion Further studies are needed to elucidate the complex epidemiology of influenza B and its relationship with influenza A. In the subtropical setting of Okinawa

  6. History and Medicine: ex voto as a tool for health and epidemiological surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nante, N; Azzolini, E; Troiano, G; Serafini, A; Gentile, A; Messina, G

    2016-01-01

    Ex voto is a donation for a divinity, a Saint or to Virgin Mary for a received mercy. From the analysis of an ex voto it's possible to obtain lots of information and therefore it can be used as a tool for health and epidemiological surveillance, to study morbidity in the past. The aim of this study was the creation of a database to rebuild epidemiological events and diseases, using ex voto as a source of health surveillance. We chose to study votive pictures using three types of sources: photographed alive, on-line archives, books and photographic collections. Ex voto have been saved in an Hard Disk, numbered and inserted in a database, then analyzed using Stata®. total of 6231 ex voto were collected and catalogued in our database. Ex voto referring to diseases are the most represented (41%), but they have decreased with the time. Road accidents (21.4%) have a constant increase, especially with the appearance of cars and motorcycles. Aggressions (5.45%) decrease constantly; warlike accidents (4.44%) had a peak in the period including both world wars; non professional accidents (10.60%) and accidents at work (3.79%) increase without peaks; maritime accidents (8.88%) have not uniform ups and downs during the time. The database let us rebuild epidemiological events of the past, which are not deductible from other sources. Our purpose is to expand in the space-time our source data in order to perform an interesting comparison between past and present.

  7. Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Gram-positive intestinal flora and providing a selective advantage for VRE that may be present in small numbers in the 2 VRE in the MHS...characteristics were presented as a proportion of all infections within the population meeting the definition criteria. Table 1. Invasive and Non...the definitions for epidemiologic infection classifications. 5 VRE in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared February 2017 EpiData

  8. [Differences in influenza epidemics in Osaka City--epidemiological surveillance of infectious disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Shibe, K; Minoshiro, S

    1994-05-01

    Influenza viruses in outpatients with influenza symptoms in Osaka City were analyzed in an epidemiological surveillance of infectious disease between 1989 and 1993. During influenza epidemics a mixed prevalence of several types of influenza viruses existed. Three types of influenza viruses, AH1, AH3 and B, were isolated during the 1990/1991 season. Remarkably the three types of viruses were discovered in samplings collected on the same day and within a narrow area inside a radius of 800-1,000m from the surveyed hospitals. Different types of viruses were detected between brothers and among school children from same housing complexes. Influenza AH3 viruses detected in 1992/1993 season differed in antigenicity from those detected in the 1990/1991 and 1991/1992 seasons. Therefore it appears that mutation of the AH3 virus contributed to the large-scale influenza epidemic which occurred in the 1992/1993 season.

  9. [Results of the epidemiological surveillance of diabetes mellitus in hospitals in Peru, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Willy; López, Tania; Revilla, Luis; More, Luis; Huamaní, María; Pozo, Milagros

    2014-01-01

    To describe the findings of a year of epidemiological surveillance in pilot hospitals in Peru belonging to the diabetes surveillance (DS) system. Cross-sectional study involving diabetic patients in the DS system from 18 hospitals during 2012. The DS database was assessed and epidemiological and laboratory variables were obtained including age, sex, type of diabetes, complications, comorbidity, microalbuminuria, fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at two time points - at the time of enrollment and the last followup. 2,959 cases were found. At the time of enrollment into the DS system, 91.2% had a fasting blood glucose test of which 65.4% had a level 130 mg/dL. 8.9% had a microalbuminuria test of which 20.5% had microalbuminuria and 6.5% proteinuria. In total, 1025 patients had a follow-up visit; 93.1% had a fasting blood glucose test and 22.3% had HbA1c test. 63.5% had a fasting glycemia level 130 mg/dL and 73.4% HbA1c level 7.0%. The most common complication was neuropathy (21.4 %) and the most frequent comorbidity was high blood pressure (10.5%). Tuberculosis and cancer cases were observed; the most frequent cancer was breast cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women. The DS shows that among diabetics of the pilot hospitals, which have laboratory results, there is a high frequency of inadequate glycemic control and poor adherence to treatment. The high frequency of complications found highlights the need to strengthen early diagnosis.

  10. [40th anniversary of the 736th Main Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the Russian Defense Ministry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveĭ, È P; Berskiĭ, O V; Ian'shin, L A

    2012-11-01

    In November 2012 736th Main Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation celebrates 40th anniversary. It is a multidisciplanary prevention and treatment facility of high level standing at the top of the sanitary-epidemiological institutions of the army and navy. The Main Center is included into a united, centralized system of state sanitary-epidemiological control of Russia with the main purpose--organization and conduction of surveillance and anti-epidemic (preventive) measures in the army and navy. The article provides a consistent presentation of historical perspective of creation and development of the institution and its mission today.

  11. Epidemiological surveillance - air and health. Surveillance of effects on health linked to air pollution; Surveillance epidemiologique air et sante. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quenel, Ph.; Cassadou, S.; Eilstein, D.; Filleul, L.; Le Goaster, C.; Le Tertre, A.; Medina, S.; Pascal, L.; Prouvost, H.; Saviuc, Ph.; Zeghnoun, A. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France); Declerq, Ch. [Observatoire Regional de Sante Nord Pas de Calais (France)

    1999-03-01

    In the field of air pollution, the France is the first country to be endowed with a device of epidemiological surveillance allowing to to evaluate and monitor the impact of urban air pollution on the health of population. This new approach is based on the analysis of relationship between pollution indicators and health indicators, it leads to confirm the partnership between actors of environment and health, at the national level as well at the local level. It confirms the development of assessment in the field of environmental health. (N.C.)

  12. The Epidemiology and Surveillance Workforce Among Local Health Departments in California: Mutual Aid and Surge Capacity for Routine and Emergency Infectious Disease Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Adam W.; Hunter, Jennifer C.; Balido, Jeannie; Aragon, Tomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Public health surveillance and epidemiologic investigations are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. We conducted a survey of local health departments (LHDs) in California to describe the workforce that supports public health surveillance and epidemiologic functions during routine and emergency infectious disease situations. Methods The target population consisted of the 61 LHDs in California. The online survey instrument was designed to collect information about the workforce involved in key epidemiologic functions. We also examined how the public health workforce increases its epidemiologic capacity during infectious disease emergencies. Results Of 61 LHDs in California, 31 (51%) completed the survey. A wide range of job classifications contribute to epidemiologic functions routinely, and LHDs rely on both internal and external sources of epidemiologic surge capacity during infectious disease emergencies. This study found that while 17 (55%) LHDs reported having a mutual aid agreement with at least one other organization for emergency response, only nine (29%) LHDs have a mutual aid agreement specifically for epidemiology and surveillance functions. Conclusions LHDs rely on a diverse workforce to conduct epidemiology and public health surveillance functions, emphasizing the need to identify and describe the types of staff positions that could benefit from public health surveillance and epidemiology training. While some organizations collaborate with external partners to support these functions during an emergency, many LHDs do not rely on mutual aid agreements for epidemiology and surveillance activities. PMID:25355982

  13. College Health Surveillance Network: Epidemiology and Health Care Utilization of College Students at US 4-Year Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James C.; Keller, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This description of the College Health Surveillance Network (CHSN) includes methodology, demography, epidemiology, and health care utilization. Participants: Twenty-three universities representing approximately 730,000 enrolled students contributed data from January 1, 2011, through May 31, 2014. Methods: Participating schools uploaded…

  14. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  15. Environmental surveillance for the INEL radioactive waste management complex. Annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Janke, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is the 1979 annual environmental surveillance report for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are tabulated data from and discussions about routine radiological monitoring of atmospheric, hydrologic, geologic, and biotic environments of the RWMC. Also included are discussions of selected nonradiological pollutants (e.g., sodium, etc.). It is concluded that (a) RWMC operations have not adversely affected local, existing environments; (b) environmental conditions within the Transuranic Storage Area are not corrosive enough to adversely affect transuranic waste storage containers, and (c) the addition of lakebed soil to pit, trench, and soil test plot areas has altered the moisture cycle characteristic of RWMC soil

  16. Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Moncayo

    2009-07-01

    worldwide network of laboratories that carried out basic and applied research supporting the planning and evaluation of national Chagas disease control programmes. The present article reviews the current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and the future challenges in terms of epidemiology, surveillance and health policy.

  17. Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Alvaro; Silveira, Antonio Carlos

    2009-07-01

    laboratories that carried out basic and applied research supporting the planning and evaluation of national Chagas disease control programmes. The present article reviews the current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and the future challenges in terms of epidemiology, surveillance and health policy.

  18. GET WELL: an automated surveillance system for gaining new epidemiological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydevik Gustaf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assumption behind the presented work is that the information people search for on the internet reflects the disease status in society. By having access to this source of information, epidemiologists can get a valuable complement to the traditional surveillance and potentially get new and timely epidemiological insights. For this purpose, the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control collaborates with a medical web site in Sweden. Methods We built an application consisting of two conceptual parts. One part allows for trends, based on user specified requests, to be extracted from anonymous web query data from a Swedish medical web site. The second conceptual part permits tailored analyses of particular diseases, where more complex statistical methods are applied to the data. To evaluate the epidemiological relevance of the output, we compared Google search data and search data from the medical web site. Results In the paper, we give concrete examples of the output from the web query-based system. We also present results from the comparison between data from the search engine Google and search data from the national medical web site. Conclusions The application is in regular use at the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control. A system based on web queries is flexible in that it can be adapted to any disease; we get information on other individuals than those who seek medical care; and the data do not suffer from reporting delays. Although Google data are based on a substantially larger search volume, search patterns obtained from the medical web site may still convey more information from an epidemiological perspective. Furthermore we can see advantages with having full access to the raw data.

  19. Assessment of the French National Health Insurance Information System as a tool for epidemiological surveillance of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delon, François; Mayet, Aurélie; Thellier, Marc; Kendjo, Eric; Michel, Rémy; Ollivier, Lénaïck; Chatellier, Gilles; Desjeux, Guillaume

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological surveillance of malaria in France is based on a hospital laboratory sentinel surveillance network. There is no comprehensive population surveillance. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of the French National Health Insurance Information System to support nationwide malaria surveillance in continental France. A case identification algorithm was built in a 2-step process. First, inclusion rules giving priority to sensitivity were defined. Then, based on data description, exclusion rules to increase specificity were applied. To validate our results, we compared them to data from the French National Reference Center for Malaria on case counts, distribution within subgroups, and disease onset date trends. We built a reusable automatized tool. From July 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014, we identified 4077 incident malaria cases that occurred in continental France. Our algorithm provided data for hospitalized patients, patients treated by private physicians, and outpatients for the entire population. Our results were similar to those of the National Reference Center for Malaria for each of the outcome criteria. We provided a reliable algorithm for implementing epidemiological surveillance of malaria based on the French National Health Insurance Information System. Our method allowed us to work on the entire population living in continental France, including subpopulations poorly covered by existing surveillance methods. Traditional epidemiological surveillance and the approach presented in this paper are complementary, but a formal validation framework for case identification algorithms is necessary. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. The 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in the French Armed Forces: epidemiological surveillance and operational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Jean-Baptiste; Mayet, Aurélie; Bédubourg, Gabriel; Duron, Sandrine; Michel, Rémy; Deparis, Xavier; Rapp, Christophe; Godart, Patrick; Migliani, René; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of a newly implemented daily surveillance system to the management of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic by the military decision-makers at different levels in the French Department of Defence. The study sample included all medical advisors in the Ministry of Defence and the French Armed Forces Staff and also the members of the specific committee dedicated to flu pandemic control. The variables studied were mental representation of epidemiology, relevance, usefulness, and real-time use of surveillance data using quantitative questionnaires and qualitative face-to-face semistructured interviews. Among the risk managers of the flu pandemic in the Armed Forces, 84% responded. The data generated by epidemiological surveillance were considered relevant and useful, and were reported as effectively used. On the basis of the information produced, concrete actions were planned and implemented in the French Armed Forces. In a pandemic situation involving low mortality, the daily monitoring of the disease did not target public health issues, but it was mainly used to assess the availability of the Armed Forces in real time. For the military staff, epidemiological surveillance represents an essential information tool for the conduct of operations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Rotavirus epidemiology and surveillance before vaccine introduction in Argentina, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiuseppe, Juan Ignacio; Reale, Ezequiel Agustín; Stupka, Juan Andrés

    2017-03-01

    Group A Rotavirus has been widely described as one of the most important infantile diarrheal pathogens worldwide. In Argentina, it is responsible for over 200,000 acute diarrhea cases and from 30 to 50 deaths annually in children under 5 years. The aim of this study is to analyze frequency, seasonality, age group distribution, and circulating genotypes based on data notified in the 2012-2014 period and in turn to assess the pre-vaccine scenario, considering that rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2015. Data were taken from the Viral Diarrhea Notification module of the Argentine SNVS-SIVILA surveillance tool. Analyses of circulating genotypes were performed on rotavirus-positive stool specimens by conventional binary characterization of the outermost capsid genes. Overall data showed rotavirus detection in about 25% of samples tested, and higher rates in children under 2 years old were observed. Rotavirus positive cases were distributed according to a typical winter seasonal pattern. A heterogeneous regional pattern of prevalence was also observed, with higher rates detected in the North region. Genotype co-circulation and annual fluctuation were observed. In general, G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], and G12P[8] were the most frequently detected genotypes. This study represents the last survey taken of a population considered to be naïve. J. Med. Virol. 89:423-428, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. CHALLENGING ISSUES OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE OVER ENTEROVIRAL NON- POLIOMYELITIS INFECTIONS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan S. I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are widespread everywhere and present a serious problem for public health. Purpose: to study the epidemic process of enteroviral non-poliomyelitis infections in Ukraine. Material and methods: the official reports of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine on the isolation of enteroviruses from healthy and sick persons as well as environmental objects were studied. The detection of enteroviruses RNA was performed using the PCR method. Results: the epidemic process of non-poliomyelitis enterovirus infections is characterized by varying intensity in long-term and annual dynamics, expressed territorial unevenness, a general trend towards the decrease in the frequency of enterovirus isolation against the background of increasing incidence of enteroviral meningitis. In the strain structure, Coxsackie B and ECHO viruses predominate. Conclusions: it is necessary to improve the epidemiological control of enterovirus infections by optimizing the structure and scope of research.

  3. [To the 80th anniversary of the 637th center of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischugin, E Y; Mathis, A A; Tsintsadze, O G; Tarumov, R A

    2015-06-01

    In March 2015 marked the 80th anniversary of the creation of the 637th Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance. The date of establishment of the Centre is rooted in the pre-war period, when sanitary-epidemiological laboratories of the Black Sea Fleet were organized as a scientific and methodological institution. During the Great Patriotic War, as well as during the early postwar period, the staff of the Centre carried out valuable work on provision of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the Black Sea Fleet. Later, soldiers of the Center participated in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, fulfilling their international duty in the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, on the island of Dahlak, as well as in the Chechen Republic during the anti-terrorist operation. During its existence, the Centre repeatedly reorganized and is now an institution that successfully solves the problem of ensuring sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the troops in the area of responsibility.

  4. Dengue epidemiological trend in Oman: a 13-year national surveillance and strategic proposition of imported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Awaidy, Salah Thabit; Al Obeidani, Idris; Bawikar, Shyam; Al Mahrouqi, Salim; Al Busaidy, Suleiman Salim; Al Baqlani, Said; Patel, Prakash K

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a major public health problem globally in the past three decades. A 13-year national surveillance data analysis was done to describe the epidemiology and its trend of dengue disease in Oman reported between 2001 and 2013. Laboratory-confirmed dengue virus infections reported were studied retrospectively during the study period. A total of 64 laboratory confirmed cases were reported. All the patients contracted the disease during their visit to South-East Asian countries, hence classified as imported cases. The majority of the cases were reported in the year 2012 (23.4%). The most important clinical characteristics were fever (90.6%), myalgia (35.9%) and rash/petechial rash (20.3%). Thrombocytopenia was seen in 31.2% of the study subjects. The mortality was nearly 4.6% and all other patients made a full recovery. The most effective measure for travellers is taking precautions to avoid mosquito bites. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. [The role of epidemiologic surveillance of migrants in the system of poliomyelitis control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenkova, N I; Bichurina, M A; Rozaeva, N R; Pogrebnaia, T N

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of results of virological study of material from children of migrants and evaluation of intensity of immunity against polioviruses in these children. 1668 feces samples from patients with acute flaccid paralysis and contact individuals and 479 feces samples from healthy children from families of migrants, as well as 1012 blood sera of children aged 3 - 4 and 14 - 15 years living in the same territory of Russia, and 169 blood sera of children of migrants were studied. Polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses were isolated by standard procedures recommended by WHO in 3 cell cultures - RD, L20B and Hep-2. Virus identification was carried out by microneutralization test with rabbit antisera against poliomyelitisvirus, RIVM (Bilthoven, Netherlands). For intra-type differentiation EIA and PCRwere used. Antibody titers were determined in microneutralization reaction with reference poliovirus vaccines strains in Hep-2 cell culture. The frequency of detection of polioviruses in children of migrants was significantly higher than in patients with acute flaccid paralysis. In a larger percent of cases children of migrants did not have protective antibody titers against polioviruses of all the 3 serotypes. Migrants as a significant source of poliovirus detection may be an indicator group for detection of signs of unfavorable epidemic situation. Based on the results of epidemiologic surveillance of migrants the fact of import of wild poliovirus into North-West of Russia with the absence of poliomyelitis was proven, which confirms an important role of this form of monitoring in the system of poliomyelitis control.

  6. Classification systems of communication for use in epidemiological surveillance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virella, Daniel; Pennington, Lindsay; Andersen, Guro L; Andrada, Maria da Graça; Greitane, Andra; Himmelmann, Kate; Prasauskiene, Audrone; Rackauskaite, Gija; De La Cruz, Javier; Colver, Allan

    2016-03-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often experience communication difficulties. We aimed to identify a classification system for communication of children with CP suitable for epidemiological surveillance. Systems to classify the communication of children with CP were identified. The Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Functional Communication Classification System (FCCS), and Viking Speech Scale (VSS) were chosen for further investigation and translated. They were administered to 155 children aged 4 to 13 years with CP (across all motor severity levels) from eight European countries. Children's parents/carers, speech therapists, and other health professionals applied the systems through direct observation. Other professionals applied them from case notes only. The systems were assessed for agreement, stability, ease, and feasibility of application. Test-retest stability was moderate-to-high for VSS (k=0.66-0.88), CFCS (k=uncomputed-0.91), and FCCS (k=0.52-0.91). Overall interrater agreement was fair to very good for every classification system. VSS achieved the best agreement between parents/carers and speech therapists. VSS was considered the easiest instrument to apply. Because of its ease of use by a range of healthcare professionals, the VSS should be considered for CP registers which intend to survey speech intelligibility. For a wider assessment of communication, the CFCS or FCC should be considered. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  7. [Morbidity in sexually transmitted infections in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania and the improvement of epidemiological surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornikov, V S

    2002-01-01

    The present situation in sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania is characterized as unfavorable. Morbidity in different nosological forms has been found to show different tendencies. The causes of elevated morbidity in STD observed in recent years have social, economic, psychological, ethical and moral, rather than medical character. The main trends in the improvement of epidemiological surveillance on STD have been determined.

  8. Impact of Hepatitis A vaccination with a two-dose schedule in Panama: Results of epidemiological surveillance and time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Contreras, Rodolfo; Tinajeros, Olga; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; DeAntonio, Rodrigo

    2015-06-22

    In April 2007, Panama introduced Hepatitis A universal vaccination using a two-dose schedule (Havrix(®)junior; GSK Vaccines, Belgium). We assessed the impact of this hepatitis A vaccine three years after it was recommended for universal mass vaccination in Panama. Hepatitis A vaccination impact was assessed using two different approaches. The first approach used retrospective data (incidence and number of cases for all age groups), collected from the passive surveillance of the Epidemiologic Surveillance System of the Ministry of Health of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis before (2000-2006) and after (2008-2010) introduction of hepatitis A vaccine. The second approach was a prospective hospital-based active surveillance for hepatitis cases conducted in subjects (0-14 years) during 2009-2011 at three sentinel hospitals in Panama. Overall, the annual incidence of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were 13.1, 7.9 and 3.7 per 100,000 subjects, lower than the baseline incidence of 51.1 per 100,000 subjects. In comparison to the mean baseline period (2000-2006), there was an 82% mean reduction in the overall hepatitis-related outcomes (hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis) after vaccine introduction (2008-2010) in all age groups. In the hospital-based surveillance (2009-2011), of the 42 probable viral hepatitis A cases, nine cases were confirmed as acute hepatitis A (8 in 2009, 1 in 2010). Of these confirmed cases, two belonged to the targeted vaccine group (1-4 years) but were not vaccinated. Our study suggests that the introduction of two-dose hepatitis A vaccines in Panama has contributed to the reduction in the incidence of overall hepatitis-related outcomes for all age groups, suggesting herd protection. Additional monitoring is required to document a sustained long-term effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloacal exstrophy: an epidemiologic study from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L; Botto, Lorenzo D; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canfield, Mark A; Castilla, Eduardo E; Clementi, Maurizio; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Siffel, Csaba; Carey, John C

    2011-11-15

    Cloacal exstrophy presents as a complex abdominal wall defect thought to result from a mesodermal abnormality. Anatomically, its main components are Omphalocele, bladder Exstrophy and Imperforate anus. Other associated malformations include renal malformations and Spine defects (OEIS complex). Historically, the prevalence ranges from 1 in 200,000 to 400,000 births, with higher rates in females. Cloacal exstrophy is likely etiologically heterogeneous as suggested by its recurrence in families and occurrence in monozygotic twins. The defect has been described in infants with limb-body wall, with trisomy 18, and in one pregnancy exposed to Dilantin and diazepam. Due to its rarity, the use of a nonspecific diagnostic code for case identification, and lack of validation of the clinical findings, cloacal exstrophy remains an epidemiologic challenge. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, associated anomalies and maternal characteristics among infants born with cloacal exstrophy. We used data from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research submitted from 18 birth defect surveillance programs representing 24 countries. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and reviewed centrally by two authors. Cases of persistent cloaca were excluded. A total of 186 cases of cloacal exstrophy were identified. Overall prevalence was 1 in 131,579 births: ranging from 1 in 44,444 births in Wales to 1 in 269,464 births in South America. Live birth prevalence was 1 in 184,195 births. Prevalence ratios did not vary by maternal age. Forty-two (22.6%) cases met the criteria for the OEIS complex, whereas 60 (32.3%) were classified as OEI and 18 (9.7%) as EIS (one with suspected VATER (0.5%)). Other findings included two cases with trisomy 13 (one without a karyotype confirmation), one with mosaic trisomy 12 (0.5%), one with mosaic 45,X (0.5%) and one classified as having amnion band sequence (0.5%). Twenty-seven (14.5%) infants had other

  10. Epidemiology of the 2009 influenza pandemic in Spain. The Spanish Influenza Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrauri Cámara, Amparo; Jiménez-Jorge, Silvia; Mateo Ontañón, Salvador de; Pozo Sánchez, Francisco; Ledesma Moreno, Juan; Casas Flecha, Inmaculada

    2012-10-01

    In accordance with European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control recommendations, the Spanish Influenza Surveillance System (SISS) maintained its activity during the summer of 2009, and since July 2009 the pandemic virus activity was monitored by the SISS. In this paper, we describe the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the 2009 pandemic in the Spain through the SISS. Spain experienced a transmission of the new A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus during the summer of 2009, which gradually increased, resulting in the pandemic wave in early autumn of that year. The reproductive number R0, estimated during the growth phase of the pandemic wave (1.32; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.29-1.36), showed a transmissibility comparable to preceding pandemics. There was an almost complete replacement of the previous seasonal A(H1N1) influenza virus by the pandemic virus A(H1N1)pdm09. The pandemic virus produced a greater burden of illness than seasonal influenza in children younger than 15 years old, while the incidence in those older than 64 years was lower compared with previous inter-pandemic seasons. Nevertheless, in Spain the 2009 pandemic was characterized as mild, considering the duration of the pandemic period and the influenza detection rate, both in the range of those observed in previous inter-pandemic seasons. Also, the case fatality ratio (CFR) was estimated at 0.58 deaths/1,000 confirmed ILI cases (95%CI, 0.52-0.64), in the range of the two previous pandemics of 1957 and 1968, with the highest CFR observed in the older than 64 years age group. In the 2009 pandemic there was a higher percentage of pandemic confirmed deaths in the younger ages, compared to seasonal influenza, since only 28% of the reported deaths occurred in persons aged 64 years and older. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular epidemiology and surveillance of circulating rotavirus and adenovirus in Congolese children with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayindou, Gontran; Ngokana, Berge; Sidibé, Anissa; Moundélé, Victoire; Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix; Christevy Vouvoungui, Jeannhey; Kwedi Nolna, Sylvie; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Ntoumi, Francine

    2016-04-01

    Infectious Diarrhea caused by rotavirus and adenovirus, is a leading cause of death in children in sub-Sahara Africa but there is limited published data on the diverse rotavirus genotypes and adenovirus serotypes circulating in the Republic of Congo. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus A (RVA) and Adenovirus serotype 40 and 41 in Congolese children hospitalized with severe gastroenteritis. Stool samples were collected from 655 Congolese children less than 60 months of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis between June 2012 and June 2013. Rotavirus and adenovirus antigens were tested using commercially available ELISA kits and the RVA G- and P- genotypes were identified by seminested multiplex RT-PCR. Three hundred and four (46.4%) children were tested positive for RVA. Adenovirus infection was found in 5.5% of the 564 tested children. Rotavirus infection was frequently observed in children between 6-12 months (55.9%). The dry season months recorded increased RVA infection while no seasonality of adenovirus infection was demonstrated. The most common RVA genotypes were G1 (57.5%), G2 (6.4%), G1G2 mixture (15.5%), P[8] (58%), P[6] (13.2%), and P[8]P[6] mixture (26%). Additionally, the genotype G12P[6] was significantly associated with increased vomiting. This first study on Congolese children demonstrates a high prevalence and clinical significance of existing rotavirus genotypes. Adenovirus prevalence is similar to that of other Central African countries. This baseline epidemiology and molecular characterization study will contribute significantly to the RVA surveillance after vaccine implementation in the country. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Guidelines for a national epidemiological surveillance system of thyroid cancer in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    At the request of the French Department of Health, a multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Committee, coordinated by the French Public Health Agency analysed the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence in France and outlined the limits of the present case registration system. This Committee set up guidelines to improve the national surveillance system of thyroid cancer. The Committee analysed 4 models for the incidence survey, 3 of which have been excluded: a poor cost-benefit ratio precludes the constitution of a national registry dedicated to thyroid cancer; however, the Committee has recommended this model that still exists for thyroid cancer of the youth(under 19 years old), a national system base exclusively on pathological data would only be relevant after significant improvement of data collection, obligatory of all cases of thyroid cancer is inappropriate considering the fit prognosis of this cancer. A two level system is proposed with continuous registration of incident caes through the National Hospital Discharge survey, specific focused analysis of clinical and pathological data in case of a cluster alert in any given area. Whatever the system, it seems necessary to in general: propose a unique health registration number per patient, improve access to medical data, organize a national standardised collection of pathological findings, follow up the diagnosis practices related to thyroid cancer that have an impact on incidence rates. In conclusion, a reliable incidence survey and a follow up of diagnostic practices and of risk factors may provide a relevant model of epidemiological survey of thyroid cancers in France but such a system requires a long lasting strategic and financial involvement. (author)

  13. Surveillance of Dengue Fever Virus: A Review of Epidemiological Models and Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racloz, Vanessa; Ramsey, Rebecca; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever affects over a 100 million people annually hence is one of the world's most important vector-borne diseases. The transmission area of this disease continues to expand due to many direct and indirect factors linked to urban sprawl, increased travel and global warming. Current preventative measures include mosquito control programs, yet due to the complex nature of the disease and the increased importation risk along with the lack of efficient prophylactic measures, successful disease control and elimination is not realistic in the foreseeable future. Epidemiological models attempt to predict future outbreaks using information on the risk factors of the disease. Through a systematic literature review, this paper aims at analyzing the different modeling methods and their outputs in terms of acting as an early warning system. We found that many previous studies have not sufficiently accounted for the spatio-temporal features of the disease in the modeling process. Yet with advances in technology, the ability to incorporate such information as well as the socio-environmental aspect allowed for its use as an early warning system, albeit limited geographically to a local scale. PMID:22629476

  14. [Organization and execution of surveillance of the sanitary and epidemiologic situation under conditions of the emergency situation of a natural character].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Butaev, T M; Gadzieva, G K; Gusalova, L P; Tsgoeva, S K

    2003-01-01

    The data on the work of the formations and institutions of the sanitary and epidemiological service of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania under the conditions of the emergency situation of the natural character (high floods) in June 2002 and the liquidation of its consequences are presented. Experience in ensuring the interaction between the formations of the sanitary and epidemiological service on the problems connected with the realization of the epidemiological surveillance in the territories affected by the natural calamity is described.

  15. [Risk assessment of adverse environmental factors affecting the health of the Russian population by the Russian State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Tutel'ian, V A

    2003-01-01

    In the article there are adduced the practical aspects of realization of a concept of risk evaluation of the adverse environment factors influencing the health of the Russian population by the State Service of Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance. Epidemiological data on the influence of the most spread free air contaminants is summarized and a matter of monitoring food products safety is considered. There are outlined arrangements for the successful application of the evaluation of risk of the different environment factors influencing the populations health to practical activities of the State Service of Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of Russia.

  16. Radiation hygienic annual report 2011. General environmental radioactivity and radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernkopf, J.; Goussios, K.; Mengis, M.; Pfau, T.; Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg

    2012-01-01

    The radiation hygienic annual report 2011 includes the following issues: (1) Introduction: Legal aspects of the surveillance, implementation of the radiation protection law, nuclear facility sites in Bavaria, interim storage facilities in Bavaria. (2) Natural radioactivity surveillance: measured data for the exposure paths air, water, food chain land, food chain water, residuals and waste. (3) Radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria: measures for air, precipitation, soils, plants, food chain land, milk and milk products, surface water, food chain water, drinking and ground water; measured data in the vicinity of NNP Isar 1 bd Isar 2 (KKI1/KKI2), NPP Gundremmingen (KGG), NPP Grafenrheinfeld (KKG), research neutron source Muenchen FRM II; emissions, meteorological conditions, spreading calculations.

  17. Acardia : Epidemiologic Findings and Literature Review From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Carey, John C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Halliday, Jane; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Luna Munoz, Leonora; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2011-01-01

    Acardia is a severe, complex malformation of monozygotic twinning, but beyond clinical case series, very few epidemiologic data are available. The goals of this study were to assess the epidemiologic characteristics of acardia from birth defect registries in the International Clearinghouse for Birth

  18. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L.

    2000-12-01

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  19. Mesothelioma incidence surveillance systems and claims for workers’ compensation. Epidemiological evidence and prospects for an integrated framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and lethal tumour strongly associated with exposure to asbestos (mainly occupational). In Italy a large proportion of workers are protected from occupational diseases by public insurance and an epidemiological surveillance system for incident mesothelioma cases. Methods We set up an individual linkage between the Italian national mesothelioma register (ReNaM) and the Italian workers’ compensation authority (INAIL) archives. Logistic regression models were used to identify and test explanatory variables. Results We extracted 3270 mesothelioma cases with occupational origins from the ReNaM, matching them with 1625 subjects in INAIL (49.7%); 91.2% (1,482) of the claims received compensation. The risk of not seeking compensation is significantly higher for women and the elderly. Claims have increased significantly in recent years and there is a clear geographical gradient (northern and more developed regions having higher claims rates). The highest rates of compensation claims were after work known to involve asbestos. Conclusions Our data illustrate the importance of documentation and dissemination of all asbestos exposure modalities. Strategies focused on structural and systematic interaction between epidemiological surveillance and insurance systems are needed. PMID:22545679

  20. Mesothelioma incidence surveillance systems and claims for workers’ compensation. Epidemiological evidence and prospects for an integrated framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinaccio Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and lethal tumour strongly associated with exposure to asbestos (mainly occupational. In Italy a large proportion of workers are protected from occupational diseases by public insurance and an epidemiological surveillance system for incident mesothelioma cases. Methods We set up an individual linkage between the Italian national mesothelioma register (ReNaM and the Italian workers’ compensation authority (INAIL archives. Logistic regression models were used to identify and test explanatory variables. Results We extracted 3270 mesothelioma cases with occupational origins from the ReNaM, matching them with 1625 subjects in INAIL (49.7%; 91.2% (1,482 of the claims received compensation. The risk of not seeking compensation is significantly higher for women and the elderly. Claims have increased significantly in recent years and there is a clear geographical gradient (northern and more developed regions having higher claims rates. The highest rates of compensation claims were after work known to involve asbestos. Conclusions Our data illustrate the importance of documentation and dissemination of all asbestos exposure modalities. Strategies focused on structural and systematic interaction between epidemiological surveillance and insurance systems are needed.

  1. The molecular epidemiology of circulating rotaviruses: three-year surveillance in the region of Monastir, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambert-Balay Katia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe, dehydrating, gastroenteritis among children worldwide. In developing countries, approximately 1440 children die from rotavirus infections each day, with an estimated 527,000 annually. In infants, rotavirus is estimated to cause more than 2 million hospitalizations every year depending on the income level of the country. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion of rotavirus gastroenteritis and identify the distribution of circulating G and P genotype rotavirus strains among children consulting several dispensaries in the region of Monastir (outpatients departments or admitted to Monastir University Hospital (inpatients department with acute gastroenteritis. Methods This study was undertaken during a 3-year period from April 2007 to April 2010 in Tunisian children under 13 suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Group A rotaviruses were detected in stools by ELISA and genotyped using multiplex reverse transcription PCRs with type-specific primers on the basis of their outer capsid proteins. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS software, version 19. Results Of the 435 stool samples from children with acute gastroenteritis, 27.6% were positive for rotavirus A. The predominant G type was G1 (37.5%, followed by G3 (25%, G2 (17.5%, G4 (12.5%, G9 (2.5% and three mixed-G infections G3G4 (2.5% were identified. Only P[8] (80.8%, P[4] (16.7% and P[9] (0.8% genotypes were found. The predominant single G/P combination was G1P[8] (37.5%, followed by G3P[8] (25%, G2P[4] (16.7%, G4P[8] (12.5%, G9P[8] (1.7% and one case of the unusual combination G9P[9] (0.8%. The G-mixed types G3G4 combined with P[8] (2.5%. Infants less than 3 months of age were most frequently affected. The prevalence of rotavirus infection peaked in the winter season, when temperatures were low, and decreased in summer. Conclusions Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a common disease associated with

  2. Epidemiology of malignant cutaneous granular cell tumors: A US population-based cohort analysis using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Fatima N; Tuggle, Charles T; Zogg, Cheryl K; Mirza, Humza N; Narayan, Deepak

    2018-03-01

    Malignant cutaneous granular cell tumors (mcGCTs) are rare and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The literature includes single-institution studies. To examine the incidence, secondary malignancies, treatment, overall survival, and disease-specific survival (DSS) of patients with mcGCT. A population-based cohort analysis was conducted in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1973 to 2013 for patients with a diagnosis of mcGCT. Risk-adjusted associations between overall survival/DSS and patient characteristics and treatment modalities were assessed by Cox proportional hazard regression. Quantile regression was used to determine median survival times. The 5-year DSS rate was 62.8%. Patients demonstrated an increased risk for renal and pancreatic cancers. In risk-adjusted models, male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.82; P = .02), advanced cancer stage (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.40-3.72; P < .01), and surgical resection (HR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.59; P = .02) predicted DSS. Median survival time in years increased for males (1.39), earlier stage (0.60), and surgical intervention (5.34). Absent or incorrect reporting in retrospective Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data is possible. The database is more likely to include academic centers. Some subanalyses may be underpowered because of the limited sample size for a rare cancer. Our study presents an in-depth assessment of factors that identify high-risk patients. Residency in a nonmetro area, black race, female sex, and no surgical resection were each associated with poorer DSS. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [On risk-oriented model of sanitary epidemiologic surveillance in occupational hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseval, N V; Mai, I V; Kostarev, V G; Bashketova, N S

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, Federal Service on surveillance in consumers rights protection and public well-being set a task to organize planned work of regional agencies on basis of risk-oriented model of control and supervision. Based on results of pilot project in Rospotrebnadzor Department of Perm area and St-Petersburg, the article covers methodic approaches to classification of objects liable to surveillance in occupational hygiene. The classification considers possibility of sanitary law violation, severity of this violation consequences and number of workers exposed to risk factors including hazardous work conditions. The authors specified recommendations on periodicity and forms of planned inspections considering evaluation of potential risk for human health, determined problems that require solution in implementation of risk-oriented model of surveillance.

  4. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  5. Representativeness of Participants in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) Consortium Relative to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Paul J.; Ayanian, John Z.; Weeks, Jane C.; Kahn, Katherine L.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Lee, Jeannette; Pendergast, Jane; Harrington, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The research goals of the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) Consortium are to determine how characteristics and beliefs of patients, providers, and health-care organizations influence the treatments and outcomes of individuals with newly diagnosed lung and colorectal cancers. Because CanCORS results will inform national policy, it is important to know how they generalize to the United States population with these cancers. Research Design This study assessed the representativeness of the CanCORS cohort of 10,547 patients with lung cancer (LC) or colorectal cancer (CRC) enrolled between 2003 and 2005. We compared characteristics (gender, race, age and disease stage) to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) population of 234,464 patients with new onset of these cancers during the CanCORS recruitment period. Results The CanCORS sample is well matched to the SEER Program for both cancers. In CanCORS, 41% LC / 47% CRC were female versus 47% LC / 49% CRC in SEER. African American, Hispanic and Asian cases differed by no more than 5 percentage points between CanCORS and SEER. The SEER population is slightly older, with the percentage of patients over 75 years 33.1% LC / 37.3% CRC in SEER versus 26.9% LC / 29.4% in CanCORS, and also has a slightly higher proportion of early stage patients. We also found that the CanCORS cohort was representative within specific SEER regions that map closely to CanCORS sites. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the CanCORS Consortium was successful in enrolling a demographically representative sample within the CanCORS regions. PMID:22406968

  6. Adult Brain Cancer in the U.S. Black Population: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Analysis of Incidence, Survival, and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Abigail; Batey, Jason; Capogreco, Joseph; Kimball, David; Walters, Andy; Tubbs, R. Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite much epidemiological research on brain cancer in the United States, the etiology for the various subtypes remains elusive. The black population in the United States currently experiences lower incidence but higher survival rates when compared to other races. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the trends in incidence and survival for the 6 most common primary brain tumors in the black population of the United States. Material/Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, an...

  7. Interval colon cancer in a Lynch syndrome patient under annual colonoscopic surveillance: a case for advanced imaging techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxentenko Amy S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lynch syndrome confers increased risk for various malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Colonoscopic surveillance programs have led to reduced incidence of colorectal cancer and reduced mortality from colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy every 1–2 years beginning at age 20–25, or 10 years earlier than the first diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a family, with annual colonoscopy after age 40, is the recommended management for mutation carriers. Screening programs have reduced colon cancer mortality, but interval cancers may occur. Case presentation We describe a 48-year-old woman with Lynch syndrome who was found to have an adenoma with invasive colorectal cancer within one year after a normal colonoscopy. Conclusion Our patient illustrates two current concepts about Lynch syndrome: 1 adenomas are the cancer precursor and 2 such adenomas may be “aggressive,” in the sense that the adenoma progresses more readily and more rapidly to carcinoma in this setting compared to usual colorectal adenomas. Our patient’s resected tumor invaded only into submucosa and all lymph nodes were negative; in that sense, she represents a success for annual colonoscopic surveillance. Still, this case does raise the question of whether advanced imaging techniques are advisable for surveillance colonoscopy in these high-risk patients.

