WorldWideScience

Sample records for annual energy consumption

  1. Effect of length of measurement period on accuracy of predicted annual heating energy consumption of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Tae, Choon-Soeb; Zaheeruddin, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the temperature dependent regression models of energy consumption as a function of the length of the measurement period. The methodology applied was to construct linear regression models of daily energy consumption from 1 day to 3 months data sets and compare the annual heating energy consumption predicted by these models with actual annual heating energy consumption. A commercial building in Daejon was selected, and the energy consumption was measured over a heating season. The results from the investigation show that the predicted energy consumption based on 1 day of measurements to build the regression model could lead to errors of 100% or more. The prediction error decreased to 30% when 1 week of data was used to build the regression model. Likewise, the regression model based on 3 months of measured data predicted the annual energy consumption within 6% of the measured energy consumption. These analyses show that the length of the measurement period has a significant impact on the accuracy of the predicted annual energy consumption of buildings

  2. Modeling and optimization of energy consumption in multipurpose batch plants - 2006 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szijjarto, A.

    2006-12-15

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the work done in 2006 on the development of a model that is able to make prognoses concerning the energy consumption of chemical batch processes and thus enable these to be optimised. In the year under review, reliable models and software modelling tools were developed. The tools are based on commercially available simulation software. The authors note that the bottom-up model presented in the previous reports is powerful and robust enough to treat a significant amount of the process data in reasonable time. The model was tested for the modelling of energy consumption in the case-study plant during a period of two months. Up to 30 batches of 9 different products were produced in this period. The resolution of the model is discussed, which is very useful for identification of the process steps with the highest energy consumption. Energy-saving potential is noted. Based on these results, one product was chosen which is to be investigated in the final stage of the project in order to optimise the energy consumption of the case-study plant. The authors note that the methodology and software tools developed can be later applied for other products or chemical batch plants.

  3. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  4. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  5. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  6. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  7. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  8. Annual Energy Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  9. Energy consumption declined in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    On presenting the energy consumption figures for 1993 the Minister for Economic Affairs of Baden-Wuerttemberg Dieter Spoeri (SPD) spoke of the eternal task of saving energy. In his view the slight decline in energy consumption from 1992 to 1993 should not be interpreted as a greater willingness to save energy; its main cause is rather to be seen in the course of the economy. According to estimations, total energy consumption fell 0.5% and electricity consumption 1.0% from 1992 to 1993. The economy on the other hand, still a decisive factor in energy consumption, is estimated to have declined 3% during that period. In the ten years from 1983 to 1993 total energy consumption in the Land rose an average annual 1.8% while electricity consumption kept astride with the economy with an average annual rise 2.7%, he said. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  11. Annual Energy Review 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-10-01

    This twenty-ninth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) most comprehensive look at integrated energy statistics. The summary statistics on the Nation’s energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices cover all major energy commodities and all energy-consuming sectors of the U.S. economy from 1949 through 2010. The AER is EIA’s historical record of energy statistics and, because the coverage spans six decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analysis.

  12. Renewable energy annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

  13. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  14. Annual Energy Review 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-14

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA`s renewables data, see p. xix, ``Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.`` Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986.

  15. Annual Energy Review 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration's historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA's renewables data, see p. xix, ''Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.'' Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986

  16. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  17. Annual Energy Review 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States. It documents trends and milestones in U.S. energy production, trade, storage, pricing, and consumption. Each new year of data that is added to the time series—which now reach into 7 decades—extends the story of how Americans have acquired and used energy. It is a story of continual change as the Nation's economy grew, energy requirements expanded, resource availability shifted, and interdependencies developed among nations.

  18. International energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided

  19. International energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  20. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  1. International energy annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports for primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude petroleum and petroleum products in selected countries. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed with respect to primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources and from United States Embassy personnel in foreign posts. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values familiar to the American public

  2. International energy annual, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production, consumption, reserves, trade, and prices for five primary energy sources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear electricity. It also presents information on petroleum products. Since the early 1980's the world's total output of primary energy has increased steadily. The annual average growth rate of energy production during the decade was 1.9 percent. Throughout the 1980's, petroleum was the world's most heavily used type of energy. In 1989, three countries--the United States, the USSR, and China--were the leading producers and consumers of world energy. Together, these countries consumed and produced almost 50 percent of the world's total energy. Global production and consumption of crude oil and natural gas liquids increased during the 1980's, despite a decline in total production and demand in the early part of the decade. World production of dry natural gas continued to rise steadily in the 1980's. For the last several years, China has been the leading producer of coal, followed by the United States. In 1989, hydroelectricity supply declined slightly from the upward trend of the last 10 years. Nuclear power generation rose slightly from the 1988 level, compared with the marked growth in earlier years. Prices for major crude oils all increased between 1988 and 1989, but remained well below the price levels at the beginning of the decade. 26 figs., 36 tabs

  3. Annual Energy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  4. Annual energy review 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This 13th edition presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1994; thus, this report is well-suited to long-term trend analyses. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. Statistics on renewable energy sources are also included: this year, for the first time, usage of renewables by other consumers as well as by electric utilities is included. Also new is a two-part, comprehensive presentation of data on petroleum products supplied by sector for 1949 through 1994. Data from electric utilities and nonutilities are integrated as ``electric power industry`` data; nonutility power gross generation are presented for the first time. One section presents international statistics (for more detail see EIA`s International Energy Annual).

  5. Annual Energy Review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  6. Annual Energy Review 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  7. Annual Energy Review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  8. Annual Energy Review 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  9. No consistent association between consumption of energy-dense snack foods and annual weight and waist circumference changes in Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Boer, J.M.A.; Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.; A, van der D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding an association between the consumption of energy-dense snack (EDS) foods and the development of overweight. Objective: In the current study, we examined whether there was an association between the intake of EDS foods and annual weight and waist

  10. Annual energy review 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This eleventh edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration's historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1992. Because coverage spans four decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to tong-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents statistics on some renewable energy sources. For the most part, fuel-specific data are expressed in physical units such as barrels, cubic feet, and short tons. The integrated summary data in Section 1 are expressed in Btu. The Btu values are calculated using the conversion factors in Appendix A. Statistics expressed in Btu are valuable in that they allow for comparisons among different fuels and for the calculation of in the integrated summary statistics such as US consumption of Energy. The AER emphasizes domestic energy statistics

  11. Annual energy review 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherin E. [Energy Information Adminstration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-09-30

    The Annual Energy Review 2003 is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States in modern times. Data are presented for all major forms of energy by production (extraction of energy from the earth, water, and other parts of the environment), consumption by end-user sector, trade with other nations, storage changes, and pricing. Much of the data provided covers the fossil fuels—coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are nature’s batteries; they have stored the sun’s energy over millennia past. It is primarily that captured energy that we are drawing on today to fuel the activities of the modern economy. Data in this report measure the extraordinary expansion of our use of fossil fuels from 29 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1949 to 84 quadrillion Btu in 2003. In recent years, fossil fuels accounted for 86 percent of all energy consumed in the United States. This report also records the development of an entirely new energy industry—the nuclear electric power industry. The industry got its start in this country in 1957 when the Shippingport, Pennsylvania, nuclear electric power plant came on line. Since that time, the industry has grown to account for 20 percent of our electrical output and 8 percent of all energy used in the country. Renewable energy is a third major category of energy reported in this volume. Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite in supply, renewable energy is essentially inexhaustible because it can be replenished. Types of energy covered in the renewable category include conventional hydroelectric power, which is power derived from falling water; wood; waste; alcohol fuels; geothermal; solar; and wind. Together, these forms of energy accounted for about 6 percent of all U.S. energy consumption in recent years.

  12. 1982 Annual Energy Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Total energy consumption in the United States equaled 70.9 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1982, a decline of 4.1% compared to 1981. Depressed economic activity was a major factor in reducing total energy demand. However, conservation also played a role as energy consumption per dollar of GNP continued to fall. Most of the decline in energy use involved petroleum and natural gas. Reduced petroleum demand translated into a 21.7% reduction in net petroleum imports. Natural gas demand and production fell, prompted by reduced economic activity and a substantial increase in prices. Crude oil prices fell for the first time in more than a decade. Weakened market conditions adversely affected the rate of domestic oil and gas exploration and development activities. Nonetheless, domestic crude oil production rose 1.2%. International activities were highlighted by a decline in crude oil production, especially by members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), a decrease in crude oil prices, and a substantial increase in electricity production by nuclear-powered utility plants in non-Communist countries. Energy production in the United States in 1982 remained essentially unchanged from that of 1981, as small gains in hydroelectric power and nuclear power production were offset by losses in natural gas production. For the third straight year, energy consumption in the United States declined. Whereas declines in 1980 and 1981 resulted primarily from consumer response to higher prices and conservation, the 1982 decline reflected primarily an economic slowdown, especially in industry. Annual per capita consumption fell to 306 million Btu, the lowest level since 1967. Changes in energy prices in 1982 were mixed. Whereas most petroleum prices declined, prices of natural gas, coal, and electricity rose

  13. Design of advanced solar homes aimed at net-zero annual energy consumption in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athienitis, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    This paper overviews the design of three sustainable low or net-zero energy solar homes in Canada. The major features of the houses are: 1. direct gain passive solar design that emphasizes utilization of distributed thermal mass in the equatorial-facing part of the ground floor; 2. a building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal system (BIPV/T); 3. a two-stage ground-source heat pump used to heat/cool air in the house or an air source heat pump using BIPV/T air as the source to heat a storage tank; 4. a floor heating system integrated in the floor mass of the direct gain zone; 5. a multizone programmable thermostat.

  14. Annual Energy Review 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2002. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications. Related Publication: Readers of the AER may also be interested in EIA’s Monthly Energy Review, which presents monthly updates of many of the data in the AER. Contact our National Energy Information Center for more information.

  15. Annual Energy Review 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2000. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  16. Annual Energy Review 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1997. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2) that: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  17. Annual energy review, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This Review presents long-term historical energy data. US energy consumption, production, trade, and prices are included. Also covered are consumption indicators, energy resources, petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy. 5 figs., 129 tabs

  18. Annual energy review 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report presents historical energy statistics on all major energy activities. The statistics cover consumption, production, trade, stock, and prices, for all major energy commodities including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources.

  19. Annual energy review 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This report presents historical energy statistics on all major energy activities. The statistics cover consumption, production, trade, stock, and prices, for all major energy commodities including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources

  20. Energy consumption and energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Data are presented on energy consumption and energy prices related to a number of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) lands covering the period 1951-1990. The information sources are described and the development of energy consumption and prices in Denmark are illustrated in relation to these other countries. The energy intensity (the relation between energy consumption and the gross national product) is dealt with. Here it is possible to follow development during the whole post-war period. It is generally understood that Denmark saved large amounts of energy after 1973-74 but, taken over the whole post-war period, savings and decline in energy-gross national product relations are less dramatic compared to conditions in other OECD countries. Energy coefficients or elasticities show the relative rise in consumption compared to the relative rise in gross national product (growth rate). This is shown to be typically unstable and an eventual connection with the amount of energy price increase and/or the growth rate of the national economy is considered. Results of Granger causuality tests on energy consumption, national income and energy prices are presented. Effective energy prices were very low in Denmark up to 1970 when they suddenly began to increase. Since the oil crisis Denmark's energy consumption has fallen whereas the other countries have used rather more energy than before. Effective promotion of energy savings must be seen in relation to the fact that the 1970 basis level of energy consumption and intensity was unusually high. The high effective energy prices have also encouraged energy savings in Denmark. (AB)

  1. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  2. Interactive energy consumption visualization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available in an office building environment. The main goal is to highlight high consumptions patterns, estimate costs and savings, and recommend energy saving strategies. In its useful nature, the dashboard can provide valuable information for further programs tied...

  3. Annual Energy Review, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents statistics on energy useage for 1995. A reviving domestic economy, generally low energy prices, a heat wave in July and August, and unusually cold weather in November and December all contributed to the fourth consecutive year of growth in U.S. total energy consumption, which rose to an all-time high of almost 91 quadrillion Btu in 1995 (1.3). The increase came as a result of increases in the consumption of natural gas, coal, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy. Petroleum was the primary exception, and its use declined by only 0.3 percent. (Integrating the amount of renewable energy consumed outside the electric utility sector into U.S. total energy consumption boosted the total by about 3.4 quadrillion Btu, but even without that integration, U.S. total energy consumption would have reached a record level in 1995.)

  4. TRUE multi-annual energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringault, Anne; Cormier, Cyrille; Arditi, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    A multi-annual energy planning (PPE) has been introduced by the French government to transcribe the objectives of the law on energy transition into evolutions for energy consumption and production for different periods (2016-2018 and 2019-2023). This publication first indicates various assessments for these periods regarding energy consumption, electricity consumption, fossil energy consumption, renewable energy production, the share of electric renewable energies, and the decrease of the nuclear share. These objectives are then discussed with respect to different scenarios, and notably a reference scenario

  5. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA's energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included

  6. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  7. Energy in Croatia 2003. Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    Reports have kept domestic and international audience continuously informed about the latest relations and developments in the Croatian energy system. Annual report presents all characteristic indicators of the Croatian energy system in 2003, outlines their development over a longer past period, and suggests a future course of development of basic energy system indicators. Total primary energy supply in the Republic of Croatia in 2003 was 5.2 percent higher compared to the previous year. The gross domestic product increased by 4.3 percent over the same period. This means that energy intensity, primary energy supply per unit of gross domestic product, increased by 0.9 percent. Compared to the european Union average Croatian energy intensity was approximately 32 percent higher. Total primary energy production, on the other hand, decreased by 1.1 percent compared to 2002. This means that primary energy self-supply, which fell to 46.4 percent, reached its lowest level to-date in the observed period. The remaining energy needs were met by imports, which increased by 1.7 percent. In the structure of total primary energy supply, decrease has been observed only in energy conversion losses, while all other categories increased. Final energy demand increased by 6.7 percent in 2003, with the levels recorded in different sectors ranging from 2.5 percent in industry to 7.5 and 8 percent in transport and other sectors, respectively. In terms of final energy demand, an increase has been recorded in all energy forms except natural gas, whose consumption showed stagnation. This is due to lower consumption in the energy transformation sector and a significant 9.2 percent increase in its final energy demand. A continuous increase in electricity consumption - which reached 4.8 percent in the observed period - is worth nothing. Energy forms which recorded highest consumption increase levels in 2003 are coal (16 percent) and diesel fuel (15 percent). In contrast to the fast increase in

  8. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  9. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA's energy models

  10. Annual energy review, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Historical and current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States are presented. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  11. Energy catastrophes and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of energy catastrophes in the production of energy serves to make estimation of the true social costs of energy production difficult. As a result, there is a distinct possibility that the private marginal cost curve of energy producers lies to the left or right of the true cost curve. If so, social welfare will not be maximized, and underconsumption or overconsumption of fuels will exist. The occurrence of energy catastrophes and observance of the market reaction to these occurrences indicates that overconsumption of energy has been the case in the past. Postulations as to market reactions to further energy catastrophes lead to the presumption that energy consumption levels remain above those that are socially optimal

  12. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  13. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  14. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  15. Does trade liberalization effect energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, Gairuzazmi M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of trade liberalization on the environment can be directly linked to energy consumption, because energy consumption and production are the underlying cause of most pollutants that harm the environment. The descriptive statistics show that average annual growth of energy consumption per capita after trade liberalization varies among countries; hence it is a possibility that the effect of trade liberalization is conditional on factors other than liberalization per se. The regression results show that trade liberalization per se does not affect the growth of energy consumption of the developing countries analyzed, but its interaction with capital per labor reduces the growth of energy consumption as capital per labor increases. However, the effect is only significant after a certain minimum threshold level capital per labor is reached. On the other hand, economic growth increases energy consumption and its effect is not conditioned on trade liberalization. These two different effects mean that, with regards to energy consumption, countries at a higher level of economic development are more likely to reap the benefit of liberalization relative to less developed countries. - Research highlights: ► This paper examines the effect of trade liberalization on energy consumption. ► Developed countries are more likely to reap the benefit of trade liberalization. ► Growth of energy consumption after trade liberalization varies among countries. ► Interaction of capital per labor with liberalization reduces energy consumption.

  16. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA's energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs

  17. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  18. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  19. Energy consumption projection of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    In energy dependent economies, energy consumption is often linked with the growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Energy intensity, defined herewith, as the ratio of the total primary energy consumption (TPE) to the GDP, is a useful concept for understanding the relation between energy demand...... and economic development. The scope of this article is to assess the future primary energy consumption of Nepal, and the projection is carried out along with the formulation of simple linear logarithmic energy consumption models. This initiates with a hypothesis that energy consumption is dependent...

  20. Energy in Croatia 2007, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    With a great deal of pleasure we present the sixteenth edition of the review Energy in Croatia. With this Review the Ministry of Economy, Labor and Entrepreneurship continues the practice of informing domestic and foreign public on relations and trends within the Croatian energy sector. This Review gives data and characteristic values relevant to the Croatian energy sector, providing an overview on energy production and consumption at all levels. There is a detailed analysis of the trends present in the energy sector as well as a number of information on capacities, reserves, prices and energy balances for crude oil, all petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, heat energy, coal and renewable energy sources. The Review also brings the main economic and financial indicators, data on air pollutant emissions and main energy efficiency indicators. It also gives the ODEX energy efficiency index, which is determined according to the methodology used in the European Union. This indicator monitors the energy efficiency trends over a period of time in the sectors of industry, transport, households and in total consumption. Finally, the Review brings the energy balances of the Republic of Croatia for the years 2006 and 2007, made following the EUROSTAT and IEA methodologies. Total annual energy consumption in Croatia in 2007 increased by 1.5 percent from the previous year. At the same time gross domestic product increased by 5.6 percent, which resulted in a continuing energy intensity reduction, by 3.8 percent. In relation the European Union (EU 27), energy intensity in Croatia was 16.5 percent above the European average. In 2007 the Croatian production of primary energy decreased by 6.4 percent. The production decrease was recorded in most of primary energy forms. The only energy forms with growing production in 2007 were natural gas production and energy from renewable sources. Due to unfavorable hydrology in 2007, hydro power utilization decreased by 27.4 percent

  1. Energy consumptions in the industry in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the annual survey on energy consumptions by the French industry in 2008. It gives and comments the level and the evolutions of the consumed quantities per type of energy (electricity, vapour, gas, solid fuels, oil products), of their average annual cost. It describes the methodology implemented for this survey, indicates the sources of data and types and categories of surveyed industrial plants, describes how consumption calculations have been performed, and specifies the coefficients of conversion in tonne of equivalent oil with respect to the energy type (all conventional types and other types of fuels like vegetable wastes for example)

  2. State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  3. International energy annual, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  4. Effect of energy taxes on energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The energy consumption and taxation in Norway is described in addition to some of the consequences of this taxation on the energy market. Modelling of energy demand is dealt with. It is concluded that the influence of energy taxation on energy consumption is dependent on market conditions for individual energy products. This thesis is elaborated. (AB)

  5. International energy annual 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-23

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and area of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and coal in selected countries. (VC)

  6. Energy consumption and conservation in food retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Ge, Y.; Hadawey, A.; Marriott, D.

    2011-01-01

    The total annual CO 2 emissions associated with the energy consumption of the major retail food outlets in the UK amount to around 4.0 MtCO 2 . The energy consumption and emissions from supermarkets varies widely and can depend on many factors such as the type and size of the store, business and merchandising practices and refrigeration and environmental control systems used. This paper provides energy consumption data of a sample of 2570 retail food stores from a number of major retail food chains in the UK. The sample covers all major store categories from convenience stores to hypermarkets and includes approximately 30% of the total number of stores in the UK having a net sales area more than 280 m 2 . The data show a wide variability of energy intensity even within stores of the same retail chain. A power law can be used to describe the variation of the average electrical energy intensity of the stores in the sample with sales area. If the electrical intensity of the stores above the average is reduced to the average by energy conservation measures, annual energy savings of the order of 10% or 840 GWh can be achieved representing 355,000 tonnes annual reduction in CO 2 emissions. The paper also discusses the major energy consuming processes in retail food stores and identifies opportunities for energy savings. - Research highlights: → Energy consumption by supermarkets in the UK is significant and a wide variability exists between stores of similar size. → Energy conservation measures to reduce energy consumption of individual stores to the average can produce a0% energy savings. → Significant opportunities for energy savings exist from the integration of HVAC and refrigeration equipment.

  7. Energy in Croatia 2002. Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The review, in its own recognisable way, consists of the most recent and settled data on the Croatian energy system for the period up to and including the year 2002. Some data appertain to a longer time period with the aim of an easier insight into long-term prospects. In 2002 total primary energy supply exceeded the year before by 1.3 percent. Owing to the simultaneous growth of the gross domestic product by 5.2 percent, energy intensity decreased thus marking the third year of a positive trend. However, it has to be mentioned that energy intensity, which expresses the total energy consumed per unit of gross domestic product, exceeded the level of the developed European countries by 33 percent, although it was still more favourable than in the majority of transition countries. Supply from own sources fell to the less than 50 percent, and energy import, with oil in the leading position, recorded an average annual increase of 4.7 percent. In 2002 transformation losses as well as transportation and distribution losses decreased thus bringing about the already mentioned total energy consumption growth of 1.3 percent and final demand increase by 2.3 percent - this means that the energy system was more efficient. The year 2002 recorded a consumption increase in traffic by 6.2 percent, in other sectors by 3 percent, while industry realised a decrease by 3.9 percent. It should be emphasised that diesel fuel recorded a major increase and in the whole structure almost reached the level of the motor gasoline. From 1995 till the end of the period observed the gas distribution network was doubled in length. The report includes other interesting information about our energy system, i.e. capacities, energy, source prices, as well as environmental impact from the energy sector

  8. Annual Energy Review 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Fifty Years of History. That’s what you will find in this report—energy data from 1949 through 1998. Remarkable change occurred in half a century. The U.S. population grew by 82 percent while consumption of energy increased by 194 percent. At the end of the period, the average amount of energy used per person in one year was 62 percent greater than at the beginning. At mid-century, America was nearly self-sufficient in petroleum; we were a net exporter of natural gas; most of our coal came from underground mines and was produced at the rate of seven-tenths of a short ton per miner hour; nuclear electric power had not been developed; and almost twice as much electricity was used at industrial sites as in homes. Near the end of the century, half of the petroleum we use comes from other countries; 15 percent of our natural gas consumption is imported; more of our coal comes from surface mines than underground mines and U.S. miners produce coal at a rate of over 6 short tons per miner hour; about a fifth of U.S. electricity is supplied by nuclear electric power; and residences use more electricity than industrial sites.

  9. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  10. Energy consumption and conservation, evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-04-01

    The energy consumption is increasing of more than 1% each year. It is necessary to slow down this growth and much better to inverse it. Observing the main consumption posts, energy saving is possible at short dated for the residential sector and medium and long dated for the transports and the industry. Anyway the individual behaviors are essential. The author presents the situation for each posts, providing data on the energy consumption and saving and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  11. Annual energy review 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a historical data report that tells many stories. It describes, in numbers, the changes that have occurred in US energy markets since the midpoint of the 20th century. In many cases, those markets differ vastly from those of a half-century ago. By studying the graphs and data tables presented in this report, readers can learn about past energy supply and usage in the United States and gain an understanding of the issues in energy and the environment now before use. While most of this year`s report content is similar to last year`s, there are some noteworthy developments. Table 1.1 has been restructured into more summarized groupings -- fossil fuels, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy -- to aid analysts in their examination of the basic trends in those broad categories. Readers` attention is also directed to the electricity section, where considerable reformatting of the tables and graphs has been carried out to help clarify past and recent trends in the electric power industry as it enters a period of radical restructuring. Table 9.1, which summarizes US nuclear generating units, has been redeveloped to cover the entire history of the industry in this country and to provide categories relevant in assessing the future of the industry, such as the numbers of ordered generating units that have been canceled and those that were built and later shut down. In general, the AER emphasizes domestic energy statistics. Sections 1 through 10 and Section 12 are devoted mostly to US data; Section 11 reports on international statistics and world totals. 140 figs., 141 tabs.

  12. The Effects of Utilizing Natural Light to Reduce Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    SHEIKH, Shilla; GHALEHNOVI, Afsane

    2015-01-01

    Abstract.While Iran has the richest energy source, but wastage and improper use of it has imposed irretrievable damages to our annual budget; such that construction division has allocated the most level of energy to itself with more than 40% of total energy produced in Iran and consumption of expenses equal to 30% of earning gained from oil sale. Since electricity energy has the most share of energy consumption in construction division, providing modern ways to reduce the consumption of this ...

  13. Energy consumption and technological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.R.

    1990-02-01

    The paper determines an outline of the world energy prospects based on principal trends of the development of energy consumption analysed over the long past period. According to the author's conclusion the development of energy systems will be determined in the nearest future (30 - 40 years) by contemporary energy technologies based on the exploitation of traditional energy resources but in the far future technologies based on the exploitation of thermonuclear and solar energy will play the decisive role. (author)

  14. Energy consumption trends in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Abidin; Yalcintas, Melek

    2010-01-01

    This study begins with a review of energy consumption by end-use sector in Hawaii. Then, the energy generated from renewable energy sources is analyzed between 1991 and 2006. The results show that while geothermal is a considerable source of renewable energy on the Island of Hawaii (also known as Big Island), fossil fuel is the main energy source in the State of Hawaii. The energy intensity index for the State of Hawaii is then calculated by dividing energy consumption per capita by the income per capita. The calculated energy intensity index reveals that energy consumption is directly controlled by per capita income. The results also indicate that the energy intensity index increases over time despite positive developments in energy efficient technologies. In the second part of the paper, the effect of the tourism industry on energy usage in the State of Hawaii is analyzed. The results show that tourism volume, measured in terms of tourist arrival numbers, does not change the energy consumption directly. However, a change in tourism volume does affect per capita income within a few months to a year. In the last part of the study, the energy efficiency index of Hawaii is compared with consumption averages for the US, California and the most energy efficient country in Europe, Denmark. The comparison shows that Hawaii lags behind California and Denmark in terms of energy efficiency. The comparison also shows that an increase in energy efficiency corresponds to an increase in per capita income across the board, which is in agreement with a recent report published by the American Physical Society.

  15. Forecasting of the energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Urged by earlier continuous failures in forecasting the consumption of energy in the world, essentially characterized by megalomania, the author presents his views on causes of such occurrences. Fundamental cause is considered - logic of a circle - insensitive to social and economic effects on the humanity in general and particularly to the energy consumption. Besides, a lethal influence of voluntarism has been specially studied as well. (author)

  16. The industrial energy consumption in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 1999 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 1999 based on each group of branches and energy category, the energy consumption in 1997 for each group of branches and the percentage distribution on energy category, and the fuel and energy consumption of motor vehicles in 1999 based on each group of branches. (SM)

  17. Uncertainty of Energy Consumption Assessment of Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Simonsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the influence of energy reduction initiatives, to determine the expected annual cost, to calculate life cycle cost, emission impact, etc. it is crucial to be able to assess the energy consumption reasonably accurate. The present work undertakes a theoretical and empirical study...... of the uncertainty of energy consumption assessment of domestic buildings. The calculated energy consumption of a number of almost identical domestic buildings in Denmark is compared with the measured energy consumption. Furthermore, the uncertainty is determined by means of stochastic modelling based on input...

  18. Annual energy reviews-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Here were described as important items related to energy in 2001 fiscal year on present state on 1) energy demand and supply, 2) development and research trends on application technology of energy resources, 3) development and research trends on technology of energy conversion, 4) environment, and 5) miscellaneous. On the first item, here were described on trend on energy demand and supply, present state of energy supply, and trend of business field on energy demand. On the second item, here were described on petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, natural energy, waste resources, and secondary energy resources. On the third item, here were described on combustion theory, trend on boiler trend on industrial furnace, trend on engine, trend on energy system, and trend on high efficiency power generation technology. And, on the fourth item, here were described on trend on environment problem, and developmental trend on environmental conversion technology. (J.P.N.)

  19. Assumptions for the Annual Energy Outlook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is an auxiliary document to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO) (DOE/EIA-0383(93)). It presents a detailed discussion of the assumptions underlying the forecasts in the AEO. The energy modeling system is an economic equilibrium system, with component demand modules representing end-use energy consumption by major end-use sector. Another set of modules represents petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity supply patterns and pricing. A separate module generates annual forecasts of important macroeconomic and industrial output variables. Interactions among these components of energy markets generate projections of prices and quantities for which energy supply equals energy demand. This equilibrium modeling system is referred to as the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS). The supply models in IFFS for oil, coal, natural gas, and electricity determine supply and price for each fuel depending upon consumption levels, while the demand models determine consumption depending upon end-use price. IFFS solves for market equilibrium for each fuel by balancing supply and demand to produce an energy balance in each forecast year

  20. Annual energy reviews-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The important items related to energy in 2004 fiscal year on present state on 1) energy demand and supply, 2) development and research trends on application technology of energy resources, 3) development and research trends on technology of energy conversion, 4) environment, and 5) miscellaneous are described. On the first item, trend on energy demand and supply, present state of energy supply, and trend of business field on energy demand are explained. On the second item, petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, natural energy, waste resources, and secondary energy resources are explained. On the third item, combustion theory, trend on boiler trend on industrial furnace, trend on engine, trend on high efficiency power generation technology are explained. And, on the last item, trend on environment problem, and developmental trend on environmental conversion technology are explained. (J.P.N.)

  1. Annual energy reviews-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Here were described as important items related to energy in 2002 fiscal year on present state on 1) energy demand and supply, 2) development and research trends on application technology of energy resources, 3) development and research trends on technology of energy conversion, 4) environment, and 5) miscellaneous. On the first item, here were described on trend on energy demand and supply, present state of energy supply, and trend of business field on energy demand. On the second item, here were described on petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, natural energy, waste resources, and secondary energy resources. On the third item, here were described on combustion theory, trend on boiler trend on industrial furnace, trend on engine, trend on high efficiency power generation technology. And, on the fourth item, here were described on trend on environment problem, and developmental trend on environmental conversion technology. (J.P.N.)

  2. Greenhouse energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2009-01-01

    Depending on location and luck, natural gas rates have gone from less that CAN$ 3.00 to more than CAN$ 20.00/gigajoule (Gj). Natural gas rates are currently around CAN$ 13.00/Gj, although industry "analysts" predict an increase. A gigajoule is equivalent to the energy released by the combustion of approximately 30 L (8 gal) of gasoline. It is also equivalent...

  3. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  4. Assumptions for the Annual Energy Outlook 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report serves a auxiliary document to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication Annual Energy Outlook 1992 (AEO) (DOE/EIA-0383(92)), released in January 1992. The AEO forecasts were developed for five alternative cases and consist of energy supply, consumption, and price projections by major fuel and end-use sector, which are published at a national level of aggregation. The purpose of this report is to present important quantitative assumptions, including world oil prices and macroeconomic growth, underlying the AEO forecasts. The report has been prepared in response to external requests, as well as analyst requirements for background information on the AEO and studies based on the AEO forecasts

  5. Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-17

    The Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993 is a companion document to the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO). Supplement tables provide the regional projections underlying the national data and projections in the AEO. The domestic coal, electric power, commercial nuclear power, end-use consumption, and end-use price tables present AEO forecasts at the 10 Federal Region level. World coal tables provide data and projections on international flows of steam coal and metallurgical coal, and the oil and gas tables provide the AEO oil and gas supply forecasts by Oil and Gas Supply Regions and by source of supply. All tables refer to cases presented in the AEO, which provides a range of projections for energy markets through 2010.

  6. Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993 is a companion document to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO). Supplement tables provide the regional projections underlying the national data and projections in the AEO. The domestic coal, electric power, commercial nuclear power, end-use consumption, and end-use price tables present AEO forecasts at the 10 Federal Region level. World coal tables provide data and projections on international flows of steam coal and metallurgical coal, and the oil and gas tables provide the AEO oil and gas supply forecasts by Oil and Gas Supply Regions and by source of supply. All tables refer to cases presented in the AEO, which provides a range of projections for energy markets through 2010

  7. The industrial energy consumption in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 2001 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 2001 based on each group of branches and energy category, and the emission of CO 2 . (LN)

  8. Energy in Croatia 2011, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    With the twentieth edition of the Review Energy in Croatia, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship continues the practice of informing domestic and foreign public on relations and trends within the Croatian energy sector. This Review gives, in a recognizable and comprehensible way, data and characteristic values relevant to the Croatian energy sector, providing an overview on energy production and consumption at all levels. There is a detailed analysis of the trends present in the energy sector as well as a number of information on capacities, reserves, prices and energy balances for crude oil, all petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, heat energy, coal and renewable energy sources. The Review also brings the main economic and financial indicators, data on air pollutant emissions and main energy efficiancy indicators. It also gives the ODEX energy efficiency index, which is determined according to the methodology used in the European Union. This indicator monitors the energy efficiancy trends over a period of time in the sectors of industry, transport, households and in total consumption. Finally, the Review brings the energy balances of the Republic of Croatia for the years 2010 and 2011, made following the EUROSTAT and IEA methodologies. In 2011 total primary energy supply in Croatia was 6.8 percent lower than the year before. At the same time, gross domestic product slightly decreased by 0.01 percent, which resulted in lowering energy intensity of total energy consumption by a 6.8 percent. When compared to the average energy intensity level in the EU (EU27), the energy intensity in Croatia was only 1.2 percent higher. The primary energy production in 2011 decreased by 18 percent from the previous year. Also, due to unfavorable hydrological situation the hydropower utilization was as much as 46.6 percent lower than in 2010. The energy from renewable sources increased by 13.3 percent and the energy from fuel wood, ondustrial waste wood, energy

  9. Energy in Croatia 2009, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    With the eighteenth edition of the Review Energy in Croatia, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship continues the practice of informing domestic and foreign public on relations and trends within the Croatian energy sector. This Review gives, in a recognizable and comprehensible way, data and characteristic values relevant to the Croatian energy sector, providing an overview on energy production and consumption at all levels. There is a detailed analysis of the trends present in the energy sector as well as a number of information on capacities, reserves, prices and energy balances for crude oil, all petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, heat energy, coal and renewable energy sources. The Review also brings the main economic and financial indicators, data on air pollutant emissions and main energy efficiancy indicators. It also gives the ODEX energy efficiancy index, which is determined according to the methodology used in the European Union. This indicator monitors the energy efficiancy trends over a period of time in the sectors of industry, transport, households and in total consumption. Finally, the Review brings the energy balances of the Republic of Croatia for the years 2008 and 2009, made following the EUROSTAT and IEA methodologies. In 2009 total energy demand in Croatia was 1.6 percent lower than the year before. At the same time, gross domestic product fell by 5.8 percent, which as a result gave a 4.4 percent higher level of energy intensity in total energy consumption. When compared to the average energy intensity level in the EU (EU27), the energy intensity in Croatia was 6.8 percent higher. The primary energy production in 2009 was 7.1 percent higher form the previous year. Also, due to favorable hydrological situation the hydropower utilization grew by 31 percent. The energy from renewable sources increased by 29.8 percent and the energy from fuel wood increased by 5.6 percent. The production of crude oil in 2009 decreased by 6

  10. Annual energy reviews-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The general demand and supply of energy in the world, and the circumstances of electric power, iron and steel, and transportation industries in Japan are reported. Regarding coal, the fundamentals and the trend of research and development related to coal, the trends of coal mining industry and coke, aromatic compound, tar, carbon and coal ash industries are reported. Regarding petroleum, the fundamentals and the trend of research and development related to petroleum, the trends of petroleum industry and petroleum refining and petrochemical industries are reported. Regarding gases, the trends of developing natural gas and liquefied natural gas, town gas and the production of synthetic gases are reported. Regarding nuclear power, the state of nuclear power stations, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle and the research and development of the utilization of nuclear power are reported. Regarding natural energy, the state of utilizing solar energy, geothermal energy, wind energy and ocean energy is reported. The uses of oil sand and oil shale, biomass and waste, hydrogen and alcohol are reported. The theory of combustion, the trends of cogeneration and heat pumps, the trends of boilers, industrial furnaces, engines, and high efficiency electric power generation technologies are reported. The trends of environmental problems and waste problems and the preservation of atmospheric environment are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Energy in Croatia 2012, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    With the twenty-first edition of the Review Energy in Croatia, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship continues the practice of informing domestic and foreign public on relations and trends within the Croatian energy sector. This Review gives, in a recognizable and comprehensible way, data and characteristic values relevant to the Croatian energy sector, providing an overview on energy production and consumption at all levels. There is a detailed analysis of the trends present in the energy sector as well as a number of information on capacities, reserves, prices and energy balances for crude oil, all petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, heat energy, coal and renewable energy sources. The Review also brings the main economic and financial indicators, data on air pollutant emissions and main energy efficiancy indicators. It also gives the ODEX energy efficiency index, which is determined according to the methodology used in the European Union. This indicator monitors the energy efficiancy trends over a period of time in the sectors of industry, transport, households and in total consumption. Finally, the Review brings the energy balances of the Republic of Croatia for the years 2011 and 2012, made following the EUROSTAT and IEA methodologies. In 2012 total energy demand in Croatia was 4.7 percent lower than the year before. At the same time, gross domestic product fell by 2 percent, which resulted in a decrease in a total primary energy supply intensity by 2.8 percent. When compared to the average energy intensity level in the EU (EU27), the energy intensity in Croatia was 6.9 percent higher. The primary energy production in 2012 decreased by 5.6 compared to the previous year. Also, due to hydrological situation the hydropower utilization grew by 6.7 percent. The energy from renewable sources increased by 29.8 percent and the energy from fuel wood increased by 5.6 percent. The production of crude oil in 2012 decreased by 9.7 percent and of natural

  12. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel [Department of Economics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, UNISA 0003 (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    This paper tries to assess the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in South Africa by undertaking a cointegration analysis using annual data from 1980 to 2005. We also investigate the causal relationships between the various disaggregate forms of energy consumption and industrial production. Our results imply that industrial production and employment are long-run forcing variables for electricity consumption. Applying the [Toda, H.Y., Yamamoto, T., 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] technique to Granger-causality, we find bi-directional causality between oil consumption and industrial production. For the other forms of energy consumption, there is evidence in support of the energy neutrality hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality between employment and electricity consumption as well as coal consumption causing employment. (author)

  13. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to assess the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in South Africa by undertaking a cointegration analysis using annual data from 1980 to 2005. We also investigate the causal relationships between the various disaggregate forms of energy consumption and industrial production. Our results imply that industrial production and employment are long-run forcing variables for electricity consumption. Applying the [Toda, H.Y., Yamamoto, T., 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] technique to Granger-causality, we find bi-directional causality between oil consumption and industrial production. For the other forms of energy consumption, there is evidence in support of the energy neutrality hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality between employment and electricity consumption as well as coal consumption causing employment.

