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  1. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990

  2. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  3. Proceedings of the seventh annual participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seventh Annual Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP) Participants' Information Meeting was held September 10-13, 1985 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste management activities, requirements, and plans. Attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, interim operations offices and their contractor operators; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, US Environmental Protection Agency, US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of Great Britain, France, and Canada; representatives of utilities, private contractors, and parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for the exchange of information and the promotion of discussion on specific aspects of low-level waste management. Plenary sessions were held at the start and conclusion of the meeting while seven concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening day and a half. Session chairmen from each of these concurrent sessions presented a summary of the discussion and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions at the final plenary session

  4. Thirteenth annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The 40 papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy`s Thirteenth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on November 19--21, 1991. General subjects addressed during the conference included: disposal facility design; greater-than-class C low-level waste; public acceptance considerations; waste certification; site characterization; performance assessment; licensing and documentation; emerging low-level waste technologies; waste minimization; mixed waste; tracking and transportation; storage; and regulatory changes. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G. (comps.)

    1981-12-01

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  6. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base

  7. Proceedings of the fourth annual participants' information meeting, DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fourth Annual Participants' Information Meeting of the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in Denver, Colorado, August 31 to September 2, 1982. The purpose of the meeting was to report and evaluate technology development funded by the program and to examine mechanisms for technology transfer. The meeting consisted of an introductory plenary session, followed by two concurrent overview sessions and then six concurrent technical sessions. There were two group meetings to review the findings of the technical sessions. The meeting concluded with a plenary summary session in which the major findings of the meeting were addressed. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  8. Proceedings of the sixth annual Participants' Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions were held on disposal technology, characteristics and treatment of low-level waste, environmental aspects and performance prediction, predicting source terms for low-level wastes (LLW), performance assessment for LLW disposal facilities, and approaches to LLW facility siting and characteristics. Fifty-six papers were indexed separately

  9. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting: DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  10. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  11. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  12. Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Executive summary, opening plenary session, closing plenary session, attendees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eighth Annual DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Level Waste Management Forum was held in September 1986, in Denver, Colorado, to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management activities, requirements, and plans. The one hundred ninety attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, DOE Operations Offices and their contractors; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of utilities, private contractors, disposal facility operators, and other parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. Plenary sessions were held at the beginning and conclusion of the meeting, while eight concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening two days. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for information exchange and discussion on current and future low-level radioactive waste management challenges. Session chairmen presented summaries of the discussions and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions. Selected papers in this volume have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  13. Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Executive summary, opening plenary session, closing plenary session, attendees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    The Eighth Annual DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Level Waste Management Forum was held in September 1986, in Denver, Colorado, to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management activities, requirements, and plans. The one hundred ninety attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, DOE Operations Offices and their contractors; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of utilities, private contractors, disposal facility operators, and other parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. Plenary sessions were held at the beginning and conclusion of the meeting, while eight concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening two days. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for information exchange and discussion on current and future low-level radioactive waste management challenges. Session chairmen presented summaries of the discussions and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions. Selected papers in this volume have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. Proceedings of the fourth annual participants' information meeting, DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, D.E.: Mezga, L.J.; Stratton, L.E.; Rose, R.R. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    The Fourth Annual Participants' Information Meeting of the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in Denver, Colorado, August 31 to September 2, 1982. The purpose of the meeting was to report and evaluate technology development funded by the program and to examine mechanisms for technology transfer. The meeting consisted of an introductory plenary session, followed by two concurrent overview sessions and then six concurrent technical sessions. There were two group meetings to review the findings of the technical sessions. The meeting concluded with a plenary summary session in which the major findings of the meeting were addressed. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  15. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting: DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  16. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 2: Site performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains twelve papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics of this volume include: performance assessment methodology; remedial action alternatives; site selection and site characterization procedures; intruder scenarios; sensitivity analysis procedures; mathematical models for mixed waste environmental transport; and risk assessment methodology. Individual papers were processed separately for the database

  17. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 2: Site performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains twelve papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics of this volume include: performance assessment methodology; remedial action alternatives; site selection and site characterization procedures; intruder scenarios; sensitivity analysis procedures; mathematical models for mixed waste environmental transport; and risk assessment methodology. Individual papers were processed separately for the database. (TEM)

  18. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 6: Closure and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains eight papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: site closure; ground cover; alternate cap designs; performance monitoring of waste trenches; closure options for a mixed waste site; and guidance for environmental monitoring. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  19. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 1: Institutional and regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste regulation. Topics include: EPA environmental standards; international exemption principles; the concept of below regulatory concern; envirocare activities in Utah; mixed waste; FUSRAP and the Superfund; and a review of various incentive programs. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  20. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 1: Institutional and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste regulation. Topics include: EPA environmental standards; international exemption principles; the concept of below regulatory concern; envirocare activities in Utah; mixed waste; FUSRAP and the Superfund; and a review of various incentive programs. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  1. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 6: Closure and decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eight papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: site closure; ground cover; alternate cap designs; performance monitoring of waste trenches; closure options for a mixed waste site; and guidance for environmental monitoring. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  2. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 3: Disposal technology and facility development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains ten papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: design and construction of a facility; alternatives to shallow land burial; the fate of tritium and carbon 14 released to the environment; defense waste management; engineered sorbent barriers; remedial action status report; and the disposal of mixed waste in Texas. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  3. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 3: Disposal technology and facility development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains ten papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: design and construction of a facility; alternatives to shallow land burial; the fate of tritium and carbon 14 released to the environment; defense waste management; engineered sorbent barriers; remedial action status report; and the disposal of mixed waste in Texas. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  4. Eleventh annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Executive summary, opening plenary, technical session summaries, and attendees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The conference consisted of ten technical sessions, with three sessions running simultaneously each day. Session topics included: regulatory updates; performance assessment;understanding remedial action efforts; low-level waste strategy and planning (Nuclear Energy); low-level waste strategy and planning (Defense); compliance monitoring; decontamination and decommissioning; waste characterization; waste reduction and minimization; and prototype licensing application workshop. Summaries are presented for each of these sessions.

  5. DOE`s integrated low-level waste management program and strategic planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, G. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management; Hwang, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1993-03-01

    To meet the DOE`s commitment to operate its facilities in a safe, economic, and environmentally sound manner, and to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local rules, regulations, and agreements, DOE created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in 1989 to focus efforts on controlling waste management and cleaning up contaminated sites. In the first few years of its existence, the Office of Waste Management (EM-30) has concentrated on operational and corrective activities at the sites. In 1992, the Office of Waste Management began to apply an integrated approach to managing its various waste types. Consequently, DOE established the Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP) to properly manage its complex-wide LLW in a consistent manner. The objective of the LLWMP is to build and operate an integrated, safe, and cost-effective program to meet the needs of waste generators. The program will be based on acceptable risk and sound planning, resulting in public confidence and support. Strategic planning of the program is under way and is expected to take two to three years before implementation of the integrated waste management approach.

  6. The performance assessment process for DOE low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety of the low-level waste disposal facilities, as well as al US DOE facilities, is a primary criterion in their design and operation. Safety of low-level waste disposal facilities is evaluated from two perspectives. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation. The safety evaluations vary from simple safety assessments to very complex safety analysis reports, depending on the degree of hazard associated with the facility operation. Operational requirements for the Department's low-level waste disposal facilities, including long-term safety are contained in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management (1). This paper will focus on the process of conducting long-term performance analyses rather than on operational safety analysis

  7. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  8. Complex-wide review of DOE`s management of low-level radioactive waste - progress to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letourneau, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2 includes a recommendation that the Department of Energy (DOE) conduct a comprehensive, complex-wide review of the low-level waste issue to establish the dimensions of the low-level waste problem and to identify necessary corrective actions to address the safe disposition of past, present, and future volumes. DOE`s Implementation Plan calls for the conduct of a complex-wide review of low-level radioactive waste treatment, storage, and disposal sites to identify environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities. The complex-wide review focuses on low-level waste disposal facilities through a site evaluation survey, reviews of existing documentation, and onsite observations. Low-level waste treatment and storage facilities will be assessed for their ability to meet waste acceptance criteria for disposal. Results from the complex-wide review will be used to form the basis for an integrated and planned set of actions to correct the identified vulnerabilities and to prompt development of new requirements for managing low-level waste.

  9. FY2010 ANNUAL REVIEW E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.

    2011-01-01

    The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDAs). This annual review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA annual determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008

  10. Low-level waste management alternatives and analysis in DOE`s programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, J.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The PEIS has been divided into an Environmental Restoration section and a Waste Management section. Each section has a unique set of alternatives. This paper will focus on the waste management alternatives and analysis. The set of alternatives for waste management has been divided into waste categories. These categories are: high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, greater-than-class C and low-level waste from commercial sources, hazardous waste, and spent nuclear fuel. This paper will discuss the alternatives and analytical approach that will be used to evaluate these alternatives for the low-level waste section. Although the same alternatives will be considered for all waste types, the analysis will be performed separately for each waste type. In the sections that follow, information will be provided on waste management configurations, the analysis of waste management alternatives, waste types and locations, facility and transportation activities, the facility and transportation impacts assessment, and the compilation of impacts.

  11. Experience and improved techniques in radiological environmental monitoring at major DOE low-level disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this task was to provide a concise summary of routine radiological environmental surveillance programs conducted at major active US Department of Energy (DOE) solid low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. The DOE disposal sites at which monitoring programs were reviewed included those located at Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Plant (SRP). A brief summary of routine monitoring programs at the active commercial LLW sites was also included in the task report. The draft task report was transmitted to all sites for review in June 1986

  12. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs

  13. 1992 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress States and compact regions made during 1992 in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1992 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

  14. 1989 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress during 1989 of states and compacts in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1989 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99--240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  15. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program perspective on technology transfer: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (DOE LLWMP) perspective in regard to transfer of LLWMP technology to current and potential users in both the commercial and defense sectors is discussed. Past, present, and future opportunities and challenges for the whole nuclear waste management are indicated. Elements considered include: historical and evolutionary events and activities; the purpose of the Program and its inherent opportunities and challenges; achievements and expected accomplishments; supporters and interactors; packaging and delivering technology; implementing and serving potential users; determining and meeting users' needs; and identifying and responding to opportunities and challenges. The low-level waste management effort to improve shallow land burial technology began in FY 1977 and has expanded to include waste treatment and alternative disposal methods. Milestones have been established and are used as principal management control items. This technology, the Program Product, is described and is made available. This year, the Program has drafted criteria for inclusion in a DOE order for radioactive waste management operations at DOE sites

  16. 1996 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (the Act), Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the activities during calendar year 1996 related to the establishment of new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress in developing new disposal facilities, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on US policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  17. Plasma Hearth Process vitrification of DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is recognized as one of the more promising solutions to DOE's mixed waste treatment needs, with potential application in the treatment of a wide variety of DOE mixed wastes. The PHP is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. This technology will be equally applicable to low-level mixed wastes generated by nuclear utilities. The final waste form will be volume reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and the inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added. Low volume and high integrity waste forms result in low disposal costs. This project is structured to ensure that the plasma technology can be successfully employed in radioactive service. The PHP technology will be developed into a production system through a sequence of tests on several test units, both non-radioactive and radioactive. As the final step, a prototype PHP system will be constructed for full-scale radioactive waste treatment demonstration

  18. Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, B.G. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cole, L.T. [Cole and Associates (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada`s first demonstration LLW disposal facility.

  19. Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada's first demonstration LLW disposal facility

  20. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel`s expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel`s reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel`s review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management.``

  1. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management.''

  2. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H. (Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management.''

  3. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R ampersand D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350 degrees C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS copyright for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc

  4. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R&D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350{degrees}C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS{copyright} for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc.

  5. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 1, Annual report for FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. Because of apparent ease of use and normal structural integrity, cement has been widely used as a binder to solidify LLW. However, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. This report reviews laboratory efforts that are being developed to address the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms are being employed that are capable of metabolically converting organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this report. Sufficient data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW has been developed during the course of this study. These data support the continued development of appropriate tests necessary to determine the resistance of cement-solidified LLW to microbially induced degradation that could impact the stability of the waste form. They also justify the continued effort of enumeration of the conditions necessary to support the microbiological growth and population expansion.

  6. Improvements to the DOE low-level waste regulatory structure and process under recommendation 94-2 - progress to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Among the concerns expressed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) in its Recommendation 94-2 was the lack of a clearly defined and effective internal Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory oversight and enforcement process for ensuring that low-level radioactive waste management health, safety, and environmental requirements are met. Therefore, part of the response to the DNFSB concern is a task to clarify and strengthen the low-level waste management regulatory structure. This task is being conducted in two steps. First, consistent with the requirements of the current DOE waste management order and within the framework of the current organizational structure, interim clarification of a review process and the associated organizational responsibilities has been issued. Second, in coordination with the revision of the waste management order and consistent with the organizational responsibilities resulting from the strategic alignment of DOE, a rigorous, more independent regulatory oversight structure will be developed.

  7. Regionalization as a strategy for management of low-level and mixed wastes in the DOE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has been routinely performing low-level waste volume reduction and/or stabilization treatment at various sites for some time. In general, treatment is performed on waste generated onsite. Disposal is also usually performed onsite since most DOE sites have their own LLW disposal facilities. The DOE initiated studies to evaluate strategies for treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes covered in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to ensure that DOE sites are in compliance with RCRA. These studies recommend regionalization as the most cost-effective solution to the treatment and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes. The DOE's Defense Low-Level Waste Management Program conducted an additional survey of DOE sites to evaluate the status of one specific treatment method, incineration, at these sites. This study included facilities currently in use or intended for treatment of low-level and mixed wastes. A summary of the findings is presented in this paper

  8. Modelling coastal low-level wind-jets: does horizontal resolution matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjha, Raza; Tjernström, Michael; Svensson, Gunilla; Semedo, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric flows in coastal regions are impacted by land-sea temperature contrasts, complex terrain, shape of the coastline, among many things. Along the west coast of central North America, winds in the boundary layer are mainly from north or northwest, roughly parallel to the coastline. Frequently, the coastal low-level wind field is characterized by a sharp wind maximum along the coast in the lowest kilometre. This feature, commonly referred to as a coastal low-level jet (CLLJ), has significant impact on the climatology of the coastal region and affects many human activities in the littoral zone. Hence, a good understanding and forecasting of CLLJs are vital. This study evaluates the issue of proper mesoscale numerical model resolution to describe the physics of a CLLJ, and its impact on the upper ocean. The COAMPS® model is used for a summer event to determine the realism of the model results compared to observations, from an area of supercritical flow adjustment between Pt. Sur and Pt. Conception, California. Simulations at different model horizontal resolutions, from 54 to 2 km are performed. While the model produces realistic results with increasing details at higher resolution, the results do not fully converge even at a resolution of only few kilometres and an objective analysis of model errors do not show an increased skill with increasing resolution. Based on all available information, a compromise resolution appears to be at least 6 km. New methods may have to be developed to evaluate models at very high resolution.

  9. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  10. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  11. Does low-level laser therapy decrease swelling and pain resulting from orthognathic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, G; Rodrigues de Siqueira, I C; Rezende Costa, L

    2014-07-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) could be an alternative for the treatment of swelling and pain after orthognathic surgery, but there is a paucity of data in the literature on the effects of its use. This study verified the efficacy of an LLLT protocol to reduce swelling and pain after orthognathic surgery. Ten healthy patients who underwent a bilateral sagittal split with Le Fort I osteotomy were randomly selected for this study. The LLLT protocol consisted of intraoral and extraoral application to one side of the face after surgery (irradiated side); application to the other side was simulated (non-irradiated side). The irradiated and non-irradiated sides were compared regarding the swelling coefficient and were assessed for pain using a visual analogue scale. There were no significant differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides regarding swelling and pain in the immediate postoperative assessment. Swelling decreased significantly on the irradiated side in the postoperative assessments on days 3, 7, 15, and 30. Self-reported pain was less intense on the irradiated side at the 24-h (1.2 vs. 3.4) and 3-day (0.6 vs. 2.1) assessments, but at 7 days after surgery neither side showed pain. This LLLT protocol can improve the tissue response and reduce the pain and swelling resulting from orthognathic surgery.

  12. A DOE contractor`s perspective of environmental monitoring requirements at a low-level waste facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferns, T.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., ID (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Environmental monitoring at a low-level waste disposal facility (LLWDF) should, (1) demonstrate compliance with environmental laws; (2) detect any spatial or temporal environmental changes; and (3) provide information on the potential or actual exposure of humans and/or the environment to disposed waste and/or waste by-products. Under the DOE Order system the LLWDF site manager has more freedom of implementation for a monitoring program than either the semi-prescriptive NRC, or the prescriptive EPA hazardous waste programs. This paper will attempt to compare and contrast environmental monitoring under the different systems (DOE, NRC, and EPA), and determine if the DOE might benefit from a more prescriptive system.

  13. Use of DOE site selection criteria for screening low-level waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) site selection criteria were applied to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and the application was evaluated to determine the criteria's usefulness in the selection of a low-level waste disposal site. The application of the criteria required the development of a methodology to provide a framework for evaluation. The methodology is composed of site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site capable of satisfying the site selection criteria. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The site selection criteria were applied to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. Results of this application were similar to those of a previous siting study on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The DOE site selection criteria when coupled with the methodology that was developed were easily applied and would be adaptable to any region of interest

  14. A decision methodology for the evaluation of mixed low-level radioactive waste management options for DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Devarakonda, M.; Djordjevic, S.M. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Currently, many DOE sites are developing site-specific solutions to manage their mixed low-level wastes. These site-specific MLLW programs often result in duplication of efforts between the different sites, and consequently, inefficient use of DOE system resources. A nationally integrated program for MLLW eliminates unnecessary duplication of effort, but requires a comprehensive analysis of waste management options to ensure that all site issues are addressed. A methodology for comprehensive analysis of the complete DOE MLLW system is being developed by DOE-HQ to establish an integrated and standardized solution for managing MLLW. To be effective, the comprehensive systems analysis must consider all aspects of MLLW management from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from MLLW generation to disposal). The results of the analysis will include recommendations for alternative management options for the complete DOE MLLW system based on various components such as effectiveness, cost, health and safety risks, and the probability of regulatory acceptance for an option. Because of the diverse nature of these various components and the associated difficulties in comparing between them, a decision methodology is being developed that will integrate the above components into a single evaluation scheme for performing relative comparisons between different MLLW management options. The remainder of this paper provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of the various participants of the DOE MLLW Program, and discusses in detail the components involved in the development of the decision methodology for a comprehensive systems analysis.

  15. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, T.L.; Wilson, J.M.; Ruhter, A.H.; Bonney, S.J. [SAIC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-08-01

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics.

  16. Fifteenth annual U.S. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste management conference: Agenda and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the conference was to give the opportunity to identify and discuss low-level radioactive waste management issues, share lessons learned, and hear about some of the latest advances in technology. Abstracts of the presentations are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) Performance Management Track: Performance assessment perspectives; Site characterization; Modeling and performance assessment; and Remediation; (2) Technical Track: Strategic planning; Tools and options; Characterization and validation; Treatment updates; Technology development; and Storage; (3) Institutional Track: Orders and regulatory issues; Waste management options; Legal, economic, and social issues; Public involvement; Siting process; and Low-level radioactive waste policy amendment acts

  17. Fifteenth annual U.S. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste management conference: Agenda and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to give the opportunity to identify and discuss low-level radioactive waste management issues, share lessons learned, and hear about some of the latest advances in technology. Abstracts of the presentations are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) Performance Management Track: Performance assessment perspectives; Site characterization; Modeling and performance assessment; and Remediation; (2) Technical Track: Strategic planning; Tools and options; Characterization and validation; Treatment updates; Technology development; and Storage; (3) Institutional Track: Orders and regulatory issues; Waste management options; Legal, economic, and social issues; Public involvement; Siting process; and Low-level radioactive waste policy amendment acts.

  18. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance

  19. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

  20. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  1. Case study and presentation of the DOE treatability group concept for low-level and mixed waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 requires the US Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an inventory report of its mixed waste and treatment capacities and technologies. Grouping waste streams according to technological requirements is the logical means of matching waste streams to treatment technologies, and streamlines the effort of identifying technology development needs. To provide consistency, DOE has developed a standard methodology for categorizing waste into treatability groups based on three characteristic parameters: radiological, bulk physical/chemical form, and regulated contaminant. Based on category and component definitions in the methodology, descriptive codes or strings of codes are assigned under each parameter, resulting in a waste characterization amenable to a computerized format for query and sort functions. By using only the applicable parameters, this methodology can be applied to all waste types generated within the DOE complex: radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary/municipal. Implementation of this methodology will assist the individual sites and DOE Headquarters in analyzing waste management technology and facility needs

  2. Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240: 1990 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress during 1990 of states and compact regions in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1990 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended by Public Law 99-240

  3. Analysis of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of residuals from the treatment of mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Langkopf, B.S.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has stored or expects to generate over the next five years more than 130,000 m{sup 3} of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Before disposal, MLLW is usually treated to comply with the land disposal restrictions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Depending on the type of treatment, the original volume of MLLW and the radionuclide concentrations in the waste streams may change. These changes must be taken into account in determining the necessary disposal capacity at a site. Treatment may remove the characteristic in some waste that caused it to be classified as mixed. Treatment of some waste may, by reduction of the mass, increase the concentrations of some transuranic radionuclides sufficiently so that it becomes transuranic waste. In this report, the DOE MLLW streams were analyzed to determine after-treatment volumes and radionuclide concentrations. The waste streams were reclassified as residual MLLW or low-level or transuranic waste resulting from treatment. The volume analysis indicated that about 89,000 m{sup 3} of waste will require disposal as residual MLLW. Fifteen DOE sites were then evaluated to determine their capabilities for hosting disposal facilities for some or all of the residual MLLW. Waste streams associated with about 90% of the total residual MLLW volume are likely to present no significant issues for disposal and require little additional analysis. Future studies should focus on the remaining waste streams that are potentially problematic by examining site-specific waste acceptance criteria, alternative treatment processes, alternative waste forms for disposal, and pending changes in regulatory requirements.

  4. Environmental assessment for DOE permission for the off-loading and transportation of commercial low-level radioactive waste across the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with DOE allowing Chem-Nuclear Systems, L.L.C. (CNS) to off-load and transport low-level radioactive waste (LLW) packages across the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina, to the nearby CNS facility. The proposed action entails DOE granting permission to CNS to use SRS for landing shipping barges at the existing SRS boat ramp and off-loading trailered LLW packages for transportation across SRS to the CNS facility. Project activities would include modification of the SRS boat ramp on the Savannah River, as needed for off-loading activities, and construction of a bridge across Lower Three Runs. The proposed action also encompasses any similar future off-loading and transportation activities for LLW en route to the CNS facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  5. Low-temperature setting phosphate ceramics for stabilization of DOE problem low level mixed-waste: I. Material and waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the {open_quotes}problem{close_quotes} DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization.

  6. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site

  7. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  8. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York's challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria

  9. Low-level liquid scitillation counting for quantification of annual {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C concentrations in tree disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopka, B. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung; Schikowski, J. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung; Porstendoerfer, J. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung

    1997-03-01

    The government of Schleswig Holstein funded a study to perform the retrospective determination of airborne {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C concentrations. It is well known, that in tree rings most of the hydrogen and cabron is fixed after insertion in the matrix of wood and that the radionuclide concentration correlates with former airborne activity concentrations. For the retrospective study wood disks of trees located in the region near the nuclear power plant of Kruemmel and control disks of unsuspected areas were selected. The hydrogen of the wood was transformed to water and the carbon to carbondioxide by classical oxidation processes (combustion in a furnace). The contents of {sup 3}H in the water and {sup 14}C of the carbondioxide (solved in scintillation liquid) were determined by liquid scintillation counting, using a low-level counter (type Quantulus 1220, Wallac). (orig.)

  10. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 1: Regulatory updates, performance assessment, understanding remedial action efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Eighteen papers are presented in this volume. The section on regulatory updates present papers on EPA, NRC, and DOE regulations. The performance assessment section presents studies on disposal facilities at ORNL, Hanford, and the Feed Materials Production Center. The remedial action section papers discuss programs and remedial action activities. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Does addition of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conservative care of knee arthritis successfully postpone the need for joint replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, David

    2015-12-01

    The current study evaluates whether the addition of low-level laser therapy into standard conventional physical therapy in elderly with bilateral symptomatic tri-compartmental knee arthritis can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery. A prospective randomized cohort study of 100 consecutive unselected elderly patients with bilateral symptomatic knee arthritis with each knee randomized to receive either treatment protocol A consisting of conventional physical therapy or protocol B which is the same as protocol A with added low-level laser therapy. The mean follow-up was 6 years. Treatment failure was defined as breakthrough pain which necessitated joint replacement surgery. After a follow-up of 6 years, patients clearly benefited from treatment with protocol B as only one knee needed joint replacement surgery, while nine patients treated with protocol A needed surgery (p knee arthritis.

  12. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  13. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 2: Technical basis and discussion of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 first describes the screening process used to determine the sites to be considered in the PEs. This volume then provides the technical details of the methodology for conducting the performance evaluations. It also provides a comparison and analysis of the overall results for all sites that were evaluated. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  14. Does low level laser therapy relieve the pain caused by the placement of the orthodontic separators? — A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Quan; Yang, Shuo; Jia, Fangfang; Xu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain caused by orthodontic treatment can affect patient’s compliance and even force them to terminate treatments. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate of the analgesic effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) after placement of the orthodontic separators. Methods Five databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, China Biology Medicine disc (SinoMed CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for all the appropriate studies in June, 2014. Two reviewers ...