  8. Varicella routine vaccination and the effects on varicella epidemiology – results from the Bavarian Varicella Surveillance Project (BaVariPro), 2006-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was recommended in Germany for children 11-14 months of age with one dose, and since 2009, with a second dose at 15-23 months of age. The effects on varicella epidemiology were investigated. Methods Data on varicella vaccinations, cases and complications were collected from annual parent surveys (2006-2011), monthly paediatric practice surveillance (Oct 2006 - Sep 2011; five varicella seasons) and paediatric hospital databases (2005-2009) in the area of Munich (about 238,000 paediatric inhabitants); annual incidences of cases and hospitalisations were estimated. Results Varicella vaccination coverage (1st dose) in children 18-36 months of age increased in two steps (38%, 51%, 53%, 53%, 66% and 68%); second-dose coverage reached 59% in the 2011 survey. A monthly mean of 82 (62%) practices participated; they applied a total of 50,059 first-dose and 40,541 second-dose varicella vaccinations, with preferential use of combined MMR-varicella vaccine after recommendation of two doses, and reported a total of 16,054 varicella cases Vaccinated cases increased from 0.3 (95%0.2-0.3) per 1,000 patient contacts in 2006/07 to 0.4 (95%CI 0.3-0.5) until 2008/09 and decreased to 0.2 (95%CI 0.2-0.3) until 2010/11. The practices treated a total of 134 complicated cases, mainly with skin complications. The paediatric hospitals recorded a total of 178 varicella patients, including 40 (22.5%) with neurological complications and one (0.6%) fatality due to varicella pneumonia. Incidence of hospitalisations decreased from 7.6 per 100,000 children vaccination program, even with still suboptimal vaccination coverage. PMID:23815523

  9. Progression of the epidemiological transition in a rural South African setting: findings from population surveillance in Agincourt, 1993–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodziwadziwa W. Kabudula

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtually all low- and middle-income countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition whose progression is more varied than experienced in high-income countries. Observed changes in mortality and disease patterns reveal that the transition in most low- and middle-income countries is characterized by reversals, partial changes and the simultaneous occurrence of different types of diseases of varying magnitude. Localized characterization of this shifting burden, frequently lacking, is essential to guide decentralised health and social systems on the effective targeting of limited resources. Based on a rigorous compilation of mortality data over two decades, this paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the epidemiological transition in a rural South African population. Methods We estimate overall and cause-specific hazards of death as functions of sex, age and time period from mortality data from the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System and conduct statistical tests of changes and differentials to assess the progression of the epidemiological transition over the period 1993–2013. Results From the early 1990s until 2007 the population experienced a reversal in its epidemiological transition, driven mostly by increased HIV/AIDS and TB related mortality. In recent years, the transition is following a positive trajectory as a result of declining HIV/AIDS and TB related mortality. However, in most age groups the cause of death distribution is yet to reach the levels it occupied in the early 1990s. The transition is also characterized by persistent gender differences with more rapid positive progression in females than males. Conclusions This typical rural South African population is experiencing a protracted epidemiological transition. The intersection and interaction of HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral treatment, non-communicable disease risk factors and complex social and behavioral changes will impact

  10. [Substance use in suicides in Mexico: results of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Addictions, 1994-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, René; Bojorquez, Ietza; Cortés, Mario

    2009-01-01

    To determine the association between substance use and the number of substances with the presentation of suicide. Data were taken from the forensic certificate of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Addictions in the period between 1994 and 2006 from 27 states in Mexico. Suicide was detected in 8.7% of the violent deaths during the study period. Among men, it was observed that the increased number of substances increased the possibility for death by suicide, compared to deaths from other causes (one substance: OR = 1.8; two or more: OR = 3.3). In women, that possibility remains virtually unchanged with the increase in the number of substances detected (one substance: OR = 3.2; two or more: OR = 3.6). The use of substances is a major factor associated with suicide in the population whose cause of death was issued by the Mexican Forensic Medical Services.

  11. Fibrosis score impacts survival following resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): A Surveillance, End Results and Epidemiology (SEER) database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarajah, Sivesh K

    2018-02-14

    Surgical extirpation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with background fibrosis remains a challenge. This study evaluated impact of fibrosis score on long term outcomes of patients undergoing surgical resection for HCC. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2013), complete data on 1433 patients undergoing surgical resection for non-metastatic HCC were identified. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model were used to produce adjusted hazard ratios (HR). In this study, 54% (650/1433) patients had F5-6 fibrosis at the time for surgical resection of HCC. In adjusted models, F5/6 fibrosis significantly reduces overall survival (HR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.34-1.94; p HCC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  12. Consensus drug resistance mutations for epidemiological surveillance: basic principles and potential controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, Robert W; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Bennett, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    Programmes that monitor local, national and regional levels of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance inform treatment guidelines and provide feedback on the success of HIV-1 treatment and prevention programmes. The World Health Organization (WHO) has established a global programme for genotypic surveillance of HIV-1 drug resistance and has recommended the adoption of a consensus definition of genotypic drug resistance. Such a definition is necessary to accurately compare transmitted drug resistan...

  13. Epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in Hamadan Province during 2009-2015: results from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Ayubi, Erfan; Karami, Manoochehr; Khazaei, Salman; Shojaeian, Masoud; Zamani, Reza; Mansori, Kamyar; Gholamaliee, Behzad

    2017-08-01

    Human brucellosis and recurrent brucellosis is an ever-increasing public health concern, especially in endemic areas like Iran. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the epidemiology and determinants of recurrent brucellosis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate epidemiological patterns and potential determinants of recurrent brucellosis in Hamadan Province during the years 2009-2015. Data on reported cases of new and recurrent brucellosis from 2009 to 2015 were obtained from the provincial Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Incidence rates per 100000 were estimated at the county level. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of background characteristics and recurrent brucellosis. The power of discrimination of the model for recurrent brucellosis was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC). Among 7318 brucellosis cases, the total frequency (%) of recurrent cases was 472 (6.45%). The rate of recurrent brucellosis was higher in females, people aged 50 years and over, people with a history of consuming unpasteurized dairy products with no history of contact with animals, and in the winter season. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.65), age ≥55 years (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.32-7.42), consumption of unpasteurized dairy products (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96-1.40), and winter season (AOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03-1.71) are potential risk factors for recurrent brucellosis. The final model that involved all the determinants showed moderate discrimination (AUC 0.61). Female sex, older age, and winter months were found to be significant determinants of recurrent human brucellosis. Enhanced surveillance systems with an emphasis on these population characteristics will allow effective preventive and protective measures to be implemented and might alleviate the recurrence of brucellosis in the

  14. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  15. Overview of molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabat, A. J.; Budimir, A.; Nashev, D.; Sa-Leao, R.; van Dijl, J. M.; Laurent, F.; Grundmann, H.; Friedrich, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Typing methods for discriminating different bacterial isolates of the same species are essential epidemiological tools in infection prevention and control. Traditional typing systems based on phenotypes, such as serotype, biotype, phage-type, or antibiogram, have been used for many years. However,

  16. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, M.; Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Borsella, B.W.; Wright, K.C.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1995 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring and Water Resources of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, performed at the following Waste Management Facilities: the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and tow surplus facilities. Results of the sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program, Site Environmental Surveillance Program, and the United States Geological Survey at these facilities are included in this report. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1995 environmental surveillance data with US DOE Derived Concentration Guides and with data form previous years.

  17. Environmental surveillance for Waste Management Facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, K.C.; Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Borsella, B.W.; Miles, M.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1994 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, performed at Waste Management Facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The major facilities monitored include the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and two surplus facilities. Included are results of the sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program, INEL Environmental Surveillance Program, and the United States Geological Survey. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to ensure compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1994 environmental surveillance data with US Department of Energy derived concentration guides and with data from previous years.

  18. 2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2010 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2006 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2010 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2006 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2007 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses in Bulgaria: annual shift of the predominant genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Z; Korsun, N; Geonova, T; Iturriza-Gómara, M

    2010-05-01

    Rotavirus molecular epidemiology investigations provide important information about the incidence of rotavirus diseases and rotavirus strains in circulation in the prevaccine era. The purpose of this investigation was to study the burden of rotavirus disease, rotavirus strain diversity, and epidemiology specificities of rotavirus infections in Bulgaria. A total of 3,130 stools collected between 2005 and 2008 were tested by immune enzyme tests. G-P genotype identification of rotavirus strains were performed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rotavirus etiology was confirmed in 32.4% of the samples tested. Rotaviruses affected predominantly children under 5 years of age (95.5%), with a peak prevalence between the ages of 7 and 36 months. Four of the five globally distributed rotavirus strains (G1P[8], G2P[4], G4P[8], and G9P[8]) constituted 97.7% of all rotavirus strains in circulation. However, annual shifts of predominant rotavirus G-P genotypes were observed from season to season-G4P[8] was predominant in rotavirus season 2004/2005 (56.8%), but was replaced by G9P[8] in 2005/2006 (77.7%), and G2P[4] (41.6%) and G1P[8] (39.5%) in the following two consecutive rotavirus seasons. Year-round circulation of rotaviruses in the country with increased incidence in the winter-spring season and unexpected peaks preceding the rotavirus seasons were observed. Molecular epidemiology data are needed in Bulgaria for health policy makers in order to introduce routine rotavirus vaccination. The monitoring of rotavirus genetic diversity in Bulgaria in the postvaccination period will contribute to a successful rotavirus vaccination program.

  11. Abraham Lilienfeld Award address: 2017 Annual Meeting of the American College of Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Roberta B

    2018-01-01

    The address was delivered by Roberta B. Ness, MD MPH at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Epidemiology in New Orleans, Louisiana on September 26, 2017. Dr. Ness is James W. Rockwell Professor of Public Health and Vice-President for Innovation at the University of Texas School of Public Health. Recognized nationally and internationally for her expertise in women's health research, Dr. Ness pioneered the area of "gender-based biology". In more recent years, she developed an innovative program at the UT School of Public Health aimed at cultivating "outside the box" thinking among training scientists. Dr. Ness has authored a range of books on her work, including Health and Disease among Women (1999), Innovation Generation (2012), Genius Unmasked (2013) and The Creativity Crisis: Reinventing Science to Unleash Possibility (2014). Dr. Ness is Past-President of both the American College of Epidemiology and American Epidemiological Society, an honorary society of epidemiologists. She is also former Dean of UTHealth School of Public Health and former Interim Dean at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. Dr. Ness is a frequent advisor to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and US Department of Defense (DOD). She has an MD from Cornell University and MPH from Columbia University. Dr. Ness is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine, American Society of Clinical Investigation (ASCI), and Delta Omega honorary society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Clustering analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the JATA(12)-VNTR system for molecular epidemiological surveillance in broad areas of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takayuki; Tamaru, Aki; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Noriko; Komukai, Jun; Matsumoto, Kenji; Hase, Atsushi

    2013-04-01

    Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (JATA) (12)-variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) is a standard method for genotyping of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Japan. As a model study for nationwide surveillance, this study aimed to describe the tendency and frequency of genotypes of M. tuberculosis in a large number of clinical samples. Clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis (n = 1,778) were obtained from patients with tuberculosis in 3 areas, i.e., Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture, and Kobe City, during 2007 and 2008. The samples were analyzed using JATA (12)-VNTR. All genotypes were subjected to clustering analysis. In total, 1,086 (61.1%) isolates showed clustering. The most common clusters were composed of 3 members. Such clusters were considered to reflect either actual transmission or low discriminatory power of JATA (12)-VNTR. Several prevalent JATA(12)-VNTR genotypes formed large clusters and were discussed in relation with epidemiological findings of other studies. The findings of this study will aid in the construction of an effective genotyping-based surveillance system of M. tuberculosis, through improvement of interpretation of VNTR types, observation of certain particular strains in an area, and efficient detection of unidentified outbreaks.

  13. Geo-epidemiologic mapping in the new public health surveillance. The malaria case in Chiapas, Mexico, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The new public health surveillance requires at the global, national and local levels the use of new authoritative analytical approaches and tools for better recognition of the epidemiologic characteristics of the priority health events and risk factors affecting the population health. The identification of the events in time and space is of fundamental importance so that the geo-spatial description of the situation of diseases and health events facilitates the identification of social, environmental and health care related risks. This assessment examines the application and use of geo-spatial tools for identifying relevant spatial and epidemiological conglomerates of malaria in Chiapas, Mexico. The study design was ecological and the level of aggregation of the collected information of the epidemiological and spatial variables was municipalities. The data were collected in all municipalities of the state of Chiapas, Mexico during the years 2000-2002. The main outcome variable was cases and types of malaria diagnosed by blood smears in weekly reports. Independent variables were age, sex, ethnicity, literacy of the cases of malaria and environmental factors such as altitude, road type and network in the municipalities and cities of Chiapas. The production of thematic maps and the application of geo-spatial analytical tools such Moran and local indicator of spatial autocorrelation metrics for malaria clustering allowed the visualization and recognition that the important population risk factors associated with high malaria incidence in Chiapas were low literacy rate, areas with high percentage of indigenous population that reflects the social inequalities gaps in health and the great burden of disease that is affecting this important vulnerable group in Chiapas. The presence of road networks allowed greater spatial diffusion of Malaria. An important epidemiological and spatial cluster of malaria was identified in the areas and populations in the proximity of the

  14. Genomic Epidemiology: Whole-Genome-Sequencing–Powered Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiangyu; den Bakker, Henk C.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    As we are approaching the twentieth anniversary of PulseNet, a network of public health and regulatory laboratories that has changed the landscape of foodborne illness surveillance through molecular subtyping, public health microbiology is undergoing another transformation brought about by so......-called next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that have made whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of foodborne bacterial pathogens a realistic and superior alternative to traditional subtyping methods. Routine, real-time, and widespread application of WGS in food safety and public health is on the horizon...

  15. Epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E: a community-based surveillance study in a rural population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Cai; Huang, Shou-Jie; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Zhong-Ze; Ai, Xing; Yan, Qiang; Yang, Chang-Lin; Cai, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Han-Min; Wang, Yi-Jun; Ng, Mun-Hon; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E is caused by two viral genotype groups: human types and zoonotic types. Current understanding of the epidemiology of the zoonotic hepatitis E disease is founded largely on hospital-based studies. The epidemiology of hepatitis E was investigated in a community-based surveillance study conducted over one year in a rural city in eastern China with a registered population of 400,162. The seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the cohort was 38%. The incidence of hepatitis E was 2.8/10,000 person-years. Totally 93.5% of the infections were attributed to genotype 4 and the rest, to genotype 1. Hepatitis E accounted for 28.4% (102/359) of the acute hepatitis cases and 68.9% (102/148) of the acute viral hepatitis cases in this area of China. The disease occurred sporadically with a higher prevalence during the cold season and in men, with the male-to-female ratio of 3∶1. Additionally, the incidence of hepatitis E increased with age. Hepatitis B virus carriers have an increased risk of contracting hepatitis E than the general population (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.5-4.2). Pre-existing immunity to hepatitis E lowered the risk (relative risk  = 0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.55) and reduced the severity of the disease. Hepatitis E in the rural population of China is essentially that of a zoonosis due to the genotype 4 virus, the epidemiology of which is similar to that due to the other zoonotic genotype 3 virus.

  16. Epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E: a community-based surveillance study in a rural population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cai Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E is caused by two viral genotype groups: human types and zoonotic types. Current understanding of the epidemiology of the zoonotic hepatitis E disease is founded largely on hospital-based studies. METHODS: The epidemiology of hepatitis E was investigated in a community-based surveillance study conducted over one year in a rural city in eastern China with a registered population of 400,162. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the cohort was 38%. The incidence of hepatitis E was 2.8/10,000 person-years. Totally 93.5% of the infections were attributed to genotype 4 and the rest, to genotype 1. Hepatitis E accounted for 28.4% (102/359 of the acute hepatitis cases and 68.9% (102/148 of the acute viral hepatitis cases in this area of China. The disease occurred sporadically with a higher prevalence during the cold season and in men, with the male-to-female ratio of 3∶1. Additionally, the incidence of hepatitis E increased with age. Hepatitis B virus carriers have an increased risk of contracting hepatitis E than the general population (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.5-4.2. Pre-existing immunity to hepatitis E lowered the risk (relative risk  = 0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.55 and reduced the severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis E in the rural population of China is essentially that of a zoonosis due to the genotype 4 virus, the epidemiology of which is similar to that due to the other zoonotic genotype 3 virus.

  17. Westinghouse Hanford Company Environmental surveillance annual report--200/600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Huckfeldt, C.R.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.

    1991-06-01

    This document presents the results of near-field environmental surveillance in 1990 of the Operations Area of the Hanford Site, in south central Washington State, as performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. These activities are conducted in the 200 and 600 Areas to assess and control the impacts of operations on the workers and the local environment. Surveillance activities include sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys are taken of waste disposal sites, radiological control areas, and roads. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Westinghouse Hanford Company environmental surveillance annual report -- 200/600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Huckfeldt, C.R.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.

    1990-06-01

    This document presents the results of near-field environmental surveillance as performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1989 for the Operations Area of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. These activities were conducted in the 200 and 600 Areas to assess operational control on the work environment. Surveillance activities included external radiation measurements and radiological surveys of waste disposal sites, radiological control areas, and roads, as well as sampling and analysis of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV from poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Peng

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8% were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7% in chicken and 282 (9.1% in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11 and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8. The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%. The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area.

  20. Epidemiology of Kawasaki disease in Italy: surveillance from national hospitalization records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimaz, Rolando; Fanti, Eleonora; Mauro, Angela; Voller, Fabio; Rusconi, Franca

    2017-08-01

    Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis with an acute and self-limited course. The incidence of the disease differs widely among ethnic groups and is higher in the Asian populations. In Italy, no recent data are available. We studied the epidemiology of Kawasaki disease in the years 2008-2013 in children 0-14 years old in Italy using hospital ICD-9 discharge codes with a thorough data cleaning for duplicates in order to select the first hospital admission for the disease. The disease peaked in the first 2 years of life, with 85.5% of cases under 5 years. Male/female ratio was 1.4:1. The incidence rate was 5.7 per 100,000 children 0-14 years old and 14.7 for children younger than 5 years. The incidence rose slightly during the study period and had a seasonal distribution, with higher incidence in spring. A coronary artery aneurysm was recorded in 2.2% of the patients younger than 5 years of age. This is the first epidemiologic study on Kawasaki disease incidence in the country of Italy. Figures are in line but slightly higher than those reported for other European countries. What is known: • Kawasaki disease is more common in Asian populations. • European incidence data are scarce. What is new: • Epidemiological data in Italy show similar incidence, albeit slightly higher, than in other European countries. • Incidence data slightly rose in the recent past.

  1. Epidemiological Safety Surveillance of Cellular Telephones in the US (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, N.A.; Loughlin, J.E.; Rothman, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 a surveillance programme was initiated to monitor the effects of exposure to the human head from radiofrequency waves, such as those emitted from handheld cellular telephones. Cellular carriers contributed information about 1.5 million telephone account holders, their phones and two months of data on minutes used and number of calls. Cellular telephone manufacturers provided data that allowed classification of phones as analogue or digital and a handheld or mobile (car or bag) for 67% of the phones. Thus far 1,021,767 individuals have been identified who had at least one active cellular telephone account in 1994 and/or 1995 and who used either a handheld (41%) or a mobile (59%) phone during the study period, but not both. Seventy-four per cent of the cohort had used their cellular phone for ≥2 years, and 30% for ≥3 years. (author)

  2. Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Durrheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

  3. The Biosurveillance Analytics Resource Directory (BARD: Facilitating the Use of Epidemiological Models for Infectious Disease Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen J Margevicius

    Full Text Available Epidemiological modeling for infectious disease is important for disease management and its routine implementation needs to be facilitated through better description of models in an operational context. A standardized model characterization process that allows selection or making manual comparisons of available models and their results is currently lacking. A key need is a universal framework to facilitate model description and understanding of its features. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL has developed a comprehensive framework that can be used to characterize an infectious disease model in an operational context. The framework was developed through a consensus among a panel of subject matter experts. In this paper, we describe the framework, its application to model characterization, and the development of the Biosurveillance Analytics Resource Directory (BARD; http://brd.bsvgateway.org/brd/, to facilitate the rapid selection of operational models for specific infectious/communicable diseases. We offer this framework and associated database to stakeholders of the infectious disease modeling field as a tool for standardizing model description and facilitating the use of epidemiological models.

  4. The Biosurveillance Analytics Resource Directory (BARD): Facilitating the Use of Epidemiological Models for Infectious Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margevicius, Kristen J; Generous, Nicholas; Abeyta, Esteban; Althouse, Ben; Burkom, Howard; Castro, Lauren; Daughton, Ashlynn; Del Valle, Sara Y; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hyman, James M; Kiang, Richard; Morse, Andrew P; Pancerella, Carmen M; Pullum, Laura; Ramanathan, Arvind; Schlegelmilch, Jeffrey; Scott, Aaron; Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten J; Vespignani, Alessandro; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological modeling for infectious disease is important for disease management and its routine implementation needs to be facilitated through better description of models in an operational context. A standardized model characterization process that allows selection or making manual comparisons of available models and their results is currently lacking. A key need is a universal framework to facilitate model description and understanding of its features. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a comprehensive framework that can be used to characterize an infectious disease model in an operational context. The framework was developed through a consensus among a panel of subject matter experts. In this paper, we describe the framework, its application to model characterization, and the development of the Biosurveillance Analytics Resource Directory (BARD; http://brd.bsvgateway.org/brd/), to facilitate the rapid selection of operational models for specific infectious/communicable diseases. We offer this framework and associated database to stakeholders of the infectious disease modeling field as a tool for standardizing model description and facilitating the use of epidemiological models.

  5. Epidemiology of childhood intussusception in Bangladesh: Findings from an active national hospital based surveillance system, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satter, Syed M; Aliabadi, Negar; Yen, Catherine; Gastañaduy, Paul A; Ahmed, Makhdum; Mamun, Abdullah; Islam, Khaleda; Flora, Meerjady S; Rahman, Mahmudur; Zaman, K; Rahman, Mustafizur; Heffelfinger, James D; Luby, Stephen P; Gurley, Emily S; Parashar, Umesh D

    2017-09-20

    Rotavirus vaccines have significantly decreased the burden of diarrheal diseases in countries that have introduced them into their immunization programs. In some studies, there has been a small association between rotavirus vaccines and intussusception in post-marketing surveillance, highlighting the importance of tracking incidence before and after vaccine introduction. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of intussusception among Bangladeshi children pre-vaccine introduction. We conducted active, hospital-based surveillance for intussusception at 7 tertiary care hospitals with pediatric surgical facilities during July 2012 to September 2016. Hospitalized children under 2years of age were identified according to Brighton Collaboration level 1 criteria for intussusception. The frequency and proportion of intussusception among overall surgical admissions, as well as the demographic and clinical information of the cases is described. Overall 153 cases of intussusception among children <2years-old were identified at participating sites over the enrolment period, confirmed by Level 1 Brighton criteria. These cases represented 2% of all surgical admissions under 2years of age. One hundred twelve cases (73%) were male; the median age was 7months; and the median duration of hospitalization was 7days. One hundred forty-six (95%) children with intussusception required surgery, and 11 (7%) died. Confirmed cases of intussusception represented nearly 2% of pediatric surgical admissions at tertiary referral centers in Bangladesh during the study period and 7% of children with intussusception died. Given the high burden of rotavirus disease in Bangladesh, vaccine introduction is warranted, however, further studies after introduction of rotavirus vaccine are necessary to determine any association between vaccine and intussusception in this setting. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiological considerations in the surveillance and control of FMD in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanson, R.L.; Morris, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    If control and ultimately eradication of FMD is going to be achieved in Southeast Asia, regional co-operation between the various countries that share common borders will be required. Control programmes need to be flexible so that they can target the issues that are likely to give the greatest improvements in control with the available resources. In order to design these dynamic control programmes, communications must be strengthened, epidemiologically sound information needs to be routinely collected and analyses must be conducted. Control effectiveness should be monitored so that weaknesses in present programmes can be identified. Short-term and long-term strategies must be developed concurrently so that control programmes can readily proceed from one stage to the next. (author)

  7. Immune trypanolysis test with blood spotted on filter paper for epidemiological surveillance of sleeping sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Oumou; Camara, Mamadou; Lejon, Veerle; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Sakande, Hassane; Léno, Mamadou; Büscher, Philippe; Bucheton, Bruno; Jamonneau, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    The immune trypanolysis test (TL) is an accurate sero-diagnostic tool increasingly implemented for sleeping sickness medical surveillance, but it is restricted to the reference laboratories. To facilitate storage and transport of the test specimen, we developed a protocol for the examination of blood spotted on filter paper (TL-fp) that can be stored and shipped at ambient temperature. We compared its performance with the classical TL on plasma (TL-pl) that needs to be kept frozen until use. The study was conducted in active foci of the Republic of Guinea. In total, 438 specimens from treated and untreated sleeping sickness patients and serological suspects were tested with both methods. TL-fp gave significantly less positive results than TL-pl, but all the confirmed sleeping sickness cases were positive with the TL-fp protocol. TL-fp appears to offer a good compromise between feasibility and sensitivity to detect currently infected subjects who play a role in the transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and is useful for contributing to the elimination of gambiense sleeping sickness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Epidemiological Surveillance of Bacterial Nosocomial Infections in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custovic, Amer; Smajlovic, Jasmina; Hadzic, Sadeta; Ahmetagic, Sead; Tihic, Nijaz; Hadzagic, Haris

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Intensive care units (ICUs) are associated with a greater risk of developing nosocomial infections (NIs) than other departments. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the rate, the site and causative organisms of NIs in the surgical ICU at University Clinical Center Tuzla. Methods: All patients admitted to the surgical ICU were followed prospectively, for the development of NIs (January-December 2010). Determination of NIs was performed using standardized the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. Results: 94 out of 834 patients (11.27%) developed NIs. Respiratory tract infections were seen in 56 (60%), urinary tract infections in 15 (16%) and gastrointestinal tract infections in 8 (9%) patients. Other infections identified were surgical site, bloodstream and skin infections. Gram-negative organisms were reported in approximately 75% of cases (78.7% extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producers). Klebsiella pneumoniae was the commonest (51.0%), followed by Proteus mirabilis (21.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.6%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (16%), and Clostridium difficile (9.6%) were the commonest among gram-positive bacteria. Conclusion: Respiratory and urinary tract infections made up the great majority of NIs. ICU patients are more susceptible to NIs, emphasizing the importance of continuous surveillance and enforcement of specific infection control measures. PMID:24757393

  9. Surveillance of Candida spp bloodstream infections: epidemiological trends and risk factors of death in two Mexican tertiary care hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora E Corzo-Leon

    Full Text Available Larger populations at risk, broader use of antibiotics and longer hospital stays have impacted on the incidence of Candida sp. bloodstream infections (CBSI.To determine clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with CBSI in two tertiary care reference medical institutions in Mexico City.Prospective and observational laboratory-based surveillance study conducted from 07/2008 to 06/2010.All patients with CBSI were included. Identification and antifungal susceptibility were performed using CLSI M27-A3 standard procedures. Frequencies, Mann-Whitney U test or T test were used as needed. Risk factors were determined with multivariable analysis and binary logistic regression analysis.CBSI represented 3.8% of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Cumulative incidence was 2.8 per 1000 discharges (incidence rate: 0.38 per 1000 patient-days. C. albicans was the predominant species (46%, followed by C. tropicalis (26%. C. glabrata was isolated from patients with diabetes (50%, and elderly patients. Sixty-four patients (86% received antifungals. Amphotericin-B deoxycholate (AmBD was the most commonly used agent (66%. Overall mortality rate reached 46%, and risk factors for death were APACHE II score ≥ 16 (OR = 6.94, CI95% = 2.34-20.58, p<0.0001, and liver disease (OR = 186.11, CI95% = 7.61-4550.20, p = 0.001. Full susceptibility to fluconazole, AmBD and echinocandins among C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis was observed.The cumulative incidence rate in these centers was higher than other reports from tertiary care hospitals from Latin America. Knowledge of local epidemiologic patterns permits the design of more specific strategies for prevention and preemptive therapy of CBSI.

  10. Annual summary report on the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Rige National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Annual Summary Report on the Surveillance and Maintenance Activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 1995 was prepared to communicate the accomplishments of the Program during fiscal year 1995. This work was performed under work breakdown structure element 1.4.12.6.1.14.20 (activity data sheet 3314, ''Remedial Action Surveillance and Maintenance''). Publication of this document meets the Life Cycle Baseline milestone date of November 30, 1995. This document provides the accomplishments for both the Remedial Action and Decontamination and Decommissioning Surveillance and Maintenance programs

  11. Annual Surveillance Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    decreased and the majority of infections occurred in those over 65 years of age. Regional distribution of infections and drug resistance followed the...same trends as in 2015, but with more significant reductions in antibiotic susceptibility. Continued surveillance is recommended. iii iii...These two data points combined with the stagnant IRs the rest of the year highlight the lack of a seasonal trend for P. aeruginosa for 2016

  12. Annual Surveillance Summary: Klebsiella Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic Infection Classifications .................................................................. 7 Section B – Antimicrobial Resistance and Use...B – Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Regional Multidrug Resistance In 2016, the IR of Klebsiella species infection was 102.1 infections per...prescription practices, and antibiotic resistance patterns observed for Klebsiella species infections in calendar year (CY) 2016. Multiple data

  13. Specific antigen serologic tests in leprosy: implications for epidemiological surveillance of leprosy cases and household contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Mendes Carvalho

    operational classification, in addition to identifying infected individuals and as a strategy for surveillance of household contacts.

  14. Epidemiology and Microbiologic Characterization of Nosocomial Candidemia from a Brazilian National Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, André Mario; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Edmond, Michael B; Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Siqueira, Ricardo Andreotti; da Mota, Vivian Pereira; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia is a growing problem in hospitals all over the world. Despite advances in the medical support of critically ill patients, candidiasis leads to prolonged hospitalization, and has a crude mortality rate around 50%. We conducted a multicenter surveillance study in 16 hospitals distributed across five regions of Brazil to assess the incidence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, and risk factors for bloodstream infections due to Candida species. From June 2007 to March 2010, we studied a total of 2,563 nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI) episodes. Candida spp. was the 7th most prevalent agent. Most of the patients were male, with a median age of 56 years. A total of 64 patients (46.7%) were in the ICU when candidemia occurred. Malignancies were the most common underlying condition (32%). The crude mortality rate of candidemia during the hospital admission was 72.2%. Non-albicans species of Candida accounted for 65.7% of the 137 yeast isolates. C. albicans (34.3%), Candida parapsilosis (24.1%), Candida tropicalis (15.3%) and Candida glabrata (10.2%) were the most prevalent species. Only 47 out of 137 Candida isolates were sent to the reference laboratory for antifungal susceptibility testing. All C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the 5 antifungal drugs tested. Among 11 C. glabrata isolates, 36% were resistant to fluconazole, and 64% SDD. All of them were susceptible to anidulafungin and amphotericin B. We observed that C. glabrata is emerging as a major player among non-albicans Candida spp. and fluconazole resistance was primarily confined to C. glabrata and C. krusei strains. Candida resistance to echinocandins and amphotericin B remains rare in Brazil. Mortality rates remain increasingly higher than that observed in the Northern Hemisphere countries, emphasizing the need for improving local practices of clinical management of candidemia, including early diagnosis, source control and precise

  15. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of hepatitis C virus infections in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti R; Thompson, Nicola D; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States; the prevalence in maintenance hemodialysis patients substantially exceeds that in the general population. In hemodialysis patients, HCV infection has been associated with increased occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and increased mortality. Injection drug use and receipt of blood transfusions before 1992 has accounted for most prevalent HCV infections in the United States. However, HCV transmission among patients undergoing hemodialysis has been documented frequently. Outbreak investigations have implicated lapses in infection control practices as the cause of HCV infections. Preventing these infections is an emerging priority for renal care providers, public health agencies, and regulators. Adherence to recommended infection control practices is effective in preventing HCV transmission in hemodialysis facilities. In addition, adoption of routine screening to facilitate the detection of incident HCV infections and hemodialysis-related transmission is an essential component of patient safety and infection prevention efforts. This article describes the current epidemiology of HCV infection in US maintenance hemodialysis patients and prevention practices to decrease its incidence and transmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A Seventeen-Year Epidemiological Surveillance Study of Borrelia burgdorferi Infections in Two Provinces of Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Lledó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Serum samples (1,179 from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation bitten by ticks in two regions of northern Spain were IFA-tested for B. burgdorferi antibodies. Positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi were found in 13.3% of the patients; 7.8% were IgM positive, 9.6% were IgG positive, and 4.33% were both IgM and IgG positive. Five species of ticks were identified in the seropositive patients: Dermacentor marginatus (41.17% of such patients Dermacentor reticulatus (11.76%, Rhiphicephalus sanguineus (17.64%, Rhiphicephalus turanicus (5.88% and Ixodes ricinus (23.52%. B. burgdorferi DNA was sought by PCR in ticks when available. One tick, a D. reticulatus male, was found carrying the pathogen. The seroprevalence found was similar to the previously demonstrated in similar studies in Spain and other European countries.

  17. [HIV and syphilis coinfection in pregnancy and vertical HIV transmission: a study based on epidemiological surveillance data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Lisiane M W; Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the rate of HIV and syphilis coinfection among pregnant women living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, as well as the association of coinfection with vertical HIV transmission and socioeconomic variables. This analytical retrospective cross-sectional study employed data from the regular epidemiological surveillance system for the period from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained regarding pregnant women with HIV and exposed children, syphilis in pregnancy, and congenital syphilis. The study population included 1 500 HIV-positive women with deliveries from 2010 to 2013. Of these, 155 (10.3%) were also infected with syphilis, corresponding to an HIV and syphilis coinfection rate of 10.2% (± 1.5%). The coinfected group had lower education levels, higher prevalence of black women, and greater HIV exposure related to drug use by the woman or a partner. Coinfected women had more delayed HIV diagnosis (for example, during childbirth) and greater prevalence of lacking prenatal care (44%). Crude analysis showed an association between vertical HIV transmission and HIV and syphilis co-infection (PR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.21-3.74; P = 0.01) that persisted in the adjusted analysis. A profile of increased vulnerability was identified among pregnant women with HIV and syphilis coinfection. A positive impact of the treatment to reduce congenital syphilis and eliminate vertical transmission of HIV depends on enhanced access to qualified health care.

  18. Prognostic Impact of Different Histological Types on Gastric Adenocarcinoma: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaitai; Wan, Juefeng; Bei, Yanping; Chen, Xue; Lu, Miaozhen

    2017-10-01

    The clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of gastric mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) and signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) are still controversial. We designed our study to evaluate the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of MAC, SRC and ordinary gastric adenocarcinoma (OGAC) by analyzing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-registered database. The 5-year overall survival (OS) of patients with SRC was significantly lower than that of patients with MAC (P = 0.001) and OGAC (P  0.05) and no significant difference between MAC and OGAC at stage IV (P = 0.110). Patients in SRC group had significantly worse survival than those in MAC and OGAC at stage IV (both P = 0.008), with 5-year OS of 3.3%, 5.8%, and 5.8%, respectively. However, the histological type was not found to be an independent prognostic factor of gastric cancer according to the multivariate analysis with Cox regression.

  19. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and response through Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurapa, Frederick; Afari, Ebenezer; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sackey, Samuel; Clerk, Christine; Kwadje, Simon; Yebuah, Nathaniel; Amankwa, Joseph; Amofah, George; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer

    2011-01-01

    The lack of highly trained field epidemiologists in the public health system in Ghana has been known since the 1970s when the Planning Unit was established in the Ghana Ministry of Health. When the Public Health School was started in 1994, the decision was taken to develop a 1 academic-year general MPH course. The persisting need for well-trained epidemiologists to support the public health surveillance, outbreak investigation and response system made the development of the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (FELTP) a national priority. The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for serving Ghana Health Service staff. The success of the short courses led to development of the FELTP. By October 2007, the new FELTP curriculum for the award of a Masters of Philosophy in Applied Epidemiology and Disease Control was approved by the Academic Board of the University of Ghana and the programme started that academic year. Since then five cohorts of 37 residents have been enrolled in the two tracks of the programme. They consist of 12 physicians, 12 veterinarians and 13 laboratory scientists. The first two cohorts of 13 residents have graduated. The third cohort of seven has submitted dissertations and is awaiting the results. The fourth cohort has started the second year of field placement while the fifth cohort has just started the first semester. The field activities of the graduates have included disease outbreak investigations and response, evaluation of disease surveillance systems at the national level and analysis of datasets on diseases at the regional level. The residents have made a total of 25 oral presentations and 39 poster presentations at various regional and global

  20. Local epidemiological surveillance of Norovirus infections in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Mattei

    2008-12-01

    to implement norovirus ELISA detection assays for clinical diagnosis and for planning an active surveillance among paediatric cases requiring hospitalization due to gastroenteritis for the development of effective preventive measures.