  14. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  15. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  16. Analysis on Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment in Kunming, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchi Hu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to investigate and analyze the actual conditions of the urban residential energy consumption, and hence to ascertain what will be the important factors that influence the annual energy consumption in Kunming, which has a mild climate. The questionnaire surveys reveal building characteristics, housing appliances, household characteristics, indoor thermal environment and aspects of life style, during winter and summer seasons. The questionnaire analyses show that only 5% of the investigated households have air conditioning, and 12% have heating appliances. Most households use solar energy as a water heater energy source because the sunshine hours in Kunming are long. The energy consumption analyses show that the average annual energy consumption of households in Kunming reached 12.2 GJ, and cooking accounted for 5.3 GJ, which is the largest part. Most of the time in summer, the outdoor temperature is lower than living room and bedroom temperatures; thus, natural ventilation is a useful cooling method for households in Kunming. The absolute humidity in summer is about 11 g/kg, while in winter it is about 5 g/kg. The influence factor analyses show that building construction year, water heater type and annual income are important influential factors on annual energy consumption.

  17. Energy in Croatia, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The publication creates a condensed review of the state of affairs within our energy system. It includes the latest data for 1996, which were at the same time compared to the situations from the previous four years in order to achieve a more accurate insight into all the related problems. The relation of the gross domestic product (GDP) and the electric energy consumption illustrates the fact that the economic conditions are closely connected to the development of the energy sector. In 1996 the gross domestic product was 4.2% higher than in the year before and the electric energy consumption increased by approximately the same figure. It rose from the consumed 12958.0 GWh in 1995 to 12877.9 GWh in 1996, i.e. 4.2%. The total energy consumption in 1996 increased by entire 10.8%, amounting to 352.56 PJ, this predominantly being a result of growing hydro power and natural gas consumption. The immediate energy consumption grew by 8.3%, from 185.96 PJ in 1995 to 201.35 PJ in 1996. Apart from the data included in the review, there are also other presentations referring to the energy generation and consumption in Croatia. A special chapter comprises an analysis of oil and gas system, i.e. hydrocarbon and coal reserves as well as the capacities required for oil and gas processing and transportation. The attention was directed to positive environmental incentives, as the energy sector is responsible for more than 90% of all polluting substances. Apart from the economic and financial indices, the publication includes the prices for electric energy, natural gas and oil derivations as well as maps showing the route of the gas and JANAF systems and the transmission electric energy network. The review puts forward some positive achievements in the development of our energy sector, which create the basis for continued efforts in order to bring about the desired objectives. This will be realized by defining the legislation system and the institutions ensuring high-quality market

  18. The world energy consumption in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Enerdata 2005 data, this analysis presents the situation of the world energy consumption in 2005, the electric power consumption per region and production per source, the consumption increase for each energy source and the petroleum and gas consumption increase. (A.L.B.)

  19. Energy consumption and GDP in Turkey : Is there a co-integration relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, van K.; Lise, W.

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption and GDP are expected to grow by 5.9% and 7% annually until 2025 in Turkey. This paper tries to unfold the linkage between energy consumption and GDP by undertaking a co-integration analysis for Turkey with annual data over the period 1970-2003. The analysis shows that energy

  20. Energy consumption and GDP in Turkey: is there a co-integration relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfort, C.A.G.M.; Lise, W.

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption and GDP are expected to grow by 5.9% and 7% annually until 2025 in Turkey. This paper tries to unfold the linkage between energy consumption and GDP by undertaking a co-integration analysis for Turkey with annual data over the period 1970-2003. The analysis shows that energy

  1. FY 1998 annual summary report on project for international energy consumption rationalization. Survey on analysis tool for improving efficiency of Asian energy consumption (data book 2 for 1985); 1998 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo chosa hokokusho. Asia energy shohi koritsuka bunseki tool chosa jigyo (shiryoshu 2 1985 nen data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The data book is compiled, based on common industrial classifications, as the tool for analyzing, e.g., the mutual ripple effects of economic growth and increased efficiency of energy consumption throughout the Asia-Pacific region. This book summarizes the industrial-related and energy-related tables for 8 Asian countries and Japan. The book II is for the 1985 data (1987 data for China), comparing with the book I for the 1990 data. The industry-related tables are composed of the tables for transaction bases, input coefficients, final demand converters, importation coefficients, inverse matrices, sensitivity/influence coefficients, production inducement levels, production inducement coefficients, degrees of dependence on production inducement, importation inducement levels, importation inducement coefficients, and degrees of dependence on importation inducement. Energy-related tables are composed of the tables for, e.g., energy input, energy consumption, emissions, and CO2 emissions. (NEDO)

  2. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  3. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  4. Energy consumption 2005 with Danish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption in the Danish industries decreased with 4% from 2003 to 2005. The consumption of liquid fuels and district heat decreased with 27% and 21%, respectively. The consumption of solid fuels increased with 13%. The aim of the statistics is to elucidate the industry's energy consumption and its composition. The statistics present the development in the industry from 1973 to 2005, in which period the composition of the energy consumption has changed significantly. Especially, consumption of liquid fuels has decreased and consumption of gas and electricity has increased. (ln)

  5. Energy in Croatia 2004, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    Report represents a continuous information source for both national and international public on relations and trends in the Croatian energy system. This edition brings certain changes in the energy topics' outline and broader scope of information compared to the previous editions. However, the representative features of the Croatian energy sector, related to supply and demand of energy at all levels, kept the familiar outlook of presentation.Besides the detailed analysis of energy trends, this edition provides numerous information on capacity, reserves and prices of energy as well as individual energy sources' balances - crude oil and oil derivates, natural gas, electricity, heat, coal and renewable energy sources. In addition, Croatian basic and economic and financial indicators, emission of air pollutants plus basic energy efficiency indicators were presented in order to give better understanding of the Croatian energy sector environment. Finally, there is a special novelty of representing energy balances of the Republic of Croatia made in the compliance with EUROSTAT and IEA methodology for years 2003 and 2004. Total primary energy supply in the Republic of Croatia in 2004 was 4.1 percent higher compared to the previous year. The gross domestic product increased by 3.8 percent over the same period. This means that energy intensity, primary energy supply per unit of gross domestic product, increased by 0.3 percent. Compared to the European Union average Croatian energy intensity was approximately 24 percent higher. Total primary energy production, on the other hand, increased by 11.2 percent due to extremely favourable hydrological conditions. The raise i n hydropower by 48.5 percent improved Croatian primary energy self-supply to 49.6 percent. In the structure of total primary energy supply for 2004, the losses of transmission and distribution of energy were reduced only while the rest of the categories of energy consumption increased. The 3.3 percent increase

  6. Forecasting Renewable Energy Consumption under Zero Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy, as an environmentally friendly and sustainable source of energy, is key to realizing the nationally determined contributions of the United States (US to the December 2015 Paris agreement. Policymakers in the US rely on energy forecasts to draft and implement cost-minimizing, efficient and realistic renewable and sustainable energy policies but the inaccuracies in past projections are considerably high. The inaccuracies and inconsistencies in forecasts are due to the numerous factors considered, massive assumptions and modeling flaws in the underlying model. Here, we propose and apply a machine learning forecasting algorithm devoid of massive independent variables and assumptions to model and forecast renewable energy consumption (REC in the US. We employ the forecasting technique to make projections on REC from biomass (REC-BMs and hydroelectric (HE-EC sources for the 2009–2016 period. We find that, relative to reference case projections in Energy Information Administration’s Annual Energy Outlook 2008, projections based on our proposed technique present an enormous improvement up to ~138.26-fold on REC-BMs and ~24.67-fold on HE-EC; and that applying our technique saves the US ~2692.62PJ petajoules(PJ on HE-EC and ~9695.09PJ on REC-BMs for the 8-year forecast period. The achieved high-accuracy is also replicable to other regions.

  7. Determinants of Nuclear Energy Consumption in South Asia: Economic and Energy Security Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the causal relationship between i) nuclear energy consumption and economic determinants (i.e. labor force, gross fixed capital formation and GDP per capita), and ii) nuclear consumption and energy security issues (i.e., technology infrastructure, energy sources, conditions of land, concern of energy security and political stability) in the context of South Asia. The study brings an annual aggregate data for South Asia from the period of 1960-2012. The ...

  8. Energy in Croatia 2005, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    sector own use. Energy demand rose in the transport sector by 4.5 per cent and in the so called 'other sectors' in the primary consumption by 3.5 per cent, while it remained constant in the industrial sector. The consumption of petroleum products increased by 3.6 per cent. Fuel oils recorded and increase of 4.9 per cent, unleaded gasoline of 2.8 per cent, diesel fuels of 7.3 per cent, jet fuel of 19 per cent and LPG of 2.7 per cent, and extra light fuel oil and leaded gasoline a decrease of 6.1 per cent and 59.7 per cent, respectively. The consumption of electrical energy rose by 3.4 per cent. Natural gas showed a fall of 3.3 per cent, steam and hot water of 1.9 per cent and fuel wood of 4.8 per cent. In respect to international activities in the energy sector in 2005, intensive negotiations on the Energy Community Treaty were open by the European Union. The Republic of Croatia was an active participant in the negotiations

  9. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  10. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  11. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varman, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification

  12. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: indra@um.edu.my; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-10-15

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification.

  13. Talisman Energy : 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Financial information from Calgary-based Talisman Energy was presented in this annual report and a review of their 2002 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Talisman Energy is one of Canada's leading natural gas producers and a successful international operator. In 2002, the company posted its fourth consecutive year of record cash flow per share and production was up 6 per cent to 445,000 boe per day, a record high. Production in the North Sea was increased by 15 per cent as 2 new oil fields were brought on stream. The major oil and gas development projects in Malaysia and Vietnam are more than 60 per cent complete. Talisman also announced the sale of its 25 per cent interest in Sudan. This annual report includes an auditor's report of the companies financial statements and summarized the company's energy resource activities. An operations review was also presented along with consolidated financial statements, summarized balance sheet of assets, liabilities/surplus and net assets, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  14. A moderate growth of the French energy consumption despite a strong economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The annual statement of the French energy consumption was performed in the beginning of April. It shows a moderate growth of the consumption except in the transportation sector. This short paper analyzes the results published by the observatory of energy from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP): growth of the energy consumption, decay of the national production, improvement of the energy efficiency, decay of the energy bill, and the contrasted sectoral results. (J.S.)

  15. Estimating Energy Consumption of Transport Modes in China Using DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of transport requirements in China will incur increasing transport energy demands and associated environmental pressures. In this paper, we employ a generalized data envelopment analysis (DEA to evaluate the relative energy efficiency of rail, road, aviation and water transport from 1971 to 2011 by considering the energy input and passenger-kilometers (PKM and freight ton-kilometers (TKM outputs. The results show that the optimal energy efficiencies observed in 2011 are for rail and water transport, with the opposite observed for the energy efficiencies of aviation and road transport. In addition, we extend the DEA model to estimate future transport energy consumption in China. If each transport mode in 2020 is optimized throughout the observed period, the national transport energy consumption in 2020 will reach 497,701 kilotons coal equivalent (ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 5.7%. Assuming that efficiency improvements occur in this period, the estimated national transport energy consumption in 2020 will be 443,126 ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 4.4%, which is still higher than that of the national total energy consumption (3.8%.

  16. Modeling Aggregate Hourly Energy Consumption in a Regional Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kipping

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sound estimates of future heat and electricity demand with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed for energy system planning, grid design, and evaluating demand-side management options and polices on regional and national levels. In this study, smart meter data on electricity consumption in buildings are combined with cross-sectional building information to model hourly electricity consumption within the household and service sectors on a regional basis in Norway. The same modeling approach is applied to model aggregate hourly district heat consumption in three different consumer groups located in Oslo. A comparison of modeled and metered hourly energy consumption shows that hourly variations and aggregate consumption per county and year are reproduced well by the models. However, for some smaller regions, modeled annual electricity consumption is over- or underestimated by more than 20%. Our results indicate that the presented method is useful for modeling the current and future hourly energy consumption of a regional building stock, but that larger and more detailed training datasets are required to improve the models, and more detailed building stock statistics on regional level are needed to generate useful estimates on aggregate regional energy consumption.

  17. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-1994. The expression of fuel consumption for oil-fired pool heaters shall be in Btu. 4.2Average annual fossil fuel energy for pool heaters. The average annual fuel energy for pool heater, EF, is defined as... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption...

  18. Environmental degradation, energy consumption, population growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the result, there is no evidence of unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions and energy consumption to economic growth and strong unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth to population growth was found. The long run and short run estimates ...

  19. The Relationship Between Energy Consumption and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As evidenced from the study, causality runs from energy consumption to economic growth. Energy consumption in Nigeria is mainly based on the use of fossil fuels which is non-renewable. Therefore, in order to actualize its vision of becoming one of the 20th largest economies in the World by the year 2020, government ...

  20. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  1. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large

  2. The relationship among energy prices and energy consumption in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Chaoqing; Liu, Sifeng; Wu, Junlong

    2010-01-01

    The pricing mechanism for energy is not in line with the international standards, because the energy prices are controlled by the government partly or completely in China. Chinese government made a lot of efforts to improve the pricing mechanism for energy. The relations between Chinese energy prices and energy consumption are the foundations to reform the mechanism. In this paper, the relations between Chinese energy consumption and energy prices are researched by cointegration equations, impulse response functions, granger causality and variance decomposition. The cointegration relations among energy prices, energy consumption and economic outputs show that higher energy price will decrease energy consumption in Chinese industrial sectors but will not reduce the economic output in the long run. The cointegration relation between energy price and household energy consumption shows that higher energy price will decrease household energy consumption in the long run and increase it in the short run. So Chinese government should deepen the reform of pricing mechanism for energy, and increase the energy prices reasonably to save energy. (author)

  3. Flexible Energy Consumption in Smart House's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    2012-01-01

    the consumer have to use the energy when it is available. The main electrical energy consumer in a modern society is buildings and private homes. The amount of electrical energy used in this sector is about 70% of the total electricity consumption. Because of that buildings and private homes has to play...

  4. Social costs of energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmeyer, O.

    1988-01-01

    This study systematically compares the external costs and benefits of different electricity generating technologies. It covers environmental and employment effects, the depletion of natural resources, and public subsidies. Electricity production based on fossil fuels and nuclear energy compared with electricity production based on wind energy and photovoltaic systems. The study shows that wind and photovoltaic solar energy induce far less social costs than conventionally generated electricity. The impact of excluding social costs on the competitive position of the different energy technologies is analyzed. It is shown that the allocation process is seriously distorted resulting in sub-optimal investment decisions concerning competing energy technologies. This exclusion of social costs can delay the introduction of renewable energy sources by more than ten years and results in considerable losses to society. (orig./HSCH) With 17 figs., 24 tabs

  5. Energy Consumption in Cloud Computing Data Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Uchechukwu Awada; Keqiu Li; Yanming Shen

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of cloud computing has attracted computing as a utility and enables penetrative applications from scientific, consumer and business domains. However, this implementation faces tremendous energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission and associated costs concerns. With energy consumption becoming key issue for the operation and maintenance of cloud datacenters, cloud computing providers are becoming profoundly concerned.  In this paper, we present formulations and solutions fo...

  6. ENERGY AUDIT AS TOOL FOR DECREASING OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirshu M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the energy audit for seven public organizations. Audits were performed in 2013 by the staff of the Institute of Power Engineering of the ASM. The staff is authorized in the field of electricity and thermal energy. Four energy audits were for energy efficiency in buildings; two energy audits were for efficient public lighting system and one for efficient lighting system within the organization. For each organization were highlighted major problems which lead to increased energy consumption and proposed several measures that help reduce energy consumption and reduce CO2 emissions. Also describes methods for the measurements and the equipment used. It presents characteristic problems typified by object class and how to overcome them. Energy consumption is determined for both - baseline energy consumption and after implementing the proposed measures. Also, the necessary investments, the results obtained after investments and the payback periods for each proposed measures as well as a whole are presented.

  7. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  8. Energy consumption and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

  9. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  10. Quantification of variables that affect energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Facility energy consumption is the summation of a number of contributory factors, caused by equipment that uses energy in response to demands placed by the user and according to its particular design. While energy efficiency improvements usually concentrate on individual parts or systems, overall energy consumption is analyzed by examining the use of specific fuels. Because independent variables effect the consumption of these fuels, accurate comparisons of a facility's energy consumption for time-measured periods must include these effects. In many cases, it is possible to determine and quantify the effects of one or more of the independent variables through a statistically valid regression analysis of the data. The regression model can be linear, or be dependent on other functions such as powers, time lead or lag, or exponential. The most common model is linear, but other dependencies are often encountered. Regression analyses are not difficult to accomplish, and are included as one of the tools in most spreadsheet software. The analyses provide the energy manager with a means to better understand the energy consumption of his/her facility

  11. Institute of Atomic Energy - Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2000-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1999. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well

  12. Institute of Atomic Energy - Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    1999-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute in 1998. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well

  13. Energy Program annual report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1989-07-01

    This report is a summary of work done during FY 1988 (October 1, 1987--September 30, 1988) by the Energy Program of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The program addresses problems relating to supply and utilization of energy in the US. Traditionally the focus of activities has been on long-range technical challenges that are unlikely to be pursued by the private sector. Individual projects making up the Energy Program are divided into three sections in this review: Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Nonfossil Energy. (Nonfossil Energy research includes work on geothermal resources and combustion chemistry.)

  14. A cultural model of household energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzenhiser, Loren

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the development of demand-side research, from an early interest in conservation behavior to a later focus on physical, economic, psychological and social models of energy consumption. Unfortunately, none of these models account satisfactorily for measured energy consumption in the residential sector. Growing interest in the end-uses of energy (e.g. in support of load forecasting, demand-side management and least-cost utility planning), increasing international studies of energy use, and continuing work in the energy and lifestyles research tradition now support an emerging cultural perspective on household energy use. The ecological foundations of the cultural model and its applications in energy research are discussed, along with some of the analytic consequences of this approach. (author)

  15. monthly energy consumption forecasting using wavelet analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Monthly energy forecasts help heavy consumers of electric power to prepare adequate budget to pay their electricity bills and also draw the attention of management and stakeholders to electric- ity consumption levels so that energy efficiency measures are put in place to reduce cost. In this paper, a wavelet ...

  16. Monthly Energy Consumption Forecasting Using Wavelet Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly energy forecasts help heavy consumers of electric power to prepare adequate budget to pay their electricity bills and also draw the attention of management and stakeholders to electricity consumption levels so that energy efficiency measures are put in place to reduce cost. In this paper, a wavelet transform and ...

  17. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND REAL GDP IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Naji Meidani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important production factors and one of the most urgent final products, energy has a special position in the growth and development of the country. This paper examines the causal relationship between Real GDP and energy consumption in various economic sectors including (household and commercial, industry, transportation and agriculture sectors for Iran during 1967–2010 using the time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method. Moreover, an error correction model is also estimated so that the results of these two methods are compared. We found a strong unidirectional causality from energy consumption in industry sector to real gross domestic product. Energy consumption in industry sector can observably promote the development of economy.

  18. The effect of energy performance regulations on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra-Santin, O.; Itard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Governments have developed energy performance regulations in order to lower energy consumption in the housing stock. Most of these regulations are based on the thermal quality of the buildings. In the Netherlands, the energy efficiency for new buildings is expressed as the EPC (energy performance

  19. Renewable energy annual 1998, with data for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This is the fourth annual report published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) which presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data; US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities; and US geothermal heat pump manufacturing activities. It updates and provides more detail on renewable energy information than what`s published in the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Annual Energy Review 1997. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, wood waste, municipal solid waste, ethanol, and biodiesel); geothermal; wind; solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic); and hydropower. However, hydropower is also regarded as a conventional energy source because it has furnished a significant amount of electricity for more than a century. Therefore, the contribution of hydropower to total renewable energy consumption is discussed, although hydropower as an individual energy source is not addressed. Since EIA collects data only on terrestrial (land-based) systems, satellite and military applications are not included in this report. 13 figs., 44 tabs.

  20. Exploring energy consumption and demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ying; Xia, Yan

    2012-01-01

    China has been experiencing industrialization and urbanization since reform and opening of its economy in 1978. Energy consumption in the country has featured issues such as a coal-dominated energy mix, low energy efficiency and high emissions. Thus, it is of great importance to explore the factors driving the increase in energy consumption in the past two decades and estimate the potential for decreasing energy demands in the future. In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to identify how these factors impact changes in energy intensity. A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in a BAU scenario and an alternative scenario. The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. Energy demand in China will continue to increase at a rapid rate if the economy develops as in the past decades, and is projected to reach 4.7 billion tce in 2020. However, the huge potential for a decrease cannot be neglected, since growth could be better by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements. The total energy demand could be less than 4.0 billion tce in 2020. -- Highlights: ► In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to China’s energy intensity change. ► A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in China. ► The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. ► Energy demand in China will reach 4.7 billion ton in 2020 if the economy develops as in the past decades. ► There is a huge potential for a decrease of energy demand by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements.

  1. Energy Program annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.

    1992-08-01

    The Energy Program emphasizes applied R ampersand D for energy technologies that will be important to the US in the next fifty years and which may be important long after that. Historically, we have focused on coal gasification; the development of alternative liquid fuels from oil shale, coal, and natural gas; transportation uses of electric power from refuelable batteries; geothermal energy; and support of nuclear energy through the development of new technologies for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Our current program addresses three objectives of the National Energy Strategy: (1) To enhance energy security by ensuring stable costs, increasing energy supplies, and developing alternatives to Middle East oil. (2) To improve environmental quality by implementing energy technologies that effect better air and water quality, improve land use, and protect global environmental systems. (3) To encourage economic growth through technologies that reduce the costs of energy production, storage, transport, transmission, and distribution; promote efficiency by reducing costs and end-user services; and strengthen resiliency and flexibility of energy systems. We have just begun a major program to commercialize the technology to extract oil from the large US reserves (greater than 700 billion barrels) of oil shale. Perhaps the single greatest barrier to the public acceptance of nuclear power is the perceived lack of a technical solution to the permanent disposal of wastes. We have developed new concepts that are aimed at improving the likelihood of technical assurance of long-term containment

  2. Cities and Energy Consumption: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cities and energy consumption has been of great interest for the scientific community for over twenty years. Most of the energy consumption, indeed, occurs in cities because of the high concentration of human activities. Thus, cities are responsible for a big share of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2. However, the debate on this topic is still open, mainly because of the heterogeneity of published studies in the selection, definition and measurement of the urban features influencing energy consumption and CO2 emissions, as well as in the choice of the energy sectors to be considered, in the territorial scale of analysis, and in the geographical distribution of the sample. Therefore, the goal of this research is to systematize and compare the approach, methodology and results of the relevant literature on the relationship between cities and energy consumption over the last twenty years. Furthermore, this critical review identifies the knowledge gap between what is known and what is still under debate and, based on that, it proposes a conceptual framework that will help to outline a new direction for future research and support local policy makers in the definition of strategies and actions that can effectively reduce urban energy use and CO2 emissions.

  3. Energy Threshold Hypothesis for Household Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Samira; Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel; Amador, Isamar

    2017-01-01

    A strong positive relationship among quality of life and electricity consumption at impoverished countries is found in many studies. However, previous work has presented that the positive relationship does not hold beyond certain electricity consumption threshold. Consequently, there is a need of exploring the possibility for communities to live with sustainable level of energy consumption without sacrificing their quality of life. The Gallup-Healthways Report measures global citizen’s wellbeing. This paper provides a new outlook using these elements to explore the relationships among actual percentage of population thriving in most countries and their energy consumption. A measurement of efficiency is computed to determine an adjusted relative social value of energy considering the variability in the happy life years as a function of electric power consumption. Adjustment is performed so single components don’t dominate in the measurement. It is interesting to note that the countries with the highest relative social value of energy are in the top 10 countries of the Gallup report.

  4. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł; Boruszko, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  5. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  6. Annual Energy Balance Sheets 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    During the year 2002 the primary supply of energy reached 629 TWh, which is 7.7 TWh less than 2001. The decrease originates mainly from the reduced electricity production from water power. Also the electricity production in nuclear power plants decreased by 4.5 TWh. If we were to look at the supplied energy for final consumption we will find a slightly rise by 1.8 TWh. The year 2002 was warmer than a 'normal' year and that consequently brings lower energy needs. Compared with 2001, 2002 was not warmer and a net electricity import of 5.4 TWh covered the energy needs. The energy use increased by 3.3 TWh between 2002 and 2001. The industry sector shows the largest rise by 2.9 TWh, nearly 2 per cent. Within that sector, energy from biomass fuel had a rise by 6.7 per cent. The household sector decreases its energy use by 2.7 per cent, and oil and electricity show the largest decrease. The proportionately high electricity price probably had a slowing down effect on the electricity use. The balance sheets of energy sources are showing the total supply and consumption of energy sources expressed in original units, i.e. units recorded in the primary statistics - mainly commercial units. The production of derived energy commodities is recorded on the supply - side of the balance sheets of energy sources, which is not the case in the energy balance sheets. The balance sheets of energy sources also include specifications of input--output and energy consumption in energy conversion industries. The energy balance sheets are based on primary data recorded in the balance sheets of energy sources, here expressed in a common energy unit, TJ. The production of derived energy is recorded in a second flow-step comprising energy turnover in energy conversion and is also specified in complementary input - output tables for energy conversion industries. The following items are shown in the energy balance sheets. 1.1 Inland supply of primary energy; 1.3 Import; 1.4 Export; 1.5 Changes in

  7. Energy consumption of electricity end uses in Malaysian historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul N.; Edwards, Rodger E.; Zawawi, Emma M.A.

    2007-07-15

    Malaysia has inherited hundreds of heritage buildings from the past including those from the Indian, Chinese and Colonial eras apart from the indigenous traditional buildings. These buildings have the most unique ecstatic value from the viewpoint of architecture, culture, art, etc. Malaysian economy boom in 1980s spurred the need for more buildings especially in large cities. As a result, most of the historic buildings have been converted and transformed into commercial use. As reported by METP, Malaysian buildings energy uses are reflected by the energy consumption in the industrial and commercial sectors. Most of the buildings' energy consumption is electricity, used for running and operating the plants, lighting, lifts and escalators and other equipment in the buildings. These are amongst the factors that have resulted in the high demand for electricity in Malaysia. As outlined in the eighth Malaysia Plan, Malaysia is taking steps in conserving energy and reducing energy consumption on electricity consumption in building. This paper aims to present the breakdown of the major electricity end uses characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. The analysis was performed on annual data, allowing comparison with published benchmarks to give an indication of efficiency. Based on data collected a 'normalisation' calculated electricity consumption was established with the intention of improving the comparison between buildings in different climatic regions or with different occupancy patterns. This is useful for identifying where the design needed further attention and helped pinpoint problem areas within a building. It is anticipated that this study would give a good indication on the electricity consumption characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. (Author)

  8. A Meta Model for Domestic Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.,J SREEKANTH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of energy consumption particularly in micro level is of vital importance in terms of energy planning and also implementation of any Clean Development Mechanism (CDM activities that has become the order of the world today. It may be difficult to model household energy consumption using conventional methods such as time series forecasting due to many influencing factors. This paper presents a step wise regression model for forecasting domestic energy consumption based on micro level household survey data collected from Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The analysis of the data reveals significant influence of socio-economic, demographic, geographic, and family attributes upon total household energy requirements. While a wide variation in the pattern of energy requirements across the domestic sector belonging to different expenditure classes, per capita income level can be identified as the most important explanatory variable influencing variation in energy requirements. The models developed also demonstrates the influence of per capita land area, residential area among the higher income group while average age and literacy forms significant variables among the lower income group.

  9. Energy Consumption of Fast Ferries in Danish Domestic Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Steen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark.......Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark....

  10. Stuart Energy annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Stuart Energy is a leading global provider of integrated solutions for distributed hydrogen infrastructure requirements based on water electrolysis. Their product line includes integrated, turn-key solutions for onsite hydrogen production, compression, storage, fuel dispensing and distributed power generation. The company integrates its proprietary hydrogen generation systems with other leading hydrogen products from its partners. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2004, Stuart Energy delivered significant growth in its hydrogen markets, industrial power and transportation. Strong results were delivered in core areas such as accelerated sales growth, gross margin improvements, significant cost reductions, disciplined product development and improved financial strength. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  11. Computer Profile of School Facilities Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Felix E.

    This document outlines a computerized management tool designed to enable building managers to identify energy consumption as related to types and uses of school facilities for the purpose of evaluating and managing the operation, maintenance, modification, and planning of new facilities. Specifically, it is expected that the statistics generated…

  12. Energy consumption in static muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerhuis, CL; Hof, AL; van der Heide, F.M.

    Energy consumption during static contraction of the human triceps surae muscles was studied in 11 healthy subjects. The subjects had to stand intermittently on the left and then right foot at different frequencies (for periods of 15 s, 10 s or 5 s), first on the whole foot and then on the forefoot.

  13. Determining Mean Annual Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Folley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    obtained through system identification. The traditional method for representing the wave climate is using a scatter table, indexed by significant wave height and energy period; however, it has been found that this can lead to high errors in the MAEP due to the necessary assumptions regarding spectral shape...... capture for each representative sea-state in the wave climate can be determined using a power matrix, indexed by significant wave height and energy period, modelling all the sea-states or modelling a representative set of sea-states defined using the radial basis functions method. The use of the power...

  14. Supplement to the annual energy outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This section of the Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 present the major assumptions of the modeling system used to generate the projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). In this context, assumptions include general features of the model structure, assumptions concerning energy markets, and the key input data and parameters that are most significant in formulating the model results. Detailed documentation of the modeling system is available in a series of documentation reports listed in Appendix B. A synopsis of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), the model components, and the interrelationships of the modules is presented. The NEMS is developed and maintained by the office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide projection of domestic energy-economy markets in the midterm time period and perform policy analyses requested by various government agencies and the private sector.

  15. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  16. Simulation Tool For Energy Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Michael; Mynderup, Henrik; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    as a controller unit of the user’s choice. The results of the simulations can be compared using a dynamic reporting window that allows the user to create custom charts of the data. The application has been designed such that it can easily be extended with additional controller units, price and weather data......In order to promote adoption of smart grid with the general public it is necessary to be able to visualize the benefits of a smart home. Software tools that model the effects can help significantly with this. However, only little work has been done in the area of simulating and visualizing...... the energy consumption in smart homes. This paper presents a prototype simulation tool that allows graphical modeling of a home. Based on the modeled homes the user is able to simulate the energy consumptions and compare scenarios. The simulations are based on dynamic weather and energy price data as well...

  17. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  18. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  19. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Belgrade can prevent a dramatic increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions (and mitigate the negative local environmental effects of traffic congestion, traffic accidents and air pollution, only if it: 1 implements a more decisive strategy to limit private vehicles use while its level of car passenger km (PKT is still relatively low; 2 does not try to solve its transport problems only by trying to build urban road infrastructure (bridges and ring roads; and 3 if it continues to provide priority movement for buses (a dominant form of public transport, while 4 at the same time developing urban rail systems (metro or LRT with exclusive tracks, immune to the traffic congestion on urban streets. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  20. Energy Awareness Displays - Prototype for personalised energy consumption feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Storm, Jeroen; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D., Storm, J., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012). Energy Awareness Displays - Prototype for personalised energy consumption feedback. In A. Ravencroft, S. Lindstaedt, C. D. Kloos, & D. Hernández-Leo (Eds.), 21st Century Learning for 21st Century Skills - 7th European Conference on Technology

  1. Comparison and Evolution of Energy Consumption in Moroccan Agro-food Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Badaoui, Meryem; Touzani, Abdellatif

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish a comparison between the Moroccan energy consumption and the BREF the reference document on best available techniques in the food industries, then an evolution of this consumption by 2030 in order to better understand it and to define strategies to reduce energy bill. According to a survey conducted among 5000 Moroccan companies, we were able to compare the energy consumption of the agro-food industries including sugar industry, dairy industry, cereal industry; fatty substances industry and fishing industry with that of the BREF. Also an evolution of Moroccan consumption was established by 2030 using the linear regression method, and then calculated a non-negligible average annual growth rate (AAGR). The results show that the Moroccan energy consumption is adequate to that of the BREF, and an energy consumption constantly increasing by registering a non-negligible AAGR.