  15. Low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the normal incidence of cancer in human populations is increased by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. At background radiation levels or at radiation levels which are 100 times greater, the potential health risks are considered to be directly proportional to the total accumulated dose of radiation. Some of the uncertainties associated with this assumption and with the accepted risk estimates have been critically reviewed in this document. The general scientific consensus at present suggests that the accepted risk estimates may exaggerate the actual risk of low levels of sparsely ionizing radiations (beta-, gamma- or X-rays) somewhat but are unlikely to overestimate the actual risks of densely ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, alpha-particles). At the maximum permissible levels of exposure for radiation workers in nuclear power stations, the potential health hazards in terms of life expectancy would be comparable to those encountered in transportation and public utilities or in the construction industry. At the average radiation exposures received by these workers in practice, the potential health hazards are similar to those associated with safe categories of industries. Uranium mining remains a relativly hazardous occupation. In terms of absolute numbers, the genetic hazards, which are less well established, are thought to be smaller than the carcinogenic hazards of radiation when only the first generation is considered but to be of the same order of magnitude as the carcinogenic hazards when the total number of induced genetic disorders is summed over all generations

  16. 2010 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  17. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-23

    The 2015 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2015 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; and market transformation.

  18. 2014 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2014 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  19. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, Sunita [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2011 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  20. 2009 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting to review the FY2008 accomplishments and FY2009 plans for the Vehicle Technologies Program, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academic to give inputs to DOE on the Program with a structured and formal methodology.

  1. 2013 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2013 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  2. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutula, Raymond A. [DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the program for fiscal year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program’s national laboratories and university and industry partners.

  3. Investigation of Novel Electrode Materials for Electrochemically-Based Remediation of High- and Low-Level Mixed Wastes in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, N.S.; Anderson, M.

    2000-12-01

    New materials are investigated, based on degenerately-doped titanias, for use in the electrochemical degradation of organics and nitrogen-containing compounds in sites of concern to the DOE remediation effort. The data collected in this project appear to provide a rational approach for design of more efficient nanoporous electrodes. Also, osmium complexes appear to be promising candidates for further optimization in operating photo electrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications.

  4. Investigation of Novel Electrode Materials for Electrochemically-Based Remediation of High- and Low-Level Mixed Wastes in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New materials are investigated, based on degenerately-doped titanias, for use in the electrochemical degradation of organics and nitrogen-containing compounds in sites of concern to the DOE remediation effort. The data collected in this project appear to provide a rational approach for design of more efficient nanoporous electrodes. Also, osmium complexes appear to be promising candidates for further optimization in operating photo electrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications

  5. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls

  6. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls.

  7. Radiation exposure for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1979. Twelfth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the data submitted by DOE and DOE contractors for 1979 for 104,986 employees, representing 81% of all DOE and DOE contractor employees. Of all employees monitored, 47.6% received a dose equivalent that was less than measurable, 50.8% a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and 1.6% an exposure greater than 1 rem. Only three DOE contractor employees at three separate facilities received whole-body dose equivalents greater than 5 rem during 1979. The two reported cases of internal depositions were both less than the annual dose-equivalent standard and resulted from accidental exposures

  8. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards

  9. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  10. 2012 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    The 2012 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting was held May 14-18, 2012 in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Hydrogen Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 309 individual activities were reviewed for Vehicle Technologies, by a total of 189 reviewers. A total of 1,473 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews.

  11. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  12. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  13. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  14. 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 295 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 179 reviewers. A total of 1,354 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  15. 2015 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: 258 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by 170 reviewers. A total of 1,095 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  16. 2013 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held May 13-17, 2013, in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 287 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 187 reviewers. A total of 1,382 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  17. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees: Nineteenth annual report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors are required to submit occupational radiation exposure records to a central repository. The data required include a summary of whole-body exposures to ionizing radiation and a summary of internal depositions of radioactive materials above specified limits. This report is a summary of the data submitted by DOE and DOE contractors for 1986. A total of 94,040 DOE and DOE contractor employees were monitored for whole-body ionizing radiation exposures in 1986. This represents 56.2% of all DOE and DOE contractor employees. In addition to the employees, 63,463 visitors were monitored. The collective dose equivalent for DOE and DOE contractor employeees was 7,911 person-rem. The collective dose equivalent for visitors was 554 person-rem. The highest average dose equivalent for all monitored individuals was observed at fuel fabrication facilities (205 mrem), and the lowest was observed for visitors (9 mrem) to DOE facilities. These averages are significantly less than the DOE 5-rem/year radiation protection standard for whole-body exposures. Three new cases of internal depositions were reported in 1986 that exceeded 50 percent of the pertinent annual dose-equivalent standard. Of these three cases, two occurred in 1974 and are reported now because recent revisions in the dose calculations established these cases as reportable depositions. The third case occurred in 1985, but was not reported until evaluation was completed in early 1987. There were no uptakes of radioactive material reported to have occurred in 1986

  18. 4th Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contains abstracts from the 2009 Annual Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PI) Meeting. The ERSP seeks to advance fundamental science to understand, predict, and mitigate the impacts of environmental contamination from past nuclear weapons production and provide a scientific basis for the long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal. These ambitious goals cannot be achieved by any one project alone. Therefore, ERSP funds a combination of research programs at the DOE national laboratories, individual projects at universities and federal agencies, and large long(er)-term field site research. Integration of these activities to advance the ERSP goals is a constant challenge, but made significantly simpler by bringing together all funded ERSP researchers once a year to discuss the very latest research results. It is at these meetings where new ideas and/or scientific advancements in support of ERSP goals can be discussed and openly debated among all PIs in the program. The ERSP thrives, in part, on the new ideas, concepts, scientific connections, and collaborations generated as a result of these meetings. The annual PI Meeting is very much a working meeting with three major goals: (1) to provide opportunities for scientific interaction among the ERSP scientists, a critical element for the program; (2) to provide the ERSP program staff with an opportunity to evaluate the progress of each program and project; and (3) to showcase the ERSP to interested parties within DOE and within other federal agencies In addition to program managers from within OBER, there will be representatives from other offices within DOE and other federal agencies in attandance at the meeting.

  19. 4th Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-03-01

    This contains abstracts from the 2009 Annual Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PI) Meeting. The ERSP seeks to advance fundamental science to understand, predict, and mitigate the impacts of environmental contamination from past nuclear weapons production and provide a scientific basis for the long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal. These ambitious goals cannot be achieved by any one project alone. Therefore, ERSP funds a combination of research programs at the DOE national laboratories, individual projects at universities and federal agencies, and large long(er)-term field site research. Integration of these activities to advance the ERSP goals is a constant challenge, but made significantly simpler by bringing together all funded ERSP researchers once a year to discuss the very latest research results. It is at these meetings where new ideas and/or scientific advancements in support of ERSP goals can be discussed and openly debated among all PIs in the program. The ERSP thrives, in part, on the new ideas, concepts, scientific connections, and collaborations generated as a result of these meetings. The annual PI Meeting is very much a working meeting with three major goals: (1) to provide opportunities for scientific interaction among the ERSP scientists, a critical element for the program; (2) to provide the ERSP program staff with an opportunity to evaluate the progress of each program and project; and (3) to showcase the ERSP to interested parties within DOE and within other federal agencies In addition to program managers from within OBER, there will be representatives from other offices within DOE and other federal agencies in attandance at the meeting.

  20. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold L. Sommers; R. T. Hunt

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research on advanced hydropower technology through its hydropower program, which is organized under the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2002. The program=s current focus is on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research is to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these are now being tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners to modifications of existing designs. Biological design criteria for these new turbines have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria are being combined with computational tools to locate and eliminate areas inside turbine systems that are damaging to fish. Through the combination of laboratory, field, and computational studies, new solutions are being found to environmental problems at hydropower projects. The diverse program activities continue to make unique contributions to clean energy production in the U.S. By working toward technology improvements that can reduce environmental problems, the program is helping to reposition hydropower as an acceptable, renewable, domestic energy choice.

  1. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  2. Understanding low-level radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations

  3. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R. T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Sommers, G. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Rinehart, B. N. [Consultant; Flynn, J. V. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Brookshier, P. A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2002-04-01

    This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2001. The program’s focus for FY 2002 was on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research was to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these were tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners (e.g., work by Alden Research Laboratory and Concepts NREC) to modifications to existing designs (e.g., Voith Siemens work on Minimum Gap Runners). Biological criteria have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria were combined with computational design tools to locate and eliminate damaging areas inside turbine systems.

  4. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  5. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  6. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  7. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  8. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  9. Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data.

  10. 2nd Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2007-03-14

    Welcome to the annual 2007 Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PIs) meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to bring together all of the lead PIs and key Co-PIs in the program to share and review the results of funded research from the past year. This meeting allows program managers from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) to gauge the progress and significance of the funded research, and it is also an important venue to showcase ERSP research to interested parties within DOE and other invited federal agency representatives. Additionally, these meetings should serve as an opportunity for funded PIs to view their research in the context of the entire ERSP portfolio. Past ERSP meetings have been very important venues for detailed discussion of research results among PIs, development of new research ideas, fostering new collaborations and discussion with ERSD program managers on future research efforts and/or initiatives within the program. In short, these meetings are an important resource for both program managers and PIs. There will be only one ERSP PI meeting for 2007. In years past, ERSD has sponsored two PI meetings, one in the spring and a separate meeting in the fall that focused primarily on field research. However, this format tends to insulate laboratory-based research from the field research sponsored in the program and is incompatible with the ERSD view that laboratory-based research should progress towards understanding the relevant processes in natural environments at the field scale. Therefore the agenda for this year's PI meeting is well integrated with both lab-based and field-based projects, to allow for detailed discussion between PIs involved in each area. In the agenda, you will notice a more relaxed format than in years past. This year's meeting spans four days, but is less heavily regimented in terms of oral

  11. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  12. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided

  13. Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories

  14. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low-level waste systems performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Systems Performance Assessment (PA) presents a systematic analysis of the potential risks posed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) waste management system. Potential risks to the public and environment are compared to established performance objectives as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. The report determines the associated maximum individual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to a member of the public from LLW and mixed waste. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.01 mrem could result from routine radioactive liquid effluents. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.003 mrem could result from routine radioactive gaseous effluents. No other pathways for radiation exposure of the public indicated detectable levels of exposure. The dose rate, monitoring, and waste acceptance performance objectives were found to be adequately addressed by the LLNL Program. 88 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  16. 2009 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen Program, November 2009 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes the hydrogen and fuel cell R&D activities and accomplishments of the DOE Hydrogen Program for FY2009. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  17. Low-level radioactive waste project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes work of the US Conference of Mayors project, Local Government Review of Approaches to Management of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes. The work covered the time between April 1, 1981 and September 30, 1982, and was carried out in two phases. The objective of the first phase was to have local government officials review DOE's proposed low-level radioactive waste management program strategy document. Towards this end, the Conference was to organize meetings to obtain such review, to convey information to local representatives on policy and technical issues associated with low-level waste management, and to provide EG and G Idaho, Inc. (EG and G), the operator of DOE's Idaho Operations Office, with reports on those meetings. Because of the compression of time, funds remained unspent at the end of the first phase. After discussion, both the Conference and EG and G agreed it would be mutually beneficial to re-allocate funds within categories of the original budget, and to extend the project. The purpose of the extention was to permit follow-up to issues and suggestions raised at the Strategy Review Meetings. These included the need to monitor the on-going process of implementing the Low-Level Radioactive Policy Act, and to provide more mayors with information about the issues of low-level radioative waste disposal. As agreed, the tasks under this extension have involved preparation of three information packets for mayors, and briefings for staff of other local government associations

  18. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  19. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, B. N. [Consultant; Sommers, G. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Flynn, J. V. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Brookshier, P. A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2001-04-17

    This report describes the activities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2000 (October 1, 1999, to September 30, 2000). Background, current activities, and future plans are presented in the following sections for all components of the Program. Program focus for FY 2000 was on (1) advanced turbine development, (2) basic and applied R&D, (3) environmental mitigation, (4) low head/low power hydropower technology, and (5) technology transfer.

  20. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  1. 2012 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  2. 1996--1997 TEMA/DOE oversight annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) has entered into a five-year agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide emergency response activities associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The Agreement in Principle (AIP) delineates the duties and responsibilities of the parties. The agreement tasked TEMA with the following responsibilities: develop offsite emergency plans; conduct emergency management training; develop offsite emergency organizations; develop emergency communications; develop emergency facilities; conduct exercises and drills; provide detection and protection equipment; and develop an emergency staff. This report describes progress on the 14 deliverables connected with this contract.

  3. 1996-1997 TEMA/DOE oversite annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) has entered into a five-year agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide emergency response activities associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The Agreement in Principle (AIP) delineates the duties and responsibilities of the parties. The agreement tasked TEMA with the following responsibilities: develop offsite emergency plans; conduct emergency management training; develop offsite emergency organizations; develop emergency communications; develop emergency facilities; conduct exercises and drills; provide detection and protection equipment; and develop an emergency staff. This document reports on progress on these tasks during the past year.

  4. The Drigg low-level waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

  5. Low-level radioactive waste management by states and compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act) provided 7 years of interim access to the disposal sites operating in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington, Today, nearly 5 years later, we are beginning to speculate on the status of States and Compacts at the end of interim access, which is scheduled by law for January 1, 1993. In theory, by then, our job of developing a new regionally based, national low-level waste disposal system should be completed. Upon examining the evidence of progress so far, I conclude that as a Nation, we have a long way to go. An acceleration of efforts may help to put us back on schedule, but it does not look promising. The purpose of this paper it to summarize the current status of low-level waste management nationwide, and to reflect on the difficult challenges the lie ahead in developing an effective nationwide system for the next few years

  6. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  7. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State: it is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the 13th year generators have been required to submit these reports to NYSERDA. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1998. Activity is the measure of a material's radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second. Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1998. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators' projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1998 LLRW reports were received. 2 figs., 23 tabs

  8. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelk, H.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State: it is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the 13th year generators have been required to submit these reports to NYSERDA. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1998. Activity is the measure of a material`s radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second. Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1998. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1998 LLRW reports were received. 2 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  10. 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  11. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2010 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held June 7-11, 2010 in Washington, D.C.

  12. 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 18-22, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; education; safety, codes, and standards; technology validation; systems analysis; and manufacturing R&D.

  13. 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 9-13, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  14. 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-06-13

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 9-13, 2008, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; systems analysis; and manufacturing.

  15. 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  16. 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 13-17, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  17. 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  18. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage

  19. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage

  20. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage.

  1. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections

  2. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections.

  3. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  4. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  5. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978, President Carter established the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG) to review the nation's plans and progress in managing radioactive wastes. In its final report, issued in March 1979, the group recommended that the Department of Energy (DOE) assume responsibility for developing a national plan for the management of low-level wastes. Toward this end, DOE directed that a strategy be developed to guide federal and state officials in resolving issues critical to the safe management of low-level wastes. EG and G Idaho, Inc. was selected as the lead contractor for the Low-Level Waste Management Program and was given responsibility for developing the strategy. A 25 member task force was formed which included individuals from federal agencies, states, industry, universities, and public interest groups. The task force identified nineteen broad issues covering the generation, treatment, packaging, transportation, and disposal of low-level wastes. Alternatives for the resolution of each issue were proposed and recommendations were made which, taken together, form the draft strategy. These recommendations are summarized in this document

  6. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1982. Fifteenth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors are required to submit occupational exposure records to a central repository. The data required includes a summary of whole-body exposures to ionizing radiation, a summary of internal depositions of radioactive materials above specified limits, and occupational exposure reports for terminating employees. This report is a summary of the data submitted by DOE and DOE contractors for 1982. A total of 85,324 DOE and DOE contractor employees were monitored for whole-body ionizing radiation exposures in 1982. In addition to the employees, 87,262 visitors were monitored. Of all employees monitored, 57.4% received a dose equivalent that was less than measurable, 41.0% a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and 1.6% an exposure greater than 1 rem. The exposure received by 86.5% of the visitors to DOE facilities was less than measurable. Only 13.5% of the visitors received a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and < 0.01% of the visitors received an exposure greater than 1 rem. No employees or visitors received a dose equivalent greater than 5 rem

  7. Low-level waste workshops. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 specifies that each state is responsible for the disposal of the low-level waste which is generated within its boundaries. The Act states that such wastes can be most safely and efficiently managed on a regional basis through compacts. It also defines low-level waste as waste which is not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or by-product material as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The Policy Act also stipulates that regional agreements or compacts shall not be applicable to the transportation, management, or disposal of low-level radioactive waste from atomic energy defense activities or federal research and development activities. It also specifies that agreements or compacts shall take affect on January 1, 1986, upon Congressional approval. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Council of State Governments' Midwestern Office. The grant was to be used to fund workshops for legislation on low-level radioactive waste issues. The purpose of the workshops was to provide discussion specifically on the Midwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Legislators from the states which were eligible to join the compact were invited: Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Virginia, Kansas and Nebraska were also eligible but had joined other compacts. Consequently, they weren't invited to the workshops. The Governor's office of West Virginia expressed interest in the compact, and its legislators were invited to attend a workshop. Two workshops were held in March. This report is a summary of the proceedings which details the concerns of the compact and expresses the reasoning behind supporting or not supporting the compact

  8. Reasons for Low Levels of Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The interactivity levels of online CSR communication are typically low. This study explores the reasons for the low levels of interactivity in the popular social media tool Twitter. An analysis of 41,864 Twitter messages (tweets) from the thirty most central corporate accounts in a CSR Twitter...... network is conducted. Comparisons (t-test) between CSR tweets and general tweets and between specialized CSR Twitter accounts and general accounts reveal that the low levels of interactivity are due to a reactive interaction approach and a lack of specialization....

  9. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in this report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1997. (Activity is the measure of a material`s radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second.) Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1997. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1997 LLRW reports were received.

  10. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in this report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1997. (Activity is the measure of a material's radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second.) Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1997. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators' projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1997 LLRW reports were received

  11. Applications of low level scintillation analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a liquid scintillation counter to quantitate radio-activity for low level applications is explored. The applications include 14C dating, hydrology, geology studies, food adulteration studies, environmental monitoring, biomedical, and assessing radio-isotopes in nuclear power plants. (author). 1 fig

  12. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report

  13. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues

  14. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2007 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2007, in Washington, D.C. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  15. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2005 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S. G.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 23-26, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  16. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2006 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2006-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 16-19, 2006, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  17. Annual Program Progress Report under DOE/PHRI Cooperative Agreement: (July 1, 2001-June 30, 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palafox, Neal A., MD, MPH

    2002-07-31

    OAK B188 DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)Annual Program Progress Report. The DOE Marshall Islands Medical Program continued, in this it's 48th year, to provide medical surveillance for the exposed population from Rongelap and Utrik and the additional DOE patients. The program was inaugurated in 1954 by the Atomic Energy Commission following the exposure of Marshallese to fallout from a nuclear test (Castle Bravo) at Bikini Atoll. This year marks the fourth year in which the program has been carried out by PHRI under a cooperative agreement with DOE. The DOERHRI Special Medical Care Program, awarded the cooperative agreement on August 28, 1998, commenced its health care program on January 15, 1999, on Kwajalein and January 22, 1999, on Majuro. This report details the program for the July 1, 2001, through the June 30, 2002, period. The program provides year-round, on-site medical care to the DOE patient population residing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and annual examinations to those patients living in Hawaii and on the Continental U.S.

  18. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies

  19. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  20. Greater-than-class C low-level waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: (1) nuclear utilities waste, (2) potential sealed sources GTCC LLW, (3) DOE-held potential GTCC LLW, and (4) other generator waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The other-generator-waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-held potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential sealed sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 m3. This was substantially less than previous estimates

  1. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitella, R.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  2. Biological Effects of Low Level Laser Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Farivar, Shirin; Malekshahabi, Talieh; Shiari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The use of low level laser to reduce pain, inflammation and edema, to promote wound, deeper tissues and nerves healing, and to prevent tissue damage has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. This review will cover some of the proposed cellular mechanisms responsible for the effect of visible light on mammalian cells, including cytochrome c oxidase (with absorption peaks in the Near Infrared (NIR)). Mitochondria are thought to be a likely site for the initia...

  3. Low Level Laser Therapy for Painful Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Momenzadeh, Sirous

    2013-01-01

    Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) uses a light source that generates extremely pure light, of a single wavelength1. The effect is not thermal, but rather related to photochemical reactions in the cells. LLLT was introduced as an alternative non-invasive treatment for OA about 10 years ago, but its effectiveness is still controversial2. A Cochrane review of LLLT in osteoarthritis included five trials, and concluded that despite some positive findings, the meta-analysis lacked data on how LLLT eff...

  4. IRMM low level underground laboratory in HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchel, D. [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Wordel, R. [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium)

    1997-03-01

    The operation of low background HPGe detectors at a depth of 225 m, reduced the background by two orders of magnitude; a large amount of the remaining background is still attributable to the cosmic rays. The selection of radiopure materials, the characterization of reference matrices and the measurements of low radioactivities in environmental samples are performed. Coupling the low level spectrometry with additional techniques, e.g. neutron activation, will allow to measure extremely low radioactivities. (orig.)

  5. Processing system for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive wastes are successively charged into a container while sliding a partition plate such that the wastes are kept substantially in a fully charged state in the direction of the height. Radiation rays from the low level radioactive wastes contained in the container are measured by a radiation dose measuring means constituted so as to be slidable together with the partition plate. Further, the weight of the low level radioactive wastes in the container is measured by the weight measuring means, and the radioactivity concentration per unit container is calculated by a calculation means based on the result of the measurement. Accordingly, the optimum storage period and the radioactivity level can be estimated on every containers. Further, since the measuring vessel is used also as a storage vessel, long time measurement can be conducted by measuring the radioactivity for the wastes successively to enable exact evaluation. Accordingly, it is possible to save the labors for processing operation and save the storage facility. (T.M.)

  6. The danger from low level radiation: a public and professional misperception?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arguments over the hazards from low level radiation have become one of the linchpins in the nuclear power debate. The use of bomb data to assess low level radiation risk is criticized. The uncertainty of such a practice is not understood by the public and it does not necessarily err on the side of safety. A new approach is urged. (author)

  7. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitch [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-11

    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  8. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as a tool for disseminating information about LLW management; a vehicle that can foster communication; and a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  9. Corticomuscular Coherence with Low-Level Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakarov V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the corticomuscular synchronization in beta- (15-30 Hz and gamma-range (30-45 Hz during isometric compensation of low-level forces. It is still unknown to what extent the synchronization processes in these frequency ranges can coexist or influence each other when the static component only is modulated in a dynamic stimulation pattern. We investigated the corticomuscular coherence (CMC, as well as the cortical spectral power (SP during a visuomotor task, where 8%, 16% and 24% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC were used. Seven healthy right-handed female subjects compensated isometrically the different dynamic forces with their right index finger. EEG was recorded from 52 scalp positions and belly-tendon bipolar EMG from the first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI. Under the three conditions investigated, the beta- and gamma-range CMC existed in parallel. They behaved in a different manner: while the beta-range coherence increased linearly during higher force application, the gamma-range CMC was not significantly modulated by the force levels. Our results suggest that although gamma-range CMC is functionally associated to the isometric compensation of dynamic forces, broad beta-range CMC can fulfill functions of motor control simultaneously different when low-level forces are applied.

  10. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development

  12. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  13. Environmental Assessment Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, low-level and mixed waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0843, for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level and mixed waste processing. The original proposed action, as reviewed in this EA, was (1) to incinerate INEL`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF); (2) reduce the volume of INEL generated low-level waste (LLW) through sizing, compaction, and stabilization at the WERF; and (3) to ship INEL LLW to a commercial incinerator for supplemental LLW volume reduction.

  14. LABORATORY DIRECTED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ANNUAL REPORT TO THE DOE - DECEMBER 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOX,K.J.

    2001-12-01

    Brookhaven National (BNL) Laboratory is a multidisciplinary laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy. BNL's total annual budget has averaged about $450 million. There are about 3,000 employees, and another 4,500 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 4 13.2, ''Laboratory Directed Research and Development,'' March 5, 1997, and the LDRD Annual Report guidance, updated February 12, 1999. The LDRD Program obtains its funds through the Laboratory overhead pool and operates under the authority of DOE Order 4 13.2. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new ''fundable'' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research ''which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions'' for the Laboratory. As one of the premier scientific laboratories of the DOE, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and long-term vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community and foster new science and technology ideas

  15. Draft low level waste technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information.

  16. Low-level therapy in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, O. P.

    1999-07-01

    Extremely slow introduction of low-level laser therapy into the practice of ophthalmologists is restricted by the lack of good methodological recommendation and modern equipment adopted to the needs of ophthalmology. The most perspective is considered to be further improvement of the methods and the elaboration of the medical equipment, working in several wave bands, combined with magnetotherapy and working with the use of various modes of the modulation of the intensity of the luminous flux. It may be asserted that unlike the mode of continuous radiation, in some cases, the effectiveness of the treatment increases when the modulated light with the frequency of one to a few tens HZ is used. Moreover, the methods are being elaborated, when the modulation frequency of laser light and the biorhythms of man physiologic parameters are synchronized. Very perspective seems the computerization of the treatment process with the simultaneous electrophysiological control of the condition of visual functions.

  17. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C;

    2011-01-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives...... and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory...... concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations...