  1. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    7 Section B – Antimicrobial Resistance and Use...coli in the MHS: Annual Summary 2016 Prepared June 2017 EpiData Center Department NMCPHC-EDC-TR-407-2017 Section B – Antimicrobial Resistance ... resistance to three or more tested antimicrobial agents. 13 The current assessment found regions with the highest total IRs and analyses defining

  2. [Application of administrative enforcement while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobov, A E; Berskiĭ, O V; Nebredovskiĭ, V N; Zharkov, D A

    2013-05-01

    The article deals with the legal framework of an application of administrative enforcement. The authors analyzed the information about a quantity and structure of administrative violation in the sanitary and epidemiological welfare, revealed during 2009-2011 while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance by the Center for Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Ministry of Defense (TsGSEN MF RF) in military units and organizations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, and applied administrative sanctions. The acquired data was compared with the same data acquired by The Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being (Rospotrebnadzor). The results of research give a reason to consider TsGSEN MF activity according to index of application of administrative enforcement as ineffective. It shows the significant underestimate of administrative sanctions for the failure to comply with requirements of the health legislation. The authors formulated practical recommendations for activation of legal mechanics application by the specialists of TsGSEN MF RF while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

  3. Annual Surveillance Summary: Bacterial Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    aureus (MRSA) • Pseudomonas aeruginosa • Vancomycin- resistant Enterococci (VRE) Note: To review the annual report for each organism listed above...Impact: Demographics, Resistance , Prescription Practices, and Infection Setting within the MHS, CY 2016 Organism Demographics Most Impacted...indicates a decreasing percent change . a Multidrug- resistance incidence rate (MDR IR). Rates are presented as the rate per 100,000 persons per year

  4. An Integrative Analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Carriers in Vietnam Achieved Through Targeted Surveillance and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Ferreira, H C; Pauszek, S J; Ludi, A; Huston, C L; Pacheco, J M; Le, V T; Nguyen, P T; Bui, H H; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen, T; Nguyen, T T; Ngo, L T; Do, D H; Rodriguez, L; Arzt, J

    2017-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major constraint to transboundary trade in animal products, yet much of its natural ecology and epidemiology in endemic regions is still poorly understood. To address this gap, a multidisciplinary, molecular and conventional epidemiological approach was applied to an investigation of endemic FMD in Vietnam. Within the study space, it was found that 22.3% of sampled ruminants had previously been infected with FMD virus (FMDV), of which 10.8% were persistent, asymptomatic carriers (2.4% of the total population). Descriptive data collected from targeted surveillance and a farm questionnaire showed a significantly lower prevalence of FMDV infection for dairy farms. In contrast, farms of intermediate size and/or history of infection in 2010 were at increased risk of FMD exposure. At the individual animal level, buffalo had the highest exposure risk (over cattle), and there was spatial heterogeneity in exposure risk at the commune level. Conversely, carrier prevalence was higher for beef cattle, suggesting lower susceptibility of buffalo to persistent FMDV infection. To characterize virus strains currently circulating in Vietnam, partial FMDV genomic (VP1) sequences from carrier animals collected between 2012 and 2013 (N = 27) and from FMDV outbreaks between 2009 and 2013 (N = 79) were compared by phylogenetic analysis. Sequence analysis suggested that within the study period, there were two apparent novel introductions of serotype A viruses and that the dominant lineage of serotype O in Vietnam shifted from SEA/Mya-98 to ME-SA/PanAsia. FMDV strains shared close ancestors with FMDV from other South-East Asian countries indicating substantial transboundary movement of the predominant circulating strains. Close genetic relationships were observed between carrier and outbreak viruses, which may suggest that asymptomatic carriers of FMDV contribute to regional disease persistence. Multiple viral sequences obtained from carrier cattle

  5. Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Senegal after Four Consecutive Years of Surveillance, 2012–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, El Hadj Abdel Kader; Kiori, Davy E.; Sarr, Fatoumata Diene; Sy, Sara; Goudiaby, Debora; Richard, Vincent; Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains poorly defined in Africa. To address this, we carried out a descriptive and retrospective pilot study, with a focus on the epidemiology of RSV in Senegal after 4 years of surveillance. Methodology and Results From January 2012 to October 2015 swabs were collected from consenting ILI outpatients. Viral detection was performed using RV16 kit enabling direct subtyping of RSV-A and B. For the molecular characterization of HRSV, the second hypervariable region of the Glycoprotein (G) gene was targeted for sequencing. We enrolled 5338 patients with 2803 children younger than five years of age (52.5%). 610 (11.4%) were positive for RSV infection: 276 (45.2%) were group A infections, 334 (54.8%) were group B infections and 21 (3.4%) were A/B co-infections. RSV detection rate is significantly higher (P Senegal clustered with strains that were previously assigned NA1 and novel ON1 genotype sequences. RSV-B sequences from Senegal clustered with the BA9 genotype. At the amino acid level, RSV-A strains from Senegal show proximity with the genotype ON1 characterized by a 72 nt insertion in G, resulting in 24 extra amino acids of which 23 are duplications of aa 261–283. Conclusion Globally our results show a clear circulation pattern of RSV in the second half of each year, between June and September and possibly extending into November, with children under 5 being more susceptible. Molecular studies identified the novel strains ON1 and BA9 as the major genotypes circulating in Senegal between 2012 and 2015. PMID:27315120

  6. Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Senegal after Four Consecutive Years of Surveillance, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Amary; Dia, Ndongo; Cisse, El Hadj Abdel Kader; Kiori, Davy E; Sarr, Fatoumata Diene; Sy, Sara; Goudiaby, Debora; Richard, Vincent; Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye

    2016-01-01

    The burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains poorly defined in Africa. To address this, we carried out a descriptive and retrospective pilot study, with a focus on the epidemiology of RSV in Senegal after 4 years of surveillance. From January 2012 to October 2015 swabs were collected from consenting ILI outpatients. Viral detection was performed using RV16 kit enabling direct subtyping of RSV-A and B. For the molecular characterization of HRSV, the second hypervariable region of the Glycoprotein (G) gene was targeted for sequencing. We enrolled 5338 patients with 2803 children younger than five years of age (52.5%). 610 (11.4%) were positive for RSV infection: 276 (45.2%) were group A infections, 334 (54.8%) were group B infections and 21 (3.4%) were A/B co-infections. RSV detection rate is significantly higher (P Senegal clustered with strains that were previously assigned NA1 and novel ON1 genotype sequences. RSV-B sequences from Senegal clustered with the BA9 genotype. At the amino acid level, RSV-A strains from Senegal show proximity with the genotype ON1 characterized by a 72 nt insertion in G, resulting in 24 extra amino acids of which 23 are duplications of aa 261-283. Globally our results show a clear circulation pattern of RSV in the second half of each year, between June and September and possibly extending into November, with children under 5 being more susceptible. Molecular studies identified the novel strains ON1 and BA9 as the major genotypes circulating in Senegal between 2012 and 2015.

  7. Survival Outcomes in Resected Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Effect of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vern-Gross, Tamara Z.; Shivnani, Anand T.; Chen, Ke; Lee, Christopher M.; Tward, Jonathan D.; MacDonald, O. Kenneth; Crane, Christopher H.; Talamonti, Mark S.; Munoz, Louis L.; Small, William

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after surgical resection for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has not been clearly established. We analyzed survival outcomes of patients with resected extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and examined the effect of adjuvant RT. Methods and Materials: Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program between 1973 and 2003. The primary endpoint was the overall survival time. Cox regression analysis was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the following clinical variables: age, year of diagnosis, histologic grade, localized (Stage T1-T2) vs. regional (Stage T3 or greater and/or node positive) stage, gender, race, and the use of adjuvant RT after surgical resection. Results: The records for 2,332 patients were obtained. Patients with previous malignancy, distant disease, incomplete or conflicting records, atypical histologic features, and those treated with preoperative/intraoperative RT were excluded. Of the remaining 1,491 patients eligible for analysis, 473 (32%) had undergone adjuvant RT. After a median follow-up of 27 months (among surviving patients), the median overall survival time for the entire cohort was 20 months. Patients with localized and regional disease had a median survival time of 33 and 18 months, respectively (p < .001). The addition of adjuvant RT was not associated with an improvement in overall or cause-specific survival for patients with local or regional disease. Conclusion: Patients with localized disease had significantly better overall survival than those with regional disease. Adjuvant RT was not associated with an improvement in long-term overall survival in patients with resected extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Key data, including margin status and the use of combined chemotherapy, was not available through the SEER database.

  8. Annual Surveillance Summary: Bacterial Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) • Pseudomonas aeruginosa • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) Note: To review the complete annual report for each...29.4 E. coli 702.3 592.2 157.4 ↑ 18.6 Klebsiella spp. 100.8 80.9 22.2 ↑ 24.6 MRSA 61.1 68.2 16.0 ↓ 10.4 P. aeruginosa 32.6 28.7 5.2 ↑ 13.6 VREc...VRE infections. c For MRSA only, the MDR IR column depicts the percentage of MRSA infections with inducible clindamycin resistance within the MHS

  9. Complementary surveillance strategies are needed to better characterise the epidemiology, care pathways and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Karen; Schaaf, H Simon; Dunbar, Rory; Walters, Elisabetta; Swartz, Alvera; Solomons, Regan; Hesseling, Anneke C

    2018-03-23

    Tuberculosis (TB) in young and HIV-infected children is frequently diagnosed at hospital level. In settings where general hospitals do not function as TB reporting units, the burden and severity of childhood TB may not be accurately reflected in routine TB surveillance data. Given the paucibacillary nature of childhood TB, microbiological surveillance alone will miss the majority of hospital-managed children. The study objective was to combine complementary hospital-based surveillance strategies to accurately report the burden, spectrum and outcomes of childhood TB managed at referral hospital-level in a high TB burden setting. We conducted a prospective cohort study including all children (surveillance in addition to existing laboratory surveillance. Data were collected from clinical patient records, the National Health Laboratory Service database, and provincial electronic TB registers. Descriptive statistics were used to report overall TB disease burden, spectrum, care pathways and treatment outcomes. Univariate analysis compared characteristics between children identified through the two hospital-based surveillance strategies to characterise the group of children missed by existing laboratory surveillance. During 2012, 395 children (180 [45.6%] surveillance identified 237 (60%) children in addition to laboratory surveillance. Ninety (24.3%) children were HIV co-infected; 113 (29.5%) had weight-for-age z-scores surveillance. TB/HIV co-infected children were less likely to be identified through laboratory surveillance (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.2-0.5). The burden and spectrum of childhood TB disease managed at referral hospital level in high burden settings is substantial. Hospital-based surveillance in addition to routine TB surveillance is essential to provide a complete picture of the burden, spectrum and impact of childhood TB in settings where hospitals are not TB reporting units.

  10. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  11. Information management and ante-mortem inspection procedures for the emerging diseases control: Experiences acquired in the epidemiological surveillance of bluetongue and lumpy skin disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Corradini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spread of exotic, emerging and reemerging diseases, has become, in the last years, one of the most important threats to the animal productions and public health, representing a new challenge for the European Community. In a global-market framework, where trade and contacts between countries are simplified, effective and well-developed surveillance systems are necessary. Multiple factors are, in fact, associated with the emergence of new, known or exotic diseases in this new economic panorama and for these reasons controls on animal imports, traceability and timeliness detection of infected animals should be considered the basis of a sound surveillance. In this work, we focused our attention on the management of Bluetongue and on the risk of introduction of the Lumpy Skin Disease in Italy, in order to describe the national and European surveillance systems for these diseases. In particular, we underlined the crucial role of information that reach the Official Veterinarian at the slaughterhouse concerning the epidemiological situation of the sending countries. Information that are important for the management of the ante-mortem inspection and for increasing the awareness of the Veterinary Inspectors of their role in the surveillance.

  12. [Results of epidemiological surveillance of hospital infections at the Clinic of Digestive System Surgery, CCS, in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioljević, V; Jovanović, B; Mazić, N; Palibrk, I; Milićević, M

    2009-01-01

    %), and Staphylococcus aureus (7%). The most frequent causative agents of urinary infections were: Escherichia coli (35%) and Enterococcus spp (29%). Over 80% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to Methicillin (MRSA) and enterobacteria produced by beta lactamase were recorded (ESBL). Enforcement of epidemiological surveillance of nosocomial infections contributes to insight of severity of NI problem, recognition of resistance of causative agents to antibiotics and recommendation of specific preventive measures related to these infections.

  13. Radiation therapy improves survival in rectal small cell cancer - Analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Aram S; Hsu, Howard C; Leichman, Cynthia G; Du, Kevin L

    2015-04-24

    Small cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare neoplasm with scant literature to guide treatment. We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to investigate the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of this cancer. The SEER database (National Cancer Institute) was queried for locoregional cases of small cell rectal cancer. Years of diagnosis were limited to 1988-2010 (most recent available) to reduce variability in staging criteria or longitudinal changes in surgery and radiation techniques. Two month conditional survival was applied to minimize bias by excluding patients who did not survive long enough to receive cancer-directed therapy. Patient demographics between the RT and No_RT groups were compared using Pearson Chi-Square tests. Overall survival was compared between patients who received radiotherapy (RT, n = 43) and those who did not (No_RT, n = 28) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate important covariates. Median survival was significantly longer for patients who received radiation compared to those who were not treated with radiation; 26 mo vs. 8 mo, respectively (log-rank P = 0.009). We also noted a higher 1-year overall survival rate for those who received radiation (71.1% vs. 37.8%). Unadjusted hazard ratio for death (HR) was 0.495 with the use of radiation (95% CI 0.286-0.858). Among surgery, radiotherapy, sex and age at diagnosis, radiation therapy was the only significant factor for overall survival with a multivariate HR for death of 0.393 (95% CI 0.206-0.750, P = 0.005). Using SEER data, we have identified a significant survival advantage with the use of radiation therapy in the setting of rectal small cell carcinoma. Limitations of the SEER data apply to this study, particularly the lack of information on chemotherapy usage. Our findings strongly support the use of radiation therapy for patients with locoregional small cell rectal cancer.

  14. Oligodendrogliomas in pediatric and adult patients: an outcome-based study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau CSM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Christine SM Lau,1,2 Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Ronald S Chamberlain1–4 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, 4Department of Surgery, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA Introduction: Oligodendrogliomas (OGs account for <20% of all intracranial tumors and 25% of gliomas. Despite improvements in imaging techniques allowing for earlier diagnosis, OG is rare among the pediatric population. This study examines a large cohort of OG patients in an effort to define the demographic, clinical, and pathologic factors associated with clinical and survival outcomes.Methods: Data on 7,001 OG patients were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER database (1973–2013. Pediatric patients were defined as ≤19 years old, and adult patients were defined as age ≥20 years.Results: Among 7,001 OG patients, 6.5% were pediatric (mean age 12 ± 6 years, and 93.5% were adult (mean age 46 ± 15 years. Overall, OGs were more common among males, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.28:1. Overall, OGs were more common among Caucasians (76.9% and also among the African American (10.8% pediatric vs. 4.0% adult and Hispanic (12.8% pediatric vs. 11.8% adult. OGs occurred most commonly in the temporal lobe of pediatric patients and the frontal lobes of adults. Surgical resection was the primary treatment modality for both pediatric and adult populations (70.6% and 40.5%, followed by combined surgery and radiation (19.7% and 41.2%. Surgical resection was associated with significantly improved survival in both groups. Pediatric patients had a lower overall mortality (19.8% vs. 48.5% and lower cancer-specific mortality (17.6% vs. 36.8%.Conclusion: OGs most often present in Caucasian males in their fifth decade of life with tumors >4 cm in size

  15. Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis Validating COG Risk Stratifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waxweiler, Timothy V., E-mail: timothy.waxweiler@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rusthoven, Chad G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Proper, Michelle S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Billings Clinic, Billings, Montana (United States); Cost, Carrye R. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Cost, Nicholas G. [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Donaldson, Nathan [Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Garrington, Timothy; Greffe, Brian S. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Heare, Travis [Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Macy, Margaret E. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Liu, Arthur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) are a heterogeneous group of sarcomas that encompass over 35 histologies. With an incidence of ∼500 cases per year in the United States in those <20 years of age, NRSTS are rare and therefore difficult to study in pediatric populations. We used the large Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to validate the prognostic ability of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk classification system and to define patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Methods and Materials: From SEER data from 1988 to 2007, we identified patients ≤18 years of age with NRSTS. Data for age, sex, year of diagnosis, race, registry, histology, grade, primary size, primary site, stage, radiation therapy, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Patients with nonmetastatic grossly resected low-grade tumors of any size or high-grade tumors ≤5 cm were considered low risk. Cases of nonmetastatic tumors that were high grade, >5 cm, or unresectable were considered intermediate risk. Patients with nodal or distant metastases were considered high risk. Results: A total of 941 patients met the review criteria. On univariate analysis, black race, malignant peripheral nerve sheath (MPNST) histology, tumors >5 cm, nonextremity primary, lymph node involvement, radiation therapy, and higher risk group were associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). On multivariate analysis, MPNST histology, chemotherapy-resistant histology, and higher risk group were significantly poor prognostic factors for OS and CSS. Compared to low-risk patients, intermediate patients showed poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.53-10.47, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 6.27; 95% CI: 3.44-11.43, P<.001), and high-risk patients had the worst OS (HR: 13.35, 95% CI: 8.18-21.76, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 14.65, 95% CI: 8.49-25.28, P<.001). Conclusions: The current COG risk group

  16. [Design of software and hardware complex of automated systems for the management of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nichenko, P I; Muzychenko, F V; Malinovskiĭ, A A; Leont'ev, L Iu; Ustiukhin, N V

    2005-05-01

    A new information system (IS) - the software and hardware complex for controlling the state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection (SSEI) was created. The system represents the aggregate of automated working places of RF MD chief state sanitary physician arid specialists from the department of state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection of the Main Military Medical Headquarters. They interact through communications with working places of specialists from SSEI Main Center, chief state sanitary physicians from the Armed Forces, military districts (fleets) and RFAF CSSEI. The special software provides automation of the following technological processes: operative sanitary-and epidemiological and epidemiological monitoring; the epidemiological analysis of infectious diseases; the evaluation of quality and efficiency of sanitary-and epidemiological work. At present the complex works in the regime of experimental exploitation when the adjustment of communications and special software is performed.

  17. Declining incidence of candidemia and the shifting epidemiology of Candida resistance in two US metropolitan areas, 2008-2013: results from population-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Angela Ahlquist; Harrison, Lee H; Farley, Monica M; Hollick, Rosemary; Stein, Betsy; Chiller, Tom M; Lockhart, Shawn R; Park, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated a decline in bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) following adherence to central line insertion practices; however, declines have been less evident for BSIs due to Candida species. We conducted active, population-based laboratory surveillance for candidemia in metropolitan Atlanta, GA and Baltimore, MD over a 5-year period. We calculated annual candidemia incidence and antifungal drug resistance rates. We identified 3,848 candidemia cases from 2008-2013. Compared with 2008, candidemia incidence per 100,000 person-years decreased significantly by 2013 in both locations (GA: 14.1 to 9.5, pcandidemia over a five-year period, and increases in echinocandin-resistant and MDR Candida. Efforts to strengthen infection control practices may be preventing candidemia among high-risk patients. Further surveillance for resistant Candida is warranted.

  18. Declining Incidence of Candidemia and the Shifting Epidemiology of Candida Resistance in Two US Metropolitan Areas, 2008–2013: Results from Population-Based Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Angela Ahlquist; Harrison, Lee H.; Farley, Monica M.; Hollick, Rosemary; Stein, Betsy; Chiller, Tom M.; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Park, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent reports have demonstrated a decline in bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) following adherence to central line insertion practices; however, declines have been less evident for BSIs due to Candida species. Methods We conducted active, population-based laboratory surveillance for candidemia in metropolitan Atlanta, GA and Baltimore, MD over a 5-year period. We calculated annual candidemia incidence and antifungal drug resistance rates. Results We identified 3,848 candidemia cases from 2008–2013. Compared with 2008, candidemia incidence per 100,000 person-years decreased significantly by 2013 in both locations (GA: 14.1 to 9.5, pcandidemia over a five-year period, and increases in echinocandin-resistant and MDR Candida. Efforts to strengthen infection control practices may be preventing candidemia among high-risk patients. Further surveillance for resistant Candida is warranted. PMID:25822249

  19. Bayesian variable selection in the accelerated failure time model with an application to the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results breast cancer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Sinha, Samiran; Maiti, Tapabrata; Shipp, Eva

    2018-04-01

    Accelerated failure time model is a popular model to analyze censored time-to-event data. Analysis of this model without assuming any parametric distribution for the model error is challenging, and the model complexity is enhanced in the presence of large number of covariates. We developed a nonparametric Bayesian method for regularized estimation of the regression parameters in a flexible accelerated failure time model. The novelties of our method lie in modeling the error distribution of the accelerated failure time nonparametrically, modeling the variance as a function of the mean, and adopting a variable selection technique in modeling the mean. The proposed method allowed for identifying a set of important regression parameters, estimating survival probabilities, and constructing credible intervals of the survival probabilities. We evaluated operating characteristics of the proposed method via simulation studies. Finally, we apply our new comprehensive method to analyze the motivating breast cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, and estimate the five-year survival probabilities for women included in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1990 and 2000.

  20. Genitourinary paraganglioma: Demographic, pathologic, and clinical characteristics in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database (2000-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Stephanie; Sidana, Abhinav; Maruf, Mahir; Grant, Campbell; Agarwal, Piyush K

    2017-07-01

    Extra-adrenal paragangliomas (PGLs) are infrequent, benign, and neuroendocrine tumors arising from chromaffin cells of the autonomic nervous system. Most PGLs are sporadic, but up to 32% are associated with inherited syndromes such as neurofibromatosis type 1, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and familial PGL. Although most PGLs develop above the umbilicus, they have been reported in the genitourinary (GU) tract. Owing to the paucity of literature on the rates of GU PGL, the objective of our study is to describe the demographic, pathologic, and clinical characteristics of GU PGL, and compare them to non-GU sites of PGL using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database. The SEER 18 database was used to identify all cases of PGL from 2000 to 2012. Demographic, pathologic, and clinical characteristics were described using chi-square and t-test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare overall survival (OS) between GU and non-GU PGL. Statistical significance was defined as Pexcel and SAS/Stat version 9.4. A total of 299 cases of PGL were retrieved from SEER, and 20 (6.7%) of the total PGL arose from the GU tract. The mean age at diagnosis was higher in non-GU than GU PGL (50.4±17.2 vs. 40.8±15.6, P = 0.026). Furthermore, 75% of GU PGLs developed in the bladder, followed by the kidneys/renal pelvis, and spermatic cord (20%). Non-GU PGL developed most frequently within the endocrine system (43%). PGL, overall, was more common in men than in women, and it was more common in whites than all other races. Although 55.5% of GU PGLs were organ confined, only 22.2% of non-GU PGLs were localized at diagnosis. All cases of PGL were treated with surgery. There were 2 cause-specific deaths in the GU PGL groups between 2000 and 2012. The 5-year OS was 93.3% for GU PGL vs. 65.5% in non-GU PGL (P = 0.062). GU PGL remains rare with low incidence (6.7% of all PGL cases) in the US population between 2000 and 2012

  1. Phocomelia: A Worldwide Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Series of Cases From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes. PMID:22002800

  2. The Emerging HIV Epidemic on the Mexico-US Border: An International Case Study Characterizing the Role of Epidemiology in Surveillance and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mays, Vickie M.; Jimenez, Richard; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose HIV/AIDS surveillance data are critical for monitoring epidemic trends, but can mask dynamic sub-epidemics, especially in vulnerable populations that under-utilize HIV testing. In this case study, we describe community-based epidemiologic data among injection drug users (IDU) and female sex workers (FSWs) in two northern Mexico-US Border States that identified an emerging HIV epidemic and generated a policy response. Methods We draw from quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies and behavioral intervention studies among IDUs and FSWs in Tijuana, Baja California and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. Results Recognition that the HIV epidemic on Mexico’s northern border was already well established in subgroups where it had been presumed to be insignificant was met with calls for action and enhanced prevention efforts from researchers, NGOs and policy makers. Conclusions Successful policies and program outcomes included expansion of needle exchange programs, a nation-wide mobile HIV prevention program targeting marginalized populations, a successful funding bid from the Global Fund for HIV, TB and Malaria to scale up targeted HIV prevention programs and the establishment of binational training programs on prevention of HIV and substance use. We discuss how epidemiologic data informed HIV prevention policies and suggest how other countries may learn from Mexico’s experience. PMID:22626001

  3. La información en tiempo real: Una herramienta necesaria en vigilancia epidemiológica Real time information: A necessary tool in epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González Morán

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2004 se está desarrollando un sistema electrónico para la vigilancia epidemiológica en la Comunidad Valenciana y su análisis (AVE, que permite recoger en tiempo real los datos de las enfermedades de declaración obligatoria (EDO, de los brotes, y de las alertas, su análisis y la difusión de la información a los usuarios de forma automatizada. Dentro del territorio de la Comunidad Valenciana, las actividades de vigilancia se llevan a cabo en 17 Unidades de Vigilancia, de acuerdo con la desagregación sanitaria de la comunidad, que actúan como primer nivel especializado de la vigilancia. El sistema de vigilancia electrónico es operativo para todas esas unidades e igualmente cubre a los facultativos de atención primaria y especializada, capacitándoles para completar la información clínica de los casos de enfermedades, que son detectados a partir de los datos sociodemográficos del Sistema de Información Ambulatoria (SIA. La incorporación de los resultados microbiológicos se realiza automáticamente, a través de la Red de Vigilancia Microbiológica de la Comunidad Valenciana. El análisis de los casos, los brotes y las alertas se lleva a cabo por medio de una serie de algoritmos que permite la creación de avisos dirigidos al epidemiólogo. Desde los servicios centrales se tiene acceso a todo el sistema para el análisis de la información y el control de la calidad del sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica. La aplicación ha conseguido disminuir el tiempo de declaración de los datos y aumentar la exhaustividad de esa declaración de manera significativa.Since 2004 an electronic epidemiological surveillance system (AVE has been developed and implemented for infectious diseases in the autonomous region of Valencia that allows data collection from notifiable diseases in real time concerning outbreaks and alerts, as well as analysis and dissemination of the information. Within the autonomous region of Valencia, the

  4. Regional Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Adult Intensive Care Unit Patients following State-Mandated Active Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michael Y; Hayden, Mary K; Lyles, Rosie D; Lolans, Karen; Fogg, Louis F; Kallen, Alexander J; Weber, Stephen G; Weinstein, Robert A; Trick, William E

    2017-12-07

    In 2007, Illinois became the first state in the United States to mandate active surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The Illinois law applies to intensive care unit (ICU) patients; contact precautions are required for patients found to be MRSA-colonized. However, the effectiveness of a legislated "search and isolate" approach to reduce MRSA burden among critically ill patients is uncertain. We evaluated whether the prevalence of MRSA colonization declined in the 5 years after the start of mandatory active surveillance. All hospitals with an ICU having ≥10 beds in Chicago, Illinois, USA were eligible to participate in single-day serial point prevalence surveys. We assessed MRSA colonization among adult ICU patients present at time of survey using nasal and inguinal swab cultures. The primary outcome was region-wide MRSA colonization prevalence over time. All 25 eligible hospitals (51 ICUs) participated in serial point prevalence surveys over 8 survey periods (2008 - 2013). A total of 3909 adult ICU patients participated in the point prevalence surveys, with 432 (11.1%) found to be colonized with MRSA (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.1% to 12.0%). The MRSA colonization prevalence among patients was unchanged during the study period; year-over-year relative risk for MRSA colonization was 0.97, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.05, P=0.48). MRSA colonization prevalence among critically ill adult patients did not decline during the time period following legislatively mandated MRSA active surveillance. Our findings highlight the limits of legislated MRSA active surveillance as a strategy to reduce MRSA colonization burden among ICU patients. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients in China: surveillance data from 2006 to 2010.

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    Chen Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare, rapidly progressive fatal central nervous system disorder, which consists of three main catalogues: sporadic, familial, and iatrogenic CJD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In China, the surveillance for CJD started in 2006, covering 12 provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs and 15 hospitals. From 2006 to 2010, 624 suspected patients were referred to China CJD surveillance. The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of sporadic CJD (sCJD were analysed. Both groups of probable and possible sCJD showed highest incidences in the population of 60 to 69 year-olds. The most common presenting symptoms were progressive dementia and mental-related symptoms (neurological symptoms including sleeping turbulence, depression, anxiety and stress. Among the four main clinical manifestations, myoclonus was more frequently observed in the probable sCJD patients. About 2/3 of probable sCJD cases showed positive 14-3-3 in CSF and/or periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWC in electroencephalography (EEG. The presence of myoclonus was significantly closely related with the appearance of PSWC in EEG. Polymorphisms of codon 129 in PRNP of the notified cases revealed a highly predominant M129M genotype in Han Chinese. Among 23 genetic human prion diseases, ten were D178N/M129M Fatal familial insomnia (FFI and five were T188K genetic CJD (gCJD, possibly indicating a special distribution of gCJD-related mutations in Han Chinese. CONCLUSION: From the period of 2006 to 2010, 261 patients were diagnosed as sCJD and 23 patients were diagnosed as genetic human prion diseases in China. The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory analysis data were consistent with the characteristics of sporadic CJD, which provide insight into the features of CJD in China.

  6. Amelia: A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; CUEVAS, LOURDES; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BIANCHI, FABRIZIO; CANFIELD, MARK A.; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all continents but Africa, from 1968 to 2006, depending on the program. Reported clinical information on cases was thoroughly reviewed to identify those strictly meeting the definition of amelia. Those with amniotic bands or limb-body wall complex were excluded. The primary epidemiological analyses focused on isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). A total of 326 amelia cases were ascertained among 23,110,591 live births, stillbirths and (for some programs) elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The overall total prevalence was 1.41 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.57). Only China Beijing and Mexico RYVEMCE had total prevalences, which were significantly higher than this overall total prevalence. Some under-registration could influence the total prevalence in some programs. Liveborn cases represented 54.6% of total. Among monomelic cases (representing 65.2% of nonsyndromic amelia cases), both sides were equally involved, and the upper limbs (53.9%) were slightly more frequently affected. One of the most interesting findings was a higher prevalence of amelia among offspring of mothers younger than 20 years. Sixty-nine percent of the cases had MCA or syndromes. The most frequent defects associated with amelia were other types of musculoskeletal defects, intestinal, some renal and genital defects, oral clefts, defects of cardiac septa, and anencephaly. PMID:22002956

  7. Epidemiological Surveillance of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Spain in 2004-2012: Relevance of Transmission Clusters in the Propagation of Resistance Mutations.

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    Yolanda Vega

    Full Text Available Our objectives were to carry out an epidemiological surveillance study on transmitted drug resistance (TDR among individuals newly diagnosed of HIV-1 infection during a nine year period in Spain and to assess the role of transmission clusters (TC in the propagation of resistant strains. An overall of 1614 newly diagnosed individuals were included in the study from January 2004 through December 2012. Individuals come from two different Spanish regions: Galicia and the Basque Country. Resistance mutations to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI and protease inhibitors (PI were analyzed according to mutations included in the surveillance drug-resistance mutations list updated in 2009. TC were defined as those comprising viruses from five or more individuals whose sequences clustered in maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees with a bootstrap value ≥90%. The overall prevalence of TDR to any drug was 9.9%: 4.9% to nucleoside RTIs (NRTIs, 3.6% to non-nucleoside RTIs (NNRTIs, and 2.7% to PIs. A significant decrease of TDR to NRTIs over time was observed [from 10% in 2004 to 2% in 2012 (p=0.01]. Sixty eight (42.2% of 161 sequences with TDR were included in 25 TC composed of 5 or more individuals. Of them, 9 clusters harbored TDR associated with high level resistance to antiretroviral drugs. T215D revertant mutation was transmitted in a large cluster comprising 25 individuals. The impact of epidemiological networks on TDR frequency may explain its persistence in newly diagnosed individuals. The knowledge of the populations involved in TC would facilitate the design of prevention programs and public health interventions.

  8. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women's soccer injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Randall; Putukian, Margot; Agel, Julie; Evans, Todd A; Marshall, Stephen W

    2007-01-01

    To review 15 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's soccer and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. The number of NCAA schools sponsoring women's soccer has grown tremendously, from 271 in 1988- 1989 to 879 schools in 2002-2003. During that time, the NCAA Injury Surveillance System has collected game and practice injury data for women's soccer across all 3 NCAA divisions. The rate of injury was more than 3 times higher in games than in practices (16.44 versus 5.23 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval = 3.1, 3.4, P women's soccer. Research efforts have focused on knee injuries and concussions in soccer, and further epidemiologic data are needed to determine if preventive strategies will help to alter the incidence of these injuries. Furthermore, the specific nature of the player contact leading to concussions and lower extremity injuries should be investigated. Preventive efforts should continue to focus on reducing knee injuries, ankle injuries, and concussions in women collegiate soccer players.

  10. Bladder Exstrophy: An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIFFEL, CSABA; CORREA, ADOLFO; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; CSÁKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; OLNEY, RICHARD S.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We used data from 22 participating member programs of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). All cases were reviewed and classified as isolated, syndrome, and multiple congenital anomalies. We estimated the total prevalence of BE and calculated the frequency and odds ratios for various maternal and case characteristics. A total of 546 cases with BE were identified among 26,355,094 births. The total prevalence of BE was 2.07 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.90–2.25) and varied between 0.52 and 4.63 among surveillance programs participating in the study. BE was nearly twice as common among male as among female cases. The proportion of isolated cases was 71%. Prevalence appeared to increase with increasing categories of maternal age, particularly among isolated cases. The total prevalence of BE showed some variations by geographical region, which is most likely attributable to differences in registration of cases. The higher total prevalence among male cases and older mothers, especially among isolated cases, warrants further attention. PMID:22002949

  11. Use of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare Data to Conduct Case-Control Studies of Cancer Among the US Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Ricker, Winnie; Wheeler, William; Parsons, Ruth; Warren, Joan L.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity in the elderly, and many medical conditions and treatments influence cancer risk. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database can be used to conduct population-based case-control studies that elucidate the etiology of cancer among the US elderly. SEER-Medicare links data on malignancies ascertained through SEER cancer registries to claims from Medicare, the US government insurance program for people over age 65 years. Under one approach described herein, elderly cancer cases are ascertained from SEER data (1987–2005). Matched controls are selected from a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Risk factors of interest, including medical conditions and procedures, are identified by using linked Medicare claims. Strengths of this design include the ready availability of data, representative sampling from the US elderly population, and large sample size (e.g., under one scenario: 1,176,950 cases, including 221,389 prostate cancers, 185,853 lung cancers, 138,041 breast cancers, and 124,442 colorectal cancers; and 100,000 control subjects). Limitations reflect challenges in exposure assessment related to Medicare claims: restricted range of evaluable risk factors, short time before diagnosis/selection for ascertainment, and inaccuracies in claims. With awareness of limitations, investigators have in SEER-Medicare data a valuable resource for epidemiologic research on cancer etiology. PMID:21821540

  12. Exposure to ionizing radiations having a medical origin. Propositions for the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    This report gives propositions relative to the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population in relation with medical exposure to ionizing radiations. It is intended for the General Direction of Health and General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. These propositions have been elaborated by a work group coordinated and run by InVS and gathering the following organisms: French Agency of sanitary safety of health products (A.F.S.S.A.P.S.), Center of Quality Assurance of technological applications in the area of health (C.A.A.T.S.), Direction of Hospitals and Care organization (D.H.O.S.), General Direction of Health (D.G.S.), General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (D.G.S.N.R.), National Federation of radiologists physicists (F.N.M.R.), institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.), INSERM 'epidemiology of cancers', French Society of Biology and Nuclear Medicine (S.F.B.M.N.), French Society of Medical Physics (S.F.P.M.), French Society of Radiology (S.F.R.). (N.C.)

  13. Clinical and Epidemiologic Features of Severe Viral Gastroenteritis in Children: A 3-Year Surveillance, Multicentered Study in Taiwan With Partial Rotavirus Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Wu, Fang-Tzy; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chang, Wan-Chi; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Wu, Ching-Yi; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Huang, Fu-Chen; Hsiung, Chao A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The global epidemiological landscape of childhood acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is changing after the introduction of 2 effective rotavirus vaccines in 2006. A comprehensive evaluation for viral etiology of childhood AGE in Taiwan, where rotavirus vaccination was provided by the private sector since 2006, is lacking. From 2009 to 2011, children younger than 5 years of age with AGE who were hospitalized at 3 sentinel hospitals were enrolled in this surveillance study. Stool specimens were tested for rotavirus, norovirus, enteric adenovirus, and astrovirus. The epidemiologic and clinical information was collected by questionnaire-based interviews and chart reviews. Viral agents were detected in 1055 (37.5%) of 2810 subjects, with rotavirus (21.2%) being the leading cause of disease, followed by norovirus (14.9%), enteric adenovirus (3.74%), astrovirus (2.10%), and a mixture of at least 2 of 4 above-mentioned viruses (4.06%). The majority (56%) of the viral AGE occurred in children 10 were independent factors respectively associated with an increased risk of norovirus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 9.034, P = 0.0003) and rotavirus (aOR, 3.284, P < 0.0001) infections. Rotavirus immunization and female gender were protective factors against rotavirus (aOR, 0.198, P < 0.0001) and astrovirus (aOR, 0.382, P = 0.0299) infections, respectively. Rotavirus and norovirus are the 2 most important viral agents of childhood AGE in Taiwan with partial rotavirus immunization. In addition, different enteric viruses are associated with distinct epidemiologic and clinical features. PMID:26287425

  14. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Natividad-Sancho, Angels; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A.; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; El Guerche-Séblain, Clotilde; Mira-Iglesias, Ainara; Kisteneva, Lidiya; Stolyarov, Kirill; Yurtcu, Kubra; Feng, Luzhao; López-Labrador, Xavier; Burtseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations. Methods Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Findings 5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2), 362 A(H1N1), 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B). The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33–2.02]), asthma (2.25 [1.67–3.03]), immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23–4.11]), renal disease (2.11 [1.48–3.01]), liver disease (1.94 [1.18–3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58–5.59]), and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48–5.94]). Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48–0.77]). Conclusions Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza

  15. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1986-12-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the causative agent Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The geographic range of the infectious stage of C. Shasta has been extended to include the Snake River to the Oxbow and Hells Canyon Dams. These are the farthest upriver sites tested. Infections of ceratomyxosis were also initiated in the east fork of the Lewis River and in the Washougal River in Washington. Laboratory studies with this parasite failed to indicate that tubeficids are required in its life cycle. Bacterial kidney disease has been demonstrated in all life stages of salmonids: in the eggs, fry, smolts, juveniles and adults in the ocean, and in fish returning to fresh water. Monoclonal antibodies produced against R. salmoninarum demonstrated antigenic differences among isolates of the bacterium. Monoclonal antibodies also showed antigens of R. salmoninarum which are similar to those of a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. A demonstration project at Round Butte Hatchery showed U V treatment to be an effective method for reducing the microbial population of the water supply and could reduce risks of IHNV. Tangential flow filtration was used successfully to concentrate IHNV from environmental water. At Round Butte Hatchery the carrier rate of IHNV in adults was very low and there was no subsequent mortality resulting from IHN in juveniles.

  16. Identifying heat-related deaths by using medical examiner and vital statistics data: Surveillance analysis and descriptive epidemiology - Oklahoma, 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew G; Brown, Sheryll; Archer, Pam; Wendelboe, Aaron; Magzamen, Sheryl; Bradley, Kristy K

    2016-10-01

    Approximately 660 deaths occur annually in the United States associated with excess natural heat. A record heat wave in Oklahoma during 2011 generated increased interest concerning heat-related mortality among public health preparedness partners. We aimed to improve surveillance for heat-related mortality and better characterize heat-related deaths in Oklahoma during 1990-2011, and to enhance public health messaging during future heat emergencies. Heat-related deaths were identified by querying vital statistics (VS) and medical examiner (ME) data during 1990-2011. Case inclusion criteria were developed by using heat-related International Classification of Diseases codes, cause-of-death nomenclature, and ME investigation narrative. We calculated sensitivity and predictive value positive (PVP) for heat-related mortality surveillance by using VS and ME data and performed a descriptive analysis. During the study period, 364 confirmed and probable heat-related deaths were identified when utilizing both data sets. ME reports had 87% sensitivity and 74% PVP; VS reports had 80% sensitivity and 52% PVP. Compared to Oklahoma's general population, decedents were disproportionately male (67% vs. 49%), aged ≥65 years (46% vs. 14%), and unmarried (78% vs. 47%). Higher rates of heat-related mortality were observed among Blacks. Of 95 decedents with available information, 91 (96%) did not use air conditioning. Linking ME and VS data sources together and using narrative description for case classification allows for improved case ascertainment and surveillance data quality. Males, Blacks, persons aged ≥65 years, unmarried persons, and those without air conditioning carry a disproportionate burden of the heat-related deaths in Oklahoma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has been conducting a study concerning the epidemiology and control of three fish pathogens which cause major disease problems in salmonids of the Columbia River basin. The pathogens studied include Cera to myxa Shasta, the myxosporean parasite which causes ceratomyxosis; Renibacterium salmoninarum, the bacterium which is the etiological agent of bacterial kidney disease; and the rhabdovirus which causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). During this project, the host and geographic range of C. Shasta have been more precisely determined and the known geographic range has been significantly expanded. The effects of the parasite on fish migrating through the Columbia River and on their introduction into salt water have been examined. Similar studies have been conducted with R. salmoninarum and it has been shown that bacterial kidney disease occurs at all life stages of salmonids and is responsible for mortality in both fresh and salt water. It has also been demonstrated that different isolates of R. salmoninarum have different antigenic composition. Results of demonstration projects designed to control IHN by using UV treated water for early rearing of salmonid fry were equivocal. The scope of the project was considerably narrowed and focused during the past two years The project has concentrated on a study concerning the biology of C. Shasta and the identification of potential chemotherapeutants for control of bacterial kidney disease. The emphasis of work on C. Shasta has been its pathogenesis. This aspect of the parasite has been investigated using histopathologic and immunologic methodology. Mode of transmission, the nature of the infectious stage, and potential intermediate hosts of the parasite have also been areas of active research. Classes of chemotherapeutants with the highest potential for efficacy against R. salmoninarum have been

  18. Sanitary surveillance in France in relation with the Chernobylsk accident. Updated situation on thyroid cancers and epidemiological studies during 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belot, A.; Caserio-Schonemann, C.; Cherie-Challine, M.; Colonna, M.; Lacour, B.; Lasalle, J.L.; Leenhardt, L.; Orgiazzi, J.; Pirard, Ph.; Schvartz, C.

