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Sample records for annual doe low-level

  1. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990

  2. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  3. Proceedings of the seventh annual participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seventh Annual Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP) Participants' Information Meeting was held September 10-13, 1985 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste management activities, requirements, and plans. Attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, interim operations offices and their contractor operators; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, US Environmental Protection Agency, US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of Great Britain, France, and Canada; representatives of utilities, private contractors, and parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for the exchange of information and the promotion of discussion on specific aspects of low-level waste management. Plenary sessions were held at the start and conclusion of the meeting while seven concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening day and a half. Session chairmen from each of these concurrent sessions presented a summary of the discussion and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions at the final plenary session

  4. Assessment of the requirements for DOE's annual report to congress on low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (PL99-240; LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to ''submit to Congress on an annual basis a report which: (1) summarizes the progress of low-level waste disposal siting and licensing activities within each compact region, (2) reviews the available volume reduction technologies, their applications, effectiveness, and costs on a per unit volume basis, (3) reviews interim storage facility requirements, costs, and usage, (4) summarizes transportation requirements for such wastes on an inter- and intra-regional basis, (5) summarizes the data on the total amount of low-level waste shipped for disposal on a yearly basis, the proportion of such wastes subjected to volume reduction, the average volume reduction attained,, and the proportion of wastes stored on an interim basis, and (6) projects the interim storage and final disposal volume requirements anticipated for the following year, on a regional basis (Sec. 7(b)).'' This report reviews and assesses what is required for development of the annual report specified in the LLRWPAA. This report addresses each of the subject areas set out in the LLRWPAA

  5. Seventh annual DOE LLWMP participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following sessions were held: International Low-Level Waste Management Activities; Low-Level Waste Disposal; Characteristics and Treatment of Low-Level Waste; Environmental Monitoring and Performance; Greater Confinement and Alternative Disposal Methods; Low-Level Waste Management; Corrective Measures; Performance Prediction and Assessment; and Siting New Defense and Commercial Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

  6. Thirteenth annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The 40 papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy`s Thirteenth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on November 19--21, 1991. General subjects addressed during the conference included: disposal facility design; greater-than-class C low-level waste; public acceptance considerations; waste certification; site characterization; performance assessment; licensing and documentation; emerging low-level waste technologies; waste minimization; mixed waste; tracking and transportation; storage; and regulatory changes. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G. (comps.)

    1981-12-01

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  8. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base

  9. Proceedings of the fourth annual participants' information meeting, DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fourth Annual Participants' Information Meeting of the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in Denver, Colorado, August 31 to September 2, 1982. The purpose of the meeting was to report and evaluate technology development funded by the program and to examine mechanisms for technology transfer. The meeting consisted of an introductory plenary session, followed by two concurrent overview sessions and then six concurrent technical sessions. There were two group meetings to review the findings of the technical sessions. The meeting concluded with a plenary summary session in which the major findings of the meeting were addressed. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  10. Proceedings of the sixth annual Participants' Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions were held on disposal technology, characteristics and treatment of low-level waste, environmental aspects and performance prediction, predicting source terms for low-level wastes (LLW), performance assessment for LLW disposal facilities, and approaches to LLW facility siting and characteristics. Fifty-six papers were indexed separately