  2. The National Energy Board's annual report to Parliament 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The National Energy Board (NEB) informs Canadians about energy market trends. This annual report provides a summary of Canadian energy supply, consumption, production, prices and trade with an emphasis on developments in 2003. In 2003 Canada's energy industry accounted for 6 per cent of Canada's Gross Domestic product and employed 300,000 people. Revenue from energy exports accounted for 16 per cent of all Canadian exports, up from 12 per cent in 2002. The increase was due in most part to higher energy commodity prices. In 2003, the NEB was active in developing a regulatory framework for the proposed Mackenzie Valley Pipeline. While demand for electricity increased, generating capacity did not keep up with increased power demands. The NEB reviewed several projects geared at increasing electricity imports. The power outage of August 2003 in the northeast United States and Ontario emphasized the importance of a reliable power transmission system. Energy commodity prices were high in 2003. The price of transportation fuel was high in response to world oil prices and tight supplies. Electricity prices in Canada, which are still largely regulated, increased only marginally. In 2003, renewable and alternative energy production increased by about 2 per cent over 2002, and accounted for 4 per cent of the total energy consumption in Canada. The installation of wind power facilities in 2003 increased total capacity by 35 per cent, to a total of 316,270 kW. The NEB also launched several initiatives in 2003 to improve consistency of environmental assessments. tabs., figs

  3. Netherlands Energy Research Foundation Annual Report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This Annual Report includes a brief survey of the nuclear research activities of the Netherlands Energy Research Center (ECN) in Petten during 1987. They cover the following subjects: reactor safety, processing, storage and disposal of radioactive waste, advanced nuclear reactors, radiation protection, nuclear analysis, and contributions to the European thermonuclear-fusion research. (H.W.). 20 figs.; 18 fotos; 1 tab

  4. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  5. [SaskEnergy, Inc.]. Annual report, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Annual report of SaskEnergy Inc., a Crown corporation established in 1992 to provide a secure supply of natural gas to over 293,000 customers. The report provides an overview of the year's activities; a corporate profile; financial and operating highlights; details on distribution, transmission and storage; corporate and social responsibility; and the future outlook. Financial statements are included

  6. [SaskEnergy, Inc.]. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Annual report of SaskEnergy Inc., a Crown corporation established in 1992 to provide a secure supply of natural gas to over 293,000 customers. The report provides an overview of the year's activities; a corporate profile; financial and operating highlights; details on distribution, transmission and storage; corporate and social responsibility; and the future outlook. Financial statements are included

  7. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  8. 2014 Navajo Nation Energy and Water Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Suzanne L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Woods, Sam [Navajo Transitional Energy Company, Farmington, NM (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Navajo Nation is the home of the largest land-based Indian reservation in the U.S., covering more than twenty-seven thousand square miles. The land in the southwestern U.S. holds an abundance of natural resources, which are intimately integrated in the history, economy, and growth of the Navajo tribe. This report aims to wholly visualize the Navajo Nation’s resources and energy and water consumption using quantitative data and systems engineering analysis. The energy and water flow chart visualizations provide structured information for tribal leaders, policymakers, and educators around energy and water system discussions, technology development opportunities, and policy decisions. The analysis of both energy and water is a first step to visualizing the interconnectedness and complexities of the energy-water-food nexus of the nation. The goal of this energy analysis was to first estimate coal resource consumption because of the considerable impact coal has on the Navajo economy, recently as much as $26 million per year in coal royalties.

  9. 3rd annual biomass energy systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The main objectives of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conference were (1) to review the latest research findings in the clean fuels from biomass field, (2) to summarize the present engineering and economic status of Biomass Energy Systems, (3) to encourage interaction and information exchange among people working or interested in the field, and (4) to identify and discuss existing problems relating to ongoing research and explore opportunities for future research. Abstracts for each paper presented were edited separately. (DC)

  10. IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-05-01

    The twenty-third IEA Wind Energy Annual Report reviews the progress during 2000 of the activities in the Implementing Agreement for Co-operation in the Research and Development on Wind Turbine Systems under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). The agreement and its program, which is known as IEA R&D Wind, is a collaborative venture among 19 contracting parties from 17 IEA member countries and the European Commission.

  11. Data mining, mining data : energy consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, S. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Most modern mining operations are accumulating large amounts of data on production and business processes. Data, however, provides value only if it can be translated into information that appropriate users can utilize. This paper emphasized that a new technological focus should emerge, notably how to concentrate data into information; analyze information sufficiently to become knowledge; and, act on that knowledge. Researchers at the Mining Information Systems and Operations Management (MISOM) laboratory at the University of Arizona have created a method to transform data into action. The data-to-action approach was exercised in the development of an energy consumption model (ECM), in partnership with a major US-based copper mining company, 2 software companies, and the MISOM laboratory. The approach begins by integrating several key data sources using data warehousing techniques, and increasing the existing level of integration and data cleaning. An online analytical processing (OLAP) cube was also created to investigate the data and identify a subset of several million records. Data mining algorithms were applied using the information that was isolated by the OLAP cube. The data mining results showed that traditional cost drivers of energy consumption are poor predictors. A comparison was made between traditional methods of predicting energy consumption and the prediction formed using data mining. Traditionally, in the mines for which data were available, monthly averages of tons and distance are used to predict diesel fuel consumption. However, this article showed that new information technology can be used to incorporate many more variables into the budgeting process, resulting in more accurate predictions. The ECM helped mine planners improve the prediction of energy use through more data integration, measure development, and workflow analysis. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, D.M.; Tsao, H.J.; Schmoyer, R.L. Jr.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    Imputation procedures were designed for the 1983 Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) using 1979 NBECS data. The study included methodology development, data analysis, regression analyses, empirical evaluations of the regression models, and imputation procedures. Models considered were engineering models, stepwise regression, weighted regression, nonlinear regression, and log transformation regression. A method for determining the appropriateness of the imputation model for a particular set of independent variables is recommended. Although this study was completed in 1985, this final version of the report is being issued due to continuing requests for information. 32 tabs.

  13. Managing environmental aspects resulting from energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Human health and environmental impacts of fossil fuel energy consumptions are examined and the ongoing effort to align energy management plans with sustainable development strategies and environmental management systems is described. Human health impacts are manifested in mortality rates, hospital admissions, visits to emergency rooms and physicians' offices, reduced physical performance, increase in the use of medications, impaired pulmonary function and a variety of lesser (or less perceptible) effects. Environmental impacts are demonstrated through climatic change, increase in greenhouse gas emissions, increase in smog, acid rain, and soil, groundwater and surface water contamination. The importance of commitment, integrated planning, measurement and evaluation, periodic review and improvement and documentation in aligning energy and environmental management plans are highlighted, along with the need for behavioral and operational changes, the creation of employee awareness and training, and the adoption of green procurement and life cycle costing. Adoption of the ISO 14000 approach to managing energy consumption is also seen as an important step in the direction of integrated energy and environmental management and sustainable development

  14. Oil pipeline energy consumption and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of energy consumption and efficiency of oil pipelines in the US in 1978. It is based on a simulation of the actual movement of oil on a very detailed representation of the pipeline network, and it uses engineering equations to calculate the energy that pipeline pumps must have exerted on the oil to move it in this manner. The efficiencies of pumps and drivers are estimated so as to arrive at the amount of energy consumed at pumping stations. The throughput in each pipeline segment is estimated by distributing each pipeline company's reported oil movements over its segments in proportions predicted by regression equations that show typical throughput and throughput capacity as functions of pipe diameter. The form of the equations is justified by a generalized cost-engineering study of pipelining, and their parameters are estimated using new techniques developed for the purpose. A simplified model of flow scheduling is chosen on the basis of actual energy use data obtained from a few companies. The study yields energy consumption and intensiveness estimates for crude oil trunk lines, crude oil gathering lines and oil products lines, for the nation as well as by state and by pipe diameter. It characterizes the efficiency of typical pipelines of various diameters operating at capacity. Ancillary results include estimates of oil movements by state and by diameter and approximate pipeline capacity utilization nationwide.

  15. Energy consumption and stocks of energy-converting artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladh, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The development of total energy consumption is important in a world with limited resources. It is the result of two basic tendencies working in opposite directions: growth in number and in use (such as more cars and driving more) and improvements in energy efficiency (such as more fuel-efficient engines). Since the 1970s growth of energy consumption has slowed down in Sweden. This means that increasing supply has been counteracted by measures improving overall energy efficiency to a larger degree than before. How can long-term development in energy consumption be analysed? This paper proposes a focus on stocks of energy-converting artefacts as a tool for such analyses. In order to show the fruitfulness of this approach, historical data on cars, dwellings and lamps in Sweden are used. Results from the cases in this paper show considerable gains of efficiency in fuel consumption in private cars and heating efficiency in multi-dwelling houses. Demographic factors are important for the outcome. The approach seems to promise a way to analyse energy efficiency that captures both promoting and counteracting factors at both the micro and macro level. - Highlights: ► Growth of energy consumption slowed down in the 1970s, a break in the long-run trend. ► Balance between growth and efficiency factors changes over time and areas of use. ► Savings in heating were not taken back, while those for cars were. ► Focus on stocks of artefacts is a promising tool for analyses. ► Incremental changes within existing stocks can be as big as radical changes.

  16. Global energy consumption for direct water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Miralles, D. G.; Teuling, R.; He, Y.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite significant efforts to quantify the mutual inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global energy for water (EFW) remains poorly understood, resulting in biases in energy accounting that directly affect water and energy management and policy. We firstly evaluate the global energy consumption for direct water use from 1973 to 2012 with sectoral, regional and process-level details. Over the 40-year period, we detected multiple shifts in EFW by county and region. For example, we find that India, the Middle East and China have surpassed the United States as the three largest consumers of EFW since 2003, mostly because of rapid growth in groundwater-based irrigation, desalination, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. Globally, EFW accounts for 1-3% of total primary energy consumption in 2010, of which 52% is surface water, 36% is groundwater, and 12% is non-fresh water. The sectoral allocation of EFW includes municipal (45%), industrial (29%), and agricultural use (26%), and process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (41%), water purification (19%), water distribution (13%) and wastewater treatment (22%). Our evaluation suggests that the EFW may increase in importance in the future due to growth in population and income, and depletion of surface and shallow aquifer water resources in water-scarce regions. We are incorporating this element into an integrated assessment model (IAM) and linking it back to energy balance within that IAM. By doing this, we will then explore the impacts of EFW on the global energy market (e.g., changes in the share of groundwater use and desalination), and the uncertainty of future EFW under different shared social pathway (SSP) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, and consequences on the emission of greenhouse gases as well. We expect these EFW induced impacts will be considerable, and will then have significant implications for adaptive management and policy making.

  17. Husky Energy Inc. : 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Financial information from Husky Energy Inc. was presented in this first annual report and a review of their 2000 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Husky Energy is an integrated energy and energy-related company. With the acquisition of Renaissance Energy Ltd. in August 2000, Husky Energy became one of Canada's largest petroleum companies in terms of production and the value of its asset base. Upstream activities were focused in Western Canada, offshore Eastern Canada and in China. Sales and operating revenues in 2000 were $5,090 million, up 82 per cent from 1999. Strong commodity prices increased production volumes from new developments and acquisitions. The midstream business contributed to the profitability of the company. The acquisition of Renaissance Energy provided proved reserves of 390 million boe. The acquisition cost of reserves was about $6.50 per boe on a proved plus half-probable basis. Annual production volumes in 2000 averaged 176,800 boe per day, up considerably from 1999 due to the acquisition of the Valhalla and Wapiti properties in Western Canada. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  18. Analysis of rural residential energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chunsheng; Chen Chongying; Li Ming

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of rural residential energy consumption in China from 2001 to 2008 and corresponding impacts on climate change is presented in the paper. It is found that rural residential energy consumption has shown obvious transition from non-commercial energy to commercial energy. The percentage of biomass energy consumption dropped from 81.5% in 2001 to 70.9% in 2008, while the percentage of commercial energy increased from 17.1% to 25.1%. Besides, other renewable energy increased very fast with annual growth rate of 19.8%. Correspondingly, total CO 2 emissions from rural residential energy consumption had significant increase from 152.2 Million tons in 2001 to 283.6 Million tons in 2008. The annual growth rate of per capita CO 2 emissions was nearly 2 times faster than that of urban area. The major driving force for the consumption of commercial energy was the income of rural farmers, while strong rural energy policies supported the development of renewable energy. To satisfy the goals of energy supply and CO 2 emissions reduction in rural areas, it is advised to change the energy structure and improve the energy efficiency, such as to generate electricity using renewable technologies and to replace coal with modern biomass energy for cooking and heating. - Highlights: ► This study analyzed rural residential energy consumption in China 2001–2008. ► It shows obvious transition from non-commercial energy to commercial energy. ► CO 2 emissions from rural residential energy consumption have significant increases. ► Major driving forces are income of rural farmers and rural energy policies. ► Generate electricity using renewable technology and replace coal with modern biomass.

  19. Annual Cycle Energy System concept and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, J. C.; Hise, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), under development at ERDA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, promises to provide space heating, air conditioning, and water heating at a significantly lower expenditure of energy than conventional space conditioning and water heating systems. The ACES embodies heat pumping, thermal storage and, where climate dictates, solar assistance. The concept is described, along with variations in design that permit flexibility to maximize energy conservation or to provide load management capabilities. Installations that exist or are under construction are described and variations that are incorporated to meet specific objectives are discussed.

  20. Energy Consumption Forecasting for University Sector Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Pervez Amber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable energy forecasting helps managers to prepare future budgets for their buildings. Therefore, a simple, easier, less time consuming and reliable forecasting model which could be used for different types of buildings is desired. In this paper, we have presented a forecasting model based on five years of real data sets for one dependent variable (the daily electricity consumption and six explanatory variables (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, weekday index and building type. A single mathematical equation for forecasting daily electricity usage of university buildings has been developed using the Multiple Regression (MR technique. Data of two such buildings, located at the Southwark Campus of London South Bank University in London, have been used for this study. The predicted test results of MR model are examined and judged against real electricity consumption data of both buildings for year 2011. The results demonstrate that out of six explanatory variables, three variables; surrounding temperature, weekday index and building type have significant influence on buildings energy consumption. The results of this model are associated with a Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE of 12% for the administrative building and 13% for the academic building. Finally, some limitations of this study have also been discussed.

  1. Power production and energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The main electrical resource of Norway comes from its rivers: 99% of the electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants. Other sources, like wind and natural gas, are envisaged for the enhancement of Norway's energy production capacity. In this document, the part devoted to power production presents the different electricity production sources and their impact on the Norwegian economy. The energy consumption is detailed in the third part with an historical review of its evolution and a description of the main sectors involved in this consumption. The forth part describes the main actors of the energy sector with their industrial structure, the research institutes and universities performing R and D in this domain, and the energy trades with surrounding countries. The fifth part stresses on the research projects, on the government promoting actions through the Norwegian Research Council, and gives some examples of todays research projects. The sixth part deals with international cooperation in the R and D domain with a particular attention given to the relations between Norway, France and Europe. (J.S.)

  2. Energy access: Revelations from energy consumption patterns in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Leena; Goswami, Anandajit; Diljun, Gaurang Meher; Chaudhury, Saswata

    2012-01-01

    After decades of research on the subject of energy poverty and access and its impact on human development, the issue has finally gained global attention and commitment through the UN Secretary General's initiative on Sustainable Energy for All. However, the issue of what constitutes energy access and how such access can be supported by efficient subsidies remains a key question that does not have simple answers. At what point along the energy consumption and income spectrum does the energy access problem cease to be one of public policy, thereby letting the market take over? Using data from an extensive survey carried out by the Government of India, this paper highlights the complexities and inadequacies of using a normative consumption based approach to determine the scope and scale of interventions required. Factoring in the environmental and social pillars of sustainable development when defining access to modern energy forms would also significantly inform the level of effort involved in meeting the goal of energy access to all. - Highlights: ► Simple head count measures are inadequate to estimate the energy access challenge. ► The income and energy poor populations in a country need not completely overlap. ► Modern energy service delivery mechanisms, ensuring quality, essential for outcomes. ► Need to create enabling environment that empowers making of desired energy choices.

  3. BOLIVIA’S ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH PROFILE: IS THERE A LINK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail SOILE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental importance of energy for socio-economic existence cannot be over-emphasized. With an annual average growth rate of 3.6% over the period of 1998 and 2008, the Bolivian economic statistics shows that over 60% of the country’s GDP growth rate can be attributed to its export sector. However, energy consumption also grew significantly over the same period. Thus we seek to establish the directional causality between energy consumption and economic growth in Bolivia using secondary annual data for the period of 1971 to 2010. The Granger-causality tests indicate that there is an unidirectional causality that runs from economic growth to energy consumption with no feedback. The study, therefore, recommends that policies meant to manage growing energy demand can be instituted without obstructing growth in Bolivia. Energy taxation and pricing reform can help raise additional revenue for development.

  4. Annual review of energy. Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, J. M.; Simmons, M. K.; Wood, D. O.

    Developments in the areas of energy resources and supply technologies, energy end use and conservation, energy policy, energy-related risks and the sociopolitical aspects of energy are reviewed. Progress in solar energy technologies over the last five years is discussed, along with the implications for reactor safety of the accident at Three Mile Island, the derivation of biomass fuels from agricultural products and the application of probabilistic risk assessment to energy technologies. Attention is also given to a program for national survival during an oil crisis, energy conservation in new buildings, the development of a United States synthetic fuel industry, the role of OPEC policies in world oil availability, the social impacts of soft and hard energy systems, and the energy implications of fixed rail mass transportation systems. Additional topics include the energy consumptions of industries, the relative economics of nuclear, coal and oil-fired electricity generation, and the role of petroleum price and allocation regulations in the management of energy shortages.

  5. Motivating sustainable energy consumption in the home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.A.; Greenberg, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed social motivations related to household energy conservation. The aim of the study was to explore how technology can be designed and used in the home to encourage sustainable energy use. The basic techniques used to motivate sustainable energy action included behaviour change techniques; information techniques; positive motivational techniques; and coercive motivational techniques. The psychological theories used in the study included cognitive dissonance as a means of reminding people of the inconsistency of their attitudes towards energy and their behaviour, and utility theory as a means of determining personal motivations for energy conservation. The study showed that people are more motivated to act when presented with personalized information and monetary losses as opposed to monetary gain. Social value orientation and self-reflection motivations were also considered. The study showed that pro-social orientation can be used in the form of ambient displays located in public areas of the home. Self-reflection can be encouraged by allowing family members to annotate visualizations containing a history of their energy consumption data. Results of the study will be used to design actual feedback visualizations of energy use. 18 refs.

  6. Pluri-annual energy programming - The Energy transition for green growth. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Transition for Green Growth Act and its attendant action plans are designed to give France the means to make a more effective contribution to tackling climate change and reinforce its energy independence, while striking a better balance in its energy mix and creating jobs and business growth. This document summarizes the content of the Pluri-annual energy programming, which is the consistent action framework of the French energy transition: improving energy efficiency and reducing fossil fuels consumption, accelerating the development of renewable energy sources, maintaining a high-level of security of supply in the respect of environmental requirements, preparing tomorrow's energy system, developing clean mobility, taking account of the socio-economic issues of the energy transition and acting with the regions in this way

  7. Renewable energy consumption and unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Moyo, Clement; Dingela, Siyasanga; Kolisi, Nwabisa; Khobai, Hlalefang; Anyikwa, Izunna

    2017-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy consumption has grown to a large extent over the recent years. The benefits of renewable energy consumption ranging from improved environmental quality to higher economic growth are well documented. However, the impact of renewable energy consumption on unemployment has received relatively less attention. This study examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption and unemployment in South Africa over the period 1990-2014. The Autoregressive Di...

  8. Husky Energy Inc. : 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Financial information from Calgary-based Husky Energy Inc. was presented in this annual report and a review of their 2002 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Husky Energy is one of Canada's largest producers of oil and gas. It is an integrated energy and energy-related company consisting of 3 segments, upstream, midstream and refined products. The report lists the major achievements for 2002 and plans for 2003. Among the achievements is the first oil production from Terra Nova and Wenchang and the commencement of the White Rose oil field development project. In the midstream and refined products businesses, Husky Energy achieved record volumes of more than 850,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day and a new record for asphalt sales. The company also received several awards for their performance in the areas of health, safety and the environment. It was noted that 2003 will likely be characterized by more volatility in commodity prices, and natural gas prices are expected to remain strong. Husky is expected to increase production of both oil and gas in 2003. This annual report includes an auditor's report of the company's financial statements and summarized the company's energy resource activities. An operations review was also presented along with consolidated financial statements, summarized balance sheet of assets, liabilities/surplus and net assets, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  9. Impact of Window Films on the Overall Energy Consumption of Existing UK Hotel Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bahadori-Jahromi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable attention has justifiably been directed towards energy savings in buildings as they account for up to 20–40% of total energy consumption in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, studies have revealed that buildings’ CO2 emissions for account for at least 43% of total emissions. Window panels are a major component of the building fabric with considerable influence on the façade energy performance and are accountable for up to 60% of a building’s overall energy loss. Therefore, the thermal performance of glazing materials is an important issue within the built environment. This work evaluates the impact of solar window films on the overall energy consumption of an existing commercial building via the use of a case study U.K. hotel and TAS dynamic simulation software. The study results demonstrated that the impact of window films on the overall energy consumption of the case study hotel is approximately 2%. However, an evaluation of various overall energy consumption components showed that the window films reduce the annual total cooling energy consumption by up to 35% along with a marginal 2% increase in the annual total heating energy consumption. They can also provide overall cost and CO2 emissions savings of up to 3%.

  10. Alkane Energy plc annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Alkane Energy plc (Alkane) is the UK's leading commercial producer of methane gas from abandoned coal mines. It currently operates five Green Energy Parks in the East Midlands and Yorkshire two of which were opened in the reporting year. Two agreements have been signed to develop sites to supply sites with a capacity of 50 MW of electricity. The annual report outlines achievements and plans and describes the technologies developed to capture methane. It discusses the environmental benefits of producing coal mine methane (CMM), particularly in reducing global warming, and benefits to the deprived former mining communities of the UK.

  11. Alkane Energy plc annual report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    Alkane Energy plc (Alkane) is the UK's leading commercial producer of methane gas from abandoned coal mines. It currently operates five Green Energy Parks in the East Midlands and Yorkshire two of which began delivering gas in the reporting year. In March 2003 a contract was signed to develop a 2.7 MW generation facility in Gelsenkirchen, Germany. The annual report outlines achievements and plans and describes the technologies developed to capture methane. It discusses the environmental benefits of producing coal mine methane (CMM), particularly in reducing global warming, and benefits to the deprived former mining communities of the UK.

  12. Annual energy outlook 1994: With projections to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 1994 (AEO94) presents the midterm energy forecasts of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This year`s report presents projects and analyses of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2010, based for the first time on results from the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is the latest in a series of computer-based energy modeling systems used over the past 2 decades by EIA and its predecessor organization, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze and forecast energy consumption and supply in the midterm period (about 20 years). Quarterly forecasts of energy supply and demand for 1994 and 1995 are published in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (February 1994). Forecast tables for 2000, 2005, and 2010 for each of the five scenarios examined in the AEO94 are provided in Appendices A through E. The five scenarios include a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices. Appendix F provides detailed comparisons of the AEO94 forecasts with those of other organizations. Appendix G briefly described the NEMS and the major AEO94 forecast assumptions. Appendix H summarizes the key results for the five scenarios.

  13. A perspective of the Malaysian highway energy consumption and future power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqr, Khalid M.; Musa, Md. Nor

    2011-01-01

    In this short communication, we discuss the energy consumption trends in the Malaysian road transport sector, with a special emphasis on the energy losses due to vehicle aerodynamic drag on highways. The recent trends of energy consumption in the Malaysian road transport sector are reviewed. It is evidently shown that the aerodynamic losses represented exceed 1.2 MTOE annually since 2002. A novel concept of vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) farms for harvesting aerodynamic energy losses on Malaysian highways is preliminarily proposed. The novel concept aims at providing a sustainable and green energy source for the lighting of the highway network in the country.

  14. 10 CFR Appendix I to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Conventional Ranges, Conventional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with any temper that will give a czoefficient of thermal conductivity of 1073.3 to 1189.1 Btu-in/h-ft2... the test block and that the thermocouple junction makes good thermal contact with the aluminum block... food. 4.1.2.3Annual conventional oven self-cleaning energy. 4.1.2.3.1Annual primary energy consumption...

  15. Energy consumption maps for quaternary distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Castro, F.I.; Ramírez-Vallejo, N.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    be generated for the separation of multicomponent mixtures. This fact is an advantage, since a wide portfolio of alternatives can be used to separate a specific mixture; however, this is also a disadvantage since a lot of alternatives must be explored in order to find the optimal one. The optimal configuration...... of the solutions space. For the separation of ternary mixtures, Tedder and Rudd (1978) presented a composition map for which thermally coupled systems allowed energy savings. However, the scenario is different for quaternary mixtures, since no similar information is available. Therefore, in this work, energy...... consumption data for five feed compositions for a mixture near to ideality are presented. The quaternary sequences studied are: conventional direct (three columns), conventional indirect (three columns), thermally coupled direct (main column and two side rectifiers), and thermally coupled indirect (main...

  16. International Energy Agency 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The IEA Executive Director’s Annual Report 2012 is the first of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It is presented to the IEA Governing Board and released publicly to ensure transparency and also to take stock of the organisation’s activities from a strategic perspective. 2012 was a transitional year for the IEA, given fundamental changes in the global energy economy as well as internal management and budget issues. At the same time demand for IEA products set new records, and the public and political impact of IEA work through effective communication was measured as high.

  17. Influences Energy Consumption has on Green GDP Growth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongxian, Xie

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the relationship between China’s total energy consumption growth and GGDP growth based on the data of 1997-2016. With path analysis employed, the direct and indirect influence on GGDP growth rate exerted by several energy consumption ratios as well as the relationship among them is explored. Furtherly, the author determines how much each of these ratios contributes to GGDP. This research suggests that proportion of natural gas consumption and that of other energy consumption are the two major drivers of GGDP growth, while coal and oil consumption proportion inhibits GGDP Growth. Specifically, increasing the proportion of natural gas consumption contributes the most to GGDP growth.

  18. Divisia amount and price index for energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1993-01-01

    In connection with the calculation of total energy consumption related to aggregation of the individual fuel's combustion values, an alternative to Btu aggregation (combustion value measurement), designated the ''Divisia index'', is presented. This represents an economic measure for energy consumption. The Divisia index is demonstrated in relation to total national energy consumption and total energy consumption within the Danish housing sector and also with regard to the estimation of price and income elasticity within energy demand. It is only possible to utilize the Divisia index in relation to the last 20 years, which is the period where energy consumption has stagnated. The question of possible irreversible effects on energy consumption caused by large variations in energy prices is discussed. It is suggested that the reaction to a fall in prices is different and less significant than is the case with price rises. In the long term, results point at a reasonably high price elasticity within energy demand. (AB) (22 refs.)

  19. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  20. Fourth Annual Report on Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, Nino; Bertini, Ilaria; Federici, Alessandro; Moneta Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the main elements of the annual report on energy efficiency 2015. The results indicate that, thanks to national policies for energy efficiency, Italy saved over 7.5 million tons of oil equivalent per year in the period 2005-2013. Compared to the National Plan for Energy Efficiency 2014, the report shows that the 2020 objectives have already been achieved for more than 20%, with residential (35.7% of the target) and industry (26.6%) among the sectors that contributed most to this result. Substantial savings could result from the agribusiness sector through the dissemination of efficient technologies in the logistics and large retail chains. A key role lies with the banks: 86% of banks has developed products dedicated to efficiency, necessitating guidelines for replicability of projects, and audit and rating to assess their quality [it

  1. Supplement to the annual energy outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This report is a companion document to the Annual Energy Outlook 1994 (AEO94), (DOE/EIA-0383(94)), released in Jan. 1994. Part I of the Supplement presents the key quantitative assumptions underlying the AEO94 projections, responding to requests by energy analysts for additional information on the forecasts. In Part II, the Supplement provides regional projections and other underlying details of the reference case projections in the AEO94. The AEO94 presents national forecasts of energy production, demand and prices through 2010 for five scenarios, including a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices. These forecasts are used by Federal, State, and local governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers in the public and private sectors.

  2. The multi-annual Energy Plan - Executive summary. The energy transition for the green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The multi-annual energy plan aims at completing the transition towards an energy system which is more efficient, less wasteful, more diverse and therefore more resilient. It reaffirms our commitment to reducing energy consumption, particularly energy from fossil fuels. The future of France's energy sector lies in striking a harmonious balance between different energy sources. These strategic decisions will help us to meet our objectives to keep greenhouse gas emissions to a minimum in line with our commitments to the EU and to the Paris Climate Agreement, to protect human health and the environment and to ensure access to energy at a reasonable cost whilst stimulating economic activity and employment in France

  3. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane; Menyah, Kojo

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth.

  4. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  5. International Energy Agency 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    The IEA Executive Director's Annual Report 2013 is the second of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It was presented to the IEA Governing Board and is also released publicly to ensure transparency and to take stock of the organisation's activities from a strategic perspective. 2013 was a banner year for the IEA, given continued changes in the global energy economy as well as the IEA Ministerial meeting in November which brought together Energy Ministers from all 28 IEA member countries, accession countries Chile and Estonia, seven key partner countries - Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa - as well as more that 30 top-level executives from the energy industry. Key Ministerial outcomes included the first IEA Ministers' Joint Statement on Climate Change and a declaration of association by six key partner countries to build multilateral cooperation with the IEA.

  6. Energy consumption in France's industry. Conjuncture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    Energy consumption in the industry represents today 1/5 of France's end-use energy consumption. Gas and electricity are the most consumed and represent 2/3 of the overall. The 5 most energy consuming industries are the following: paper and cardboard industry, food industry, rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products industry, metallurgy and chemical industry. The reduction of the industry's energy consumption is explained by the decline of production, but above all by the energy efficiency improvement of the sector. Technological innovations in production means have indeed led to reduce energy consumption

  7. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsani, Stela Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  8. MEAN REVERTING BEHAVIOR OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION: EVIDENCE FROM SELECTED MENA COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Bolat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the energy consumption for 15 members of the Middle Eastern & North African (MENA countries is a stationary process over 1971-2010 period. Annual energy consumption data for Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Turkey, is analyzed using the Lagrange Multiplier (LM unit root test, in which structural breaks in level and/or trend are endogenously determined. The results of the LM test with two breaks showed that the energy consumption per capita in 8 MENA countries is a stationary process. This study suggests that it is possible to design consistent energy policies based on econometric models and forecasts of energy consumption in those 8 MENA countries.

  9. Economic growth and energy consumption in Algeria: a causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the causal link in the Granger sense, between energy consumption and economic growth in Algeria, to determine its implications for economic policy. The analysis was done based on Granger static and causality tests using statistical data on per capita primary energy consumption and gross domestic product per inhabitant in Algeria, over the 1965-2008 period. The results of the survey show that there is, in Algeria, a strong link between energy consumption per inhabitant and GDP per inhabitant. The results also suggest the lack of a long term impetus (no co-integration) between energy consumption and economic growth. In addition, there is a one-way causal link between GDP and energy consumption, i.e. the prior GDP data provides a better forecast of energy consumption level, but not the contrary. In other words, GDP explains consumption, not the contrary. (author)

  10. The Comfortable Home and Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2017-01-01

    of the home and social practices. This implies focus on “the comfortable home” as made up of homemaking practices that include knowhow, sensations and social norms. The empirical basis comprises interviews and visual data from a field study on detached housing on the outskirts of a Danish city. The paper......This paper investigates relations between notions of comfort and notions of home, aiming at a better understanding of residential comfort and the related energy consumption. Residential comfort is examined through a practice-theoretical lens and as something that appears in between the social...... and material structures of a home. The approach considers different elements of comfort in homemaking practices, such as the body, materials and social meanings. The paper examines how conceptions of comfort and homeliness interrelate through homemaking practices and thereby redefine comfort within a framework...

  11. A framework for characterising energy consumption of machining manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yufeng; He, Yan; Wang, Yan; Yan, Ping; Liu, Xuehui

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption in machining manufacturing systems is increasingly of interest due to concern for global climate change and manufacturing sustainability. To utilise energy more effectively, it is paramount to understand and characterise the energy consumption of machining manufacturing systems. To this end, a framework to analyse energy consumption characteristics in machining manufacturing systems from a holistic point of view is proposed in this paper. Taking into account the complexity ...

  12. Revising China's energy consumption and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    China is the world's largest carbon emitter and takes the lion's share of new increased emission since 2000, China's carbon emissions and mitigation efforts have received global attentions (Liu et al., Nature 500, 143-145)1. Yet China's emission estimates have been approved to be greatly uncertain (Guan et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 672-675)2. Accurate estimation becomes even crucial as China has recently pledged to reach a carbon emission peak by 2030, but no quantitative target has been given, nor is it even possible to assess without a reasonable baseline. Here we produced new estimates of Chinese carbon emissions for 1950-2012 based on a new investigation in energy consumption activities and emission factors using extensively surveyed and experimental data from 4243 mines and 602 coal samples. We reported that the total energy consumption is 10% higher than the nationally published value. The investigated emission factors used in China are significantly (40%) different from the IPCC default values which were used in drawing up several previous emission inventories. The final calculated total carbon emissions from China are 10% different than the amount reported by international data sets. The new estimate provides a revision of 4% of global emissions, which could have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing of climate change mitigation. 1 Liu, Z. et al. A low-carbon road map for China. Nature 500, 143-145 (2013). 2 Guan, D., Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. & Hubacek, K. The gigatonne gap in China's carbon dioxide inventories. Nature Climate Change, 672-675 (2012).

  13. Dynamic linkages among transport energy consumption, income and CO2 emission in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azlina, A.A.; Law, Siong Hook; Nik Mustapha, Nik Hashim

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between income, energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in Malaysia using time-series data during 1975 to 2011. This study also attempts to validate the environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) hypothesis. Applying a multivariate model of income, energy consumption in the transportation sector, carbon emissions, structural change in the economy and renewable energy use, the empirical evidence confirmed that there is a long-run relationship between the variables as shown by the result of co-integration analysis. The results indicate that the inverted U-shape EKC hypothesis does not fully agree with the theory. The coefficient of squared GDP is not statistically different from zero. The time duration and the annual data used for the present study do not seem to strongly validate the existence of EKC hypothesis in the case of Malaysia. Causality test shows that the relationship between GDP and CO 2 is unidirectional. The Granger causality test results reveal that emissions Granger-cause income, energy consumption and renewable energy use. Moreover, we find that income Granger-causes energy consumption and renewable energy use, and both structural change and renewable energy use Granger-cause energy consumption in road transportation. - Highlights: • We examine the dynamic relationship among energy consumption in transportation sector, income and CO 2 and also attempts to validate the environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) hypothesis. • We used a multivariate approach based on VECM. • The inverted U-shape EKC hypothesis is not valid in the case of Malaysia. • Uni-directional causality exists from emission to income, energy consumption and renewable energy use. • Income Granger-causes energy consumption and renewable energy use, and both structural change and renewable energy use Granger-cause energy consumption in road transportation

  14. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope. This... consumption, but instead calculate the energy use rate (kWh/100 lbs Ice) by dividing the energy consumed...

  15. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The explosive growth of the information age has had a profound effect on the appearance of today`s office. Although the telephone still remains an important part of the information exchange and processing system within an office, other electronic devices are now considered required equipment within this environment. This office automation equipment includes facsimile machines, photocopiers, personal computers, printers, modems, and other peripherals. A recent estimate of the installed base indicated that 42 million personal computers and 7.3 million printers are in place, consuming 18.2 billion kWh/yr-and this installed base is growing (Luhn 1992). From a productivity standpoint, it can be argued that this equipment greatly improves the efficiency of those working in the office. But of primary concern to energy system designers, building managers, and electric utilities is the fact that this equipment requires electric energy. Although the impact of each incremental piece of equipment is small, installation of thousands of devices per building has resulted in office automation equipment becoming the major contributor to electric consumption and demand growth in commercial buildings. Personal computers and associated equipment are the dominant part of office automation equipment. In some cases, this electric demand growth has caused office buildings electric and cooling systems to overload.

  16. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1997 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The 1997 Annual Report is published in a special year for Israel, marking the 50th anniversary of its independece and statehood. From its inception, and the election of a distinguished scientist as its first president, Israel has regarded science and technology as a central pillar for future AEC development and a lever for improved quality of life of its people. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission, which will be celebrating its own anniversary in a few years, has made a modest but significant contribution to the establishment and growth of the technological infrastructure of the country. The first article in this Annual Report focuses attention on yet another aspect of our continuing investigation of the basic properties of technologically interesting and important materials, presented in our 1994 and 1996 Annual Reports. The current entry describes an application of the nuclear Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation technique to the study of the structure and properties of metal-hydrogen compounds, of potential interest within the framework of future, environmentally attractive hydrogen-burning energy systems, and in fusion power reactors. The second article also relates to some basic aspects of nuclear fusion. A theoretical study of the behavior and properties of laser-generated hot plasmas resulted in the proposal of a new confinement scheme, in which a plasma generated by circularly polarized laser light is confined in a miniature magnetic bottle created by magnetic fields induced in the plasma by the same light. The paper discusses the conditions under which such confinement and ensuing energy gain may be achieved. Measurements of actual axial magnetic fields generated in plasma by intense circularly polarized laser light are also reported. The third report describes one of our ongoing efforts to improve and streamline the techniques and procedures used in medical applications of radioisotopes. Replacement of the customary )311 solutions for

  17. uFLIP: Understanding the Energy Consumption of Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2010-01-01

    consumption (low power consumption in idle mode, average Watt consumption from the data sheets). Second, when measured at a sufficiently fine granularity, the energy consumption of a given device might complement the performance characteristics derived from its response time profile. Indeed, background work......Understanding the energy consumption of flash devices is important for two reasons. First, energy is emerging as a key metric for data management systems. It is thus important to understand how we can reason about the energy consumption of flash devices beyond their approximate aggregate...... which is not directly observable with a response time profile appears clearly when energy is used as a metric. In this paper, we discuss the results from the {uFLIP} benchmark applied to four different {SSD} devices using both response time and energy as metric....