    2006-01-01

    An increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children has been reported since 1990 in areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine which have been highly contaminated during the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A similar increase is now observed in young adults in the same areas. In France, thyroid cancer is characterized by low occurrence and good prognosis. However, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing for more than 20 years, and in 1986, the Chernobyl cloud of radioactive dust crossed the French territory. Thus, the National institute for public health surveillance (I.n.V.S.) carried out several studies to evaluate whether the incidence increase in thyroid cancer is related to radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Since 2000, the I.n.V.S. is in charge of a national multidisciplinary approach involving a wide range of public health actors, including the French network of cancer registries (Francim). Since 2003, the I.n.V.S. has been working on improving the surveillance system according to the actions described in the national cancer plan 2003-2007. The I.n.V.S. has increased its financial contribution to cancer registries including the national registry of solid tumors in children, which was created in 2000. The Institute is also working on the implementation of a multi source system for the national cancer surveillance in link with cancer registries. For the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, the I.n.V.S. is publishing updated results from the latest research conducted in close collaboration with the partners. These results do not support the initial hypothesis of a potential 'Chernobyl effect' in France. The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer is also reported in most of developed countries. Practices in cancer diagnosis and the increased rate of total thyroidectomy for benign lesion may lead pathologists to unexpectedly discover small thyroid tumors. This fact is likely to explain most of the incidence increase. The wide

  19. New variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD disease and other human prion diseases under epidemiological surveillance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Gattás

    Full Text Available Abstract To increase the timeliness of detection of human cases of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and to reduce the risk of transmission, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has established and standardized rules and control measures. These include the definition of criteria for suspect cases, reporting, monitoring, and control measures for illness prevention and transmission. Guidelines to be used by the team of health care staff were published and distributed to health workers. A detailed proposal for a simplified system of surveillance for prion diseases was developed and mandatory reporting introduced. Additional effort is necessary to increase vCJD case detection, thus making it necessary to establish a partnership with health care services for best identification of suspected cases and dissemination of information to all involved in the service dealing with vCJD investigation.

  20. Sports Injury and Illness Epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Background Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. Aim To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Methods The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Results Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. Conclusions The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. PMID:25425714

  1. Epidemiology of Acute Hepatitis B in the United States From Population-Based Surveillance, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Kashif; Klevens, R Monina; Kainer, Marion A; Baumgartner, Jennifer; Gerard, Kristin; Poissant, Tasha; Sweet, Kristin; Vonderwahl, Candace; Knickerbocker, Tracey; Khudyakov, Yury; Xia, Guo-Liang; Roberts, Henry; Teshale, Eyasu

    2015-08-15

    An estimated 20 000 new hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections occur each year in the United States. We describe the results of enhanced surveillance for acute hepatitis B at 7 federally funded sites over a 6-year period. Health departments in Colorado, Connecticut, Minnesota, Oregon, Tennessee, 34 counties in New York state, and New York City were supported to conduct enhanced, population-based surveillance for acute HBV from 2006 through 2011. Demographic and risk factor data were collected on symptomatic cases using a standardized form. Serum samples from a subset of cases were also obtained for molecular analysis. In the 6-year period, 2220 acute hepatitis B cases were reported from the 7 sites. For all sites combined, the incidence rate of HBV infection declined by 19%, but in Tennessee incidence increased by 90%, mainly among persons of white race/ethnicity and those aged 40-49 years. Of all reported cases, 66.1% were male, 57.1% were white, 58.4% were aged 30-49 years, and 60.1% were born in the United States. The most common risk factor identified was any drug use, notably in Tennessee; healthcare exposure was also frequently reported. The most common genotype for all reported cases was HBV genotype A (82%). Despite an overall decline in HBV infection, attributable to successful vaccination programs, a rise in incident HBV infection related to drug use is an increasing concern in some localities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has conducted a study since 1983 relating to the epidemiology and control of three diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These diseases are ceratomyxosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of the infectious stage of C. shasta was again detected at Little Goose Dam on the Snake River. The prevalence of ceratomyxosis increased from 1.1% in 1984 to 10% in 1985. None of the susceptible rainbow trout exposed in the Yakima and Umatilla Rivers died of this disease. Ceratomyxosis in resistant chinook salmon smolts seined from the Columbia River just above the estuary seems dependent on whether or not they are held after capture in fresh or salt water. In fresh water the disease incidence ranged from 7--19%, whereas in salt water it ranged from 0--3%. These results which suggest that recovery from ceratomyxosis may occur after the smolts enter salt water are different from those obtained with susceptible Alsea steelhead trout where experimental groups in salt water have died at the same rate as those in fresh water. Comparing data from groups of Columbia River chinook smolts held after capture in either fresh or salt water, R. salmoninarum is a much more effective pathogen in the salt water environment. After four years of sampling smolts in the open ocean, numbers of this microorganism sufficient to cause death have been detected in chinook (7%) and, coho salmon (2%) and steelhead trout (1%). Results from three years of sampling have consistently indicated that additional fish infected with R. salmoninarum will be detected if egg washings are included in the procedures for

  3. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1984-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis which is caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of ceratomyxosis in rainbow trout exposed at McNary and Little Goose Dams extends the range of this disease about 200 miles further up the Columbia River and into the Snake River drainage. Wallowa steelhead trout were less resistant to this disease than other upriver stocks tested. Juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary were collected periodically between May to September, 1983. Nine percent of the beach seined chinook salmon and 5, 11 and 12%, respectively, of the purse seined coho and chinook salmon and steelhead trout were infected with Ceratomyxa shasta. Experiments indicated ceratomyxosis progresses in salt water at the same rate as in fresh water once the fish have become infected. These data indicate a longer exposure to infective stages of C. shasta than previously identified and that approximately 10% of the migrating salmonids are infected and will probably die from this organism after entering salt water. Since sampling began in 1981 the bacterial kidney disease organism, Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been detected by the fluorescent antibody test in seven salmonid species caught in the open ocean off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The bacterium has been found primarily in chinook salmon (11%) with lesions in 2.5% of these fish. This disease was also detected at levels ranging from 17% in coho salmon to 25% in chinook

  4. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  5. Antibiotic consumption to detect epidemics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a burn centre: A paradigm shift in the epidemiological surveillance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Anne; Voirol, Pierre; Krähenbühl, Marie; Bonnemain, Claire-Lise; Fournier, Camille; Pantet, Olivier; Pagani, Jean-Luc; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Sadeghipour, Farshid; Pannatier, André; Eggimann, Philippe; Que, Yok-Ai

    2016-05-01

    The control of antibiotic resistance and nosocomial infections are major challenges for specialized burn centres. Early detection of those epidemic outbreaks is crucial to limit the human and financial burden. We hypothesize that data collected by antibiotic consumption medico-economic surveys could be used as warning signal to detect early nosocomial outbreaks. A retrospective analysis was conducted that included all burn patients staying >48h on the Lausanne BICU (Burn Intensive Care Unit) between January 2001 and October 2012 who received systemic therapeutic antibiotics. Infection episodes were characterized according to predefined criteria. Antibiotic consumption data, obtained from the quarterly surveillance of drug consumption surveys, were translated into defined daily doses (DDDs). In total, 297 out of 414 burn patients stayed >48h, giving a total of 7458 'burn-days'. We identified 610 infection episodes (burn wound [32.0%], respiratory [31.1%], and catheter [21.8%]), from 774 microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.5%), and Candida albicans (7.0%) were the main pathogens. We observed three distinct outbreaks of P. aeruginosa infections in 2002-2003, 2006, and 2009-2011. These outbreaks correlated with an increase in the DDDs of anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics. Our data support a paradigm shift in the epidemiological surveillance of nosocomial P. aeruginosa epidemics in burn centres, using the rise in antibiotic consumption as an early trigger to initiate the molecular typing of P. aeruginosa strains and the reinforcement of standard infection control procedures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. National surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in China highlights a still-evolving epidemiology with 15 novel emerging multilocus sequence types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Wang, He; Zhao, Ying; Mao, Lei-Li; Brown, Mitchell; Yu, Yun-Song; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2013-11-01

    The global spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious problem, particularly in mainland China. In order to better understand the national molecular epidemiology and resistance profiles of hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) in China, a laboratory-based multicenter surveillance study was conducted. Sixty-nine hospitals in 45 large cities in 27 provinces were involved, and a total of 1,141 HA-MRSA isolates were collected during the 6-month study period in 2011. All MRSA isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing, detection of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) locus (lukS-PV and lukF-PV), and antibiogram analysis. ST239-III-t030, ST239-III-t037, and ST5-II-t002 were the predominant HA-MRSA clones (overall prevalence rates, 57.1%, 12.9%, and 8.1%, respectively), although the prevalence rates of these major clones varied markedly in different administrative regions. Of note, 6.6% of the HA-MRSA isolates were found to belong to ST59, which had typical community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) features, including carriage of SCCmec type IV or V and PVL and less antimicrobial resistance than other major HA-MRSA clones. Moreover, among 36 MLST sequence types (STs) identified, 15 STs, accounting for 3.5% of total isolates, were novel. A novel ST designated ST2590, which is a single-locus variant of ST5-II-t002, was identified in three hospitals in two large cities, with a total of 17 isolates. To further monitor trends in HA-MRSA prevalence, epidemic clonal shifts, clone emergence, and transmission between community and health care settings, longitudinal national MRSA surveillance is required.

  7. The potential use of social media and other internet-related data and communications for child maltreatment surveillance and epidemiological research: Scoping review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Hovdestad, Wendy; Tonmyr, Lil; Fluke, John

    2018-01-20

    Collecting child maltreatment data is a complicated undertaking for many reasons. As a result, there is an interest by child maltreatment researchers to develop methodologies that allow for the triangulation of data sources. To better understand how social media and internet-based technologies could contribute to these approaches, we conducted a scoping review to provide an overview of social media and internet-based methodologies for health research, to report results of evaluation and validation research on these methods, and to highlight studies with potential relevance to child maltreatment research and surveillance. Many approaches were identified in the broad health literature; however, there has been limited application of these approaches to child maltreatment. The most common use was recruiting participants or engaging existing participants using online methods. From the broad health literature, social media and internet-based approaches to surveillance and epidemiologic research appear promising. Many of the approaches are relatively low cost and easy to implement without extensive infrastructure, but there are also a range of limitations for each method. Several methods have a mixed record of validation and sources of error in estimation are not yet understood or predictable. In addition to the problems relevant to other health outcomes, child maltreatment researchers face additional challenges, including the complex ethical issues associated with both internet-based and child maltreatment research. If these issues are adequately addressed, social media and internet-based technologies may be a promising approach to reducing some of the limitations in existing child maltreatment data. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Post-ERCP infection and its epidemiological and clinical characteristics in a large Chinese tertiary hospital: a 4-year surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingmei Du

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is widely performed as a treatment for biliary and pancreatic illness in China; however, there are few data available regarding post-ERCP infections. This study aimed to describe the overall incidence of post-ERCP infections and the epidemiological characteristics of infected patients in a large tertiary-care hospital in China. Methods Real-time surveillance was performed from 2012 through 2015 to identify all healthcare-associated infections (HAIs that occurred after ERCP, using an automatic system. All HAIs (e.g., cholangtitis, bacteremia were identified by infection control practitioners and doctors. Inpatient data were automatically collected by the surveillance system. Results A total of 1743 ERCP operations were included in the study, among these, 132 (7.57% HAIs were identified. ERCP postoperative infections occurred following different surgical procedures, with infection rates ranging from 3.58 to 13.51%. The most prevalent HAI was biliary tract infection (4.02%, followed by transient bacteremia (1.14%. Overall, 62 cases of bacteremia occurred following ERCP surgery and 34 (54.84% cases occurred on the day of the operation or 1-day post-surgery. The most prevalent isolates detected during bacteremia were Enterococcus faecium (12/58 and Escherichia coli (11/58. A large proportion (72.73% of the E. coli isolates and all of the E. faecium isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. In addition, only 37.50% of the E. coli isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Conclusions The high incidence of post-ERCP infection and the prevalence of drug resistance suggests that employing second generation cephalosporin or ceftriaxone as the antibiotic of choice for prophylaxis before ERCP, as recommended by the Chinese clinical application of antibacterial drugs guidelines, may not be effective.

  9. Annual report on surveillance and maintenance activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1995, the sites and facilities from both the Remedial Action (RA) and Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) programs were combined to form the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program. Surveillance and Maintenance activities were conducted throughout FY 1996 at the RA facilities. Overall, the RA S and M Program consists of approximately 650 acres that include 14 waste area groupings with approximately 200 sites. These sites include 46 major facilities, several leak and contaminated soil sites, 38 inactive tanks, approximately 50 environmental study areas and approximately 2,973 wells and boreholes. Site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the RA S and M Program in accordance with the established S and M FY 1996 Incentive Task Order (ITO)

  10. Annual report -- 1992: Environmental surveillance for EG & G Idaho Waste Management Facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Wright, K.C.; McBride, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the 1992 environmental surveillance activities of the Environmental Monitoring Unit of EG&G Idaho, Inc., at EG&G Idaho-operated Waste Management facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The major facilities monitored include the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and two surplus facilities. Included are some results of the sampling performed by the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory and the United States Geological Survey. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to ensure compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1992 environmental surveillance data with DOE derived concentration guides, and with data from previous years.

  11. Spatial epidemiology and climatic predictors of paediatric dengue infections captured via sentinel site surveillance, Phnom Penh Cambodia 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lover, Andrew A; Buchy, Philippe; Rachline, Anne; Moniboth, Duch; Huy, Rekol; Meng, Chour Y; Leo, Yee Sin; Yuvatha, Kdan; Sophal, Ung; Chantha, Ngan; Y, Bunthin; Duong, Veasna; Goyet, Sophie; Brett, Jeremy L; Tarantola, Arnaud; Cavailler, Philippe

    2014-06-28

    Dengue is a major contributor to morbidity in children aged twelve and below throughout Cambodia; the 2012 epidemic season was the most severe in the country since 2007, with more than 42,000 reported (suspect or confirmed) cases. We report basic epidemiological characteristics in a series of 701 patients at the National Paediatric Hospital in Cambodia, recruited during a prospective clinical study (2011-2012). To more fully explore this cohort, we examined climatic factors using multivariate negative binomial models and spatial clustering of cases using spatial scan statistics to place the clinical study within a larger epidemiological framework. We identify statistically significant spatial clusters at the urban village scale, and find that the key climatic predictors of increasing cases are weekly minimum temperature, median relative humidity, but find a negative association with rainfall maximum, all at lag times of 1-6 weeks, with significant effects extending to 10 weeks. Our results identify clustering of infections at the neighbourhood scale, suggesting points for targeted interventions, and we find that the complex interactions of vectors and climatic conditions in this setting may be best captured by rising minimum temperature, and median (as opposed to mean) relative humidity, with complex and limited effects from rainfall. These results suggest that real-time cluster detection during epidemics should be considered in Cambodia, and that improvements in weather data reporting could benefit national control programs by allow greater prioritization of limited health resources to both vulnerable populations and time periods of greatest risk. Finally, these results add to the increasing body of knowledge suggesting complex interactions between climate and dengue cases that require further targeted research.

  12. The changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease at a tertiary children's hospital through the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era: a case for continuous surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, Krow; Pavia, Andrew T; Chris, Stockmann; Hersh, Adam L; Bender, Jeffrey M; Blaschke, Anne J; Weng, Hsin Yi Cindy; Korgenski, Kent E; Daly, Judy; Mason, Edward O; Byington, Carrie L

    2012-03-01

    In 2000, a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed for use among US children. Many sites have since reported changes in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We recognized an opportunity to describe the changes in epidemiology, clinical syndromes, and serotype distribution during a 14-year period including 4 years before vaccine introduction and spanning the entire PCV7 era. Cases were defined as children <18 years of age who were cared for at Primary Children's Medical Center for culture-confirmed IPD. We defined the prevaccine period as the time frame spanning from 1997 to 2000 and the postvaccine period from 2001 to 2010. Demographics, clinical data, and outcomes were collected through electronic query and chart review. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotyping was performed using the capsular swelling method. The median age of children with IPD increased from 19 months during the prevaccine period to 27 months during postvaccine period (P = 0.02), with a larger proportion of IPD among children older than 5 years. The proportion of IPD associated with pneumonia increased substantially from 29% to 50% (P < 0.001). This increase was primarily attributable to an increase in complicated pneumonia (17% to 33%, P < 0.001). Nonvaccine serotypes 7F, 19A, 22F, and 3 emerged as the dominant serotypes in the postvaccine period. In children with IPD who were younger than 5 years, for whom vaccine is recommended, 67% of the cases were caused by serotypes in 13-valent PCV during 2005 to 2010. After PCV7 was introduced, significant changes in IPD were noted. One-third of IPD occurred in children older than 5 years, who were outside the age-group for which PCV is recommended. Continued surveillance is warranted to identify further evolution of the epidemiology, clinical syndromes, and serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae after 13-valent PCV licensure.

  13. Molecular methods for the detection of human papillomavirus infection: new insights into their role in diagnostics and epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs comprise more than 180 genotypes. HPV infection is mainly diagnosed by molecular methods. The aim of our study was to review the main molecular methods used to diagnose HPV infection, underscoring their characteristics. Several methods have been developed for molecular diagnosis of Papilloma infection, such as those based on PCR technique. Another commercial non-PCR based diagnostic method is Hybrid Capture test; it is the only commercially available HPV DNA detection test approved by the FDA. Several Authors have suggested that viral load and E6/E7 transcripts could be used as surrogate markers of persistent HPV infection, being more specific predictors of progressive disease than the simple presence of HPV DNA. Validating clinical sensitivity and specificity of each technique and improving the interpretation of the results are essential; consequently, there is a clear need for well characterized international quality control panels to compare the various diagnostic methods. HPV DNA testing could be useful both as a primary screening test, alone or in combination with a Pap smear, for the early detection of cervical cancer precursors, and as triage test to select women with minor cytological abnormalities who will need further follow-up and to predict possible treatment failure in women with diagnosed high-grade intraepithelial lesions who have undergone excisional therapy. In the next future surveillance for HPV infections, based on these molecular methods, could represent an important step for the development of primary and secondary prophylactic interventions, such as new vaccines targeted to genotypes who might replace those previously prevalent.

  14. Epidemiology of Malaria, Schistosomiasis, Geohelminths, Anemia and Malnutrition in the Context of a Demographic Surveillance System in Northern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Gamboa, Dina; Pedro, João Mário; Fançony, Cláudia; Langa, António Justino; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Stothard, J. Russell; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria, schistosomiasis and geohelminth infection are linked to maternal and child morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowing the prevalence levels of these infections is vital to guide governments towards the implementation of successful and cost-effective disease control initiatives. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study of 1,237 preschool children (0–5 year olds), 1,142 school-aged children (6–15 year olds) and 960 women (>15 year olds) was conducted to understand the distribution of malnutrition, anemia, malaria, schistosomiasis (intestinal and urinary) and geohelminths in a north-western province of Angola. We used a recent demographic surveillance system (DSS) database to select and recruit suitable households. Malnutrition was common among children (23.3% under-weight, 9.9% wasting and 32.2% stunting), and anemia was found to be a severe public health problem (i.e., >40%). Malaria prevalence was highest among preschool children reaching 20.2%. Micro-hematuria prevalence levels reached 10.0% of preschool children, 16.6% of school-aged children and 21.7% of mothers. Geohelminth infections were common, affecting 22.3% of preschool children, 31.6% of school-aged children and 28.0% of mothers. Conclusions Here we report prevalence levels of malaria, schistosomiasis and geohelminths; all endemic in this poorly described area where a DSS has been recently established. Furthermore we found evidence that the studied infections are associated with the observed levels of anemia and malnutrition, which can justify the implementation of integrated interventions for the control of these diseases and morbidities. PMID:22493664

  15. Incidence and Prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Among Arab and Chaldean Americans in Southeastern Michigan: The Michigan Lupus Epidemiology and Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuire, Peter; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Wang, Lu; Marder, Wendy; McCune, W. Joseph; Helmick, Charles G.; Gordon, Caroline; Dhar, J. Patricia; Leisen, James; Somers, Emily C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the burden of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) among Arab and Chaldean Americans residing in southeast Michigan. Methods. For those meeting SLE criteria from the Michigan Lupus Epidemiology and Surveillance Registry, we determined Arab or Chaldean ethnicity by links with demographic data from birth certificates and with a database of Arab and Chaldean names. We compared prevalence and incidence of SLE for Arab and Chaldean Americans with estimates for non-Arab and non-Chaldean American Whites and Blacks. Results. We classified 54 individuals with SLE as Arab and Chaldean Americans. The age-adjusted incidence and prevalence estimates for Arab and Chaldean Americans were 7.6 and 62.6 per 100 000, respectively. Arab and Chaldean Americans had a 2.1-fold excess SLE incidence compared with non-Arab and non-Chaldean American Whites. Arab and Chaldean American women had both significantly higher incidence rates (5.0-fold increase) and prevalence estimates (7.4-fold increase) than did Arab and Chaldean American men. Conclusions. Recognizing that Arab and Chaldean Americans experience different disease burdens from Whites is a first step toward earlier diagnosis and designing targeted interventions. Better methods of assigning ethnicity would improve research in this population. PMID:25790387

  16. Risk of leukemia associated with the first course of cancer treatment: an analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.E.; Hankey, B.F.; Myers, M.H.; Young, J.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The risk of leukemia associated with the first course of cancer treatment was evaluated in over 440,000 patients diagnosed during 1973-80 (average follow-up . 1.91 yr) from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Although the reporting of the first course of therapy probably was incomplete, 34 acute nonlymphocytic leukemias (ANLL) developed compared with 7.6 expected among 70,674 patients known to receive initial chemotherapy [relative risk (RR) . 4.5, 95% confidence interval (Cl) . 3.1-6.3]. Significant ANLL excesses were observed following chemotherapy for breast cancer (RR . 8.1), ovarian cancer (RR . 22.2), and multiple myeloma (RR . 9.5). Patients initially treated with radiation (with no record of chemotherapy) also had a significantly increased ANLL risk; 45 leukemias occurred versus 17.9 expected (RR . 2.5, 95% Cl . 1.8-3.4). In this group, excess ANLL were found following irradiation for uterine corpus cancer (RR . 4.0). Kidney and renal pelvis cancer patients had a twofold leukemia risk (all types) that was unrelated to treatment (RR . 2.2)

  17. Epidemiology of syndesmosis injuries in intercollegiate football: incidence and risk factors from National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance system data from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kenneth J; George, Elizabeth; Harris, Alex H S; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-07-01

    To describe the incidence and risk factors for high ankle sprains (ie, syndesmosis injuries) among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data were examined from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009). All NCAA men's football programs participating in the ISS. No additional risk factors were introduced as a result of this analysis. For partial and complete syndesmosis injuries, outcome measures included incidence, time lost from participation, and requirement for surgical repair. The overall incidence of high ankle sprains in NCAA football players was 0.24 per 1000 athlete exposures, accounting for 24.6% of all ankle sprains. Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared with practice; complete syndesmosis injuries resulted in significantly greater time lost compared with partial injuries (31.3 vs 15.8 days). Less than 3% of syndesmosis injuries required surgical intervention. There was a significantly higher injury incidence on artificial surfaces compared with natural grass. The majority of injuries (75.2%) occurred during contact with another player. Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of syndesmosis injuries during games, during running plays, and to running backs and interior defensive linemen. The wide range in time lost from participation for complete syndesmosis injuries underscores the need for improved understanding of injury mechanism and classification of injury severity such that prevention, safe return to play protocols, and outcomes can be further improved.

  18. Epidemiological Surveillance at Electricite de France and Gaz de France: Health Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Employers between 1993 and 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, A.; Gros, H.; Carrier, E.; Labon, G.

    2004-07-01

    Because the 17,500 employees working in nuclear power plants at Electricite de France, the national power company, may be exposed to a wide variety of industrial hazards, the health insurance department of the company has set up an epidemiologic surveillance programme for them. This descriptive, cross-sectional,and exhaustive study examined sick-leaves, mortality and cancer incidence to assess the health of the employees working from 1993 through 1998. The analysis comparing the employees in nuclear power plants, considered exposed, to the rest of the personnel of Electricite de France-Gaz de France, the non-exposed (125,000 persons) showed that globally, the employees in the nuclear sector appeared to have fewer health problems than the other company employees. This was true regardless of age and especially for men, operating employees, and supervisory employees. Nonetheless three points must be noted: non-work accidents generated a non-significant excess of absenteeism and mortality among these employees, especially among management and supervisory personnel; suicides affected supervisors in particular; and an excess of primary malignant brain tumors affected both mortality (RR{sub 1}.96, NS) and incidence, especially among operating employees (RR=2.87, 95% CL=(1.00-8.43)). No excess of malignant blood disease was observed. (Author) 38 refs.

  19. Survival benefit of radiotherapy to patients with small cell esophagus carcinoma: an analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yaqi; Wang, Wanwei; Tao, Guangzhou; Zhu, Weiguo; Zhou, Xilei; Pan, Peng

    2016-03-29

    Small cell esophageal carcinoma (SCEC) is a rare malignant tumor. So far, few studies are found to research the effect of radiotherapy (RT) to it. This study is designed to explore the prognostic factors, and analyze survival benefit of RT to patients with SCEC. Patients with SCEC were more likely to be in female, older, higher disease stage than those with non-small cell esophageal carcinoma. RT was used in more than 50% SCEC patients. RT tended be reduced as the disease stage raise in SCEC. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that age, year, disease stage, and RT were the prognostic factors of survival (P 0.05) and nearly 30% risks of death in distant stage (P > 0.05). SCEC patients between 1973 and 2012 were searched from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Clinical factors including age, year, sex, race, stage, surgery, and RT were summarized. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to explore the independent prognostic factors of SCEC. Cox regression survival analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of RT to SCEC based on different stages. Stage, age, year, and RT are independent prognostic factors of SCEC. Survival benefit of RT exists in any disease stage, but is only statistically significant in localized stage of SCEC.

  20. Incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus among Arab and Chaldean Americans in southeastern Michigan: the Michigan Lupus Epidemiology and Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housey, Michelle; DeGuire, Peter; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Wang, Lu; Marder, Wendy; McCune, W Joseph; Helmick, Charles G; Gordon, Caroline; Dhar, J Patricia; Leisen, James; Somers, Emily C

    2015-05-01

    We assessed the burden of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) among Arab and Chaldean Americans residing in southeast Michigan. For those meeting SLE criteria from the Michigan Lupus Epidemiology and Surveillance Registry, we determined Arab or Chaldean ethnicity by links with demographic data from birth certificates and with a database of Arab and Chaldean names. We compared prevalence and incidence of SLE for Arab and Chaldean Americans with estimates for non-Arab and non-Chaldean American Whites and Blacks. We classified 54 individuals with SLE as Arab and Chaldean Americans. The age-adjusted incidence and prevalence estimates for Arab and Chaldean Americans were 7.6 and 62.6 per 100 000, respectively. Arab and Chaldean Americans had a 2.1-fold excess SLE incidence compared with non-Arab and non-Chaldean American Whites. Arab and Chaldean American women had both significantly higher incidence rates (5.0-fold increase) and prevalence estimates (7.4-fold increase) than did Arab and Chaldean American men. Recognizing that Arab and Chaldean Americans experience different disease burdens from Whites is a first step toward earlier diagnosis and designing targeted interventions. Better methods of assigning ethnicity would improve research in this population.

  1. Epidemiological Surveillance at Electricite de France and Gaz de France: Health Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Employers between 1993 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, A.; Gros, H.; Carrier, E.; Labon, G.

    2004-01-01

    Because the 17,500 employees working in nuclear power plants at Electricite de France, the national power company, may be exposed to a wide variety of industrial hazards, the health insurance department of the company has set up an epidemiologic surveillance programme for them. This descriptive, cross-sectional,and exhaustive study examined sick-leaves, mortality and cancer incidence to assess the health of the employees working from 1993 through 1998. The analysis comparing the employees in nuclear power plants, considered exposed, to the rest of the personnel of Electricite de France-Gaz de France, the non-exposed (125,000 persons) showed that globally, the employees in the nuclear sector appeared to have fewer health problems than the other company employees. This was true regardless of age and especially for men, operating employees, and supervisory employees. Nonetheless three points must be noted: non-work accidents generated a non-significant excess of absenteeism and mortality among these employees, especially among management and supervisory personnel; suicides affected supervisors in particular; and an excess of primary malignant brain tumors affected both mortality (RR 1 .96, NS) and incidence, especially among operating employees (RR=2.87, 95% CL=(1.00-8.43)). No excess of malignant blood disease was observed. (Author) 38 refs

  2. Racial Differences in the Overall Survival of Hairy Cell Leukemia in the United States: A Population-Based Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Smith; Shrestha, Rajesh; Pathak, Ranjan; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have reported excellent long-term overall survival (OS) of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) without racial disparity. Studies in other cancers have demonstrated worse mortality among African American (AA) individuals. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database to identify HCL patients diagnosed between 1978 and 2011. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to estimate OS. Univariate analysis using the life table method and multivariate Cox regression model were used to determine the independent effect of race on OS. The study population included 78% men and had a median age of 56 years. Race included 93% white, 3.5% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 3.5% AA. The 10-year OS was significantly less for AA as compared with white and Asian/Pacific Islander individuals (54% vs. 72% vs. 75%; P population-based study, only half of AA patients but more than two-thirds of HCL patients from other racial groups were alive at 10 years. Such drastic racial differences in OS of HCL patients at the population level mandates further evaluation of the contributory biological, socioeconomic, health system, and other factors. Understanding and overcoming such racial disparities might close the racial differences in OS of this potentially curable disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Basic activity of the Railroad Center of the State Sanitary and Epidemiologic Surveillance at the Vladikavkaz train station of the North Caucasus Railroad in the prevention of infectious diseases in an emergency situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abisalov, A B

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the data on the activity of the Railroad (RR) Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance at the train station of Vladikavkaz of the North Caucasian RR at the period of the liquidation of the consequences of the natural calamity in June-July 2002. In accordance with the situation, the scheme of the interaction with the territorial services and departments were worked out, the operative plans of antiepidemic measures were rectified, the sanitary, hygienic and bacteriological control on the quality of drinking water supply and foodstuffs on RR trains and stations was strengthened, the work on sanitary education among the personnel and passengers in the zone of responsibility of the RR Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the North Caucasian RR was activated.

  4. Clinical significance and epidemiologic analyses of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare lung disease from post-marketing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Tatsuno, Kinji; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    In Japan, nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is mostly attributable to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), i.e., M. avium or M. intracellulare. However, clinical features of the disease caused by these two pathogens have not been studied sufficiently yet. A post-marketing survey of clarithromycin was performed at 130 facilities across Japan. The data on patients with M. avium infection and patients with M. intracellulare infection were selected from this survey for comparison of background variables and clinical features of the two pathogens. Among the patients analyzed (n = 368), 67.4% had M. avium infection and 32.6% had M. intracellulare infection. Stratified analysis revealed no significant differences between the ratio of the two pathogens based on gender, disease type, complication, past medical history, or smoking history. However, the percentage of patients with M. intracellulare infection was significantly higher among those with underlying lung disease than among those without lung disease (p = 0.0217). The percentage of patients with M. intracellulare infection rose significantly with age (p = 0.0296). This age-related change was more significant in women (p = 0.0018). When district-wise analysis was performed for Japan, the percentage of M. intracellulare infection was higher in the Chugoku/Shikoku and Kyushu districts whereas the percentage of M. avium infection was higher in the other districts. This survey revealed some differences in the clinical and epidemiologic features of M. avium and M. intracellulare infection. The significant predominance of M. avium infection among relatively young women is suggestive of an increase in the M. avium/M. intracellulare infection ratio among women in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in tobacco use-related surveillance and epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Randall L; Dunn, Patricia M

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and public health advocates have long recognized the importance of demographic characteristics such as sex, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status in their efforts to understand and control the use of tobacco among population groups. Targeting prevention and cessation efforts based upon such characteristics has consistently been demonstrated to be both efficient and effective. In recent years, attention has modestly turned to how two additional demographic variables, sexual orientation and gender identity, can add to our understanding of how to reduce tobacco use. Research of tobacco industry papers has clearly documented targeted media campaigns to encourage smoking among lesbians and gays in the marketplace. The tobacco industry has long understood the role that sexual orientation can play in the uptake of smoking and the targeted marketing of brands. Those concerned with tobacco use prevention and cessation research have consequently responded to address tobacco use by lesbians and gays, and bisexuals and transgender people as well, but even more can be done. This article reviews what is known about smoking in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations and then reviews recommendations from four panels created to examine this topic. In conclusion, we recommend that sexual orientation and gender identity be considered for inclusion as variables in all major research and epidemiological studies of tobacco use. Just as such studies, without hesitation, measure sex, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, they need to also include questions assessing sexual orientation and gender identity. Although these new variables need not be the primary focus of these studies, at a minimum, considering their use as controlling variables should be explored. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people can benefit from being openly included in the work researchers conduct to inform the design of tobacco control programs and policies.

  6. Temporal trends and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection in the Swiss surveillance network: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M; Aghayev, E; Troillet, N; Eisenring, M-C; Kuster, S P; Widmer, A F; Harbarth, S

    2018-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the leading pathogen in surgical site infections (SSI). To explore trends and risk factors associated with S. aureus SSI. Risk factors for monomicrobial S. aureus SSI were identified from the Swiss multi-centre SSI surveillance system using multi-variate logistic regression. Both in-hospital and postdischarge SSI were identified using standardized definitions. Over a six-year period, data were collected on 229,765 surgical patients, of whom 499 (0.22%) developed monomicrobial S. aureus SSI; 459 (92.0%) and 40 (8.0%) were due to meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), respectively. There was a significant decrease in the rate of MSSA SSI (P = 0.007), but not in the rate of MRSA SSI (P = 0.70). Independent protective factors for S. aureus SSI were older age [≥75 years vs <50 years: odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.83], laparoscopy/minimally invasive surgery (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.92), non-clean surgery [OR 0.78 (per increase in wound contamination class), 95% CI 0.64-0.94] and correct timing of pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98). Independent risk factors were male sex (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.66), higher American Society of Anesthesiologists' score (per one-point increment: OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.13-1.51), re-operation for non-infectious reasons (OR 4.59, 95% CI 3.59-5.87) and procedure type: cardiac surgery, laminectomy, and hip or knee arthroplasty had two-to nine-fold increased odds of S. aureus SSI compared with other procedures. SSI due to S. aureus are decreasing and becoming rare events in Switzerland. High-risk procedures that may benefit from specific preventive measures were identified. Unfortunately, many of the independent risk factors are not easily modifiable. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vigilancia epidemiológica para la prevención y el control de la violencia en las ciudades Epidemiologic surveillance for the prevention and control of urban violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Concha-Eastman

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence prevention policies should be based on information, follow-up, research, and analysis, all of which increase the chances of success and make it easier to evaluate interventions. This implies, in turn, that there is a need to create surveillance, research, and prevention models for violence within the sphere of public health and epidemiology, a task that constitutes an integral part of the Pan American Health Organization's Regional Plan of Action Health and Violence. This article describes the objectives of epidemiologic surveillance systems and explains their purpose and scope, along with the barriers that stand in the way of their implementation. It also examines a number of variables and their definitions, the types of analyses and reports that should be generated, and the decisions that can be made on the basis of these reports. Finally, it discusses ethical criteria and describes the experiences of the program known as Desarrollo, Seguridad y Paz (DESEPAZ in Cali and Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, where an epidemiologic surveillance system against violence has been implemented.

  8. Guidelines for a national epidemiological surveillance system of thyroid cancer in France; Recommandations pour la mise en place d'un dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique nationale des cancers thyroidiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    At the request of the French Department of Health, a multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Committee, coordinated by the French Public Health Agency analysed the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence in France and outlined the limits of the present case registration system. This Committee set up guidelines to improve the national surveillance system of thyroid cancer. The Committee analysed 4 models for the incidence survey, 3 of which have been excluded: a poor cost-benefit ratio precludes the constitution of a national registry dedicated to thyroid cancer; however, the Committee has recommended this model that still exists for thyroid cancer of the youth(under 19 years old), a national system base exclusively on pathological data would only be relevant after significant improvement of data collection, obligatory of all cases of thyroid cancer is inappropriate considering the fit prognosis of this cancer. A two level system is proposed with continuous registration of incident caes through the National Hospital Discharge survey, specific focused analysis of clinical and pathological data in case of a cluster alert in any given area. Whatever the system, it seems necessary to in general: propose a unique health registration number per patient, improve access to medical data, organize a national standardised collection of pathological findings, follow up the diagnosis practices related to thyroid cancer that have an impact on incidence rates. In conclusion, a reliable incidence survey and a follow up of diagnostic practices and of risk factors may provide a relevant model of epidemiological survey of thyroid cancers in France but such a system requires a long lasting strategic and financial involvement. (author)

  9. Annual Surveillance Summary: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    1 ). The EDC also monitors other multidrug- resistant organisms (MDROs) of interest in the MHS. 2,3 2 MRSA in the MHS: Annual Summary...MHS. Since the early 2000s, experts have been concerned about ICR, a type of resistance among S. aureus organisms that has been documented in...methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus changing ? JAMA. 1998;279(8):623-624. 7. Gordon RJ, Lowy FD. Pathogenesis of methicillin- resistant

  10. To estimation of health risks of workers during classification of objects of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and planning of state control (by the example of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When estimating of health risks of workers for planning tasks of audits of compliance with health legislation on facilities of Moscow, it is found that most often non-compliances with requirements for working conditions are registered in industrial enterprises, among other, on wood-shaving material production facilities; air and water transport facilities, and in a number of communication facilities. The most serious consequences of breach of statutory requirements for working conditions are typical for activity in the sphere of motor transport and industrial production. It is defined by the structure of the types of deterioration of health among which there are traumas, diseases of a cardiovascular and nervous system. Analysis of more than 35.5 thousand facilities of sanitary and epidemiological supervision showed that the highest levels of health risks for workers are formed on industrial facilities (the risks are classified as “average”, “significant” and “high”, in construction («significant» or «moderate», on a number of manufacturing activities and in energy engineering. For the mentioned facilities the risks to workers can define the main class of an object based on the risk of infliction of harm, in general, the audits must be based on profound analysis of working conditions and include a complete complex of laboratory researches. When checking of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, carrying out such kinds of activity as chain retailing, provision of services health care, education, etc., the highest risks are formed for consumers of goods and services. On these facilities the control in the sphere of occupational hygiene can occupy a smaller share in a total volume of a scheduled activity. Relevant direction of further perfection of the risk-based surveillance is formation of an exhaustive list of the statutory requirements for working conditions with differentiation of these requirements on levels of severity

  11. Is Primary Prostate Cancer Treatment Influenced by Likelihood of Extraprostatic Disease? A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Patterns of Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Jordan A.; Wang, Andrew Z.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Carpenter, William R.; Godley, Paul A.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the patterns of primary treatment in a recent population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients, stratified by the likelihood of extraprostatic cancer as predicted by disease characteristics available at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 157,371 patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 with clinically localized and potentially curable (node-negative, nonmetastatic) prostate cancer, who have complete information on prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and clinical stage, were included. Patients with clinical T1/T2 disease were grouped into categories of 50% likelihood of having extraprostatic disease using the Partin nomogram. Clinical T3/T4 patients were examined separately as the highest-risk group. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient group and receipt of each primary treatment, adjusting for age, race, year of diagnosis, marital status, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database region, and county-level education. Separate models were constructed for primary surgery, external-beam radiotherapy (RT), and conservative management. Results: On multivariable analysis, increasing likelihood of extraprostatic disease was significantly associated with increasing use of RT and decreased conservative management. Use of surgery also increased. Patients with >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer had almost twice the odds of receiving prostatectomy as those with 50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer (34%) and clinical T3–T4 disease (24%). The proportion of patients who received prostatectomy or conservative management was approximately 50% or slightly higher in all groups. Conclusions: There may be underutilization of RT in older prostate cancer patients and those with likely extraprostatic disease. Because more than half of prostate cancer patients do not consult with a radiation oncologist, a multidisciplinary consultation may affect the treatment decision-making process.