  11. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting: DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  12. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  13. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  14. Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Executive summary, opening plenary session, closing plenary session, attendees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    The Eighth Annual DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Level Waste Management Forum was held in September 1986, in Denver, Colorado, to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management activities, requirements, and plans. The one hundred ninety attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, DOE Operations Offices and their contractors; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of utilities, private contractors, disposal facility operators, and other parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. Plenary sessions were held at the beginning and conclusion of the meeting, while eight concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening two days. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for information exchange and discussion on current and future low-level radioactive waste management challenges. Session chairmen presented summaries of the discussions and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions. Selected papers in this volume have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Executive summary, opening plenary session, closing plenary session, attendees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eighth Annual DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Level Waste Management Forum was held in September 1986, in Denver, Colorado, to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management activities, requirements, and plans. The one hundred ninety attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, DOE Operations Offices and their contractors; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of utilities, private contractors, disposal facility operators, and other parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. Plenary sessions were held at the beginning and conclusion of the meeting, while eight concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening two days. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for information exchange and discussion on current and future low-level radioactive waste management challenges. Session chairmen presented summaries of the discussions and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions. Selected papers in this volume have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  16. Proceedings of the fourth annual participants' information meeting, DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, D.E.: Mezga, L.J.; Stratton, L.E.; Rose, R.R. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    The Fourth Annual Participants' Information Meeting of the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in Denver, Colorado, August 31 to September 2, 1982. The purpose of the meeting was to report and evaluate technology development funded by the program and to examine mechanisms for technology transfer. The meeting consisted of an introductory plenary session, followed by two concurrent overview sessions and then six concurrent technical sessions. There were two group meetings to review the findings of the technical sessions. The meeting concluded with a plenary summary session in which the major findings of the meeting were addressed. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  17. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 2: Site performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains twelve papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics of this volume include: performance assessment methodology; remedial action alternatives; site selection and site characterization procedures; intruder scenarios; sensitivity analysis procedures; mathematical models for mixed waste environmental transport; and risk assessment methodology. Individual papers were processed separately for the database

  18. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 1: Institutional and regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste regulation. Topics include: EPA environmental standards; international exemption principles; the concept of below regulatory concern; envirocare activities in Utah; mixed waste; FUSRAP and the Superfund; and a review of various incentive programs. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  19. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 6: Closure and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains eight papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: site closure; ground cover; alternate cap designs; performance monitoring of waste trenches; closure options for a mixed waste site; and guidance for environmental monitoring. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  20. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting: DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  1. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 1: Institutional and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste regulation. Topics include: EPA environmental standards; international exemption principles; the concept of below regulatory concern; envirocare activities in Utah; mixed waste; FUSRAP and the Superfund; and a review of various incentive programs. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  2. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 3: Disposal technology and facility development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains ten papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: design and construction of a facility; alternatives to shallow land burial; the fate of tritium and carbon 14 released to the environment; defense waste management; engineered sorbent barriers; remedial action status report; and the disposal of mixed waste in Texas. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  3. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 3: Disposal technology and facility development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains ten papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: design and construction of a facility; alternatives to shallow land burial; the fate of tritium and carbon 14 released to the environment; defense waste management; engineered sorbent barriers; remedial action status report; and the disposal of mixed waste in Texas. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  4. Eleventh annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Executive summary, opening plenary, technical session summaries, and attendees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The conference consisted of ten technical sessions, with three sessions running simultaneously each day. Session topics included: regulatory updates; performance assessment;understanding remedial action efforts; low-level waste strategy and planning (Nuclear Energy); low-level waste strategy and planning (Defense); compliance monitoring; decontamination and decommissioning; waste characterization; waste reduction and minimization; and prototype licensing application workshop. Summaries are presented for each of these sessions.

  5. Investigation of novel electrode materials for electrochemically based remediation of high and low-level mixed wastes in the DOE complex. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'This work is focused on the preparation of novel electrode materials for the degradation of toxic wastes in the DOE complex. One of the goals of this work is to characterize whether it is possible to use controlled doping of TiO2 with species such as Nb in order to create new electrode materials that will facilitate the destruction of undesirable organics and inorganics, without light and instead only with an applied potential, in the waste tanks at the DOE sites. In the first part of this project, the authors have therefore spent an extensive amount of effort characterizing, as a baseline, the chemical and electrochemical behavior of TiO2 itself, so that they can make robust comparisons to the behavior of the Nb-doped systems in subsequent work on this project. The preparation of these electrode films is being performed by Marc Anderson at Wisconsin, who is preparing a number of different stoichiometries, grain sizes, etc. for investigation of their electrochemical properties by the Lewis group at Caltech. First they report on the progress of the electrode preparation work, and then they describe progress on the electrochemical work.'

  6. Fourteenth annual U.S. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste management conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains 69 papers that were presented at the Fourteenth Annual U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, November 18--20, 1992, in Phoenix, Arizona. The papers address the following general topics: (a) Performance Management Track: risk assessment; waste characterization; site characterization; facility design; groundwater modeling; monitoring and modeling; and regulatory requirements; (b) Technical Track: waste minimization; new technologies; international perspectives; licensing issues; hot topics; commercial storage; DOE storage; treatment technologies; and mixed waste; and (c) Institutional Track: status report; changes in orders, regulations, and guidance; regulatory compliance issues; communicating risk; hot topics; and storage impacts. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. Transportation and disposal configuration for DOE-managed low-level and mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, T.