  18. Mechanisms of low level light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova, Tatiana N.

    2006-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In particular a biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect than higher levels. This introductory review will cover some of the proposed cellular chromophores responsible for the effect of visible light on mammalian cells, including cytochrome c oxidase (with absorption peaks in the near infrared) and photoactive porphyrins. Mitochondria are thought to be a likely site for the initial effects of light, leading to increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species and induction of transcription factors. These effects in turn lead to increased cell proliferation and migration (particularly by fibroblasts), modulation in levels of cytokines, growth factors and inflammatory mediators, and increased tissue oxygenation. The results of these biochemical and cellular changes in animals and patients include such benefits as increased healing in chronic wounds, improvements in sports injuries and

  19. Soil gas surveying at low-level radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Moor, K.S.; Hull, L.C. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1989-11-01

    Soil gas sampling is a useful screening technique for determining whether volatile organic compounds are present at low-level radioactive waste burial sites. The technique was used at several DOE sites during the DOE Environmental Survey to determine the presence and extent of volatile organic compound contamination. The advantages of the soil gas sampling are that near real time data can be obtained, no excavation is required, safety concerns are relatively minor, costs are relatively low, and large amounts of data can be obtained rapidly on the contaminants that may pose the greatest threat to groundwater resources. The disadvantages are that the data are difficult to interpret and relate to soil concentrations and environmental standards. This paper discusses the experiences of INEL sampling and analysis personnel, the advantages and disadvantages of the technique, and makes recommendations for improving the sampling and analytical procedures.

  20. Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loghry, S L; Kibbey, A H; Godbee, H W; Icenhour, A S; DePaoli, S M

    1995-01-01

    This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and {open_quotes}other{close_quotes}. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF{sub 6} conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992.

  1. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and

  2. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O.

    1965-03-15

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a {beta}-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10{sup -12} input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -9} input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses.

  3. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  4. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L

    2011-04-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives.

  5. A low-level radioactive waste disposal facility siting simulation exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rope, R.C.; Roop, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facilities. This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation consists of two sessions: in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred site is chosen from three suitable candidate sites. Several workshops involving the simulation have been conducted for persons involved in the planning of LLW management activities. The simulation is useful as a training tool, a vehicle to foster communication, and a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The siting simulation is now available through the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in the development of LLW disposal facilities. 6 refs.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, L.K. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part II: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part 2: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change

  8. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fifth report submitted to Congress under Title 1, section 5(d)(2)(E) of Public Law 99--240, ''The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985'' (the Act). This section of the Act requests the Department of Energy (DOE) to summarize the annual expenditures of funds disbursed from the DOE surcharge escrow account and to assess compliance of these expenditures with the specified limitations. The Act places limitations on the use of these funds and requires the nonsited compact regions and nonmember States to provide DOE with an itemized report of their expenditures on December 31 of each year in which funds are expended. Within 6 months after receiving the individual reports, DOE is to furnish Congress a summary of the reported expenditures and an assessment of compliance with the limitations on the use of these funds specified in the Act. This report fulfills that requirements. DOE disbursed funds totaling $15,006,587.76 to the States and compact regions following the July 1, 1986, January 1, 1988, and January 1, 1990, milestones. Of this amount, $4,328,340.44 was expended during calendar year 1990 and $2,239,205.80 was expended during the prior 4 years. At the end of December 1990, $8,439,041.52 was unexpended. 5 tabs

  9. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth report submitted to Congress under section 5(d)(2)(E)(ii)(II) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1985 (the Act). This section of the Act directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to summarize the annual expenditures of funds disbursed from the DOE surcharge escrow account and to assess compliance of these expenditures with the limitations specified in the Act. In addition to placing limitations on the use of these funds, the Act also requires the nonsited compact regions and nonmember States to provide DOE with an itemized report of their expenditures on December 31 of each year in which funds are expended. Within 6 months after receiving the individual reports, the Act requires the Secretary to furnish Congress with a summary of the reported expenditures and an assessment of compliance with the specified usage limitations. This report fulfills that requirement. DOE disbursed funds totaling $15,037,778.91 to the States and compact regions following the July 1, 1986, January 1, 1988, and January 1, 1990, milestones specified in the Act. Of this amount, $3,517,020.56 was expended during calendar year 1991 and $6,602,546.24 was expended during the prior 5 years. At the end of December 1991, $4,918,212.11 was unexpended. DOE has reviewed each of the reported expenditures and concluded that all reported expenditures comply with the spending limitations stated in section 5(d)(2)(E)(i) of the Act

  10. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  11. Low-level waste management - suggested solutions for problem wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problem wastes are those wastes which are difficult or require unusual expense to place into a waste form acceptable under the requirements of 10 CFR 61 or the disposal site operators. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been investigating the use of various solidification agents as part of the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for several years. Two of the leading problem wastes are ion exchange resins and organic liquids. Ion exchange resins can be solidified in Portland cement up to about 25 wt % resin, but waste forms loaded to this degree exhibit significantly reduced compressive strength and may disintegrate when immersed in water. Ion exchange resins can also be incorporated into organic agents. Mound Laboratory has been investigating the use of a joule-heated glass melter as a means of disposing of ion exchange resins and organic liquids in addition to other combustible wastes

  12. An update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, P.L.; Barker, R.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office

    1993-03-01

    This paper gives an overview and update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada. To provide a relevant perspective, Canadian data are compared with US data on annual waste arisings and with disposal initiatives of the US compacts and states. Presented also is an assessment of the data and its implications for disposal solutions in Canada.

  13. Low level cues and ultra-fast face detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien M Crouzet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work has demonstrated the existence of extremely rapid saccades towards faces in natural scenes that can be initiated only 100 ms after image onset (Crouzet, Kirchner, & Thorpe, 2010. These ultra-rapid saccades constitute a major challenge to current models of processing in the visual system because they do not seem to leave enough time for even a single feed-forward pass through the ventral stream. Here we explore the possibility that the information required to trigger these very fast saccades could be extracted very early on in visual processing using relatively low-level amplitude spectrum (AS information in the Fourier domain. Experiment 1 showed that AS normalization can significantly alter face detection performance. However, a decrease of performance following AS normalization does not alone prove that AS-based information is used (Gaspar & Rousselet, 2009. In Experiment 2, following the Gaspar and Rousselet paper, we used a swapping procedure to clarify the role of AS information in fast object detection. Our experiment is composed of 3 conditions: (i original images, (ii inverted, in which the face image has the AS of a vehicle, and the vehicle has the AS of a face, and (iii swapped, where the face has the AS of another face image, and the vehicle has the AS of another vehicle image. The results showed very similar levels of performance in the original and swapped conditions, and a clear drop in the inverted condition. This result demonstrates that, in the early temporal window offered by the saccadic choice task, the visual saccadic system does indeed rely on low-level AS information in order to rapidly detect faces. This sort of crude diagnostic information could potentially be derived very early on in the visual system, possibly as early as V1 and V2.

  14. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power DOE Operations annual site environmental report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, K.S. [ed.

    1998-11-23

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test sites operated in the Los Angeles area by Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power of Boeing North American, Inc. These are identified as Area 4 of the SSFL and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for research and development (R and D), engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields primarily in energy research and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site had research and development laboratories involved with nuclear research. This work was terminated in 1995 and only D and D activities will have potential for impact on the environment. Since 1956, Area 4 has been used for work with nuclear materials, including fabricating nuclear reactor fuels, testing nuclear reactors, and dissembling used fuel elements. This work ended in 1988 and subsequent efforts have been directed toward decommissioning and decontamination of the former nuclear facilities. The primary purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring of DOE-sponsored activities to the regulatory agencies responsible for oversight. Information presented here concentrates on Area 4 at SSFL, which is the only area at SSFL where DOE operations were performed.

  15. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power DOE operations annual site environmental report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocketdyne currently operates several facilities in the San Fernando Valley/Simi Valley area, for manufacturing, testing, and research and development (R and D). These operations include manufacturing liquid-fueled rocket engines, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and engines used for expendable launch vehicles used to place artificial satellites into orbit. This work includes fabrication and testing of rocket engines, lasers, and heat-transfer systems; and R and D in a wide range of high-technology fields, such as the electrical power system for the Space Station. Previously, this work also included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials, under the Atomics International Division (AI). AI was merged into Rocketdyne in 1984 and many of the AI functions were transferred to existing Rocketdyne departments. This nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. The majority of this work is done for the Department of Energy (DOE). This Annual Site Environmental Report for 1996 concentrates on the environmental conditions related to DOE operations at Area IV of SSFL and at De Soto

  16. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ``Physical and Technological Research.`` The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics

  19. Low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed fin 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive material (RAM) transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the US DOE National Transportation Program (NTP). Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events involving low-level waste (LLW) that have occurred in the US for the period 1971 through 1996. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents, and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred. Where information is available, accident and incident history and package response for LLW packages in transportation accidents will be described

  20. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: disposal volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northeastern states, with support of the Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG), are developing compact(s) for the disposal and management of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in the eleven northeastern states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont). The Technical Subcommittee has made a projection of future low-level radioactive waste to the year 2000 based on existing waste volume data and anticipated growth in the Northeast states. Aware of the difficulties involved with any long range projection - unforeseen events can drastically change projections based on current assumptions - the Technical Subcommittee believes that waste volume projections should be reviewed annually as updated information becomes available. The Technical Subcommittee made the following findings based upon a conservative projection methodology: volumes of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states individually and collectively are expected to grow continually through the year 2000 with the rate of increase varying by state; by the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 58,000 m3 of low-level waste annually, about 1.9 times the current average; and based on current estimates, 47% of the total projected waste volume in the year 2000 will be produced by nuclear power plants, compared to the current average of 54%. Non-reactor wastes will equal 53% of the total in the year 2000 compared to the current 46%

  1. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance objectives included in regulations for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61 for commercial waste and DOE Order 5820.2 for defense waste) are generic principles that generate technical requirements which must be factored into each phase of the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility. These phases include a determination of the quantity and characteristics of the waste, selection of a site and appropriate facility design, use of sound operating practices, and closure of the facility. The collective experience concerning shallow land burial operations has shown that achievement of the performance objectives (specifically, waste isolation and radionuclide containment) requires a systems approach, factoring into consideration the interrelationships of the phases of facility development and operation and their overall impact on performance. This report presents the technical requirements and procedures for the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility for low-level radioactive waste. The systems approach is embodied in the presentation. The report is not intended to be an instruction manual; rather, emphasis is placed on understanding the technical requirements and knowing what information and analysis are needed for making informed choices to meet them. A framework is developed for using the desired site characteristics to locate potentially suitable sites. The scope of efforts necessary for characterizing a site is then described and the range of techniques available for site characterization is identified. Given the natural features of a site, design options for achieving the performance objectives are discussed, as are the operating practices, which must be compatible with the design. Site closure is presented as functioning to preserve the containment and isolation provided at earlier stages of the development and operation of the facility

  2. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  3. Overview of management of low level radioactive wastes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Canada, the programme for the management of low level radioactive wastes is one of continued reliance on interim storage methods while putting in place the policies, regulations and technologies for the transition to permanent disposal which should begin early in the 1990s. The Canadian regulatory authority has issued a policy statement on the objectives, requirements and guidelines for the disposal of radioactive wastes and has proposed a basis for the identification of a de minimis category. The regulations impose a maximum annual risk of 10-6 and are directed at minimizing the burden placed on future generations as well as protecting human health and the environment. Several conceptual and site specific repositories have been designed and evaluated by the major producers in Canada. Proposals for the disposal of uranium contaminated wastes, which comprise the majority of the existing inventory, encountered strong public opposition to suggested sites. This led to the formation of a federal task force which has recommended a community driven siting process. Little opposition has been evident, however, to the operation of most of the existing storage sites for the wastes continuing to arise from the nuclear industry. Processing and storage techniques are being further developed to improve their efficiency. Also, funding for the construction of the first prototype disposal vault has been committed. (author). 22 refs, 1 tab

  4. Plans for managing greater-than-glass C low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level waste is defined in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Title I, Public Law 99-240) as radioactive waste that is neither high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, nor by-product material (mill tailings). This paper presents proposed plans for the Department of Energy to fulfill its responsibility to dispose of GTCC LLW under the 1985 law, and to ensure that safe options are available for long-term management of such, pending the availability of disposal capacity. In the absence of a concentration-based definition for high-level waste, there currently is no upper bound for the concentration of radionuclides in low-level waste. DOE's plans for managing and disposing of GTCC LLW are generally consistent with a report issued by the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment in October 1988, An Evaluation of Options for Managing Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste

  5. Status of low-level radioactive waste requirements development in the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level radioactive waste in accordance with the policies, guidelines and requirements specified in DOE Order 5820.2A, 'Radioactive Waste Management', issued in 1988. Since that time, DOE has reorganized its waste management programs, instituted new policies with emphasis on environmental protection, safety and health protection, and strengthened the management of hazardous waste. An evaluation of DOE Order 5820.2A has shown the need to revise the Order in light of recent organizational and operational policies. In addition, the Order should be more comprehensive, clarify organizational responsibilities, and be more compatible with similar Federal regulations. A revision could also integrate recent interim guidance for management of low-level waste (LLW), such as determination of material as radioactive waste, management of naturally-occurring radioactive material, use of commercial disposal facilities, and the management of special case waste that is unique to DOE. (author)

  6. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power. DOE Operations Annual Site Environmental Report, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, K. S. [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1998-11-23

    This .Annual Site Environmental Report for 1997 concentrates on the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory) (SSFL) and De Soto facilities. In the past. these operations included development. fabrication. and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel and other radioactive materials, under the Atomics International Division (AI). Other activities included the operation of large scale liquid metal facilities for the testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). a government owned company operated, test facility within Area IV. .AI was merged into Rocketdyne in 1981 and many of the AI functions were transferred to existing Rocketdyne departments. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently. all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large scale D&D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996.

  7. Operational and regulatory impacts of regional management on transportation of commercial low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 96th Congress of the United States, as part of the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-573), instructed the Secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a report on the current US low-level waste management situation and the conditions and requirements for management on a regional basis. The Transportation Technology Center has compared the transportation requirement and regional management scenarios for commercial low-level radioactive waste in support of the DOE response to this instruction. Using 1979 low-level waste volumes shipped to commercial burial grounds and six management regions postulated by DOE, transportation requirements were estimated and compared for the two management scenarios in terms of cumulative shipping distance and transportation cost. Effects of these results on the demand for transportation services and equipment and on population risks were considered. Finally, current regulatory issues and the potential effects of regional management on regulation of low-level waste transportation were reviewed

  8. A probability-based approach to setting annual catch levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Shertzer, Kyle W.; Prager, Michael H.; Williams, Erik H.

    2008-01-01

    The requirement of setting annual catch limits to prevent overfishing has been added to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006 (MSRA). Because this requirement is new, a body of applied scientific practice for deriving annual catch limits and accompanying targets does not yet exist. This article demonstrates an approach to setting levels of catch that is intended to keep the probability of future overfishing at a preset low level. The proposed fra...

  9. A nationwide low-level waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Governors' Association, in conjunction with the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program, invited various representatives of states, regions, and federal agencies to comment on their perceptions of what major features would constitute a nationwide low-level waste management system. Three meetings were conducted and this report summarizes results of those meetings. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 placed primary responsibility on the states for disposal of low-level waste. Although initial efforts of states have been directed toward establishing compacts, it is evident that a successful long term system requires significant cooperation and communication among states, regions, federal agencies, and Congress

  10. Low-Level and High-Level Microarray Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Microarray data analysis involves low-level and high-level analysis.The low-level analysis focuses on how to get accurate and precisegene expression data. The analysis built on gene expression data isthe high-level analysis such as differential gene expressionanalysis, SFP detection, eQTL analysis and so on. This thesisfocuses on applications in both low-level and high-level analysis.In the low-level analysis, the proposed L-GCRMA method combines theadvantage of the GCRMA model and the Langmu...

  11. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  12. Management of low level wastes at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), after start-up of the commercial operation, radioactive wastes will be generated. Wastes generated from a reprocessing plant generally consist of many kinds of characteristics in view of ''activity level'', ''nuclide composition'', ''chemical properties'', ''physical properties'', and so on. For stable operation of a reprocessing plant, we should treat, ''condition'' and ''dispose'' these wastes considering these wastes characteristics. To contribute to the nuclear fuel cycle project, it is important to evaluate technologies such as, ''Treatment'', ''Conditioning'' and ''Final Disposal'', not only for technical but also for economical aspects. Considering the final disposal in the future, the basic policy in ''Treatment'' and ''Conditioning'' at RRP is shown below: Recover and reuse chemicals (such as nitric acid and TBP, etc.) in plant; Radioactive waste shall be divided, classified and managed according to activity level, nuclide composition, the radiation level, its physical properties, chemical properties, etc.; Treat them based on ''classification'' management with proper combination; Condition them as intermediate forms in order to keep flexibility in the future disposal method; Original volume of annually generated wastes at RRP is estimated as 5600m3 except highly radioactive vitrified waste, and these wastes shall be treated in the following units, which are now under commisioning, in order to reduce and stabilize wastes. Low-level concentrated liquid waste to be treated with a ''Drying and peptization'' unit; Spent solvent to be treated with a ''Pyrolysis and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; Relatively low-level non-alfa flammable wastes to be treated with a ''Incineration and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; CB/BP (Channel Box and Burnable Poison) to be processed with a ''Cutting'' unit; Other wastes to be kept as their generated state with a ''Intermediate storage''. As a result of these treatments

  13. Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

  14. Hanford low-level waste process chemistry testing data package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) among the State of Washington Department of Ecology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the cleanup of the Hanford Site was renegotiated. The revised agreement specifies vitrification as the encapsulation technology for low level waste (LLW). A demonstration, testing, and evaluation program underway at Westinghouse Hanford Company to identify the best overall melter-system technology available for vitrification of Hanford Site LLW to meet the TPA milestones. Phase I is a open-quotes proof of principleclose quotes test to demonstrate that a melter system can process a simulated highly alkaline, high nitrate/nitrite content aqueous LLW feed into a glass product of consistent quality. Seven melter vendors were selected for the Phase I evaluation: joule-heated melters from GTS Duratek, Incorporated (GDI); Envitco, Incorporated (EVI); Penberthy Electomelt, Incorporated (PEI); and Vectra Technologies, Incorporated (VTI); a gas-fired cyclone burner from Babcock ampersand Wilcox (BCW); a plasma torch-fired, cupola furnace from Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC); and an electric arc furnace with top-entering vertical carbon electrodes from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM)

  15. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. The circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW

  16. A Next Generation Digital Counting System For Low-Level Tritium Studies (Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-03

    Since the early seventies, SRNL has pioneered low-level tritium analysis using various nuclear counting technologies and techniques. Since 1999, SRNL has successfully performed routine low-level tritium analyses with counting systems based on digital signal processor (DSP) modules developed in the late 1990s. Each of these counting systems are complex, unique to SRNL, and fully dedicated to performing routine tritium analyses of low-level environmental samples. It is time to modernize these systems due to a variety of issues including (1) age, (2) lack of direct replacement electronics modules and (3) advances in digital signal processing and computer technology. There has been considerable development in many areas associated with the enterprise of performing low level tritium analyses. The objective of this LDRD project was to design, build, and demonstrate a Next Generation Tritium Counting System (NGTCS), while not disrupting the routine low-level tritium analyses underway in the facility on the legacy counting systems. The work involved (1) developing a test bed for building and testing new counting system hardware that does not interfere with our routine analyses, (2) testing a new counting system based on a modern state of the art DSP module, and (3) evolving the low-level tritium counter design to reflect the state of the science.

  17. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  18. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20)

  19. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders.

  20. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders

  1. The management of mixed low-level radioactivewaste in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of investigations sponsored by the nuclear power industry, the definition of mixed low-level radioactive waste (mixed waste) in the industry is clarified. A methodology for estimating the annual generation rate of mixed waste is presented and its application to a typical nuclear power plant is illustrated. Effective management practices to minimize the generation of mixed waste are described and strategies to deal with unavoidable mixed waste are identified

  2. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is submitted in response to Title 1 of the 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, (the Act). The report summarizes expenditures made by compact regions and unaffiliated states during calendar year 1995 of surcharge rebates from the July 1, 1986, January 1, 1988, and January 1, 1990, milestones, and the January 1, 1993, deadline. Section 5(d)(2)(A) of the Act requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to administer a surcharge escrow account. This account consists of a portion of the surcharge fees paid by generators of low-level radioactive waste in nonsited compact regions (compact regions currently without disposal sites) and nonmember states (states without disposal sites that are not members of compact regions) to the three sited states (states with operating disposal facilities--Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington) for the use of facilities in sited states through the end of 1992. In administering the surcharge escrow account, the Act requires DOE to: (1) Invest the funds in interest-bearing United States Government securities with the highest available yield; (2) Determine eligibility for rebates of the funds by evaluating compact region and state progress toward developing new disposal sites against the milestone requirements set forth in the Act; (3) Disburse the collected rebates and accrued interest to eligible compact regions, states, or generators; (4) Assess compliance of rebate expenditures in accordance with the conditions and limitations prescribed in the Act; and (5) Submit a report annually to Congress summarizing rebate expenditures by state and compact region and assessing the compliance of each such state or compact region with the requirement for expenditure of the rebates as provided in section 5(d)(2)(E) of the Act

  3. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low Level Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    2000-11-15

    As directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Fluor Hanford, Inc. will implement the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, as the requirements relate to the continued operation of the low-level waste disposal facilities on the Hanford Site. DOE Order 435.1 requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) of a low-level waste disposal facility. The objective of this Order is to ensure that all DOE radioactive waste is managed in a manner that protects the environment and personnel and public health and safety. The manual (DOE Order 435.1 Manual) implementing the Order states that a disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility. In fulfillment of the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds. The disposal authorization statement constitutes approval of the performance assessment and composite analysis, authorizes operation of the facility, and includes conditions that the disposal facility must meet. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds be written and approved by the DOE-RL. The monitoring plan is to be updated and implemented within 1 year following issuance of the disposal authorization statement to

  4. Intelligent Low-level RF System by Non-destructive Beam Monitoring Device for Cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Malafeh, M S Sharifi Asadi; Afarideh, H; Chai, J S

    2015-01-01

    The project of a10MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF suitable for Most of the AVF cyclotron accelerators was designed by the beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, for the RF phase detection does not need to signal processing by microcontroller

  5. Intelligent low-level RF system by non-destructive beam monitoring device for cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Asadi Malafeh, M. S.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Afarideh, H.; Chai, J. S.; Yoon, Sang Kim

    2016-04-01

    The project of a 10 MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of the cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work an Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF, suitable for most AVF cyclotron accelerators, is designed using a beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, the RF phase detection does not need signal processing by a microcontroller.

  6. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventh report submitted to Congress in accordance with section 5(d)(2)(E)(ii)(II) of Title I--Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act). This section of the Act directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to summarize the annual expenditures of funds disbursed from the DOE surcharge escrow account and to assess compliance of these expenditures with the limitations specified in the Act. In addition to placing limitations on the use of these funds, the Act also requires the nonsited compact regions and nonmember States to provide DOE with an itemized report of their expenditures on December 31 of each year in which funds are expended. Within 6 months after receiving the individual reports, the Act requires the Secretary to furnish Congress with a summary of the reported expenditures and an assessment of compliance with the specified usage limitations. This report fulfills that requirement. DOE disbursed funds totaling $15,037,778.91 to the States and compact regions following the July 1, 1986, January 1, 1988, and January 1, 1990, milestones specified in the Act. Of this amount, $1,445,701.61 was expended during calendar year 1992 and $10,026,763.87 was expended during the prior 6 years. At the end of December 1992, $3,565,313.43 was unexpended. DOE has reviewed each of the reported expenditures and concluded that all reported expenditures comply with the spending limitations stated in section 5(d)(2)(E)(i) of the Act

  7. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  8. Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group was made up of individuals from various waste generating industries, environmental and public interest groups, medical and academic institutions, and affected state agencies. This final report document contains the following staff project reports: Proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, February 1983 and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in Massachusetts - Actions to be Considered for Implementation in 1984-1986, December 1983. These two staff reports represent the completion of the Massachusetts Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. The first report provides some of the background material to the issues and some of the alternative courses of action which can be considered by state policy-makers. The second report provides the next phase in the process by delineating specific steps which may be taken before 1986 in order to address the low-level waste problem, and the estimated amount of time needed to complete each step

  9. Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness. Part 2. Ecological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 38 reports for this Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. This part dealt with research conducted in the ecological sciences

  10. Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness. Part 2. Ecological Sciences. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1982-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 38 reports for this Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. This part dealt with research conducted in the ecological sciences.

  11. Low-level radioactive material information management system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) has designed and tested a monitoring system for reporting and tracking the movement of low-level radioactive waste from generator through transporter or broker to disposal site. This demonstration project has been an attempt to show the feasibility of a system with wider regional and national scope. In conjunction with the development of this closed-loop system, a low-level waste generators' survey has been conducted in 10 pilot states to collect, analyze and present low-level waste data for state management purposes. These states are Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia

  12. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1996-09-16

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single- and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and its performance as early as possible in the project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  13. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-09-12

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  14. The treatment of low-level waste at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program at Mound Laboratory to handle low-level radioactive waste has two major objectives: 1) to design a volume reduction system for low-level combustible waste, both solid and liquid, and 2) to develop separation methods for removing radionuclides from liquid waste, both, low-level and intermediate-level. The result of the former effort is the Cyclone Incinerator which provides a volume reduction of >35:1. In meeting the latter objective, ultrafiltration has been demonstrated to be a feasible way of reducing the generation of secondary waste. Development of such techniques will significantly reduce waste management costs in the nuclear industry

  15. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  16. Development of a low-level radon reference chamber; Entwicklung einer Low-Level-Radon-Referenzkammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzmaier, Diana

    2013-01-04

    The naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas radon-222 exists worldwide in different activity concentrations in the air. During the decay of radon-222, decay products are generated which are electrically charged and attach to aerosols in the air. Together with the aerosols, the radon is inhaled and exhaled by humans. While the radon is nearly completely exhaled, ca. 20 % of the inhaled aerosols remain in the lungs in one breath cycle. Due to ionizing radiation, in a chain of events, lung cancer might occur. Consequently, radon and its decay products are according to the current findings the second leading cause of lung cancer. At the workplace and in the home measurements of radon activity concentration are performed to determine the radiation exposition of humans. All measurement devices for the determination of radon activity concentration are calibrated above 1000 Bq/m{sup 3}, even though the mean value of the present investigation in Germany shows only 50 Bq/m{sup 3}. For the calibration of measurement devices in the range below 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} over a long time period, the generation of a stable reference atmosphere is presented in this work. Due to a long term calibration (t>5 days) of the measurement devices, smaller uncertainties result for the calibration factor. For the calibration procedure, a so-called low-level radon reference chamber was set up and started operation. The generation of a stable reference atmosphere is effected by means of emanation sources which consist of a radium-226 activity standard. On the basis of {gamma}-spectrometry, the effective emanation coefficient ofthe emanation sources is determined. The traceability of the activity concentration in the reference volume is realized via the activity ofthe radium-226, the emanation coefficient and the volume. With the emanation sources produced, stable reference atmospheres within the range of 150 Bq/m{sup 3} to 1900 Bq/m{sup 3} are achieved. For the realization, maintenance and

  17. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  18. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made

  19. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made. (DLC)

  20. Low level cloud motion vectors from Kalpana-1 visible images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inderpreet Kaur; S K Deb; C M Kishtawal; P K Pal; Raj Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Till now low-level winds were retrieved using Kalpana-1 infrared (IR) images only. In this paper, an attempt has been made to retrieve low-level cloud motion vectors using Kalpana-1 visible (VIS) images at every half an hour. The VIS channel provides better detection of low level clouds, which remain obscure in thermal IR images due to poor thermal contrast. The tracers are taken to be 15 × 15 pixel templates and hence each wind corresponds to about 120km × 120km at sub-satellite point. Multiplet based wind retrieval technique is followed for VIS wind derivation. However, for height assignment of VIS winds, collocated IR image is used. Due to better contrast between cloud and ocean surface, the low level atmospheric flow is captured better as compared to IR winds. The validation of the derived VIS winds is done with Global Forecast System (GFS) model winds and Oceansat-II scatterometer (OSCAT) winds.