  12. Uncovering nativity disparities in cancer patterns: Multiple imputation strategy to handle missing nativity data in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Jane R; Zhou, Renke; Amirian, E Susan; Scheurer, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Although birthplace data are routinely collected in the participating Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries, such data are missing in a nonrandom manner for a large percentage of cases. This hinders analysis of nativity-related cancer disparities. In the current study, the authors evaluated multiple imputation of nativity status among Hispanic patients diagnosed with cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer and demonstrated the effect of multiple imputation on apparent nativity disparities in survival. Multiple imputation by logistic regression was used to generate nativity values (US-born vs foreign-born) using a priori-defined variables. The accuracy of the method was evaluated among a subset of cases. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to illustrate the effect of imputation by comparing survival among US-born and foreign-born Hispanics, with and without imputation of nativity. Birthplace was missing for 31%, 49%, and 39%, respectively, of cases of cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer. The sensitivity of the imputation strategy for detecting foreign-born status was ≥90% and the specificity was ≥86%. The agreement between the true and imputed values was ≥0.80 and the misclassification error was ≤10%. Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated different associations between nativity and survival when nativity was imputed versus when cases with missing birthplace were omitted from the analysis. Multiple imputation using variables available in the SEER data file can be used to accurately detect foreign-born status. This simple strategy may help researchers to disaggregate analyses by nativity and uncover important nativity disparities in regard to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survival. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  13. Unique device identifiers for coronary stent postmarket surveillance and research: a report from the Food and Drug Administration Medical Device Epidemiology Network Unique Device Identifier demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, James E; Crowley, Jay; Tomes, Madris; Reed, Terrie L; Dudas, Joseph M; Thompson, Kweli P; Garratt, Kirk N; Drozda, Joseph P

    2014-10-01

    Although electronic product identification in the consumer sector is ubiquitous, unique identification of medical devices is just being implemented in 2014. To evaluate unique device identifiers (UDIs) in health care, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) funded the Medical Device Epidemiology Network initiative, including a demonstration of the implementation of coronary stent UDI data in the information systems of a multihospital system (Mercy Health). This report describes the first phase of the demonstration. An expert panel of interventional cardiologists nominated by the American College of Cardiology and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions was convened with representatives of industry, health system members of the Healthcare Transformation Group, the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data Registry, and FDA to articulate concepts needed to best use UDI-associated data. The expert panel identified 3: (1) use cases for UDI-associated data (eg, research), (2) a supplemental data set of clinically relevant attributes (eg, stent dimensions), and (3) governance and administrative principles for the authoritative management of these data. Eighteen use cases were identified, encompassing clinical care, supply chain management, consumer information, research, regulatory, and surveillance domains. In addition to the attributes of the FDA Global Unique Device Identification Database, 9 additional coronary stent-specific attributes were required to address use case requirements. Recommendations regarding governance were elucidated as foundational principles for UDI-associated data management. This process for identifying requisite extensions to support the effective use of UDI-associated data should be generalizable. Implementation of a UDI system for medical devices must anticipate both global and device-specific information. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Racial disparities in stage-specific gastric cancer: analysis of results from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Xing; Li, Jie; Yuan, Yu; Wen, Ming; Hao, Xin; Li, Ping; Zhang, Aimin

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer is declining in western countries but continues to represent a serious health problem worldwide, especially in Asia and among Asian Americans. This study aimed to investigate ethnic disparities in stage-specific gastric cancer, including differences in incidence, treatment and survival. The cohort study was analyzed using the data set of patients with gastric cancer registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from 2004 to 2013. Among 54,165 patients with gastric cancer, 38,308 were whites (70.7%), 7546 were blacks (13.9%), 494 were American Indian/Alaskan Natives (0.9%) and 7817 were Asians/Pacific Islanders (14.4%). Variables were patient demographics, disease characteristics, surgery/radiation treatment, overall survival (OS) and cause specific survival (CSS). Asians/Pacific Islanders demonstrated the highest incidence rates for gastric cancer compared with other groups and had the greatest decline in incidence during the study period (13.03 to 9.28 per 100,000/year), as well as the highest percentage of patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) early stage gastric cancer. There were significant differences between groups in treatment across stages I-IV (all p<0.001); Asians/Pacific Islanders had the highest rate of surgery plus radiation (45.1%). Significant differences were found in OS and CSS between groups (p<0.001); OS was highest among Asians/Pacific Islanders. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, race, grade, stage, location, and second primary cancer were valid prognostic factors for survival. Marked ethnic disparities exist in age-adjusted incidence of primary gastric cancer, with significant differences between races in age, gender, histological type, grade, AJCC stage, location, second cancer, treatment and survival. Copyright © 2017 American Federation for Medical Research.

  15. Incidence and trends of cardiovascular mortality after common cancers in young adults: Analysis of surveillance, epidemiology and end-results program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2016-06-26

    To describe the incidence of cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in survivors of major cancers and identify its trends over the past two decades. We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end-results 19 registry to identify young adults (20-49 years), diagnosed with the following major primary cancers: Lung, breast, liver/intrahepatic bile duct, pancreas, prostate, colorectal, and ovarian from 1990 through 2012 and identified the cumulative incidence of CVM after adjusting for confounding factors. We identified a total of 301923 cancers (breast 173748, lung 38938, colorectal 31722, prostate 22848, ovary 16065, liver 9444, pancreas 9158). A total of 2297 (0.8%) of patients had incident CVM. Lung (10-year cumulative CVM 2.4%) and liver (1.73%) cancers had the highest incidence of CVM, while breast (0.6%) and prostate (1.2%) had the lowest CVM mortality, even after multiple adjustments (P < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant improvement in CVM since 1990 [2005-2012 vs 1990-1994, adjusted HR 0.63 (0.54-0.72), P < 0.001]. This was driven by improvements in CVM in lung cancers (P = 0.02), breast (P < 0.001), and a trend in ovarian cancer (P = 0.097). There was no statistically significant improvement in CVM among survivors of colorectal, pancreatic, liver, or prostate cancers. The risk of CVM differs among different cancers, and is highest among survivors of lung and liver cancers. The incidence of CVM has decreased over the past 2 decades mainly among survivors of lung and breast cancers.

  16. More Poop, More Precision: Improving Epidemiologic Surveillance of Soil-Transmitted Helminths with Multiple Fecal Sampling using the Kato-Katz Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengfang; Lu, Louise; Zhang, Linxiu; Bai, Yu; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott; Smith, Darvin Scott; Zhou, Changhai; Zang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths, or parasitic intestinal worms, are among the most prevalent and geographically widespread parasitic infections in the world. Accurate diagnosis and quantification of helminth infection are critical for informing and assessing deworming interventions. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique, the most widely used laboratory method to quantitatively assess infection prevalence and infection intensity of helminths, has often been compared with other methods. Only a few small-scale studies, however, have considered ways to improve its diagnostic sensitivity. This study, conducted among 4,985 school-age children in an area of rural China with moderate prevalence of helminth infection, examines the effect on diagnostic sensitivity of the Kato-Katz technique when two fecal samples collected over consecutive days are examined and compared with a single sample. A secondary aim was to consider cost-effectiveness by calculating an estimate of the marginal costs of obtaining an additional fecal sample. Our findings show that analysis of an additional fecal sample led to increases of 23%, 26%, and 100% for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura , and hookworm prevalence, respectively. The cost of collecting a second fecal sample for our study population was approximately USD4.60 per fecal sample. Overall, the findings suggest that investing 31% more capital in fecal sample collection prevents an underestimation of prevalence by about 21%, and hence improves the diagnostic sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method. Especially in areas with light-intensity infections of soil-transmitted helminths and limited public health resources, more accurate epidemiological surveillance using multiple fecal samples will critically inform decisions regarding infection control and prevention.

  17. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women's basketball injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agel, Julie; Olson, David E; Dick, Randall; Arendt, Elizabeth A; Marshall, Stephen W; Sikka, Robby S

    2007-01-01

    To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's basketball and to identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. The number of colleges participating in women's college basketball has grown over the past 25 years. The Injury Surveillance System (ISS) has enabled the NCAA to collect and report injury trends over an extended period of time. This has allowed certified athletic trainers and coaches to be more informed regarding injuries and to adjust training regimens to reduce the risk of injury. It also has encouraged administrators to make rule changes that attempt to reduce the risk of injury. From 1988-1989 through 2003-2004, 12.4% of schools across Divisions I, II, and III that sponsor varsity women's basketball programs participated in annual ISS data collection. Game and practice injury rates exhibited significant decreases over the study period. The rate of injury in a game situation was almost 2 times higher than in a practice (7.68 versus 3.99 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.9, 2.0). Preseason-practice injury rates were more than twice as high as regular-season practice injury rates (6.75 versus 2.84 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 2.2, 2.4). More than 60% of all game and practice injuries were to the lower extremity, with the most common game injuries being ankle ligament sprains, knee injuries (internal derangements and patellar conditions), and concussions. In practices, ankle ligament sprains, knee injuries (internal derangements and patellar conditions), upper leg muscle-tendon strains, and concussions were the most common injuries. Appropriate preseason conditioning and an emphasis on proper training may reduce the risk of injury and can optimize performance. As both player size and the speed of the women's game continue to increase, basketball's evolution from a finesse sport to a

  18. FY 1994 annual summary report of the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program was initiated to manage former waste management and environmental research sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. The S and M Program is responsible for managing designated sites/facilities from the end of their operating lives until final disposition or site stabilization. To effectively manage and perform the various S and M Program responsibilities, five summary-level work breakdown structure (WBS) elements have been established: S and M Preliminary Investigations, Special Projects, Routine S and M, Inactive Groundwater Wells, and Project Management. Routine S and M activities were conducted as scheduled throughout fiscal years (FY) 1994 at applicable inactive waste management (WM) and other contaminated areas. Overall, the ER S and M Program maintains 47 facilities, performs vegetation maintenance on approximately 230 acres, maintains 54 inactive tanks, and provides overall site management on over 700 acres. In addition to the routine S and M activities, detailed site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the ER S and M Program. This document provides a summary of the FY 1994 ORNL ER S and M Program accomplishments.

  19. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings-opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Alotaibi, Badriah; Yezli, Saber; Dar, Osman; Bieh, Kingsley; Bates, Matthew; Tayeb, Tamara; Mwaba, Peter; Shafi, Shuja; McCloskey, Brian; Petersen, Eskild; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. [Surveillance on the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease during the outbreaks in three cities of Jiangsu province, 2012-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, H; Fu, Y S; Shan, J; Shi, C; Zhang, X F; Huo, X; Bao, C J; Ji, H

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological and etiological characteristics through monitoring the outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), in three cities of Jiangsu province from 2012 to 2015 and to provide evidence for prevention and control of the disease. Methods: Data related to cases of HFMD during the outbreaks was collected through active surveillance programs in three cities of Jiangsu province, under the guidelines of clusters and outbreaks of HFMD (2012 edition HFMD). Features related to clusters and outbreaks of the disease were identified according to the real-time RT-PCR detection. Descriptive analysis was conducted to understand the type/subtype of HFMD virus and time, area, place and extent of the outbreaks. Logistic regression was used to explore the influencing factors. Results: From 2012 to 2015, a total of 1 425 HFMD epidemics, including 1 314 clusters and 111 outbreaks were reported. Two incidence peaks were observed each year, between March and June, as well as between September and December, accounting for 58.18% (829/1 425), 33.68% (480/1 425), respectively. Most HFMD clusters and outbreaks were reported in Wuxi city, accounting for 59.30% (845/1 425) of the total. Most HFMD clusters and outbreaks happened in kindergartens, accounting for 68.63% (978/1 425) of the total. A total of 931 HFMD clusters and outbreaks were confirmed under laboratory findings. The main pathogens were Entervirus type 71 (EV71) in 2013 and Coxsackie A16 (Cox A16) in 2015, respectively, while both EV71 and Cox A16 were predominant in 2012 and 2014. With multivariate backward conditional regression, surrounding environment was identified as important risk factor associated with the attack rate. Health condition of the environment was quite good, with low attack rates (middle vs. bad: OR =0.150, 95 % CI : 0.034-0.667; good vs. bad: OR =0.072, 95 %CI : 0.016-0.317). Time between the onset of index patient and the reporting of HFMD clusters or outbreaks was important

  1. Improved Survival With Radiation Therapy in Stage I-II Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Matthew W., E-mail: matthew.jackson@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rusthoven, Chad G.; Jones, Bernard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kamdar, Manali [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is an uncommon lymphoma for which trials are few with small patient numbers. The role of radiation therapy (RT) after standard immunochemotherapy for early-stage disease has never been studied prospectively. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to evaluate PMBCL and the impact of RT on outcomes. Methods and Materials: We queried the SEER database for patients with stage I-II PMBCL diagnosed from 2001 to 2011. Retrievable data included age, gender, race (white/nonwhite), stage, extranodal disease, year of diagnosis, and use of RT as a component of definitive therapy. Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) estimates, univariate (UVA) log-rank and multivariate (MVA) Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. Results: Two hundred fifty patients with stage I-II disease were identified, with a median follow-up time of 39 months (range, 3-125 months). The median age was 36 years (range, 18-89 years); 61% were female; 76% were white; 45% had stage I disease, 60% had extranodal disease, and 55% were given RT. The 5-year OS for the entire cohort was 86%. On UVA, OS was improved with RT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.446, P=.029) and decreased in association with nonwhite race (HR 2.70, P=.006). The 5-year OS was 79% (no RT) and 90% (RT). On MVA, white race and RT remained significantly associated with improved OS (P=.007 and .018, respectively). The use of RT decreased over time: 61% for the 67 patients whose disease was diagnosed from 2001 to 2005 and 53% in the 138 patients treated from 2006 to 2010. Conclusion: This retrospective population-based analysis is the largest PMBCL dataset to date and demonstrates a significant survival benefit associated with RT. Nearly half of patients treated in the United States do not receive RT, and its use appears to be declining. In the absence of phase 3 data, the use of RT should be strongly considered for its survival benefit in early

  2. Effect of radiotherapy on survival of women with locally excised ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian GW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo-Wei Qian,1,* Xiao-Jian Ni,1,* Zheng Wang,2 Yi-Zhou Jiang,1 Ke-Da Yu,1 Zhi-Ming Shao1 1Department of Breast Surgery, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Cancer Center and Cancer Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although it has been previously reported that radiotherapy (RT effectively reduced the incidence of local recurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS following breast-conserving surgery (BCS, little is known about the effect of RT on survival of patients with locally excised DCIS. Patients and methods: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry data, we selected 56,968 female DCIS patients treated with BCS between 1998 and 2007. Overall survival (OS and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS were compared among patients who received RT or no RT using the Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Median follow-up was 91 months. In the multivariable model, patients receiving postoperative RT had better OS than those undergoing BCS alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53–0.67, P<0.001. This pattern remained after stratification by estrogen receptor (ER status and age. In contrast, RT delivery was not significantly associated with improved BCSS (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48–1.03, P=0.073. However, after stratifying by the above two variables, RT contributed to better BCSS in ER-negative/borderline patients (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19–0.88, P=0.023 and younger patients (≤50 years old; HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91, P=0.030. Conclusion: Our analysis confirms the beneficial effect of RT on OS in women with locally excised DCIS and reveals the specific protective effect of RT on BCSS in ER-negative/borderline and younger patients. Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ, breast cancer, breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy, survival

  3. Exposure to and colonisation by antibiotic-resistant E. coli in UK coastal water users: Environmental surveillance, exposure assessment, and epidemiological study (Beach Bum Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anne F C; Zhang, Lihong; Balfour, Andrew J; Garside, Ruth; Hawkey, Peter M; Murray, Aimee K; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gaze, William H

    2018-05-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) present a global public health problem. With numbers of community-acquired resistant infections increasing, understanding the mechanisms by which people are exposed to and colonised by ARB can help inform effective strategies to prevent their spread. The role natural environments play in this is poorly understood. This is the first study to combine surveillance of ARB in bathing waters, human exposure estimates and association between exposure and colonisation by ARB in water users. 97 bathing water samples from England and Wales were analysed for the proportion of E. coli harbouring bla CTX-M . These data were used to estimate the likelihood of water users ingesting bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. Having identified surfers as being at risk of exposure to ARB, a cross-sectional study was conducted. Regular surfers and non-surfers were recruited to assess whether there is an association between surfing and gut colonisation by bla CTX-M- bearing E. coli. 11 of 97 bathing waters sampled were found to contain bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. While the percentage of bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli in bathing waters was low (0.07%), water users are at risk of ingesting these ARB. It is estimated that over 2.5 million water sports sessions occurred in 2015 resulting in the ingestion of at least one bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. In the epidemiological survey, 9/143 (6.3%) surfers were colonised by bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli, as compared to 2/130 (1.5%) of non-surfers (risk ratio=4.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 16.4, p=0.046). Surfers are at risk of exposure to and colonisation by clinically important antibiotic-resistant E. coli in coastal waters. Further research must be done on the role natural environments play in the transmission of ARB. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. [FEATURES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF SANITARY-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE DURING THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION AND HOSTING OF THE XXII OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES AND XI PARALYMPIC WINTER GAMES IN THE RESORT CITY OF SOCHI IN 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Kuzkin, B P; Guskova, A S; Ivanov, G E; Pakskina, N D; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Balaeva, M I; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Tesheva, S Ch; Daragan, Iu G; Parkhomenko, V V; Rafeenko, G K; Kulichenko, A N; Manin, E A; Maletskaia, O V; Vasilenko, N F; Efremenko, D V; Orobeĭ, V G; Eldinova, V E; Pilikova, O M; Malaĭ, V I; Iunicheva, Iu V

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are presented the basic principles of the organization of activities for the assurance ofthe sanitary- epidemiological welfare in the period ofpreparation and hosting of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort City of Sochi. There are considered features of the organization ofepidemiological surveillance in the pre-Olympic period, the period of the games and the state of the morbidity rate in the region after the Olympics. There are presented data on certain directions of the work of organs and institutions of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare on the disease control of the event.

  5. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Claude Bourgeois

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective: To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design: Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national; all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results: Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic, United States (Alaska] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7 and commercial software (n=6. Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion: This review successfully establishes

  6. Epidemiology of four main nosocomial infections in Iran during March 2007 - March 2008 based on the findings of a routine surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Eshrati, Babak; Masoumi Asl, Hosein; Pezeshki, Zahra

    2012-12-01

    Annually, around six million patients are admitted to hospitals in Iran. Information about the prevalence of nosocomial infections (NIs) is necessary for both appropriate management and establishment of preventative measures in hospitals. This article is based on the findings of the Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NISS) which has been providing information on NIs in Iran since March 2007.  NISS covers 95 hospitals throughout Iran, each with over 200 beds. There are four main infections: urinary tract infection (UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), bloodstream infection (BSI) and pneumonia (PNEU) included in NISS. Reports are completed on forms that have been provided based on national guidelines. In all selected hospitals there is one designated nurse who conducts infection control activities and is trained in the detection and reporting of NIs based on NISS guidelines. During March 2007 - March 2008, a total of 1,879,356 patients were admitted to the selected hospitals. The total detected NIs were 10557 with a prevalence of 0.57%. Of these, UTI was the most prevalent infection (32.2%) and BSI was the least (16.3%). Based on gender, females had more UTI, whereas PNEU was the highest in males. Of reported NIs, 9% were detected in children less than five years of age and included BSI (45%), PNEU (20%), SSI (19%) and UTI (16%). There were 26% reported NIs in the age group over 65 years, of which the most prevalent infections were UTI (42%) followed by PNEU (31%), SSI (15%) and BSI (12%). NIs were most often detected in intensive care units (ICUs; 26.7%), followed by surgery wards (12.8%). In comparison with other studies and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the rate of NIs appears to be less according to NISS. NISS has the capability to provide basic information for efficient management and control measures, in addition to indicating variations in NIs based on gender, age and location (hospital ward). In order to have a more realistic estimate

  7. [Training programs for staff at local Infectious Disease Surveillance Centers: the needs and usefulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Nobuyuki; Yahata, Yuichiro; Ozeki, Yukie; Kishimoto, Tsuyoshi; Nadaoka, Yoko; Nakanishi, Yoshiko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Shimada, Tomoe; Tada, Yuki; Shirabe, Komei; Kozawa, Kunihisa

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the need for and usefulness of training programs for Local Infectious Disease Surveillance Center (LIDSC) staff. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the needs and usefulness of training programs. The subjects of the survey were participants of a workshop held after an annual conference for the LIDSC staff. Data on demographic information, the necessity of training programs for LIDSC staff, the themes and contents of the training program, self-assessment of knowledge on epidemiology and statistics were covered by the questionnaire. A total of 55 local government officials responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 100%). Among these, 95% of participants believed that the training program for the LIDSC staff was necessary. Basic statistical analysis (85%), descriptive epidemiology (65%), outline of epidemiology (60%), interpretation of surveillance data (65%), background and objectives of national infectious disease surveillance in Japan (60%), methods of field epidemiology (60%), and methods of analysis data (51%) were selected by over half of the respondents as suitable themes for training programs. A total of 34 LIDSC staff answered the self-assessment question on knowledge of epidemiology. A majority of respondents selected "a little" or "none" for all questions about knowledge. Only a few respondents had received education in epidemiology. The results of this study indicate that LIDSC staff have basic demands for fundamental and specialized education to improve their work. Considering the current situation regarding the capacity of LIDSC staff, these training programs should be started immediately.

  8. EARSS Annual report 2005, On-going surveillance of S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EARSS Management Team, members of the Advisory; CIE

    2006-01-01

    The European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) is an international initiative funded by the Director General for Health and Consumer Protection (DG SANCO) of the European Commission and the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. It maintains a comprehensive surveillance and

  9. [A functional subsystem of sanitary-and-epidemiological situation surveillance of the unified state system for prevention and elimination of emergence situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Smolenskiĭ, V Iu

    2011-01-01

    Mass destructions of the social infrastructure and household systems under stressors in the areas of emergency situations involve marked sanitary-and-epidemiological problems in a region's population, which in turn give rise to the activation of routes of transmission and formation of infectious and parasitic diseases. The most important lines of activities of supervising the sanitary-and-epidemiological situation under emergencies are to timely assess the sanitary-and-epidemiological situation, to predict, to organize, and to correct sanitary-and-antiepidemic measures.

  10. Multistate Epidemiology of Histoplasmosis, United States, 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Paige A; Jackson, Brendan R; Haselow, Dirk; Fields, Virgie; Ireland, Malia; Austin, Connie; Signs, Kimberly; Fialkowski, Veronica; Patel, Reema; Ellis, Peggy; Iwen, Peter C; Pedati, Caitlin; Gibbons-Burgener, Suzanne; Anderson, Jannifer; Dobbs, Thomas; Davidson, Sherri; McIntyre, Mary; Warren, Kimberly; Midla, Joanne; Luong, Nhiem; Benedict, Kaitlin

    2018-03-01

    Histoplasmosis is one of the most common mycoses endemic to the United States, but it was reportable in only 10 states during 2016, when a national case definition was approved. To better characterize the epidemiologic features of histoplasmosis, we analyzed deidentified surveillance data for 2011-2014 from the following 12 states: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. We examined epidemiologic and laboratory features and calculated state-specific annual and county-specific mean annual incidence rates. A total of 3,409 cases were reported. Median patient age was 49 (interquartile range 33-61) years, 2,079 (61%) patients were male, 1,273 (57%) patients were hospitalized, and 76 (7%) patients died. Incidence rates varied markedly between and within states. The high hospitalization rate suggests that histoplasmosis surveillance underestimates the true number of cases. Improved surveillance standardization and surveillance by additional states would provide more comprehensive knowledge of histoplasmosis in the United States.

  11. Multistate Epidemiology of Histoplasmosis, United States, 2011–20141

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brendan R.; Haselow, Dirk; Fields, Virgie; Ireland, Malia; Austin, Connie; Signs, Kimberly; Fialkowski, Veronica; Patel, Reema; Ellis, Peggy; Iwen, Peter C.; Pedati, Caitlin; Gibbons-Burgener, Suzanne; Anderson, Jannifer; Dobbs, Thomas; Davidson, Sherri; McIntyre, Mary; Warren, Kimberly; Midla, Joanne; Luong, Nhiem; Benedict, Kaitlin

    2018-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is one of the most common mycoses endemic to the United States, but it was reportable in only 10 states during 2016, when a national case definition was approved. To better characterize the epidemiologic features of histoplasmosis, we analyzed deidentified surveillance data for 2011–2014 from the following 12 states: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. We examined epidemiologic and laboratory features and calculated state-specific annual and county-specific mean annual incidence rates. A total of 3,409 cases were reported. Median patient age was 49 (interquartile range 33–61) years, 2,079 (61%) patients were male, 1,273 (57%) patients were hospitalized, and 76 (7%) patients died. Incidence rates varied markedly between and within states. The high hospitalization rate suggests that histoplasmosis surveillance underestimates the true number of cases. Improved surveillance standardization and surveillance by additional states would provide more comprehensive knowledge of histoplasmosis in the United States. PMID:29460731

  12. Epidemiology and potential pathomechanisms of cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis: a report from the GRAPPA 2010 annual meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing awareness that psoriasis is more than "skin deep." Several recent reviews focused on biomarkers have indicated the systemic dimension of psoriasis and the comorbidity that psoriasis shares with other chronic inflammatory diseases. Of emerging significance is the relationship to cardiovascular disease, which contributes substantially to patients' increased mortality. This article examines currently available evidence favoring the concept of a causal link between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease, and summarizes a report represented at the 2010 Annual Meeting of GRAPPA (Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis).

  13. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L

    2000-12-15

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  14. Annual summary report of the Decontamination and Decommissioning Surveillance and Maintenance Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.A.; Burwinkle, T.W.; Ford, M.K.; Gaddis, H.R.; Holder, L. Jr.; Mandry, G.J.; Nelson, T.R.; Patton, B.D.

    1995-03-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1976 to provide collective management of all surplus sites under ORNL's control on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Presently, over 50 facilities, grouped into projects, are currently managed by the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the successor program to the SFMP. Support includes (1) surveillance and maintenance planning; (2) routine surveillance and maintenance; and (3) special maintenance projects. This report documents routine surveillance and maintenance, special projects, and special maintenance performed on these facilities for the period of October 1993 through September 1994

  15. Wild bird surveillance for avian paramyxoviruses in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2006 to 2011) reveals epidemiological connections with Europe and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveillance for infection with avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) of 6,735 wild birds representing 86 species and 8 different orders was conducted during 2006-2011 in seven regions of Ukraine through different seasons of the year. A total of 20 viruses were isolated and subsequently identified as APMV-1...

  16. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  17. [Status and directions of improving of surveillance subsystem of sanitary-epidemiological situation in the service of emergency medicine of the Ministry of Defense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuchenko, O M; Karniz, A F; Iakovlev, S V; Korniushko, I G

    2011-07-01

    The article provides a description of the composition and tasks of government, forces and means of preventive direction of Disaster Medicine Service in countering the biological threats. The subsystem of supervision of sanitary-epidemiological situation, functioning at the central, regional and territorial levels is entrusted with the organization and conduct of monitoring activities, monitoring, assessment, prediction, prevention and elimination of the adverse health and sanitary emergencies. The author suggests the promising areas of optimization of the subsystem of supervision of sanitary-epidemiological situation.

  18. Bladder Exstrophy : An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siffel, Csaba; Correa, Adolfo; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Pierini, Anna; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We

  19. Lung cancer epidemiology in New Mexico uranium miners. First annual report, 1 April 1983-1 January 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This Technical Progress Report for the first nine months of the contract Lung Cancer Epidemiology in New Mexico Uranium Miners describes by task the activities finished or begun since April, 1983. Data collection during the period has included copying all available Grants Clinic examination records for miners in the current study cohort, for completion of smoking and mining histories, and abstracting, coding, and verifying 500 of these records; copying all State Mine Inspector reports and abstracting, coding, and verifying 225 of these records; coding, verifying, and keying all except one batch of employment histories from companies, and tracing gaps in histories through company personnel logs; receipt of output from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health with information on New Mexico miners included in the US Public Health Service Colorado Plateau study; and updating some 30 miners from status unknown to status known by means of new information from personnel offices, the Grants Clinic, and interviews in the community. In order to examine the feasibility of a study of later miners, we have created a computer file of working level months (WLM) records, cumulated WLM for each miner for each year, and cumulated WLM for each miner over the years 1967 to 1982. We have records for 10,516 miners not in the current cohort, most of whom began mining in the 1970's. They have relatively low WLM because of their later, briefer mining experience. We have not yet done power calculations based on complete WLM data, 1967 to 1982. We have also not yet collected Grants Clinic examination records for all these miners

  20. Tetanus Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Surveillance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reported tetanus ... date on their 10-year booster shots. National surveillance for tetanus is monitored by the National Notifiable ...

  1. Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report for 1976, volume 1: nonradiological environmental surveillance report; II: summary of operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The non-radiological environmental surveillance program including thermal and chemical effluents, water quality, fish populations, benthos, fish impingement, gas-bubble disease, and plankton, fish larvae and fish egg entrainment is described. Information is also presented concerning operations, personnel radiation exposures, and fuel examinations

  2. Importance of Internet surveillance in public health emergency control and prevention: evidence from a digital epidemiologic study during avian influenza A H7N9 outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hua; Chen, Bin; Zhu, Honghong; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Xinyi; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Zhenggang; Zheng, Dawei; Jiang, Jianmin

    2014-01-17

    Outbreaks of human infection with a new avian influenza A H7N9 virus occurred in China in the spring of 2013. Control and prevention of a new human infectious disease outbreak can be strongly affected by public reaction and social impact through the Internet and social media. This study aimed to investigate the potential roles of Internet surveillance in control and prevention of the human H7N9 outbreaks. Official data for the human H7N9 outbreaks were collected via the China National Health and Family Planning Committee website from March 31 to April 24, 2013. We obtained daily posted and forwarded number of blogs for the keyword "H7N9" from Sina microblog website and a daily Baidu Attention Index (BAI) from Baidu website, which reflected public attention to the outbreak. Rumors identified and confirmed by the authorities were collected from Baidu search engine. Both daily posted and forwarded number and BAI for keyword H7N9 increased quickly during the first 3 days of the outbreaks and remained at a high level for 5 days. The total daily posted and forwarded number for H7N9 on Sina microblog peaked at 850,000 on April 3, from zero blogs before March 31, increasing to 97,726 on April 1 and to 370,607 on April 2, and remaining above 500,000 from April 5-8 before declining to 208,524 on April 12. The total daily BAI showed a similar pattern of change to the total daily posted and forwarded number over time from March 31 to April 12. When the outbreak locations spread, especially into other areas of the same province/city and the capital, Beijing, daily posted and forwarded number and BAI increased again to a peak at 368,500 and 116,911, respectively. The median daily BAI during the studied 25 days was significantly higher among the 7 provinces/cities with reported human H7N9 cases than the 2 provinces without any cases (PInternet surveillance to prevent and control the epidemic, including preparation of personnel, technology, and other resources; information release

  3. Scabies: an epidemiologic reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, C G

    1983-04-01

    Scabies is a highly contagious parasitic infestation whose exact nature is unknown. A reassessment of epidemiologic data questions accepted ideas such as that scabies is a sexually transmitted disease; 30-year cycles of scabies epidemics exist; changes in the immune status of the host population (herd immunity) are epidemiologically significant; fomite transmission is rare; and blacks are resistant to the mite. Scabies epidemics are due to several factors and improved surveillance is needed before the disease can be better controlled.

  4. Evaluation Of Malaria Surveillance System In Department Of Health District Sumbawa Besar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Zainuddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Malaria is a public health problem that can affect infant mortality, under five, pregnant women and can reduce productivity. The annual parasite incidence from 2008 antil 2011showed malaria morbidity in Sumbawa district remain high. The Purpose of this study was to describe the implementation of Malaria Surveillance System at the District Health Office Lombok Sumbawa Besar. This study used a descriptive survey method. Subjects were malaria surveillance officer in district Health office, health centers, and hospitals. Research object is a document epidemiological surveillance report of malaria in 2013. Variables of this study is the implementation of malaria surveillance system (input, process, output and surveillance system attributes. Data obtained from interviews and observations were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the data type on input stage was not yet complete, the quantity of labor was complete but insufficient quality of human resources, facilities and sufficient funds were available. At stage of the data collection process employed W2 weekly report format and monthly report format, report formats and reporting lines were simple, completeness and monthly reports 100% W2, W2 reporting time liness was > 80% and monthly reports was > 90%, Analysis and interpretation of the data was done However the analysis of relationshif was conducted by 20% of primary health care. The resulting output is a description of endemicity areas, API and SPR are presented in tabular form, graph and maps. Dissemination of information is done in the form of reports, workshops and profiles. Feedback is done each month through coordination meeting, regular meetings and regular supervision. Surveillance evaluation system based on attributed surveillance showed its simplicity and acceptability, however sensitivity can not be assessed yet, low NPP 1.75%, report punctuality was > 80%. It is necessary the existence of expert epidemiologists (S2

  5. Understanding young adult physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in community colleges and 4-year post-secondary institutions: A cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lust Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions. The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. Results The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. Conclusions These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions.

  6. Extended Result Reading Window in Lateral Flow Tests Detecting Exposure to Onchocerca volvulus: A New Technology to Improve Epidemiological Surveillance Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Allison; Steel, Cathy; Yokobe, Lindsay; Jackson, Emily; Barney, Rebecca; Kubofcik, Joseph; Peck, Roger; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Nutman, Thomas B.; de los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J.

    2013-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus (Ov). An estimated 180 million people are at risk for Ov infection, and 37 million people are infected, mostly in Africa. A lateral flow-based assay to detect human IgG4 antibodies to the Ov-specific antigen Ov-16 was developed as a rapid tool to detect exposure to Ov. The test, when performed on 449 sera specimens from patients with microfiladermia and Ov-negative patients, has a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% confidence interval: 86.2%–92.0%), and specificity of 97% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%–98.6%). Because the intended use of the test is for surveillance, it is highly desirable to have a stable, long-lasting result. An extended read window is thus desirable for a high-volume, busy workflow and facilitates post-surveillance quality assurance. The main restriction on achieving an extended read window for this assay was the erythrocyte lysis that can alter the signal-to-noise ratio, especially in those with low IgG4 levels (weak positives). We describe a test housing that incorporates a user-independent feature driven by assay fluid and an expanding wick that detaches the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose used in the assay, but before hemolysis occurs. We demonstrated material functionality at extreme operational conditions (37°C, 80% relative humidity) and a read window of a minimum of 70 days. The fluid-driven assay device performs equally as well with whole blood as with plasma, as demonstrated with 100 spiked clinical specimens (with a correlation coefficient of 0.96). We show a novel, inexpensive, and simple approach to actuating the detachment of the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose test with no impact on the performance characteristics of the test. PMID:23935960

  7. Extended result reading window in lateral flow tests detecting exposure to Onchocerca volvulus: a new technology to improve epidemiological surveillance tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Golden

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus (Ov. An estimated 180 million people are at risk for Ov infection, and 37 million people are infected, mostly in Africa. A lateral flow-based assay to detect human IgG4 antibodies to the Ov-specific antigen Ov-16 was developed as a rapid tool to detect exposure to Ov. The test, when performed on 449 sera specimens from patients with microfiladermia and Ov-negative patients, has a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% confidence interval: 86.2%-92.0%, and specificity of 97% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%-98.6%. Because the intended use of the test is for surveillance, it is highly desirable to have a stable, long-lasting result. An extended read window is thus desirable for a high-volume, busy workflow and facilitates post-surveillance quality assurance. The main restriction on achieving an extended read window for this assay was the erythrocyte lysis that can alter the signal-to-noise ratio, especially in those with low IgG4 levels (weak positives. We describe a test housing that incorporates a user-independent feature driven by assay fluid and an expanding wick that detaches the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose used in the assay, but before hemolysis occurs. We demonstrated material functionality at extreme operational conditions (37°C, 80% relative humidity and a read window of a minimum of 70 days. The fluid-driven assay device performs equally as well with whole blood as with plasma, as demonstrated with 100 spiked clinical specimens (with a correlation coefficient of 0.96. We show a novel, inexpensive, and simple approach to actuating the detachment of the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose test with no impact on the performance characteristics of the test.

  8. Data quality shortcomings with the US HIV/AIDS surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Benjamin K; Harrington, Brenna; Porcher, Eloni N; Wamai, Richard G

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates some of the data quality challenges facing the HIV surveillance system in the United States. Using the content analysis method, Center for Disease Control annual HIV surveillance reports (1982-2014) are systematically reviewed and evaluated against relevant data quality metrics from previous literature. Center for Disease Control HIV surveillance system has made several key achievements in the last decade. However, there are several outstanding challenges that need to be addressed. The data are unrepresentative, incomplete, inaccurate, and lacks the required granularity limiting its usage. These shortcomings weaken the country's ability to track, report, and respond to the new HIV epidemiological trends. Furthermore, the problems deter the country from properly identifying and targeting the key subpopulations that need the highest resources by virtue of being at the highest risk of HIV infection. Several recommendations are suggested to address these issues.

  9. Exposure to ionizing radiations having a medical origin. Propositions for the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population; Exposition aux rayonnements ionisants d'origine medicale. Propositions pour la mise en place et le developpement d'activites de surveillance epidemiologique en population generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    This report gives propositions relative to the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population in relation with medical exposure to ionizing radiations. It is intended for the General Direction of Health and General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. These propositions have been elaborated by a work group coordinated and run by InVS and gathering the following organisms: French Agency of sanitary safety of health products (A.F.S.S.A.P.S.), Center of Quality Assurance of technological applications in the area of health (C.A.A.T.S.), Direction of Hospitals and Care organization (D.H.O.S.), General Direction of Health (D.G.S.), General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (D.G.S.N.R.), National Federation of radiologists physicists (F.N.M.R.), institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.), INSERM 'epidemiology of cancers', French Society of Biology and Nuclear Medicine (S.F.B.M.N.), French Society of Medical Physics (S.F.P.M.), French Society of Radiology (S.F.R.). (N.C.)