    1993-06-01

    This report briefly examines the current U.S. Department of Energy complex-wide configuration for transportation and disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and also retraces the historical sequence of events and rationale that has guided its development. The study determined that Nevada Test Site and the Hanford Site are the only two sites that currently provide substantial disposal services for offsite low-level waste generators. It was also determined that mixed low-level waste shipments are infrequent and are generally limited to shipments to offsite commercial treatment facilities or other Department of Energy sites for storage. The current alignment of generator to disposal site for low-level waste shipments is generally consistent with the programmatic mission of the generator; that is, defense-generated waste is shipped to the Nevada Test Site and research-generated waste is transported to the Hanford Site. The historical development of the current configuration was resurrected by retrieving Department of Energy documentation and interviewing both current and former department and contractor personnel. According to several accounts, the basic framework of the system was developed during the late 1970s, and was reportedly based on the ability of the disposal site to manage a given waste form. Documented evidence to support this reasoning, however, could not be uncovered.

  8. Transportation and disposal configuration for DOE-managed low-level and mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly examines the current U.S. Department of Energy complex-wide configuration for transportation and disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and also retraces the historical sequence of events and rationale that has guided its development. The study determined that Nevada Test Site and the Hanford Site are the only two sites that currently provide substantial disposal services for offsite low-level waste generators. It was also determined that mixed low-level waste shipments are infrequent and are generally limited to shipments to offsite commercial treatment facilities or other Department of Energy sites for storage. The current alignment of generator to disposal site for low-level waste shipments is generally consistent with the programmatic mission of the generator; that is, defense-generated waste is shipped to the Nevada Test Site and research-generated waste is transported to the Hanford Site. The historical development of the current configuration was resurrected by retrieving Department of Energy documentation and interviewing both current and former department and contractor personnel. According to several accounts, the basic framework of the system was developed during the late 1970s, and was reportedly based on the ability of the disposal site to manage a given waste form. Documented evidence to support this reasoning, however, could not be uncovered

  9. DOE`s integrated low-level waste management program and strategic planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, G. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management; Hwang, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1993-03-01

    To meet the DOE`s commitment to operate its facilities in a safe, economic, and environmentally sound manner, and to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local rules, regulations, and agreements, DOE created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in 1989 to focus efforts on controlling waste management and cleaning up contaminated sites. In the first few years of its existence, the Office of Waste Management (EM-30) has concentrated on operational and corrective activities at the sites. In 1992, the Office of Waste Management began to apply an integrated approach to managing its various waste types. Consequently, DOE established the Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP) to properly manage its complex-wide LLW in a consistent manner. The objective of the LLWMP is to build and operate an integrated, safe, and cost-effective program to meet the needs of waste generators. The program will be based on acceptable risk and sound planning, resulting in public confidence and support. Strategic planning of the program is under way and is expected to take two to three years before implementation of the integrated waste management approach.

  10. Comparison of selected DOE and non-DOE requirements, standards, and practices for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document results from the Secretary of Energy's response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94--2. The Secretary stated that the US Department of Energy (DOE) would ''address such issues as...the need for additional requirements, standards, and guidance on low-level radioactive waste management. '' The authors gathered information and compared DOE requirements and standards for the safety aspects Of low-level disposal with similar requirements and standards of non-DOE entities

  11. The performance assessment process for DOE low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety of the low-level waste disposal facilities, as well as al US DOE facilities, is a primary criterion in their design and operation. Safety of low-level waste disposal facilities is evaluated from two perspectives. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation. The safety evaluations vary from simple safety assessments to very complex safety analysis reports, depending on the degree of hazard associated with the facility operation. Operational requirements for the Department's low-level waste disposal facilities, including long-term safety are contained in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management (1). This paper will focus on the process of conducting long-term performance analyses rather than on operational safety analysis