  18. Development of German energy consumption: A deterministic study of energy-relevant customer groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, M.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed study of the characteristic features of group-specific energy consumption was conducted (identification of the factors determining energy consumption of the productive sector, private households and private mobility demand). The question of who shall determine energy consumption in the future is analysed. This question is answered in a demand-specific study of consumption patterns and -effects. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  20. Quantification model for energy consumption in edification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercader, Mª P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in this paper focuses on the generation of a model for the quantification of energy consumption in building. This is to be done through one of the most relevant environmental impact indicators associated with weight per m2 of construction, as well as the energy consumption resulting from the manufacturing process of materials used in building construction. The practical application of the proposed model on different buildings typologies in Seville, will provide information regarding the building materials, the subsystems and the most relevant construction elements. Hence, we will be able to observe the impact the built surface has on the environment. The results obtained aim to reference the scientific community, providing quantitative data comparable to other types of buildings and geographical areas. Furthermore, it may also allow the analysis and the characterization of feasible solutions to reduce the environmental impact generated by the different materials, subsystems and construction elements commonly used in the different building types defined in this study.

    La investigación realizada en el presente trabajo plantea la generación de un modelo de cuantificación del consumo energético en edificación, a través de uno de los indicadores de impacto ambiental más relevantes asociados al peso por m2 de construcción, el consumo energético derivado del proceso de fabricación de los materiales de construcción empleados en edificación. La aplicación práctica del modelo propuesto sobre diferentes tipologías edificatorias en Sevilla aportará información respecto a los materiales de construcción, subsistemas y elementos constructivos más impactantes, permitiendo visualizar la influencia que presenta la superficie construida en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado. Los resultados obtenidos pretenden servir de referencia a la comunidad científica, aportando datos num

  1. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  2. Annual report 1991 TECO Energy Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Achievements of TECO energy during 1991 are summarized in the annual report which includes financial statements for the year up to 31 December 1991. Methane production from coal seams in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama, by TECO Coalbed Methane, increased to 55 million cubic feet per day. The purchase of Gulf-States Paper's interest in two coalbed methane projects brought TECO's total commitment in coalbed methane to 135 million dollars. TECO Coal acquired additional reserves of low-sulphur coal in bringing total holdings to 175 million tons. Work continued on construction of TECO Power Services' combined cycle power plant. Tampa Electric announced plans to build a power plant in Polk County using the latest coal gasification technology TECO Transport ampersand Trade's shipping and transloading companies performed well during the year

  3. TECO Energy, Inc. 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Achievements of TECO Energy, Inc., during 1992 are summarized in the annual report which includes financial data for the year up to 31 December 1992. Work continues on Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station, utilizing IGCC technology planned to come on line in 1995/6. Many energy conservation projects have been completed such as one to promote energy efficient cordless electric lawnmowers. TECO Transport and Trade continued to expand its transloading and shipping business. TECO Coal completed its acquisition of additional low-sulfur coal reserves in eastern Kentucky and Tennessee. Although Tampa Electric is its principal customer, in 1992 shipments of coal were made to other customers. Earnings from TECO Coalbed Methane more than doubled in 1992, a major factor being the federal tax credit available on production. In 1992, the company acquired most of the interests of its operator, Taurus Exploration. In 1992 on additional 47 wells were drilled. TECO Power Services completed construction of a 295 MW combined-cycle power plants known as the Hardee Power Station in central Florida

  4. Habit formation and consumption of energy for heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask if consumption of energy for space heating by households is habit forming. A model of intertemporal consumption allocation allowing for habit-forming preferences is estimated on a register-based panel data set with high quality information about consumption of natural gas...

  5. Energy Consumption Series: Assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This study originally had two primary objectives: (1) to improve EIA`s estimates of district heat consumption for commercial buildings in the CBECS sample that lacked individual metering and (2) to provide a basis for estimating primary fuel consumption by central plants serving commercial buildings. These objectives were expanded to include additional questions relating to these central plants. Background information is provided on the CBECS and on district heating and cooling, which is the most important type of energy-related service provided by multibuilding facilities with central physical plants. Chapters 2 and 3 present data results on multibuilding facilities from the 1989 CBECS and the pilot Facility Survey. Chapter 2 presents the characteristics of multibuilding facilities and the individual buildings located on these facilities. Chapter 3 provides estimates of energy inputs and outputs of multibuilding facilities with central physical plants. Chapter 4 assesses the quality of the pilot Facility Survey and includes recommendations for future work in this area. The appendices provide more detailed information on the Facility Survey itself, in particular the limitations on the use of these results. Appendix B, ``Data Quality``, provides detailed information relating to the limitations of the data and the conclusions presented in this report. As a pilot study, the 1989 Facility Survey has some serious flaws and limitations which are recognized in this report.

  6. An overview of energy consumption of the globalized world economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.M.; Chen, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    For the globalized world economy with intensive international trade, an overview of energy consumption is presented by an embodied energy analysis to track both direct and indirect energy uses based on a systems input-output simulation. In 2004, the total amounts of energy embodied in household consumption, government consumption, and investment are 7749, 874, and 2009 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent), respectively. The United States is shown as the world's biggest embodied energy importer (683 Mtoe) and embodied energy surplus receiver (290 Mtoe), in contrast to China as the biggest exporter (662 Mtoe) and deficit receiver (274 Mtoe). Energy embodied in consumption per capita varies from 0.05 (Uganda) to 19.54 toe (Rest of North America). Based on a forecast for 2005-2035, China is to replace the United States as the world's leading embodied energy consumer in 2027, when its per capita energy consumption will be one quarter of that of the United States. - Highlights: → We present an overview of global energy profile in terms of embodied energy. → The US and China are top embodied energy consumers as well as traders in 2004. → Equality issue is studied by analyzing per capita embodied energy consumption. → The US remains to be the leading energy consumer until replaced by China in 2027.

  7. Causes and Solutions for High Energy Consumption in Traditional Buildings Located in Hot Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barayan, Olfat Mohammad

    A considerable amount of money for high-energy consumption is spent in traditional buildings located in hot climate regions. High-energy consumption is significantly influenced by several causes, including building materials, orientation, mass, and openings' sizes. This paper aims to identify these causes and find practical solutions to reduce the annual cost of bills. For the purpose of this study, simulation research method has been followed. A comparison between two Revit models has also been created to point out the major cause of high-energy consumption. By analysing different orientations, wall insulation, and window glazing and applying some other high performance building techniques, a conclusion was found to confirm that appropriate building materials play a vital role in affecting energy cost. Therefore, the ability to reduce the energy cost by more than 50% in traditional buildings depends on a careful balance of building materials, mass, orientation, and type of window glazing.

  8. Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students

    OpenAIRE

    Ballistreri,Martha Carmen; Corradi-Webster,Clarissa Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137): 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least once in the last 12 months, 38% at least onc...

  9. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...... that there are great differences in fuel consumption between fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same......) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals that there are great differences in fuel consumption between...

  10. A Novel Clustering Model Based on Set Pair Analysis for the Energy Consumption Forecast in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption forecast is important for the decision-making of national economic and energy policies. But it is a complex and uncertainty system problem affected by the outer environment and various uncertainty factors. Herein, a novel clustering model based on set pair analysis (SPA was introduced to analyze and predict energy consumption. The annual dynamic relative indicator (DRI of historical energy consumption was adopted to conduct a cluster analysis with Fisher’s optimal partition method. Combined with indicator weights, group centroids of DRIs for influence factors were transferred into aggregating connection numbers in order to interpret uncertainty by identity-discrepancy-contrary (IDC analysis. Moreover, a forecasting model based on similarity to group centroid was discussed to forecast energy consumption of a certain year on the basis of measured values of influence factors. Finally, a case study predicting China’s future energy consumption as well as comparison with the grey method was conducted to confirm the reliability and validity of the model. The results indicate that the method presented here is more feasible and easier to use and can interpret certainty and uncertainty of development speed of energy consumption and influence factors as a whole.

  11. The world energy consumption in 2001. Statistical yearbook ENERDATA 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Statistical data on the world energy consumption are given to illustrate the following situation in 2001: the deceleration of the world economic growth and the high prices of oil slowed down the progression of the energy consumption: 0,7 % in 2001; stagnation of the gas and oil consumption and strong progression for coal and electricity in 2001; the deceleration for gas marks a strong inflection compared to the past trends. (A.L.B.)

  12. Low-energy-consumption hybrid lasers for silicon photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Ran, Qijiang; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Physics and characteristics of a hybrid vertical-cavity laser that can be an on-chip Si light source with high speed and low energy consumption are discussed.......Physics and characteristics of a hybrid vertical-cavity laser that can be an on-chip Si light source with high speed and low energy consumption are discussed....

  13. 1999 Annual Report: Delivering energy value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Union Gas Limited, a subsidiary of Westcoast Energy Company, is a major Canadian natural gas utility, providing energy delivery and related services to 1.1 million residential, commercial and industrial customers in over 400 communities in northern, southwestern and eastern Ontario. Union Gas also provides natural gas storage and transportation services for other utilities and energy market participants in Ontario, Quebec and the northeastern United States. In 1999 the Company had revenues of 1.5 billion, net income of $ 95 million, and assets totalling $ 3.8 billion. Net income was down from $ 109 million in 1998, due mainly to the impact of the sale of the Company's retail merchandise program to Union Energy, a lower approved rate of return on common equity. Full-time employees number about 2,500. Total throughput for 1999 was 34.6 billion cubic metres of natural gas, up 8.9 per cent from 1998. The Company undertook significant reorganization and restructuring during 1999, to emphasize critical business processes. The reorganization, which saw the divestiture of the retail merchandise programs to an unregulated affiliate, Union Energy, resulted in a flat, flexible and efficient enterprise, more capable of timely response to changing market opportunities and customer needs. Union Gas also filed application with the Ontario Energy Board for rates for the year 2000 and beyond, using the performance-based regulation framework; completed construction of a $ 16 million, 90 km pipeline to make natural gas service available to Parry Sound; Launched 'enoms' a new Internet-based natural gas nominations system; completed the first phase of the $ 17 million Century Pools storage development project, and applied to build the second phase, comprising a $37 million addition to the storage pools at the Mandasumin, Bluewater and Oil City pools; and completed several smaller projects totalling $ 5.2 million to give access to natural gas to 2,300 new customers at various parts of

  14. Intelligent analysis of energy consumption in school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raatikainen, Mika; Skön, Jukka-Pekka; Leiviskä, Kauko; Kolehmainen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity and heating energy consumptions of six school buildings were compared. • Complex multivariate data was analysed using modern computational methods. • Variation in electricity consumption cost is considerably low between study schools. • District heating variation is very slight in two new study schools. • District heating cost describes energy efficiency and state of building automation. - Abstract: Even though industry consumes nearly half of total energy production, the relative share of total energy consumption related to heating and operating buildings is growing constantly. The motivation for this study was to reveal the differences in electricity use and district heating consumption in school buildings of various ages during the working day and also during the night when human-based consumption is low. The overall aim of this study is to compare the energy (electricity and heating) consumption of six school buildings in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. The selected school buildings were built in different decades, and their ventilation and building automation systems are also inconsistent. The hourly energy consumption data was received from Kuopion Energia, the local energy supply company. In this paper, the results of data analysis on the energy consumption in these school buildings are presented. Preliminary results show that, generally speaking, new school buildings are more energy-efficient than older ones. However, concerning energy efficiency, two very new schools were exceptional because ventilation was on day and night in order to dry the building materials in the constructions. The novelty of this study is that it makes use of hourly smart metering consumption data on electricity and district heating, using modern computational methods to analyse complex multivariate data in order to increase knowledge of the buildings’ consumption profiles and energy efficiency.

  15. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO 2 emission trends for Iran over 2000–2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO 2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985 million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO 2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO 2 emission outlines. - Highlights: • Creation of an energy consumption model using system dynamics. • The effect of different policies on energy consumption and emission reductions. • An ascending trend for the environmental costs caused by CO 2 emissions is observed. • An urgent need for energy saving and emission reductions in Iran.

  16. Sustainable Energy Technologies annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Calgary based Sustainable Energy Technologies is a public company that develops and manufactures alternative energy products that enable distributed renewable energy resources to be integrated with the existing electrical infrastructure. The company has moved from a development stage company to one that manufactures power electronic products that can compete globally and which will play an important role in the transition to a cleaner world. Achievements in the past year have included a joint effort with RWE Piller GmbH to develop a power electronics platform for a fuel cell inverter. Ten inverters were delivered to Nuvera Fuel Cells and were reported to have performed very well in the Avanti distributed generation fuel cell. The universality of the inverter was demonstrated when the same power electronics platform was used to support a 5 kW grid interactive converter for the solar power market. During the 18-month period ending on March 31, 2003, the company invested $1.5 million to create their first two commercial product lines, without net investment of shareholder equity. The objective for the future is to generate cash flow and earnings from sales into the solar power market and to build a leadership role in the stationary fuel cell industry. The major challenge will lie in product support and customer service. As the customer base expands, the company will invest in product-tracking software. This annual report includes an auditor's report, consolidated financial statements including balance sheets, statements of income and deficit, statements of cash flows, and notes to the consolidated financial statements. tabs

  17. A panel study of nuclear energy consumption and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth for sixteen countries within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1980-2005. Pedroni's (1999, 2004) heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, nuclear energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model finds bidirectional causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short-run while unidirectional causality from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in the long-run. Thus, the results provide support for the feedback hypothesis associated with the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth.

  18. Energy consumption, costs and environmental impacts for urban water cycle services: Case study of Oslo (Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, G.; Brattebo, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the operation and maintenance phase of the urban water and wastewater network is directly related to both the quantity and the desired quality of the supplied water/treated wastewater - in other words, to the level of service provided to consumers. The level of service is dependent on not just the quantity and quality of the water but also the state of the infrastructure. Maintaining the infrastructure so as to be able to provide the required high level of service also demands energy. Apart from being a significant operational cost component, energy use also contributes to life-cycle environmental impacts. This paper studies the direct energy consumption in the operation and maintenance phase of the water and wastewater system in Oslo; and presents a break-up among the different components of the network, of quantities, costs and environmental impacts. Owing to the diversity in the periods of time for which comprehensive data for the whole system are available, the study period is restricted to years 2000-2006. The per-capita annual consumption of energy in the operational phase of the system varied between 220 and 260 kWh; and per-capita annual expenses on energy in inflation-adjusted year-2006-Euros ranged between 6.5 and 11 Euros. The energy consumed on the upstream, per unit volume water supplied was around 0.4 kWh on average, while the corresponding value for the downstream was 0.8 kWh per cubic metre wastewater treated. The upstream Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged between 70 and 80 g per cubic metre of water supplied, about 22% greater on average than the corresponding specific GHG emissions on the downstream. -- Research highlights: → Annual per-capita energy consumption in the Operation and Maintenance (O and M) phase of the system varied between 220 and 260 kWh. → Annual per-capita annual expenses on energy in inflation-adjusted year-2006-Euros ranged between 6.5 and 11 Euros. → Upstream O and M energy consumption per

  19. Residential energy consumption: A convergence analysis across Chinese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.; Aller, Carlos; Ordóñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The process of urbanization and the raise of living standards in China have led an increasing trend in the patterns of residential consumption. Projections for the population growth rate in urban areas do not paint a very optimistic picture for energy conservation policies. In addition, the concentration of economic activities around coastal areas calls for new prospects to be formulated for energy policy. In this context, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, we analyse the effect of the urbanization process of the Chinese economy in terms of the long-run patterns of residential energy consumption at national level. By using the concept of club convergence, we examine whether electricity and coal consumption in rural and urban areas converge to the same long-run equilibrium or whether in fact they diverge. Second, the impact of the regional concentration of the economic activity on energy consumption patterns is also assessed by source of energy across Chinese regions from 1995 to 2011. Our results suggest that the process of urbanization has led to coal being replaced by electricity in urban residential energy consumption. In rural areas, the evidence is mixed. The club convergence analysis confirms that rural and urban residential energy consumption converge to different steady-states. At the regional level, we also confirm the effect of the regional concentration of economic activity on residential energy consumption. The existence of these regional clusters converging to different equilibrium levels is indicative of the need of regional-tailored set of energy policies in China.

  20. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...... that there are great differences in the fuel consumption between fisheries targeting ground or shellfish and those targeting pelagic or industrial fish....

  1. Understanding change and continuity in residential energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Practice theory has recently emerged within consumer studies as a promising approach that shifts focus from the individual consumer towards the collective aspects of consumption and from spectacular and conspicuous dimensions of consumption towards routine and mundane aspects of consumption...... of material consumer goods in practice theory. Case studies on household energy consumption are used as an empirical basis for these discussions. Looking at household energy consumption through the theoretical lens of practice theory necessitates discussion on whether energy consumption should be viewed....... Practice theory is, however, not a commonly agreed upon theory but more like an approach or a turn within contemporary social theory. When using practice theory in consumer studies, there are thus several conditions that need further clarification. The focus in this article is on how change and continuity...

  2. Nuclear energy consumption, oil consumption and economic growth in G-6 countries: Bootstrap panel causality test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Hsiao-Ping; Chang Tsangyao

    2012-01-01

    This study applies bootstrap panel Granger causality to test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth using data from G-6 countries over the period of 1971–2010. Both nuclear and oil consumption data are used in this study. Regarding the nuclear consumption-economic growth nexus, nuclear consumption causes economic growth in Japan, the UK, and the US; economic growth causes nuclear consumption in the US; nuclear consumption and economic growth show no causal relation in Canada, France and Germany. Regarding oil consumption-economic growth nexus, we find that there is one-way causality from economic growth to oil consumption only in the US, and that oil consumption does not Granger cause economic growth in G-6 countries except Germany and Japan. Our results have important policy implications for the G-6 countries within the context of economic development. - Highlights: ► Bootstrap panel Granger causality test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth. ► Data from G-6 countries for both nuclear and oil consumption data are used. ► Results have important policy implications within the context of economic development.

  3. Energy analysis program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This report provides an energy analysis overview. The following topics are described: building energy analysis; urban and energy environmental issues; appliance energy efficiency standards; utility planning and policy; energy efficiency, economics, and policy issues; and international energy and environmental issues.

  4. Hawaii Natural Energy Institute: Annual report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This progress report from the University of Hawaii at Manoa's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology describes state of the art research in tapping the energy in and around the Hawaiian Islands. Researchers are seeking new ways of generating electricity and producing methanol from sugarcane waste and other biomass. They are finding ways to encourage the expanded use of methanol as a transportation fuel. They are creating innovative and cost-efficient methods of producing and storing hydrogen gas, considered the fuel of the future''. Researchers are also developing the techniques and technologies that will enable us to tap the unlimited mineral resources of the surrounding ocean. they are testing methods of using the oceans to reduce the carbon dioxide being discharged to the atmosphere. And they are mapping the strategies by which the seas can become a major source of food, precious metals, and space for living and for industry. The achievements described in this annual report can be attributed to the experience, creativity, painstaking study, perseverance, and sacrifices of our the dedicated corps of researchers.

  5. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, A.; Briffaerts, K.; Engels, L.

    2011-01-01

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: → The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. → Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. → A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. → Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  6. Energy consumption model on WiMAX subscriber station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarakah, N.; Suherman; Al-Hakim, M. Y.; Warman, E.

    2018-02-01

    Mobile communication technologies move toward miniaturization. Mobile device’s energy source relies on its battery endurance. The smaller the mobile device, it is expected the slower the battery drains. Energy consumption reduction in mobile devices has been of interest of researcher. In order to optimize energy consumption, its usage should be predictable. This paper proposes a model of predicted energy amount consumed by the WiMAX subscriber station by using regression analysis of active WiMAX states and their durations. The proposed model was assessed by using NS-2 simulation for more than a hundred thousand of recorded energy consumptions data in every WiMAX states. The assessment show a small average deviation between predicted and measured energy consumptions, about 0.18% for training data and 0.187% and 0.191% for test data.

  7. Quantification of Uncertainty in Predicting Building Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Traditional building energy consumption calculation methods are characterised by rough approaches providing approximate figures with high and unknown levels of uncertainty. Lack of reliable energy resources and increasing concerns about climate change call for improved predictive tools. A new app...... inhabitant behaviour, operation, and maintenance to predict the performance of the systems and the level of certainty for fulfilling design requirements under random conditions.......Traditional building energy consumption calculation methods are characterised by rough approaches providing approximate figures with high and unknown levels of uncertainty. Lack of reliable energy resources and increasing concerns about climate change call for improved predictive tools. A new...... approach for the prediction of building energy consumption is presented. The approach quantifies the uncertainty of building energy consumption by means of stochastic differential equations. The approach is applied to a general heat balance for an arbitrary number of loads and zones in a building...

  8. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Yee [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Guthrie, George [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  9. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  10. On the relationship between GDP and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarsono, B.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of a coupling between the growth in GDP and the growth in energy consumption is reviewed and its importance is discussed. The usefulness of a GDP energy consumption relationship for energy projections is investigated with particular reference to the case of Indonesia. A particular form of such a relationship is obtained for Indonesia with income elasticity decreasing as a function of time and its use is compared with other results. (author)

  11. Energy-Consumption Factors of Air-Stream Moulding Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smyksy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an outline of the key questions connected with the essential problems of energy-consumption of air-stream mouldingmachines has been presented. Research results and calculations of requisite parameters appraisable of energy-consumption of air-streammoulding machines have been supplemented also by the data analysis of offer of the moulding machines manufacturers. The attention onconstructional and technological factors which are favourable for the diminution of energy-consuming of the moulding process has beenpaid.

  12. Energy drinks consumption in Erbil city: A population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin A. Asaad

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective: Energy drinks have become increasingly prevalent among young adults and adolescents in recent years, particularly young students and athletes who see the consumption of energy drinks as an easy and quick way to boost academic and athletic performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of consumption of energy drinks in a sample of adolescent and adults in Erbil city as well as perceived benefits and its health hazards. Methods: A convenience sa...

  13. On the determinants of renewable energy consumption: International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Omri; Duc Khuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, renewable energy sources have emerged as an important component of world energy consumption. Little is however known about the determinants of renewable energy consumption. This article tackles this issue for a global panel consisting of 64 countries over the period 1990-2011 by using a dynamic system- GMM panel model. We also consider three homogeneous subpanels which are constructed based on the income level of sample countries (high-, middle-, and low-income subpanels). ...

  14. Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. There...

  15. CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Chebbi, Houssem Eddine; Boujelbene, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this country specific study is to understand long and short-run linkages between economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emission using Tunisian data over the period 1971-2004. Statistical findings indicate that economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emission are related in the long-run and provide some evidence of inefficient use of energy in Tunisia, since environmental pressure tends to rise faster than economic growth. In the short run, results support the argument tha...

  16. Energy consumption analysis of sheep milk cooling systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cossu, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In this study the energy consumption of milk cooling systems for sheep milk was quantified, depending on number of milkings and performance class. The aim was to produce updated data about the incidence of energy consumption for milk cooling, useful for energy auditing research in livestock. The cost in electricity bills and the weight on the current price of sheep milk were calculated. The experimental work was carried out on 22 milk cooling systems in Sardinia, equipped with open-type tank ...

  17. Potential reduction of energy consumption in public university library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noranai, Z.; Azman, ADF

    2017-09-01

    Efficient electrical energy usage has been recognized as one of the important factor to reduce cost of electrical energy consumption. Various parties have been emphasized about the importance of using electrical energy efficiently. Inefficient usage of electrical energy usage lead to biggest factor increasing of administration cost in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. With this in view, a project the investigate potential reduction electrical energy consumption in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia was carried out. In this project, a case study involving electrical energy consumption of Perpustakaan Tunku Tun Aminah was conducted. The scopes of this project are to identify energy consumption in selected building and to find the factors that contributing to wastage of electrical energy. The MS1525:2001, Malaysian Standard - Code of practice on energy efficiency and use of renewable energy for non-residential buildings was used as reference. From the result, 4 saving measure had been proposed which is change type of the lamp, install sensor, decrease the number of lamp and improve shading coefficient on glass. This saving measure is suggested to improve the efficiency of electrical energy consumption. Improve of human behaviour toward saving energy measure can reduce 10% from the total of saving cost while on building technical measure can reduce 90% from total saving cost.

  18. Comparison of energy consumption and specific energy requirements of different methods for drying mushroom slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motevali, Ali; Minaei, Saeid; Khoshtaghaza, Mohammad Hadi; Amirnejat, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption for drying of mushroom slices was evaluated using various drying methods including hot air, microwave, vacuum, infrared, microwave-vacuum and hot air-infrared. Results of data analysis showed that the lowest and highest energy consumption levels in drying mushroom slices were associated with microwave and vacuum dryers, respectively. The use of vacuum in conjunction with microwave drying increased energy consumption relative to microwave drying alone. Energy consumption in the hot air dryer showed a downward trend with increasing temperature and an upward trend with increasing air velocity. In drying mushroom using infrared radiation, it was observed that increased air velocity increases drying time and consequently the amount of consumed energy. Using a combination of hot air and infrared drying decreased energy consumption relative to infrared drying alone and increased it relative to hot air drying. In the combined microwave-vacuum dryer, drying time and consequently energy consumption decreased in comparison to the vacuum dryer. Hot air-infrared drying of mushroom slices proved to have the lowest energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► In this study we comparing the amount of energy used and specific energy consumption in different drying methods. ► Six drying methods including Hot air, Infrared, Hot air-infrared, Microwave, Vacuum and microwave-vacuum were used. ► The maximum and minimum energy consumption was obtained in vacuum and microwave dryer, respectively. ► The best drying method in terms of energy consumption and specific energy consumption is the microwave dryer.

  19. [Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Rong-Bo; Sun, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition.

  20. Water consumption in the energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil or......-users. The waste water is often returned to the environment after energy requiring waste water management.......Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil...

  1. An investigation on energy consumption in Japan. Industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2005-03-01

    Energy consumption in the industry sector, which is larger than that of the residential/commercial or transportation sector, occupies nearly 50% of final energy consumption in Japan. The industry sector has made an effort for energy conservation from an economical point of view. Now further effort is required also to cope with a global warming problem. This report summarizes the results of investigation on energy consumption, changes in energy intensity and development of energy conservation technologies including those common to the industries and recycling of wastes, focusing on energy intensive industries such as iron and steel and chemicals. Advanced energy conservation technologies or systems are being developed with a large and continuous effort in all industries, and recycling of wastes, e.g. waste plastics, has started in industry scale. (author)

  2. CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND CO2 EMISSIONS: A DYNAMIC PANEL DATA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaido Dritsaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy plays an important role in economic development worldwide. The increase of energy consumption showed that CO2 emissions in the atmosphere have increased dramatically, and these lead many scientists to push governments of the developing countries to take action for the formulation of environmental policies. Many studies have attempted to look for the direction of causality between energy consumption (EC, economic growth (GDP and CO2 emissions mainly on developing countries. This paper, therefore, applies the panel unit root tests, panel cointegration methods and panel causality test to investigate the relationship between energy consumption (EC, economic growth (GDP and CO2 emissions for three countries of Southern Europe (Greece, Spain, and Portugal covering the annual period 1960-2009. The FMOLS and DOLS are then used to estimate the long run relationship between the variables. The findings of this study reveal that there is a short-run bilateral causal link between the examined variables. However, in the long run, there is a unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions to energy consumption (EC, and economic growth (GDP and a bilateral causality between energy consumption and economic growth. This indicates that energy is a force for economic growth both in short and long run as it is driven from economic growth. Moreover, to face the heterogeneity on the three countries of Southern Europe we use the FMOLS and DOLS estimation methods.

  3. 75 FR 19296 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... mode electrical consumption was small as compared to the fossil fuel energy consumption currently... mode energy consumption into the statutorily identified efficiency descriptor, Annual Fuel Utilization...

  4. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Along with an examination of the state of worldwide nuclear-related developments last year, the IAEA Annual Report 2014 provides a comprehensive look at the Agency’s activities over the course of the year. From coordinating 125 research projects to conducting 2114 nuclear verification inspections worldwide, the IAEA’s 2560 employees continued to work on a wide range of areas to meet the evolving needs of Member States. The Annual Report, published in August, will be discussed and endorsed at the IAEA’s General Conference in September. Serving 162 Member States, two more than the year before, the IAEA’s activities in 2014 focused on the following areas, in line with its mandate: • Nuclear Energy: The IAEA assisted Member States in the introduction of nuclear power programmes and in the efficient and safe use of nuclear energy, fostering innovation and building capability in energy planning, analysis, and nuclear information and knowledge management. • Nuclear Sciences and Applications: The IAEA continued to assist Member States in building, strengthening and maintaining capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology. • Nuclear Safety and Security: The IAEA and its Member States continued to strengthen nuclear safety worldwide, including through the implementation of the Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which had been endorsed by the General Conference in 2011 after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant earlier that year. The IAEA also supported States, upon request, in their efforts to achieve effective security wherever nuclear and other radioactive materials are in use. • Nuclear Verification: The IAEA implemented safeguards in 180 States and as at the end of every year, it drew conclusions for each State for which safeguards were applied. • Technical Cooperation: The IAEA assisted Member States in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and in preparation for the post-2015 Sustainable

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF AN APARTMENT POSITIONING ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela PRADA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of the highly topical subject of global warming and energy conservation. The article contains parametric studies of energy consumption and CO² emissions for an apartment located in a block of flats, depending on its location. It was studied the energy consumption of an apartment having different cardinal orientations in the same building and of an apartment with the same position inside the building but located in different climatic zones. The case studies show the difference between the energy consumption of an apartment depending on its position, thus resulting in a few general directions for their heat insulation, so that the specific energy consumption of the apartment is below 100 kWh/m² year.

  6. Energy consumption and quality of man's life. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In Chapter 1 a dependence of public life quality showings from energy consumption value is proved. Priority of fuel-energetic complex development is grounded as well. Specific features of Kazakhstan power engineering during its integration into world economics are given. Problems of liberalization of power engineering economy are illustrated. Dependences between assessments of human potential and energy consumption level in the world and Kazakhstan are given in tabular form. In Kazakhstan under relatively stable education level index an energy consumption reduction was resulted to gross national product decrease on via capita

  7. Theory and design of an Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) for residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.; Abbatiello, L.A.; Ballou, M.L.

    1980-05-01

    The basic concept of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) - an integrated system for supplying space heating, hot water, and air conditioning to a building - and the theory underlying its design and operation are described. Practical procedures for designing an ACES for a single-family residence, together with recommended guidelines for the construction and installation of system components, are presented. Methods are discussed for estimating the life-cycle cost, component sizes, and annual energy consumption of the system for residential applications in different climatic regions of the US.

  8. Energy consumption, output and trade nexus in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2013-01-01

    This study uses panel cointegration techniques to examine the impact of energy consumption, and trade on economic growth for five North Africa countries within a multivariate framework over the period 1980-2009. Short-run dynamic relationship shows that there is evidence of one way short-run relationship from i) output, exports, and capital to imports, ii) fossil fuels consumption to exports, iii) exports to capital and iv) labor to combustible renewables and waste consumption. The vector err...

  9. Energy Drink Consumption Practices of Young People in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaif, Maryam M; Alobed, Ghufran J J; Alaam, Noor A A; Alderrazi, Abdulla N; Awdhalla, Muyssar S; Vaithinathan, Asokan G

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink (ED) consumption is becoming increasingly popular among young Bahrainis, who may be unaware of the health risks associated with ED consumption. To date, there have been few publications on the consumption of ED in Bahrain, particularly among adolescents. This study seeks to fill a gap in the literature on energy drink consumption practices of Bahraini adolescents. Data were collected using a previously established European Food Safety Authority questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a convenience sample of 262 Bahraini students aged 10 to 18 years. Most participants consumed energy drinks 2 to 3 times per week and consumed two or more cans at a time. Eighty percent of partcipants preferred energy drinks with sugar. Participants in the older age group and higher educational level consumed more ED. The majority (57%) consumed ED at home with friends as part of socialization. Notably, 60% of the parents of the respondents have not consumed energy drinks. Prominent reasons for consumption of energy drinks included: taste (40%), energy (30%), stay awake (13%), augment concentration (4%), and enhance sports performance (6%). Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.

  10. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give

  11. Sector review of UK higher education energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Ian; Ogbonna, Anthony; Altan, Hasim

    2008-01-01

    The UK education and education-related services are said to be one of the fastest-growing export earners in recent years and are known to have had significant impacts at the micro- and macro-levels of the UK. This review looks at energy consumption of this fast growing sector. It concentrates on the energy consumption patterns of the funded higher education institutions in the UK. The findings indicate energy consumption in the sector has been on the increase in the 6 years up to 2006; rising by about 2.7% above the 2001 consumption levels. This increase is, however, not evenly spread across the entire sector. The high energy-consuming institutions appear to be increasing their net consumption, relative to other institutions. Gross internal area, staff and research student full-time equivalent were found to have highest correlation with energy consumption across the sector and may be used as proxy indicators for energy consumption as well as the targets of interventions

  12. Sector review of UK higher education energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Ian; Ogbonna, Anthony; Altan, Hasim [Building Energy Analysis Unit, School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, S10 2TN Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    The UK education and education-related services are said to be one of the fastest-growing export earners in recent years and are known to have had significant impacts at the micro- and macro-levels of the UK. This review looks at energy consumption of this fast growing sector. It concentrates on the energy consumption patterns of the funded higher education institutions in the UK. The findings indicate energy consumption in the sector has been on the increase in the 6 years up to 2006; rising by about 2.7% above the 2001 consumption levels. This increase is, however, not evenly spread across the entire sector. The high energy-consuming institutions appear to be increasing their net consumption, relative to other institutions. Gross internal area, staff and research student full-time equivalent were found to have highest correlation with energy consumption across the sector and may be used as proxy indicators for energy consumption as well as the targets of interventions. (author)

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three pillars of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2006-2007 (GC(49)/2). The introductory chapter seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2006 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2006/. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to technology are: nuclear power; nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies; capacity building and nuclear knowledge maintenance for sustainable energy development; nuclear science; food and agriculture; human health; water resources; assessment and management of marine and terrestrial environments; radioisotope production and radiation technology; safety and security; incident and emergency preparedness and response; safety of nuclear installations; radiation and transport safety; management of radioactive waste; nuclear security

  14. Consumption of fuels and energy in the coking industry and ways of reducing consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, Yu.S.; Tsel' ik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V. (Khar' kovskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhimicheski Institut (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    Coking plants in the USSR consume 4,000 million kWh electric energy, 100 million GJ heat energy and 35,000 million m{sup 3} gaseous fuels per year. Structure of energy consumption is the following: 68% gaseous fuels, 24% steam and 8% electric energy. Processes of coal preparation, crushing, mixing, coking and quenching are analyzed from the point of view of energy consumption. The following methods for reducing energy consumption are discussed: using the FM-25 flotation machines for flotation of coking coal slurries, briquetting the whole coal charge for coking, optimization of air supply rates for combustion of gases used for coke oven heating, use of control systems for coke oven heating considering coal charge density, waste heat utilization from quenching. 4 refs.