  10. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  11. Lessons from the epidemiological surveillance program, during the influenza A (H1N1 virus epidemic, in a reference university hospital of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Moretti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The case definition of influenza-like illness (ILI is a powerful epidemiological tool during influenza epidemics. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the impact of two definitions used as epidemiological tools, in adults and children, during the influenza A H1N1 epidemic. Patients were included if they had upper respiratory samples tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction during two periods, using the ILI definition (coughing + temperature > 38ºC in period 1, and the definition of severe acute respiratory infection (ARS (coughing + temperature > 38ºC and dyspnoea in period 2. RESULTS: The study included 366 adults and 147 children, covering 243 cases of ILI and 270 cases of ARS. Laboratory confirmed cases of influenza were higher in adults (50% than in children (21.6% ( p < 0.0001 and influenza infection was more prevalent in the ILI definition (53% than ARS (24.4% (p < 0.0001. Adults reported more chills and myalgia than children (p = 0.0001. Oseltamivir was administered in 58% and 46% of adults and children with influenza A H1N1, respectively. The influenza A H1N1 case fatality rate was 7% in adults and 8.3% in children. The mean time from onset of illness until antiviral administration was 4 days. CONCLUSIONS: The modification of ILI to ARS definition resulted in less accuracy in influenza diagnosis and did not improve the appropriate time and use of antiviral medication.

  12. Prevalence and Trends of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in Hospitalized Patients in South Africa, 2010 to 2012: Laboratory-Based Surveillance Mapping of Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Perovic

    Full Text Available We aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding on recent antimicrobial resistance trends and molecular epidemiology trends of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB.Thirteen academic centres in South Africa were included from June 2010 until July 2012. S. aureus susceptibility testing was performed on the MicroScan Walkaway. Real-time PCR using the LightCycler 480 II was done for mecA and nuc. SCCmec and spa-typing were finalized with conventional PCR. We selected one isolate per common spa type per province for multilocus sequence typing (MLST.S. aureus from 2709 patients were included, and 1231 (46% were resistant to methicillin, with a significant decline over the three-year period (p-value = 0.003. Geographical distribution of MRSA was significantly higher in Gauteng compared to the other provinces (P<0.001. Children <5 years were significantly associated with MRSA with higher rates compared to all other age groups (P = 0.01. The most prevalent SCCmec type was SCCmec type III (531 [41%] followed by type IV (402 [31%]. Spa-typing discovered 47 different spa-types. The five (87% most common spa-types were t037, t1257, t045, t064 and t012. Based on MLST, the commonest was ST612 clonal complex (CC8 (n = 7 followed by ST5 (CC5 (n = 4, ST36 (CC30 (n = 4 and ST239 (CC8 (n = 3.MRSA rate is high in South Africa. Majority of the isolates were classified as SCCmec type III (41% and type IV (31%, which are typically associated with hospital and community- acquired infections, respectively. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a variety of hospital-acquired MRSA clones in South Africa dominance of few clones, spa 037 and 1257. Monitoring trends in resistance and molecular typing is recommended to detect changing epidemiological trends in AMR patterns of SAB.

  13. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  14. Annual summary report of the decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program and Defense Facilities Decommissioning Program were established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1976 in order to provide collective management of all surplus sites under ORNL control on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Some 34 facilities, classified into 3 civilian-related and 8 defense-related projects, are currently managed by the recently integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. Support includes (1) surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) planning, (2) routine S ampersand M, and (3) special maintenance projects. This report documents routine S ampersand M, special projects, and special maintenance performed on these facilities for the period of October 1990 through September 1991

  15. Five-year trends in epidemiology and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, St. Petersburg, Russia: results from perinatal HIV surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissin, Dmitry M; Mandel, Michele G; Akatova, Natalia; Belyakov, Nikolay A; Rakhmanova, Aza G; Voronin, Evgeny E; Volkova, Galina V; Yakovlev, Alexey A; Jamieson, Denise J; Vitek, Charles; Robinson, Joanna; Miller, William C; Hillis, Susan

    2011-10-27

    The HIV epidemic in Russia has increasingly involved reproductive-aged women, which may increase perinatal HIV transmission. Standard HIV case-reporting and enhanced perinatal HIV surveillance systems were used for prospective assessment of HIV-infected women giving birth in St. Petersburg, Russia, during 2004-2008. Trends in social, perinatal, and clinical factors influencing mother-to-child HIV transmission stratified by history of injection drug use, and rates of perinatal HIV transmission were assessed using two-sided χ2 or Cochran-Armitage tests. Among HIV-infected women who gave birth, the proportion of women who self-reported ever using injection drugs (IDUs) decreased from 62% in 2004 to 41% in 2008 (P<0.0001). Programmatic improvements led to increased uptake of the following clinical services from 2004 to 2008 (all P<0.01): initiation of antiretroviral prophylaxis at ≤28 weeks gestation (IDUs 44%-54%, non-IDUs 45%-72%), monitoring of immunologic (IDUs 48%-64%, non-IDUs 58%-80%) and virologic status (IDUs 8%-58%, non-IDUs 10%-75%), dual/triple antiretroviral prophylaxis (IDUs 9%-44%, non-IDUs 14%-59%). After initial increase from 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5%-7.8%) in 2004 to 8.5% (CI 6.1%-11.7%) in 2005 (P<0.05), perinatal HIV transmission decreased to 5.3% (CI 3.4%-8.3%) in 2006, and 3.2% (CI 1.7%-5.8%) in 2007 (P for trend<0.05). However, the proportion of women without prenatal care and without HIV testing before labor and delivery remained unchanged. Reduced proportion of IDUs and improved clinical services among HIV-infected women giving birth were accompanied by decreased perinatal HIV transmission, which can be further reduced by increasing outreach and HIV testing of women before and during pregnancy.

  16. Classification’s features of objects of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance by risk of causing the damage to health of the metropolis’ population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of the adaptation of methodological approaches to the development of risk-based model of control and supervisory activities in such a big city as Moscow, it was found that a high density of population, a considerable mass of circulating consumer products, especially food products, large volumes of services rendered to the population by the specific legal entities or individual entrepreneurs, entail an increase of the risk of harm to the population by the individual economic entities and, accordingly, increase the class of object supervision compared with the class of similar objects in other areas. In the big city the proportion of objects that form the extremely high risks associated with the violation of the sanitary legislation is about 4 %, the proportion of high-risk sites – about 12 %, which is 2–2,5 times higher than the average for the Russian Federation. This entails an increase in labor costs for each inspection and, consequently, increases the burden on supervisory authorities. However, according to a study more than 20 % of all objects of the capital city to be supervised form low population health risks for the citizens and can be removed from under routine surveillance. To this group, as a result of the classification, the medium-sized enterprises were ranked. In general, the use of risk-based model of control and supervisory activities in the densely populated industrial and commercial city, such as Moscow, provides significantly greater targeting and the effectiveness of the protection of life and health of the population of the metropolis.

  17. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate men's basketball injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Randall; Hertel, Jay; Agel, Julie; Grossman, Jayd; Marshall, Stephen W

    2007-01-01

    To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for men's basketball and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Collegiate men's basketball is a contact sport in which numerous anatomical structures are susceptible to both acute and overuse injuries. To date, no comprehensive reporting of injury patterns in NCAA men's basketball has been published. The overall rate of injury was 9.9 per 1000 athlete-exposures for games and 4.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures for practices. Approximately 60% of all injuries were to the lower extremity, with ankle ligament sprains being the most common injury overall and knee internal derangements being the most common injury causing athletes to miss more than 10 days of participation. A trend of increasing incidence of injuries to the head and face was noted over the 16-year span of the study, which may be related to an observed increase in physical contact in men's basketball over the past 2 decades. These results provide the most comprehensive description of injury patterns in NCAA men's basketball to date. Many of the most common injuries seen in men's basketball, such as ankle ligament sprains and knee internal derangements, may be at least partially preventable with interventions such as taping and bracing and neuromuscular training. However, randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of such preventive measures among collegiate men's basketball players are clearly lacking. The increase in head and facial injuries may indicate that officials need to assess the increased tolerance for physical contact in men's basketball seen over the past 2 decades.

  18. Birth defects surveillance·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-01

    Jul 1, 1989 ... A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in. 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other popu-.

  19. Outcomes of sentinel lymph node dissection alone vs. axillary lymph node dissection in early stage invasive lobular carcinoma: a retrospective study of the surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG Z0011 trial demonstrated no difference in local-regional recurrence (LRR, disease-specific survival (DSS or overall survival (OS for sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND and completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND among patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy for clinical T1-T2, N0 breast cancer with 1 or 2 positive SLNs. However, Only 7% of study participants had invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC. Because ILC has a different pattern of metastases, frequently presenting as small foci requiring immunohistochemistry for detection, the applicability of ACOSOG Z0011 trial data to ILC patients is unclear.We identified all ILC patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database (1998-2009 who met the ACOSOG Z0011 eligibility criteria. Patients were evaluated on the basis of the extent of axillary surgery (SLND alone or ALND, and the clinical outcomes of these 2 groups were compared.1269 patients (393 SLND and 876 ALND were identified from the SEER database. At a median follow-up time of 71 months, there were no differences in OS or disease-specific survival between the two groups.SLND alone may result in outcomes comparable to those achieved with ALND for patients with early-stage ILC who meet the ACOSOG Z0011 eligibility criteria.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of different chemotherapeutic regimens on survival of people aged 66 and older with stage III colon cancer: a "real world" analysis using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Fei-Yuan; Mullins, C Daniel; Onukwugha, Ebere; Pandya, Naimish; Hanna, Nader

    2011-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness and utilization trends of irinotecan (IRI)-based and oxaliplatin (OX)-based regimens with those of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (5FU/LV) alone in people aged 66 and older with Stage III colon cancer. Retrospective cohort study. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data. People with Stage III surgically resected colon cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy were categorized into 5FU/LV-alone (n = 3,581), OX-based regimen (n = 814), and IRI-based regimen (n = 219) subgroups. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models examined the effect of chemotherapies on overall survival, colon cancer-specific survival, and non-colon cancer-specific survival. Use of the OX-based regimen increased, and use of the 5FU/LV-alone and IRI-based regimens decreased over time. OX was statistically significantly associated with longer overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.62-0.86, P world" comparative effectiveness research extends randomized controlled trial results by documenting the relative survival benefit of OX in older adults with Stage III colon cancer. The associated shift in treatment away from 5FU/LV alone or IRI toward OX is consistent with evidence-based medicine from real-world outcomes research. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers in hairy cell leukaemia: a Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results population analysis and the 30-year experience at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Justin M; Kishtagari, Ashwin; Hsu, Meier; Lacouture, Mario E; Postow, Michael A; Park, Jae H; Stein, Eytan M; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Devlin, Sean M; Tallman, Martin S

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) incidence rates after a diagnosis of hairy cell leukaemia (HCL). We assessed 267 HCL patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data for melanoma and NMSC incidence rates after HCL. Incidence data from MSKCC patients demonstrated a 10-year combined melanoma and NMSC skin cancer rate of 11·3%, melanoma 4·4% and NMSC 6·9%. Molecular analysis of skin cancers from MSKCC patients revealed activating RAS mutations in 3/9 patients, including one patient with melanoma. Of 4750 SEER patients with HCL, 55 (1·2%) had a subsequent diagnosis of melanoma. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) did not show that melanoma was more common in HCL patients versus the general population (SIR 1·3, 95% CI 0·78-2·03). Analysis of SEER HCL patients diagnosed before and after 1990 (approximately before and after purine analogue therapy was introduced) showed no evidence of an increased incidence after 1990. A better understanding of any potential association between HCL and skin cancer is highly relevant given ongoing trials using BRAF inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, for relapsed HCL, as RAS-mutant skin cancers could be paradoxically activated in these patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Malignant Melanoma in African-Americans: A Population-Based Clinical Outcomes Study Involving 1106 African-American Patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) Database (1988-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendraraj, Krishnaraj; Sidhu, Komal; Lau, Christine S M; McRoy, Georgia J; Chamberlain, Ronald S; Smith, Franz O

    2017-04-01

    Malignant melanoma accounts for 75% of all skin cancer deaths and is potentially curable if identified early. Although melanoma is rare in African-Americans (AA), it is associated with a worse prognosis than in Caucasians. This study examines the demographic, pathologic, and clinical factors impacting AA melanoma outcomes.Data for 1106 AA and 212,721 Caucasian cutaneous melanoma patients were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database (1988-2011). Data were grouped on the basis of histological subtypes: "Superficial Spreading" (SS), "Nodular" (NM), "Lentigo Maligna" (LM), "Acral Lentiginous" (AL), and "Not otherwise specified" (NOS).Cutaneous malignant melanoma occurs most commonly in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Caucasian patients presented most commonly with trunk melanomas (34.5%), while lower extremity melanomas were more common in AAs (56.1%), P melanoma on the lower extremities, and with deeper and more advanced stage lesions. AAs have higher cancer-specific mortality for NM and LM than Caucasians. Melanoma education for AA patients and health care providers is needed to increase disease awareness, facilitate early detection, and promote access to effective treatment.

  3. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  4. Surveillance Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to live in a world full of surveillance? In this documentary film, we take a look at everyday life in Denmark and how surveillance technologies and practices influence our norms and social behaviour. Researched and directed by Btihaj Ajana and Anders Albrechtslund....

  5. Epidemiology of rubella infection in Cameroon: a 7-year experience of measles and rubella case-based surveillance, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimpa Mengouo, Marcellin; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Baonga, Frangy; Kobela, Marie; Wiysonge, Charles Shey

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of rubella disease in a measles case-based surveillance in Cameroon prior to rubella vaccine introduction into the national immunisation programme. This was a cross-sectional study for rubella infection in Cameroon for the period 2008 to 2014. Patients suspected with measles from the 10 regions of Cameroon were recruited according to the WHO measles case definition and were tested for rubella IgM antibodies accompanied with the case report/investigation forms. All persons with rash and fever within 14 days of onset of rash according to the standard WHO African Regional Office (WHO/AFRO) case definition for a suspected measles case. Descriptive analyses and simple logistic regressions were performed. OR were estimated. A total of 9907 serum samples from people with fever and rash were received in the laboratory from 2008 to 2014. A total of 7489 (75.59%) measles-negative samples were tested for rubella; 699 (9.3%) were positive for rubella IgM antibodies. Logistic regression analysis was done using IgM antibodies detection as the outcome variable. Age, sex and setting were explanatory variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, comparing the proportion of rubella IgM seropositivity status by age, the association to a positive rubella IgM increased with age from 1 to 4 years (OR 7.11; 95% CI 4.35 to 12.41; prubella infection than children under one (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.85 to 7.48; p=0.0001). There were also significant associations with sex, with males being less associated to a positive rubella serology than females (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.56; p=0.0001). No statistically significant difference in proportion of rubella cases was observed between urban and rural populations (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.31; p=0.208). This study reveals that rubella virus circulates in Cameroon, with important number of cases in children under 15 years. This finding supports the planned introduction of rubella

  6. Epidemiology of rubella infection in Cameroon: a 7-year experience of measles and rubella case-based surveillance, 2008–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimpa Mengouo, Marcellin; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Baonga, Frangy; Kobela, Marie; Wiysonge, Charles Shey

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of rubella disease in a measles case-based surveillance in Cameroon prior to rubella vaccine introduction into the national immunisation programme. Design This was a cross-sectional study for rubella infection in Cameroon for the period 2008 to 2014. Setting Patients suspected with measles from the 10 regions of Cameroon were recruited according to the WHO measles case definition and were tested for rubella IgM antibodies accompanied with the case report/investigation forms. Participants All persons with rash and fever within 14 days of onset of rash according to the standard WHO African Regional Office (WHO/AFRO) case definition for a suspected measles case. Outcome measures Descriptive analyses and simple logistic regressions were performed. OR were estimated. Results A total of 9907 serum samples from people with fever and rash were received in the laboratory from 2008 to 2014. A total of 7489 (75.59%) measles-negative samples were tested for rubella; 699 (9.3%) were positive for rubella IgM antibodies. Logistic regression analysis was done using IgM antibodies detection as the outcome variable. Age, sex and setting were explanatory variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, comparing the proportion of rubella IgM seropositivity status by age, the association to a positive rubella IgM increased with age from 1 to 4 years (OR 7.11; 95% CI 4.35 to 12.41; prubella infection than children under one (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.85 to 7.48; p=0.0001). There were also significant associations with sex, with males being less associated to a positive rubella serology than females (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.56; p=0.0001). No statistically significant difference in proportion of rubella cases was observed between urban and rural populations (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.31; p=0.208). Conclusions This study reveals that rubella virus circulates in Cameroon, with important number of cases in children under 15

  7. Annual summary report of the Decontamination and Decommissioning Surveillance and Maintenance Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program has continued to provide surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) support for 34 surplus facilities. The objectives are to (1) ensure adequate containment of residual radioactive materials remaining in the facilities, (2) provide safety and security controls to minimize the potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public, and (3) manage the facilities in the most cost-effective manner while awaiting decommissioning. This support has included work in three principal areas: (1) S ampersand M planning, (2) routine S ampersand M, and (3) special projects designed to correct serious facility deficiencies beyond the scope of routine maintenance

  8. Annual summary report of the Decontamination and Decommissioning surveillance and maintenance program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D ampersand D Program and has continued to provide surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) support for 34 surplus facilities. The objectives are (1) to ensure adequate containment of residual radioactive materials remaining in the facilities, (2) to provide safety and security controls to minimize the potential hazards to on-site personnel and to the general public, and (3) to manage the facilities in the most cost-effective manner while awaiting decommissioning. This support has included work in three principal areas: (1) S ampersand M planning, (2) routine S ampersand M, and (3) special projects designed to correct serious facility deficiencies beyond the scope of routine maintenance

  9. Human brucellosis in France in the 21st century: Results from national surveillance 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailles, A; Garin-Bastuji, B; Lavigne, J P; Jay, M; Sotto, A; Maurin, M; Pelloux, I; O'Callaghan, D; Mick, V; Vaillant, V; De Valk, H

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease mainly transmitted to humans by ruminants. In France, brucellosis has disappeared from ruminants herds. Human brucellosis surveillance is performed through mandatory notification and the national reference center. We report the results of human brucellosis surveillance from 2004 to 2013 with regards to epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data. A total of 250 cases were notified, making an annual incidence of 0.3 cases per million inhabitants. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was the most frequently identified bacterium (79% of isolated strains). In total, 213 (85%) cases had been contaminated abroad in endemic countries. In 2012, an episode of re-emergence of brucellosis in cattle occurred in Haute-Savoie, in the French Alps, and was responsible for 2 human cases. Brucellosis has become a disease of travelers in France. However, maintaining a stringent epidemiological surveillance is necessary to be able to early detect any local re-emergence in humans or animals. The multidisciplinary surveillance was implemented in France years ago and is a successful example of the One Health Concept. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Diseño y puesta en marcha de un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica en salud mental Design and implementation of an epidemiological surveillance system for mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Scharager Goldenberg

    2002-02-01

    a surveillance system to detect and rank the most significant mental health problems in a community and to establish their association with the living conditions in that community. Methods. The system was designed and tested at a primary health care center in the community of La Florida, which is in the metropolitan region of Santiago, the capital of Chile. The health problems that were under surveillance, with monthly monitoring, were: addiction (to alcohol, tobacco, and benzodiazepines or other drugs, violence (domestic violence and sexual abuse, real or suspected, and disorders in children (attention deficit and behavioral disorders. By means of a computerized geographical information system (GIS, those surveillance data were combined with other data. These other data included sociodemographic information on the persons who went to the health center for care as well as data on local risk factors and protective factors for health problems, some of which are indicators of the local residents' living conditions. Results. The proposed epidemiological surveillance system, which takes into account local living conditions and environmental variables, is a good tool for health action. The proposed system also complements the incomplete perspective of monitoring systems, which do not include variables describing the local context and that focus only on health problems. The information synthesized in the GIS maps makes it possible to simultaneously display different layers of information on factors related to the health problems studied, linked to a specific area and all its environmental variables, in an easy-to-read, self-explanatory format. Conclusions. These results and the concurring opinions of the participating physicians show that the experimental system effectively met the basic requirements of an epidemiological surveillance system of this kind.

  11. Giardiasis surveillance - United States, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathan S; Harral, Courtney; Beach, Michael J

    2010-06-11

    Giardiasis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. 2006-2008. State, commonwealth, territorial, and two metropolitan health departments voluntarily report cases of giardiasis through CDC's National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. During 2006--2008, the total number of reported cases of giardiasis increased slightly from 19,239 for 2006 to 19,794 for 2007 and decreased slightly to 19,140 for 2008. During this period, 49 jurisdictions reported giardiasis cases; giardiasis is a reportable condition in 45 states (not reportable in Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Texas). A greater number of case reports were received for children aged 1-9 years and for adults aged 35-44 years compared with other age groups. Incidence of giardiasis was highest in northern states. Peak onset of illness occurred annually during early summer through early fall. Transmission of giardiasis occurs throughout the United States, with more frequent diagnosis or reporting occurring in northern states. However, state incidence figures should be compared with caution because individual state surveillance systems have varying capabilities to detect cases. The seasonal peak in age-specific case reports coincides with the summer recreational water season and likely reflects increased outdoor activities and exposures such as camping and use of communal swimming venues (e.g., lakes, rivers, swimming pools, and water parks) by young children. Local and state health departments can use giardiasis surveillance data to better understand the epidemiologic characteristics and the disease burden of giardiasis in the United States, design efforts to prevent the spread of disease, and establish research priorities.

  12. Epidemiología descriptiva de meningitis no meningocócicas bacterianas de la provincia de Zaragoza (1999-2004: evaluación de su sistema de vigilancia Descriptive epidemiology of non-meningococcal bacterial meningitis in the province of Saragossa [Spain] from 1999 to 2004: evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Varela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las meningitis no meningocócicas bacterianas (MnMB y evaluar el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (SVE en la provincia de Zaragoza entre 1999 y 2004. Métodos: Se utilizó el registro de enfermedades de declaración obligatoria (EDO y el conjunto mínimo básico de datos (CMBD. Se evaluó el SVE utilizando criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, estimando la exhaustividad mediante captura-recaptura. Resultados: Se notificaron 111 casos de MnMB (62,2% en hombres. La edad media fue de 40,7 años. La mayor proporción de casos (16,5% fue en niños menores de 2 años. La forma clínica en el 81,1% de los casos fue la meningitis; el 70,3% fue diagnosticada por cultivo. Aparecieron Streptococcus en el 54% de los casos (el 82% por S. pneumoniae, enterobacterias en el 5,4%, Lysteria y Staphylococcus en el 4,5%, Pseudomona aeruginosa en el 1,8%, y Haemophilus influenzae en el 0,9%. La incidencia por 100.000 habitantes fue entre 1,6 en 2004 y 2,6 en 2001. La letalidad fue del 7,3%. La exhaustividad del sistema EDO fue máxima en el año 2001 (del 84,4%. La exhaustividad conjunta con CMBD fue superior al 85% y la oportunidad fue de 2 días. La aceptabilidad del sistema fue buena, ya que el 75% de las variables estaban cumplimentadas en el 97% de las encuestas. Conclusiones: Se destaca la relevancia de la evaluación del SVE en función de sus resultados. Las MnMB debidas a S. pneumoniae representan un grupo significativo y su letalidad es elevada. La exhaustividad del SVE en Zaragoza supera el 80%, al considerar EDO y CMBD. La incorporación del CMBD en la vigilancia facilitaría una aproximación a la incidencia real de algunas EDO.Objectives: To describe non-meningococcal bacterial meningitis (nMM and to evaluate the Epidemiological Surveillance System (ESS in the province of Saragossa (Spain between 1999 and 2004. Methods: Information was obtained from the register of diseases subject to mandatory reporting

  13. National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992. H. G. v. KUSTNER, J. P. SWANEVELDER, A. VAN MIDDELKOOP. 195. Abstract The findings of three annual surveys of WOInen attending antenatal clinics (at the end of 1990,1991 and 1992) are presented here. These surveys for= part ofthe National mv Surveillance ...

  14. Long-Term Cause-Specific Mortality After Surgery for Women With Breast Cancer: A 20-Year Follow-Up Study From Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Cancer Registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Escarela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research into long-term cause-specific mortality of women diagnosed with breast cancer is important because it allows for the splitting of the population into patients who eventually die from breast cancer and from other causes. The adoption of this approach helps to identify patients with an elevated risk of eventual death from breast cancer. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations between both sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and the underlying risks of death from breast cancer and from other causes for women diagnosed with breast cancer. A second aim was to propose a predictive biomarker of cause-specific mortality in terms of treatment and several important characteristics of a patient. Methods: A cohort of 16 511 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer in 1990 was obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries and followed for 20 years. A mixture model for the regression analysis of competing risks was used to identify factors and confounders that affected either the eventual cause-specific mortality or conditional cause-specific hazard rates, or both. Missing data were handled with multiple imputation. Results: Curvilinear relationships of age at diagnosis along with race, marital status, breast cancer type, tumor size, estrogen receptor status, extension, lymph node status, type of surgery, and radiotherapy status were significant risk factors for the cause-specific mortality, with extension and lymph node status appearing to be confounded with the effects of both type of surgery and radiotherapy status. The score obtained from combining a set of predictors showed to be an accurate predictive biomarker. Conclusions: In cause-specific mortality of women diagnosed breast cancer, prognosis appears to depend on both sociodemographic and clinicopathologic factors. The predictive biomarker proposed in this study may help identifying the

  15. A comparison of the demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of major and minor salivary glands versus less common sites within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Xu, Li; Zhao, Hui; El-Naggar, Adel K; Sturgis, Erich M

    2012-08-15

    The scientific literature to date lacks population-based studies on the demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of different anatomic sites. The authors identified 5349 patients who had ACC of the major salivary glands (N = 1850), minor salivary glands (N = 2077), breast (N = 696), skin (N = 291), lung and bronchus (N = 203), female genital system (N = 132), and eye and orbit (N = 100) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Differences in demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients were assessed. ACC of the eye and orbit was associated with younger age at presentation (mean age,49.9 years). ACC of the skin or breast tended to present with less aggressive prognostic features, whereas ACC of the lung and bronchus or eye and orbit tended to present with more aggressive prognostic features. In a multivariate survival analysis of patients who presented with localized disease, patients with ACC of the breast (hazard ratio [HR], 0.40) or skin (HR, 0.40) had a significantly lower risk death than patients with ACC of the major salivary glands; whereas patients with ACC of the lung and bronchus (HR, 3.72) or the eye and orbit (HR, 3.67) had a significantly higher risk. For patients who presented with regional disease, the only clear prognostic difference in multivariate analysis was that patients with ACC of skin fared significantly better. The demographics and clinical features of patients with ACC differ by disease site. The current results indicated that site may be an important predictor of survival for patients who present with localized disease but is less important for patients who present with regional disease. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  16. Long-Term Cause-Specific Mortality After Surgery for Women With Breast Cancer: A 20-Year Follow-Up Study From Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Cancer Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarela, Gabriel; Jiménez-Balandra, Alan; Núñez-Antonio, Gabriel; Gordillo-Moscoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research into long-term cause-specific mortality of women diagnosed with breast cancer is important because it allows for the splitting of the population into patients who eventually die from breast cancer and from other causes. The adoption of this approach helps to identify patients with an elevated risk of eventual death from breast cancer. OBJECTIVE The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations between both sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and the underlying risks of death from breast cancer and from other causes for women diagnosed with breast cancer. A second aim was to propose a predictive biomarker of cause-specific mortality in terms of treatment and several important characteristics of a patient. METHODS A cohort of 16 511 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer in 1990 was obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries and followed for 20 years. A mixture model for the regression analysis of competing risks was used to identify factors and confounders that affected either the eventual cause-specific mortality or conditional cause-specific hazard rates, or both. Missing data were handled with multiple imputation. RESULTS Curvilinear relationships of age at diagnosis along with race, marital status, breast cancer type, tumor size, estrogen receptor status, extension, lymph node status, type of surgery, and radiotherapy status were significant risk factors for the cause-specific mortality, with extension and lymph node status appearing to be confounded with the effects of both type of surgery and radiotherapy status. The score obtained from combining a set of predictors showed to be an accurate predictive biomarker. CONCLUSIONS In cause-specific mortality of women diagnosed breast cancer, prognosis appears to depend on both sociodemographic and clinicopathologic factors. The predictive biomarker proposed in this study may help identifying the level of seriousness of the

  17. Trends in the Utilization of Adjuvant Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy and/or External Beam Radiation Treatment in Stage I and II Endometrial Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Mehul K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Cote, Michele L. [Karmanos Cancer Institute and Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Ali-Fehmi, Rouba [Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Buekers, Thomas; Munkarah, Adnan R. [Department of Women' s Health Services, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Elshaikh, Mohamed A., E-mail: melshai1@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The optimal adjuvant radiation treatment for endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains controversial. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VB) has emerged as an increasingly common treatment modality. However, the time trends for using VB, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), or combined therapy (VB+EBRT) have not been well characterized. We therefore examined the utilization trends of VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT for adjuvant RT in International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology (FIGO) stage I and II EC over time. Methods and Materials: We evaluated treatment patterns for 48,122 patients with EC diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2005, using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) public use database. Chi-squared tests were used to assess differences by radiation type (VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT) and various demographic and clinical variables. Results: Analyses were limited to 9,815 patients (20.4%) with EC who met the inclusion criteria. Among women who received adjuvant RT, the proportion receiving VB increased yearly (12.9% in 1995 compared to 32.8% in 2005 (p < 0.0001). The increasing use of VB was proportional to the decreasing use of EBRT (56.1% in 1995 to 45.8% in 2005; p < 0.0001) and VB+EBRT (31.0% in 1995 to 21.4% in 2005; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This population-based report demonstrates an increasing trend in the use of VB in the adjuvant setting after hysterectomy for treatment of women with FIGO stage I-II EC. VB alone appears to be replacing pelvic EBRT and VB+EBRT therapy in the management of stage I-II EC.

  18. Enhanced Surveillance during the Democratic National Convention, Charlotte, NC

    OpenAIRE

    Deyneka, Lana; Ising, Amy; Li, Meichun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe how the existing state syndromic surveillance system (NC DETECT) was enhanced to facilitate surveillance conducted at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina from August 31, 2012 to September 10, 2012. Introduction North Carolina hosted the 2012 Democratic National Convention, September 3?6, 2012. The NC Epidemiology and Surveillance Team was created to facilitate enhanced surveillance for injuries and illnesses, early detection of outbreaks durin...

  19. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; Rajaram, S; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with ageindustry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01) compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05) and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04). Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among FSWs, studying and changing the behavior of FSW clients and addressing structural drivers of the epidemic might indirectly help reduce HIV infection among women in southern India.

  20. Epidemiology of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease, Europe, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robert; Economopoulou, Assimoula; Dias, Joana Gomes; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Ramliden, Miriam; Celentano, Lucia Pastore

    2017-03-01

    We describe the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease during 2007-2014 in 12 European countries and assess overall H. influenzae disease trends by serotype and patient age. Mean annual notification rate was 0.6 cases/100,000 population, with an increasing annual trend of 3.3% (95% CI 2.3% to 4.3%). The notification rate was highest for patients influenzae (NTHi) caused 78% of all cases and showed increasing trends among persons 20 years of age. Serotype f cases showed an increasing trend among persons >60 years of age. Serotype b cases showed decreasing trends among persons 1-5 months, 1-4 years, and >40 years of age. Sustained success of routine H. influenzae serotype b vaccination is evident. Surveillance systems must adopt a broad focus for invasive H. influenzae disease. Increasing reports of NTHi, particularly among neonates, highlight the potential benefit of a vaccine against NTHi.

  1. Epidemiology of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease, Europe, 2007–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulou, Assimoula; Dias, Joana Gomes; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Ramliden, Miriam; Celentano, Lucia Pastore

    2017-01-01

    We describe the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease during 2007–2014 in 12 European countries and assess overall H. influenzae disease trends by serotype and patient age. Mean annual notification rate was 0.6 cases/100,000 population, with an increasing annual trend of 3.3% (95% CI 2.3% to 4.3%). The notification rate was highest for patients influenzae (NTHi) caused 78% of all cases and showed increasing trends among persons 20 years of age. Serotype f cases showed an increasing trend among persons >60 years of age. Serotype b cases showed decreasing trends among persons 1–5 months, 1–4 years, and >40 years of age. Sustained success of routine H. influenzae serotype b vaccination is evident. Surveillance systems must adopt a broad focus for invasive H. influenzae disease. Increasing reports of NTHi, particularly among neonates, highlight the potential benefit of a vaccine against NTHi. PMID:28220749

  2. Vigilância epidemiológica e avaliação da assistência às meningites Epidemiologic surveillance and evaluation of meningitis hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Caminha Escosteguy

    2004-10-01

    hospital's epidemiology service from 1986 to 2002, using the National Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN as part of the local routine of epidemiologic surveillance. Statistics analysis included multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The most frequent etiologies were: cryptococcal (12.3%; case-fatality =37.7%; meningococcal (8.7%; fatality =13.3%; pneumococcal (7.2%; fatality =46%; tuberculous (6.1%; fatality =40.5%; staphylococcal (5.2%; fatality =38.9%, viral (5.5%; fatality =7.9%; Haemophilus (2.9%; fatality =20%. The proportion of cases of non-specified etiology was 38.8% (fatality =36% and 17.3% were associated to HIV infection. It was found that 27.1% were nosocomial meningitis and 9.2% of the surviving cases had sequelae. The logistic regression model identified the following death predictors of infectious meningitis: etiology (reference: viral category - tuberculous, cryptococcal, staphylococcal, meningococcal, non-specified, other Gram-negative, Candida and pneumococcal; HIV co-infection; coma. Fever, vomiting and neck stiffness were associated to a lower odds of death. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of non-specified etiology and high case-fatality may reflect problems in the hospital care process and/or case selection. The epidemiologic surveillance system operating at the hospital level was able to feedback the services with clinical indicators. The use of SINAN at the local level was considered useful and pertinent

  3. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Thamattoor

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively.Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity.The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR:1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI:1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54 compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62 or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01 compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05 and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04.Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among

  4. Epidemiological surveillance, virulence and public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using this isolate, histopathological studies were carried out and It caused significant histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in experimentally infected BALB/c mice. The conventional methods cannot predict the presence of these potentially enteropathogenic microorganisms in drinking water and hence represents ...

  5. [National epidemiological surveillance systems of mesothelioma cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Binazzi, Alessandra; Branchi, Claudia; Marinaccio, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUZIONE: sebbene la relazione causale tra esposizione ad amianto e malattie neoplastiche sia ben nota, in molti Paesi il consumo del materiale è ancora rilevante e crescente. A causa della lunga latenza, nei Paesi dove è stato bandito (come in Italia) è oggi in corso un'epidemia di malattie correlate ad amianto. OBIETTIVI: descrivere i sistemi di sorveglianza dei mesoteliomi attivi nel mondo mediante un'analisi comparativa. è stata condotta una revisione bibliografica della letteratura disponibile sui sistemi di sorveglianza epidemiologica dei mesoteliomi attivi nel mondo, comparando metodi e risultati disponibili. RISULTATI: sistemi di ricerca dei casi incidenti e di analisi anamnestica dei soggetti ammalati sono attivi solo in Italia, Francia e Corea del Sud. I Paesi presso i quali sono attivi sistemi di rilevazione e controllo dei casi incidenti di mesotelioma sono quelli in cui vige il bando dell'amianto e che hanno sperimentato consumi rilevanti in passato. Non sono stati istituiti sistemi epidemiologici di sorveglianza in molti Paesi dove il consumo di amianto è ancora importante (inclusi Russia, Cina, India e Brasile). CONCLUSIONI: si conferma l'importanza dei sistemi di sorveglianza epidemiologica dei mesoteliomi per la sanità pubblica, il sostegno alle politiche di welfare e la prevenzione dei rischi. Lo sviluppo di progetti per tendere a una maggiore uniformità nei metodi di ricerca dei casi, di classificazione delle diagnosi e dell'esposizione e nelle tecniche di analisi dei dati potrebbe consentire una maggiore fruibilità dei dati aggregati. La disponibilità di dati internazionali confrontabili può essere di stimolo all'adozione di provvedimenti di bando internazionale.

  6. Quality in epidemiological surveillance of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The reporting of scientific results (in the field of contact dermatitis/allergy) should include a description of the methods used, including, but not limited to, standardized patch testing. Several aspects always need to be reported, such as duration of exposure, reading times, vehicle, and conce...

  7. HIV infection in Bophuthatswana Epidemiological surveillance 1987 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the degree of mv endemicity and the extent of its penetration into the general population in Bophuthatswana, a sentinel network of all the 11 hospitals and 3 prisons in the country was established in 1987. In addition, a population seroprevalence study was conducted in 1989. Between 5 January 1987 and 31 ...

  8. Epidemiological surveillance, virulence and public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gulab pandove

    141004,Punjab, India. Accepted 9 September, 2012 ... listeriosis, non-invasive gastrointestinal disease, as well as local skin and eye symptoms .... concentration of 2 µg/ml. Identification of Listeria spp. by polymerase chain reaction. (PCR).

  9. Aiding surveillance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    arashid

    generator in itself.4 Yet surveillance unconstrained by legal frameworks, human rights protections, and the rule of law has the ... Analysis of the potential adverse implications of using personal information is often completely ..... acknowledge the potential of new information technologies to strengthen electoral processes,.

  10. 1994 annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This amended annual report corrects errors in the initial release of the BNL report for 1994. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized

  11. Profesi Epidemiologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchari Lapau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini pertama kali menjelaskan perlu adanya profesi kesehatan masyarakat dalam rangka pembangunan kesehatan. Lalu dijelaskan apa profesi itu dan standar keberadaan profesi, atas dasar mana dapat ditetapkan bahwa pelayanan epidemiologi merupakan salah satu profesi. Dalam rangka pembinaan profesi kesehatan masyarakat, IAKMI dan APTKMI telah membentuk Majelis Kolegium Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (MKKMI yang terdiri atas 8 kolegium antara lain Kolegium Epidemiologi, yang telah menyusun Standar Profesi Epidemiologi yang terdiri atas beberapa standar. Masing-masing standar dijelaskan mulai dari kurikulum, standar pelayanan epidmiologi, profil epidemiolog kesehatan, peran epidemiolog kesehatan, fungsi epidemiolog kesehatan, standar kompetensi epidemiologi, dan standar pendidikan profesi epidemiologi.

  12. Health surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Code includes a number of requirements for the health surveillance of employees associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores. This guideline is particularly directed at determining the level of fitness of employees and prospective employees, detecting any symptom which might contraindicate exposure to the environment encountered in mine/mill situations, examination of any employee who may have been exposed to radiation in excess of defined limits and the accumulation and provision of data on the health of employees

  13. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  14. Annual effective dose due to residential radon progeny in Sweden: Evaluations based on current risk projections models and on risk estimates from a nation-wide Swedish epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, M.; Lagarde, F.

    1996-12-01

    Effective dose per unit radon progeny exposure to Swedish population in 1992 is estimated by the risk projection model based on the Swedish epidemiological study of radon and lung cancer. The resulting values range from 1.29 - 3.00 mSv/WLM and 2.58 - 5.99 mSv/WLM, respectively. Assuming a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m 3 , an equilibrium factor of 0.4 and an occupancy factor of 0.6 in Swedish houses, the annual effective dose for the Swedish population is estimated to be 0.43 - 1.98 mSv/year, which should be compared to the value of 1.9 mSv/year, according to the UNSCEAR 1993 report. 27 refs, tabs, figs

  15. Annual effective dose due to residential radon progeny in Sweden: Evaluations based on current risk projections models and on risk estimates from a nation-wide Swedish epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, M. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Lagarde, F. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine; Falk, R.; Swedjemark, G.A. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Effective dose per unit radon progeny exposure to Swedish population in 1992 is estimated by the risk projection model based on the Swedish epidemiological study of radon and lung cancer. The resulting values range from 1.29 - 3.00 mSv/WLM and 2.58 - 5.99 mSv/WLM, respectively. Assuming a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m{sup 3}, an equilibrium factor of 0.4 and an occupancy factor of 0.6 in Swedish houses, the annual effective dose for the Swedish population is estimated to be 0.43 - 1.98 mSv/year, which should be compared to the value of 1.9 mSv/year, according to the UNSCEAR 1993 report. 27 refs, tabs, figs.