  12. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  13. Complex-wide review of DOE`s management of low-level radioactive waste - progress to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letourneau, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2 includes a recommendation that the Department of Energy (DOE) conduct a comprehensive, complex-wide review of the low-level waste issue to establish the dimensions of the low-level waste problem and to identify necessary corrective actions to address the safe disposition of past, present, and future volumes. DOE`s Implementation Plan calls for the conduct of a complex-wide review of low-level radioactive waste treatment, storage, and disposal sites to identify environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities. The complex-wide review focuses on low-level waste disposal facilities through a site evaluation survey, reviews of existing documentation, and onsite observations. Low-level waste treatment and storage facilities will be assessed for their ability to meet waste acceptance criteria for disposal. Results from the complex-wide review will be used to form the basis for an integrated and planned set of actions to correct the identified vulnerabilities and to prompt development of new requirements for managing low-level waste.

  14. Directions and objectives of the Sixth Annual Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents specific concerns for the waste generators and disposal site operators to consider in the course of the meeting. The annual Low-Level Waste Management Program Participants' Meeting is one of several mechanisms used to provide input for the Program's deliberation. Based on the discussions that take place at this meeting and information gained from the Ad Hoc Waste Operating Contractors Committee, Program Review Committee, other agencies, and visits to the Department's facilities, progress can be determined and future needs can be incorporated into the plans. Critical to the achievement of each Program objective is the application of technology that has been developed. Program emphasis is shifting from the development of new technology to large scale in-field demonstrations to validate the improved technologies and maximize their utility. Stabilization techniques, improved trench caps, and improved treatment systems resulting in more stable waste forms are a few examples of these technologies. On the institutional side, states are moving slower to implement their responsibilities under the PL-96-573 for establishing new disposal capacity for low-level waste. Assuming that states continue along the path of establishing new disposal sites, less financial support by the Department will be required in the institutional area. Accordingly, the Department plans to limit its assistance to those tangible activities that contribute toward the management of a stable LLW system over the next two to three years. Discussions during this meeting should focus on what specific activities are required for the establishment of new low-level waste disposal facilities and how the on-going technology activities are meeting the needs of the users

  15. Reversal of fortune for industry in DOE low-level waste decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanks to the Energy Department, states have triumphed over industry groups in a battle over the disposition of surcharge money collected for low-level radioactive waste disposal. In a March 31 announcement, the Energy Department ruled against industry groups seeking to prevent certain states from receiving partial rebates of surcharge money collected by DOE from generators of low-level radioactive waste. The rebated money would have gone back to generators had DOE sided with the industry groups, which included the Edison Electric Institute. The surcharge issue became controversial when some states decided to sign 18-month contracts with South Carolina to continue sending waste shipments to an existing disposal site at Barnwell, SC. South Carolina was the only one of three states with an existing low-level disposal site to keep it open to outside shipments; Nevada and Washington closed their disposal sites in June 1992 to all states outside their regional compacts. Industry groups charged that the 18-month contracts for disposal at Barnwell did not meet the statutory requirements for states to receive the surcharge rebates. They maintained the law effectively required states to develop new disposal capacity, rather than continuing to rely on Barnwell or the other two existing sites under a limited duration contract. DOE rejected that reasoning, saying that while the law was designed to encourage new capacity, it did not require it for compliance with the January 1993 milestone

  16. FY2010 Annual Review E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility Performance Assessment And Composite Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches (STs), Engineered Trenches (ETs), and Component-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDAs). This annual review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R and D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R and D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA annual determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31

  17. FY2010 ANNUAL REVIEW E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.

    2011-01-01

    The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDAs). This annual review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA annual determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008

  18. Low-level waste management alternatives and analysis in DOE`s programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, J.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The PEIS has been divided into an Environmental Restoration section and a Waste Management section. Each section has a unique set of alternatives. This paper will focus on the waste management alternatives and analysis. The set of alternatives for waste management has been divided into waste categories. These categories are: high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, greater-than-class C and low-level waste from commercial sources, hazardous waste, and spent nuclear fuel. This paper will discuss the alternatives and analytical approach that will be used to evaluate these alternatives for the low-level waste section. Although the same alternatives will be considered for all waste types, the analysis will be performed separately for each waste type. In the sections that follow, information will be provided on waste management configurations, the analysis of waste management alternatives, waste types and locations, facility and transportation activities, the facility and transportation impacts assessment, and the compilation of impacts.