  15. Auditing and analysis of energy consumption of an industrial site in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boharb, A.; Allouhi, A.; Saidur, R.; Kousksou, T.; Jamil, A.; Mourad, Y.; Benbassou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Presently, the industrial sector is responsible for 21% of energy consumption in Morocco. Fully aware about the challenge of reducing energy consumption and related CO 2 emissions by industries, Moroccan authorities have legislated under the new law (n° 47-09 related to energy efficiency) the obligation of energy audit in Moroccan industries. In such a context, this paper is a Level II energy audit (conforming to ASHRAE classification) performed for an industrial site based in Fez (Morocco) specialized in producing and commercializing cattle feed. A detailed analysis of the characteristics of the energy use has identified a mismanagement of the electrical energy. Through the improvement of the DPF (displacement power factor) to a value of 0.98, it was shown that the factory can save about 52758.74 US$ annually. An improvement of energy efficiency of the interior lighting was also performed. The proposed action concerned the voltage regulation and has the potential of reducing 13.6% of the lighting energy consumption with the mitigation of approximately 27 533 of CO 2 /year. Furthermore, harmonic treatment by installing passive filters for VSD (variable speed drives) was carried out. The energy savings related to the harmonic treatment were evaluated to be 26 760 kWh/year. - Highlights: • Detailed analysis of energy use in an industrial site in Morocco. • New method of improving energy efficiency for the interior lighting. • Harmonic treatment using a simulation program. • Economic and environmental evaluation of proposed actions.

  16. Bioenergetics modeling of the annual consumption of zooplankton by pelagic fish feeding in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachiller, Eneko; Utne, Kjell Rong; Jansen, Teunis

    2018-01-01

    The present study uses bioenergetics modeling to estimate the annual consumption of the main zooplankton groups by some of the most commercially important planktivorous fish stocks in the Northeast Atlantic, namely Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesi......The present study uses bioenergetics modeling to estimate the annual consumption of the main zooplankton groups by some of the most commercially important planktivorous fish stocks in the Northeast Atlantic, namely Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting......, annual consumption of the different zooplankton groups by pelagic fish is estimated. The present study estimates higher consumption estimates than previous studies for the three species and suggests that fish might have a greater impact on the zooplankton community as foragers. This way, NEA mackerel...... of 53–85 M tonnes of copepods, 20–32 M tonnes of krill, 8–42 M tonnes of appendicularians and 0.2–1.2 M tonnes of fish, depending on the year. For NSS herring and NEA mackerel the main prey groups are calanoids and appendicularians, showing a peak in consumption during June and June–July, respectively...

  17. Water consumption in the energy sector

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil or biofuels. Hydropower is based on water in rivers or reservoirs. Feedstock production for biofuels may depend on water for irrigation. On the other hand, energy is necessary for pumping of ground- and...

  18. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  19. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1996 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Selecting the research efforts to be highlighted in the Israel Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report from the large body and broad spectrum of ongoing work is not an easy task. The extensive bibliography of published results attached to the report attests to the scope of this difficulty. Of the many worthwhile projects, four were chosen to represent best the current trends in the continuing R and D program at the research centers of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission. One of these trends is the growing cooperation with private industry, in an attempt to gear our R and D programs to respond to market demands. Another feature, noted already several years ago, is the extensive collaboration of our scientists and engineers with colleagues at other institutions, in Israel and abroad. some of the work reported is part of evolving international industrial cooperation projects, illustrating both these trends. Following a trend common to many nuclear research centers around the world, a substantial part of our research effort is non-nuclear in nature. This is illustrated in the first article, which deals with advances in the application of non-linear optics in diverse fields of science and technology. These include state-of-the-art solid-state lasers, rapid modulation of light signals, development and generation of tunable sources of coherent light, optical data storage and the microscopic probing of biological and inorganic samples. The present work reports on a range of R and D, from the fundamentals of non-linear optical materials to proof-of-principle demonstrations of non-linear subwavelength resolution microscopy, to fabrication of prototype commercial tunable laser systems The second report considers the microstrain characteristics in some alloys using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The research utilizes XRD line broadening effects to study the characteristics of alloys from especially prepared surfaces. These characteristics include the homogeneity of alloying

  20. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... that the increasing world population and the increasing demand for resource intensive food and life style will require a strategy for the future food supply system centred on energy reduction.......Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...

  1. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  2. Pittsburgh 2013 Energy Baseline: Consumption, Trends & Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarka, Thomas J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); James III, Robert E. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Withum, Jeffrey A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Plowman, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Shih, Chung Yan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) are working in conjunction with the City of Pittsburgh (City) to transform how energy is produced, transported, and consumed in the City. This transformation will rely on 21st Century Energy Infrastructure designs, which leverage advanced technology and design techniques to modernize energy infrastructure, create new business models and markets, and expand technology research and development opportunities. Achieving this vision will require developing solutions that are unique to the City: its climate, topography, energy needs, resources, and existing infrastructure.a In this way, the City will demonstrate what the American “City of the Future” looks like, with all its attendant environmental, economic, and job-creation benefits. It will also serve as a template for other cities seeking to reinvent their energy systems.

  3. Output, renewable energy consumption and trade in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Aïssa, Mohamed Safouane; Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2014-01-01

    We use panel cointegration techniques to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in a sample of 11 African countries covering the period 1980–2008. The results from panel error correction model reveal that there is evidence of a bidirectional causality between output and exports and between output and imports in both the short and long-run. However, in the short-run, there is no evidence of causality between output and renewable energy consumption and between trade (exports or imports) and renewable energy consumption. Also, in the long-run, there is no causality running from output or trade to renewable energy. In the long-run, our estimations show that renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant and positive impact on output. Our energy policy recommendations are that national authorities should design appropriate fiscal incentives to encourage the use of renewable energies, create more regional economic integration for renewable energy technologies, and encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output. - Highlights: • We examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in African countries. • There is a bidirectional causality between output and trade in both the short and long-run. • In the short-run, there is no causality between renewable energy consumption and trade or output. • In the long-run, renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant positive impact on output. • African authorities should encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output

  4. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts

  5. Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with Projections to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO2009), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), presents long-term projections of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2030, based on results from EIA’s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). EIA published an “early release” version of the AEO2009 reference case in December 2008.

  6. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  7. Analyzing Long-run Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Hanan

    2017-11-01

    Since the relation between energy consumption and economic growth is important to design effective energy policies that will promote economic growth, this study investigates the short run dynamics and causality among energy consumption, co2 emissions, oil prices and economic growth in Kingdom of Bahrain. To do so, annual data that covers the period from 1960 till 2015. Empirical work tests for unit root, co-integration relationship using Johansen (1988) approach and then estimate both long and short run dynamics using the vector error correction model (VECM). Results indicate that there is a long-run relationship between the suggested variables. Since economic growth has a predictive power to estimate the energy demand of Kingdom of Bahrain, it is recommended that the government of Bahrain and policy designers shed the light on energy efficiency strategies and carbon emissions reduction policy in the long run without impeding economic growth in order to move towards sustainability.

  8. Trends in Residential Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia with Particular Reference to the Eastern Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farajallah Alrashed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential buildings are vital in the energy scenario of Saudi Arabia as they account for 52% of the total electricity consumption. The Eastern Province, due to its harsh weather conditions, is one of the most challenging areas in Saudi Arabia in terms of residential energy consumption. The province is vital also because of its large land area, accounting for almost one third of the entire country. This article investigates some of the important factors related to the residential energy consumption i.e. weather conditions, types of dwellings, building envelops, air-conditioning (A/C systems and domestic appliances especially cooking ovens. The work is based upon an analysis of the actual monthly electricity consumption for 115 dwellings in Dhahran for the year 2012. The investigated buildings include 62 apartments, 28 villas, and 25 traditional houses. The annual average electricity consumption for the surveyed dwellings was found to be 176.5 kWh/m2, a value higher than international energy-efficiency benchmarks. It is found that the use of mini-split A/C systems, thermal insulation and double-glazed windows can help reduce the electricity consumption by over 30%.

  9. Psychological strategies to reduce energy consumption: project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L J; Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1979-06-30

    This report reviews the research conducted in connection with a project to apply psychological theory and procedures to the problems of encouraging residential energy conservation. A major part of the project involved surveys of residents' energy-related attitudes. The best (and only consistent) attitudinal predictor of residents' actual energy consumption was their attitude about thermal comfort. A number of other attitudes that could conceivably have been related to consumption, such as attitudes about the reality of the crisis, were not found to be related to consumption. Another major focus of the project was on the effectiveness of feedback (that is, giving residents information about their energy use) as an aid to residents' conservation efforts. A series of experiments demonstrated that frequent, credible energy-consumption feedback, coupled with encouragement to adopt a reasonable but difficult energy-conservation goal, could facilitate conservation. However, these studies also demonstrated that residents could not be given just any kind of information about their energy use as feedback and that even proper feedback would not lead to conservation in all households. Conditions that are crucial for the success of feedback as a conservation aid are discussed. Other studies conducted by the project looked at the effect on energy consumption of (1) a device to reduce air-conditioning waste by signalling when it is cool outside, (2) an automatic multi-setback thermostat, and (3) utility companies' average payment plans. A survey of residents' knowledge of their energy use also was conducted. 23 references.

  10. Energy Drink Consumption Practices of Young People in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam M. Nassaif

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.

  11. Energy Resources Consumption Minimization in Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balastov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the energy savings analysis during operation of buildings, provides the heat balance of residential premises, considers options for energy-efficient solutions for hot water supply systems in buildings. As technical facilities that allow the use of secondary heat sources and solar energy, there are also considered the systems with heat recovery of “gray” wastewater, heat pumps, solar collectors and photoelectric converters.

  12. Energy overview of Botswana: generation and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Ofetotse, E. L.; Essah, Emmanuel A.

    2012-01-01

    Botswana has a basic need to explore its energy concept, this being its energy sources, generation and percentage of the population with access to electricity. At present, Botswana generates electricity from coal, which supplies about 29% (on average) of the country’s demand. The other 71% is imported mainly from South Africa (Eskom). Consequently, the dependence of Botswana on imports posses threats to the security of its energy supply. As a result, there is the need to understand the bases ...

  13. Occupants Influence on the Energy Consumption of Danish Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    This report is one of the results from the project “Occupants influence on the energy consumption of Danish domestic buildings – Phase 1”, which is partly funded by EUDP (Journalnr.: 64009-0248, Programområde: Energieffektivisering) The report provides state-of-the-art reviews within the various...... disciplines represented in the project by the project members, which all represent areas that relate to the title on occupants influence on the energy consumption....

  14. Tourism, Energy Consumption and Climate Change in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Aviral Kumar; Ozturk, Ilhan; Aruna, M.

    2013-01-01

    The study analyzed dynamics of the relationship between tourism, energy consumption, and climate change for 25 OECD countries during 1995-2005. For the analysis, Panel VAR (PVAR) model was used. Results of panel unit root-tests show that tourism is nonstationary in the level form but stationary in first difference form and energy consumption and climate change are stationary variables in the level form. Analysis of bivariate model shows that results are sensitive with change in the measuremen...

  15. An Evolutionary Analysis of World Energy Consumption and World Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kriegel, U.; Mende, W.; Grauer, M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of large-scale systems is described by a model based on the assumption of hyperbolic growth and saturation processes. It is shown that this Hyper-Logistic Evolution Model (HLEM) successfully describes the development of world population and global primary energy consumption over the past century; the model is also used to provide projections of world population and primary energy consumption up to the year 2100.

  16. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.; Powell, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  17. Energy consumption and energy R and D in OECD: Perspectives from oil prices and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Wong, Siang; Chia, Wai-Mun; Chang, Youngho

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the short-run and long-run elasticities of various types of energy consumption and energy R and D to changes in oil prices and income of the 20 OECD countries over the period of 1980–2010 using the Nerlove partial adjustment model (NPAM). We find negative income elasticity for coal consumption but positive income elasticity for oil and gas consumption suggesting the importance of economic growth in encouraging the usage of cleaner energy from coal to oil and gas. By introducing time dummies into the regressions, we show that climatic mitigation policies are able to promote the usage of cleaner energies. Through the dynamic linkages between energy consumption and energy R and D, we find that fossil fuel consumption promotes fossil fuel R and D and fossil fuel R and D in turn drives its own consumption. Renewable energy R and D which is more responsive to economic growth reduces fossil fuel consumption and hence fossil fuel R and D. - Highlights: • Economic growth encourages the use of cleaner forms of energy. • Economic growth promotes renewable energy R and D. • Subsidies for renewable energy R and D promote renewable energy consumption. • Fossil fuel R and D promotes fossil fuel consumption in countries with oil reserves. • Oil consumption reduces significantly with higher oil prices

  18. Energy Systems Group. Annual Progress Report 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Villadsen, B.

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risø National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff...

  19. Energy Systems Group annual progress report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.; Larsen, H.; Villadsen, B.

    1985-02-01

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risoe National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff members. (author)

  20. Conference on new consumption and commercialization models for photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freier, Karin; Fontaine, Pierre; Mayer, Joerg; Jimenez, Julien; Richard, Pascal; Vogtmann, Michael; Schaefer, Felix; Martin, Nicolas; Buis, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on new consumption and commercialization models for photovoltaic energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the new economic models for solar energy producers while the photovoltaic industry has to face a progressive reduction of feed-in tariffs and of other incentive mechanisms. Beside the legal and economic aspects, technical questions around energy storage and integration of photovoltaic production to the grid were also addressed. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Stimulating self-consumption and direct selling within the EEG (Karin Freier); 2 - Development of PV self-consumption in France (Pierre Fontaine); 3 - experience from applying the new support program for solar energy storage systems (Joerg Mayer); 4 - Call for solar photovoltaic projects for own consumption in Aquitaine region (Julien Jimenez); 5 - SMA Flexible Storage System - New version of the Sunny Island inverter for smart photovoltaic energy storage (Pascal Richard); 6 - PV Own Consumption in industry and commerce - examples und Operating Concepts (Michael Vogtmann); 7 - Supplying tenants in multiple-family housing with solar power in the 'Neue Heimat' project (Felix Schaefer); 8 - How to manage PV-storage self-consumption from a grid point of view? (Nicolas Martin); 9 - Closing talk (Sabine Buis)

  1. Energy Consumption Management of Virtual Cloud Computing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin

    2017-11-01

    For energy consumption management research on virtual cloud computing platforms, energy consumption management of virtual computers and cloud computing platform should be understood deeper. Only in this way can problems faced by energy consumption management be solved. In solving problems, the key to solutions points to data centers with high energy consumption, so people are in great need to use a new scientific technique. Virtualization technology and cloud computing have become powerful tools in people’s real life, work and production because they have strong strength and many advantages. Virtualization technology and cloud computing now is in a rapid developing trend. It has very high resource utilization rate. In this way, the presence of virtualization and cloud computing technologies is very necessary in the constantly developing information age. This paper has summarized, explained and further analyzed energy consumption management questions of the virtual cloud computing platform. It eventually gives people a clearer understanding of energy consumption management of virtual cloud computing platform and brings more help to various aspects of people’s live, work and son on.

  2. Specific energy consumption in microwave drying of garlic cloves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.P. [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan (India); Prasad, Suresh [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The convective and microwave-convective drying of garlic cloves was carried out in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The specific energy consumption involved in the two drying processes was estimated from the energy supplied to the various components of the dryer during the drying period. The specific energy consumption was computed by dividing the total energy supplied by amount of water removed during the drying process. The specific energy consumption in convective drying of garlic cloves at 70{sup o}C temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was estimated as 85.45MJ/kg of water evaporated. The increase in air velocity increased the energy consumption. The specific energy consumption at 40W of microwave power output, 70{sup o}C air temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was 26.32MJ/kg of water removed, resulting in about a 70% energy saving as compared to convective drying processes. The drying time increased with increase in air velocity in microwave-convective drying process; a trend reverse to what was observed in convective drying process of garlic cloves. (author)

  3. Modelling Electrical Energy Consumption in Automotive Paint Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviandri, Muchamad; Safiee, Aidil Shafiza Bin

    2018-03-01

    Industry players are seeking ways to reduce operational cost to sustain in a challenging economic trend. One key aspect is an energy cost reduction. However, implementing energy reduction strategy often struggle with obstructions, which slow down their realization and implementation. Discrete event simulation method is an approach actively discussed in current research trend to overcome such obstructions because of its flexibility and comprehensiveness. Meanwhile, in automotive industry, paint shop is considered the most energy consumer area which is reported consuming about 50%-70% of overall automotive plant consumption. Hence, this project aims at providing a tool to model and simulate energy consumption at paint shop area by conducting a case study at XYZ Company, one of the automotive companies located at Pekan, Pahang. The simulation model was developed using Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software version 13. From the simulation result, the model was accurately within ±5% for energy consumption and ±15% for maximum demand after validation with real system. Two different energy saving scenarios were tested. Scenario 1 was based on production scheduling approach under low demand situation which results energy saving up to 30% on the consumption. Meanwhile scenario 2 was based on substituting high power compressor with the lower power compressor. The results were energy consumption saving of approximately 1.42% and maximum demand reduction about 1.27%. This approach would help managers and engineers to justify worthiness of investment for implementing the reduction strategies.

  4. Energy and Environmental Division annual report, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W. (ed.)

    1976-01-01

    Separate entries were made for the nine main sections of the report. These sections deal with geosciences, controlled thermonuclear research, solar energy, chemical processes, engineering, energy use, instrumentation, environment, and energy analysis.

  5. Hawaii Natural Energy Institute annual report, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This tenth anniversary special reviews each project over the past 10 years, with research in progress included for FY83-84 for biomass, geothermal, ocean energy, solar energy, wind research and other renewable energy research. (PSB)

  6. Thermal Energy Storage: Fourth Annual Review Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The development of low cost thermal energy storage technologies is discussed in terms of near term oil savings, solar energy applications, and dispersed energy systems for energy conservation policies. Program definition and assessment and research and technology development are considered along with industrial storage, solar thermal power storage, building heating and cooling, and seasonal thermal storage. A bibliography on seasonal thermal energy storage emphasizing aquifer thermal energy is included.

  7. Energy and environment. Annual report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.G.; Lizama, L.R. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following programs: geothermal and geosciences; controlled thermonuclear research; chemical processing; instrument development; environment; energy use and conservation; energy analysis; and engineering sciences.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND GROSS DOMESTIC INCOME (GDP IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖZGE KORKMAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reach a sustainable economic growth of countries initially depends on the usage of energy resources efficiently. But an unequal  distribution of energy resources in the world increases the dependency on energy in countries which have insufficient energy resources such as Turkey. Therefore, it has a great importance to analyze the share of imported energy resources for economic growth. The correlation between energy consumption and changes in gross domestic product, increases the importance of energy policies while determining  the economical policies of countries. In this study, the causality relationship between energy consumption, energy generation  and GDP in Turkey are examined using annual data for the period 1960-2009. Johansen Cointegration Causality Test and Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM is used for this study. Empirical results for the period under discussion there is a relationship between the variables and error correction mechanism based on long-term Granger causality test. It showed that  bileteral causality  with the energy consumption to GDP.

  9. Energy consumptions per sector; Les consommations d'energie par secteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document presents the energy consumption data of France per energy type and sector of use in the form of tables and graphics for the last decade and sometimes before: 1 - residential and tertiary sector: energy consumption per energy source, energy consumption per use (coal, heavy and domestic fuels, natural gas, LPG (butane, propane), electricity), comparison of the share of each energy source between 1973 and 2003, 20 years of space heating data in main dwellings (1982-2002), district heating networks from 1987 to 1997; 2 - transportation sector: fuel consumption of individual cars in France (1990-2003, 1990-2002, 1990-2001, 1987-1999), some indicators about the energy consumption in transports in France (2000-2001); 3 - industry sector: consumption of fuel substitutes in the cement industry in 2001, importance and limitations. (J.S.)

  10. Predictive Model of Energy Consumption in Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiecheng Pu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The predictive model of energy consumption is presented based on subtractive clustering and Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (for short ANFIS in the beer production. Using the subtractive clustering on the historical data of energy consumption, the limit of artificial experience is conquered while confirming the number of fuzzy rules. The parameters of the fuzzy inference system are acquired by the structure of adaptive network and hybrid on-line learning algorithm. The method can predict and guide the energy consumption of the factual production process. The reducing consumption scheme is provided based on the actual situation of the enterprise. Finally, using concrete examples verified the feasibility of this method comparing with the Radial Basis Functions (for short RBF neural network predictive model.

  11. The energy consumption of control systems; Het energiegebruik van regelinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gulik, A.R.; De Wildt, M.G. [Grontmij Nederland, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Control systems for e.g. indoor climate and illumination are essential in modern building services, and useful for comfort or energy conservation. Energy conservation is of course an important aim, but what is the energy consumption of the control systems? Is the consumption higher than the savings? This question was subject of a comprehensive study, with measurements and simulation calculations. It can be concluded that the energy consumption of control installation for spaces is substantial [Dutch] Regelinstallaties voor bijvoorbeeld klimaatregeling, verlichtingsregeling en domotica zijn niet meer weg te denken uit de moderne installatietechniek, of ze nu dienen voor comfort, gemak of energiebesparing. Maar hoeveel energie gebruiken deze installaties eigenlijk? Voor ontwerpers blijkt dit helemaal geen issue te zijn terwijl adviseurs, installateurs en zelfs fabrikanten zeggen hiervan geen idee te hebben. Door metingen en het gebruik van berekeningsmodellen is vastgesteld wat het energiegebruik van regelinstallaties op jaarbasis is. Dit blijkt substantieel te zijn, maar er zijn mogelijkheden om het gebruik te reduceren.

  12. Carbon dioxide emissions, output, and energy consumption categories in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the relation between CO 2 emissions, income, non-renewable, and renewable energy consumption in Algeria during the period extending from 1980 to 2011. Our work gives particular attention to the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) with break point method outcome demonstrates the positive effect of non-renewable type of energy on CO 2 emissions consumption. On the contrary, the results reveal an insignificant effect of renewable energy on environment improvement. Moreover, the results accept the existence of EKC hypothesis but the highest gross domestic product value in logarithm scale of our data is inferior to the estimated turning point. Consequently, policy-makers in Algeria should expand the ratio of renewable energy and should decrease the quota of non-renewable energy consumption.

  13. Mobile Location Sharing: An Energy Consumption Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon; Prihodko, Mihails; Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin

    2013-01-01

    The use of a mobile device's battery for frequent transmissions of position data in a location sharing application can be more expensive than the location retrieval itself. This is in part due to energy-agnostic application development and in part dependent on choice of protocols. This paper studies the lightweight Message Queuing Telemetry Transport protocol (MQTT) as an application layer protocol on top of the third generation cellular communication. The energy efficiency and amount of data...

  14. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the

  15. Wave Energy Converter Annual Energy Production Uncertainty Using Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton E. Hiles

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Critical to evaluating the economic viability of a wave energy project is: (1 a robust estimate of the electricity production throughout the project lifetime and (2 an understanding of the uncertainty associated with said estimate. Standardization efforts have established mean annual energy production (MAEP as the metric for quantification of wave energy converter (WEC electricity production and the performance matrix approach as the appropriate method for calculation. General acceptance of a method for calculating the MAEP uncertainty has not yet been achieved. Several authors have proposed methods based on the standard engineering approach to error propagation, however, a lack of available WEC deployment data has restricted testing of these methods. In this work the magnitude and sensitivity of MAEP uncertainty is investigated. The analysis is driven by data from simulated deployments of 2 WECs of different operating principle at 4 different locations. A Monte Carlo simulation approach is proposed for calculating the variability of MAEP estimates and is used to explore the sensitivity of the calculation. The uncertainty of MAEP ranged from 2%–20% of the mean value. Of the contributing uncertainties studied, the variability in the wave climate was found responsible for most of the uncertainty in MAEP. Uncertainty in MAEP differs considerably between WEC types and between deployment locations and is sensitive to the length of the input data-sets. This implies that if a certain maximum level of uncertainty in MAEP is targeted, the minimum required lengths of the input data-sets will be different for every WEC-location combination.

  16. The energy consumption in the ceramic tile industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciacco, Eduardo F.S.; Rocha, Jose R.; Coutinho, Aparecido R.

    2017-01-01

    The ceramic industry occupies a prominent place in the Brazilian industrial context, representing about 1.0% in the GDP composition. On the other hand, it represent about 1.9% of all energy consumed in the country, and 5.8% of the energy consumed in the Brazilian industrial sector in 2014. Regarding the power consumption by the ceramic industry, most is derived from renewable sources (firewood), followed by use of fossil fuels, mainly natural gas (NG). This study was conducted to quantify the energy consumption in the production of ceramic tiles (CT), by means of experimental data obtained directly in the industry and at every step of the manufacturing process. The step of firing and sintering has the highest energy consumption, with approximately 56% of the total energy consumed. In sequence, have the atomization steps with 30% and the drying with 14%, of total energy consumption in the production of ceramic tiles, arising from the use of NG. In addition, it showed that the production of ceramic tiles by wet process has energy consumption four times the dry production process, due to the atomization step.

  17. Reduction of lighting energy consumption in office buildings through improved daylight design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadouri, Maria Violeta Prado

    This study aims to investigate the lighting energy consumption in office buildings and the options for its reduction. One way to reduce lighting energy consumption is by improving the daylight design. A better use of daylight in buildings might be an outcome from the effort made in different directions. Like the improvement of a building's fabric and layout, the materials, even the furniture in a space influences the daylight quality considerably. Also very important role in lighting energy consumption has the development of more efficient lighting technology like the electric lighting control systems, such as photo sensors and occupancy sensors. Both systems are responsible so that the electric light is not used without reason. As the focusing area of this study, is to find ways to improve the daylight use in buildings, a consequent question is which are the methods provided in order to achieve this The accuracy of the methodology used is also an important issue in order to achieve reliable results. The methodology applied in this study includes the analysis of a case study by taking field measurements and computer simulations. The first stage included gathering information about the lighting design of the building and monitoring the light levels, both from natural and from the electric lighting. The second stage involved testing with computer simulations, different parameters that were expected to improve the daylight exploitation of the specific area. The results of the field measurements showed that the main problems of the space were the low natural light levels and the poor daylight distribution. The annual electric lighting energy consumption, as it was calculated with the use of computer simulations, represented the annual energy consumption of a typical air-conditioned prestige office building (energy consumption guide 19, for energy use in offices, 2000). After several computer simulations, the results showed that initial design parameters of the building

  18. Low energy consumption vortex wave flow membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Weilong; Hu, Xiaohong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Tao; Sun, Youshan

    2017-11-01

    In order to reduce the energy consumption and membrane fouling of the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), a kind of low energy consumption vortex wave flow MBR was exploited based on the combination of biofilm process and membrane filtration process, as well as the vortex wave flow technique. The experimental results showed that the vortex wave flow state in the membrane module could be formed when the Reynolds number (Re) of liquid was adjusted between 450 and 1,050, and the membrane flux declined more slowly in the vortex wave flow state than those in the laminar flow state and turbulent flow state. The MBR system was used to treat domestic wastewater under the condition of vortex wave flow state for 30 days. The results showed that the removal efficiency for CODcr and NH 3 -N was 82% and 98% respectively, and the permeate quality met the requirement of 'Water quality standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption (GB/T 18920-2002)'. Analysis of the energy consumption of the MBR showed that the average energy consumption was 1.90 ± 0.55 kWh/m 3 (permeate), which was only two thirds of conventional MBR energy consumption.

  19. Annual Energy Outlook 2011 with Projections to 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-01

    The projections in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2011 (AEO2011) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2011 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies. But AEO2011 is not limited to the Reference case. It also includes 57 sensitivity cases (see Appendix E, Table E1), which explore important areas of uncertainty for markets, technologies, and policies in the U.S. energy economy. Key results highlighted in AEO2011 include strong growth in shale gas production, growing use of natural gas and renewables in electric power generation, declining reliance on imported liquid fuels, and projected slow growth in energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions even in the absence of new policies designed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. AEO2011 also includes in-depth discussions on topics of special interest that may affect the energy outlook. They include: impacts of the continuing renewal and updating of Federal and State laws and regulations; discussion of world oil supply and price trends shaped by changes in demand from countries outside the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or in supply available from the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries; an examination of the potential impacts of proposed revisions to Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for light-duty vehicles and proposed new standards for heavy-duty vehicles; the impact of a series of updates to appliance standard alone or in combination with revised building codes; the potential impact on natural gas and crude oil production of an expanded offshore resource base

  20. Changing practices of energy consumption: The influence of smart grid solutions in households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Skjølsvold, Tomas Moe

    2017-01-01

    to produce hydrogen for transport use), whereas others emphasise the role of individual consumers. The latter approach is dominant within the smart grid vision. In this paper, we explore implications of smart grid technologies in households for the everyday practices related to electricity consumption...... (microgeneration) influence the everyday practices? What kind of influence does the combination of PVs with other “smart” energy technologies have on everyday practices and electricity consumption patterns? A specific focus is on the time patterns of households’ energy consumption. The analysis is based...... settlement scheme (hourly versus annual net metering) and the trial context play a role. Also, the study finds a broader interest in increasing the level of self-sufficiency through combining PVs with home batteries. Finally, the paper discusses a distinct (male) gendering in relation to who is most actively...

  1. Energy: annual report and accounts 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The annual report and accounts (1994) of the Midlands Electricity plc contains the Chairman's statement, the Chief Executive's review, and the Directors and Auditors' reports. A financial review is presented, and the group's historical cost profit and loss account, the group's financial history, and summary current cost accounting information are detailed. (UK)

  2. Concerned consumption. Global warming changing household domestication of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Margrethe; Godbolt, Åsne Lund; Sørensen, Knut H.; Ryghaug, Marianne; Karlstrøm, Henrik; Næss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses possible effects of the growing focus on global warming on households’ domestication of energy and the dynamics of energy consumption by comparing data pertaining to the domestication of energy within Norwegian households from two time periods: first, 1991–1995, when climate change was given little public attention, and, second, 2006–2009, after climate change became a major public concern. In the first period, we observed that the domestication of energy resulted in an energy culture emphasizing comfort and convenience with respect to everyday life and the abundant supply of clean hydropower. In the second period, this culture seemed to have changed, making households more concerned about their energy consumption. Consumption of energy was linked to climate change, and many interviewees claimed to save energy. However, the dominant expectation was still to be able to manage everyday life in a convenient and comfortable way. Thus, climate change concerns produced some but not very radical changes in the practical domestication of energy, including energy saving. A main effect was feelings of guilt, tempered by arguments regarding why change is difficult and complaints about political inaction. Thus, public engagement with climate change issues may facilitate energy efficiency policy but to succeed, wider climate policy measures seem to be needed. - Highlights: • Increased climate change focus has affected household domestication of energy. • The changes produced concerns about energy consumption. • Some energy saving activities were reported. • Household energy cultures are less stable than anticipated. • Suggests wider climate policy measures to motivate for energy efficiency.

  3. Energy and Environment Division annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, J.A. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities of this Division are reported under nine separate programs, namely: Energy Analysis; Solar Energy; Energy-Efficient Buildings; Chemical Process Research and Development; Environmental Research; Atmospheric Aerosol Research; Oil Shale Research; Instrumentation Development; and Combustion Research. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the nine programs, each of which contained several individual research summaries, with responsible researchers listed. All of the abstracts will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), and five will appear in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  4. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO 2 emission trends for Iran over 2000-2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO 2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO 2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO 2 emission outlines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. For six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.

  6. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1988 covers: Research Company; CANDU Operations; Radiochemical Company; Medical Products Division; The Future; Financial Sections; Board of Directors and Officers; and AECL locations

  7. Annual Report 2002 of the Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy described the results of the research works carried out at the Institute in 2002 year. The Report contains the information on technical and research studies developed by all Institute Departments and Laboratories

  8. Annual electricity consumption analysis and forecasting of China based on few observations methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Ming; Niu, Dongxiao

    2011-01-01

    The annual electricity consumption analysis and forecasting of China is one of the important bases of management decision making for power generation groups as well as power policy adjusting for government. The socioeconomic actuality could not offer adequate observations with perfect statistic characters. The partial least squares method is applied to get a linear equation. It could quantificational simulate the relationship between the electricity consumption and its factors. The variables importance analysis method is further adopted to distinguish the explanatory power of all relative factors. The foremost importance of production and consumption in rural area shows that the development of this area should account more for the increasing of electricity consumption. The less explanatory power of the gross domestic product of tertiary industry means the gigantic potential in electricity consumption for the future several years. At last, it calculates the contributions of observations. The results show that the unusual development of real estate and relative industry has affected the usual electricity consumption mode. With the clear away of price bubble in real estate, the increasing speed of electricity consumption will slow down in the recent years. (author)

  9. Production, consumption and research on solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Lascurain-Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Serrano-Lopez, Antonio Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of scientific publications on solar energy was conducted to determine whether public interest in the subject is mirrored by more intense research in the area. To this end, the research published by Spain and Germany, the two EU countries with the highest installed photovoltaic capacity......, was analyzed based on Web of Science data. The results show that: solar output has risen substantially; solar research has a greater impact (measured in terms of citations) than publications on other renewables such as wind power; scientific production on solar energy is high in Germany and Spain, which...... intense. The main conclusion is the divergence in Germany and Spain between solar energy demand/output growth, being exponential, and the growth of research papers on the subject, which is linear...

  10. Analysis of Consumer Behaviour in Regional Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytis Varanavicius

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior is perceived as an investment which does not yield results in the short run. The traditional economic theory of customer preferences is based on four main elements: customer income, the market price of goods, customer preferences, and behavioral assumption about the maximum of achievable benefits. Even though it sometimes might seem that equalizing energy consumption with behavior is not possible, it can often be described as consequences of behavior, such as turning off the lights or thermostat level reduction for saving power. Our paper demonstrates how the psychological concept of consumer behavior effects energy consumption. It provides recommendations about the incorporation of the idea of uncomplicated information availability for consumers taking into consideration their long-term habits. The novelty of this study is that psychological concept of consumer behavior effects energy consumption in each of the region, therefore, it is recommended to incorporate the idea of uncomplicated information availability for consumers taking into consideration long-term habits. The problem analyzed in the article is how consumer behavior influences energy consumption. The aim of the article is to analyze the consumer behavior in energy consumption. The objectives of the study are two-fold: i to analyze the element of consumer behavior from the theoretical point of view, and ii to investigate the patterns of energy consumption. The methods of the study are a logical and comparative analysis of literature, graphics, synthesis, and deduction. Our results and findings can be used by the stakeholders and policy-makers in preparing regional development economic policies and in designing the energy consumption strategies in the framework of the regional development.

  11. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, ''Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,'' part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program's researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings

  12. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,'' part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program's researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

  13. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, ``Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,`` part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program`s researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

  14. Economic Development, Urbanisation, Energy Consumption and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings lead to the reiteration of the old call for economic diversification in Nigeria and other similar countries to shift urbanisation from a rural push mode to an urban pull mode. More important is that the shift should be powered by the efficient use of both non-renewable and renewable energy sources.

  15. Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Martha Carmen; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137): 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least once in the last 12 months, 38% at least once in the last month, 39.4% six times or more in the last month, 10.9% 20 times or more in the last month. Justification for consumption: 54% to improve the taste of alcoholic drinks, 27.7% to extend their evening leisure periods, 13.9% to improve sports performance, 9.5% for stimulation, 8.8% enjoy the taste, 6.6% for curiosity and 4.4% to study. Of those who consumed energy drinks, 87.6% mixed it with alcohol, and 25.9% of the students reported they consume more alcohol when it is mixed with energy drinks. the consumption of energy drinks is associated to sports and drinking alcohol.

  16. Energy analysis program. 1995 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.

    1996-05-01

    This year the role of energy technology research and analysis supporting governmental and public interests is again being challenged at high levels of government. This situation is not unlike that of the early 1980s, when the Administration questioned the relevance of a federal commitment to applied energy research, especially for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Then Congress continued to support such activities, deeming them important to the nation`s interest. Today, Congress itself is challenging many facets of the federal role in energy. The Administration is also selectively reducing its support, primarily for the pragmatic objective of reducing federal expenditures, rather than because of principles opposing a public role in energy. this report is divided into three sections: International Energy and the global environment; Energy, economics, markets, and policy; and Buildings and their environment.

  17. Annual report 1997. Energies and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report gives the important directions of French energy policy. Nuclear energy, electric power, natural gas, coal and petroleum products are reviewed. The situations and the forecasting for raw materials are also given. (N.C.)

  18. Consumption of forest chips as an energy source as part of the national action plan for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylitalo, E.