  16. Medical Surveillance System & Medical Effect Modeling Thrust Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Angel A; Chotani, Rashid A

    2007-01-01

    .... The main objective is to combine modeling/simulation, medical surveillance, early warning detection and real-time epidemiology by not only embarking on novel technologies but also by evaluating...

  17. Optimizing provider recruitment for influenza surveillance networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel V Scarpino

    Full Text Available The increasingly complex and rapid transmission dynamics of many infectious diseases necessitates the use of new, more advanced methods for surveillance, early detection, and decision-making. Here, we demonstrate that a new method for optimizing surveillance networks can improve the quality of epidemiological information produced by typical provider-based networks. Using past surveillance and Internet search data, it determines the precise locations where providers should be enrolled. When applied to redesigning the provider-based, influenza-like-illness surveillance network (ILINet for the state of Texas, the method identifies networks that are expected to significantly outperform the existing network with far fewer providers. This optimized network avoids informational redundancies and is thereby more effective than networks designed by conventional methods and a recently published algorithm based on maximizing population coverage. We show further that Google Flu Trends data, when incorporated into a network as a virtual provider, can enhance but not replace traditional surveillance methods.

  18. The methodological paths for the study of sanitary surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Célia Borges de Lucena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim is to assess the appropriateness of using quantitative and qualitative approaches to analyzing and understanding the sanitary surveillance object in its relation to epidemiology. Data Synthesis: After a brief background on the relationship between epidemiology and social sciences, and between quantitative and qualitative methods, the study analyzes characteristics of the sanitary surveillance object that may assist the understanding of its nature and, therefore, of the ...

  19. The methodological paths for the study of sanitary surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Célia Borges de Lucena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim is to assess the appropriateness of using quantitative and qualitative approaches to analyzing and understanding the sanitary surveillance object in its relation to epidemiology. Data Synthesis: After a brief background on the relationship between epidemiology and social sciences, and between quantitative and qualitative methods, the study analyzes characteristics of the sanitary surveillance object that may assist the understanding of its nature and, therefore, of the most...

  20. Epidemiology of cholera in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lena Lopez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a cholera-endemic country, data on cholera in the Philippines remain sparse. Knowing the areas where cholera is known to occur and the factors that lead to its occurrence will assist in planning preventive measures and disaster mitigation.Using sentinel surveillance data, PubMed and ProMED searches covering information from 2008-2013 and event-based surveillance reports from 2010-2013, we assessed the epidemiology of cholera in the Philippines. Using spatial log regression, we assessed the role of water, sanitation and population density on the incidence of cholera.We identified 12 articles from ProMED and none from PubMed that reported on cholera in the Philippines from 2008 to 2013. Data from ProMed and surveillance revealed 42,071 suspected and confirmed cholera cases reported from 2008 to 2013, among which only 5,006 were confirmed. 38 (47% of 81 provinces and metropolitan regions reported at least one confirmed case of cholera and 32 (40% reported at least one suspected case. The overall case fatality ratio in sentinel sites was 0.62%, but was 2% in outbreaks. All age groups were affected. Using both confirmed and suspected cholera cases, the average annual incidence in 2010-2013 was 9.1 per 100,000 population. Poor access to improved sanitation was consistently associated with higher cholera incidence. Paradoxically, access to improved water sources was associated with higher cholera incidence using both suspected and confirmed cholera data sources. This finding may have been due to the breakdown in the infrastructure and non-chlorination of water supplies, emphasizing the need to maintain public water systems.Our findings confirm that cholera affects a large proportion of the provinces in the country. Identifying areas most at risk for cholera will support the development and implementation of policies to minimize the morbidity and mortality due to this disease.

  1. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  2. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  3. Surveillance for Neisseria meningitidis Disease Activity and Transmission Using Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. Sohail; Oviedo-Orta, Ernesto; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Freifeld, Clark C.; Tougas, Gervais; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Background While formal reporting, surveillance, and response structures remain essential to protecting public health, a new generation of freely accessible, online, and real-time informatics tools for disease tracking are expanding the ability to raise earlier public awareness of emerging disease threats. The rationale for this study is to test the hypothesis that the HealthMap informatics tools can complement epidemiological data captured by traditional surveillance monitoring systems for meningitis due to Neisseria meningitides (N. meningitides) by highlighting severe transmissible disease activity and outbreaks in the United States. Methods Annual analyses of N. meningitides disease alerts captured by HealthMap were compared to epidemiological data captured by the Centers for Disease Control’s Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) for N. meningitides. Morbidity and mortality case reports were measured annually from 2010 to 2013 (HealthMap) and 2005 to 2012 (ABCs). Findings HealthMap N. meningitides monitoring captured 80-90% of alerts as diagnosed N. meningitides, 5-20% of alerts as suspected cases, and 5-10% of alerts as related news articles. HealthMap disease alert activity for emerging disease threats related to N. meningitides were in agreement with patterns identified historically using traditional surveillance systems. HealthMap’s strength lies in its ability to provide a cumulative “snapshot” of weak signals that allows for rapid dissemination of knowledge and earlier public awareness of potential outbreak status while formal testing and confirmation for specific serotypes is ongoing by public health authorities. Conclusions The underreporting of disease cases in internet-based data streaming makes inadequate any comparison to epidemiological trends illustrated by the more comprehensive ABCs network published by the Centers for Disease Control. However, the expected delays in compiling confirmatory reports by traditional surveillance systems

  4. Surveillance for Neisseria meningitidis Disease Activity and Transmission Using Information Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sohail Ahmed

    Full Text Available While formal reporting, surveillance, and response structures remain essential to protecting public health, a new generation of freely accessible, online, and real-time informatics tools for disease tracking are expanding the ability to raise earlier public awareness of emerging disease threats. The rationale for this study is to test the hypothesis that the HealthMap informatics tools can complement epidemiological data captured by traditional surveillance monitoring systems for meningitis due to Neisseria meningitides (N. meningitides by highlighting severe transmissible disease activity and outbreaks in the United States.Annual analyses of N. meningitides disease alerts captured by HealthMap were compared to epidemiological data captured by the Centers for Disease Control's Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs for N. meningitides. Morbidity and mortality case reports were measured annually from 2010 to 2013 (HealthMap and 2005 to 2012 (ABCs.HealthMap N. meningitides monitoring captured 80-90% of alerts as diagnosed N. meningitides, 5-20% of alerts as suspected cases, and 5-10% of alerts as related news articles. HealthMap disease alert activity for emerging disease threats related to N. meningitides were in agreement with patterns identified historically using traditional surveillance systems. HealthMap's strength lies in its ability to provide a cumulative "snapshot" of weak signals that allows for rapid dissemination of knowledge and earlier public awareness of potential outbreak status while formal testing and confirmation for specific serotypes is ongoing by public health authorities.The underreporting of disease cases in internet-based data streaming makes inadequate any comparison to epidemiological trends illustrated by the more comprehensive ABCs network published by the Centers for Disease Control. However, the expected delays in compiling confirmatory reports by traditional surveillance systems (at the time of writing, ABCs data

  5. Trends in incidence, survival, and management of uveal melanoma: a population-based study of 7,516 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendraraj K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Christine SM Lau,1,2 Injoon Lee,2 Ronald S Chamberlain1–3 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2St George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Introduction: Uveal melanoma (UM is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, despite comprising <5% of all melanomas. To date, relatively few case series of UM have been published. Moreover, the factors influencing survival remain largely unknown. This study sought to analyze the impact of demographics, histology, clinical presentation, and treatments on the clinical outcomes of UM in a large modern nationwide patient cohort.Methods: Demographics and clinical data were abstracted on 277,120 histologically confirmed melanoma patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 1973 and 2012.Results: A total of 7,516 cases of UM represented 3.2% of all recorded cases of melanoma. The mean age-adjusted incidence was 5.1 per million (95% CI 4.2–6.1 and was higher in males (5.9, CI =4.4–7.6 compared to females (4.5, CI =3.3–5.8, P<0.001. UM occurred most commonly in the sixth decade of life (61.4±15 and among Caucasians (94.7%. A total of 52.3% of cases were reported in the Western US (35.7% in California. The initial diagnoses in 65.2% of cases were by histopathology, followed by clinical diagnosis (18.8% and radiographic imaging (16.0%. The percentage of UM cases managed by surgery alone decreased by 69.4% between the 1973–1977 and 2006–2012 time periods, concomitant with a 62% increase in primary radiotherapy, P<0.001. The UM mean overall and cancer-specific 5-year relative survival rates were 79.8%±5.8% and 76%±5.3%, respectively. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rate (76% remained stable during the study period between 1973 and 2012. The mean survival for patients treated with

  6. Characteristics of seasonal influenza A and B in Latin America: influenza surveillance data from ten countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Alonso, W.J.; Balmaseda, A.; Bruno, A.; Busto, P.; Castillo, L.; Lozano, C. de; Mora, D. de; Fasce, R. A.; Ferreira de Almeida, W.A.; Kusznierz, G.F.; Lara, J.; Matute, M.L.; Moreno, B.; Pessanha Henriques, C.M.; Rudi, J.M.; El-Guerche Séblain, C.; Schellevis, F.; Paget, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the

  7. Characteristics of seasonal influenza A and B in Latin America: Influenza surveillance data from ten countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Alonso, W.J.; Balmaseda, A.; Bruno, A.; Bustos, P.; Castillo, L.; Lozano, C.; Mora, D. De; Fasce, R.A.; Ferreira de Almeida, W.A.; Kusznierz, G.F.; Lara, J.; Matute, M.L.; Moreno, B.; Henriques, C.M.; Rudi, J.M.; El-Guerche Seblain, C.; Schellevis, F.; Paget, J.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the

  8. Short Communication: Participatory disease surveillance as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under-reporting of animal disease outbreak is a common feature in most developing countries with poor disease reporting system including Nigeria, where majority of animals are held by rural livestock farmers. Participatory Animal Disease Surveillance (PDS) a participatory epidemiology/epizootiology method which ...

  9. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  10. Participatory Disease Surveillance in the Detection of Trans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the detection of trans-boundary animal diseases using participatory disease surveillance in Borno State. Participatory epidemiology is an emerging field that is based on the use of participatory techniques for harvesting qualitative epidemiological intelligence contained within community observations, ...

  11. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J White

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the epidemiology of Lyme disease depends upon information generated from several sources. Human disease surveillance can be conducted by both passive and active means involving physicians, public health agencies and laboratories. Passive and active tick surveillance programs can document the extent of tick-borne activity, identify the geographic range of potential vector species, and determine the relative risk of exposure to Lyme disease in specific areas. Standardized laboratory services can play an important role in providing data. Epidemiologists can gain a better understanding of Lyme disease through the collection of data from such programs. The interpretation of data and provision of information to the medical and general communities are important functions of public health agencies.

  12. Lung cancer epidemiology in New Mexico uranium miners: Third annual report for the period 1 April 1985-15 December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    This Technical Progress Report for the first 32 months of the contract ''Lung Cancer Epidemiology in New Mexico Uranium Miners''describes by task the activities finished or begun since April, 1983. For the retrospective cohort study of miners with first underground experience before 1971, abstracting and entering of all the Grants Clinic smoking and mining histories has been completed, and editing is under way. All company-reported Working Level Months (WLM) data for 1967 to 1982 have been abstracted, keyed, and edited. For earlier years, the data base of working level measurements obtained from state agencies is also completed. Further follow-up of the cohort has been accomplished through the Social Security Administration and the National Death Index. Death certificates have been received for 345 deceased cohort members. For feasibility evaluation of a prospective cohort study of miners with first underground experience after 1970, refinements of previous projections of available subjects have been made. An estimated 10,447 persons are available but with low mean cumulative exposures. Grants Clinic information for all miners has been collected on microfilm. Finally, planning for analysis has continued. To calculate comparison mortality rates, it is necessary to derive population estimates for New Mexico from 1957 through 1982. This task has been completed, and racial/ethnic group-specific rates have been computed for 1958 to 1982. Alternative statistical approaches for data analysis are being considered. 5 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  13. The Need for European Surveillance of CDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiuff, Camilla; Banks, A-Lan; Fitzpatrick, Fidelma; Cottom, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Since the turn of the millennium, the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has continued to challenge. Over the last decade there has been a growing awareness that improvements to surveillance are needed. The increasing rate of CDI and emergence of ribotype 027 precipitated the implementation of mandatory national surveillance of CDI in the UK. Changes in clinical presentation, severity of disease, descriptions of new risk factors and the occurrence of outbreaks all emphasised the importance of early diagnosis and surveillance.However a lack of consensus on case definitions, clinical guidelines and optimal laboratory diagnostics across Europe has lead to the underestimation of CDI and impeded comparison between countries. These inconsistencies have prevented the true burden of disease from being appreciated.Acceptance that a multi-country surveillance programme and optimised diagnostic strategies are required not only to detect and control CDI in Europe, but for a better understanding of the epidemiology, has built the foundations for a more robust, unified surveillance. The concerted efforts of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) CDI networks, has lead to the development of an over-arching long-term CDI surveillance strategy for 2014-2020. Fulfilment of the ECDC priorities and targets will no doubt be challenging and will require significant investment however the hope is that both a national and Europe-wide picture of CDI will finally be realised.

  14. Mapping hypoendemic, seasonal malaria in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh: a prospective surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Gregory

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently the Chittagong Hill tracts have been hyperendemic for malaria. A past cross-sectional RDT based survey in 2007 recorded rates of approximately 15%. This study was designed to understand the present epidemiology of malaria in this region, to monitor and facilitate the uptake of malaria intervention activities of the national malaria programme and to serve as an area for developing new and innovative control strategies for malaria. Methods This research field area was established in two rural unions of Bandarban District of Bangladesh north of Bandarban city, which are known to be endemic for malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. The project included the following elements: a a demographic surveillance system including an initial census with updates every four months, b periodic surveys of knowledge attitude and practice, c a geographic information system, d weekly active and continuous passive surveillance for malaria infections using smears, rapid tests and PCR, f monthly mosquito surveillance, and e daily weather measures. The programme included both traditional and molecular methods for detecting malaria as well as lab methods for speciating mosquitoes and detecting mosquitoes infected with sporozoites. Results The demographic surveillance enumerated and mapped 20,563 people, 75% of which were tribal non-Bengali. The monthly mosquito surveys identified 22 Anopheles species, eight of which were positive by circumsporozoite ELISA. The annual rate of malaria was close to 1% with 85% of cases in the rainy months of May-October. Definitive clustering identified in the low transmission season persisted during the high transmission season. Conclusion This demographically and geographically defined area, near to the Myanmar border, which is also hypoendemic for malaria, will be useful for future studies of the epidemiology of malaria and for evaluation of strategies for malaria control including new drugs and

  15. Vaccine preventable meningitis in Malaysia: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Hannah C; Jefferies, Johanna M C; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide bacterial meningitis accounts for more than one million cases and 135,000 deaths annually. Profound, lasting neurological complications occur in 9-25% of cases. This review confirms the greatest risk from bacterial meningitis is in early life in Malaysia. Much of the disease burden can be avoided by immunization, particularly against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite inclusion of the Hib vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme and the licensure of pneumococcal vaccines, these two species are the main contributors to bacterial meningitis in Malaysia, with Neisseria meningitidis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causing a smaller proportion of disease. The high Hib prevalence may partly be due to dated, small-scale studies limiting the understanding of the current epidemiological situation. This highlights the need for larger, better quality surveillance from Malaysia to evaluate the success of Hib immunization and to help guide immunization policy for vaccines against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis.

  16. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  18. Dengue: inquérito populacional para pesquisa de anticorpos e vigilância virológica no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Dengue: sero-epidemiological survey and virological surveillance in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgília Luna Castor de Lima

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a epidemiologia do dengue no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, por meio de um inquérito populacional aleatório realizado em 1998, visando à detecção dos níveis de anticorpos para dengue, e de dados de vigilância epidemiológica do período de 1996 a 2003, com ênfase na vigilância virológica. Foram coletadas 1.260 amostras, por meio de punção digital, utilizando-se papel de filtro, sendo as amostras testadas pelo teste imunoenzimático em culturas celulares infectadas (EIA-ICC. Observou-se que a prevalência de soro reagentes (14,79% é mais baixa que as encontradas em outros inquéritos realizados no país e superior às encontradas em dois inquéritos realizados em cidades do Estado de São Paulo. Detectou-se uma prevalência de soro reagentes muito superior à incidência de casos notificados e confirmados laboratorialmente durante as epidemias de 1996, 1997 e 1998. Não se encontrou proporcionalidade entre a prevalência de anticorpos para dengue e a incidência de casos durante a epidemia nos diferentes Distritos de Saúde da cidade. Sugerem-se um estudo aprofundado do significado dos indicadores de transmissão utilizados em epidemias e uma vigilância virológica mais intensa, principalmente em anos com níveis de transmissão baixos.The epidemiology of dengue in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, was studied in 1998 using a randomized sero-epidemiological survey. Epidemiological surveillance data from 1996-2003 were also analyzed, with an emphasis on virological surveillance. 1,260 individuals participated in the survey and had blood samples drawn by finger stick on filter paper. Blood samples were tested by EIA-ICC, an enzyme immunoassay using infected cells as antigen. Dengue antibody prevalence (14.79% was lower than in other surveys in other States of Brazil, but higher than in two other serological surveys in São Paulo State. Dengue antibody prevalence was far higher than the reported

  19. Possibilidades e limites do trabalho de vigilância epidemiológica no nível local em direção à vigilância à saúde Possibilidades y límites del trabajo de vigilanica epidemiologica en los servicios sanitarios hacia la vigilancia de la salud Possibilities and limits of epidemiological surveillance at the local level towards health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Maria Rodrigues

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como marco referencial o processo de trabalho em saúde e em enfermagem, e como objetivos descrever e analisar as ações de Vigilância Epidemiológica (VE desenvolvidas em uma unidade de saúde, buscando identificar o quanto se aproximam da estratégia de Vigilância à Saúde (VS. Utilizou-secomo referência um check-list elaborado com base nas ações de VE preconizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que na unidade de saúde estudada, as ações de VE restringiam-se à notificação e ao controle das doenças transmissíveis e que o trabalho da enfermeira na VE caracteriza-sepor atividades burocráticas. Conclui-sepela necessidade de se ampliarem as discussões sobre as formas de operacionalização da VS nos serviços de saúde.La investigación tuvo los objetivos de describir las acciones de Vigilancia Epidemiologica desarolladas en un servicio sanitário de atención primaria y analisarias desde concepciones del processo salud-enfermidad y del proceso de trabajo en salud y en enfernmeira a fin de identificar en que medida las acciones se acercam de la estrategia de Vigilancia de la salud. Como referencia se uso un listado de chequeo com las acciones de la Vigilancia Epidemiologica que son preconizadas por el Ministerio de salud de Brazil. Los dados han demuenstrado que en el servicio investigado las acciones de Vigilancia Epidemiológica se limitam a la notificación y al control de las enfermedades transmissibles. Los resultados también muestraron que el trabajo de la enfermeria em la Vigilancia Epidemiologica se caracteriza por ias actividades burocráticas . La conclusón es que la necesidad de se extender las discusiones acerca de las formas de operar la Vigilancia de la salud en los servicios sanitarios.The aim of this study is to describe and analyze Epidemiological Surveillance activities (ES developed in a Health Care Unit and to identify their adherence to recommended Health Surveillance

  20. [Health surveillance: foundations, interfaces and tendencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreaza, Antonio Luis Vicente; de Moraes, José Cássio

    2010-07-01

    The present article rescues initially the forms, content and operational projection of the epidemiological surveillance as indispensable tool for the knowledge field and public health practices. After that, we verify that the health surveillance model establishes an enlargement of this operational concept of surveillance by integrating the collectives and individuals practices in different health necessities dimensions, which includes beyond of the risks and damages control also the eco-socials determinants. In the sequence, we search to dimension the distinct levels of actuation of this sanitary practice articulated to the interventions of promotion, protection and recovery under a located and integrated logic of the unique system of Brazilian health. Finally, we argue that all the conceptual-operational model framework of public health surveillance itself constitutes as a politics and sanitary base for the consolidation of the health promotion paradigm in the collective health field.

  1. Analysis of epidemiological indicators: Bovine brucellosis on the Atlantic coast and Antioquia - Colombia, 2005-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Oviedo-Pastrana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe the situation of the bovine brucellosis in the Atlantic Coast and Antioquia (CAA by analysis of epidemiological indicators during 2005-2013. Materials and methods. The data was obtained from epidemiological reports of the Colombian Agricultural Institute and the National Agricultural Census 2014. The annual departmental average of the variables studied was compared and it was performed a temporal analysis through graphical representation. Results. 44% of the positive farms were focused on the CAA; the positivity rate of farms in the CAA (27.9% was higher and statistically significant when related to the average rate in the country (24.8% being promoted by the least producing departments. Regarding to the cattle population, the CAA concentrated 47.0% of positive cattle in the country; however, the bovine positivity rate (5.8% was statistically equal to the national average (5.3%; yet, the departments with lower cattle population had the highest rates. The best surveillance for bovine brucellosis was observed between 2005 and 2009, in contrast, during 2010, 2011 and 2013 there was a considerable reduction in the number of diagnoses, in both farms and cattle. In the least producing departments the temporary distribution of epidemiological indicators favored more the presence of the disease. Conclusions. The National Prevention Control and Eradication Program of Bovine Brucellosis in the CAA presented promising results, however, the lack of continuity in the diagnostic surveillance during some years and mainly in the least producing departments affected negatively their development.

  2. Frecuencia y tendencia temporal de los defectos congénitos en Asturias: La necesidad de la vigilancia clinicoepidemiológica Prevalence and secular trend of congenital defects in Asturias, Spain: The need for clinical-epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mosquera Tenreiro

    2009-08-01

    fifth years of life in Asturias. These anomalies generate substantial morbidity. The aim of the present study was to describe the population-based frequency of congenital defects in Asturias and their forms of presentation. Methods: Data from the population-based Registry of Congenital Defects of Asturias for 1990-2004 were analyzed. The data related to live births, stillbirths and induced abortions after prenatal diagnosis and are presented as birth prevalence and total prevalence (including induced abortions. Results: The total number of births was 103,452 and there were 3,035 cases of congenital defects, representing a total prevalence of 2.9 cases per 100 births and a birth prevalence of 2.5%. These figures showed a tendency to increase throughout the study period. A total of 2,516 (82.9% cases were live births, 46 (1.5% were stillbirths and 473 (15.6% were induced abortions. Prenatal diagnosis increased throughout the period. Sixtythree percent of total cases showed an isolated defect, 17% a recognized syndrome and the remaining 20% had multiple malformations without a syndromic pattern. The most frequent and severe defects registered were neural tube defects (12.2 per 10,000 births, chromosomal abnormalities (34.4 per 10,000, and cardiac defects (75.2 per 10,000. Conclusions: The 15-year experience of the Registry of Congenital Defects of Asturias reveals the utility of this type of database to evaluate prenatal screening programs, plan the resources needed in affected pregnant women and infants, and perform epidemiological surveillance of congenital defects in relation to environmental risks, drug exposure and assisted reproduction techniques.

  3. Who is Surveilling Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns the particular form of counter-surveillance termed “sousveillance”, which aims to turn surveillance at the institutions responsible for surveillance. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives “mediatization” and “aerial surveillance,” the article studies WikiLeaks’ publication...

  4. Case based measles surveillance in Pune: evidence to guide current and future measles control and elimination efforts in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Sekhar Bose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011 are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. METHODS: Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. RESULTS: Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1. CONCLUSION: Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination.

  5. Case Based Measles Surveillance in Pune: Evidence to Guide Current and Future Measles Control and Elimination Efforts in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Anindya Sekhar; Jafari, Hamid; Sosler, Stephen; Narula, Arvinder Pal Singh; Kulkarni, V. M.; Ramamurty, Nalini; Oommen, John; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Banpel, R. V.; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011) are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. Methods Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM) or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. Results Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1). Conclusion Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination. PMID:25290339

  6. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Sauvageot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org.During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0-10% (median, 1% by country.Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  7. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities. However, ongoing S and M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations

  8. Measles Surveillance Attributes Assessment Based on The Puskesmas Surveilance Officers’ Perception in Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilqis Elfira Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Measles is one of infectious diseases that potentially lead to death when complications occur. Based on the data from East Java Health Department, Surabaya is the area where the most measles cases occur in East Java and increase in the last three years. As one of measles controlling efforts, surveillance has been expected to provide qualified data and information as the basis for any decision making for a treatment or intervention. Therefore, an evaluation is needed in order to assure the effectiveness and efficiency of the surveillance application in achieving the goals. This study is a descriptive research aiming at evaluating the attributes of measles epidemiology surveillance system in Surabaya on 2012. The evaluation was done by assessing the attributes of surveillance then compared to Technical Guide for Measles Surveillance 2012, The Decree of The Health Ministry of The Republic of Indonesia No.1116/MENKES/SK/VIII/2003 On Guide for Conducting Surveillance System of Health Epidemiology and Guidelines for Evaluating Surveillance Systems from Center for Disease Control and Prevention 2001. The data collection method employed interview and observation or study documentation. The respondents of this study were 39 surveillance officers at 39 Puskesmas in Health Department Surabaya working area. The variabels of this study were simplicity, flexibility, data quality, acceptability, sensitivity, predictive value positive, representativeness, timeliness, and stability. The results of this study showed that the simplicity is complicated. The flexibility from CBMS is not flexible whereas the flexibility from EWARS is flexible. The data quality, acceptability, sensitivity and representativeness are low. The predictive value positive has not been able to be scored. The stability is high and the timeliness is punctual. Keywords: surveillance, evaluation, attribute, measles

  9. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  10. Towards one health disease surveillance: the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Sayalel, Kuya; Beda, Eric; Short, Nick; Wambura, Philemon; Mboera, Leonard G; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2012-06-20

    Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for 'fit-for- purpose' approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH) approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT) servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  11. [METHODICAL APPROACHES, EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RISK MODEL OF SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE SPHERE OF THE ASSURANCE OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELFARE OF POPULATION, POPULATION'S HEALTH RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Gileva, M A; Boiarskiĭ, A P

    2015-01-01

    Control and supervision measures--one of the main technologies of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare in the overall system of risk management for public health and damage to property consumers, aimed at the solution of the prior tasks in the field of assurance of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer rights protection. The effectiveness of this technology depends on the correct choice of priority objects of supervision, which form the main problems in the sanitary and epidemiological situation and in the consumer market. The application of is approach has led to more effective oversight activity and the improvement of a number of indices characterizing the achievement of the objectives in the common system of risk management for public health and property of consumers.

  12. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Escuela Graduada de Salud Pública, Recinto de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Puerto Rico. Departamento de Salud de Puerto Rico (2002) 11. Appendices...Epidemiology I and II and Social Epidemiology: Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Disparities on Health). ii. Science of Cancer Health...Annual Meeting & Exposition: Social Justice, Denver, Colorado November 6-11 2010. i. I attended several conferences and workshop on cancer epidemiology

  13. Population-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis in China, September 2006-December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixing; Yin, Zundong; Shao, Zhujun; Li, Manshi; Liang, Xiaofeng; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Hadler, Stephen C; Li, Junhong; Sun, Yinqi; Li, Jing; Zou, Wenjing; Lin, Mei; Zuo, Shuyan; Mayer, Leonard W; Novak, Ryan T; Zhu, Bingqing; Xu, Li; Luo, Huiming

    2014-01-01

    During September 2006-December 2009, we conducted active population and sentinel laboratory-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, in 4 China prefectures. We identified 7,876 acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome cases, including 6,388 among prefecture residents. A total of 833 resident cases from sentinel hospitals met the World Health Organization case definition for probable bacterial meningitis; 339 of these cases were among children bacterial meningitis in 74 of 3,391 tested cases. The estimated annual incidence (per 100,000 population) of probable bacterial meningitis ranged from 1.84 to 2.93 for the entire population and from 6.95 to 22.30 for children bacterial meningitis cases in China, but more complete laboratory testing is needed to better define the epidemiology of the disease in this country.

  14. Population-based Surveillance for Bacterial Meningitis in China, September 2006–December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixing; Yin, Zundong; Shao, Zhujun; Li, Manshi; Liang, Xiaofeng; Sandhu, Hardeep S.; Hadler, Stephen C.; Li, Junhong; Sun, Yinqi; Li, Jing; Zou, Wenjing; Lin, Mei; Zuo, Shuyan; Mayer, Leonard W.; Novak, Ryan T.; Zhu, Bingqing; Xu, Li

    2014-01-01

    During September 2006–December 2009, we conducted active population and sentinel laboratory–based surveillance for bacterial meningitis pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, in 4 China prefectures. We identified 7,876 acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome cases, including 6,388 among prefecture residents. A total of 833 resident cases from sentinel hospitals met the World Health Organization case definition for probable bacterial meningitis; 339 of these cases were among children bacterial meningitis in 74 of 3,391 tested cases. The estimated annual incidence (per 100,000 population) of probable bacterial meningitis ranged from 1.84 to 2.93 for the entire population and from 6.95 to 22.30 for children bacterial meningitis cases in China, but more complete laboratory testing is needed to better define the epidemiology of the disease in this country. PMID:24377388

  15. Comparison of biannual ultrasonography and annual non-contrast liver magnetic resonance imaging as surveillance tools for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis (MAGNUS-HCC): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Kyung Ah; Choi, Joon-Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Chang Hee; Kang, Tae Wook; Ku, Young-Mi; Lee, Su Lim; Park, Yang Shin; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Seong Hyun; Choi, Moon Hyung

    2017-12-21

    Ultrasonography (US) is recommended as a standard surveillance tool for patients with a high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the low sensitivity of US for small HCC can lead to surveillance failure, resulting in advanced stage tumor presentations. For the early detection of HCC in high-risk patients and to improve survival and prognosis, a new efficient imaging tool with a high sensitivity for HCC detection is needed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the feasibility and efficacy of non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with US as a surveillance tool for HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis. MAGNUS-HCC is a prospective, multicenter clinical trial with a crossover design for a single arm of patients. This study was approved by six Institutional Review Boards, and informed consent was obtained from all participants. All patients will undergo liver US every 6 months and non-contrast liver MRI every 12 months during a follow-up period of 3 years. If a focal liver lesion suspected of harboring HCC is detected, dynamic liver computed tomography (CT) will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. After the last surveillance round, patients without suspicion of HCC or who are not diagnosed with HCC will be evaluated with a dynamic liver CT to exclude false-negative findings. The primary endpoint is to compare the rate of detection of HCC by US examinations performed at 6-month intervals with that of yearly non-contrast liver MRI studies during a 3-year follow-up. The secondary endpoint is the survival of the patients who developed HCC within the 3-year follow-up period. MAGNUS-HCC is the first study to compare the feasibility of non-contrast MRI with US as a surveillance tool for the detection of HCC in high-risk patients. We anticipate that the evidence presented in this study will establish the efficacy of non-contrast MRI as a surveillance tool for HCC in high-risk patients. The date of trial registration ( NCT

  16. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa

  17. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  18. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  19. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers Evaluación tecnológica de un sistema de información de salud mexicano-estadounidense para la vigilancia epidemiológica de los trabajadores itinerantes mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Eduardo Velasco-Mondragón

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a lack of communication binationally; b interrupted medical care due to migration; c inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first project that has successfully demonstrated the technological feasibility of a binational disease control system linking a state in the interior of one country with a state in the interior of another country, rather than just states in the border region. The project also advanced the understanding of health service organizational issues that facilitate or hinder communication, outreach, disease

  20. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... the whole of Africa, and warrant the need for in-depth study by using modern surveillance tools for meaningful basic understanding of the ... 727. Keywords. Cameroon; control; eco-biogeography; epidemiology; malaria; Plasmodium ..... effective in totally controlling malaria (Carnevale and. Mouchet 2001).

  1. Surveillance in von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Budtz-Jørgensen, E; Bisgaard, M L

    2010-01-01

    von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL) is a hereditary multisystem cancer syndrome requiring lifelong prophylactic surveillance. Current surveillance recommendations rely on best medical judgement and no evidence of effect exists. We aimed to evaluate the capability of surveillance in manifestation...... detection, before these turn symptomatic, in order to prevent disabling or even fatal outcomes. We focus on surveillance of central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas, retinal hemangiomas and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as these have the most severe consequences. On the basis of full medical records from...... 54 living vHL-mutation carriers, risks of intercurrent manifestations in-between surveillance examinations were determined and clinical consequences of surveillance findings evaluated. Current recommendations of annual ophthalmic and abdominal examinations corresponded to acceptably low intercurrent...

  2. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons

  3. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  4. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... of activists remains under-researched. This presentation explores visibility as a prerequisite and an obstacle to political participation. The dual capacity of visibility in social media enables both surveillance and counter-surveillance by making not only the surveilled actor, but also the surveilling actor...... visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  5. Surveillance and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Albrechtslund, Anders; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    eyes of cameras are but one of many important aspects of the surveillance society. In particular, surveillance has become intrinsic to our digitally mediated communication. Many are constantly engaged in forms of social surveillance as they observe what friends, family, celebrities, love interests......, and acquaintances are up to on social media. In turn, they also leave trails of digital footprints that may be collected and analyzed by governments, businesses, or hackers. The imperceptible nature of this new surveillance raises some pressing concerns about our digital lives as our data doubles increasingly...... are particularly relevant to this topic and audience. The fourth section outlines a variety of themes in which surveillance of communication is being studied. Organized under the headings Tracking; Mass Surveillance; Media; and Art, Fiction, and Popular Culture, this section provides a survey in surveillance...

  6. Meningococcal Meningitis Surveillance in the African Meningitis Belt, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingani, Clément; Bergeron-Caron, Cassi; Stuart, James M; Fernandez, Katya; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Ronveaux, Olivier; Schnitzler, Johannes C; Perea, William A

    2015-11-15

    An enhanced meningitis surveillance network was established across the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa in 2003 to rapidly collect, disseminate, and use district weekly data on meningitis incidence. Following 10 years' experience with enhanced surveillance that included the introduction of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), in 2010, we analyzed the data on meningitis incidence and case fatality from countries reporting to the network. After de-duplication and reconciliation, data were extracted from the surveillance bulletins and the central database held by the World Health Organization Inter-country Support Team in Burkina Faso for countries reporting consistently from 2004 through 2013 (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Togo). The 10 study countries reported 341 562 suspected and confirmed cases over the 10-year study period, with a marked peak in 2009 due to a large epidemic of group A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA) meningitis. Case fatality was lowest (5.9%) during this year. A mean of 71 and 67 districts annually crossed the alert and epidemic thresholds, respectively. The incidence rate of NmA meningitis fell >10-fold, from 0.27 per 100,000 in 2004-2010 to 0.02 per 100,000 in 2011-2013 (P meningitis surveillance system provides a global overview of the epidemiology of meningitis in the region, despite limitations in data quality and completeness. This study confirms a dramatic fall in NmA incidence after the introduction of PsA-TT. © 2015 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  7. Meningococcal Meningitis Surveillance in the African Meningitis Belt, 2004–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingani, Clément; Bergeron-Caron, Cassi; Stuart, James M.; Fernandez, Katya; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Ronveaux, Olivier; Schnitzler, Johannes C.; Perea, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. An enhanced meningitis surveillance network was established across the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa in 2003 to rapidly collect, disseminate, and use district weekly data on meningitis incidence. Following 10 years’ experience with enhanced surveillance that included the introduction of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), in 2010, we analyzed the data on meningitis incidence and case fatality from countries reporting to the network. Methods. After de-duplication and reconciliation, data were extracted from the surveillance bulletins and the central database held by the World Health Organization Inter-country Support Team in Burkina Faso for countries reporting consistently from 2004 through 2013 (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Togo). Results. The 10 study countries reported 341 562 suspected and confirmed cases over the 10-year study period, with a marked peak in 2009 due to a large epidemic of group A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA) meningitis. Case fatality was lowest (5.9%) during this year. A mean of 71 and 67 districts annually crossed the alert and epidemic thresholds, respectively. The incidence rate of NmA meningitis fell >10-fold, from 0.27 per 100 000 in 2004–2010 to 0.02 per 100 000 in 2011–2013 (P meningitis surveillance system provides a global overview of the epidemiology of meningitis in the region, despite limitations in data quality and completeness. This study confirms a dramatic fall in NmA incidence after the introduction of PsA-TT. PMID:26553668

  8. Sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica para el paciente diabético; el uso de tecnología computacional en la calidad de la atención médica Epidemiologic surveillance of diabetic patients; use of computer technology in the quality of medical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Alberto Rascón-Pacheco

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Presentar un instrumento que permita llevar a cabo la vigilancia epidemiológica y evaluar la calidad de la atención a la diabetes mellitus en el primer nivel de atención. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este estudio se realizó del 1 de enero de 1998 al 30 de junio de 1999, en la Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, en Hermosillo, Sonora. Se diseñó un formato único de reporte compuesto por los diferentes elementos que integran el sistema para la atención del paciente diabético en una Unidad de Medicina Familiar del IMSS. RESULTADOS: Se desarrolló e implementó un paquete de computación (software que permite la captura de los datos de dicho formato y la generación de reportes, de tipo individual y grupal, sobre el cumplimiento de citas, antecedentes personales patológicos y no patológicos, evolución de signos y síntomas, exámenes de laboratorio y el manejo terapéutico. CONCLUSIONES: La sistematización de datos en forma electrónica favorece la obtención de información confiable y permanente para la vigilancia de los procesos en la atención integral del paciente diabético.OBJECTIVE: To describe an instrument for epidemiologic surveillance of diabetes mellitus and evaluating the quality of care in primary health care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted from January 1, 1998, to June 30, 1999, at the Epidemiology and Health Services Research Unit of the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS, in Hermosillo, Sonora. A single data collection form was designed, which contains items included in the diabetes care clinic of the Unit of Family Medicine of the Mexican Institute of Social Security. RESULTS: We developed and implemented a software program to enter data from the paper format and to generate individual and group reports on attendance to scheduled medical visits, medical history, evolution of signs and symptoms, laboratory tests, and

  9. Utilização de ferramentas de análise espacial na vigilância epidemiológica de leishmaniose visceral americana - Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brasil, 1998-1999 Use of spatial analysis tools in the epidemiological surveillance of American visceral leishmaniasis, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, 1998-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Fonseca de Camargo-Neves

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O controle da Leishmaniose Visceral Americana (LVA está fundamentado no combate ao vetor e na eliminação do reservatório doméstico da área de foco - 200 metros em torno do caso humano ou canino. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo discutir a utilização de técnicas de análise espacial na vigilância epidemiológica da LVA no Município de Araçatuba, São Paulo, buscando estabelecer um modelo de vigilância epidemiológica em base territorial, redirecionando as estratégias de controle atualmente adotadas. Verificou-se que a transmissão da LVA não foi homogênea no município: a transmissão humana ocorreu nas áreas com maiores taxas de prevalência canina. A dispersão do vetor parece restrita a poucos domicílios, embora não tenha sido possível estabelecer um perfil da densidade vetorial. Visando estudar a distribuição do vetor e variáveis correlacionadas está sendo realizado estudo de campo por amostragem de domicílios, que permitirá o desenvolvimento de novas ferramentas de análise espacial e, possivelmente, permitirá redefinir as propostas de controle da endemia em ambiente urbano.The control of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL is based on combating the vector and eliminating the domestic reservoir of the focus area - defined as 200 meters around human or canine cases. This paper discusses the use of spatial analysis techniques in the epidemiological surveillance of AVL in Araçatuba, São Paulo State, in order to propose a model for territorial epidemiological surveillance, reformulating current control strategies. The results showed that AVL transmission was not homogeneous; human cases were more frequent in areas with higher canine prevalence rates. Vector dispersion appeared to be restricted to a few houses, although it was not possible to model the vector density. In order to study the vector distribution and correlated covariates, a field study based on house sampling is being conducted. The results will

  10. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs 3 (ESNIP 3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Scott M.; Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars Erik

    Objectives: The “European surveillance network for influenza in pigs (ESNIP) 3” continues a surveillance network previously established during concerted actions ESNIP 1 and ESNIP 2. Running from 2010-2013, ESNIP 3 represents the only organised surveillance network for influenza in pigs in Europe...... influenza virus (SIV) experimentally and in the field. Three work packages aim to increase knowledge of the epidemiology and evolution of SIV in European pigs to inform changes in disease trends and variation in contemporary viruses through organised field surveillance programmes. Results: An inventory...... of the programmes that are currently active in fifteen of the partners showed that passive surveillance was primarily used. Detected virus strains will be characterised by antigenic cartography (informing better evidence-based approaches for selection of vaccine strains) and genetically through full genome...