  19. Experience and improved techniques in radiological environmental monitoring at major DOE low-level disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this task was to provide a concise summary of routine radiological environmental surveillance programs conducted at major active US Department of Energy (DOE) solid low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. The DOE disposal sites at which monitoring programs were reviewed included those located at Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Plant (SRP). A brief summary of routine monitoring programs at the active commercial LLW sites was also included in the task report. The draft task report was transmitted to all sites for review in June 1986

  20. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs

  1. 1992 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress States and compact regions made during 1992 in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1992 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

  2. 1989 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress during 1989 of states and compacts in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1989 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99--240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Review of performance assessments for DOE [Department of Energy] LLW [low-level waste] disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have long been pioneers in the field of radiological performance assessment (RPA). Much effort has been expended in developing technology and acquiring data to facilitate the assessment process. This is reflected in DOE's newly revised order governing the management of radioactive waste, DOE Order 5820.2A. The order was issued on September 16, 1988. Chapter III of the order details policy and requirements to manage DOE's low-level waste (LLW). The performance objectives for LLW management are described. Chapter III also requires that LLW disposal facilities prepare and maintain an RPA to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. The order further requires that an Oversight and Peer Review Panel be established to ensure consistency and technical quality around the DOE complex in the development and application of performance assessment models that include site-specific geohydrology and waste composition. This paper presents the work of the panel in reviewing radiological performance assessments of DOE LLW disposal facilities and an overview of LLW performance assessment across the DOE complex

  4. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program perspective on technology transfer: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (DOE LLWMP) perspective in regard to transfer of LLWMP technology to current and potential users in both the commercial and defense sectors is discussed. Past, present, and future opportunities and challenges for the whole nuclear waste management are indicated. Elements considered include: historical and evolutionary events and activities; the purpose of the Program and its inherent opportunities and challenges; achievements and expected accomplishments; supporters and interactors; packaging and delivering technology; implementing and serving potential users; determining and meeting users' needs; and identifying and responding to opportunities and challenges. The low-level waste management effort to improve shallow land burial technology began in FY 1977 and has expanded to include waste treatment and alternative disposal methods. Milestones have been established and are used as principal management control items. This technology, the Program Product, is described and is made available. This year, the Program has drafted criteria for inclusion in a DOE order for radioactive waste management operations at DOE sites

  5. Scoping analysis of toxic metal performance in DOE low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides a scoping safety assessment for disposal of toxic metals contained in Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at six DOE sites that currently have low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities--Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Hanford Reservation, Nevada Test Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The study has focused on the groundwater contaminant pathway, which is considered to be the dominant human exposure pathway from shallow land MLLW disposal. A simple and conservative transport analysis has been performed using site hydrological data to calculate site-specific ''permissible'' concentrations of toxic metals in grout-immobilized waste. These concentrations are calculated such that, when toxic metals are leached from the disposal facility by infiltrating water and attenuated in local ground-water system the toxic metal concentrations in groundwater below the disposal facility do not exceed the Maximum Contaminant Levels as stated in the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation. The analysis shows that and sites allow about I00 times higher toxic metal concentrations in stabilized waste leachate than humid sites. From the limited available data on toxic metal concentrations in DOE MLLW, a margin of protection appears to exist in most cases when stabilized wastes containing toxic metals are disposed of at the DOE sites under analysis. Possible exceptions to this conclusion are arsenic, chromium selenium, and mercury when disposed of at some humid sites such as the Oak Ridge Reservation. This analysis also demonstrates that the US Environmental Protection Agency's prescriptive regulatory approach that defines rigid waste treatment standards does not inherently account for the variety of disposal environments encountered nationwide and may result in either underprotection of groundwater resources (at humid sites) or an excessive margin of protection (at and sites)

  6. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2, Annual report for FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program is to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that will be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluating the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites are being employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results over the past year on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of the annual report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides has been developed during this study