    2004-01-01

    A specific Action Plan for Renewable Energy was introduced in 1999 in order to increase the utilisation of renewable energy sources in Finland. The Plan was renewed in 2002, taking into account a revision of the goals defined in the statements given by the Parliament in the de-bate on national Climate Strategy and the decision on building a new nuclear power plant. The main reason for increasing the consumption of renewable energy is the aim of decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases caused by fossil fuels. The renewed Action Plan includes aims and means of how to increase the consumption of renewable energy in practice in the future. Specific goals for separate renewable energy sources were set for the years 2005, 2010 and 2025. Proportional targets were set for the consumption of forest chips: in 2010 consumption is expected to be four times larger than in 2001 and in 2025 seven times larger. In Finland, the most important source for renewable energy is wood and wood waste, which currently makes up approximately 20 per cent of total energy consumption. Wood waste (incl. waste liquor and solid wood waste) produced by the forest industries can be considered as being fully utilized at the moment. Therefore, the most important means of increasing the consumption of wood energy in the future is in the utilisation of forest chips resources. Since 2000, the Finnish Forest Re-search Institute has compiled statistics on the consumption of forest chips and forest industry by-products used in energy generation. One aim of these statistics is to monitor the fruition of the Action Plan mentioned. In 2003, the volume of forest chips consumed in energy generation was 2.1 mill. m3, i.e. approximately five per cent of all energy sources consumed. According to the statistics, the consumption of forest chips has doubled during the period 2000-2003 with an annual average increase of 0.4 mill. m 3 . The goals set in the Action Plan can be considered to be high. In order to achieve

  19. Changing organizational energy consumption behaviour through comparative feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siero, F.W.; Bakker, A.B.; Dekker, G.B; van den Burg, T.C

    The differential effects of two forms of feedback on energy consumption behaviour were examined in two units of a metallurgical company. In one unit, employees received information about energy conservation, had to set goals and received feedback on their own conservation behaviour. The same

  20. Economic energy distribution and consumption in a microgrid Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    level energy manager is designed to distribute available power resources among the houses or sell the remainder to the electricity grid. Simulation results show the economically optimal energy consumption in the buildings and economically ecient power trading between the houses. Microgrid control...

  1. Daily Temperature Integration: a Simulation Study to quantify Energy Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Körner, O.; Bakker, M.J.; Heuvelink, E.

    2004-01-01

    A combined greenhouse climate and control model was used to study energy consumption in year-round cut chrysanthemum. Temperature was either controlled for energy saving with temperature integration within 24h using the margin between heating and ventilation temperature b as control (TI) or the

  2. Energy consumption performance analysis of electrical mitad at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Injera baking electrical mitad is the most energy-consuming device in every household in Ethiopia. This research presents a detail engineering study on the energy-consumption performance of existing electrical mitad in Mekelle city. The research work considered thirty-one electrical mitad from different workshops in ...

  3. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  4. Convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell

    2014-01-01

    We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries over the period 1971 to 2011 using the panel KPSS stationarity test and panel Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root test. The results for the panel stationarity and unit root tests with structural breaks find support for energy convergence in ASEAN. - Highlights: • We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among the ASEAN nations. • Univariate conventional unit root tests provide mixed evidence of convergence. • Panel unit root tests with structural breaks support convergence hypothesis

  5. The method of planning the energy consumption for electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russkov, O. V.; Saradgishvili, S. E.

    2017-10-01

    The limitations of existing forecast models are defined. The offered method is based on game theory, probabilities theory and forecasting the energy prices relations. New method is the basis for planning the uneven energy consumption of industrial enterprise. Ecological side of the offered method is disclosed. The program module performed the algorithm of the method is described. Positive method tests at the industrial enterprise are shown. The offered method allows optimizing the difference between planned and factual consumption of energy every hour of a day. The conclusion about applicability of the method for addressing economic and ecological challenges is made.

  6. Methods for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    traffic the energy consumption remains high. This article proposes two major solutions for mitigating this problem. In the first case, an energy saving between 14% and 36% is observed by allowing the network to dynamically optimize its available capacity based on the traffic being carried. In the second......Up until recently, very little consideration has been given towards reducing the energy consumption of the networks supporting mobile communication. This has now become an important issue since with the predicted boost in traffic, network operators are required to upgrade and extend their networks......, increasing also their overall energy consumption. However, traffic analysis shows that during a 24 hour period, the volume of carried traffic varies continuously, with the network operating anywhere close to its full capacity for very short periods of time. The problem is that during hours of low network...

  7. Consumption Behavior Analytics-Aided Energy Forecasting and Dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jiang, Huaiguang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Kaiqing [University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Zhang, Jun Jason [University of Denver

    2017-08-17

    For decades, electricity customers have been treated as mere recipients of electricity in vertically integrated power systems. However, as customers have widely adopted distributed energy resources and other forms of customer participation in active dispatch (such as demand response) have taken shape, the value of mining knowledge from customer behavior patterns and using it for power system operation is increasing. Further, the variability of renewable energy resources has been considered a liability to the grid. However, electricity consumption has shown the same level of variability and uncertainty, and this is sometimes overlooked. This article investigates data analytics and forecasting methods to identify correlations between electricity consumption behavior and distributed photovoltaic (PV) output. The forecasting results feed into a predictive energy management system that optimizes energy consumption in the near future to balance customer demand and power system needs.

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA Annual Report 2011 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2011. The main part of the report, starting on page 21, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2011 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available in electronic form only on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report.

  9. Energy balance of forage consumption by phyllophagous insects: optimization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tarasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of optimal food consumption by phytophagous insects proposed, in which the metabolic costs are presented in the form of two components – the cost of food utilization and costs for proper metabolism of the individuals. Two measures were introduced – the «price» of food conversion and the «price» of biomass synthesis of individuals to assess the effectiveness of food consumption by caterpillars. The proposed approach to the description of food consumption by insects provides the exact solutions of the equation of energy balance of food consumption and determining the effectiveness of consumption and the risk of death of the individual. Experiments on larvae’s feeding in laboratory conditions were carried out to verify the model. Caterpillars of Aporia crataegi L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae were the research subjects. Supply­demand balance, calculated value of the environmental price of consumption and efficiency of food consumption for each individual were determined from experimental data. It was found that the fertility of the female does not depend on the weight of food consumed by it, but is linearly dependent on the food consumption efficiency index. The greater the efficiency of food consumption by an individual, the higher its fertility. The data obtained in the course of experiments on the feeding caterpillars Aporia crataegi were compared with the data presented in the works of other authors and counted in the proposed model of consumption. Calculations allowed estimation of the critical value of food conversion price below which the energy balance is negative and the existence of an individual is not possible.

  10. TOURISM, ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN OECD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed dynamics of the relationship between tourism, energy consumption, and climate change for 25 OECD countries during 1995-2005. For the analysis, Panel VAR (PVAR model was used. Results of panel unit root-tests show that tourism is nonstationary in the level form but stationary in first difference form and energy consumption and climate change are stationary variables in the level form. Analysis of bivariate model shows that results are sensitive with change in the measurement of the tourism variable, change in order of variable and inclusion of the third variable. However, results of our trivariate model are found to be insensitive with either the change in the measurement of our tourism variable or change in the ordering of the variables. Our results of IRFs shows that response of tourism in one SD shock in climate change and energy consumption and response of climate change emissions to tourism is marginally positive. Further, we find that response of climate change in one SD shock in energy consumption and response of energy consumption in one SD shock in tourism and climate change is zero.

  11. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Brenda M; Aeby, Victor G; Overton, Reginald F; Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Barber-Heidal, Kimberly

    2007-10-31

    Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general), while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253) reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user). The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%), to increase energy (65%), and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%). The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%). Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one energy drink with a reported frequency of 1 - 4 days per

  12. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter-Aeby Tracy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general, while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Methods Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Results Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253 reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user. The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%, to increase energy (65%, and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%. The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%. Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Conclusion Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one

  13. Energy sources consumption: end uses, efficiency and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This document analyzes the impact of the choices made by all actors, from the energy producers to the process and infrastructure designers and the end users, in the evolution of energy consumptions. Some very little improvements made in the energy efficiency of appliances can become equivalent to the production of several oil fields or power plants at the world scale. More efficient energy uses will not replace the additional productions but they must be considered together to be compared. The energy files are first analyzed as a whole in order to show the hidden field of energy choices. In this framework, users, designers and fitters have to face very different choices because they consider efficiency improvements under different aspects: scientifical, technical, economical and social (public information and habits). These differences in efficiency uses have a time and spatial impact on the growth of energy consumption. The economical and social factors influence the collective way to consume energy and are expressed by the energy intensity of the economic activity. The last part of this document analyzes the influence of this notion on the world energy consumption scenarios at the 2050 prospects. (J.S.)

  14. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebede, Ellene; Kagochi, John; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2010-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries' economic development is dependent on energy consumption. This paper assesses total energy demand, which is composed of traditional energy (wood fuel) and commercial energy (electricity and petroleum), in the Central, East, South, and West regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional time series data for 20 countries in 25 years are analyzed, and the results of the study show that wood fuel accounts for 70% of energy consumption, followed by petroleum, with most industrial activities utilizing some form of wood fuel. Regression results suggest that energy demand is inversely related to the price of petroleum and industrial development, but positively related to GDP, population growth rate, and agricultural expansion, and that price elasticity is less than one. The model results also show that there are regional differences in energy demand. In addition, the interaction of population growth rates by regions generates mixed results, and there are regional differences in the use of commercial energy consumption, and GDP growth. The findings of this study suggest that countries must diversify their energy sources and introduce energy-efficient devices and equipment at all levels of the economy to improve GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. (author)

  15. URBAN FEATURES AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in discovering the human effects on the environment and energy consumption in recent decades. It is estimated that the share of energy consumed in transportation and housing systems are around 20 and 30 percent of total energy consumption respectively. Furthermore, the residential greenhouse emissions depend on urban form and structure. This paper explores the effects of urban features on residential energy consumption at neighborhood level using data collected through household questionnaire (n=140. Two residential districts in metropolitan Shiraz, south of Iran, were selected as case study areas. Different features of two areas were compared including building density, typology, housing location, parcel size, floor area and construction materials. Ordinary linear regression was used to discover the impact of explanatory variables on energy consumption. It was found that some physical variables such as parcel size, setback and number of floors played significant roles in explaining the variances exist in energy use level. The results can be used by governmental agencies to modify land use policies and subdivision rules in hope of saving energy and achieving a sustainable community.

  16. Energy consumption in leisure-time activities; Vapaa-ajan harrastuksiin liittyvae energiankulutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maentylae, K. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Alppivuori, K. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to examine the amount and the structure of direct and indirect energy consumption in connection with leisure occupations at the beginning of the 1990s and to estimate energy saving possibilities connected to these activities. The study deals with 22 activities: going to restaurants, coffee shops, cafeterias, and pubs, going to the theatre, going to the opera, going to ice-hockey matches, going to horse races, going to automobile races, domestic travel, summer cottage use, boating, jogging, cross-country skiing, downhill skiing, ski jumping, ice hockey and other ice sports, swimming in indoor pools, swimming at spas, golf, and car racing. The energy use of individual leisure activities makes up 0,02-1,86 % of Finland`s total annual household energy consumption. Total energy consumption is affected not only by the frequency of an activity but especially by the related need for transportation for an activity. Transportation makes up 20-90 % of the total energy used, and the bulk of this consumption is caused by recreation participants travelling to facilities. The proportion of energy use at the facilities is usually 10-30 %. Recreational equipment require 1-20 %, and activity-related accommodation generally 0-5 % of the total. Activities can be compared to each other on the basis of how much energy is used in one event. By individual choice, consumption related to travel and equipment can be minimized the most. However, individuals have little possibility of influencing the amount of energy used at leisure facilities. (85 refs.)

  17. Household energy consumption and consumer electronics: The case of television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in the number of consumer electronics in households. These new technologies and the services that support them enable new highly energy intensive behaviours. Using in-depth interview data collected from 20 households in 2006, this paper explores these energy intensive behaviours, using the example of the use of televisions. In doing so, it illustrates how the design and marketing of consumer electronics, and the services which support them, actively encourage energy intensive behaviours and how householders are reconfiguring their homes and lifestyles to fit these behaviours. This latter point is significant because, as householders change their homes and daily lives to fit energy intensive consuming behaviours, it will become increasingly difficult to encourage people to reduce their household energy consumption. This paper concludes with the implications of the research findings for policies designed to reduce household energy consumption

  18. Analysis of Home Energy Consumption by K-Mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Razaque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The smart meter offered exceptional chances to well comprehend energy consumption manners in which quantity of data being generated. One request was the separation of energy load-profiles into clusters of related conduct. The Research measured the resemblance between groups them together and load-profiles into clusters by k-means clustering algorithm. The cluster met, also called “Gender (Male/Female, House (Rented/Owned and customers status (Satisfied/Unsatisfied” display methods of consuming energy. It provided value information aimed at utilities to generate specific electricity charges and healthier aim energy efficiency programs. The results show that 43% extremely dissatisfied of energy customer is achieved by using energy consumption.

  19. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    -scale solar thermal, large heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat, and waste incineration. Where the energy density in the building stock is not high enough for DH to be economical, geothermal heat pumps can be recommended for individual heating systems, even though biomass consumption is higher......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...

  20. Energy consumption by gender in some European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raety, R.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.

    2010-01-01

    Household total energy use has been estimated in numerous studies in recent decades and differences have mainly been explained by levels of income/expenditure. Studies of gender consumption patterns show that men eat more meat than women and drive longer distances, potentially leading to higher total energy use by men. In this study we calculated the total energy use for male and female consumption patterns in four European countries (Germany, Norway, Greece and Sweden) by studying single households. Significant differences in total energy use were found in two countries, Greece and Sweden. The largest differences found between men and women were for travel and eating out, alcohol and tobacco, where men used much more energy than women. We suggest that these findings are policy relevant for the EU, which aims to mainstream gender issues into all activities and to lower its total energy use.

  1. Understanding energy consumption of sensor enabled applications on mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crk, Igor; Albinali, Fahd; Gniady, Chris; Hartman, John

    2009-01-01

    Recent research in ubiquitous and mobile computing uses mobile phones and wearable accelerometers to monitor individuals' physical activities for personalized and proactive health care. The goal of this project is to measure and reduce the energy demand placed on mobile phones that monitor individuals' physical activities for extended periods of time with limited access to battery recharging and mobile phone reception. Many issues must be addressed before mobile phones become a viable platform for remote health monitoring, including: security, reliability, privacy, and, most importantly, energy. Mobile phones are battery-operated, making energy a critical resource that must be carefully managed to ensure the longest running time before the battery is depleted. In a sense, all other issues are secondary, since the mobile phone will simply not function without energy. In this project, we therefore focus on understanding the energy consumption of a mobile phone that runs MIT wockets, physical activity monitoring applications, and consider ways to reduce its energy consumption.

  2. Energy consumption and economic development after the energy price increases of 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The interdependence between energy consumption and economic development are highlighted in this research, which focuses on energy price rises between 1973 and 1989. Three groups of countries are identified, developing and developed market economies and centrally planned economies. Two areas of interdependence are examined, firstly the dynamic relationship between primary energy consumption growth and real economic growth and secondly the static relationship between primary energy consumption and national income. In the period under review, developing market economies reacted most strongly to higher energy prices, with lower energy consumption while maintaining real growth in the Gross Domestic Product. However developing countries and centrally planned economies increased their energy consumption per unit of national income although the rate of increase slowed after 1975. (UK)

  3. Study on energy consumption of adapters and battery chargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, J.K.; Couvee, J.D.J.

    2001-04-01

    Under the authority of the Dutch Energy Agency 'Novem' industrial design and engineering office NewProducts has performed an inventory study on the energy consumption of adapters and battery chargers. Besides the energy aspects, various aspects of the adapters and chargers have been discussed: The products are classified in categories based on type of the appliance and function of the adapter; The proportions of the Dutch market of adapters and chargers and the players on this market are discussed in brief; The relevant technical background, especially with respect to the energy consumption is discussed. In general there are two types of adapters, linear and switch mode; Product specifications collected from several manufacturers are presented; To fill up the lack of data some measurements have been made of which the results are presented. Together with the product specifications this gives an overview of the performances of adapters and chargers; During the study several ideas and new developments have been found for reducing energy consumption. A remarkable conclusion is that there is no or not much attention from manufacturers or consumers for energy consumption of adapters or no-load power consumption, although there are some initiatives for reduction, e.g. the Code of Conduct on Efficiency of External Power Supplies of the European Union. Lots of linear adapters are still sold and in use, although the efficiency of the switch mode adapters is a lot better. The problem is the higher price. The switch mode adapters are being sold together with sophisticated electronic appliances. Most of the other initiatives and solutions to reduce the no-load energy consumption and improve the efficiency are also technical

  4. Annual Energy Balance Sheets 2003-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    During the year 2004 the supply of primary energy reached 657.6 TWh. That is an increased supply by 16 TWh compared with 2003, The electricity production in hydropower and wind power stations increased by 7 TWh, to 61 TWh during the year 2004. The electricity generated in nuclear power plants was 77.5 TWh, an increase by 10 TWh. During the year 2004 Sweden net exported 2.1 TWh electricity. But in year 2003 we net imported 12.8 TWh electricity. The energy use increased from 406 TWh to 409 TWh between year 2003 and year 2004. The use of coal and coke in manufacturing increased by 22 per cent, and the use of oil products in transport sector increased by 4 per cent. The energy balance sheets are based on data primary recorded in the balance sheets of energy sources, here expressed in a common energy unit, TJ. The production of derived energy is here recorded in a second flow-step comprising energy turnover in energy conversion and is also specified in complementary input-output tables for energy conversion industries

  5. Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A corporate profile of Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. was presented for the benefit of shareholders. Direct Energy is responsible for marketing and distributing natural gas to residential, commercial and industrial customers. The company owns physical natural gas reserves that serve as a supply hedge to its growing customer base. The highlights for the natural gas distribution income fund (OPTUS) for 1998 were described. OPTUS acquired WestCastle Energy, adding 38 mmcf/d of natural gas supply. It also amalgamated Channel Lake Petroleum and WestCastle Energy into Direct Energy and created the production division, Direct Energy Resources. It also formed Energy America with Sempra Energy, adding over 160,000 retail customers in Michigan and Ohio. Direct Energy's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, and statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  6. Annual energy outlook 1993 with projections to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO93) presents forecasts for energy prices, supply, demand, and imports over the period 1990 to 2010. These projections take into account existing legislation, including the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Even though the world oil market remains relatively tight, the long-term outlook for oil prices has been revised downward since the Annual Energy Outlook 1992 as expectations for both the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC production potential have been revised upward. Domestic natural gas prices are also expected to be lower than projected last year, in part because of a more optimistic outlook for drilling technology. Finally, lower growth in the demand for electricity is expected because of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which mandates efficiency standards for new energy-using equipment. These are the most striking differences between last year's EIA evaluation of long-term energy market trends and this year's evaluation

  7. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2012. - The IAEA Annual Report 2012 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2012-2013 (GC(55)/5). - The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2012 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. - Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available, in electronic form only, on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report. - Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. - The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. - The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. - The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non- Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear-weapon State' is as used

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2012. - The IAEA Annual Report 2012 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2012-2013 (GC(55)/5). - The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2012 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. - Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available, in electronic form only, on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report. - Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. - The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. - The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. - The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non- Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear-weapon State' is as used

  9. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2013. The IAEA Annual Report 2013 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report, starting on page 15, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2012-2013 (GC(55)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2013 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available, in electronic form only, on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear- Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear-weapon State' is as used in

  10. End-use energy consumption estimates for US commercial buildings, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.; Wrench, L.E.; Marsh, T.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    An accurate picture of how energy is used in the nation`s stock of commercial buildings can serve a variety of program planning and policy needs within the Department of Energy, by utilities, and other groups seeking to improve the efficiency of energy use in the building sector. This report describes an estimation of energy consumption by end use based upon data from the 1989 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). The methodology used in the study combines elements of engineering simulations and statistical analysis to estimate end-use intensities for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, refrigeration, hot water, cooking, and miscellaneous equipment. Billing data for electricity and natural gas were first decomposed into weather and nonweather dependent loads. Subsequently, Statistical Adjusted Engineering (SAE) models were estimated by building type with annual data. The SAE models used variables such as building size, vintage, climate region, weekly operating hours, and employee density to adjust the engineering model predicted loads to the observed consumption. End-use consumption by fuel was estimated for each of the 5,876 buildings in the 1989 CBECS. The report displays the summary results for eleven separate building types as well as for the total US commercial building stock.

  11. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  12. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  13. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  14. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  15. Hot water: Energy consumption and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomeus, P.H.J.; Meijnen, A.J.; Muselaers, Th.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The central topic in the title study is the choice between the use of natural gas or the use of electric power to produce hot water in households. The overall conclusion is that the gas-fired water heating systems consume much less energy than the electric water heating systems. The emission of CO 2 from electric boilers is 2.4 times higher and the production of NOx from electric boilers is even 9 times higher than natural gas appliances. One of the results of the title study is a simulation model, by which the appliance and system variants can be calculated. The computer model can be used for public information and product development. 6 figs., 1 ill., 7 tabs., 4 refs

  16. Biomass energy consumption in Nigeria: integrating demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoh, S.; Soaga, J.

    1999-01-01

    The study examined the present and future consumption of biomass energy in Nigeria. Direct consumption of fire wood for domestic purposes is the predominant form of biomass energy consumption. Charcoal plays minot roles in biomass energy supply. The current and expected demand for fuelwood is projected to increase by 399% whereas supply is expected to decrease by 17.2% between 1995 and year 2010. Resource adequacy in terms of planned supply is on the decline. Forest estates which is the only planned strategy for fuelwood and wood production is projected to decline from 6.37 million ha. in 1990 to 2.4 million ha, in year 2010. The possibilities of meeting the fuelwood demand in the future is precarious. Policy measures aimed at increasing forest estates. reduction of loss of forest lands to other uses and encouragement of private forestry are recommended

  17. Energy consumption of buildings depends on the daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce energy consumption in heated buildings and thus fossil fuels, there is a need for proper modernization of existing buildings and new construction with reduced energy demand. The size and the insulation of windows have a decisive influence on the amount of heat loss. The study looks into the impact of decreased power consumption through optimal use of sunlight through the selection of the size of windows, type of windows, and adjusting the light intensity using an automatic control of lighting according to the amount of sunlight reaching the room. The research related to the differences between the six types of windows in relations to the energy consumption of the building.

  18. Ten years of energy consumption in the tertiary sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabai, Yacine

    2012-11-01

    This document presents and comments data regarding electricity consumption by the tertiary sector over the last ten years in France. It notably outlines its strong increase compared to the other sectors (housing, industry, transport, agriculture). It comments the evolution of the energy mix of the tertiary sector (electricity with 47%, gas with 25% and oil with 19% are prevailing). It briefly comments the evolution of energy efficiency within this sector. It indicates and comments the shares of energy consumption, of high voltage electricity and gas consumption by the different sub-sectors (retail, automobile and motorcycle repair, public administration, health and social activity, real estate, specialised, scientific and technical activities, education, and so on)

  19. Prediction of residential building energy consumption: A neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, M.A. Rafe; Robinson, Melvin D.; Fumo, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Some of the challenges to predict energy utilization has gained recognition in the residential sector due to the significant energy consumption in recent decades. However, the modeling of residential building energy consumption is still underdeveloped for optimal and robust solutions while this research area has become of greater relevance with significant advances in computation and simulation. Such advances include the advent of artificial intelligence research in statistical model development. Artificial neural network has emerged as a key method to address the issue of nonlinearity of building energy data and the robust calculation of large and dynamic data. The development and validation of such models on one of the TxAIRE Research houses has been demonstrated in this paper. The TxAIRE houses have been designed to serve as realistic test facilities for demonstrating new technologies. The input variables used from the house data include number of days, outdoor temperature and solar radiation while the output variables are house and heat pump energy consumption. The models based on Levenberg-Marquardt and OWO-Newton algorithms had promising results of coefficients of determination within 0.87–0.91, which is comparable to prior literature. Further work will be explored to develop a robust model for residential building application. - Highlights: • A TxAIRE research house energy consumption data was collected in model development. • Neural network models developed using Levenberg–Marquardt or OWO-Newton algorithms. • Model results match well with data and statistically consistent with literature.

  20. Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and economic growth in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University (United Kingdom); Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [Independent Researcher (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship between economic growth, pollutant emissions and energy consumption for South Africa for the period 1965-2006 in a multivariate framework which includes labour and capital as additional variables. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between pollutant emissions and economic growth. Further, applying a modified version of the Granger causality test we also found a unidirectional causality running from pollutant emissions to economic growth; from energy consumption to economic growth and from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions all without a feedback. The econometric evidence suggests that South Africa has to sacrifice economic growth or reduce its energy consumption per unit of output or both in order to reduce pollutant emissions. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country and at the same time reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by developing energy alternatives to coal, the main source of CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the econometric results upon which the policy suggestions are made should be interpreted with care, as they may not be sufficiently robust enough to categorically warrant the choice of an unpalatable policy option by South Africa. (author)

  1. Energy-drink consumption in college students and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attila, Sema; Çakir, Banu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in a group of college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hacettepe University (Ankara, Turkey) and included 439 students pursuing a career in medicine, sports, and arts. Only fourth-year students were approached. Data were collected using a self-administered standard questionnaire. In bivariate analyses, frequency of energy-drink consumption was higher in students of arts and sports and in those who did not have breakfast on a regular basis, ever smoked cigarettes, drank alcoholic beverages, and regularly engaged in sports compared with their counterparts. Many students who had "ever" tried an energy drink did so the first time because they wondered about its taste. Of regular users of energy drinks, reasons for using such drinks varied across the three selected groups of students and included obtaining getting energy, staying awake, boosting performance while doing sports, or mixing with alcoholic beverages. About 40% of all current users of energy drinks reported that they mixed those with alcoholic beverages. In multivariate analyses, statistically significant predictors of energy-drink consumption were faculty type, presence of any health insurance, use of alcoholic beverages, and monthly income, controlling for gender. Most students could not correctly define the ingredients of energy drinks or their potential hazardous health effects, and they could not distinguish energy and sports drinks when they were requested to select them from a list of commercial names of various drinks. Consumption of energy drinks, despite the variation in the reason for choosing such drinks, is quite common in college students. Awareness of university students of the ingredients and potential health hazards of energy drinks, in particular in mixing with alcoholic beverages, should be increased. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Energy consumption and economic growth: Parametric and non-parametric causality testing for the case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dergiades, Theologos; Martinopoulos, Georgios; Tsoulfidis, Lefteris

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to contribute towards the understanding of the linear and non-linear causal linkages between energy consumption and economic activity, making use of annual time series data of Greece for the period 1960–2008. Two are the salient features of our study: first, the total energy consumption has been adjusted for qualitative differences among its constituent components through the thermodynamics of energy conversion. In doing so, we rule out the possibility of a misleading inference with respect to causality due to aggregation bias. Second, the investigation of the causal linkage between economic growth and the adjusted for quality total energy consumption is conducted within a non-linear context. Our empirical results reveal significant unidirectional both linear and non-linear causal linkages running from total useful energy to economic growth. These findings may provide valuable information for the contemplation of more effective energy policies with respect to both the consumption of energy and environmental protection. - Highlights: ► The energy consumption and economic growth nexus is investigated for Greece. ► A quality-adjusted energy series is used in our analysis. ► The causality testing procedure is conducted within a non-linear context. ► A causality running from energy consumption to economic growth is verified

  3. Wind Energy Department. Annual progress report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrumsager, B.; Larsen, S.; Hauge Madsen, P. (eds.)

    2002-10-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 2001. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2001 is shown, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  4. Wind Energy Department. Annual progress report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrumsager, B.; Larsen, S.; Hauge Madsen, P.

    2002-10-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 2001. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2001 is shown, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  5. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  6. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  7. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  8. Projected energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L. D.; Hellickson, M. L.; Schmisseur, W. E.; Shearer, M. N.

    1978-10-01

    A computer model has been developed to predict present and future regional water, energy, labor, and capital requirements of irrigated agricultural production in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The energy requirements calculated were on-farm pumping, and total energies. Total energies are the combined energies of on-farm pumping, manufacture, and installation. Irrigation system selections and modifications were based on an economic analysis utilizing the following input parameters: water, energy, labor, and capital costs and requirements; groundwater and surface water pumping lifts; improved application efficiencies; and pumping plant efficiencies. Major conclusions and implications of this analysis indicate that: as water application efficiencies increases additional quantities of water will not become available to other users; an overall increase in water application efficiencies resulted in decreases in gross water applications and increases in overall on-farm pumping and total energy consumptions; more energy will be consumed as pumping and total energies than will be conserved through decreased diversion pumping energy requirements; pump-back and similar technologies have the potential of both increasing application efficiencies and energy conservation; and the interrelationships understood between applying water in quantities greater than required for crop consumptive use and leaching, and late season in-steam flow augmentation and/or aquifer recharge are not well understood, and sound policy decisions concerning agricultural use of water and energy cannot be made until these interrelationships are better understood.

  9. Energy consumption and total factor productivity growth in Iranian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moghaddasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relation between energy consumption and growth of total factor productivity (TFP of agriculture in Iran from 1974 to 2012 using Solow residual method. The results from estimated aggregate Cobb–Douglas production function showed that one percent change in the value of labor, capital and energy will lead to 4.07, 0.09 and 0.49 percent change in agriculture value added, respectively. Also in a long term, based on the Johansen cointegration test, there is a negative relation between TFP growth and energy consumption in Iranian agriculture which might be due to cheap and inefficient energy use in this sector. Gradual liberalization of energy price and use of so called green box support policies is recommended.

  10. Online Anomaly Energy Consumption Detection Using Lambda Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    With the widely use of smart meters in the energy sector, anomaly detection becomes a crucial mean to study the unusual consumption behaviors of customers, and to discover unexpected events of using energy promptly. Detecting consumption anomalies is, essentially, a real-time big data analytics...... problem, which does data mining on a large amount of parallel data streams from smart meters. In this paper, we propose a supervised learning and statistical-based anomaly detection method, and implement a Lambda system using the in-memory distributed computing framework, Spark and its extension Spark...

  11. Underlying Beliefs Associated With College Student Consumption of Energy Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Collins, William B

    2018-01-01

    College students are heavy consumers of energy beverages, yet further study is needed to better understand determinants of use. The purpose of this cross-sectional study ( N = 283) was to identify beliefs explaining unsafe consumption practices. A principal components analysis revealed three eigenvalues >1 explaining approximately 55% of the variance (health and appearance, performance and fatigue, and recreation and alcohol). Multiple regression analysis explained 75% of the variance for intent to consume. Standardized beta for attitude and subjective norms was p behavioral control was p Students viewed energy beverages as useful for managing health and appearance and performance and fatigue, and as a way to enhance recreation and alcohol consumption.

  12. Simulation of Energy Consumption and Emissions from Rail Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    , aerodynamic, gravitational and acceleration. A necessary element in the calculation is the driving pattern, that is, the distribution of speeds and accelerations for typical operation.In the report, data are analyzed to provide operation condition distributions on both a spatial and temporal basis....... The calculation procedure is evaluated with respect to resolution of operation conditions, and then evaluated by comparison with experimental data for a variety of passenger and goods trains. The results indicate that the energy consumption from modeling approach is valid to better that 10% for known operating...... characteristics. Emissions are calculated from the energy consumption using average fuel based emissions factors and electrical production emissions factors....

  13. A social capital approach to household energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Megan [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines the concept of social capital in relation to household energy consumption in an effort to further understand social influences on energy use in the United Kingdom. The considerable focus on building science and technology notwithstanding, it is widely recognised that social factors influence energy use at the household level. Much of the research on changing behaviour has focused on influencing individual actions. Whilst promoting changes in individual behaviour is important, social level analysis provides a broader framework for understanding householder energy use. Social capital broadly refers to the social resources available through networks, social norms and associated levels of trust and reciprocity. The literature of energy, in the form of environmental protection and consumption, is investigated here with regards to social capital to determine the utility of any theoretical and empirical relationship. It is argued that insights from the associations of social and energy consumption can assist energy efficiency practitioners and researchers in understanding the broader social framework that underpins household energy use, but that more robust empirical research is necessary.

  14. 1996 Talisman Energy Inc. annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A review of operations, revenues and expenditures during 1996 by Talisman Energy Inc., was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Talisman Energy is an independent, Canadian-based international upstream oil and gas company. The company's main business activities include exploration, development, production and marketing of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Production comes from Canada, the North Sea and Indonesia. This report presented an operations review, consolidated financial statements, common share information, discussed outlook on prices, expectations of future production, business plans for drilling and exploration and expectations of capital expenditures, debt levels and royalty rates. Financially, 1996 was a good year for Talisman Energy, with share values increasing by 65 per cent over year-end 1995. On February 12, 1997, Talisman announced plans to offer to purchase all of the outstanding common shares of Wascana Energy Inc. tabs., figs

  15. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanse, B.D.; Riis. U. (eds.)

    2004-12-01

    This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2003. It comprises departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-conficential projects and a review of the key issues of 2003. (au)

  16. A local-community-level, physically-based model of end-use energy consumption by Australian housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhengen; Paevere, Phillip; McNamara, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    We developed a physics based bottom-up model to estimate annual housing stock energy consumption at a local community level (Census Collection District—CCD) with an hourly resolution. Total energy consumption, including space heating and cooling, water heating, lighting and other household appliances, was simulated by considering building construction and materials, equipment and appliances, local climates and occupancy patterns. The model was used to analyse energy use by private dwellings in more than five thousand CCDs in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The predicted results focus on electricity consumption (natural gas and other fuel sources were excluded as the data are not available) and track the actual electricity consumption at CCD level with an error of 9.2% when summed to state level. For NSW and Victoria 2006, the predicted state electricity consumption is close to the published model (within 6%) and statistical data (within 10%). A key feature of the model is that it can be used to predict hourly electricity consumption and peak demand at fine geographic scales, which is important for grid planning and designing local energy efficiency or demand response strategies. - Highlights: ► We developed a physics-based model to estimate housing stock energy consumption. ► House type and vintage, family type and occupancy time were considered. ► The model results are close to actual energy consumption at local community level. ► Its’ results agree well with the published model and statistical data at state level. ► It shows the model could provide from hourly to annual residential energy consumption.

  17. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2002. It contains departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-confidential projects and a review of this year’s key issues.......This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2002. It contains departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-confidential projects and a review of this year’s key issues....

  18. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2003. It comprises departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-confidential projects and a review of the key issues of 2003.......This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2003. It comprises departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-confidential projects and a review of the key issues of 2003....

  19. Philippine Atomic Energy Commission: Annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This publication enumerates the research and development activities of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission with priorities geared towards achieving the economic and social upliftment of the Filipinos in the field of agriculture, energy, industry, health and environment. Highlights are summaries of investigations and studies of great importance in crop improvement, animal production, nuclear fuels, nutrition research, not to mention its supportive technology, technical services, nuclear information and public acceptance, and nuclear manpower development. (RTD)

  20. Energy Analysis Program. 1992 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Program became deeply involved in establishing 4 Washington, D.C., project office diving the last few months of fiscal year 1942. This project office, which reports to the Energy & Environment Division, will receive the majority of its support from the Energy Analysis Program. We anticipate having two staff scientists and support personnel in offices within a few blocks of DOE. Our expectation is that this office will carry out a series of projects that are better managed closer to DOE. We also anticipate that our representation in Washington will improve and we hope to expand the Program, its activities, and impact, in police-relevant analyses. In spite of the growth that we have achieved, the Program continues to emphasize (1) energy efficiency of buildings, (2) appliance energy efficiency standards, (3) energy demand forecasting, (4) utility policy studies, especially integrated resource planning issues, and (5) international energy studies, with considerate emphasis on developing countries and economies in transition. These continuing interests are reflected in the articles that appear in this report.