  1. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options

  2. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  3. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  4. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr. [Vista Research, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves.

  5. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves

  6. Environment, safety and health at DOE facilities. Annual report, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE has set forth its basic environmental, safety, and health policy and program requirements in Order DOE 5480.1, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for DOE Operations. Additional orders address specific areas within the ES and H programs. The program was established to protect the health and safety of approximately 132,000 contractor employees, the general public, DOE property which has a replacement value of about $66 billion, and the natural environment from harm that could result from DOE operations. This report is a review of the 1982 environmental, safety, and health performance for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) federal contractor operations, as presented by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Safety, and Environment. 26 figures, 8 tables

  7. Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this

  8. Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1986-02-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details

  12. DOE/EPSCoR Traineeship Program: Progress report, academic year 1992--93. Annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, D.; Steadman, J.

    1993-12-31

    This progress report reviews the University of Wyoming`s approach to implementing the DOE Traineeship Program, and briefly describes the research performed by the DOE/EPSCoR Trainees during the academic year, 1992--1993. These brief descriptions of individual research projects demonstrate the wide scope of energy-related research that the DOE-EPSCoR Traineeships have initiated in Wyoming. The availability of this funding has encouraged many talented students to continue their education in fields of interest to DOE. These additional bright, energetic graduate students have improved the educational atmosphere for everyone. The visibility of the DOE program has sharpened the focus of the science and engineering departments on the energy-related research of importance to Wyoming and DOE. The impact of the DOE Traineeships in Wyoming has been substantial and very positive. It has not only increased the number of students studying in energy-related disciplines, but has also increased the quality of their graduate research. The program has also increased the visibility of DOE in Wyoming and has helped focus attention on the energy and environmental graduate education which is so essential to the University and the State.

  13. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 to assist states and compacts in their siting and licensing efforts for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) is the element of the DOE that performs the key support activities under the Act. The NLLWMP's activities are driven by the needs of the states and compacts as they prepare to manage their low-level waste under the Act. Other work is added during the fiscal year as necessary to accommodate new requests brought on by status changes in states' and compacts' siting and licensing efforts. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during FY 1997

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part four of the PNL Annual Report for 1990 includes research in physical sciences. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases in the following areas: Dosimetry Research; Measurement Science; Radiological and Chemical Physics; Radiation Dosimetry; Radiation Biophysics; and Modelling Cellular Response to Genetic Damage. (FL)

  15. Low-dose glyphosate does not control annual bromes in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bromes (downy brome and Japanese brome) have been shown to decrease perennial grass forage production and alter ecosystem functions in northern Great Plains rangelands. Large-scale chemical control might be a method for increasing rangeland forage production if low application rates confer co...

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.; Stults, B.R.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    Part four of the PNL Annual Report for 1990 includes research in physical sciences. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases in the following areas: Dosimetry Research; Measurement Science; Radiological and Chemical Physics; Radiation Dosimetry; Radiation Biophysics; and Modelling Cellular Response to Genetic Damage. (FL)

  17. Low-level radioactive waste regulation: Science, politics and fear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inevitable consequence of the use of radioactive materials is the generation of radioactive wastes and the public policy debate over how they will be managed. In 1980, Congress shifted responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from the federal government to the states. This act represented a sharp departure from more than 30 years of virtually absolute federal control over radioactive materials. Though this plan had the enthusiastic support of the states in 1980, it now appears to have been at best a chimera. Radioactive waste management has become an increasingly complicated and controversial issue for society in recent years. This book discusses only low-level wastes, however, because Congress decided for political reasons to treat them differently than high-level wastes. The book is based in part on three symposia sponsored by the division of Chemistry and the Law of the American Chemical Society. Each chapter is derived in full or in part from presentations made at these meetings, and includes: (1) Low-level radioactive wastes in the nuclear power industry; (2) Low-level radiation cancer risk assessment and government regulation to protect public health; and (3) Low-level radioactive waste: can new disposal sites be found

  18. Illinois perspective on low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illinois is a big generator of low level radioactive waste. It has had extensive experience with controversial waste disposal and storage facilities. This experience makes it difficult for the public and political leaders in Illinois to support the establishment of new disposal facilities in the state. Yet, with extensive debates and discussions concerning the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the proposed Midwest Compact, political leaders and the public are facing up to the fact that they must be responsible for the disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in the state. The Governor and many political leaders from Illinois support the regional approach and believe it can be an innovative and progressive way for the state to deal with the range of low level waste management and disposal problems. A version of the Midwest Interstate Low Level Waste Compact has become Illinois law, but it has significant differences from the one adopted by five other states. Like other states in the midwest and northeast, Illinois is opposed to Congressional consent of the four pending compacts before the remaining two compacts, the northeast and midwest are sent to Washington and interregional agreements are negotiated between the sited and non-sited regions. A new national system must be established before access to existing commercial disposal becomes restricted

  19. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  20. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Julio C Rojas1,2, F Gonzalez-Lima1 1Departments of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; 2Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Low-level light therapy (LLLT using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic revolution spearheaded by LLLT is largely propelled by progress in the basic science fields of photobiology and bioenergetics. This paper describes the mechanisms of action of LLLT at the molecular, cellular, and nervous tissue levels. Photoneuromodulation of cytochrome oxidase activity is the most important primary mechanism of action of LLLT. Cytochrome oxidase is the primary photoacceptor of light in the red to near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is also a key mitochondrial enzyme for cellular bioenergetics, especially for nerve cells in the retina and the brain. Evidence shows that LLLT can secondarily enhance neural metabolism by regulating mitochondrial function, intraneuronal signaling systems, and redox states. Current knowledge about LLLT dosimetry relevant for its hormetic effects on nervous tissue, including noninvasive in vivo retinal and transcranial effects, is also presented. Recent research is reviewed that supports LLLT potential benefits in retinal disease, stroke, neurotrauma, neurodegeneration, and memory and mood disorders. Since mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in neurodegeneration, LLLT has potential significant applications against retinal and brain damage by counteracting the consequences of mitochondrial failure. Upon transcranial delivery in vivo, LLLT induces brain metabolic and antioxidant beneficial effects, as measured by increases in cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Increases

  1. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  2. Compilation of costs for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our goal was to provide a complete accounting of costs incurred to date an projected through disposal facility life cycle pursuant to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). To help achieve this goal, a study was conducted to determine (1) how much the United States has spent and will spend on the development of new low-level radioactive (LLW) disposal capacity; and (2) how much other countries, specifically Finland, France, Spain, and Sweden have spent to develop and operate their LLW disposal facilities. The results are published in an Office of Policy Planning (OPP) document (1)

  3. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  4. Low Level Laser Therapy: A Panacea for oral maladies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Vartika; Kalra, Gauri

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To review the applications of low level laser therapy on various soft and hard oral tissues. A variety of therapeutic effects of Low Level Laser Therapy have been reported on a broad range of disorders. It has been found amenably practical in dental applications including soft as well as hard tissues of the oral cavity. LLLT has been found to be efficient in acceleration of wound healing, enhanced remodelling and bone repair, regeneration of neural cells following injury, pain attenuation, endorphin release stimulation and modulation of immune system. The aforementioned biological processes induced by Low level lasers have been effectively applied in treating various pathological conditions in the oral cavity. With is article, we attempt to review the possible application of Low Laser Therapy in the field of dentistry. PMID:26557737

  5. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. The US Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program is directed toward a coordinated program covering the period from low-level radioactive waste generation through the decommissioning of the disposal site. This paper addresses the treatment portion of the program. The development efforts include: mechanical methods for metal and compactible waste volume reduction; incineration of trash or other combustibles through the use of controlled air, cyclone, or molten glass furnaces; ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, biological or chemical destruction of nitrates; adsorption treatment of low-concentration aqueous waste streams; combustion of organic liquids; and smelting of metal wastes to reduce their volume and conserve our natural resources. (author)

  6. Radiation Protection Research: Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 1999 are reported. Particular emphasis is SCK-CEN's contribution to the EULEP-EURADOS Action Group on 'Derivation of parameter values for application in the new model of the human respiratory tract for occupational exposure'.

  7. Successfully burying low-level waste for fun and profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of Washington, now receiving more than half the nation's waste, is here to provide a practical review of the benefits of having a low-level waste disposal site and to provide our perspective on how the state of Washington carries out its responsibilities through regulation of that disposal site. This information is offered in the hope that it may be useful to other states when they accept their responsibility to provide for the disposal of their low-level radioactive waste. The 1980 Low-Level Waste Policy Act very directly gave the responsibility for finding and developing new waste disposal capacity to the states. Through the process of compacting, the states have begun to accept this responsibility. From Washington's perspective, however, the progress shown to date, especially in some states generating very large amounts of waste, has not been adequate to meet the 1986 deadline

  8. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E. (comps.)

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop.

  9. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  11. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop

  12. Development of a low-level Ar-37 calibration standard

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, R M; Bowyer, T W; Day, A R; Fuller, E S; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoppe, E W; Humble, P H; Keillor, M E; LaFerriere, B D; Mace, E K; McIntyre, J I; Miley, H S; Myers, A W; Orrell, J L; Overman, C T; Panisko, M E; Seifert, A

    2016-01-01

    Argon-37 is an environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level Ar-37 standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in developing a process to generate and quantify low-level Ar-37 standards, which can be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. This paper presents a discussion of the measurement analysis, along with assumptions and uncertainty estimates.

  13. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  14. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC

  15. Low-level radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Canada, all low-level radioactive wastes are presently stored. The wastes are classified into two major categories, that is, historic wastes for which the original generator/producer can no longer be held responsible and for which the federal government has assumed residual management responsibility, and ongoing wastes, which are the responsibility of the present waste producers. This paper will present the approach being taken for the management of each class of waste and will also briefly discuss the community-based, cooperative and consultative approach being used to find sites for the long-term management/disposal of historic low-level radioactive wastes

  16. MT DOE/EPSCoR planning grant. Annual technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Scruggs, V.L.

    1992-08-31

    The Montana DOE/EPSCoR planning process has made significant changes in the state of Montana. This is exemplified by notification from the Department of Energy`s Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (DOE/EPSCoR) recommendation to fund Montana`s 1992 graduate traineeship grant proposal in the amount of $500,000. This is a new award to Montana. DOE traineeship reviewers recognized that our planning grant enabled us to develop linkages and build the foundation for a competitive energy-related research and traineeship program in Montana. During the planning, we identified three major focus areas: Energy Resource Base, Energy Production, and Environmental Effects. For each focus area, we detailed specific problem areas that the trainees may research. We also created MORE, a consortium of industrial affiliates, state organizations, the Montana University System (MUS), tribal colleges, and DOE national laboratories. MORE and our state-wide Research and Education Workshop improved and solidified working relationships. We received numerous letters of support. DOE reviewers endorsed our traineeship application process. They praised the linkage of each traineeship with a faculty advisor, and the preference for teams of faculty members and two or more students. ``Particularly commendable`` were our programs to involve Native American educators and the ``leveraging effect`` of this on the human resources in the state. Finally, the DOE reviewers indicated that cost-sharing via support of Native Americans was creative and positive.

  17. MT DOE/EPSCoR planning grant. [Annual Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Scruggs, V.L.

    1992-08-31

    The Montana DOE/EPSCoR planning process has made significant changes in the state of Montana. This is exemplified by notification from the Department of Energy's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (DOE/EPSCoR) recommendation to fund Montana's 1992 graduate traineeship grant proposal in the amount of $500,000. This is a new award to Montana. DOE traineeship reviewers recognized that our planning grant enabled us to develop linkages and build the foundation for a competitive energy-related research and traineeship program in Montana. During the planning, we identified three major focus areas: Energy Resource Base, Energy Production, and Environmental Effects. For each focus area, we detailed specific problem areas that the trainees may research. We also created MORE, a consortium of industrial affiliates, state organizations, the Montana University System (MUS), tribal colleges, and DOE national laboratories. MORE and our state-wide Research and Education Workshop improved and solidified working relationships. We received numerous letters of support. DOE reviewers endorsed our traineeship application process. They praised the linkage of each traineeship with a faculty advisor, and the preference for teams of faculty members and two or more students. Particularly commendable'' were our programs to involve Native American educators and the leveraging effect'' of this on the human resources in the state. Finally, the DOE reviewers indicated that cost-sharing via support of Native Americans was creative and positive.

  18. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  19. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: revised waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste generated in the eleven Northeast states has undergone significant change since the inital 1982 analysis and projection. These revised projections incorporate improved data reporting and evidence of sharp declines in certain categories of waste. Volumes in the 1982-1983 period reflect waste shipped for disposal as reported by disposal site operators. Projected waste volumes represent waste intended for disposal. The recent dramatic changes in source reduction and waste management practices underscore the need for annual review of waste volume projections. The volume of waste shipped for off-site disposal has declined approximately 12% in two years, from an average 1,092,500 ft3 annually in 1979 to 1981 to an average annual 956,500 ft3 in 1982 to 1983; reactor waste disposal volumes declined by about 39,000 ft3 or 7% during this period. Non-reactor waste volumes shipped for disposal declined by over 70,000 ft3 or 15% during this period. The data suggest that generators increased their use of such management practices as source reduction, compaction, or, for carbon-14 and tritium, temporary storage followed by disposal as non-radioactive waste under the NRC de minimus standard effective March 1981. Using the Technical Subcommittee projection methodology, the volume of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states, individually and collectively, is expected to increase through the year 2000, but at a significantly lower rate of increase than initially projected. By the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 1,137,600 ft3 of waste annually, an increase of about 20% over 1982 to 1983 average volume

  20. Evaluating public involvement in the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy contracted with the Keystone Center to evaluate the effectiveness of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program's public-involvement efforts. The Center chose six evaluators with diverse training and experience related to low-level waste management and public-participation programs. Keystone's evaluation was based on (a) observations by the evaluators who attended the National Program-sponsored strategy review meetings and fairs; (b) interviews with low-level waste generators, local government officials, state legislators, public-interest groups, and members of the general public; and (c) observations of the final National Program strategy task force meeting. The evaluators concluded that, overall, the public-participation processes yielded some very positive results - for policy development and for DOE and the EG and G staff. They judged the strategy document to be complete, concise, and helpful to public dialogue on low-level waste issues. They also made specific recommendations for improvements to the public-participation program

  1. Low Level Laser Therapy for Patients with Cervical Disk Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Okuni, Ikuko; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Harada, Takashi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Ohshiro, Toshio; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Musya, Yoshiro

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic shoulder joint pain, elbow, hand and finger pain, and low back pain. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic neck pain.

  2. Low level liquid scintillation analysis for environmental and biomedical quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past five years low level liquid scintillation counting has become increasing popular because of the large number of applications which can be performed using this technique. These applications include environmental monitoring (3H, 90Sr/90Y, etc.), radiocarbon dating (for age determination to 50,000 years), food adulteration studies (alcohol and beverage industries), radon monitoring (air/water), nuclear power plant monitoring (low level 3H) and metabolism studies (pharmaceutical research). These applications can be performed with either a dedicated low level LSC or using a standard liquid scintillation counter in conjunction with the new technique of time-resolved LSC (TR-LSC). This technique when used on a standard LSC reduces the instrument background without substantially effecting the background, thus increasing the performance (E2/B) of the LSC. Data will be presented for each of the applications mentioned above, comparing the standard LSC and the new TR-LSC techniques. The optimization of the samples for each of these applications will be explored in detail with experimental results. In conclusion, by using the TR-LSC technique in conjunction with a standard LSC the performance of the standard LSC can be increased substantially without dedicating the LSC to doing only low level samples

  3. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies

  4. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C.R.

    1996-09-19

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  5. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  6. Disposal of low-level mixed waste in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was created to provide disposal capacity for all low-level radioactive waste generated within the state of Texas. In the opinion of the Authority staff this legislative directive as well as the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act require that the Authority provide capacity for the disposal of low-level mixed waste. To accomplish this the Authority has met with representatives of the Bureau of Radiation Control, the Agreement State agency in Texas, and the Texas Water Commission, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-delegated agency for the state of Texas. These meetings have served to alert both agency's to some of the conflicting administrative procedures and to obtain guidance regarding an acceptable disposal unit design. The Authority used as a starting point the conceptual design which was agreed to by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency. This paper presents the results of the preliminary design effort for a mixed waste disposal unit for the Texas facility. This proposed design has not been reviewed by either of the licensing agencies involved and should not be considered as being approved by either agency

  7. On Low-level Cognitive Components of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze speech for low-level cognitive features using linear component analysis. We demonstrate generalizable component ‘fingerprints’ stemming from both phonemes and speakers. Phonemes are fingerprints found at the basic analysis window time scale (20 msec), while speaker...

  8. On Low-level Cognitive Components of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze speech for low-level cognitive features using linear component analysis. We demonstrate generalizable component 'fingerprints' stemming from both phonemes and speaker. Phonemes are fingerprints found at the basic analysis window time scale (20 msec), while speaker...

  9. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  10. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most credible option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

  11. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. A Multicounter System for Scanning Ultra-Low-Level Radiochromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Theodorsson, P.

    1977-01-01

    A multicounter system consisting of an integrated array of flow counters for the scanning of ultra-low-level radioactivity on paper and thin-layer chromatograms was developed. Experience with routine measurements over a prolonged period has proved the advantages of this system over other systems...

  13. Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee annual report: Summary of DOE hydrogen programs for FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FY 1988 Summary is the eleventh consecutive yearly report providing an overview of the hydrogen-related programs of the DOE offices represented on the HECC. A historical summary of the hydrogen budgets of these offices is given. The distribution by mission-related program element for FY 1988, and the non-mission-related activities are given. Total DOE funding in FY 1988 for mission-related hydrogen research was $5.2 million; DOE non-mission-related hydrogen research funding totaled $30.0 million. The individual program elements are described in the body of this report, and more specific program information is given in the Technology Summary Forms in Appendix A. 2 tabs

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempf, R.E. (ed.)

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE's long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE's contribution to the US Global Change Research

  15. Annual assessment of the DOE unusual occurrence reports program for FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (EH), Office of Safety Compliance funded programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers an unusual occurrence reporting (UOR) system program. The policy for this effort, as set forth in DOE Order 5000.3, Unusual Occurrence Reporting System, is that unusual occurrences be promptly reported, UORs be critically reviewed, and information of generic significance be disseminated to interested DOE organizational elements. This report presents an assessment of the DOE UOR program for FY 1988 and covers only the activities of the PAPO. There were 508 UORs processed during the year and these include Initial, Initial-Final, Interim, and Final reports. There was a total of 316 occurrences; therefore, the number of UORs processed was larger than the number of occurrences. There was a 12% decrease in UORs processed relative to FY 1987. There is a continuing trend of declining numbers of reported occurrences since FY 1984, and there was a 7% decrease in the number of occurrences in FY 1988 relative to FY 1987. Five operations offices issued 88% of the occurrences. The Operation Offices are Albuquerque (AL), Chicago (CH), Idaho (ID), Oak Ridge (OR), and Richland (RL). 3 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  17. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis for Low-Level Waste Generated at the Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a study that identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contact-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most credible options are selected after a systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. (authors)

  18. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  19. AISI-DOE Direct Steelmaking Program. Annual report for the year ending November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aukrust, E.

    1994-02-01

    This program has completed its 5th year since cost-share funding provided by DOE. The following tasks are reported on: budget, patents, talks, and publications; design and construction of gas cleaning and tempering loop; construction of pressurized smelter and operation of combined smelter and offgas system; study for ironmaking demonstration plant and for steelmaking processes; and laboratory research programs at universities and companies.

  20. TEMA-DOE annual report, July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) will develop off-site Multi-Jurisdictional Emergency Response Plans (MJERPs) in coordination with Federal, State, and local agencies. The MJERPs will describe actions to minimize the risks to the citizens of Tennessee as a result of an off-site release of hazardous material from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. This report describes actions made during each quarter of the year.

  1. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ross, W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nakaoka, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schumacher, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Cunnane, J.; Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  2. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available

  3. Development of a computerized data base for low-level waste leaching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized data base (db) of low-level waste (LLW) leaching data is being compiled by Brookhaven National Laboratory under contract to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program. Although this db is being compiled as part of an effort to develop accelerated leach test procedures for LLW forms, other involved in LLW management may find it useful. The db is implemented on an IBM PC XT and is self-contained in that its data manipulation and analysis programs are not proprietary (i.e., need not be purchased). The db includes data from the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program plus selected literature data, which have been selected based on criteria that include completeness of the experimental description and elucidation of leaching mechanisms. 6 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  4. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, L.K. [ed.; Wildung, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part 2: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  6. Tradescantia in studies of genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tradescantia in studies on genetic effects of low level radiation is briefly introduced. Radiosensitivity, method of screening stamen hair mutation, materials in current uses, spontaneous mutation rate, and modifying factors are refered. For stamen hair mutation b values in exponential model were lower in irradiation with low dose rate at high environmental temperature. The dose response curves under these modifying conditions, when extrapolated to low dose range, well fit to the line which was obtained by Sparrow's experiment of low level irradiation. In chronic irradiation, the frequency of stamen hair mutation reaches to the constant value after 17 days from the start of irradiation, and is as much as 4 times higher than the peak value in one day irradiation at the same exposure rate. The spontaneous mutation rate of KU-7 varied with temperature. The increase with 10C increment of mean temperature was -0.04%. Uses of Tradescantia in monitoring the environmental radiation is discussed. (auth.)

  7. A robotic inspector for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at several facilities. Weekly visual inspections are required. A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed to survey and inspect the stored drums. The robot will travel through the three-foot wide aisles of drums stacked four high and perform a visual inspection, normally performed by a human operator, making decisions about the condition of the drums and maintaining a database of pertinent information about each drum. This mobile robot system will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. 4 refs., 3 figs

  8. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  9. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, A

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg sup - sup 1. The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author)

  10. Low level laser therapy in the treatment of aphthous ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common and painful ulcerative lesions of the oral cavity, but until now no cure has been recognized for it. Two patients diagnosed with minor RAS were treated in a single sitting with low level laser therapy using 940-nm diode laser. The lesions healed completely within 3-4 days and a follow-up for 1 showed no recurrence in these patients. According to the results of this study, low level laser therapy can decrease the healing time, pain intensity, size, and recurrence of the lesion in patients with minor RAS, and hence can be considered the most appropriate treatment modality for minor RAS, with greatest clinical effectiveness.

  11. Siting the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.K.; MacMillan, J.H. [N.C. Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    On December 8, 1993, the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority selected a site in Wake County as the preferred site for the North Carolina low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. This facility will replace the Southeast Compact`s current facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. Five days later, the Authority`s contractors, Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., filed a license application for the facility. These two actions culminated six years of work by the Authority and constitute the achievement of a major milestone in the project. Work leading up to this point included field studies, facility design, performance assessment calculations, and a variety of public outreach activities. Pending regulatory approval of the license application, North Carolina is scheduled to open the Southeast Compact`s second LLRW disposal facility in January 1996.

  12. Interference control in low-level analysis of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work analyses the integration of several steps applied to control potentials sources of error in the determination of 129I and prevent spurious results in order to achieve the minimum detection limit. The procedure of pre and post-irradiation purification, neutron irradiation, radioactive counting and data analysis are needed. High resolution gamma spectrometry was used for detection and measurement of low level interferences. (author)

  13. Preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary assessments of the post-closure radiological impact from the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow engineered facilities at four sites are presented. This provides a framework to practice and refine a methodology that could be used, on behalf of the Department, for independent assessment of any similar proposal from Nirex. Information and methodological improvements that would be required are identified. (author)

  14. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for processing low level, light weight, bulky, combustible nuclear solid waste material comprising the steps of reacting said solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 deg - 300 deg C and simultaneously, subsequently, or both simultaneously and subsequently contacting said waste with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen oxides whereby carbonaceous material is oxidized to gaseous byproducts and a low volume residue. (author)

  15. Target representation on an autonomous vehicle with low level sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Bicho, E.; Mallet, Pierre; Schöner, Gregor

    2000-01-01

    How can low-level autonomous robots with only very simple sensor systems be endowed with cognitive capabilities? Specifically, we consider a system that uses seven infrared sensors and five microphones to avoid obstacles and acquire sound targets. The cognitive abilities of the vehicle consist of representing the direction in which a sound source lies. This representation supports target detection, estimation of target direction, selection of one out of multiple-detected targets, storage of t...