  7. 1996 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (the Act), Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the activities during calendar year 1996 related to the establishment of new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress in developing new disposal facilities, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on US policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  8. Report to Congress: 1995 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the progress of states and compact regions during calendar year 1995 in establishing new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on United States policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  9. Technology needs for treatment of DOE's low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) stores and generates significant amounts of low-level mixed wastes (LLMW) consisting of radioactive materials mixed with hazardous chemical substances. Many of these wastes are regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Land Disposal Restrictions and must be treated and disposed in compliance with applicable state and federal requirements. In general, treatment requirements include elimination of organic hazardous constituents and stabilization of inorganic hazardous constituents. Final waste forms must meet both EPA leach testing and DOE disposal acceptance criteria. The DOE currently does not have an adequate capability to meet these treatment objectives. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project has been established by the DOE to define needed LLMW treatment capabilities as a basis for either a prototype plant design or an existing facility modifications. Existing DOE mixed waste data bases were analyzed to identify the range of waste quantities and types and to define broad treatment categories needed to bring these wastes into compliance. Using these treatment categories as a starting point, we constructed a baseline flow sheet defining process steps from receipt through final form. From this baseline flow sheet, we developed functional and operational requirements (F ampersand ORs) for each process train. An initial set of near-term technologies was identified for each process step, and alternative near- and long-term options were listed. Based on these analyses, we identified technology gaps and improvement needs in the areas of characterization, waste handling, segregation and sorting, size reduction, decontamination, materials recycle, primary and secondary treatment for RCRA compliance, offgas treatment, and final waste forms

  10. Technology needs for treatment of DOE's low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) stores and generates significant amounts of low-level mixed wastes (LLMW) consisting of radioactive materials mixed with hazardous chemical substances. Many of these wastes are regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency (BPA) Land Disposal Restrictions and must be treated and disposed in compliance with applicable state and federal requirements. In general treatment requirements include elimination of organic hazardous constituents and stabilization of inorganic hazardous constituents. Final waste forms must meet both EPA leach testing and DOE disposal acceptance criteria. The DOE currently does not have an adequate capability to meet these treatment objectives. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project has been established by the DOE to define needed LLMW treatment capabilities as a basis for either a prototype plant design or an existing facility modification. Existing DOE mixed waste data bases were analyzed to identify the range of waste quantities and types and to define broad treatment categories needed to bring these wastes into compliance. Using these treatment categories as a starting point, we constructed a baseline flow sheet defining process steps from receipt through final form. From this baseline flow sheet, we developed functional and operational requirements (F and ORs) for each process train. An initial set of near-term technologies was identified for each process step, and alternative near- and long-term options were listed. Based on these analyses, we identified technology gaps and improvement needs in the areas of characterization, waste handling, segregation and sorting, size reduction, decontamination, materials recycle, primary and secondary treatment for RCRA compliance, offgas treatment, and final waste forms. (author)

  11. Plasma Hearth Process vitrification of DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is recognized as one of the more promising solutions to DOE's mixed waste treatment needs, with potential application in the treatment of a wide variety of DOE mixed wastes. The PHP is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. This technology will be equally applicable to low-level mixed wastes generated by nuclear utilities. The final waste form will be volume reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and the inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added. Low volume and high integrity waste forms result in low disposal costs. This project is structured to ensure that the plasma technology can be successfully employed in radioactive service. The PHP technology will be developed into a production system through a sequence of tests on several test units, both non-radioactive and radioactive. As the final step, a prototype PHP system will be constructed for full-scale radioactive waste treatment demonstration

  12. 1994 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report for calendar year 1994 summarizes the progress that states and compact regions made during the year in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although events that have occurred in 1995 greatly alter the perspective in terms of storage versus disposal, the purpose of this report is to convey the concerns as evidenced during calendar year 1994. Significant developments occurring in 1995 are briefly outlined in the transmittal letter and will be detailed in the report for calendar year 1995. The report also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1994 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, and is prepared is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985.