  1. Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit. Incentive Meachnisms for Effective Decrease of Energy Consumption at the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Kalz, M., Börner, D., & Specht, M. (2012, 18 September). Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit. Incentive Mechanisms for Effective Decrease of Energy Consumption at the Workplace. Presentation at the 'Tussenbijeenkomst SURFnet Innovatieregeling Duurzaamheid & ICT', Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  2. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption [[Page 66009

  3. A Real-Time Energy Consumption Simulation and Comparison of Buildings in Different Construction Years in the Olympic Central Area in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumed the in urban sector accounts for a large proportion of total world delivered energy consumption. Residential building energy consumption is an important part of urban energy consumption. However, there are few studies focused on this issue and that have simulated the energy consumption of residential buildings using questionnaire data. In this research, an eQUEST study was conducted for different residential buildings in the Olympic Central Area in Beijing. Real-time meteorological observation data and an actual energy consumption schedule generated by questionnaire data were used to improve the eQUEST model in the absence of actual energy consumption data. The simulated total energy consumption of residential buildings in the case area in 2015 is 21,262.28 tce, and the average annual energy consumption per unit area is 20.09 kgce/(m2·a. Space heating accounted for 45% of the total energy consumption as the highest proportion, and the second highest was household appliances, which accounted for 20%. The results showed that old residential buildings, multi-storey buildings and large-sized apartment buildings consume more energy. The internal units, building height, per capita construction area, the number of occupants and length of power use had significant impact on residential energy consumption. The result of this study will provide practical reference for energy saving reconstruction of residential buildings in Beijing.

  4. Legitimacy of concerns about caffeine and energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesensten, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    Whether caffeine and energy drink consumption presents a critical emerging health problem is not currently known. Available evidence suggests that energy drink consumption represents a change in the ways in which individuals in the United States consume caffeine but that the amount of caffeine consumed daily has not appreciably increased. In the present review, the question of whether Americans are sleep deprived (a potential reason for using caffeine) is briefly explored. Reported rates of daily caffeine consumption (based on beverage formulation) and data obtained from both civilian and military populations in the United States are examined, the efficacy of ingredients other than caffeine in energy drinks is discussed, and the safety and side effects of caffeine are addressed, including whether evidence supports the contention that excessive caffeine/energy drink consumption induces risky behavior. The available evidence suggests that the main legitimate concern regarding caffeine and energy drink use is the potential negative impact on sleep but that, otherwise, there is no cause for concern regarding caffeine use in the general population. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Energy drinks consumption in Erbil city: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassin A. Asaad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Energy drinks have become increasingly prevalent among young adults and adolescents in recent years, particularly young students and athletes who see the consumption of energy drinks as an easy and quick way to boost academic and athletic performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of consumption of energy drinks in a sample of adolescent and adults in Erbil city as well as perceived benefits and its health hazards. Methods: A convenience sample of 600 individuals from different sectors and social groups of Erbil city was selected. Data was obtained through direct interview. The data was managed through SPSS program version 18, using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The prevalence of energy drinks consumption among the study population was 42.7%, especially adolescents and young adults (those ≤ 25 years and was more common among males than females (55.7% and 29.8%, respectively. The main reasons for its consumption were related to getting energy and improving the mood and performance (66.0% and 30.4%, respectively. 62.7% of participants think that it is harmful and could have adverse effects such as heartbeat irregularity and blood pressure swinging, addiction, and osteoporosis (46.2%, 33.7% and 13.2%, respectively. Televisions were the major source of advertisement (71.45. A significant statistical association had been found between the age, gender and educational status of the participants and consuming energy drinks (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption found to be highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults in Erbil city, which calls for review and regulating the sale of these drinks including adolescents' education, raising community’s awareness, banning selling it in public places and increasing taxes.

  6. Estimating building energy consumption using extreme learning machine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Sareh; Keivani, Afram; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Alengaram, U. Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Mansor, Zulkefli; Lee, Malrey

    2016-01-01

    The current energy requirements of buildings comprise a large percentage of the total energy consumed around the world. The demand of energy, as well as the construction materials used in buildings, are becoming increasingly problematic for the earth's sustainable future, and thus have led to alarming concern. The energy efficiency of buildings can be improved, and in order to do so, their operational energy usage should be estimated early in the design phase, so that buildings are as sustainable as possible. An early energy estimate can greatly help architects and engineers create sustainable structures. This study proposes a novel method to estimate building energy consumption based on the ELM (Extreme Learning Machine) method. This method is applied to building material thicknesses and their thermal insulation capability (K-value). For this purpose up to 180 simulations are carried out for different material thicknesses and insulation properties, using the EnergyPlus software application. The estimation and prediction obtained by the ELM model are compared with GP (genetic programming) and ANNs (artificial neural network) models for accuracy. The simulation results indicate that an improvement in predictive accuracy is achievable with the ELM approach in comparison with GP and ANN. - Highlights: • Buildings consume huge amounts of energy for operation. • Envelope materials and insulation influence building energy consumption. • Extreme learning machine is used to estimate energy usage of a sample building. • The key effective factors in this study are insulation thickness and K-value.

  7. Residential energy consumption in urban China: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Na; Ma, Chunbo

    2012-01-01

    Residential energy consumption (REC) is the second largest energy use category (10%) in China and urban residents account for 63% of the REC. Understanding the underlying drivers of variations of urban REC thus helps to identify challenges and opportunities and provide advices for future policy measures. This paper applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of China's urban REC during the period of 1998–2007 at disaggregated product/activity level using data collected from a wide range of sources. Our results have shown an extensive structure change towards a more energy-intensive household consumption structure as well as an intensive structure change towards high-quality and cleaner energy such as electricity, oil, and natural gas, which reflects a changing lifestyle and consumption mode in pursuit of a higher level of comfort, convenience and environmental protection. We have also found that China's price reforms in the energy sector have contributed to a reduction of REC while scale factors including increased urban population and income levels have played a key role in the rapid growth of REC. We suggest that further deregulation in energy prices and regulatory as well as voluntary energy efficiency and conservation policies in the residential sector should be promoted. - Highlights: ► We examine china's residential energy consumption (REC) at detailed product level. ► Results show significant extensive and intensive structure changed. ► Price deregulation in the energy sector has contributed a reduction of REC. ► Growth of population and income played a key role in REC rapid growth. ► We provide policy suggestions to promote REC saving.

  8. Computer usage and national energy consumption: Results from a field-metering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Greenblatt, Jeffery [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Claybaugh, Erin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Nagaraju, Mythri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Young, Scott [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2014-12-01

    The electricity consumption of miscellaneous electronic loads (MELs) in the home has grown in recent years, and is expected to continue rising. Consumer electronics, in particular, are characterized by swift technological innovation, with varying impacts on energy use. Desktop and laptop computers make up a significant share of MELs electricity consumption, but their national energy use is difficult to estimate, given uncertainties around shifting user behavior. This report analyzes usage data from 64 computers (45 desktop, 11 laptop, and 8 unknown) collected in 2012 as part of a larger field monitoring effort of 880 households in the San Francisco Bay Area, and compares our results to recent values from the literature. We find that desktop computers are used for an average of 7.3 hours per day (median = 4.2 h/d), while laptops are used for a mean 4.8 hours per day (median = 2.1 h/d). The results for laptops are likely underestimated since they can be charged in other, unmetered outlets. Average unit annual energy consumption (AEC) for desktops is estimated to be 194 kWh/yr (median = 125 kWh/yr), and for laptops 75 kWh/yr (median = 31 kWh/yr). We estimate national annual energy consumption for desktop computers to be 20 TWh. National annual energy use for laptops is estimated to be 11 TWh, markedly higher than previous estimates, likely reflective of laptops drawing more power in On mode in addition to greater market penetration. This result for laptops, however, carries relatively higher uncertainty compared to desktops. Different study methodologies and definitions, changing usage patterns, and uncertainty about how consumers use computers must be considered when interpreting our results with respect to existing analyses. Finally, as energy consumption in On mode is predominant, we outline several energy savings opportunities: improved power management (defaulting to low-power modes after periods of inactivity as well as power scaling), matching the rated power

  9. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  10. Actual energy consumption in dwellings. The effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Santin, O.

    2010-10-19

    Residential buildings have continuously improved in energy efficiency, partly as a consequence of the introduction of energy regulations in many countries. Although better thermal properties and systems efficiency have lowered energy consumption for space heating in recent decades, substantial differences in energy consumption in similar dwellings are still being observed. These differences in consumption are thought to be caused by differences in occupancy patterns, by quality of construction and by rebound effects. This research addresses the effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behavior on energy consumption for space and water heating in dwellings built after the introduction of the energy performance regulations in the Netherlands. The results of this research show that improving the energy efficiency of buildings alone is not enough to decrease that energy consumption. The large differences found in the use of dwellings indicate that, especially in energy efficient houses, occupant behavior provides an opportunity for further reductions in the energy consumption for space heating which could boost the efforts to conserve energy worldwide.

  11. Energy consumption and economic growth on the focus on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkan, Filiz; Pektas, Ali Osman; Ozkan, Omer

    2017-01-01

    Since the quest for global and personal prosperity, the drive to eradicate poverty and the motivation to ensure sustainability for the world are collectively dependent on a supply of safe, emissions-free power there are many studies in literature focuses on the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. This study tries to enlarge the dimensions of these researches by using a large dataset. The second aim of this study is to focus on Nuclear energy consumption. According to the empirical results of the study, Energy consumption is found as co-integrated with the GDP in all 55 countries. There exist bidirectional causality between nuclear, renewable energy consumption and the GDP. Additionally, the unidirectional causality extends from economic growth to hydroelectric, petroleum, coal and total energy consumption.

  12. Energy consumption and economic growth on the focus on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Filiz [Sakarya Univ., Sakarya (Turkey). Dept. of Financial Econometric; Pektas, Ali Osman [Bahcesehir Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Ozkan, Omer [Istanbul Medeniyet Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2017-01-15

    Since the quest for global and personal prosperity, the drive to eradicate poverty and the motivation to ensure sustainability for the world are collectively dependent on a supply of safe, emissions-free power there are many studies in literature focuses on the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. This study tries to enlarge the dimensions of these researches by using a large dataset. The second aim of this study is to focus on Nuclear energy consumption. According to the empirical results of the study, Energy consumption is found as co-integrated with the GDP in all 55 countries. There exist bidirectional causality between nuclear, renewable energy consumption and the GDP. Additionally, the unidirectional causality extends from economic growth to hydroelectric, petroleum, coal and total energy consumption.

  13. Measuring and evaluating energy consumption in street lighting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiga, P.; Gasparovsky, D.

    2012-01-01

    Smart metering and smart grid are incoming technologies that provide new opportunities in various fields. In connection with the issue of evaluation of the energy aspects of public lighting networks opens up the possibility of evaluating and measuring consumption. Based on the obtained values would be possible to determine energy consumption of lighting systems. This obtained value could serve as a basis for comparing the relevant networks and thus the optimality assessment of lighting designs. Currently, the measure placed in the switchboard of public lighting. If we have considered sections parametramim same lighting, it is necessary to obtain more value from the measured or determined to assess the consumption of time. Proposal of such methods is still under construction but the basic methods have already been outlined. (Authors)

  14. Ocean energy conversion systems annual research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. Research projects have been funded and reported in each of these areas. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow can provide potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential costs must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is being completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are being evaluated by analysis and model testing with present emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Likewise, several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated. The use of salinity resources requires further research in membranes or the development of membraneless processes. Using the thermal resource in a Claude cycle process as a power converter is promising, and a program of R and D and subsystem development has been initiated to provide confirmation of the preliminary conclusion.

  15. Philippine Atomic Energy Commission: Annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication gives the highlights of the research and development projects of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission in agriculture and food, nuclear fuels and power system technology, medicine, public health and nutrition, environmental surveillance, supportive basic research, social response to nuclear technology, nuclear licensing and safeguards, supportive technology and international and local linkages including manpower development. (ELC)

  16. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report covers the activities and research progams of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2001. The research programs and associated publications have been grouped under the three main institutes of the Commission namely National Nuclear Research Institute, Radiation Protection Institute and Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultre Research Institute

  17. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marique, Anne-Francoise, E-mail: afmarique@ulg.ac.be; Reiter, Sigrid, E-mail: Sigrid.Reiter@ulg.ac.be

    2012-02-15

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy savings can be achieved by

  18. China building energy consumption: Situation, challenges and corresponding measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.G.; Wu, Y.; Zhong, Y.; Ren, H.

    2009-01-01

    As one of the biggest parts of total national energy consumption (TNEC), building energy consumption (BEC) catches public eyes and has been regarded as a crucial problem of the current society. For the past 20 years, BEC in china has been increasing at a high speed. To curb the rapid growing of BEC, china has enforced and implemented a series of policies. These include enforcing BEC constraints on new building projects, promoting more environment friendly building designs, establishing a more sophisticated legislation for building energy conservation, and increasing the total budget in the area of BEC control. This article analyzed china BEC situation and the challenges. As the main point, the measures required by China government to improve building energy efficiency were introduced as well.

  19. Inferring Parametric Energy Consumption Functions at Different Software Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liqat, Umer; Georgiou, Kyriakos; Kerrison, Steve

    2016-01-01

    the development of a translation from LLVM IR to an intermediate representation and its integration with existing components, a translation from ISA to the same representation, a resource analyzer, an ISA-level energy model, and a mapping from this model to LLVM IR. The approach has been applied to programs....... This paper provides insights into the trade-off of precision versus analyzability at these levels.......The static estimation of the energy consumed by program executions is an important challenge, which has applications in program optimization and verification, and is instrumental in energy-aware software development. Our objective is to estimate such energy consumption in the form of functions...

  20. Widening the scope? How intermediary actors can shape energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maneschi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    efficient use of energy. The case study shows how obligations set up by a policy instrument are employed by a bank to offer its clients dedicated loans in order to finance energy efficiency improvements in their houses. The drivers and the context behind the bank’s activities are analyzed, and the relevance...... – influence energy consumption. This paper presents a review of the literature on intermediaries, providing an overview of their roles and contextualizing their functions in energy efficiency improvements. The review shows how the concept of intermediaries has been used in research dealing with innovation...

  1. Apoptosis of rats’ cardiomyocytes after chronic energy drinks consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawinski Miroslaw Aleksander

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (ED are beverages containing caffeine, taurine, vitamins, herbal extracts, and sugar or sweeteners. They are marketed as capable of improving stamina, athletic performance and concentration, moreover, as serving as a source of energy. Still, there are very few papers describing the impact of ED on cell biology – including cell apoptosis within tissues. Therefore, in our study, we assessed the symptoms of rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis after 8 weeks consumption of ED.

  2. A Resource Utilization Score for Software Energy Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagroep, E.A.; van der Werf, J.M.E.M.; Broekman, Jordy; Blom, Leen; van Vliet, Rob; Brinkkemper, S.

    Software as the true consumer of power and its potential contribution to reach sustainability goals is increasingly being acknowledged. Studies so far have presented successful results and methods to address the energy consumption of the software, indicating that different stakeholders striving for

  3. Evaluation of energy consumption in different drying methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motevali, Ali; Minaei, Saeid; Khoshtagaza, Mohammad Hadi [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Agricultural Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115-111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate energy consumption in various drying systems including hot-air convection, use of microwave pretreatment with convection dryer, microwave drying, vacuum drying and infrared drying. Tests were conducted using pomegranate arils under various experimental conditions as follows. In convection dryer at six temperature levels (45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 C) and three air velocity levels (0.5, 1 and 1.5 m/s) at three pretreatments of control, 100 W microwave pretreatment for 20 min and 200 W microwave pretreatment for 10 min. Experiments in the microwave dryer were done at three power levels of 100, 200 and 300 W and in vacuum dryer at five temperature levels (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 C) under 250 kPa pressure. For infrared drying, there were four air velocity levels (0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 m/s) and three illumination levels (0.22, 0.31 and 0.49 W/cm{sup 2}). Experimental results showed that minimum and maximum energy consumption in pomegranate drying were associated with microwave and vacuum dryers, respectively. The use of microwave pretreatment in drying pomegranate arils in hot air dryer decreased drying time and energy consumption in comparison with pure convection drying. In infrared drying, it was found that drying time increased with air velocity which resulted in increased energy consumption. (author)

  4. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    . This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58...

  5. Energy consumption of auxiliary systems of electric cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtimov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the power demand of the auxiliary systems of electric cars. On the basis of existing electric cars an analysis of energy consumption of different auxiliary systems is done. As a result possibilities for rational use of these systems have been proposed, which can increase the mileage per one charge of the battery.

  6. A Low Power Consumption Algorithm for Efficient Energy Consumption in ZigBee Motes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vaquerizo-Hdez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are becoming increasingly popular since they can gather information from different locations without wires. This advantage is exploited in applications such as robotic systems, telecare, domotic or smart cities, among others. To gain independence from the electricity grid, WSNs devices are equipped with batteries, therefore their operational time is determined by the time that the batteries can power on the device. As a consequence, engineers must consider low energy consumption as a critical objective to design WSNs. Several approaches can be taken to make efficient use of energy in WSNs, for instance low-duty-cycling sensor networks (LDC-WSN. Based on the LDC-WSNs, we present LOKA, a LOw power Konsumption Algorithm to minimize WSNs energy consumption using different power modes in a sensor mote. The contribution of the work is a novel algorithm called LOKA that implements two duty-cycling mechanisms using the end-device of the ZigBee protocol (of the Application Support Sublayer and an external microcontroller (Cortex M0+ in order to minimize the energy consumption of a delay tolerant networking. Experiments show that using LOKA, the energy required by the sensor device is reduced to half with respect to the same sensor device without using LOKA.

  7. A Low Power Consumption Algorithm for Efficient Energy Consumption in ZigBee Motes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquerizo-Hdez, Daniel; Muñoz, Pablo; R-Moreno, María D; F Barrero, David

    2017-09-22

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly popular since they can gather information from different locations without wires. This advantage is exploited in applications such as robotic systems, telecare, domotic or smart cities, among others. To gain independence from the electricity grid, WSNs devices are equipped with batteries, therefore their operational time is determined by the time that the batteries can power on the device. As a consequence, engineers must consider low energy consumption as a critical objective to design WSNs. Several approaches can be taken to make efficient use of energy in WSNs, for instance low-duty-cycling sensor networks (LDC-WSN). Based on the LDC-WSNs, we present LOKA, a LOw power Konsumption Algorithm to minimize WSNs energy consumption using different power modes in a sensor mote. The contribution of the work is a novel algorithm called LOKA that implements two duty-cycling mechanisms using the end-device of the ZigBee protocol (of the Application Support Sublayer) and an external microcontroller (Cortex M0+) in order to minimize the energy consumption of a delay tolerant networking. Experiments show that using LOKA, the energy required by the sensor device is reduced to half with respect to the same sensor device without using LOKA.

  8. FY1999 Meeting of The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineering of Japan. Energy consumption II; 1999 nendo gakujutsu koenkai gaiyo. Energy shohiryo 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikaga, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    C-14 - C-16 reported the study result on energy use of offices, stores and public schools in 6 prefectures of Tohoku district. These papers reported the data on heat insulation measures, cooling and heating thermal source facilities, setting temperatures and annual energy consumptions for every area, age and scale. Energy consumption of office buildings was largely dependent on scale rather than area, that of stores was largely dependent on scale and business, and that of schools was largely dependent on the kind of schools and area. C-17 proposed the simple measurement system which can measure power consumption for every use by less measurement points and shorter measurement periods to diagnose energy saving conditions of existing small and middle buildings, and reported the verification result of its effectiveness based on measurement data of 4 office buildings. C-18 reported the survey result on 3 office buildings in Tokyo to obtain the basic data for energy saving diagnosis of existing buildings. The paper reported power consumption and cold and hot water consumption/floor area for every year, month and week day, and annual power consumption for every use. (translated by NEDO)

  9. 1999 annual progress report -- Energy conservation team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S. (EERE OTT Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies Energy Conversion Team Leader)

    1999-10-19

    This report highlights progress achieved during FY 1999 under the Light-duty Fuels Utilization R and D Program. The program is comprised of two elements: the Advanced Petroleum-Based APB Fuels Program which focused on developing and testing advanced fuels for use with compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) engines and fuel cells and the Alternative Fuels Program which focused on Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels. The report contains 17 summaries of industry and National Laboratory projects. Fuel efficient vehicles with very low emissions are essential to meet the challenges of climate change, energy security, and improved air quality. The authors anticipate cooperative efforts with the auto and energy industries to develop new and innovative technologies that will be used to make advanced transportation vehicles that are fuel efficient, clean, and safe.

  10. Annual energy yield of the fluorescent solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Hellenbrand, G.F.M.G. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Bende, E.E.; Burgers, A.R.; Slooff, L.H. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    Fluorescent solar concentrators are but one candidate for lowering the costs of photovoltaic technology. State-of-the-art device conversion efficiencies are around 4%, and the device configuration can be optimized in terms of Euro per Watt. This paper aims to estimate the annual energy yield of such an optimized device configuration, using a detailed minutely spectral irradiance data set, describing a full year in the Netherlands, in combination with a ray-tracing model of the fluorescent solar concentrator. The spectral dataset is modeled using experimentally determined global, direct, and diffuse irradiation data on a minutely basis. Performance variations during the day for a number of typical days are investigated, i.e., for a clear summer day, a cloudy summer day, a clear winter day, and a cloudy winter day, using a ray-trace model of the fluorescent solar concentrator. Also, monthly aggregated spectra are used, as well as an annually aggregated spectrum to determine monthly and annual energy yields, respectively. As a result of a cost-per-unit-of-power optimization study, an optimum size of 23x23x0.1 cm{sup 3} was used, and an annual energy yield of 41.3 kWh/m{sup 2} could be estimated; this is 4.7 times lower than the annual energy yield of a state-of-the-art silicon solar cell.

  11. Annual report 1999. Energy and connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the industrial activities and the financial results of Framatome in 1999. Framatome's activities are divided into 2 sectors: energy and connectors, which represents respectively 54% and 46% of the turnover and 40% and 60% of the staff (26000 people). In 1999 the turnover reached 4.2 milliard euros. Framatome and Siemens have decided to merge their nuclear activities in a common company (66% for Framatome, 34% for Siemens). (A.C.)

  12. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  13. Energy consumption optimization of a continuous ice cream process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Ramírez, J.E.; Leducq, D.; Arellano, M.; Alvarez, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This work investigates potential energy savings of an ice cream freezer. • From a full load compressor to a variable speed compressor one in freezer. • 30% less of energy consumption. • It is possible to save between 11 and 14 MWh per year by optimizing freezers. - Abstract: This work investigates potential energy saves in an ice cream freezer by using a variable speed compressor and optimization’s methodology for operating conditions during the process. Two configurations to control the refrigeration capacity were analyzed, the first one, modifies the pressure through the pilot control valve (conventional refrigeration system) and the second one with a variable speed compressor, both with a float expansion valve. Variable speed compressor configuration has showed the highest coefficient of performance and around of 30% less of energy consumption than the conventional one. The optimization of operating conditions in order to minimize the energy consumption is also presented. It was calculated only in France, for all ice cream and sorbet production, it is possible to save energy between 11 and 14 MWh per year by optimizing the operation of the refrigeration system through a variable speed compressor configuration

  14. Areva - 2012 Annual Report. Forward looking energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    After an interview of the Chief Executive Officer, a presentation of the company's governance and organization, and a brief overview of its strategy (with its five pillars: safety and security, operation and customers, economic competitiveness, technology and innovation, people), this report indicates and presents the various projects across the world. It outlines the main activities and objectives: preservation of nuclear and occupational safety, service to customer over the long term, fuel supply security, expertise, sustainability of nuclear power, contribution to the energy mix of tomorrow. It outlines the belief of Areva in the future of nuclear and renewable energies (brief presentations of activities and examples in different countries and in different domains), describes how Areva offers comprehensive solutions for power generation with less carbon, and indicates the distribution of revenues by business group and by geographic area. It comments a year of mining operations, the activities concerning the front end of the fuel cycle, those related to reactors and nuclear services, to recycling (fuel recycling, site dismantling and reuse, material storage and disposal), to the booming business of renewable energies, to engineering services. The report proposes some key figures concerning greenhouse gas emissions, environmental footprint, occupational safety, and radiation protection within the group. It outlines the importance of innovation in terms of investment, personnel and patents. It comments the activities related to nuclear safety and to the control of the environment. It outlines the human resource policy, evokes the activity of the Areva foundation. A summarized presentation of financial statements is given

  15. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Annual Report 2010 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement and Background to the Safeguards Statement and Summary. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org./Publications/ Reports/index.html. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) The term 'nuclear weapon State' is as used in the NPT.

  16. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Annual Report 2009 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2008-2009 (GC(51)/2). The introductory chapter, '2009 in Perspective', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2009 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional infomation covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Reports/Anrep2009/index.html. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States (United Natinos document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear weapon State' is as used in the NPT

  17. Detecting the relationship between economic growth, CO2 and energy consumption by using panel data approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, Ahmed R. M. Al; Isa, Zaidi

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have shown their interest into the relationship between energy consumption (EC), gross domestic product (GDP) and emissions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between GDP, EC and CO 2 within multivariate model by using panel data method in Asian countries; Korea, Malaysia, Japan and China for annually data during the period 1960 to 2010. The main finding shows that CO 2 can be explained more than 86% & 78% by EC and GDP in each of cross section model and period model respectively. As a result of that, CO 2 emissions should be considered as an important factor in energy consumption and gross domestic product by policy maker

  18. Detecting the relationship between economic growth, CO2 and energy consumption by using panel data approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Ahmed R. M. Al; Isa, Zaidi

    2015-09-01

    Many scholars have shown their interest into the relationship between energy consumption (EC), gross domestic product (GDP) and emissions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between GDP, EC and CO2 within multivariate model by using panel data method in Asian countries; Korea, Malaysia, Japan and China for annually data during the period 1960 to 2010. The main finding shows that CO2 can be explained more than 86% & 78% by EC and GDP in each of cross section model and period model respectively. As a result of that, CO2 emissions should be considered as an important factor in energy consumption and gross domestic product by policy maker.

  19. Final Energy Consumption Trends and Drivers in Czech Republic and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqian Yu; Dalia Streimikiene; Tomas Balezentis; Rimantas Dapkus; Radislav Jovovic; Veselin Draskovic

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends of final energy consumption in Latvia and Czech Republic. Analysis of final energy consumption during 2000-2013 period indicated the main driving forces of final energy consumption during and after world financial crisis of 2008. The paper aimed to evaluate the impact of economic activity and other factors on final energy consumption. The decomposition of the final energy consumption is assessed by analyzing effect of different drivers by the main end-users sect...

  20. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, B.D.; Riis, U. (eds.)

    2003-12-01

    Research and development activities of the Wind Energy Department range from boundary layer meteorology, fluid dynamics, and structural mechanics to power and control engineering as well as wind turbine loading and safety. The overall purpose of our work is to meet the needs for knowledge, methods and procedures from government, the scientific community, and the wind turbine industry in particular. Our assistance to the wind turbine manufacturers serve to pave the way for technological development and thus further the exploitation of wind energy worldwide. We do this by means of research and innovation, education, testing and consultancy. In providing services for the wind turbine industry, we are involved in technology development, design, testing, procedures for operation and maintenance, certification and international wind turbine projects s as well as the solution of problems encountered in the application of wind energy, e.g. grid connection. A major proportion of these activities are on a commercial basis, for instance consultancy, software development, accredited testing of wind turbines and blades as well as approval and certification in co-operation with Det Norske Veritas. The departments activities also include research into atmospheric physics and environmental issues related to the atmosphere. One example is the development of online warning systems for airborne bacteria and other harmful substances. The department is organized in programmes according to its main scientific and technical activities. Research programmes: 1) Aeroelastic Design, AED; 2) Atmospheric Phyrics, ATM; 3) Electrical DEsign and Control, EDS; 4) Wind Power Meteorology, VKM; 5) Wind Turbines, VIM; 6) Wind Turbine Diagnostics, VMD. Commercial programmes: 1) The Test Station for Large Wind Turbines, Hoevsoere, HOeV; 2) Risoe Wind Consult, INR; 3) Wind Turbine Testing; 4) Sparkaer Blade Test Centre.(au)

  1. Focus and execution : Westcoast Energy Inc. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Annual operating and financial information from Westcoast Energy Inc. is presented. Westcoast Energy is a leading energy company with assets of $11 billion. Westcoast Energy is a major partner in many of the largest pipeline projects in North America and plans to continue investing substantial capital into pipeline operations. Investments and capital expenditures in 1998 exceeded one billion dollars, a 28 per cent increase over 1997. This annual report provides details of the company's activities and financial performance, and common share information. The company's earnings were down from 1997. The drop in earnings was attributed to a variety of factors, among them the weather, which in Canada was the warmest on record, resulting in a lower demand for energy. The company, like much of Canada's resource-based economy, also felt the impact of the global economic turmoil in 1998. tabs., figs

  2. Lithuanian Energy Institute: Annual Report '98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkinis, V.; Ushpuras, E.; Poshkas, P.

    1999-01-01

    Among main achievements of 1998 the huge and important set of research works concerning the second Ignalina NPP safety improvement programme and its preparation-ration for obtaining a licence should be mentioned. The total value of works carried out for this purpose reached about 2 million Lt. Intense preparations were carried out and new works were initiated linked to handling spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes and to the future shutdown and dismantling of the NPP. This is a very important and long term objective and its success will depend greatly on our level of preparations and readiness for this complex process. The Institute will make its decisive and substantial contribution to it. Much time and many efforts were dedicated to improvement of the Lithuanian Energy Strategy Project and its adjustments in consultations with representatives of various institutions. Discussions on this important political expanded widely over Lithuanian borders while preparation and analysis of information for it was the main concern of our energy economists. In 1998 institutes' metrological base was expanded and improved still further. As a result, Heat - Equipment Research and Testing Laboratory was acknowledged attestation confirming it being the main Lithuanian metrological laboratory in the field of measurement fluid and gas flow rate and heat amount (author)

  3. Energy consumption in buildings and female thermal demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Boris; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings and offices adds up to about 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions; and occupant behaviour contributes to 80% of the variation in energy consumption. Indoor climate regulations are based on an empirical thermal comfort model that was developed in the 1960s (ref. ). Standard values for one of its primary variables--metabolic rate--are based on an average male, and may overestimate female metabolic rate by up to 35% (ref. ). This may cause buildings to be intrinsically non-energy-efficient in providing comfort to females. Therefore, we make a case to use actual metabolic rates. Moreover, with a biophysical analysis we illustrate the effect of miscalculating metabolic rate on female thermal demand. The approach is fundamentally different from current empirical thermal comfort models and builds up predictions from the physical and physiological constraints, rather than statistical association to thermal comfort. It provides a substantiation of the thermal comfort standard on the population level and adds flexibility to predict thermal demand of subpopulations and individuals. Ultimately, an accurate representation of thermal demand of all occupants leads to actual energy consumption predictions and real energy savings of buildings that are designed and operated by the buildings services community.

  4. Transport energy consumption achievement based on indicator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian

    2017-06-01

    In order to evaluate the transport sustainability level for regions, the concept of achievement efficiency in transport energy consumption is initially suggested in this paper. The research object is not only for the energy consumption by transport operation but also the whole life of the transport procedure, which is the thought of life cycle assessment. And then, on the quantitative analysis to calculate the transport energy achievement efficiency of the regions, the indicators that can represent the achievement of transport energy consumption are convincingly found out by indicator theory. Next, concentration is focused on the transport related indicators and proper indicators are picked up from the candidate indicators, which were the affecting factors to this issue. After that, using the selected indicators, we introduce the method of data envelopment analysis to do quantitative analysis, which helps to get the achievement efficiency of transport energy among cities all over the world. The analysis result shows the efficient regions and the inefficient regions respectively. Furthermore, the detailed efficiency value of each region is also laid out clearly. For the improvement, the inadequate output or input variables of the inefficient regions were listed compared with the efficient regions so that corresponding transport policy implications can be resulted for the inefficient regions to reach high level sustainability.

  5. The relationship between energy consumption structure, economic structure and energy intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Taiwen; Sun Linyan; Zhang Ying

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run equilibrium relationships, temporal dynamic relationships and causal relationships between energy consumption structure, economic structure and energy intensity in China. Time series variables over the periods from 1980 to 2006 are employed in empirical tests. Cointegration tests suggest that these three variables tend to move together in the long-run. In addition, Granger causality tests indicate that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy intensity to economic structure but not vice versa. Impulse response analysis provides reasonable evidences that one shock of the three variables will cause the periods of destabilized that followed. However, the impact of the energy consumption structure shock on energy intensity and the impact of the economic structure shock on energy consumption structure seem to be rather marginal. The findings have significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation and economic development. In order to decrease energy intensity, Chinese government must continue to reduce the proportion of coal in energy consumption, increase the utilization efficiency of coal and promote the upgrade of economic structure. Furthermore, a full analysis of factors that may relate to energy intensity (e.g. energy consumption structure, economic structure) should be conducted before making energy policies.

  6. Towards Flexibility Detection in Device-Level Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Bijay; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thiesson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing drive towards green energy has boosted the installation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Increasing the share of RES in the power grid requires demand management by flexibility in the consumption. In this paper, we perform a state-of-the-art analysis on the flexibility...... regularities and patterns and the correlation between operating different devices. Subsequently, we show the existence of detectable time and energy flexibility in device operations. Finally, we provide various results providing a foundation for load- and flexibility-detection and -prediction at the device...

  7. Energy consumption of small refrigerators - Information leaflet; Merkblatt Kleinkuehlschrank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In this leaflet published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the energy consumption of small refrigerators with a capacity of less than 100 litres is reported on. Such small refrigerators are often used in hotel rooms or in campers. It is noted that, in comparison, a typical, 150 litre class A++ domestic refrigerator uses only a fraction of the amount of energy used by such small refrigerators. The results of measurements made according to EN 153 and ISO 15502 norms are discussed. Recommendations are made on the purchase and operation of these small refrigerators.

  8. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common energy package.'' Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  9. Impact of external conditions on energy consumption in industrial halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żabnieńśka-Góra, Alina

    2017-11-01

    The energy demand for heating the halls buildings is high. The impact on this may have the technology of production, building construction and technology requirements (HVAC systems). The isolation of the external partitions, the location of the object in relation to the surrounding buildings and the degree of the interior insolation (windows and skylights) are important in the context of energy consumption. The article discusses the impact of external conditions, wind and sunlight on energy demand in the industrial hall. The building model was prepared in IDA ICE 4.0 simulation software. Model validation was done based on measurements taken in the analyzed building.

  10. Energy Consumption in Rural China: Analysis of Rural Living Energy in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Yifang, Liu; Wei, Zhu

    2017-08-01

    Under the pressure of climate change and international carbon reduction targets, long-neglected rural energy consumption needs to be given high priority. China’s rural energy consumption structure is in the transition from non-commercial to commercial sources, and rural energy has become a key determinant to slow down the carbon emission growth. This paper systematically calibrates the current situation of rural energy consumption in Beijing by using the survey data of 1866 households in 13 districts and counties in Beijing based on the trend of energy supply and demand change in China. To this end, the paper combines rural policy measures to assess the pressure on coal-burning and clean energy supply trends, puts forward the rural energy structure adjustment path, with a view to promoting the use of clean energy in rural areas and reduce the environmental consequences of coal-burning.