  16. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  17. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report's information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  18. Role of Low-Level Laser Therapy in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Javad T.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Osmani, Bushra Z.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Naeser, Margaret A.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the laser. The development of lasers for medical use, which became known as low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation, followed in 1967. In recent years, LLLT has become an increasingly mainstream modality, especially in the areas of physical medicine and rehabilitation. At first used mainly for wound healing and pain relief, the medical applications of LLLT have broadened to include diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarc...

  19. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on scar tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Carla; Melo, Cristina Argel de; Alexandrino, Ana Silva; Noites, Andreia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapy has a very important role in the maintenance of the integumentary system integrity. There is very few evidence in humans. Nevertheless, there are some studies about tissue regeneration using low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Aim: To analyze the effectiveness of LLLT on scar tissue. Methods: Seventeen volunteers were stratified by age of their scars, and then randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) — n = 9 – and a placebo group (PG) – n = 8. Fifteen sessions wer...

  20. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas JC; Gonzalez-Lima F

    2011-01-01

    Julio C Rojas1,2, F Gonzalez-Lima1 1Departments of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; 2Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Low-level light therapy (LLLT) using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic rev...

  1. Low-Level Laser Therapy Decreases Renal Interstitial Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Fabiana Aparecida Mayrink; Moraes, Ana Carolina Meneghin; Paiva, Amanda Povoa; Schinzel, Vânia; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Semedo, Patricia; Castoldi, Angêla; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Oliveira, Roberto Sotto-Maior Fortes; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2012-01-01

    Objective: the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Background data: Regardless of the etiology, CKD involves progressive widespread tissue fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and loss of kidney function. This process also occurs in kidney allograft. At present, effective therapies for this condition are lacking. We investigated the effects of LLLT on the interstitia...

  2. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Julio C Rojas1,2, F Gonzalez-Lima1 1Departments of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; 2Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Low-level light therapy (LLLT) using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic re...

  3. Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy in TMD Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Simel Ayyildiz; Faruk Emir; Cem Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) is one of the most recent treatment modalities in dentistry. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is suggested to have biostimulating and analgesic effects through direct irradiation without causing thermal response. There are few studies that have investigated the efficacy of laser therapy in temporomandibular disorders (TMD), especially in reduced mouth opening. The case report here evaluates performance of LLLT with a diode laser fo...

  4. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going

  5. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards

  6. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  7. National procurement of private-sector treatment for U.S. Department of Energy mixed low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of bringing DOE into compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act may be dramatically reduced if the private sector treats DOE mixed low level waste. If the DOE clearly defines this market by using national procurement contracts, the private sector will be able to decide if investing in DOE waste treatment contracts is good business. DOE can structure the mixed waste treatment market to influence the profitability of the contracts and to influence the quality of private sector responses. National procurement contracts will incorporate advice from the private sector so that issues of concern to industry are adequately incorporated

  8. Low-level measurements of tritium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a liquid scintillation counter, an experimental procedure for measuring low-level activity concentrations of tritium in environmental water has been developed by our laboratory, using the electrolytic tritium enrichment. Additionally, some quality tests were applied in order to assure the goodness of the method. Well-known water samples collected in the Tagus River (West of Spain) and the Danube River (Bulgaria), both affected by nuclear plant releases, were analysed and results were compared to previous data. The analytical procedure was applied to drinking water samples from the public water supply of Seville and mineral waters from different springs in Spain in order to characterize its origin. Due to the very low levels of tritium in the analysed samples, some results were reported as lower than the minimum detectable activity concentration (MDA). However, the count rate of these measurements was over the background count rate of LS counter in all the cases. For that reason, an exhaustive discussion about the meaning of the MDA, using an experimental essay, was made in order to establish a rigorous criterion that leads to a reliable value in the case of low-level measurements

  9. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental ampersand Regulatory Planning ampersand Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria

  10. Effect of Low-Level Laser Stimulation on EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Huah Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  11. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  12. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies

  13. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description

  14. New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Status Report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attridge, T.; Rapaport, S.; Yang, Qian

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generation in New York State for calendar year 1992. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority) and on data from the US Department of Energy. The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the seventh year generators have been required to submit reports on their waste to the Energy Authority. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are three sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, radioactivity and other characteristics of waste generated in 1992. Section 2 shows historical LLRW generation over the years and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 3 provides a list of all facilities for which 1992 LLRW reports were received.

  15. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This sixth Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 36 reporting sites from 1993 through 1997. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December 31, 1999. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation increased three percent from 1996 to 1997, and decreased 61 percent overall from 1993 to 1997. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1997 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. However, it is important to note that increases in low-level radioactive and low-level mixed waste generation could reverse this achievement. From 1996 to 1997, low-level radioactive waste generation increased 10 percent, and low-level mixed waste generation increased slightly. It is critical that DOE sites continue to reduce routine operations waste generation for all waste types, to ensure that DOE`s Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals are achieved by December 31, 1999.

  16. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.A. (ed.)

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes

  19. Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee annual report: Summary of DOE hydrogen programs for FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HECC was established over 13 years ago to ensure that the many varied aspects of hydrogen technology within the Department are coordinated. Each year the committee brings together technical representative within the Department to coordinate activities, share research results and discuss future priorities and directions. This FY 1990 summary is the thirteenth consecutive yearly report. It provides an overview of the hydrogen-related programs of the DOE offices represented in the HECC for the fiscal year. For the purposes of this report, the research projects within each division have been organized into two categories: Fuels-related Research and Non-fuels-related Research. An historical summary of the hydrogen budgets of the several divisions is given. Total DOE funding in FY 1990 was $6.8 million for fuels-related research and $32.9 million for non-fuels-related research. The individual program elements are described in the body of this report, and more specific program information can be found in the Technology Summary Forms in Appendix A

  20. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. The siting process: establishing a low-level waste-disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-11-01

    The siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility encompasses many interrelated activities and, therefore, is inherently complex. The purpose of this publication is to assist state policymakers in understanding the nature of the siting process. Initial discussion focuses on the primary activities that require coordination during a siting effort. Available options for determining site development, licensing, regulating, and operating responsibilities are then considered. Additionally, the document calls attention to technical services available from federal agencies to assist states in the siting process; responsibilities of such agencies are also explained. The appendices include a conceptual plan for scheduling siting activities and an explanation of the process for acquiring agreement state status. An agreement state takes responsibility for licensing and regulating a low-level waste facility within its borders.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  2. Environment, safety, and health at DOE facilities. Annual report, calendar year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1981 the US Department of Energy's (DOE) safety and property protection performance remained excellent in all reported categories with loss rates generally less than one-third of comparable private-industry rates. The 1981 occupational-injury rates of 1.0 lost-workday cases and 13.5 lost workdays per 200,000 work hours were better than 1980 rates of 1.1 lost-workday cases and 17.5 lost workdays per 200,000 work hours. The recorded occupational illness rate, based on only 61 cases in 1981, was 0.04 cases per 200,000 work hours compared to 0.06 cases per 200,000 work hours for 1980. Property losses during 1981 totaled $4.7 million, with the largest loss of $1.25 million resulting from a fire at a Bonneville Power Administration lighting substation in Ellenberg, Washington. Fire losses during 1981 totaled $2.01 million, resulting in a fire loss rate of 0.38 cent per $100 property valuation - about one-eight the best class private-sector rate. Non-fire losses during 1981 totaled $2.65 million. The resulting non-fire loss rate of 0.48 cent per $100 property valuation was approx. one-third (36%) the 1980 loss rate of 1.34 cents per $100 property valuation. The 82,873 monitored Department of Energy federal and contractor employees received a total radiation dose of 6902 rem in 1981. The total amount of effluent radioactivity released from all DOE facilities in 1981 was 1.9 million curies, compared to 1.4 million curies in 1980. The largest probable whole-body radiation dose received by a maximally exposed public individual from any of these facilities was the same as in 1980: 15 millirem, or 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Guide standard. A major accomplishemet during 1981 was the successful pilot testing of the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS), which will provide more-comprehensive safety information than the present data system

  3. Review of private sector and Department of Energy treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for low-level and mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, R.A.; Ball, L.W.; Mousseau, J.D.; Piper, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Private sector capacity for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of various categories of radioactive waste has been researched and reviewed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, the primary contractor for the INEL. The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to the INEL and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in determining if private sector capabilities exist for those waste streams that currently cannot be handled either on site or within the DOE complex. The survey of private sector vendors was limited to vendors currently capable of, or expected within the next five years to be able to perform one or more of the following services: low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction, storage, or disposal; mixed LLW treatment, storage, or disposal; alpha-contaminated mixed LLW treatment; LLW decontamination for recycling, reclamation, or reuse; laundering of radioactively-contaminated laundry and/or respirators; mixed LLW treatability studies; mixed LLW treatment technology development. Section 2.0 of this report will identify the approach used to modify vendor information from previous revisions of this report. It will also illustrate the methodology used to identify any additional companies. Section 3.0 will identify, by service, specific vendor capabilities and capacities. Because this document will be used to identify private sector vendors that may be able to handle DOE LLW and mixed LLW streams, it was decided that current DOE capabilities should also be identified. This would encourage cooperation between DOE sites and the various states and, in some instances, may result in a more cost-effective alternative to privatization. The DOE complex has approximately 35 sites that generate the majority of both LLW and mixed LLW. Section 4.0 will identify these sites by Operations Office, and their associated LLW and mixed LLW TSD units.

  4. Review of private sector and Department of Energy treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for low-level and mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Private sector capacity for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of various categories of radioactive waste has been researched and reviewed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, the primary contractor for the INEL. The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to the INEL and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in determining if private sector capabilities exist for those waste streams that currently cannot be handled either on site or within the DOE complex. The survey of private sector vendors was limited to vendors currently capable of, or expected within the next five years to be able to perform one or more of the following services: low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction, storage, or disposal; mixed LLW treatment, storage, or disposal; alpha-contaminated mixed LLW treatment; LLW decontamination for recycling, reclamation, or reuse; laundering of radioactively-contaminated laundry and/or respirators; mixed LLW treatability studies; mixed LLW treatment technology development. Section 2.0 of this report will identify the approach used to modify vendor information from previous revisions of this report. It will also illustrate the methodology used to identify any additional companies. Section 3.0 will identify, by service, specific vendor capabilities and capacities. Because this document will be used to identify private sector vendors that may be able to handle DOE LLW and mixed LLW streams, it was decided that current DOE capabilities should also be identified. This would encourage cooperation between DOE sites and the various states and, in some instances, may result in a more cost-effective alternative to privatization. The DOE complex has approximately 35 sites that generate the majority of both LLW and mixed LLW. Section 4.0 will identify these sites by Operations Office, and their associated LLW and mixed LLW TSD units

  5. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  6. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ''National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.'' The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities

  7. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  8. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, K.A.; Jaeger, G.K. [CH2M Hill Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Slate, J.L. [Associated Western Universities Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); Swett, K.J.; Mercer, R.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-13

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed.

  9. Treatment of lymphedema praecox through low level laser therapy (LLLT)

    OpenAIRE

    Manoochehr Mahram; Majid Rajabi

    2011-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl with right lower extremity lymphedema praecox was treated through Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), by means of a GaAs and GaAlAs diodes laser-therapy device. Treatment sessions were totally 24, each cycle containing 12 every other day 15-minute sessions, and one month free between the cycles. The treatment was achieved to decrease the edema and no significant increase in circumference of involved leg was found following three months after the course of treatment. Although LL...

  10. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing 137Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  11. Low level communication management for e-health systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Guillermo; Zerbini, Carlos; Voos, Javier; Centeno, Carlos; González, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The heterogeneity of e-health systems encourages the use of standards such as Health Level 7 (HL7v3) to ensure interoperability. Many actual implementations address this problem by unoptimized high level programming of top-range portable computing platforms. However, this approach could pose excessive demands on battery-powered mid-range terminals. In this work, we propose low-level support for portable HL7v3-compatible embedded systems in order to better exploit their limited processing and communications capabilities. In particular, we present our experience in mobile communication management through two different approaches, which proves the feasibility of this proposal.

  12. The Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Shawn S.; Bentler, Ruth A.; Dittberner, Andrew; Mertes, Ian B.

    2013-01-01

    One purported use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is to promote healing in damaged cells. The effects of LLLT on hearing loss and tinnitus have received some study, but results have been equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine if LLLT improved hearing, speech understanding, and/or cochlear function in adults with hearing loss. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, subjects were assigned to a treatment, placebo, or control group. The treatment group was g...

  13. Treatment of lymphedema praecox through low level laser therapy (LLLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Mahram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old girl with right lower extremity lymphedema praecox was treated through Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT, by means of a GaAs and GaAlAs diodes laser-therapy device. Treatment sessions were totally 24, each cycle containing 12 every other day 15-minute sessions, and one month free between the cycles. The treatment was achieved to decrease the edema and no significant increase in circumference of involved leg was found following three months after the course of treatment. Although LLLT can be considered a beneficial treatment for Lymphedema Praecox, any definite statement around its effectiveness needs more studies on more cases.

  14. Effectiveness of low-level laser on carpal tunnel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Hua-Feng; Ma, Xin-Long; Tian, Peng; Huang, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been applied in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) for an extended period of time without definitive consensus on its effectiveness. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser in the treatment of mild to moderate CTS using a Cochrane systematic review. Methods: We conducted electronic searches of PubMed (1966–2015.10), Medline (1966–2015.10), Embase (1980–2015.10), and ScienceDirect (1985–2015.10), using the terms “carpal tunnel syndrome” and “laser” according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Relevant journals or conference proceedings were searched manually to identify studies that might have been missed in the database search. Only randomized clinical trials were included, and the quality assessments were performed according to the Cochrane systematic review method. The data extraction and analyses from the included studies were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. The results were expressed as the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the continuous outcomes. Results: Seven randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria; there were 270 wrists in the laser group and 261 wrists in the control group. High heterogeneity existed when the analysis was conducted. Hand grip (at 12 weeks) was stronger in the LLLT group than in the control group (MD = 2.04; 95% CI: 0.08–3.99; P = 0.04; I2 = 62%), and there was better improvement in the visual analog scale (VAS) (at 12 weeks) in the LLLT group (MD = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.84–1.11; P action potential (SNAP) (at 12 weeks) was better in the LLLT group (MD = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.44–1.73; P = 0.001; I2 = 0%). However, 1 included study was weighted at >95% in the calculation of these 3 parameters. There were no statistically significant differences in the other parameters between the 2 groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that low-level laser

  15. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) requirements for each of the three concepts

  16. Effectiveness of low-level laser on carpal tunnel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Hua-Feng; Ma, Xin-Long; Tian, Peng; Huang, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been applied in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) for an extended period of time without definitive consensus on its effectiveness. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser in the treatment of mild to moderate CTS using a Cochrane systematic review. Methods: We conducted electronic searches of PubMed (1966–2015.10), Medline (1966–2015.10), Embase (1980–2015.10), and ScienceDirect (1985–2015.10), using the terms “carpal tunnel syndrome” and “laser” according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Relevant journals or conference proceedings were searched manually to identify studies that might have been missed in the database search. Only randomized clinical trials were included, and the quality assessments were performed according to the Cochrane systematic review method. The data extraction and analyses from the included studies were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. The results were expressed as the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the continuous outcomes. Results: Seven randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria; there were 270 wrists in the laser group and 261 wrists in the control group. High heterogeneity existed when the analysis was conducted. Hand grip (at 12 weeks) was stronger in the LLLT group than in the control group (MD = 2.04; 95% CI: 0.08–3.99; P = 0.04; I2 = 62%), and there was better improvement in the visual analog scale (VAS) (at 12 weeks) in the LLLT group (MD = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.84–1.11; P 95% in the calculation of these 3 parameters. There were no statistically significant differences in the other parameters between the 2 groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that low-level laser improve hand grip, VAS, and SNAP after 3 months of follow-up for mild to moderate CTS. More high-quality studies using the same laser intervention protocol are needed to

  17. Assumed genetic effects of low level irradiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of human genetic pathology is stated and a study is made of the assumed effect of low level ionizing radiations. The theoretical notions thus derived are compared to experimental data which are poor. A quick survey of the literature shows that is has not yet been possible to establish a direct relationship between an increase of exposure and any genetic effect on man. However, this must not lead to conclude on the innoxiousness of radiation but rather shows how such analyses are difficult in as much as the effect investigated is necessarily low

  18. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  19. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  20. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed

  1. National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Strategy for the Remote-Handled Low-level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Hinman

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to have disposal capability for remote-handled low level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the time the existing disposal facility is full or must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the INL Subsurface Disposal Area in approximately the year 2017.

  2. Project report for the commercial disposal of mixed low-level waste debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, G.; Balls, V.; Shea, T.; Thiesen, T.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the basis for the commercial disposal of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) mixed low-level waste (MLLW) debris and the associated activities. Mixed waste is radioactive waste plus hazardous waste as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The critical factors for this project were DOE 5820.2A exemption, contracting mechanism, NEPA documentation, sampling and analysis, time limitation and transportation of waste. This report also will provide a guide or a starting place for future use of Envirocare of Utah or other private sector disposal/treatment facilities, and the lessons learned during this project.

  3. Project report for the commercial disposal of mixed low-level waste debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the basis for the commercial disposal of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) mixed low-level waste (MLLW) debris and the associated activities. Mixed waste is radioactive waste plus hazardous waste as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The critical factors for this project were DOE 5820.2A exemption, contracting mechanism, NEPA documentation, sampling and analysis, time limitation and transportation of waste. This report also will provide a guide or a starting place for future use of Envirocare of Utah or other private sector disposal/treatment facilities, and the lessons learned during this project

  4. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  5. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control

  6. Removal of technetium, carbon tetrachloride, and metals from DOE properties. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouk, T.E.; Darab, J.G.; Ponder, S.M.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of the project is to develop and characterize supported reducing agents, and solid waste forms derived from them, which will be effective in the removal of transition metal ions, chlorinated organic molecules, and technetium from aqueous mixed wastes. This work follows the discovery that a nanoscale form of zero-valent iron, dispersed on high surface area supports, reduces metal ions (chromium, mercury, and lead) and rhenium (as a surrogate for technetium) to insoluble forms much faster than does unsupported iron. The scientific goals of the project are to better understand the mechanism of the reduction process, to develop supports that are compatible with a variety of mixed waste compositions, and to develop surface modifiers for the supported iron aggregates that will optimize their selectivity for the contaminants of interest. The support composition is of particular interest in the case of technetium (Tc) separation and stabilization in the Hanford tank wastes. While it is expected that pertechnetate will be reduced insoluble TcO{sub 2} , the support material must be compatible with the vitrification process used in the final waste disposition. The surface modifications are also a focal point for Hanford applications because of the complex and variable makeup of the tank wastes. This report summarizes progress in the first 8 months of a 3-year collaborative project involving Penn State and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).'

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress on OHER human health, biological, general life sciences, and medical applications research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1989. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. The sequence of this report of PNL research reflects the OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health research, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section contains reports of biological research in laboratory animals and in vitro cell systems, including research with radionuclides and chemicals. The general life sciences research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome research program, and the medical applications section summarizes commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities at DOE facilities. 6 refs., 50 figs., 35 tabs

  8. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers

  9. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hom-Ti [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States); Bostick, W.D. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO{sub 3} and is contaminated by low levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable.

  10. Biological effects of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1990 a group of scientists representing several federal agencies, the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the private sector, and academia met to develop a strategy to encourage the study of the biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE) to chemical agents and radioactivity. A workshop was held in 1991 with seven invited speakers focusing on the toxicological implications of biological adaptations. The selection of topics and speakers was designed to consider critically the concept of hormesis, not only in a broad, conceptual manner, but also at the molecular and biochemical levels. These presentations offered a complementary perspective on the diverse range of molecular mechanisms that can become activated at low levels of toxicant exposure. In addition to chemical toxicology research, an overview of current research on 'Effects of low-dose radiation on the immune response' was presented as well as 'Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis'. The final presentation was devoted to biostatistical considerations when designing studies that address issues associated with the biological responses to low doses of chemicals and radiation, as well as issues in interpretation of the findings from such studies

  11. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO3 and is contaminated by low levels of 90Sr and 137Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable

  12. Southern hemisphere low level wind circulation statisticsfrom the Seasat scatterometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Levy

    Full Text Available Analyses of remotely sensed low-level wind vector data over the Southern Ocean are performed. Five-day averages and monthly means are created and the month-to-month variability during the winter (July-September of 1978 is investigated. The remotely sensed winds are compared to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (ABM and the National Meteorological Center (NMC surface analyses. In southern latitudes the remotely sensed winds are stronger than what the weather services' analyses suggest, indicating underestimation by ABM and NMC in these regions. The evolution of the low-level jet and the major stormtracks during the season are studied and different flow regimes are identified. The large-scale variability of the meridional flow is studied with the aid of empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis. The dominance of quasi-stationary wave numbers 3, 4, and 5 in the winter flow is evident in both the EOF analysis and the mean flow. The signature of an exceptionally strong blocking situation is evident in July and the special conditions leading to it are discussed. A very large intraseasonal variability with different flow regimes at different months is documented.

  13. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs

  14. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended

  15. Effects of low-level laser therapy on wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana do Socorro da Silva Dias Andrade

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To gather and clarify the actual effects of low-level laser therapy on wound healing and its most effective ways of application in human and veterinary medicine. METHODS: We searched original articles published in journals between the years 2000 and 2011, in Spanish, English, French and Portuguese languages, belonging to the following databases: Lilacs, Medline, PubMed and Bireme; Tey should contain the methodological description of the experimental design and parameters used. RESULTS: doses ranging from 3 to 6 J/cm2 appear to be more effective and doses 10 above J/cm2 are associated with deleterious effects. The wavelengths ranging from 632.8 to 1000 nm remain as those that provide more satisfactory results in the wound healing process. CONCLUSION: Low-level laser can be safely applied to accelerate the resolution of cutaneous wounds, although this fact is closely related to the election of parameters such as dose, time of exposure and wavelength.

  16. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976)

  17. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B section consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology. Volumes 2, 3 and 4 are composed of detailed maps

  18. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  19. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, C.W. [Nuclear Diagnostic Systems, Springfield, VA (United States); Swanson, P.J. [Concord Associates, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  20. Long-lived radionuclides in low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1982, the Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch of the NRC, anticipating the impact of the proposed Part 61 to 10 CFR, funded a two-year project by SAI to study the radionuclide contents of LWR generated in low-level waste. The objectives of the study are: (1) to analyze, using verified techniques, 150 archived samples for specified beta- and x-ray-emitting nuclides that had not previously been analyzed; (2) to analyze twenty new samples obtained from operating plants for all relevant nuclides and compare them to previous data to ascertain trends; (3) to develop empirical scaling factors through the use of which concentrations of hard-to-analyze nuclides can be estimated from analyses of the gamma-ray emitting nuclides. The new samples are analyzed and the results are summarized and interpreted. Over fifty archived samples have also been analyzed. We discuss scaling factor development. Factors are presented that relate 63Ni and 59Ni to 60Co for PWRs and to 58Co for BWRs, 90Sr to 137Cs for BWRs and 241Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm to 144Ce for all LWRs. 8 figures, 3 tables

  1. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author)

  2. Technical responsibilities in low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North Carolina will be the host state for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility serving the Southeast Compact for 20 yr beginning in 1993. Primary responsibility for the project rests with the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, a citizen board. The North Carolina project embodies a unique combination of factors that places the authority in a position to exercise technical leadership in the LLRW disposal field. First, the Southeast Compact is the largest in the United States in terms of area, population, and waste generation. second, it is in a humid rather than an arid region. Third, the citizens of the state are intensely interested in preserving life style, environment, and attractiveness of the region to tourists and are especially sensitive to the presence of waste facilities of any kind. Finally, disposal rules set by the Radiation Protection Commission and enforced by the Radiation Protection Section are stricter than the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10CFR61. These four factors support the authority's belief that development of the facility cannot be based solely on engineering and economics, but that social factors, including perceptions of human risk, concerns for the environment, and opinions about the desirability of hosting a facility, should be integral to the project. This philosophy guides the project's many technical aspects, including site selection, site characterization, technology selection and facility design, performance assessment modeling, and waste reduction policies. Each aspect presents its own unique problems

  3. Health effects of low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now assumed that any exposure to radiaton at low levels of dose carries some risk of deleterious effects. How low this level may be, or the probability or magnitude of the risk, still are not known. Our best scientific knowledge and advice are essential for the protection of the public health, for the effective application of new technologies in medicine and industry and for guidance in the production of nuclear energy. Unless man wishes to dispense with those activities which inevitably involve exposure to low levels of ionizing radiations, he must recognize that some degree of risk to health, however small, exists. A pragmatic appraisal of how man wishes to continue to derive the benefits of health and happiness from such activities involving ionizing radiaton in times of everchanging conditions and public attitudes in our resource-limited society is the task which lies before all of us - all men and women of our society, of science and of medicine, and of law and government - now and in the future

  4. Radon problem in an underground low-level laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovicic, V., E-mail: udovicic@phy.bg.ac.y [Institute of Physics, PO Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Grabez, B.; Dragic, A.; Banjanac, R.; Jokovic, D.; Panic, B.; Joksimovic, D. [Institute of Physics, PO Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Puzovic, J. [Faculty of Physics, PO Box 368, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Anicin, I. [Institute of Physics, PO Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2009-10-15

    The low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy as well as the investigation of rare nuclear processes require not only low, but also constant levels of relevant background radiations. In underground laboratories dedicated to this type of measurements, one of the main and hard to control sources of unwanted radiation is the radioactive gas radon. It is well-known that radon concentration varies daily and seasonally, primarily due to the variation of atmospheric parameters. This introduces unwanted and hard to evaluate systematic uncertainties in long-term low-level measurements. In this paper, the system for radon reduction in the underground Low-Background Laboratory for Nuclear Physics at the Institute of Physics in Belgrade is presented in some detail. The laboratory exists for ten years and different measurements of radon concentration were carried out during this period. The indoor radon measurements are performed using nuclear track detectors (type CR-39 and LR-115) for long-term measurements and the commercially available radon monitor for short-term measurements. In this work we present the results of these measurements for the period 2003-2008.