  11. 1998 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 1998. The activities are developed in 11 chapters and 2 appendixes, where are describing the activities and the bases of the Argentine Regulatory System. The following chapters and the appendixes are: 1.-Evolution of the nuclear regulatory activities in the Argentina. 2.-Regulatory system, laws, transport of radioactive materials, safety at the management of radioactive wastes, regulatory documents issued. 3.-Institutional relations with national and international organizations. 4.-Inspections and evaluations of the radiological and nuclear safety. 5.-Inspections and evaluations of safeguards and physical protection. 6.-Occupational surveillance. 7.-Environmental surveillance. 8.-Radiological emergencies. 9.-Scientific and technological activities. 10.-Training and technical information. 11.-Human and economic resources. Appendix 1.-Documents and regulatory licensings. Appendix 2.-Inspections to radioactive facilities

  12. The Past, Present, and Future of Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance. PMID:24278752

  13. Improving influenza surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, C; Debellut, F; Gessner, B D; Kasolo, F C; Yahaya, A A; Ayebazibwe, N; Bassong, O; Cardoso, Y; Kebede, S; Manoncourt, S; Vandemaele, K A; Mounts, A W

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about the burden of influenza in sub-Saharan Africa. Routine influenza surveillance is key to getting a better understanding of the impact of acute respiratory infections on sub-Saharan African populations. A project known as Strengthening Influenza Sentinel Surveillance in Africa (SISA) was launched in Angola, Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Zambia to help improve influenza sentinel surveillance, including both epidemiological and virological data collection, and to develop routine national, regional and international reporting mechanisms. These countries received technical support through remote supervision and onsite visits. Consultants worked closely with health ministries, the World Health Organization, national influenza laboratories and other stakeholders involved in influenza surveillance. Influenza surveillance systems in the target countries were in different stages of development when SISA was launched. Senegal, for instance, had conducted virological surveillance for years, whereas Sierra Leone had no surveillance activity at all. Working documents such as national surveillance protocols and procedures were developed or updated and training for sentinel site staff and data managers was organized. Targeted support to countries can help them strengthen national influenza surveillance, but long-term sustainability can only be achieved with external funding and strong national government leadership.

  14. Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: Taiwan's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ding-Ping

    Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease.

  15. Health protection in Brazil: the National Sanitary Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Marismary Horsth De; Oliveira, Catia Veronica Dos Santos; Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais

    2017-10-01

    This essay presents the singular arrangement named Health Surveillance in Brazil and the specificities of its components: public Health Surveillance, Worker's Surveillance, Environmental Surveillance, Sanitary Surveillance, as well as the constitutional determination to carry out the actions of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and Worker's Surveillance. The two national systems of protection and promote health are also presented - National Public Health Surveillance System and National Sanitary Surveillance System, with an emphasis on the regulatory issues in health made by the latter and some constraints to its action by the Legislative Branch. It reaffirms the Brazilian State's constitutional duty to protect health, and to provide the means for adequate functioning of the two systems, bearing in mind that defense of the public interest in health products and services means confronting oligopolies of transnational economic interests. This paper states the opinion that the financial constraints facing the Brazilian State from time to time cannot be allowed to prevail over the rights of citizenship, independently of the public underfunding of health in Brazil.

  16. Sanitary surveillance in France in relation with the Chernobylsk accident. Updated situation on thyroid cancers and epidemiological studies during 2006; Surveillance sanitaire en France en lien avec l'accident de Tchernobyl. Bilan actualise sur les cancers thyroidiens et etudes epidemiologiques en cours en 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belot, A. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), Dept. de Biostatistiques des Hospices civils de Lyon, Dept. Maladies Chroniques et Traumatismes (DMCT), Unite cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Caserio-Schonemann, C. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), DMCT, unite cancer, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Cherie-Challine, M. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), DMCT, unitr cancer, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Colonna, M. [Registre du cancer de l' Isere - reseau Francim, 38 - Grenoble (France); Lacour, B. [Registre National des Tumeurs Solides de l' enfant (RNTSE) - reseau Francim, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Lasalle, J.L. [Cellule interregionale d' epidemiologie Sud, Drass Paca, 13 - Marseille (France); Leenhardt, L. [Groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Service central de medecine nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Orgiazzi, J. [Centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Service d' endocrinologie, 69 - Lyon (France); Pirard, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), Dept. sante environnement (DSE), 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Schvartz, C. [Registre des cancers thyroidiens de Marne Ardennes - reseau Francim, Centre de lutte contre le cancer, 51 - Reims (France)

    2006-07-01

    An increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children has been reported since 1990 in areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine which have been highly contaminated during the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A similar increase is now observed in young adults in the same areas. In France, thyroid cancer is characterized by low occurrence and good prognosis. However, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing for more than 20 years, and in 1986, the Chernobyl cloud of radioactive dust crossed the French territory. Thus, the National institute for public health surveillance (I.n.V.S.) carried out several studies to evaluate whether the incidence increase in thyroid cancer is related to radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Since 2000, the I.n.V.S. is in charge of a national multidisciplinary approach involving a wide range of public health actors, including the French network of cancer registries (Francim). Since 2003, the I.n.V.S. has been working on improving the surveillance system according to the actions described in the national cancer plan 2003-2007. The I.n.V.S. has increased its financial contribution to cancer registries including the national registry of solid tumors in children, which was created in 2000. The Institute is also working on the implementation of a multi source system for the national cancer surveillance in link with cancer registries. For the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, the I.n.V.S. is publishing updated results from the latest research conducted in close collaboration with the partners. These results do not support the initial hypothesis of a potential 'Chernobyl effect' in France. The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer is also reported in most of developed countries. Practices in cancer diagnosis and the increased rate of total thyroidectomy for benign lesion may lead pathologists to unexpectedly discover small thyroid tumors. This fact is likely to explain most of the incidence increase

  17. Gynaekologisk epidemiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...... Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy...

  18. Gynaekologisk epidemiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy......Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...

  19. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  20. Changes in Incidence and Antifungal Drug Resistance in Candidemia: Results From Population-Based Laboratory Surveillance in Atlanta and Baltimore, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Angela Ahlquist; Farley, Monica M.; Harrison, Lee H.; Stein, Betsy; Hollick, Rosemary; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Magill, Shelley S.; Derado, Gordana; Park, Benjamin J.; Chiller, Tom M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Candidemia is common and associated with high morbidity and mortality; changes in population-based incidence rates have not been reported. Methods We conducted active, population-based surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, and Baltimore City/County, Maryland (combined population 5.2 million), during 2008–2011. We calculated candidemia incidence and antifungal drug resistance compared with prior surveillance (Atlanta, 1992–1993; Baltimore, 1998–2000). Results We identified 2675 cases of candidemia with 2329 isolates during 3 years of surveillance. Mean annual crude incidence per 100 000 person-years was 13.3 in Atlanta and 26.2 in Baltimore. Rates were highest among adults aged ≥65 years (Atlanta, 59.1; Baltimore, 72.4) and infants (aged candidemia epidemiology over the past 2 decades. Adults aged ≥65 years replaced infants as the highest incidence group; adjusted incidence has declined significantly in infants. Use of antifungal prophylaxis, improvements in infection control, or changes in catheter insertion practices may be contributing to these declines. Further surveillance for antifungal resistance and efforts to determine effective prevention strategies are needed. PMID:22893576

  1. Uso de diagramas de controle na vigilância epidemiológica das infecções hospitalares Use of statistical process control charts in the epidemiological surveillance of nosocomial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglai Arantes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Monitorizar a tendência de ocorrência e identificar surtos de infecções hospitalares utilizando diagramas de controles. MÉTODOS: No período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2000, a ocorrência de infecções hospitalares foi avaliada em uma coorte de 460 pacientes, internados em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica de um hospital universitário, segundo os conceitos e critérios da metodologia do sistema "National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance", do "Centers for Disease Control" (EUA. Os gráficos foram construídos de acordo com a distribuição probabilística de Poisson. Quatro linhas horizontais foram plotadas. A linha central foi representada pela incidência média das infecções hospitalares no período estudado e as linhas de alerta superior e de controle superior foram calculadas a partir de dois e três desvios-padrão acima da incidência média das infecções hospitalares, respectivamente. Os surtos de infecção hospitalar foram identificados quando sua incidência mensal permaneceu acima da linha do limite de controle superior. RESULTADOS: A incidência média de infecções hospitalares por mil pacientes dia foi de 20. Um surto de infecção do trato urinário foi identificado em julho de 2000, cuja taxa de infecção foi de 63 por mil pacientes dia, ultrapassando a linha de controle superior, configurando um período epidêmico. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização dos diagramas de controle do nível endêmico, tanto por avaliação global e sítio específica, possibilitou identificar e distinguir das variações naturais nas taxas de ocorrência de infecções hospitalares aquelas de causas incomuns, como os surtos ou epidemias, dispensando o uso de cálculos e testes de hipóteses.OBJECTIVE: To monitor occurrence trends and identify clusters of nosocomial infection (NI using statistical process control (SPC charts. METHODS: Between January 1998 and December 2000 nosocomial infection occurrence was evaluated

  2. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  3. Epidemiological characteristics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in China, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junling; Wu, Joseph T; Chang, Zhaorui; Liu, Fengfeng; Fang, Vicky J; Zheng, Yingdong; Cowling, Benjamin J; Varma, Jay K; Farrar, Jeremy J; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Hand–foot–and–mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. Increasingly it imposes a substantial disease burden throughout East and Southeast Asia. To better inform vaccine and other interventions, we characterized the epidemiology of HFMD in China based on enhanced surveillance. Methods We extracted epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data from reported HFMD cases during 2008–2012 and compiled climatic, geographic and demographic information. All analyses were stratified by age, disease severity, laboratory confirmation status and enterovirus subtype. Findings The surveillance registry captured 7,200,092 probable HFMD cases (annualized incidence, 1·2 per 1,000), of whom 3·7% were laboratory–confirmed and 0·03% died. Incidence and mortality were highest in children aged 12–23 months (in 2012: 38·2 cases per 1,000 and 1·5 death per 100,000). Median durations from onset to diagnosis and death were 1·5 days and 3·5 days respectively. The risk of cardiopulmonary or neurological complications was 1·1% and the severe-case fatality risk was 3·0%, with >90% of deaths associated with enterovirus 71. HFMD peaked annually in June in the North, whereas Southern China experienced semi-annual outbreaks in May and September/October. Geographic differences in seasonal patterns were weakly associated with climate and demographic factors (variance explained 8-23% and 3–19%, respectively). Interpretation This is the largest population-based study to date of the epidemiology of HFMD. Future mitigation policies should take full account of the heterogeneities of disease burden identified. Additional epidemiologic and serologic studies are warranted to elucidate local HFMD dynamics and immunity patterns and optimize interventions. Funding China–US Collaborative Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases; World Health Organization; The Li Ka Shing Oxford Global Health Programme and Wellcome Trust

  4. Training and service in public health, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training, 2008 - 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguku, Patrick; Oyemakinde, Akin; Sabitu, Kabir; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Babirye, Rebecca; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Gana, Chinyere; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Abubakar, Aisha; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Ngobua, Samuel; Oleribe, Obinna; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nsubuga, Peter; Nyager, Joseph; Nasidi, Abdulsalami

    2014-01-01

    The health workforce is one of the key building blocks for strengthening health systems. There is an alarming shortage of curative and preventive health care workers in developing countries many of which are in Africa. Africa resultantly records appalling health indices as a consequence of endemic and emerging health issues that are exacerbated by a lack of a public health workforce. In low-income countries, efforts to build public health surveillance and response systems have stalled, due in part, to the lack of epidemiologists and well-trained laboratorians. To strengthen public health systems in Africa, especially for disease surveillance and response, a number of countries have adopted a competency-based approach of training - Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP). The Nigeria FELTP was established in October 2008 as an inservice training program in field epidemiology, veterinary epidemiology and public health laboratory epidemiology and management. The first cohort of NFELTP residents began their training on 20th October 2008 and completed their training in December 2010. The program was scaled up in 2011 and it admitted 39 residents in its third cohort. The program has admitted residents in six annual cohorts since its inception admitting a total of 207 residents as of 2014 covering all the States. In addition the program has trained 595 health care workers in short courses. Since its inception, the program has responded to 133 suspected outbreaks ranging from environmental related outbreaks, vaccine preventable diseases, water and food borne, zoonoses, (including suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers) as well as neglected tropical diseases. With its emphasis on one health approach of solving public health issues the program has recruited physicians, veterinarians and laboratorians to work jointly on human, animal and environmental health issues. Residents have worked to identify risk factors of disease at the human animal interface for

  5. Training and Service in Public Health, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training, 2008 – 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguku, Patrick; Oyemakinde, Akin; Sabitu, Kabir; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Babirye, Rebecca; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Gana, Chinyere; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Abubakar, Aisha; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Ngobua, Samuel; Oleribe, Obinna; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nsubuga, Peter; Nyager, Joseph; Nasidi, Abdulsalami

    2014-01-01

    The health workforce is one of the key building blocks for strengthening health systems. There is an alarming shortage of curative and preventive health care workers in developing countries many of which are in Africa. Africa resultantly records appalling health indices as a consequence of endemic and emerging health issues that are exacerbated by a lack of a public health workforce. In low-income countries, efforts to build public health surveillance and response systems have stalled, due in part, to the lack of epidemiologists and well-trained laboratorians. To strengthen public health systems in Africa, especially for disease surveillance and response, a number of countries have adopted a competency-based approach of training - Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP). The Nigeria FELTP was established in October 2008 as an inservice training program in field epidemiology, veterinary epidemiology and public health laboratory epidemiology and management. The first cohort of NFELTP residents began their training on 20th October 2008 and completed their training in December 2010. The program was scaled up in 2011 and it admitted 39 residents in its third cohort. The program has admitted residents in six annual cohorts since its inception admitting a total of 207 residents as of 2014 covering all the States. In addition the program has trained 595 health care workers in short courses. Since its inception, the program has responded to 133 suspected outbreaks ranging from environmental related outbreaks, vaccine preventable diseases, water and food borne, zoonoses, (including suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers) as well as neglected tropical diseases. With its emphasis on one health approach of solving public health issues the program has recruited physicians, veterinarians and laboratorians to work jointly on human, animal and environmental health issues. Residents have worked to identify risk factors of disease at the human animal interface for

  6. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  7. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  8. Redefining syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Katz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field’s capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries.

  9. Stochastic efficiency analysis of bovine tuberculosis-surveillance programs in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Fischer, E.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    We constructed a stochastic bio-economic model to determine the optimal cost-efficient surveillance program for bovine tuberculosis. The surveillance programs differed in combinations of one or more detection methods and/or sampling frequency. Stochastic input variables in the epidemiological module

  10. Assessment of an automated surveillance system for detection of initial ventilator-associated events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckchady, Dooshanveer; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Creech, Tara; Carey, Darlene; Domnick, Robert; Hellinger, Walter C

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance for initial ventilator-associated events (VAEs) was automated and compared with nonautomated review of episodes of mechanical ventilation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of automated surveillance were very high (>93%), and automated surveillance reduced the time spent on detection of VAEs by >90%. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Southern Italian teenagers: the older they get, the unfit they become with girls worse than boys: a cohort epidemiological study: The adolescents surveillance system for the obesity prevention project (ASSO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemni, Monèm; Zaman, M Justin; La Rocca, Daniela; Tabacchi, Garden

    2017-12-01

    Italy comprises a high proportion of people who never exercised. Low physical activity levels in adolescents is a risk factor for several disorders. The aim of this cohort epidemiological study was to compare physical fitness profiles between boys and girls with regard to age and gender and to identify health and fitness-related markers that contribute to the make-up of Southern Italian teenagers.Eight hundred eleven teenagers were assessed for anthropometric measurements and completed the 5 ASSO-fitness tests battery. Data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures to compare the effect of both age and gender on the fitness components.The boys' anthropometric measurements were superior than the girls as expected [weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference]; the overall BMI was found in the normality range. The overall teenagers' fitness markers were found to be quite poor with the boys outperforming the girls in all fitness tests. The weak cardiorespiratory performance of the female teenagers was remarkable. The under 16 years old (-16 yrs) girls outperformed the over 16 years old (+16yrs) girls. There were less significant differences when comparing (-16) and (+16) yrs old mixed-gender groups. There were no correlations between the (-16) and (+16) yrs when both genders were considered. The trend analysis showed the younger teenagers might be "catching up" the older ones in both contexts.Gender significantly influenced all variables. Although age did not influence cardiorespiratory fitness, the older the teenagers the worse their health and fitness markers become with the older girls worse than their younger peers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidemiology of childhood Guillan-Barre syndrome in the north west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karegarmaher Mohammad H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims This study was carried out to investigate the incidence, annual time trend and some epidemiological and clinical features of Guillain-Barre syndrome in children in the north west of Iran. Materials and methods In this population-based cross sectional research, epidemiological and clinical features of 143 cases with Guillain-Barre syndrome between 2001 and 2006 were studied. The setting of the study was Tabriz Children Medical Centre, the major University-Hospital located in Tabriz city of the East Azarbaijan province covering whole region. Data collected included age, gender, chronological information, preceding events, functional grade of motor deficit. Results The mean age (standard deviation of subjects was 5.4 (3.6 years. The male/female ratio was 1.3. The average annual incidence rate was 2.27 per 100 000 population of 15 years children (CI95%: 1.9–2.6. The majority of cases occurred in March, July and November and the highest proportion of the syndrome was observed in winter (29 percent, P > 0.10. Conclusion The results indicated that an unexpected high incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome has occurred in 2003 in the region. We concluded that a monitoring and surveillance system for Guillain-Barre syndrome is essential to set up in this region.

  13. Epidemiology of childhood Guillan-Barre syndrome in the north west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Mohammad; Dastgiri, Saeed; Karegarmaher, Mohammad H; Varshochiani, Ali

    2007-08-05

    This study was carried out to investigate the incidence, annual time trend and some epidemiological and clinical features of Guillain-Barre syndrome in children in the north west of Iran. In this population-based cross sectional research, epidemiological and clinical features of 143 cases with Guillain-Barre syndrome between 2001 and 2006 were studied. The setting of the study was Tabriz Children Medical Centre, the major University-Hospital located in Tabriz city of the East Azarbaijan province covering whole region. Data collected included age, gender, chronological information, preceding events, functional grade of motor deficit. The mean age (standard deviation) of subjects was 5.4 (3.6) years. The male/female ratio was 1.3. The average annual incidence rate was 2.27 per 100 000 population of 15 years children (CI95%: 1.9-2.6). The majority of cases occurred in March, July and November and the highest proportion of the syndrome was observed in winter (29 percent, P > 0.10). The results indicated that an unexpected high incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome has occurred in 2003 in the region. We concluded that a monitoring and surveillance system for Guillain-Barre syndrome is essential to set up in this region.

  14. Epidemiological trends of dengue disease in Mexico (2000-2011: a systematic literature search and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gómez Dantés

    Full Text Available This systematic literature review describes the epidemiology of dengue disease in Mexico (2000-2011. The annual number of uncomplicated dengue cases reported increased from 1,714 in 2000 to 15,424 in 2011 (incidence rates of 1.72 and 14.12 per 100,000 population, respectively. Peaks were observed in 2002, 2007, and 2009. Coastal states were most affected by dengue disease. The age distribution pattern showed an increasing number of cases during childhood, a peak at 10-20 years, and a gradual decline during adulthood. All four dengue virus serotypes were detected. Although national surveillance is in place, there are knowledge gaps relating to asymptomatic cases, primary/secondary infections, and seroprevalence rates of infection in all age strata. Under-reporting of the clinical spectrum of the disease is also problematic. Dengue disease remains a serious public health problem in Mexico.

  15. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Mexico (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Search and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantés, Héctor Gómez; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Sarti, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review describes the epidemiology of dengue disease in Mexico (2000–2011). The annual number of uncomplicated dengue cases reported increased from 1,714 in 2000 to 15,424 in 2011 (incidence rates of 1.72 and 14.12 per 100,000 population, respectively). Peaks were observed in 2002, 2007, and 2009. Coastal states were most affected by dengue disease. The age distribution pattern showed an increasing number of cases during childhood, a peak at 10–20 years, and a gradual decline during adulthood. All four dengue virus serotypes were detected. Although national surveillance is in place, there are knowledge gaps relating to asymptomatic cases, primary/secondary infections, and seroprevalence rates of infection in all age strata. Under-reporting of the clinical spectrum of the disease is also problematic. Dengue disease remains a serious public health problem in Mexico. PMID:25375162

  16. Surveillance Avoidance Technique Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-02

    path and, using the evaluation module for feedback , alter the path until acceptable surveil- lance avoidance performance is achieved. The current ISAS...Nmber Diselav Stage Containing - Date: I I Time ( GIlT ): Figure 3-46: Textual Display for GRAPHICAL Module 3-64 Surveillance Avoidance Final Report System

  17. Imported Falciparum malaria in Europe: sentinel surveillance data from the European network on surveillance of imported infectious diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelinek, T.; Schulte, C.; Behrens, R.; Grobusch, M. P.; Coulaud, J. P.; Bisoffi, Z.; Matteelli, A.; Clerinx, J.; Corachán, M.; Puente, S.; Gjørup, I.; Harms, G.; Kollaritsch, H.; Kotlowski, A.; Björkmann, A.; Delmont, J. P.; Knobloch, J.; Nielsen, L. N.; Cuadros, J.; Hatz, C.; Beran, J.; Schmid, M. L.; Schulze, M.; Lopez-Velez, R.; Fleischer, K.; Kapaun, A.; McWhinney, P.; Kern, P.; Atougia, J.; Fry, G.; da Cunha, S.; Boecken, G.

    2002-01-01

    Malaria continues to have a high morbidity rate associated among European travelers. Thorough recording of epidemiological and clinical aspects of imported malaria has been helpful in the detection of new outbreaks and areas of developing drug resistance. Sentinel surveillance of data collected

  18. Congenital rubella syndrome surveillance as a platform for surveillance of other congenital infections, Peru, 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Galdos, Jorge; Lugo, María; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Ortiz, Ana; Cabezudo, Edwin; Martínez, Mario; Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2011-09-01

    Rubella during pregnancy can cause serious fetal abnormalities and death. Peru has had integrated measles/rubella surveillance since 2000 but did not implement congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) surveillance until 2004, in accordance with the Pan American Health Organization recommendations for rubella elimination. The article describes the experience from the CRS sentinel surveillance system in Peru. Peru has maintained a national sentinel surveillance system for reporting confirmed and suspected CRS cases since 2004. A surveillance protocol was implemented with standardized case definitions and instruments in the selected sentinel sites. Each sentinel site completes their case investigations and report forms and sends the reports to the Health Region Epidemiology Department, which forwards the data to the national Epidemiology Department. CRS surveillance data were analyzed for the period 2004-2007. During the period 2004-2007, 16 health facilities, which are located in 9 of the 33 health regions, representing the 3 main geographical areas (coast, mountain, and jungle), were included as sentinel sites for the CRS surveillance. A total of 2061 suspected CRS cases were reported to the system. Of these, 11 were classified as CRS and 23 as congenital rubella infection. Factors significantly associated with rubella vertical transmission were: (1) in the mother, maternal history of rash during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR], 12.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.8-37.8); (2) and in the infant, pigmentary retinopathy (OR, 18.4; 95% CI, 3.2-104.6), purpura (OR, 14.7; 95% CI, 2.8-78.3), and developmental delay (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.75-11.1). The surveillance system has been able to identify rubella vertical transmission, reinforcing the evidence that rubella was a public health problem in Peru. This system may serve as a platform to implement surveillance for other congenital infections in Peru.

  19. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The value of information: Current challenges in surveillance implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    remains variable. Political and legal issues are also influential. A particular challenge exists during outbreaks when surveillance needs to be conducted under emergency conditions. Decision support systems can help make epidemiologically and economically sound choices amongst surveillance options. However, contingency planning is advisable so that pre-defined options allow for rapid decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of infant mortality surveillance: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Maria de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: assess the implementation of child mortality surveillance in Recife/PE. Methods: an analytical evaluative study was conducted on its implementation. It was a single-case study that correlated degree of implementation with the of the result indicators surveillance. A logic model on this strategy and a matrix of indicators and judgments according to model components were drawn up. The degree of implementation was obtained from structure and process indicators and this was then correlated with result indicators, in a deductive approach based on intervention theory. Results: the structure approach presented superior results to the process in all evaluated components. This strategy was considered to have been partially implemented (75. 7%, however, the components of 'identification of deaths' (85.7%, 'epidemiological research' (88.1% and 'referral of proposals for promotion and health care and correction of official statistics' (95.8% were classified implemented. Regarding the relation of the degree of implantation of the surveillance and its results with the logical model, only one of the 17 indicators was considered inconsistent. Conclusions: this strategy was considered to have been partially implemented. The model of child mortality surveillance and its assessment were shown to be adequate for signaling the consistency of the interrelations between the activities proposed and the effects expected, and would be reproducible within other scenarios.

  2. Enhanced Surveillance during the Democratic National Convention, Charlotte, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyneka, Lana; Ising, Amy; Li, Meichun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe how the existing state syndromic surveillance system (NC DETECT) was enhanced to facilitate surveillance conducted at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina from August 31, 2012 to September 10, 2012. Introduction North Carolina hosted the 2012 Democratic National Convention, September 3–6, 2012. The NC Epidemiology and Surveillance Team was created to facilitate enhanced surveillance for injuries and illnesses, early detection of outbreaks during the DNC, assist local public health with epidemiologic investigations and response, and produce daily surveillance reports for internal and external stakeholders. Surveillane data were collected from several data sources, including North Carolina Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NC EDSS), triage stations, and the North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT). NC DETECT was created by the North Carolina Division of Public Health (NC DPH) in 2004 in collaboration with the Carolina Center for Health Informatics (CCHI) in the UNC Department of Emergency Medicine to address the need for early event detection and timely public health surveillance in North Carolina using a variety of secondary data sources. The data from emergency departments, the Carolinas Poison Center, the Pre-hospital Medical Information System (PreMIS) and selected Urgent Care Centers were available for monitoring by authorized users during the DNC. Methods Within NC DETECT, new dashboards were created that allowed epidemiologists to monitor ED visits and calls to the poison center in the Charlotte area, the greater Cities Readiness Initiative region and the entire state for infectious disease signs and symptoms, injuries and any mention of bioterrorism agents. The dashboards also included a section to view user comments on the information presented in NC DETECT. Data processing changes were also made to improve the timeliness of the EMS data received from Pre

  3. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD.

  4. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  5. Vigilância epidemiológica no plano de intensificação das ações de controle de malária no estado de Mato Grosso: estudo de caso Epidemiologic surveillance in the plan for intensification of malaria control actions in the state of Mato Grosso: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Dreyer Galvão

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar a vigilância epidemiológica no Plano de Intensificação das Ações de Controle de Malária (PIACM, nos dezoito municípios mato-grossenses, de 1999 a 2002. Realizou-se uma pesquisa avaliativa do tipo análise de implantação. A análise foi realizada através do Modelo Lógico de Avaliação, considerando quatro dimensões de análise - contexto externo e político, contexto organizacional, implementação e efetividade - e cinco bases de evidências, sendo três de dados primários e os outros secundários. Os municípios foram denominados de CASOS. Os dados foram coletados por questionários semi-estruturados. A implementação das ações do PIACM apresentou-se adequada apenas em 5,6% dos CASOS. A efetividade das ações em apenas um CASO e nenhum CASO teve condição adequada nas características contextuais. Os fatores que mais influenciaram a implementação foram: rotatividade dos gestores municipais e profissionais de saúde; capacitação fragmentada e esporádica; promoção e prevenção à saúde limitada aos profissionais da atenção básica. Conclui-se que a vigilância epidemiológica, no PIACM, mostrou-se desarticulada, com problemas de ordem estrutural, o que vem dificultando o pleno desenvolvimento das ações.The objective of this study is to analyze the epidemiologic surveillance in the Malaria Control Actions Intensification Plan (PIACM in the 18 cities of the state of Mato Grosso, from 1999 to 2002. An evaluative research of the type implantation analysis was conducted. The analysis was carried out using a logic model considering 4 dimensions - external and political context, organizational context, implementation and effectiveness - and 5 evidence bases, 3 of primary data and 2 of secondary data. The cities are called CASE. The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires. The implementation of the PIACM actions was found adequate in only 5,6% of CASES. The

  6. [Foodborne disease outbreaks surveillance in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Andrea; Díaz, Janepsy; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Vaquero, Alejandra; García, Maritza

    2012-10-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are one of the main health problems globally, having an extensive impact on human welfare. The World Health Organization considers them as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and responsible for high levels of loss of productivity in developed countries. To describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks according to data contained in an automated surveillance system. Descriptive observational study of notified outbreaks from the surveillance system, between 2005 and 2010 in Chile. The information was based on etiology, temporal and spatial distribution, and epidemiologic description of outbreaks during this period. There were 5,689 notified outbreaks. Most of them occurred during 2006 (1,106 outbreaks, rate 6.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) and 2008 (1,316 outbreaks, rate 7.9 per 100, 000 inhabitants) with an increase during summer. Fifty four percent occurred in the Metropolitan region. The group aged 15 to 44 years old, was the most affected one. Sixty four percent of the outbreaks had the food involved registered, of which fish and fishery products reached 42%. An 81% of the outbreaks did not have a precise etiologic diagnosis. Of all patients involved, 97% were outpatients, 3,2% were hospitalized patients, and 0,1% died. Only 49% of the outbreaks had information about the lack of food safety, with a 34,1% related to food handling procedures. Through the information on the epidemiology of foodborne diseases obtained by the Chilean surveillance system, appropriate control measures could be taken.

  7. Epidemiology of parainfluenza infection in England and Wales, 1998-2013: any evidence of change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Harris, R J; Ellis, J; Donati, M; Pebody, R G

    2017-04-01

    Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infections are one of the commonest causes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In order to determine if there have been any recent changes in HPIV epidemiology in England and Wales, laboratory surveillance data between 1998 and 2013 were analysed. The UK national laboratory surveillance database, LabBase, and the newly established laboratory-based virological surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), were used. Descriptive analysis was performed to examine the distribution of cases by year, age, sex and serotype, and to examine the overall temporal trend using the χ 2 test. A random-effects model was also employed to model the number of cases. Sixty-eight per cent of all HPIV detections were due to HPIV type 3 (HPIV-3). HPIV-3 infections were detected all year round but peaked annually between March and June. HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 circulated at lower levels accounting for 20% and 8%, respectively, peaking during the last quarter of the year with a biennial cycle. HPIV-4 was detected in smaller numbers, accounting for only 4% and also mainly observed in the last quarter of the year. However, in recent years, HPIV-4 detection has been reported much more commonly with an increase from 0% in 1998 to 3·7% in 2013. Although an overall higher proportion of HPIV infection was reported in infants (43·0%), a long-term decreasing trend in proportion in infants was observed. An increase was also observed in older age groups. Continuous surveillance will be important in tracking any future changes.

  8. ENSIS YANTAI. Annual Report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, T.; Zhang, P.L.

    1997-12-31

    NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) carries out a project for Yantai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China, regarding installation of an Environmental Surveillance and Information System (ENSIS). This system consists of modules for air and water monitoring and management. The project started in November 1996 and will last for three years. This is the annual report for 1996 and describes the costs for that year and a revised plan for 1997. 1 figure, 3 tabs.

  9. A aids no Estado de São Paulo: as mudanças no perfil da epidemia e perspectivas da vigilância epidemiológica AIDS in the State of São Paulo: changes in the profile of the epidemic and prospects for epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Janilde Seabra Santos

    2002-12-01

    few countries in the world that has free distribution of combination antiretroviral therapy. In Brazil, AIDS mortality has been falling since 1996, and has been substantially affected by access to AIDS treatment. In this paper, data on STD and AIDS, collected from the epidemiological surveillance system of the State of São Paulo, were analyzed with the purpose of describing the profile of the AIDS epidemic, and discussing the way this disease affects women and young, poor and heterosexual persons. Until 12/31/2001, 106,873 cases were reported in the State of São Paulo, which was about 50% of the cases reported in the country as a whole. The highest incidence rates occur among individuals between 30 and 39 years of age. The number of cases and deaths has grown slightly in older individuals. AIDS affects all, the rich and the poor, but in past years it has been increasing in individuals with fewer years of education and non-qualified occupations. The increase in cases among heterosexual men and the fact that this mode of exposure is the most frequent among women corroborates the importance of heterosexual transmission in the AIDS epidemic. The STD and AIDS epidemiological surveillance system in Brazil is based mainly upon cases reported, and it has been used as the main source of information on the AIDS epidemic. These epidemiological surveillance data support the study of trends, prevention and care planning, and provides the means to promote information on AIDS to the population. Such data reflect the status of HIV several years after infection occurred, and this gap tends to grow due to many factors, such as antiretroviral therapy and others. In this manner, data take longer to enter the information system, and therefore, such information becomes increasingly distant from the actual magnitude of HIV infection. Other strategies for acknowledging trends of HIV infections are necessary in order to make its control more effective. Examples are reporting HIV infection

  10. Visions for the 20th International Epidemiological Association's World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsour, B B; Johnston, J M; Hennessy, T W; Schmidt, M I; Krieger, N

    2012-03-01

    During August 17th-21st, 2014, the University of Alaska Anchorage, along with other local, state, and federal agencies throughout Alaska, will host the 20(th) International Epidemiological Association's (IEA) World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014). The theme for this Congress is "Global Epidemiology in a Changing Environment: The Circumpolar Perspective." The changing environment includes the full range of environments that shape population health and health inequities from the physical to the social and economic. Our circumpolar perspective on these environments includes views on how political systems, work, immigration, Indigenous status, and gender relations and sexuality affect the global world and the health of its people. Suggestions and insights from the 3(rd) North American Congress of Epidemiology (2011) and the first-ever joint regional workshop co-organized by the IEA North American Region and the IEA Latin American and Caribbean Region held at the 19(th) IEA World Congress of Epidemiology (2011) have helped direct the focus for WCE 2014. Since the Arctic regions are feeling the effects of climate change first, we believe focusing on the emerging data on the health impacts of climate change throughout the world will be an important topic for this Congress. This will include a broad range of more traditional epidemiology areas such as infectious disease epidemiology, environmental epidemiology, health disparities, and surveillance and emergency preparedness. Addressing health inequities and promoting health equity is likewise a key concern of the Congress. This Congress will also host presentations on injury epidemiology, occupational health, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, maternal and child health, surveillance and field epidemiology, mental health, violence (from self-directed, e.g., suicide, to interpersonal to structural), psychoactive substance use (including tobacco), and measures of subjective health. Attention will be given to

  11. [Epidemiology of tumors in the construction industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assennato, G; Cuccaro, F

    2012-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies, mostly with a case-control design, show an increased risk of cancer, in particular lung cancer, in construction workers. Asbestos is the occupational carcinogen considered for a long time the most important in this sector, but now it covers a residual role, at least in Italy. In this review the most recent studies are considered and the presence of other carcinogens, as crystalline silica, man-made mineral fibers, diesel exhausts, metals, solvents, UV rays, must be considered in risk evaluation also, possibly, for health and epidemiologic surveillance.

  12. Strengthening National Disease Surveillance and Response-Haiti, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juin, Stanley; Schaad, Nicolas; Lafontant, Donald; Joseph, Gerard A; Barzilay, Ezra; Boncy, Jacques; Barrais, Robert; Louis, Frantz Jean; Jean Charles, Nadia Lapierre; Corvil, Salomon; Barthelemy, Nickolsno; Dismer, Amber; Pierre, Jean Samuel; Archer, Roodly W; Antoine, Mayer; Marston, Barbara; Katz, Mark; Dely, Patrick; Adrien, Paul; Fitter, David L; Lowrance, David; Patel, Roopal

    2017-10-01

    Haiti's health system has faced many challenges over the years, with competing health priorities in the context of chronic financial and human resource limitations. As a result, the existing notifiable disease surveillance system was unable to provide the most basic epidemiologic data for public health decision-making and action. In the wake of the January 2010 earthquake, the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population collaborated with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Pan American Health Organization, and other local and international partners to implement a functional national surveillance system. More than 7 years later, it is important to take the opportunity to reflect on progress made on surveillance and response in Haiti, including disease detection, reporting, outbreak investigation, and response. The national epidemiologic surveillance network that started with 51 sites in 2010 has been expanded to 357 sites as of December 2015. Disease outbreaks identified via the surveillance system, or other surveillance approaches, are investigated by epidemiologists trained by the Ministry of Health's Field Epidemiology Training Program. Other related surveillance modules have been developed on the same model and electronic platform, allowing the country to document the impact of interventions, track progress, and monitor health problems. Sustainability remains the greatest challenge since most of the funding for surveillance come from external sources.

  13. Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, R; Thiessard, F

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: To summarize current research in the field of Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics. Methods : The complete 2016 literature concerning public health and epidemiology informatics has been searched in PubMed and Web of Science, and the returned references were reviewed by the two section editors to select 14 candidate best papers. These papers were then peer-reviewed by external reviewers to allow the editorial team an enlightened selection of the best papers. Results : Among the 829 references retrieved from PubMed and Web of Science, three were finally selected as best papers. The first one compares Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia as tools for Influenza surveillance. The second paper presents a Geographic Knowledge-Based Model for mapping suitable areas for Rift Valley fever transmission in Eastern Africa. The last paper evaluates the factors associated with the visit of Facebook pages devoted to Public Health Communication. Conclusions: Surveillance is still a productive topic in public health informatics but other very important topics in public health are appearing. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  14. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  16. Experiencias en la vigilancia epidemiológica de agentes patógenos transmitidos por alimentos a través de electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE en el Perú Experiences in the epidemiological surveillance of foodborne pathogens by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz Zamudio

    2011-03-01

    allows the discrimination between different bacterial isolates which are epidemiologically related. The Instituto Nacional de Salud del Perú (INS is part of the WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network (WHO-GFN and of the PulseNet Latin American and Caribbean Net (PN-AL & C, with whom it shares the genetic profiles of the isolated pathogenic strains, so that it is possible to compare de genotypes of similar strains found in different countries and to identify the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks in the region, strengthening the regional system of epidemiological surveillance and generating a rapid, coordinated response between the countries. We present the two last years´ experience including the advances in the use of these strategic tools that have allowed us to characterize genotype patterns implicated in foodborne diseases from isolates recovered in the laboratory network of Peru.