  11. France's energy balance for 2014: production peak and a consumption low

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine

    2015-07-01

    2014 was the warmest year since 1900 in France and in the rest of the world. In particular, the mild winter led to heating needs 7 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) lower than the needs in an average year. Real primary energy consumption fell below the symbolic 250 Mtoe level, a low it had not reached since 1995. Although energy demand decreased, national primary energy production increased for the second year running, reaching 139 Mtoe, a little over 1 Mtoe higher than in 2013. This rise in production is explained by nuclear generated electricity. The 2014 physical trade deficit for energy therefore decreased significantly, by 10 Mtoe, to below 114 Mtoe. Such a low level had not been observed since 1988. The level of energy self-sufficiency rose sharply in 2014, to 55.8%, a level not hitherto reached. The decrease in net energy imports was accompanied by a drop in quoted prices for energy products on the European and international markets. As a result, France's energy bill was 17% lower than in 2013. At around euro 55 billion, it fell to a level close to that of the early 1980's. Even excluding the effects of the higher temperatures in 2014, thereby adjusting for climate variations, primary energy went from 275 Mtoe - its maximum, reached in 2005 - to 257 Mtoe, with an average annual decrease of -2 Mtoe, confirming the downward trend initiated in the mid-2000's. Final energy consumption was 150 Mtoe in 2014, the lowest level since 1996. It decreased by a little more than 1% in relation to 2013, with reductions in all sectors except for transport, where consumption remained stable. (author)

  12. Renaissance Energy Ltd. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Renaissance Energy is a Calgary-based oil and gas company whose operations are conducted exclusively on the Alberta plains. Participation in working prospects is either by direct acquisition of petroleum and natural gas leases or by farm-in arrangements whereby an interest is earned by exploration expenditures. Renaissance also purchases producing, non-producing, and exploratory properties in Alberta. In 1992, the company produced 9,479,000 bbl of oil and 77.7 billion ft 3 of natural gas. Proven and probable reserves totalled 119.2 million bbl oil and 961.3 billion ft 3 of gas. Of the 739 wells drilled in 1992, 265 were dry, 317 were oil wells, and 157 were gas wells. Gross revenues were $266.1 million and net income was $24.6 million. Net undeveloped land holdings totalled 2,159,000 acres. Future exploration efforts will be directed to natural gas; of the 850 wells planned to be drilled in 1993, 500 will be natural gas prospects. Corporate and operating information for 1992 are presented along with consolidated financial statements. 29 figs., 36 tabs

  13. Crestar Energy Inc. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Crestar Energy Inc. is a senior Canadian oil and gas producer operating in western Canada. In 1998, in spite of the collapse in oil prices, cash flow per unit of production improved during every quarter of the year. The company's operating results for the year were solid, fuelled by a three-tiered strategy of development, acquisition and and exploration. Exploration efforts are directed equally towards natural gas and liquid projects, while development activity is driven by near term commodity prices. This three-tiered strategy ensures steady growth at the present, and provides the foundation for accelerated growth over the longer term. This report presents a review of operations, including a 12 per cent increase in sales volume for both natural gas and liquids from 1997 to average 401 mmcf/day and 49,000 bbls/day respectively. Significant additions were made to the natural gas reserves, while crude oil reserves were slightly reduced by economic limit revisions of 3.5 mmBOE. Finding and development costs for established reserves, before economic limit revisions, were $ 7.73 per BOE, contributing to a three-year average cost of $ 6.74 per BOE. Financial highlights and consolidated balance sheets for 1998 are included. tabs., figs

  14. Energy Performance Certification of Faculty Buildings in Spain: The gap between estimated and real energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrando, María; Cambra, David; Navarro, Marcos; Cruz, Lucio de la; Millán, Gema; Zabalza, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Most of the Faculty Buildings studied are within the average of CO 2 emissions. • Academic and Research buildings have a similar simulated energy consumption. • Several restrictions found in the official Energy Performance Certification tool. • Average deviation of 30% between estimated and real energy consumption. • Electrical equipment and user behaviour notably increase the energy performance gap. - Abstract: A systematic method has been established to perform and analyse in detail the Energy Performance Certification of 21 Faculty Buildings located at the University of Zaragoza (Spain), according to the transposition of Directive 2010/31/EU. First of all, the problem background and a review of the state-of-the-art of the energy certification in buildings is outlined, regarding both the actual state of the Government regulations and the studies undertaken in several countries to assess the energy performance of different types of buildings, residential and non-residential. A summary of the causes found in other studies for the discrepancies between the estimated (by simulation) and actual energy consumption is shown which is afterwards tested and compared with the results found in the present study. Thereafter, the method followed to undertake the buildings’ Energy Performance Certification is explained, and the main results found together with the discussion are detailed, comparing actual vs. estimated energy consumption in the different case studies and proposing reasons for these deviations. The energy consumption breakdown by uses for several buildings is also analysed, and potential improvements for the simulation software are assessed.

  15. Multi-annual energy plan of Martinique 2015/2018 - 2019/2023

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The multi-annual energy plan aims at completing the transition towards an energy system which is more efficient, less wasteful, more diverse and therefore more resilient. It reaffirms France's commitment to reducing energy consumption, particularly energy from fossil fuels. The future of France's energy sector lies in striking a harmonious balance between different energy sources. These strategic decisions will help to meet France's objectives to keep greenhouse gas emissions to a minimum in line with its commitments to the EU and to the Paris Climate Agreement, to protect human health and the environment and to ensure access to energy at a reasonable cost whilst stimulating economic activity and employment. This document is the multi-annual energy plan for Martinique island (French West Indies). It establishes the priority actions for all energy sources with respect to supply control, supply diversification, supply security, development of storage facilities and networks. It covers a first 4-years period (2015-2018) followed by a second 5-years period (2019-2023)

  16. Multi-annual energy plan 2016-2018 and 2019-2023 of French Guiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The multi-annual energy plan aims at completing the transition towards an energy system which is more efficient, less wasteful, more diverse and therefore more resilient. It reaffirms France's commitment to reducing energy consumption, particularly energy from fossil fuels. The future of France's energy sector lies in striking a harmonious balance between different energy sources. These strategic decisions will help to meet France's objectives to keep greenhouse gas emissions to a minimum in line with its commitments to the EU and to the Paris Climate Agreement, to protect human health and the environment and to ensure access to energy at a reasonable cost whilst stimulating economic activity and employment. This document is the multi-annual energy plan for French Guiana overseas region. It establishes the priority actions for all energy sources with respect to supply control, supply diversification, supply security, development of storage facilities and networks. It covers a first 3-years period (2016-2018) followed by a second 5-years period (2019-2023)

  17. Multi-annual energy plan for Corsica 2016-2018/2019-2023

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The multi-annual energy plan aims at completing the transition towards an energy system which is more efficient, less wasteful, more diverse and therefore more resilient. It reaffirms France's commitment to reducing energy consumption, particularly energy from fossil fuels. The future of France's energy sector lies in striking a harmonious balance between different energy sources. These strategic decisions will help to meet France's objectives to keep greenhouse gas emissions to a minimum in line with its commitments to the EU and to the Paris Climate Agreement, to protect human health and the environment and to ensure access to energy at a reasonable cost whilst stimulating economic activity and employment. This document is the multi-annual energy plan for Corsica Island (Mediterranean Sea). It establishes the priority actions for all energy sources with respect to supply control, supply diversification, supply security, development of storage facilities and networks. It covers a first 3-years period (2016-2018) followed by a second 5-years period (2019-2023)

  18. Multi-annual energy plan for Mayotte 2016-2018 / 2019- 2023

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The multi-annual energy plan aims at completing the transition towards an energy system which is more efficient, less wasteful, more diverse and therefore more resilient. It reaffirms France's commitment to reducing energy consumption, particularly energy from fossil fuels. The future of France's energy sector lies in striking a harmonious balance between different energy sources. These strategic decisions will help to meet France's objectives to keep greenhouse gas emissions to a minimum in line with its commitments to the EU and to the Paris Climate Agreement, to protect human health and the environment and to ensure access to energy at a reasonable cost whilst stimulating economic activity and employment. This document is the multi-annual energy plan for Mayotte Island (Indian Ocean). It establishes the priority actions for all energy sources with respect to supply control, supply diversification, supply security, development of storage facilities and networks. It covers a first 3-years period (2016-2018) followed by a second 5-years period (2019-2023)

  19. Sustainable energy consumption and production - a global view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernes, H.

    1995-12-31

    The paper gives a global view of sustainable energy consumption and production both in developed and developing countries. There is a need of replacing fossil fuel sources with renewable energy at a speed parallel to the depletion of the oil and gas sources. According to the author, the actual growth in developing countries` use of oil, coal and other sources of energy has almost tripled since 1970. Future population growth alone will spur a further 70% jump in energy use in 30 years, even if per capita consumption remains at current levels. For the OECD countries, energy use rose one fifth as much as economic growth between 1973 and 1989. Countries like China and India, and other developing countries, have huge coal reserves and energy needs. Policy makers have to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels, energy technologies and stricter environmental standards. Life cycle analyses can contribute to the development of overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies. According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced by more than 60% in order to stabilize the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere. 8 refs.

  20. Energy consumption and energy saving : their evolution in Spain and other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Martinez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The article shows the development of energy consumption since the seventies in three main energy consuming sectors: industry, residential services and transport. While the energy intensity and consumption in the industrial sector have considerably decreased- taking 100 as index in 1973, this was 68 in 1988-in the other sectors, the increase of comfort in houses and business offices, as well as the number or automobiles, have made consumption in these sectors increase despite the efforts made in the improvement of return of installations and reduction of cars consumption. In the industry, large energy savings coincide with remarkable technological innovations and for the future, the achieved savings and future trends, as well as conditions for the energy saving, are analyzed for the rest of the sectors. (Author)

  1. Plains Energy Services Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Plains Energy Services Ltd. (Plains) is a two year old public company in the oil and gas service industry. It provides an integrated pool of services, concentrating on the life cycle of oil and gas wells as the driver for its expansion. Although the industry saw a marked decrease in well drilling activity for 1998, Plains was able to sustain a consistent income and cash flow because of its focus on ensuring access to the well during drilling, completion, production and abandonment. For 1998, revenue reached a record $93.3 million, an 85 per cent increase over 1997. This report presented Plain's major achievements for 1998. These included the completed construction of a technical, machining and manufacturing facility to enhance the development and implementation of technology and equipment among all business units. The company also introduced coiled tubing drilling services in the North American marketplace, as well as the first commercial version of a casing inspection tool. Plain's also introduced production logging through their wireline services business and applied for four new patents in relation to downhole tool development. In 1998, the company consolidated their operations into four divisions including consolidation of administration, benefits, banking and related overhead services. This report also described the company's efforts in addressing the year 2000 challenge. The company's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, as well as statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  2. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  3. Predicting the Specific Energy Consumption of Reverse Osmosis Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlynn S. Stillwell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Desalination is often considered an approach for mitigating water stress. Despite the abundance of saline water worldwide, additional energy consumption and increased costs present barriers to widespread deployment of desalination as a municipal water supply. Specific energy consumption (SEC is a common measure of the energy use in desalination processes, and depends on many operational and water quality factors. We completed multiple linear regression and relative importance statistical analyses of factors affecting SEC using both small-scale meta-data and municipal-scale empirical data to predict the energy consumption of desalination. Statistically significant results show water quality and initial year of operations to be significant and important factors in estimating SEC, explaining over 80% of the variation in SEC. More recent initial year of operations, lower salinity raw water, and higher salinity product water accurately predict lower values of SEC. Economic analysis revealed a weak statistical relationship between SEC and cost of water production. Analysis of associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions revealed important considerations of both electricity source and SEC in estimating the GHG-related sustainability of desalination. Results of our statistical analyses can aid decision-makers by predicting the SEC of desalination to a reasonable degree of accuracy with limited data.

  4. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutula, Raymond A. [DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the program for fiscal year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program’s national laboratories and university and industry partners.

  5. Annual Report 2003 of the Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    Annual report of the Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk (PL), described the results of the research work carried out at the Institute in 2003 year. The report contains detailed information on technical and research studies developed by all Institute Departments and Laboratories

  6. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, annual report, 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 Annual Report of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is published and submitted to the Honourable member of Parliament, Minister of Natural Resources. Included in this report are messages from Marketing and Commercial Operation, Product Development, i e.CANDU and Research Reactors, CANDU research, Waste Management, Environmental Management, Financial Review and also included are copies of the financial statements

  7. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1986 covers the following subjects: report from the chairman and the president; research company; CANDU operations; radiochemical company; employee performance; nuclear Canada; Financial section; and board of directors and officers

  8. Taxation on environmental pollution and energy consumption 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The document gives statistics on taxation of pollution caused to the environment and on energy consumption in Denmark. These forms of taxation are rapidly increasing in Denmark as a consequence of the country's environmental policy. In 1995 the total state revenue from these sources was 23.5 billion Danish kroner which comprises 7.1% (compared to 6.5% for 1994) of the total revenue from all forms of taxation. Revenues in 1995 are 8.2 billion Danish kroner higher than in 1986. The State's revenue from taxation of energy consumption was 18.4 billion Danish kroner, which is 78% of revenues from taxation on both environmental pollution and on energy consumption. Revenues from taxation on pollution of the environment was 5.2 billion Danish kroner. The contribution of the taxation of environmental pollution has increased from 2% in 1986 to 22% in 1995 of the total revenue from taxation of both environmental pollution and energy consumption. Statistics include revenues from taxation on petrol, electric power, the use of gas and diesel oil and fuel oils, on kerosone and tar fuels for heating, on autogas and bottled gas, and on pit coal and lignite. Details are given on taxation revenues from the taxation of the different forms of environmental pollution such as carbon dioxide and rubbish etc. and on the taxation on carbon dioxide emission from the use of energy products such as electricity and various fuels. Information is given on grants given to projects for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide from 1993-1996 and on the phasing of taxation on environmental pollution in accordance with the Danish tax reforms. (AB)

  9. Potential energy consumption reduction of automotive climate control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Filip; Uddheim, Åsa; Dalenbäck, Jan-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Twenty-on energy saving measures for vehicle interior climate were evaluated. • Few single energy saving measures could reduce the energy use significantly. • The operation of the system in intermediate conditions determines the energy use. • Required heating/cooling of passenger compartment had small effect on energy use. - Abstract: In recent years fuel consumption of passenger vehicles has received increased attention by customers, the automotive industry, regulatory agencies and academia. One area which affect the fuel consumption is climate control systems. Twenty-one energy saving measures were evaluated regarding the total energy use for vehicle interior climate using simulation. Evaluated properties were heat flow into the passenger compartment, electrical and mechanical work. The simulation model included sub models of the passenger compartment, air-handling unit, Air Conditioning (AC) system, engine and engine cooling system. A real-world representative test cycle, which included tests in cold, intermediate and warm conditions, was used for evaluation. In general, few single energy saving measures could reduce the energy use significantly. The measures with most potential were increased blower efficiency with a reduction of 46% of the electrical work and increased AC-system disengage temperature with a reduction of 27% of the mechanical work. These results show that the operation of the climate control system had a large effect on the energy use, especially compared to the required heating and cooling of the passenger compartment. As a result energy saving measures need to address how heating and cooling is generated before reducing the heat flow into the passenger compartment.

  10. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyup Dogan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in four low-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using the econometrics in time-series methods. Along the estimation process, I use the annual data on energy consumption and real GDP per capita over the years of 1971 and 2011. The results of the ADF unit root test show that the time series are not stationary for all countries at levels, but log of economic growth in Benin and Congo become stationary after taking the differences of the data, and log of energy consumption become stationary for all countries and LGR in Kenya and Zimbabwe are found to be stationary after taking the second differences of the time-series. The findings of the Johansen co-integration test demonstrate that the variables LEC and LGR are not co-integrated for the cases of Kenya and Zimbabwe, so no long-run relationship between the variables arises in any country. The Granger causality test indicates that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy use to economic growth in Kenya and no causality linkage between EC and GR in Benin, Congo and Zimbabwe.

  11. FY 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Annual Report: A Year of Energy Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-01

    This FY2009 Annual Report surveys the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) accomplishments in renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development, commercialization and deployment of technologies, and strategic energy analysis. It offers NREL's vision and progress in building a clean, sustainable research campus and reports on community involvement.

  12. Cardiovascular complications from consumption of high energy drinks: recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, S G; Chrysant, G S

    2015-02-01

    The energy drinks (ED) are caffeinated beverages that are popular among teenagers and young adults. They are aggressively marketed as providing alertness, energy and sex prowess. The EDs in addition to caffeine contain several plant stimulants and simple sugars, which increase their caloric content. The caffeine concentration in these drinks is high and their overconsumption could lead to insomnia, agitation, tremors and cardiovascular complications including sudden death. Alcohol is often mixed with EDs (AMEDs) in the wrong perception that the caffeine in the EDs will prevent the drowsiness and sleepiness from alcohol and allow the person to consume more alcohol. This false perception, could lead to alcohol intoxication and the taking of risky decisions, like driving under the influence of alcohol and the risk of serious physical harm to themselves and others. To prevent the problem of consumption of EDs and AMEDs, the caring physician could help by advising the parents and his young patients about the serious health risks from the consumption of these drinks. In order to grasp the extend of the problem of ED and AMED consumption, we did a Medline search of the English language literature from January 2010 to December 2013, using the terms EDs and alcohol-mixed EDs. All the findings from the recent studies regarding the cardiovascular complications from the consumption of EDs and AMEDs together with collateral literature will be discussed in this review.

  13. Daily temperature integration: a simulation study to quantify energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, O. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Taastrup (Denmark). Department of Agricultural Sciences, Section Horticulture; Bakker, M.J.; Heuvelink, E. [Wageningen University (Netherlands). Department of Plant Sciences, Horticultural Production Chains Group

    2004-03-01

    A combined greenhouse climate and control model was used to study energy consumption in year-round cut chrysanthemum. Temperature was either controlled for energy saving with temperature integration within 24 h using the margin between heating and ventilation temperature b as control (TI) or the temperature integration regime was restricted within 24 h by a set point for negative temperature difference between average day and average night temperature T{sub DIF} to attain a temperature regime for stem length control (TI{sub DIF}). Energy consumption was reduced by both regimes compared to a standard regime according to commercial practice when heating in winter was shifted to nighttime using a screen. With increasing weather fluctuations in spring and autumn, weekly energy consumption could decrease by more than 60% for TI with {+-}6{sup o}C temperature bandwidth. With TI{sub DIF} in the same period, only 37 or 17% (T{sub DIF} of -6 and -12{sup o}C, respectively) less energy was used than with a standard recommended climate regime (TP). In general, TI{sub DIF} reduced energy demand compared to TP, but energy saving was higher with TI. In deciding whether to apply either TI or TI{sub DIF}, the actual cultivation period is the most important criterion. Controlling stem length with a negative temperature difference in spring and autumn has the highest additional costs, control with almost no negative day to night temperature difference is possible in summer; during winter, both temperature control regimes result in an almost similar greenhouse climate. (author)

  14. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Factors Influencing the Spatial Difference in Household Energy Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxia Ding

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available What factors determine the spatial heterogeneity of household energy consumption (HEC in China? Can the impacts of these factors be quantified? What are the trends and characteristics of the spatial differences? To date, these issues are still unclear. Based on the STIRPAT model and panel dataset for 30 provinces in China over the period 1997–2013, this paper investigated influences of the income per capita, urbanization level and annual average temperature on HEC, and revealed the spatial effects of these influencing factors. The results show that the income level is the main influencing factor, followed by the annual average temperature. There exists a diminishing marginal contribution with increasing income. The influence of urbanization level varies according to income level. In addition, from the eastern region to western region of China, variances largely depend upon economic level at the provincial level. From the northern region to southern region, change is mainly caused by temperature. The urbanization level has more significant impact on the structure and efficiency of household energy consumption than on its quantity. These results could provide reference for policy making and energy planning.

  16. Future Trajectories of Renewable Energy Consumption in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RESs are able to reduce the European Union (EU’s dependence on foreign energy imports, also meeting sustainable objectives to tackle climate change and to enhance economic opportunities. Energy management requires a quantitative analysis and the European Commission follows the performance of each Member State (MS in order to define the corrective measures towards 2020 targets. Starting from historical data reported in the Eurostat database and through a mathematical model, this work proposes future trajectories towards 2020 of the share of energy from renewables (REs in terms of gross final energy consumption (GFEC. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis based on two indices—(i the share of REs in GFEC, and (ii gross final renewable energy consumption (GFREC per capita—permits a comparison among 28 MSs. The share of REs in GFEC in EU 28 varies from 19.4% to 21.8% in future trajectories towards 2020. Sweden and Finland occupy the top part of the ranking, while six MSs (Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom are not able to reach the 2020 targets.

  17. Energy Consumption Trends in Energy Scarce and Rich Countries: Comparative Study for Pakistan and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Uneb

    2017-11-01

    Energy crisis is raising serious concerns throughout the world. There has been constant rise in energy consumption corresponding to the increase in global population. This sector affects the other pillars of national economy including industries and transportation. Because of these reasons, the traditional fossil-based energy sources are depleting rapidly, resulting in high and unstable energy prices. Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, although different from each other in terms of their economic stability and political systems, still rely heavily on the traditional fossil fuels. This paper presents the comparison of these two countries in terms of their energy consumption and factors affecting it. These factors include, but not limited to, economic development, and growth in population and other sectors such as; industries, transportation, etc. The comparison is also made with the regional and global energy consumption trends and these countries. Moreover, regression models were built to predict energy consumption till 2040 and compare the growth in this sector and share in global energy demand. Energy consumption in oil-rich countries (Saudi Arabia) has been driven through its economic development, while for energy insecure country (Pakistan) it is mainly because of population growth. It was also found that in the next two decades the share of Pakistan in the global energy demand will increase. This concludes that population growth will have more impact on energy consumption than economic growth. It could mean that the shift in energy sector would shift towards sustenance instead of using energy for commercial or industrial usage. Conference Track: Policy and Finance and Strategies

  18. FDI, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption & Environmental Nexus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip SARKER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the relationship among economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission, FDI and natural gas usage in Bangladesh through co-integration and Vector Error Correction model (VECM over the period 1978 to 2010. Using ADP unit root tests it is found that all the four variables are integrated in first difference. The Johansen co-integration tests indicate that there is existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The VECM long run causality model indicates that there is a long run causality running from energy consumption and natural gas usage by industrial sector to GDP as well as from CO2 emission to FDI. Likewise in the short run a causal relationships have also been found among the variables. Moreover our model is found be error free based on several statistical test. Our results provide important policy suggestions regarding our foreign direct investment, environmental issues and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh.

  19. Building environment assessment and energy consumption estimation using smart phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangli; Zhang, Li; Jia, Yingqi; Wang, Zihan; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an APP for building indoor environment evaluation and energy consumption estimation based on Android platform is proposed and established. While using the APP, the smart phone built-in sensors are called for real-time monitoring of the building environmental information such as temperature, humidity and noise, etc. the built-in algorithm is developed to calculate the heat and power consumption, and questionnaires, grading and other methods are used to feed back to the space heating system. In addition, with the application of the technology of big data and cloud technology, the data collected by users will be uploaded to the cloud. After the statistics of the uploaded data, regional difference can be obtained, thus providing a more accurate basis for macro-control and research of energy, thermal comfort, greenhouse effect.

  20. Various multistage ensembles for prediction of heating energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radisa Jovanovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Feedforward neural network models are created for prediction of daily heating energy consumption of a NTNU university campus Gloshaugen using actual measured data for training and testing. Improvement of prediction accuracy is proposed by using neural network ensemble. Previously trained feed-forward neural networks are first separated into clusters, using k-means algorithm, and then the best network of each cluster is chosen as member of an ensemble. Two conventional averaging methods for obtaining ensemble output are applied; simple and weighted. In order to achieve better prediction results, multistage ensemble is investigated. As second level, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system with various clustering and membership functions are used to aggregate the selected ensemble members. Feedforward neural network in second stage is also analyzed. It is shown that using ensemble of neural networks can predict heating energy consumption with better accuracy than the best trained single neural network, while the best results are achieved with multistage ensemble.

  1. Green smartphone GPUs: Optimizing energy consumption using GPUFreq scaling governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.

    2015-10-19

    Modern smartphones are limited by their short battery life. The advancement of the graphical performance is considered as one of the main reasons behind the massive battery drainage in smartphones. In this paper we present a novel implementation of the GPUFreq Scaling Governors, a Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) model implemented in the Android Linux kernel for dynamically scaling smartphone Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). The GPUFreq governors offer users multiple variations and alternatives in controlling the power consumption and performance of their GPUs. We implemented and evaluated our model on a smartphone GPU and measured the energy performance using an external power monitor. The results show that the energy consumption of smartphone GPUs can be significantly reduced with a minor effect on the GPU performance.

  2. Energy Systems Studies Program annual report, fiscal year 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, M. (ed.)

    1976-06-01

    This is the fourth annual progress report of the Energy Systems Studies Program supported at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), Office of the Assistant Administrator for Planning and Analysis. The program is coordinated under the designation of a National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems (NCAES). Five working groups with specific program responsibilities are: policy analysis, economic analysis, biomedical and environmental assessment, technology assessment, and energy data and models. Future scenarios of the implementation of groups of technologies and new resources are developed. The socio-economic and environmental consequences are analyzed in detail and impact analyses are performed. Progress during FY 1976 is summarized in the following areas: energy system model development; energy-economic model development; technology assessments and support; economic analyses; and energy model data base activities. The program plan for FY 1977 is presented. (MCW)

  3. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  4. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  5. Air temperature and energy consumption feedbacks within urbanized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, A. S.; Demchenko, P. F.

    2017-09-01

    In the 21st century, the climate of expanding megacities and urbanized areas is increasingly forming and changing under the influence of the growing power consumption of the urban economy. To understand the urban climate dynamic and estimate the energy needs of cities in the 21st century, it is necessary to consider not only global and regional climatic factors, but also the presence of feedback between temperature and energy consumption in urbanized areas. This feedback can be both negative and positive, and their significance depends essentially on the climate and landform of the region, system of electricity and heat supply of a city, and some other factors. This article describes the main factors of formation and development of temperature and energy-consumption feedback within urbanized areas in cold and warm seasons when indoor heating or air conditioning is being used. The role of advection in strengthening and weakening of this feedback is studied. The estimates of the parameter and coefficient of feedback strengthening with the influence of anthropogenic heat fluxes and advection on the urban air temperature are presented.

  6. Energy Consumption of Lactating Mothers: Current Situation and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on the adequacy of nutrient intake indicate that lactating mothers have higher nutritional needs than do pregnant mothers. High nutrient intake is necessary to help mothers recover after childbirth, produce milk, and maintain the quantity and quality of breast milk. It also prevents maternal malnutrition. Research has shown, however, that the dietary energy consumption of mothers during lactation was significantly lower than that during pregnancy. The current study explored the factors associated with decreased nutritional intake during maternal lactation. The study was conducted in March–April 2013, and the subjects were mothers with infants aged >6 months. Results revealed that the factors causing low dietary energy consumption among breastfeeding mothers were poor nutritional knowledge and attitude toward high energy intake requirements during lactation, lack of time to cook and eat because of infant care, reduced consumption of milk and supplements, dietary restrictions and prohibitions, and suboptimal advice from midwives/health personnel. Beginning from the antenatal care visit, health personnel should conduct effective counseling on the importance of nutrient intake during lactation. Advice should be provided not only to mothers, but also to their families to enable them to thoroughly support the mothers as they breastfeed their infants.

  7. Australian energy consumption and production to 2014-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, A.

    1999-01-01

    The medium to long term outlook for the Australian energy sector is examined, drawing on the ABARE report Australian Energy: Market Developments and Projections to 2014-2015. It is estimated that recent market developments, in particular in the electricity and gas markets, and ongoing policy responses to such things as global climate change, will continue to have profound implications for the energy sector over the medium to longer term. In this environment of uncertainty, high quality and timely information on the future of the energy sector is critical to decision makers. The major input into ABARE's energy projections is the information collected in the biennial fuel and electricity survey. The principal sectors covered by the survey include the mining, manufacturing electricity and gas production sectors. There is also some coverage in the government administration, defence, communications and community services sectors (for example, hospitals and universities). Energy consumption in the sectors not adequately covered by the survey are projected using economic models. These include agriculture, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transport other than rail, finance and insurance, government administration and defence, health and community services, property and business services, cultural and recreational services, personal and other services and residential services. The fuel and electricity survey covers about 5,300 separate establishments in 3,000 organisations. Information is collected on current and expected energy consumption patterns and levels. The projections for these sectors are therefore based on consumers' own expectations about factors that will influence their energy use. Responses to the survey are also supplemented by ABARE projections of the energy requirements of known and planned new projects, such as new minerals processing plants or gas pipelines coming on stream

  8. Global Inequality in Energy Consumption from 1980 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the global probability distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world using data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA for 1980–2010. We find that the Lorenz curves have moved up during this time period, and the Gini coefficient, G, has decreased from 0.66 in 1980 to 0.55 in 2010, indicating a decrease in inequality. The global probability distribution of energy consumption per capita in 2010 is close to the exponential distribution withG = 0:5. We attribute this result to the globalization of the world economy, which mixes the world and brings it closer to the state of maximal entropy. We argue that global energy production is a limited resource that is partitioned among the world population. The most probable partition is the one that maximizes entropy, thus resulting in the exponential distribution function. A consequence of the latter is the law of 1/3: the top 1/3 of the world population consumes 2/3 of produced energy. We also find similar results for the global probability distribution of CO2 emissions per capita.

  9. A hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach to predict hourly energy consumption and generation by a cluster of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garshasbi, Samira; Kurnitski, Jarek; Mohammadi, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The energy consumption and renewable generation in a cluster of NZEBs are modeled by a novel hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach and used for the prediction of instantaneous and cumulative net energy balances and hourly amount of energy taken from and supplied to the central energy grid. - Highlights: • Hourly energy consumption and generation by a cluster of NZEBs was simulated. • Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach were employed. • Dampening effect of energy used by a cluster of buildings was demonstrated. • Hourly amount of energy taken from and supplied to the grid was simulated. • Results showed that NZEB cluster was 63.5% grid dependant on annual bases. - Abstract: Employing a hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach, energy consumption and renewable energy generation in a cluster of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) was thoroughly investigated with hourly simulation. Moreover, the cumulative energy consumption and generation of the whole cluster and each individual building within the simulation space were accurately monitored and reported. The results indicate that the developed simulation algorithm is able to predict the total instantaneous and cumulative amount of energy taken from and supplied to the central energy grid over any time period. During the course of simulation, about 60–100% of total daily generated renewable energy was consumed by NZEBs and up to 40% of that was fed back into the central energy grid as surplus energy. The minimum grid dependency of the cluster was observed in June and July where 11.2% and 9.9% of the required electricity was supplied from the central energy grid, respectively. On the other hand, the NZEB cluster was strongly grid dependant in January and December by importing 70.7% and 76.1% of its required energy demand via the central energy grid, in the order given. Simulation results revealed that the cluster was 63

  10. Factor Analysis of Residential Energy Consumption at the Provincial Level in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the differences in the amount and the structure of residential energy consumption at the provincial level in China and identifies the hidden factors behind such differences. The econometrical analysis reveals that population, economic development level, energy resource endowment and climatic conditions are the main factors driving residential energy consumption; while the regional differences in energy consumption per capita and the consumption structure can be mainly illustrated by various economic development levels, energy resource endowments and climatic conditions. Economic development level has a significant positive impact on the proportion of gasoline consumption, whereas its impact on the proportion of electricity consumption is not notable; energy resource endowment and climatic condition indirectly affect both the proportion of electricity consumption and that of gasoline consumption, primarily through their impacts on the proportions of coal consumption and heat consumption.

  11. A note on the long-run elasticities from the energy consumption-GDP relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Law, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); Narayan, Seema [School of Economics, Finance, and Marketing, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Popp, Stephan [Department of Economics, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The goal of this paper is to examine the long-run elasticities of the impacts of energy consumption on GDP and GDP on energy consumption. The energy consumption-GDP relationship is amongst the most popular relationships examined in the energy economics literature. The bulk of the extant literature has assumed a positive relationship between energy consumption and real GDP. Our analysis shows that in only around 60% of the countries considered the relationship is positive. (author)

  12. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  13. Integrated Urban System and Energy Consumption Model: Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a segment of research conducted within the project PON 04a2_E Smart Energy Master for the energetic government of the territory conducted by the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environment Engineering, University of Naples "Federico II".  In particular, this article is part of the study carried out for the definition of the comprehension/interpretation model that correlates buildings, city’s activities and users’ behaviour in order to promote energy savings. In detail, this segment of the research wants to define the residential variables to be used in the model. For this purpose a knowledge framework at international level has been defined, to estimate the energy requirements of residential buildings and the identification of a set of parameters, whose variation has a significant influence on the energy consumption of residential buildings.

  14. Fiscal 1998 research report. Survey on energy consumption in a residential sector; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    On energy consumption in a residential sector, the report reports the document survey result including new documents, and the result of the systematic national questionnaire survey carried out in small and medium cities to prepare the basic data for future development and introduction of petroleum substituting energy. The electric power consumption rate of detached houses (A) is larger by 0.6- 1.6Gcal/household/year than that of apartment houses (B) in every district. The gas consumption rate of A is smaller than that of B in Hokkaido, Kanto and Kyushu. The LPG consumption rate of Kinki district is largest in both A and B. The kerosene consumption rate of A is larger than that of B. In Hokkaido, the kerosene consumption is extremely large in heating, showing a ratio of 60% or more in A. In the other districts, the kerosene consumption is largest in hot water supply, showing 30% or more. Every consumption rate increases with annual household income. The average consumption rate of 4 districts is 11,137Mcal/household/year. (NEDO)

  15. Pluri-annual programming of energy (PPE): an escalation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perves, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Concerning the pluri-annual programming of energy for the 2018-2023 period, the French government proposes to accelerate the deployment of wind and solar energies in order to reach 43.000 - 49.200 MW globally in 2023. To compare wind and solar energies totaled 16.500 MW in 2015. The 2023 level will represent around 70% of the today's nuclear power production. This energy policy will require a huge investment of 60 billions euros by 2023. It appears that offshore wind energy is not favoured because of its important costs and this acceleration will imply more wind turbines installed on land which can have a negative impact on the environment. Furthermore wind and solar energies will require other sources of energy to compensate seasonal effects, the back-up energy may be nuclear but it would increase the kWh cost because nuclear energy will be under-used. The gain in CO 2 will be null because the electricity production in France is largely de-carbonized thanks to the use of nuclear energy. A more progressive deployment of renewable energies in the French energy mix is recommended. (A.C.)

  16. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  17. Optimal selection among different domestic energy consumption patterns based on energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.; Wu, J.Y.

    2010-01-01

    In China market, people have many choices for air conditioning of their apartments, including heat-pump systems or gas-fired boilers for heating and air conditioners for cooling. Domestic hot water is usually provided by domestic water heaters making use of electricity or natural gas, which are known for their great energy costs. These systems consume much energy and increase the total cost of required domestic energy. A novel system combining heat pump with water heater is proposed in this paper, and it is named domestic energy system. The system can realize the provision of space heating, cooling and domestic hot water throughout a year. Based on different types of air conditioners, space heating equipments and water heaters, domestic energy consumption patterns are concluded to be eight categories. This study describes and compares the eight domestic energy consumption patterns by economic analysis and prime energy analysis method. Results show that the domestic energy system can provide good economy and save energy significantly. Furthermore, exergy analysis method is employed to compare the exergy efficiencies of different energy consumption systems. The results show that the domestic energy system has the highest energy conversion efficiency and can make remarkable contribution to social energy saving.

  18. Energy Consumption of Insulated Material Using Thermal Effect Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzil M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall is one of the structures elements that resist direct heat from the atmosphere. Modification on several structures is relevance to reduce filtrate thermal movement on wall. Insulation material seems to be suitable to be implemented since its purpose meets the heat resistance requirement. Insulation material applied as to generate positive impact in energy saving through reduction in total building energy consumption. Fiberglass is one of the insulation materials that can be used to insulate a space from heat and sound. Fiberglass is flammable insulation material with R Value rated of R-2.9 to R-3.8 which meets the requirement in minimizing heat transfer. Finite element software, ABAQUS v6.13 employed for analyze non insulated wall and other insulated wall with different wall thicknesses. The several calculations related to overall heat movement, total energy consumption per unit area of wall, life cycle cost analysis and determination of optimal insulation thickness is calculated due to show the potential of the implementation in minimize heat transfer and generate potential energy saving in building operation. It is hoped that the study can contribute to better understanding on the potential building wall retrofitting works in increasing building serviceability and creating potential benefits for building owner.

  19. Energy consumption, energy efficiency, and consumer perceptions: A case study for the Southeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interaction between climate, efficiency, and electricity consumption were examined. • 2450 state residents were surveyed about clean energy and subsidy policies. • Indirect energy efficiency costs negatively influenced electricity consumption. • Cooling degree days were positively related to electricity consumption. • Resident awareness influenced policy perceptions about clean energy and subsidies. - Abstract: This study examined the interaction between climatic variability and residential electricity consumption in a Southeast US state. Residential electricity consumers were surveyed to better understand how to diffuse positive attitudes and behaviors related to energy efficiency (EE) into households. The study found that 16.8% of the variability in residential electricity consumption for heating applications was explained by indirect EE costs. 36.6% of the variability in residential electricity consumption for cooling applications was explained by indirect EE costs and cooling degree days (CDD). A survey of 2450 residential electricity consumers was analyzed using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Significant findings suggest that those residents are aware of utility EE programs are more likely to participate, view utility company motives more favorably, to support governmental subsidies for EE programs, and to support the use of clean energy by utility companies.

  20. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).