  5. Review of available options for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this report includes: descriptions of the options available; identification of important elements in the selection process; discussion and assessment of the relevance of the various elements for the different options; cost data indicating the relative financial importance of different parts of the systems and the general cost level of a disposal facility. An overview of the types of wastes included in low level waste categories and an approach to the LLW management system is presented. A generic description of the disposal options available and the main activities involved in implementing the different options are described. Detailed descriptions and cost information on low level waste disposal facility concepts in a number of Member States are given. Conclusions from the report are summarized. In addition, this report provides a commentary on various aspects of land disposal, based on experience gained by IAEA Member States. The document is intended to complement other related IAEA publications on LLW management and disposal. It also demonstrates that alternatives solutions for the final disposal of LLW are available and can be safely operated but the choice of an appropriate solution must be a matter for national strategy taking into account local conditions. 18 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  6. (Low-level waste disposal facility siting and site characterization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezga, L.J.; Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.; Van Hoesen, S.D.

    1985-10-25

    A US team consisting of representatives of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), Savannah river Laboratory (SRL), and the Department of Energy Office of Defense Waste and Byproducts Management participated in the fourth meeting held under the US/French Radioactive Waste Management Agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. This meeting, held at Agence Nationale pour les Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs' (ANDRA's) Headquarters in Paris, was a detailed, technical topical workshop focusing on Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Siting and Site Characterization.'' The meeting also included a visit to the Centre de la Manche waste management facility operated by ANDRA to discuss and observe the French approach to low-level waste management. The final day of the meeting was spent at the offices of Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) discussing potential areas of future cooperation and exchange. 20 figs.

  7. DOE Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report of Packaging- and Transportation-related Occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, L.S.

    2001-07-26

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been charged by the DOE National Transportation Program (NTP) with the responsibility of retrieving reports and information pertaining to packaging and transportation (P&T) incidents from the centralized Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database. These selected reports have been analyzed for trends, impact on P&T operations and safety concerns, and lessons learned (LL) in P&T operations. This task is designed not only to keep the NTP aware of what is occurring at DOE sites on a periodic basis, but also to highlight potential P&T problems that may need management attention and allow dissemination of LL to DOE Operations Offices, with the subsequent flow of information to contractors. The Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) was established by the NTP in fiscal year (FY) 1998 as an initiative to develop a methodology for reporting occurrences with the appropriate metrics to show rates and trends. One of its chief goals has been to augment historical reporting of occurrence-based information and present more meaningful statistics for comparison of occurrences. To this end, the SMIP established a severity weighting system for the classification of the occurrences, which would allow normalization of the data and provide a basis for trending analyses. The process for application of this methodology is documented in the September 1999 report DOE Packaging and Transportation Measurement Methodology for the Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP). This annual report contains information on those P&T-related occurrences reported to the ORPS during the period from October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000. Only those incidents that occur in preparation for transport, during transport, and during unloading of hazardous material are considered as packaging- or transportation-related occurrences. Other incidents with P&T significance, but not involving hazardous material (such as vehicle accidents or empty

  8. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sixth Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 36 reporting sites from 1993 through 1997. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December 31, 1999. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation increased three percent from 1996 to 1997, and decreased 61 percent overall from 1993 to 1997. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1997 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. However, it is important to note that increases in low-level radioactive and low-level mixed waste generation could reverse this achievement. From 1996 to 1997, low-level radioactive waste generation increased 10 percent, and low-level mixed waste generation increased slightly. It is critical that DOE sites continue to reduce routine operations waste generation for all waste types, to ensure that DOE's Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals are achieved by December 31, 1999

  9. CY2013 Annual Report for DOE-ITU INERI 2010-006-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rory Kennedy; Vincenzo V. Rondinella

    2014-12-01

    New concepts for nuclear energy development are considered in both the USA and Europe within the framework of the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) as well as in various US-DOE programs (e.g. the Fuel Cycle Research and Development - FCRD) and as part of the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE-TP). Since most new fuel cycle concepts envisage the adoption of a closed nuclear fuel cycle employing fast reactors, the fuel behavior characteristics of the various proposed advanced fuel forms must be effectively investigated using state of the art experimental techniques before implementation. More rapid progress can be achieved if effective synergy with advanced (multi-scale) modeling efforts can be achieved. The fuel systems to be considered include minor actinide (MA) transmutation fuel types such as advanced MOX, advanced metal alloy, inert matrix fuel (IMF), and other ceramic fuels like nitrides, carbides, etc., for fast neutronic spectrum conditions. Most of the advanced fuel compounds have already been the object of past examination programs, which included irradiations in research reactors. The knowledge derived from previous experience constitutes a significant, albeit incomplete body of data. New or upgraded experimental tools are available today that can extend the scientific and technological knowledge towards achieving the objectives associated with the new generation of nuclear reactors and fuels. The objectives of this project will be three-fold: (1) to extend the available knowledge on properties and irradiation behavior of high burnup and minor actinide bearing advanced fuel systems; (2) to establish a synergy with multi-scale and code development efforts in which experimental data and expertise on the irradiation behavior of nuclear fuels is properly conveyed for the upgrade/development of advanced modeling tools; (3) to promote the effective use of international resources to the characterization of irradiated fuel through

  10. Performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a set of performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in a new facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal performance objectives include a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) for any member of the public beyond the boundary of the disposal facility, and a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) and a limit on committed effective dose equivalent in any year of 5 mSv (0.5 rem) for any individual who inadvertently intrudes onto the disposal site after loss of active institutional controls. In addition, releases of radioactivity beyond the site boundary shall not result in annual dose equivalents to any number of the public from all sources of exposure that exceed limits established by Federal regulatory authorities and shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable. This report reviews generally applicable radiation protection standards for the public and environmental radiation standards for specific practices that have been developed by national and international authorities and discusses the use of limits on risk rather than dose as performance objectives and consideration of chemical toxicity rather than radiation dose in establishing limits on intakes of uranium. 63 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. System design description, PFP low level waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description (SDD) and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) as described in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. The chief objective of the SDD is to document the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) that establish and maintain the facility Safety Envelope necessary for normal safe operation of the facility; as identified in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), or Safety Assessment Document (SAD). The basis for operational, alarm response, maintenance, and surveillance procedures are also identified and justified in this document. This document and its appendices address the following elements of the PFP LLWTF: Safety Equipment and Safety Envelope Analysis; Design description; General safety features and analysis; and Operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures. The appendices contain additional data for informational purposes only. The actual data bases and/or supporting documents should be consulted for the most current data

  12. Low Level Laser Therapy: laser radiation absorption in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Orlando, Stefano; Dell'Ariccia, Marco; Brandimarte, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experimental study in which we have measured the transmitted laser radiation through dead biological tissues of various animals (chicken, adult and young bovine, pig) in order to evaluate the maximum thickness through which the power density could still produce a reparative cellular effect. In our experiments we have utilized a pulsed laser IRL1 ISO model (based on an infrared diode GaAs, λ=904 nm) produced by BIOMEDICA s.r.l. commonly used in Low Level Laser Therapy. Some of the laser characteristics have been accurately studied and reported in this paper. The transmission results suggest that even with tissue thicknesses of several centimeters the power density is still sufficient to produce a cell reparative effect.

  13. Effect of interstitial low level laser stimulation in skin density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.

  14. Low level laser therapy on injured rat muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Although studies show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in facilitating the muscle healing process, scientific evidence is still required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT and to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation. Here we evaluate the effect of different LLLT doses, using continuous illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through the quantification of cytokines in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We verified that all applied doses produce an effect on reducing the number of inflammatory cells and the concentration of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines. The best results were obtained for 40 mW. The results may suggest a biphasic dose response curve.

  15. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) for cosmetics and dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Mossum K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Over the last few years, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the field of aesthetic medicine, specifically aesthetic dermatology. LLLT encompasses a broad spectrum of procedures, primarily cosmetic, which provide treatment options for a myriad of dermatological conditions. Dermatological disorders involving inflammation, acne, scars, aging and pigmentation have been investigated with the assistance of animal models and clinical trials. The most commercially successful use of LLLT is for managing alopecia (hair loss) in both men and women. LLLT also seems to play an influential role in procedures such as lipoplasty and liposuction, allowing for noninvasive and nonthermal methods of subcutaneous fat reduction. LLLT offers a means to address such conditions with improved efficacy versatility and no known side-effects; however comprehensive literature reports covering the utility of LLLT are scarce and thus the need for coverage arises.

  16. Overview of resuspension model: application to low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resuspension is one of the potential pathways to man for radioactive or chemical contaminants that are in the biosphere. In waste management, spills or other surface contamination can serve as a source for resuspension during the operational phase. After the low-level waste disposal area is closed, radioactive materials can be brought to the surface by animals or insects or, in the long term, the surface can be removed by erosion. Any of these methods expose the material to resuspension in the atmosphere. Intrusion into the waste mass can produce resuspension of potential hazard to the intruder. Removal of items from the waste mass by scavengers or archeologists can result in potential resuspension exposure to others handling or working with the object. The ways in which resuspension can occur are wind resuspension, mechanical resuspension and local resuspension. While methods of predicting exposure are not accurate, they include the use of the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate and mass loading of the air

  17. Low-level stored waste inspection using mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy to replace human inspectors in the routine, regulated inspection of radioactive waste stored in drums. The robot will roam the three-foot aisles of drums, stacked four high, making decisions about the surface condition of the drums and maintaining a database of information about each drum. A distributed system of onboard and offboard computers will provide versatile, friendly control of the inspection process. This mobile robot system, based on a commercial mobile platform, will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. This paper describes and discusses primarily the computer and control processes for the system

  18. Low level gigabit Ethernet analysis for the LHCb computing farm

    CERN Document Server

    Walravens, Cedric

    2006-01-01

    This note presents the concept of Receive Descriptor Recycling to significantly reduce the performance drop associated with small packet Gigabit Ethernet traffic. High reliability of small-sized transmissions is crucial for correct calibration runs of the LHCb experiment, at the CERN LHC accelerator. Previous work applied to full link load Ethernet traffic, using UDP processes. This work covers more low-level details of the performance problem for small-sized traffic, using more lower-level Ethernet frames, and, with a deeper analysis at the PCI/PCI-X level. Measurements were performed at the LHCb online system, which is to a large extend made up of commodity equipment. Limits and trade-offs are inherent when optimising for small packet traffic. All important aspects in this context are covered. Results gathered show the Ethernet Controller's driver currently is the major bottleneck, preventing the system from reaching maximal Gigabit Ethernet performance. Receive Descriptor Recycling is implemented in the dr...

  19. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas

  20. Issues in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All industry finds itself today enmeshed in a morass of regulation, political apathy and public antagonism when it comes to hazardous industrial waste. Our industry is a world-class leader on all three fronts. There are no disposal facilities in Canada for radioactive wastes and the prognosis for the future is bleak. As the industry gets older, more and more facilities will be closed and require decommissioning. New facilities require plans for the long-term management of their wastes. Indeed, one major public issue with the nuclear industry is the fate of the wastes produced. In looking at the situation in which we find ourselves today with respect to the long-term management of naturally-occurring low-level radioactive wastes, one must wonder where we are going in the future, and whether indeed is an end in sight

  1. Dose response curves for effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear dose-response model used by international committees to assess the genetic and carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation appears to be the most reasonable interpretation of the available scientific data that are relevant to this topic. There are, of course, reasons to believe that this model may overestimate radiation hazards in certain instances, a fact acknowledged in recent reports of these committees. The linear model is now also being utilized to estimate the potential carcinogenic hazards of other agents such as asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This model implies that there is no safe dose for any of these agents and that potential health hazards will increase in direct proportion to total accumulated dose. The practical implication is the recommendation that all exposures should be kept 'as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account'. (auth)

  2. Summertime Low-Level Jets over the Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensrud, D.J. [NOAA/ERL/National Severe Storms Lab., Norman, OK (United States); Pfeifer, S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The sky over the southern Great Plains Cloud and Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program during the predawn and early morning hours often is partially obstructed by stratocumulus, stratus fractus, or cumulus fractus that are moving rapidly to the north, even through the surface winds are weak. This cloud movement is evidence of the low-level jet (LLJ), a wind speed maximum that occurs in the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere. Owing to the wide spacing between upper-air sounding sites and the relatively infrequent sounding launches, LLJ evolution has been difficult to observe adequately, even though the effects of LLJs on moisture flux into North America are large. Model simulation of the LLJ is described.

  3. Low-level radiation doses - a hazard to health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health hazard induced by low radiation doses can be understood only if we gain an understanding of the fate of the radiation-sensitive structural element within the biological system which it undergoes in the radiation field, and its significance for the total system. In the low-level dose range, single absorption events occur in individual cells as sensitive elements; such single events cause an acute, temporary thymidine kinase inhibition. During this reaction, the affected cell reveals to be resistant to a second event. These observations question the generality of a linear realation between dose and biological effect. We may even have to consider a beneficial effect of single absorption events in the affected cells. (orig./HP)

  4. Observation of Low Level Heating in an Erupting Prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Therese A.

    2007-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of low level heating in an erupting prominence observed in the UV and EUV over a wide range of temperatures and wavelengths by SOHO's SUMER instrument, TRACE and also in H-alpha by the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory. The eruption occurred on 2004 April 30. The heating is relatively mild, leading only to the ionization of neutral hydrogen and probably helium. It is also localized, occurring along the bottom edge of the erupting prominence and in a kink-like feature in the prominence. The heating is revealed as a decrease in the Lyman absorption. This decrease results in an apparent increase in emission in all the lines observed by SUMER, especially those formed at temperatures -1 0A5. However, this is due to the disappearance of cooler absorbing material in the prominence rather than an increase in these higher temperature species.

  5. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive research investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low level and intermediate level waste immobilized in cement. Several topics have been investigated which include: (a) the study of the formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates; (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments; (c) colloid sorption behaviour; (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates; (e) characteristics of near-field materials in EC repository simulation tests; and (f) colloid migration behaviour. These experimental investigations should provide data and a basis for the development of transport models and leaching mechanisms, and thus relate directly to the part of the Task 3 programme concerned with migration and retention of radionuclides in the near field. 114 Figs.; 39 Tabs.; 12 Refs

  6. SNS Low-Level RF Control System Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengjie; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    A full digital Low-Level RF controller has been developed for SNS LINAC. Its design is a good example of a modern digital implementation of the classic control theory. The digital hardware for all the control and DSP functionalities, including the final vector modulation, is implemented on a single high-density FPGA. Two models for the digital hardware have been written in VHDL and Verilog respectively, based on a very low latency control algorithm, and both have been being used for supporting the testing and commissioning the LINAC to the date. During the commissioning, the flexibility and ability for precise controls that only digital design on a larger FPGA can offer has proved to be a necessity for meeting the great challenge of a high-power pulsed SCL.

  7. A Film Classifier Based on Low-level Visual Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yu Huang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach to classify the film classes by using low level features and visual features. This approach aims to classify the films into genres. Our current domain of study is using the movie preview. A movie preview often emphasizes the theme of a film and hence provides suitable information for classifying process. In our approach, we categorize films into three broad categories: action, dramas, and thriller films. Four computable video features (average shot length, color variance, motion content and lighting key and visual features (show and fast moving effects are combined in our approach to provide the advantage information to demonstrate the movie category. The experimental results present that visual features are the useful messages for processing the film classification. On the other hand, our approach can also be extended for other potential applications, including the browsing and retrieval of videos on the internet, video-on-demand, and video libraries.

  8. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  9. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report

  10. Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled

  11. Low-level radioactive waste minimization for health care institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years medical waste has been the subject of considerable public and governmental attention. This has been, in part, due to the media's attraction to unfortunate instances of environmental pollution caused by hazardous and medical wastes. While a considerable amount of information is currently available on the treatment and disposal practices for hazardous wastes, a shortfall of information exists on the subject of medical wastes. Such wastes are generated by various health care institutions. Medical waste is a wide and all encompassing term which refers to a variety of wastes. This presentation addresses medical low-level (LLW) radioactive waste; its generation, recovery and handling. The development of generic waste minimization models and greater use of alternative technologies are part of the discussion

  12. Oestrogen, ocular function and low-level vision: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Walker, James A; Davidson, Colin

    2014-11-01

    Over the past 10 years, a literature has emerged concerning the sex steroid hormone oestrogen and its role in human vision. Herein, we review evidence that oestrogen (oestradiol) levels may significantly affect ocular function and low-level vision, particularly in older females. In doing so, we have examined a number of vision-related disorders including dry eye, cataract, increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. In each case, we have found oestrogen, or lack thereof, to have a role. We have also included discussion of how oestrogen-related pharmacological treatments for menopause and breast cancer can impact the pathology of the eye and a number of psychophysical aspects of vision. Finally, we have reviewed oestrogen's pharmacology and suggest potential mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects, with particular emphasis on anti-apoptotic and vascular effects.

  13. Creating interstate compacts for low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of the 1980 Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (LLRWPA) depends on the creation of interstate compacts. Compact formation is a public goods problem. Formation may be impeded by opposition from elements in the federal government, the inability of state governments to resolve problems of conflicting political interests, and the possiblity of extensive and unfruitful negotiations. These obstacles my be overcome if fortuitous circumstances exist and entrepreneurial behavior is applied. Guidelines that entrepreneurs may use to facilitate compact formation are relying on the exclusive character of incentives, forming compacts with a small number of members, taking advantage of inequality of interests among prospective members, using solidary incentives to promote cooperation, relying on existing regional organizations to build support, employing a game metaphor to understand the stakes of the participants, and making each party subject to an agreement feel as if it were a winner. (author)

  14. Low-level stored waste inspection using mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-06-01

    A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy to replace human inspectors in the routine, regulated inspection of radioactive waste stored in drums. The robot will roam the three-foot aisles of drums, stacked four high, making decisions about the surface condition of the drums and maintaining a database of information about each drum. A distributed system of onboard and offboard computers will provide versatile, friendly control of the inspection process. This mobile robot system, based on a commercial mobile platform, will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. This paper describes and discusses primarily the computer and control processes for the system.

  15. Optimising the Performance of the Low Level Waste Repository - 12144

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Amy; Baker, Andrew; Cummings, Richard; Shevelan, John; Sumerling, Trevor [Low Level Waste Repository, Drigg, Holmrook, Cumbria, CA19 1XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) is the United Kingdom's principal facility for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW). The LLWR made a major submission to its environmental regulator (the Environment Agency) on 1 May 2011, the LLWR's 2011 Environmental Safety Case (ESC). One of the key regulatory requirements is that all aspects of the construction, operation and closure of the disposal facility should be optimised. An optimised Site Development Plan for the repository was developed and produced as part of the ESC. The Site Development Plan covers all aspects of the construction, operation and closure of the disposal facility. This includes the management of past and future disposals, emplacement strategies, design of the disposal vaults, and the closure engineering for the site. The Site Development Plan also covers the period of active institutional control, when disposals at the site have ceased, but it is still under active management, and plans for the long-term sustainable use of the site. We have a practical approach to optimisation based on recorded judgements and realistic assessments of practicable options framed within the demands of UK policy for LLW management and the characteristics the LLWR site and existing elements of the facility. The final performance assessments undertaken for the ESC were based on the Site Development Plan. The ESC will be used as a tool to inform future decision-making concerning the repository design, operation and the acceptance of wastes, as set out in the evolving Site Development Plan. Maintaining the ESC is thus essential to ensure that the Site Development Plan takes account of an up-to-date understanding and analysis of environmental performance, and that the Plan continues to be optimised. (authors)

  16. ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY LOW LEVELS OF DEOXYNIVALENOL IN WEANED PIGLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ELIZA MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by different species of Fusarium genus that may contaminate feed and food. In the present study we investigated the effect of low levels of DON on the modulation of performance, hemodynamic parameters, cellular and humoral immune response in weaned pigs. Histological alterations in different organ tissues were also analyzed. Our results showed that a short in vivo exposure (14 days of weanling piglets to 0; 0.5; 1.5 mg/day of DON significantly induced a dose dependent increase of cellular immune response (lymphocytes proliferation and leucocytes numbers. The 0.5 and 1.5 mg/day of DON modulated also the humoral immune response by increasing the immunoglobulin A synthesis with 7.32 % and 37.98 % and by decreasing that of immunoglubulin G with 11.15 % and 36.87 %, respectively when compared with the control. DON produced also alterations in the hemodynamic parameters of intoxicated piglets; the activity of lactate dehydrogenase significantly increased while the activity of L-glutamate, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine significantly decreased. Both doses of the toxin induced microscopic alterations of the internal organ structure. By contrast, ingestion of the contaminated material had no effect on the performance (weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency, organ weights, and total serum concentration of cholesterol, calcium, sodium and potassium. Taken together these results suggest that even when present at low level DON can affect blood parameters, humoral and cellular immune response in weaned piglets with a significant importance for the swine health.

  17. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  18. Macroencapsulation of low-level debris waste with the phosphate ceramic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Across the DOE complex, large quantities of contaminated debris and irradiated lead bricks require disposal. The preferred method for disposing of these wastes is macroencapsulation under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Alternative Treatment Standards. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics serve as a novel binder, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, for stabilizing and solidifying various low-level mixed wastes. Extremely strong, dense, and impervious to water intrusion, this material was developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology (DOE OST). In this investigation, CBPCs have been used to demonstrate macroencapsulation of various contaminated debris wastes, including cryofractured debris, lead bricks, and lead-lined plastic gloves. This paper describes the processing steps for fabricating the waste forms and the results of various characterizations performed on the waste forms. The conclusion is that simple and low-cost CBPCs are excellent material systems for macroencapsulating debris wastes

  19. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed

  20. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-04-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  1. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-08-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  2. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mecham

    2009-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  3. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1C, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  4. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste shipping package/container identification and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyacke, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies a variety of shipping packages (also referred to as casks) and waste containers currently available or being developed that could be used for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level waste (LLW). Since GTCC LLW varies greatly in size, shape, and activity levels, the casks and waste containers that could be used range in size from small, to accommodate a single sealed radiation source, to very large-capacity casks/canisters used to transport or dry-store highly radioactive spent fuel. In some cases, the waste containers may serve directly as shipping packages, while in other cases, the containers would need to be placed in a transport cask. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed that the generator is responsible for transporting the waste to a Department of Energy (DOE) storage, treatment, or disposal facility. Unless DOE establishes specific acceptance criteria, the receiving facility would need the capability to accept any of the casks and waste containers identified in this report. In identifying potential casks and waste containers, no consideration was given to their adequacy relative to handling, storage, treatment, and disposal. Those considerations must be addressed separately as the capabilities of the receiving facility and the handling requirements and operations are better understood.

  5. LOWRAD 96. Methods and applications of low-level radioactivity measurements. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newest developments in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements and new applications for existing and low-level measuring facilities are presented. The contributions mostly were devoted to basic physical aspects and applications of low-level counting. Papers on chemical separation and preparation techniques and on low-level radiation dose determinations were also presented. (DG)

  6. LOWRAD 96. Methods and applications of low-level radioactivity measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, J. [ed.] [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The newest developments in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements and new applications for existing and low-level measuring facilities are presented. The contributions mostly were devoted to basic physical aspects and applications of low-level counting. Papers on chemical separation and preparation techniques and on low-level radiation dose determinations were also presented. (DG)

  7. Source inventory for Department of Energy solid low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: What it means and how to get one of your own

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.A. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Compliance Group

    1991-12-31

    In conducting a performance assessment for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility, one of the important considerations for determining the source term, which is defined as the amount of radioactivity being released from the facility, is the quantity of radioactive material present. This quantity, which will be referred to as the source inventory, is generally estimated through a review of historical records and waste tracking systems at the LLW facility. In theory, estimating the total source inventory for Department of Energy (DOE) LLW disposal facilities should be possible by reviewing the national data base maintained for LLW operations, the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS), or through the annual report that summarizes the SWIMS data, the Integrated Data Base (IDB) report. However, in practice, there are some difficulties in making this estimate. This is not unexpected, since the SWIMS and the IDB were not developed with the goal of developing a performance assessment source term in mind. The practical shortcomings using the existing data to develop a source term for DOE facilities will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Development of a Low-Level Ar-37 Calibration Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Humble, Paul H.; Keillor, Martin E.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen

    2016-03-07

    Argon-37 is an important environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level 37Ar standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments for use during an On-Site Inspection, a key provision of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the development of a process to generate and quantify low-level 37Ar standard material, which can then be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. The 37Ar used for our work was generated using a laboratory-scale, high-energy neutron source to irradiate powdered samples of calcium carbonate. Small aliquots of 37Ar were then extracted from the head space of the irradiated samples. The specific activity of the head space samples, mixed with P10 (90% stable argon:10% methane by mole fraction) count gas, is then derived using the accepted Length-Compensated Internal-Source Proportional Counting method. Due to the low activity of the samples, a set of three Ultra-Low Background Proportional-Counters designed and fabricated at PNNL from radio-pure electroformed copper was used to make the measurements in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory. Very low background levels (<10 counts/day) have been observed in the spectral region near the 37Ar emission feature at 2.8 keV. Two separate samples from the same irradiation were measured. The first sample was counted for 12 days beginning 28 days after irradiation, the second sample was counted for 24 days beginning 70 days after irradiation (the half-life of 37Ar is 35.0 days). Both sets of measurements were analyzed and yielded very similar results for the starting activity (~0.1 Bq) and activity concentration (0.15 mBq/ccSTP argon) after P10 count gas was added. A detailed uncertainty model was developed based on the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 4: Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.; Stults, B.R.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains 20 papers. Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report of 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category and each Field Task proposal/agreement is introduced by an abstract that describes the projects reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1989. 74 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. EVMS Self-Surveillance of Remote Handled Low Level Waste (RHLLW) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Nelson; Kimberly Case; Linda Hergesheimer; Maxine Johnson; Doug Parker; Rick Staten; Scott taylor

    2013-07-01

    DOE G 413.3-10A, Section 3.a states: “The Contractor has primary responsibility for implementing and maintaining a surveillance program to ensure continued compliance of the system with ANSI/EIA-748B. DOE O 413.3B requires the FPD to ensure the contractor conducts a Self-Surveillance annually. This annual Self-Surveillance,…should cover all 32 guidelines of the ANSI/EIA748B. Documentation of the Self-Surveillance is sent to the CO and the PMSO (copy to OECM) confirming the continued compliance of their EVMS ANSI/EIA748B...” This review, and the associated report, is deemed to satisfy this requirement.

  11. Noninvasive low-level laser therapy for thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Dong, Tingting; Li, Peiyu; Wu, Mei X

    2016-07-27

    Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic disorder that is managed primarily by platelet transfusions. We report here that noninvasive whole-body illumination with a special near-infrared laser cures acute thrombocytopenia triggered by γ-irradiation within 2 weeks in mice, as opposed to a 5-week recovery time required in controls. The low-level laser (LLL) also greatly accelerated platelet regeneration in the presence of anti-CD41 antibody that binds and depletes platelets, and prevented a severe drop in platelet count caused by a common chemotherapeutic drug. Mechanistically, LLL stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis specifically in megakaryocytes owing to polyploidy of the cells. LLL also protected megakaryocytes from mitochondrial injury and apoptosis under stress. The multifaceted effects of LLL on mitochondria bolstered megakaryocyte maturation; facilitated elongation, branching, and formation of proplatelets; and doubled the number of platelets generated from individual megakaryocytes in mice. LLL-mediated platelet biogenesis depended on megakaryopoiesis and was inversely correlated with platelet counts, which kept platelet biogenesis in check and effectively averted thrombosis even after repeated uses, in sharp contrast to all current agents that stimulate the differentiation of megakaryocyte progenitors from hematopoietic stem cells independently of platelet counts. This safe, drug-free, donor-independent modality represents a paradigm shift in the prophylaxis and treatment of thrombocytopenia. PMID:27464749

  12. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  13. Expert system for liquid low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework

  14. Apparatus to measure low level helium for neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Shuji; Takao, Yoshiyuki; Muramasu, Masatomo; Hida, Tomoya; Sou, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kanda, Yukinori

    1998-03-01

    An apparatus to measure low level helium in a solid sample for neutron dosimetry in the practical use such as area monitoring in the long-term and reactor surveillance was reported. In our previous work, the helium atoms measurement system (HAMS) was developed. A sample was evaporated in the furnace and the released gas from the sample was analyzed with the mass spectrometer of the system to determine the amount of helium contained in it. The system has been improved to advance the lower helium measurement limit in a solid sample for its application to an area monitoring system. The mass of a solid is up to 100mg. Two important points should be considered to advance the lower limit. One was to produce a high quality vacuum in the system chamber for suppressing background gases during the sample measurement. The other important point was to detect very small output from the mass spectrometer. A pulse counting system was used to get high sensitivity in the mass 4 analyzing. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy in TMD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simel Ayyildiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser is one of the most recent treatment modalities in dentistry. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is suggested to have biostimulating and analgesic effects through direct irradiation without causing thermal response. There are few studies that have investigated the efficacy of laser therapy in temporomandibular disorders (TMD, especially in reduced mouth opening. The case report here evaluates performance of LLLT with a diode laser for temporomandibular clicking and postoperative findings were evaluated in two cases of TMD patients. First patient had a history of limited mouth opening and pain in temporomandibular joint (TMJ region since nine months. Second patient’s main complaint was his restricted mouth opening, which was progressed in one year. LLLT was performed with a 685 nm red probed diode laser that has an energy density of 6.2 J/cm2, three times a week for one month, and application time was 30 seconds (685 nm, 25 mW, 30 s, 0.02 Hz, and 6.2 J/cm2 (BTL-2000, Portative Laser Therapy Device. The treatment protocol was decided according to the literature. One year later patients were evaluated and there were no changes. This application suggested that LLLT is an appropriate treatment for TMD related pain and limited mouth opening and should be considered as an alternative to other methods.

  16. Ultra-low level radon assays in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SuperNEMO experiment aims to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νβ β) to T1/2(0ν) > 1026 years, this corresponds to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. The extremely rare event rate means the minimisation of background is of critical concern. The stringent strategy instigated to ensure detector radiopurity is outlined here for all construction materials. In particular the large R&D programme undertaken to reach the challengingly low level of radon, < 0.15 mBq/m3, required inside the SuperNEMO gaseous tracker will be detailed. This includes an experiment designed to measure radon diffusion through various materials. A “Radon Concentration Line” (RnCL) was developed to be used in conjunction with a state-of-the-art radon detector in order to achieve world leading sensitivity to 222Rn content in large gas volumes at the level of a few µBq/m3. A radon purification system was developed and installed which has demonstrated radon suppression by several orders of magnitude depending on the carrier gas. This apparatus has now been commissioned and measurements of cylindered gas have been made to confirm radon suppression by a factor 20 when using nitrogen as the carrier gas. The results from measurements of radon content in various gases, used inside SuperNEMO, using the RnCL will be presented

  17. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil and Water Science); Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Hills, R.G. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Nicholson, T.J.; Cady, R.E. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies.

  18. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. Because of apparent ease of use and normal structural integrity, cement has been widely used as a binder to solidify LLW. However, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. This report reviews laboratory efforts that are being developed to address the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms are being employed that are capable of metabolically converting organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this report. Sufficient data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW has been developed during the course of this study. These data support the continued development of appropriate tests necessary to determine the resistance of cement-solidified LLW to microbially induced degradation that could impact the stability of the waste form. They also justify the continued effort of enumeration of the conditions necessary to support the microbiological growth and population expansion

  19. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  20. Low-level laser therapy and invisible removal aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccianiga, G; Crestale, C; Cozzani, M; Piras, A; Mutinelli, S; Lo Giudice, A; Cordasco, G

    2016-01-01

    It seems that Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) stimulates orthodontic tooth movements, increasing the alveolar bone turnover. The aim of this study is to evaluate how LLLT can influence the orthodontic treatment with invisible removal aligner. A sample of 21 subjects was divided into two groups, a laser group (10 patients) and a control group (11 patients). All subjects were instructed to wear each aligner 12 hours a day for 2 weeks. Laser external bio-stimulation was given in the laser group every second week. The laser group successfully finished the treatment, while at 3rd – 5th aligner the control group did not finish the treatment. Laser treatment seemed to be better than treatment without laser. LLLT combined with aligners is able to favour, in 12 hours, the same tooth movement obtained by wearing the aligner 22 hours a day, according to the traditional protocol. This aspect could be useful for those patients who prefer not to use the aligners during the day. LLLT makes invisible removal aligner treatment more comfortable also because during the day the patients have to wear the aligners less hours than the treatment without laser. PMID:27469556

  1. Low-Level Laser Therapy for Treatment of Oral Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravina Naomi Tarigan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation and chemotherapy are the treatment options for head and neck cancer. Several side effects related to those treat-ment have been shown. Oral mucositis is a common side effect in patients undergoing those treatment. The presence of oral mucositis in these patients would influencing quality of life therefore compromising treatment outcome. The spec-trum of oral mucositis can be clinically seen as thinning of oral mucosa, oral discomfort to painful oral lesion causing mastication impairment with increasing risk of infection. The Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC/International Society for Oral Oncology (ISOO has recommended some means that have important role in the management oral mucositis. The low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a relatively new way of reducing the severity of oral mucositis, although the true mechanism of action is still under study. This review aimed in exploring update about the usage of LLLT for oral mucositis treatment.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i3.42

  2. Towards Smart Homes Using Low Level Sensory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Koo Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous Life Care (u-Life care is receiving attention because it provides high quality and low cost care services. To provide spontaneous and robust healthcare services, knowledge of a patient’s real-time daily life activities is required. Context information with real-time daily life activities can help to provide better services and to improve healthcare delivery. The performance and accuracy of existing life care systems is not reliable, even with a limited number of services. This paper presents a Human Activity Recognition Engine (HARE that monitors human health as well as activities using heterogeneous sensor technology and processes these activities intelligently on a Cloud platform for providing improved care at low cost. We focus on activity recognition using video-based, wearable sensor-based, and location-based activity recognition engines and then use intelligent processing to analyze the context of the activities performed. The experimental results of all the components showed good accuracy against existing techniques. The system is deployed on Cloud for Alzheimer’s disease patients (as a case study with four activity recognition engines to identify low level activity from the raw data captured by sensors. These are then manipulated using ontology to infer higher level activities and make decisions about a patient’s activity using patient profile information and customized rules.

  3. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237

  4. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  5. Low-level radioactive wastes in subsurface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive wastes will continue to be buried in shallow-land waste disposal sites. Several of the burial sites have been closed because of the problems that developed as a result of poor site characteristics, types of waste buried, and a number of other environmental factors. Some of the problems encountered can be traced to the activities of microorganisms. These include microbial degradation of waste forms resulting in trench cover subsidence, production of radioactive gases, and production of microbial metabolites capable of complexation, solubilization, and bioaccumulation of radionuclides. Improvements in disposal technology are being developed to minimize these problems. These include waste segregation, waste pretreatment, incineration, and solidification. Microorganisms are also known to enhance and inhibit the movement of metals. Little is known about the role of autotrophic microbial transformations of radionuclides. Such microbial processes may be significant in light of improved disposal procedures, which may result in reductions in the organic content of the waste disposed of at shallow-land sites. 102 references, 5 figures, 19 tables

  6. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution's (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation

  7. Low level laser therapy for traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuhe; Huang, Ying-Ying; Dhital, Saphala; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Whalen, Michael J.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    Low level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT) has been clinically applied for many indications in medicine that require the following processes: protection from cell and tissue death, stimulation of healing and repair of injuries, and reduction of pain, swelling and inflammation. One area that is attracting growing interest is the use of transcranial LLLT to treat stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The fact that near-infrared light can penetrate into the brain would allow non-invasive treatment to be carried out with a low likelihood of treatment-related adverse events. LLLT may have beneficial effects in the acute treatment of brain damage injury by increasing respiration in the mitochondria, causing activation of transcription factors, reducing key inflammatory mediators, and inhibiting apoptosis. We tested LLLT in a mouse model of TBI produced by a controlled weight drop onto the skull. Mice received a single treatment with 660-nm, 810-nm or 980-nm laser (36 J/cm2) four hours post-injury and were followed up by neurological performance testing for 4 weeks. Mice with moderate to severe TBI treated with 660- nm and 810-nm laser had a significant improvement in neurological score over the course of the follow-up and histological examination of the brains at sacrifice revealed less lesion area compared to untreated controls. Further studies are underway.

  8. Identification of Image Spam by Using Low Level & Metadata Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Gupta,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spammers are constantly evolving new spam technologies, the latest of which is image spam. Till now research in spam image identification has been addressed by considering properties like colour, size, compressibility, entropy, content etc. However, we feel the methods of identification so evolved have certain limitations due to embedded obfuscation like complex backgrounds, compression artifacts and wide variety of fonts and formats .To overcome these limitations, we have proposed 2 methodologies(however there can be more. Each methodology has 4 stages. Both the methodologies are almost similar except in the second stage where methodology I extracts low level features while the other extracts metadata features. Also a comparison between both the methodologies is shown. The method works on images with and without noise separately. Colour properties of the images are altered so that OCR (Optical Character Recognition can easily read the text embedded in the image. The proposed methods are tested on a dataset of 1984 spam images and are found to be effective in identifying all types of spam images having (1 only text, (2 only images or (3 both text and images. The encouraging experimental results show that the methodology I achieves an accuracy of 92% while the other achieves an accuracy of 93.3%

  9. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies

  10. Ultra-low level radon assays in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin Ran [University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-17

    The SuperNEMO experiment aims to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νβ β) to T{sub 1{sub /{sub 2}}}(0ν) > 10{sup 26} years, this corresponds to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. The extremely rare event rate means the minimisation of background is of critical concern. The stringent strategy instigated to ensure detector radiopurity is outlined here for all construction materials. In particular the large R&D programme undertaken to reach the challengingly low level of radon, < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}, required inside the SuperNEMO gaseous tracker will be detailed. This includes an experiment designed to measure radon diffusion through various materials. A “Radon Concentration Line” (RnCL) was developed to be used in conjunction with a state-of-the-art radon detector in order to achieve world leading sensitivity to {sup 222}Rn content in large gas volumes at the level of a few µBq/m{sup 3}. A radon purification system was developed and installed which has demonstrated radon suppression by several orders of magnitude depending on the carrier gas. This apparatus has now been commissioned and measurements of cylindered gas have been made to confirm radon suppression by a factor 20 when using nitrogen as the carrier gas. The results from measurements of radon content in various gases, used inside SuperNEMO, using the RnCL will be presented.

  11. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies

  12. Performance of engineered barriers for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geotechnical Resources Ltd., in association with Komex Consultants Ltd., was retained to collect, synthesize and evaluate the available information on the long term performance of engineered barriers for low-level radioactive wastes disposed in Canada. Literature was researched from Canadian, United States and European sources. A variety of barrier materials were assessed in the study and included natural clays, concrete and cement, metals, bentonite-sand admixes, bitumen and bituminous admixes, soil cement and polymeric membranes. The generalized geological and geotechnical conditions encountered within the soil and rock host media currently under consideration for disposal sites in southern Ontario were also summarized. Both internal barriers, or buffers, to immobilize the waste material and reduce radionuclide mobility, as well as external barriers to limit the migration of contaminants were examined. Microbial activities within the waste forms were analyzed, including cellulose degradation, methanogenesis and bicarbonate and organic reactions. Microbial interactions with the various engineered barrier materials under consideration were also assessed. Finally, the anticipated long term performances of the respective barrier materials under consideration were evaluated, along with the general suitability of the geological host media being proposed for disposal sites

  13. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-19

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  14. Low-level waste minimization at the Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koger, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The Y-12 Development Waste Minimization Program is used as a basis for defining new technologies and processes that produce minimum low-level wastes (hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and industrial) for the Y-12 Plant in the future and for Complex-21 and that aid in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) efforts throughout the complex. In the past, the strategy at the Y-12 Plant was to treat the residues from the production processes using chemical treatment, incineration, compaction, and other technologies, which often generated copious quantities of additional wastes and, with the exception of highly valuable materials such as enriched uranium, incorporated very little recycle in the process. Recycle, in this context, is defined as material that is put back into the process before it enters a waste stream. Additionally, there are several new technology drivers that have recently emerged with the changing climate in the Nuclear Weapons Complex such as Complex 21 and D and D technologies and an increasing number of disassemblies. The hierarchies of concern in the waste minimization effort are source reduction, recycle capability, treatment simplicity, and final disposal difficulty with regard to Complex 21, disassembly efforts, D and D, and, to a lesser extent, weapons production. Source reduction can be achieved through substitution of hazardous substances for nonhazardous materials, and process changes that result in less generated waste.

  15. Technical issues in licensing low-level radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkert, R. [California Dept. of Health Services, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The California Department of Health Service spent two years in the review of an application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California. During this review period a variety of technical issues had to be evaluated and resolved. One of the first issues was the applicability and use of NRC guidance documents for the development of LLW disposal facilities. Other technical issues that required intensive evaluations included surface water hydrology, seismic investigation, field and numerical analysis of the unsaturated zone, including a water infiltration test. Source term verification became an issue because of one specific isotope that comprised more than 90% of the curies projected for disposal during the operational period. The use of trench liners and the proposed monitoring of the unsaturated zone were reviewed by a highly select panel of experts to provide guidance on the need for liners and to ensure that the monitoring system was capable of monitoring sufficient representative areas for radionuclides in the soil, soil gas, and soil moisture. Finally, concerns about the quality of the preoperational environmental monitoring program, including data, sample collection procedures, laboratory analysis, data review and interpretation and duration of monitoring caused a significant delay in completing the licensing review.

  16. Advances in Low-Level Jet Research and Future Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongbo; HE Mingyang; WANG Bin; ZHANG Qinghong

    2014-01-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fi re, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made signifi cant achievements during the past fi ve or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classifi cation, defi nition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fi elds. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse defi nitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fi elds. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  17. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))

    1989-05-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure.

  18. Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, James M.

    2011-06-01

    The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360° range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

  19. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs

  20. Surface encapsulation process for managing low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current processes for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) stabilization involve mixing contaminants with a fixative such as cement, asphalt, polyethylene, or vinyl monomers, and subsequently curing the mixtures in containers. These methods give rise to processing difficulties and yield products lacking performance to assure long-term LLRW immobilization. Mixing of LLRW into fixatives is impeded by viscous media and the curing reaction is inhibited by LLRW constituents. Product performance is affected by corrosion of the containers which ultimately expose the cured mixtures to environmental stresses. This process, termed the ''Surface Encapsulation Process,'' circumvents these problems. A thermosetting fixative is employed that mixes readily with LLRW and is highly insensitive to inhibition in curing. The agglomerated mixtures are further stabilized by encapsulation with seamless jackets of corrosion resistant plastic, such as polyethylene. In laboratory-scale investigations, feasibility of the technique was demonstrated for managing a broad spectrum of LLRW simulants including ion-exchange resins, beads, and glasses, and sodium salts. Products tested to date meet all relevant NRC and DOT regulations governing waste fixation. The high waste loadings of the products, use of commodity resins, and processing simplicity indicated our process would provide high performance LLRW stabilization at costs that are competitive to those for processes employing state-of-the-art fixatives. An economic analysis based on managing LLRW generated by commercial power plants (≅1,000 MeW) substantiates the competitive process costs advantages

  1. NRC low-level waste management goals: 1987-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal for the NRC low-level waste management program for the period 1987-1993 is based on NRC's mission to protect public health and safety and on the mandate of Congress to help assure that the States have provided adequate disposal capacity, individually or through compacts, by the end of this period. The NRC is working to establish a stable waste management environment by the middle of the next decade. In order to achieve this goal, the NRC must provide the regulatory foundation on which the States can base their own licensing efforts. This includes the development of review procedures and guidance documents to promote efficient review of license applications as well as removing potential impediments to development of disposal facilities. Examples of NRC staff action areas include: documentation of license application requirements; production of review plans; development of a policy on below regulatory concern; rule making to define requirements for emergency access under the LLRWPAA; development of guidance on the requirements for licensing alternative disposal technologies; clarification of the regulatory environment for disposal of mixed waste; and definition of the requirements for disposal as contrasted with those for storage. This will be accomplished along with the day-to-day business of licensing, preparing the closure of existing sites, review of topical reports and other regulatory activities. 3 tables

  2. Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy in TMD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Simel; Emir, Faruk; Sahin, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) is one of the most recent treatment modalities in dentistry. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is suggested to have biostimulating and analgesic effects through direct irradiation without causing thermal response. There are few studies that have investigated the efficacy of laser therapy in temporomandibular disorders (TMD), especially in reduced mouth opening. The case report here evaluates performance of LLLT with a diode laser for temporomandibular clicking and postoperative findings were evaluated in two cases of TMD patients. First patient had a history of limited mouth opening and pain in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region since nine months. Second patient's main complaint was his restricted mouth opening, which was progressed in one year. LLLT was performed with a 685 nm red probed diode laser that has an energy density of 6.2 J/cm2, three times a week for one month, and application time was 30 seconds (685 nm, 25 mW, 30 s, 0.02 Hz, and 6.2 J/cm2) (BTL-2000, Portative Laser Therapy Device). The treatment protocol was decided according to the literature. One year later patients were evaluated and there were no changes. This application suggested that LLLT is an appropriate treatment for TMD related pain and limited mouth opening and should be considered as an alternative to other methods. PMID:26587294

  3. Concentrating Low-Level Tritiated Water Through Isotope Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapping of tritium on polymers with specific functional groups was investigated as a means of treating waste streams containing low levels of tritium. Chemical exchange of tritium with hydrogen on the functional group was used as the mechanism for trapping. The polymers tested include Aurorez polybenzimidazole resin beads, Chelex 100 resin beads, Duolite GT-73, microcrystalline cellulose, and polyethylenimine. The tests were performed under simulated operating conditions on water obtained from the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Tritiated water from the Tritium Systems Test Assembly is discharged to this plant. Polyethylenimine is a water-soluble polymer that was tested using a stirred membrane cell with an ultrafiltration membrane. All of the polymers except polyethylenimine took up tritium from the water. Polybenzimidazole demonstrated the highest tritium uptake. The results are explained on the basis of the type of functional group, hydrogen bonding, and rigidity of the molecular structure of the polymer. The theoretical calculations indicate that significant isotope discrimination requires high-frequency modes with hydrogen bonding contribution and support the experimental findings. Modeling suggested trends that may lead to structures that are more efficient in trapping tritium

  4. Concentrating low-level tritiated water through isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapping of tritium on polymers with specific functional groups was investigated as a means of treating waste streams containing low levels of tritium. Chemical exchange of tritium with hydrogen on the functional group was used as the mechanism for trapping. The polymers tested include Aurorez polybenzimidazole resin beads, Chelex 100 resin beads, Duolite GT-73, microcrystalline cellulose, and polyethylenimine. The tests were performed under simulated operating conditions on water obtained from the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Tritiated water from the Tritium Systems Test Assembly is discharged to this plant. Polyethylenimine is a water-soluble polymer that was tested using a stirred membrane cell with an ultrafiltration membrane. All of the polymers except polyethylenimine took up tritium from the water. Polybenzimidazole demonstrated the highest tritium uptake. The results are explained on the basis of the type of functional group, hydrogen bonding, and rigidity of the molecular structure of the polymer. The theoretical calculations indicate that significant isotope discrimination requires high-frequency modes with hydrogen bonding contribution and support the experimental findings. Modeling suggested trends that may lead to structures that are more efficient in trapping tritium

  5. Radionuclide release from low-level waste in field lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field program has been in operation for 8 years at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to determine the leaching/migration behavior of low-level radioactive waste using lysimeters. The lysimeters are soil-filled caissons containing well characterized wastes, with each lysimeter serving as a model of a shallow land burial trench. Sampling and analysis of percolate water and vegetation from the lysimeters provide a determination of the release rates of the radionuclides from the waste/soil system. Vegetative uptake appears to be a major pathway for migration. Fractional release rates from the waste/soil system are less than 0.01% per year. Waste-to-soil leach rates up to 10% per year have been determined by coring several of the lysimeters. The leaching of solidified wasteforms under unsaturated field conditions has agreed well with static, immersion leaching of the same type waste in the laboratory. However, releases from the waste/soil system in the lysimeter may be greater than predicted based on leaching alone, due to complexation of the radionuclides by other components leached from the wastes to form mobile, anionic species

  6. RF low level control system at SCSS prototype accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constriction of XFEL facilities is under progress at the SPring-8 site. The SCSS prototype accelerator to check the feasibility of XFEL is in operation. And the amplification of VUV light having a wavelength of 49 nm was observed in June. The stability and controllability requirements on an RF phase and amplitude, concerning with the RF system of the prototype accelerator, are less than 1 degree and 0.3%. To satisfy the requirements, we developed a low noise RF signal source, and an IQ (In phase and in Quardrature) modulator and an IQ demodulator. The RF phase and amplitude are controlled by the IQ modulator. The detection of them are performed by using the IQ demodulator. Both IQ functions of them are handled by VME DAC and ADC boards developed by us. Furthermore, the DAC module can handle the adaptive control method. We confirmed, that these instruments satisfied the requirements, by the beam test. The configuration of the RF low level system, its performance, and the preliminary results of the adaptive control experiment are described in this paper. (author)

  7. Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-02-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  8. Low-level radioactive waste research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Management Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has developed a strategy for conducting research on issues of concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its efforts to ensure safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The resulting LLW research program plan provides an integrated framework for planning the LLW research program to ensure that the program and its products are responsive and timely for use in NRC's LLW regulatory program. The plan discusses technical and scientific issues and uncertainties associated with the disposal of LLW, presents programmatic goals and objectives for resolving them, establishes a long-term strategy for conducting the confirmatory and investigative research needed to meet these goals and objectives, and includes schedules and milestones for completing the research. Areas identified for investigation include waste form and other material concerns, failure mechanisms and radionuclide releases, engineered barrier performance, site characterization and monitoring, and performance assessment. The plan proposes projects that (1) analyze and test actual LLW and solidified LLW under laboratory and field conditions to determine leach rates and radionuclide releases, (2) examine the short- and long-term performance of concrete-enhanced LLW burial structures and high-integrity containers, and (3) attempt to predict water movement and contaminant transport through low permeability saturated media and unsaturated porous media. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. The Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed regulation of low level radioactive waste (40 CFR Part 193): A Department of Energy overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frangos, T.G. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages one of the world`s largest programs for storage, treatment, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. This system with facilities located at sites across the nation has evolved over some forty years in response to changing needs, technologies, and increasing public awareness and concerns for environmental protection. The DOE has operated in a self regulatory mode in most aspects of its low-level waste (LLW) programs. It has been DOE`s policy and practice to provide at least the same level of safety and protection for the public, DOE and contractor employees, and the general environment, as that required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for commercial operations. DOE`s policies have been implemented through a management system that historically has been highly decentralized so as to be responsive to the needs of DOE sites which generate a wide variety of wastes at some 25 locations. In addition to concerns with the LLW that it manages, DOE has an interest in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) promulgation of 40 CFR Part 193 because of its responsibilities under the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (LLRWPAA) to manage certain classes of waste and to assist and encourage the development of interstate compact-managed regional low-level waste disposal sites.

  10. Department of Energy pretreatment of high-level and low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remediation of the 1 x 108 gal of highly radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is one of DOE's greatest challenges. Therefore, the DOE Office of Environmental Management has created the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste. The TFA has divided its efforts into five areas, which are safety, characterization, retrieval/closure, pretreatment, and immobilization. All DOE pretreatment activities are integrated by the Pretreatment Technical Integration Manager of the TFA. For FY 1996, the 14 pretreatment tasks are divided into 3 systems: supernate separations, sludge treatment, and solid/liquid separation. The plans and recent results of these TFA tasks, which include two 25,000-gal demonstrations and two former TFA tasks on Cs removal, are presented. The pretreatment goals are to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste

  11. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 2: Low-level waste strategy and planning, decontamination and decommissioning, compliance monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Nineteen papers are presented in volume 2. The 11 papers in the LLW Strategy and Planning section discuss plans for disposal facilities in Texas, Pennsylvania, Hanford, the Southwest and Southeast Compacts, and others. Three papers discuss decontamination technology and activities. Environmental monitoring requirements and recommendations at LLW facilities are discussed in 5 papers. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. The Australasian radiation protection society's position statement on risks from low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At its Annual General Meeting in 2004, the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (A.R.P.S.) set up a working group to draft a statement of the Society's position on risks from low levels of exposure to ionizing radiation. The resulting position statement was adopted by the Society at its Annual General Meeting in 2005. Its salient features are as follows: First, there is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of milli sieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls. Secondly, estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of milli sieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers. Thirdly, the risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 micro sieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted. (authors)

  13. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  14. Water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; Gray, J.R.; De Vries, G. M.; Mills, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous data collection allowed estimates to be made for each component of the water-balance equation independent of other components. The average annual precipitation was 948 millimeters. Average annual evapotranspiration was estimated at 637 millimeters, runoff was 160 millimeters, change in water storage in a waste-trench cover was 24 millimeters, and deep percolation was 208 millimeters. The magnitude of the difference between precipitation and all other components (81 millimeters per year) indicates that, in a similar environment, the water-budget method would be useful in estimating evapotranspiration, but questionable for estimation of other components. Precipitation depth and temporal distribution had a very strong effect on all other components of the water-balance equation. Due to the variability of precipitation from year to year, it appears that two years of data are inadequate for characterization of the long-term average water balance at the site.

  15. In vitro transdentinal effect of low-level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. F.; Basso, F. G.; dos Reis, R. I.; Parreiras-e-Silva, L. T.; Lins, E. C.; Kurachi, C.; Hebling, J.; Bagnato, V. S.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. However, the specific LLL dose and the response mechanisms of these cells to transdentinal irradiation have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, this study evaluated the transdentinal effects of different LLL doses on stressed odontoblast-like pulp cells MDPC-23 seeded onto the pulpal side of dentin discs obtained from human third molars. The discs were placed in devices simulating in vitro pulp chambers and the whole set was placed in 24-well plates containing plain culture medium (DMEM). After 24 h incubation, the culture medium was replaced by fresh DMEM supplemented with either 5% (simulating a nutritional stress condition) or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells were irradiated with doses of 15 and 25 J cm-2 every 24 h, totaling three applications over three consecutive days. The cells in the control groups were removed from the incubator for the same times as used in their respective experimental groups for irradiation, though without activating the laser source (sham irradiation). After 72 h of the last active or sham irradiation, the cells were evaluated with respect to succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme production (MTT assay), total protein (TP) expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) synthesis, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for collagen type 1 (Col-I) and ALP, and morphology (SEM). For both tests, significantly higher values were obtained for the 25 J cm-2 dose. Regarding SDH production, supplementation of the culture medium with 5% FBS provided better results. For TP and ALP expression, the 25 J cm-2 presented higher values, especially for the 5% FBS concentration (Mann-Whitney p laser irradiation at 25 J cm-2 caused transdentinal biostimulation of odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells.

  16. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  17. Cover technology demonstration for low-level radioactive sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a shallow land burial site in isolating low-level radioactive and mixed waste is strongly influenced by the behavior of the precipitation falling on the site. Predicting the long-term integrity of a cover design requires a knowledge of the water balance dynamics, and the use of predictive models. The multiplicity of factors operating on a site in the years post-closure (precipitation intensity and duration, soil conditions, vegetation seasonality and variability) have made it extremely difficult to predict the effects of natural precipitation with accuracy. Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field demonstration at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on an inactive waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot are measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Soil moisture reduction during the growing season was more pronounced on the shrub plots. This indicates that a more complex vegetative cover provides greater soil moisture storage capacity for winter precipitation than the usual grass cover

  18. Low Level Waste Conceptual Design Adaption to Poor Geological Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.; Drimmer, D.; Giovannini, A.; Manfroy, P.; Maquet, F.; Schittekat, J.; Van Cotthem, A.; Van Echelpoel, E.

    2002-02-26

    Since the early eighties, several studies have been carried out in Belgium with respect to a repository for the final disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1998, the Belgian Government decided to restrict future investigations to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium or sites that might show interest. So far, only two existing nuclear sites have been thoroughly investigated from a geological and hydrogeological point of view. These sites are located in the North-East (Mol-Dessel) and in the mid part (Fleurus-Farciennes) of the country. Both sites have the disadvantage of presenting poor geological and hydrogeological conditions, which are rather unfavorable to accommodate a surface disposal facility for LLW. The underground of the Mol-Dessel site consists of neogene sand layers of about 180 m thick which cover a 100 meters thick clay layer. These neogene sands contain, at 20 m depth, a thin clayey layer. The groundwater level is quite close to the surface (0-2m) and finally, the topography is almost totally flat. The upper layer of the Fleurus-Farciennes site consists of 10 m silt with poor geomechanical characteristics, overlying sands (only a few meters thick) and Westphalian shales between 15 and 20 m depth. The Westphalian shales are tectonized and strongly weathered. In the past, coal seams were mined out. This activity induced locally important surface subsidence. For both nuclear sites that were investigated, a conceptual design was made that could allow any unfavorable geological or hydrogeological conditions of the site to be overcome. In Fleurus-Farciennes, for instance, the proposed conceptual design of the repository is quite original. It is composed of a shallow, buried concrete cylinder, surrounded by an accessible concrete ring, which allows permanent inspection and control during the whole lifetime of the repository. Stability and drainage systems should be independent of potential differential settlements an d subsidences

  19. In vitro transdentinal effect of low-level laser therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. However, the specific LLL dose and the response mechanisms of these cells to transdentinal irradiation have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, this study evaluated the transdentinal effects of different LLL doses on stressed odontoblast-like pulp cells MDPC-23 seeded onto the pulpal side of dentin discs obtained from human third molars. The discs were placed in devices simulating in vitro pulp chambers and the whole set was placed in 24-well plates containing plain culture medium (DMEM). After 24 h incubation, the culture medium was replaced by fresh DMEM supplemented with either 5% (simulating a nutritional stress condition) or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells were irradiated with doses of 15 and 25 J cm−2 every 24 h, totaling three applications over three consecutive days. The cells in the control groups were removed from the incubator for the same times as used in their respective experimental groups for irradiation, though without activating the laser source (sham irradiation). After 72 h of the last active or sham irradiation, the cells were evaluated with respect to succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme production (MTT assay), total protein (TP) expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) synthesis, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for collagen type 1 (Col-I) and ALP, and morphology (SEM). For both tests, significantly higher values were obtained for the 25 J cm−2 dose. Regarding SDH production, supplementation of the culture medium with 5% FBS provided better results. For TP and ALP expression, the 25 J cm−2 presented higher values, especially for the 5% FBS concentration (Mann–Whitney p −2 caused transdentinal biostimulation of odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. (paper)

  20. The Dose That Works: Low Level Laser Treatment of Tendinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is used in the treatment of tendon injuries. However, the clinical effectiveness of this modality remains controversial with limited agreement on the most efficacious dosage and parameter choices. Purpose: To assess the clinical effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of tendinopathy and the validity of current dosage recommendations for treatment. Method: Medical databases were searched from inception to 1st August 2008. Controlled clinical trials evaluating LLLT as a primary intervention for any tendinopathy were included in the review. Methodological quality was classified using the PEDro scale. Appropriateness of treatment parameters were assessed using established guidelines. Results: Twenty five trials met the inclusion criteria. There was conflicting findings from multiple trials: 12 showed positive effects and 13 were inconclusive or showed no effect. Dosages used in the 12 positive studies support the existence of an effective dosage window that closely resembled current guidelines. Where pooling of data was possible, LLLT showed a positive effect size; in high quality studies of lateral epicondylitis, participants' grip strength was 9.59 Kg higher than the control group; for participants with Achilles tendinopathy, the effect was 13.6 mm less pain on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Conclusion: This study found conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of tendinopathy. However, an effective dosage window emerged showing benefit in the treatment of tendinopathy. Strong evidence exists from the 12 positive studies that positive outcomes are associated with the use of current dosage recommendations for the treatment of tendinopathy.

  1. The Dose That Works: Low Level Laser Treatment of Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumilty, Steve; Munn, Joanne; McDonough, Suzanne; Hurley, Deirdre A.; Basford, Jeffrey R.; David Baxter, G.

    2010-05-01

    Background: Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is used in the treatment of tendon injuries. However, the clinical effectiveness of this modality remains controversial with limited agreement on the most efficacious dosage and parameter choices. Purpose: To assess the clinical effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of tendinopathy and the validity of current dosage recommendations for treatment. Method: Medical databases were searched from inception to 1st August 2008. Controlled clinical trials evaluating LLLT as a primary intervention for any tendinopathy were included in the review. Methodological quality was classified using the PEDro scale. Appropriateness of treatment parameters were assessed using established guidelines. Results: Twenty five trials met the inclusion criteria. There was conflicting findings from multiple trials: 12 showed positive effects and 13 were inconclusive or showed no effect. Dosages used in the 12 positive studies support the existence of an effective dosage window that closely resembled current guidelines. Where pooling of data was possible, LLLT showed a positive effect size; in high quality studies of lateral epicondylitis, participants' grip strength was 9.59 Kg higher than the control group; for participants with Achilles tendinopathy, the effect was 13.6 mm less pain on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Conclusion: This study found conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of tendinopathy. However, an effective dosage window emerged showing benefit in the treatment of tendinopathy. Strong evidence exists from the 12 positive studies that positive outcomes are associated with the use of current dosage recommendations for the treatment of tendinopathy.

  2. AECL experience with low-level radioactive waste technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), as the Canadian government agency responsible for research and development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, has had experience in handling a wide variety of radioactive wastes for over 40 years. Low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is generated in Canada from nuclear fuel manufacturers and nuclear power facilities, from medical and industrial uses of radioisotopes and from research facilities. The technologies with which AECL has strength lie in the areas of processing, storage, disposal and safety assessment of LLRW. While compaction and incineration are the predominant methods practised for solid wastes, purification techniques and volume reduction methods are used for liquid wastes. The methods for processing continue to be developed to improve and increase the efficiency of operation and to accommodate the transition from storage of the waste to disposal. Site-specific studies and planning for a LLRW disposal repository to replace current storage facilities are well underway with in-service operation to begin in 1991. The waste will be disposed of in an intrusion-resistant underground structure designed to have a service life of over 500 years. Beyond this period of time the radioactivity in the waste will have decayed to innocuous levels. Safety assessments of LLRW disposal are performed with the aid of a series of interconnected mathematical models developed at Chalk River specifically to predict the movement of radionuclides through and away from the repository after its closure and the subsequent health effects of the released radionuclides on the public. The various technologies for dealing with radioactive wastes from their creation to disposal will be discussed. 14 refs

  3. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented

  4. Equilibrium leach testing of low level waste. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium leach test was developed to simulate the chemical conditions in a repository after water has penetrated the near field barriers. The principal components of the repository (the waste, backfill and canister simulant) are equilibrated with water under static conditions to simulate the very low water flows likely to be encountered in the repository. The water is sampled at various times over a 1-2 year period and analysed for radionuclides. Equilibrium leach testing has now been extended to low level wastes and this report describes the effects of different backfill compositions. Later reports will deal with the effects of other variables. A series of experiments have been conducted using four different backfills with ferric floc sludge wastes in both oxidising and reducing environments. The water was sampled at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and analysed for actinides, fission and activation products and inactive components. It was demonstrated that the activities released depended on the nature of the backfill but not very much on the redox potential of the system. Whereas fission and activation products generally reached steady state values by three months, this was not so for the actinides which had not reached a steady value even after twelve months. Initial experiments using membrane filters indicated this was partly due to the presence of colloidal material in the leachates. Similar tests for the inactive components of the leachates did not show any significant colloidal contribution from these elements except for iron and this only in a few cases. The role of these materials cannot be precluded however, since the amounts required to interact with actinides would be very small and might be difficult to detect. (author)

  5. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985-86 an inquiry into the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom was conducted. In 1985, the low-level waste [LLW] site at Drigg which is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc [BNFL] was visited. A series of trenches dug into glacial clay about eight metres deep into which a miscellany of rubbish-some in drums, some raw-was tipped, with a rough and ready check on total daily radioactivity of the material and no attempt at analysis of content was seen. When filled, the trench was covered over with soil; and water accumulating in it was allowed to run off into the Drigg stream and eventually into the Irish Sea. If the monitoring of the stream one day revealed a high level of radioactivity nothing could have been done about it, since pinpointing the offending waste would be impossible. Recommendations as set out in Appendix I to the present Report, were made. The recommendations were accepted virtually in their entirety. Drigg was re-visited in June 1989. In place of the open clay trenches, carefully-engineered concrete bunkers to receive metal containers were found. Sampling equipment has been installed on-site and all waste arriving at Drigg from non-Sellafield sources is placed in an approved container, which is carefully labelled and its ultimate destination carefully recorded. Insofar as the old trenches are concerned, these have been isolated by the construction of a groundwater cut-off wall designed to prevent lateral movement of contaminants from the trenches. Significant reductions had been achieved by BNFL for radioactive emissions from the site as a whole. Large sums have been spent on achieving this. Discharges of alpha and beta radiation are now around one per cent of the peak discharges of the 1970s and monitoring of shellfish has confirmed that this has been carried forward into a reduced exposure for the public. (author)

  6. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985-86 an inquiry was conducted into the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. In April 1985, during that inquiry, the low-level waste (LLW) site at Drigg which is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was visited. A series of trenches dug into glacial clay about eight metres deep contained a miscellany of rubbish - some in drums, some raw - with but a rough and ready check on total daily radioactivity of the material and no attempt at analysis of content. When filled, the trench was covered over with soil; and water accumulating in it was allowed to run off into the Drigg stream and eventually into the Irish Sea. If the monitoring of the stream one day revealed a high level of radioactivity nothing could have been done about it, since pinpointing the offending waste would be impossible. Recommendations as set out in Appendix I to the present Report, were made. Recommendations were accepted virtually in their entirety; measures would be taken to meet criticisms of what was seen. Drigg was revisited in June 1989. The solid waste encapsulation plant (EP1) which is currently nearing completion at Sellafield was also seen. Carefully-engineered concrete bunkers to receive metal containers replaced open clay trenches. Sampling equipment has been installed on-site and all waste arriving at Drigg from non-Sellefield sources is placed in an approved container, which is carefully labelled and its ultimate destination carefully recorded. Insofar as the old trenches are concerned, these have been isolated by the construction of a groundwater cut-off wall designed to prevent lateral movement of contaminants from the trenches. Significant reductions have been achieved by BNFL for radioactive emissions from the site as a whole. Large sums have been spent on achieving this. (author)

  7. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance

  8. Melatonin protection from chronic, low-level ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Russel J; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Ma, Shuran; Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Tan, Dun-Xian

    2011-12-15

    In the current survey, we summarize the published literature which supports the use of melatonin, an endogenously produced molecule, as a protective agent against chronic, low-level ionizing radiation. Under in vitro conditions, melatonin uniformly was found to protect cellular DNA and plasmid super coiled DNA from ionizing radiation damage due to Cs(137) or X-radiation exposure. Likewise, in an in vivo/in vitro study in which humans were given melatonin orally and then their blood lymphocytes were collected and exposed to Cs(137) ionizing radiation, nuclear DNA from the cells of those individuals who consumed melatonin (and had elevated blood levels) was less damaged than that from control individuals. In in vivo studies as well, melatonin given to animals prevented DNA and lipid damage (including limiting membrane rigidity) and reduced the percentage of animals that died when they had been exposed to Cs(137) or Co(60) radiation. Melatonin's ability to protect macromolecules from the damage inflicted by ionizing radiation likely stems from its high efficacy as a direct free radical scavenger and possibly also due to its ability to stimulate antioxidative enzymes. Melatonin is readily absorbed when taken orally or via any other route. Melatonin's ease of self administration and its virtual absence of toxicity or side effects, even when consumed over very long periods of time, are essential when large populations are exposed to lingering radioactive contamination such as occurs as a result of an inadvertent nuclear accident, an intentional nuclear explosion or the detonation of a radiological dispersion device, i.e., a "dirty" bomb. PMID:22185900

  9. The role of nitric oxide in low level light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. Firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. This review will focus on the role of nitric oxide in the cellular and tissue effects of LLLT. Red and near-IR light is primarily absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase (unit four in the mitochondrial respiratory chain). Nitric oxide produced in the mitochondria can inhibit respiration by binding to cytochrome c oxidase and competitively displacing oxygen, especially in stressed or hypoxic cells. If light absorption displaced the nitric oxide and thus allowed the cytochrome c oxidase to recover and cellular respiration to resume, this would explain many of the observations made in LLLT. Why the effect is only seen in hypoxic, stressed or damaged cells or tissues? How the effects can keep working for some time (hours or days) postillumination? Why increased NO concentrations are sometimes measured in cell culture or in animals? How blood flow can be increased? Why angiogenesis is sometimes increased after LLLT in vivo?

  10. KINETICS OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LOW LEVEL PESTICIDE WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are chemical substances intended to protect food crops and livestock from pests in order to pro-mote agricultural productivity and protect public health. Contamination of soil, air and water and threat to human and animal health are the major constraints in the use of pesticides. Treatment of pesticide contaminated water is, therefore, paramount. Biological treatment provides the most economical option when compared to other treatment methods. The aim of the study was to develop a safe and effective in the farm biological treatment for low level agricultural pesticide wastewater. The degradation of the fungicide captan was evaluated under batch and continuous modes of operation with a retention time of 15 days. The initial cell number (30.1ח106 cells/mL in the soil water mixture first declined with time during the 24 h reaching 15.6ח106 and 11.1ח106 cells/mL in the batch and continuous bioreactors, respectively. This was due to the inhibitory effect of pesticide on some of the soil microbial species that had less tolerance to captan at the initial concentration of 144 mg L-1. Then, the microbial population started growing, reaching its maximum after 5 and 12 days from the start in the batch and continuous bioreactors, respectively. The lag period and the specific growth rate for the batch bioreactor were 22 h and 0.096 h-1, respectively. A captan degradation efficiency of 89.6% was achieved after 10 days in the continuous bioreactor compared to a degradation efficiency of 100% after 5 d in the batch bioreactor. This study showed that the effluent from the continuous bioreactor has a captan concentration of 12 mg L-1 which is not acceptable for livestock water according to Health Canada Guidelines. A half life of 52 h is observed in the batch bioreactor.

  11. Low-level radioactive waste research program plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has developed a strategy for conducting research on issues of concern to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its efforts to ensure safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The program plan has been published in NUREG-1380, and provides an integrated framework to ensure that the program and its products are responsive and timely. The plan addresses technical and scientific issues and uncertainties associated with the disposal of LLW, presents goals and ways for achieving them, establishes a long-term strategy for the confirmatory and investigative research needed and includes schedules and milestones for completion. Areas for investigation include waste form and other material concerns, failure mechanisms and radionuclide releases, engineered barrier performance, site characterization and monitoring, and performance assessment. The plan includes projects that (1) analyze and test actual LLW and solidified LLW under laboratory and field conditions to determine leach rates and radionuclide releases, (2) examine the radiological and chemical characteristics of decommissioning waste from Nuclear power stations, (3) examine the short- and long-term performance of concrete-enhanced LLW burial structures and high-integrity containers, (4) investigate the long term effectiveness of disposal unit covers in controlling water infiltration into disposal units, (5) examine the information needed at time of closure for predicting future facility performance, (6) attempt to develop a predictive model of the rate of radionuclide release at the boundary of waste disposal units, (7) examine radionuclide transport behavior, pathways, uptake, and transfer coefficients of radionuclide releases from LLW disposal facilities, and (8) attempt to predict water movement and contaminant transport through low permeability saturated media and unsaturated porous media. 1 fig

  12. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1989: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This response is submitted in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act), Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes expenditures made during the calendar year 1989 of surcharge rebates from the July 1, 1986, milestones. Title I of the Act requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to administer a Surcharge Escrow Account. This account consists of a portion of the surcharge fees paid by generators of low-level radioactive waste in nonsited compacts (regional compacts currently without operating disposal sites) and nonmember States (States without disposal sites that are not members of compacts) to the three States with operating disposal facilities (Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington) (sited States) for using their disposal facilities. In administering the Surcharge Escrow Account, the Act requires DOE to: invest the funds in interest-bearing United States Government securities; determine eligibility of rebates of the funds by evaluating State and compact progress toward developing new disposal sites against milestones set forth in the Act; disburse the collected rebates and interest; assess compliance of rebate expenditures with the limitations prescribed in the Act; and submit a report annually to Congress summarizing rebate expenditures by States and regions. 5 tabs

  13. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: potential problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a state or state compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1986 as required by the Low-Level Waste Policy Act, then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. In this report, extended storage of LLRW is considered in order to determine for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission areas of concern and actions recommended to resolve these concerns. The focus is on the properties and performance of the waste form and waste container. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. The areas of concern about extended storage of LLRW are grouped into two categories: (1) Performance of the waste form and/or container during storage, e.g., radiolytic gas generation, radiation-enhanced degradation of polymeric materials, and corrosion. (2) Effects of extended storage on the properties of the waste form and/or container that are important after storage (e.g., radiation-induced embrittlement of high-density polyethylene and the weakening of steel containers resulting from corrosion). A discussion is given of additional information and actions required to address these concerns

  14. Dynamics of the Iberian Peninsula Coastal Low-Level Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Rijo, Nádia; Miranda, Pedro; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Coastal low-level jets (CLLJ) are important mesoscale phenomena of some regional coastal climates. They are characterized by a coast-parallel flow which has a wind speed maxima within the first few hundred meters above sea level (usually below 1000 m, and most of the times around 500 m), encapsulated within the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). Coastal jets have a larger scale synoptic forcing behind them: a high pressure system over the ocean and a thermal low inland. The regions where CLLJ occur coincide with cold equator-ward eastern boundary currents in the mid-latitudes (with an exception of the coast of Oman in the Arabian Sea), where the contrast between the cold ocean and the warm land in the summer is highest. As a response of CLLJ occurrences a positive feedback mechanism is triggered: the coast-parallel wind induces upwelling currents at the coast, reducing the sea surface temperature, which in turn increase the thermal (pressure) gradient at the coast, leading to higher wind speeds. The Iberian Peninsula Coastal Jet (IPCJ) is an example of a CLLJ, developed mostly during the summer season due to the effect of the semi-present Azores high-pressure system in the North Atlantic and of a thermal low pressure system inland. This synoptic pattern drives a seasonal (western) coast parallel wind, often called the Nortada (northerly wind), where the IPCJ develops. A detailed analysis of the IPCJ structure and dynamics will be presented, trough the analysis of two case studies off the west coast of Portugal. The case studies are simulated using the WRF mesoscale model, at 9 and 3 km horizontal resolution, forced by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis. The MABL structure off the west coast of Iberia, the interaction of the flow with the two main west Iberia capes (Finisterre and Roca), and the consequences on the cloud cover and wind speed up- and down-wind of the capes will be analysed.

  15. Cellular chromophores and signaling in low level light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.

    2007-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light (LLLT) for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In recent years major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms that operate at the cellular and tissue levels during LLLT. Mitochondria are thought to be the main site for the initial effects of light and specifically cytochrome c oxidase that has absorption peaks in the red and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum matches the action spectra of LLLT effects. The discovery that cells employ nitric oxide (NO) synthesized in the mitochondria by neuronal nitric oxide synthase, to regulate respiration by competitive binding to the oxygen binding of cytochrome c oxidase, now suggests how LLLT can affect cell metabolism. If LLLT photodissociates inhibitory NO from cytochrome c oxidase, this would explain increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction and prevention of apoptosis, stimulation of angiogenesis, increase of blood flow and induction of transcription factors. In

  16. Model Evaluation for Low-Level Cloud Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S.-H.

    2012-04-01

    , we give a courteous answer to the question of whether low-level clouds act as a positive or negative feedback to climate change.

  17. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs.

  18. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs

  19. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. A selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Tappen, J. (comps.)

    1978-06-01

    The data file was built to provide information support to DOE researchers in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal and management. The scope of the data base emphasizes studies which deal with the ''old'' Manhattan sites, commercial disposal sites, and the specific parameters which affect the soil and geologic migration of radionuclides. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data base to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the ''Measured Radionuclides'' field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the ''Measured Parameters'' field. The 504 references are rated indicating applicability to shallow land burial technology and whether interpretation is required. Indexes are provided for author, geographic location, title, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, keywords, subject categories, and publication description. (DLC)

  20. Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant Project contracting strategy decision analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten basic contracting strategies were developed after a review of past strategies that had been used at the Hanford Site, other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites, other US government agencies, and in the private sector. As applicable to the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant (LLWVP) Project, each strategy was described and depicted in a schedule format to assess compatibility with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, al so known as the Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones, key decision points, and other project requirements. The-pro and con aspects of each strategy also were tabulated. Using this information as a basis, the LLWVP Project team members, along with representatives of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering, TWRS Programs, and Procurement Materials Management, formed a Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) evaluation team to select the best strategy. Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis techniques were used in facilitated meetings to arrive at the best balanced choice