  13. 1994 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for calendar year 1994 summarizes the progress that states and compact regions made during the year in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although events that have occurred in 1995 greatly alter the perspective in terms of storage versus disposal, the purpose of this report is to convey the concerns as evidenced during calendar year 1994. Significant developments occurring in 1995 are briefly outlined in the transmittal letter and will be detailed in the report for calendar year 1995. The report also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1994 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, and is prepared is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985

  14. Locations, volumes, and characteristics of DOE's mixed low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) has collected and analyzed mixed low-level waste data to assist in developing treatment capability for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) wastes. Initial data on the characteristics of mixed waste was obtained from the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) data base, and has been updated based on visits to DOE sites where most of the wastes are generated and stored. The streams of interest have a current inventory of about 70,000 m and a generation rate of about 7,700 m3/yr. The twelve sites with the most significant processing needs are Fernald, Hanford, K-25 (Oak Ridge), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Savannah River Site (SRS), and Y-12 (Oak Ridge). These twelve sites account for about 98% of the mixed waste volumes. The wastes have been assigned to specific waste characterization categories. The largest category in current interim storage is inorganic solids, with sludges, filter cakes, and residues the largest specific subcategory. Aqueous liquids are the largest currently generated stream. The other large categories are solid organics, metals wastes, and heterogenous wastes. Organic liquids, which have been a major focus, are the smallest of the categories. (author)

  15. Locations, volumes, and characteristics of DOE's mixed low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) has collected and analyzed mixed low-level waste data to assist in developing treatment capability for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) wastes. Initial data on the characteristics of mixed waste was obtained from the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) data base, and has been updated based on visits to DOE sites where most of the wastes are generated and stored. The streams of interest have a current inventory of about 70,000 m3 and a generation rate of about 7,700 m3/yr. The twelve sites with the most significant processing needs are Fernald, Hanford, K-25 (Oak Ridge), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Savannah River Site (SRS), and Y-12 (Oak Ridge). These twelve sites account for about 98% of the mixed waste volumes. The wastes have been assigned to specific waste characterization categories. The largest category in current interim storage is inorganic solids, with sludges, filter cakes, and residues the largest specific subcategory. Aqueous liquids are the largest currently generated stream. The other large categories are solid organics, metals wastes, and heterogeneous wastes. Organic liquids, which have been a major focus, are the smallest of the categories

  16. 1991 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress during 1991 of States and compact regions in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. It has been prepared in response to requirements in Section 7 (b) of Title I of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act). By the end of 1991, 9 compact regions (totaling 42 States) were functioning with plans to establish low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Appalachian, Central, Central Midwest, Midwest, Northeast, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southeast, and Southwestern. Also planning to construct disposal facilities, but unaffiliated with a compact region, are Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Texas, and Vermont. The District of Columbia, New Hampshire, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island and Michigan are unaffiliated with a compact region and do not plan to construct a disposal facility. Michigan was the host State for the Midwest compact region until July 1991 when the Midwest Interstate Compact Commission revoked Michigan's membership. Only the Central, Central Midwest, and Southwestern compact regions met the January 1, 1992, milestone in the Act to submit a complete disposal license application. None of the States or compact regions project meeting the January 1, 1993, milestone to have an operational low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Also summarized are significant events that occurred in low-level radioactive waste management in 1991 and early 1992, including the 1992 United States Supreme Court decision in New York v. United States in which New York challenged the constitutionality of the Act, particularly the ''take-title'' provision. Summary information is also provided on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1991 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

  17. Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, B.G. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cole, L.T. [Cole and Associates (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada`s first demonstration LLW disposal facility.

  18. Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada's first demonstration LLW disposal facility

  19. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel`s expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel`s reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel`s review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management.``

  20. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management.''

  1. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H. (Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management.''

  2. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R&D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350{degrees}C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS{copyright} for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc.

  3. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R ampersand D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350 degrees C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS copyright for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc

  4. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 1, Annual report for FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. Because of apparent ease of use and normal structural integrity, cement has been widely used as a binder to solidify LLW. However, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. This report reviews laboratory efforts that are being developed to address the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms are being employed that are capable of metabolically converting organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this report. Sufficient data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW has been developed during the course of this study. These data support the continued development of appropriate tests necessary to determine the resistance of cement-solidified LLW to microbially induced degradation that could impact the stability of the waste form. They also justify the continued effort of enumeration of the conditions necessary to support the microbiological growth and population expansion.

  5. Improvements to the DOE low-level waste regulatory structure and process under recommendation 94-2 - progress to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the concerns expressed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) in its Recommendation 94-2 was the lack of a clearly defined and effective internal Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory oversight and enforcement process for ensuring that low-level radioactive waste management health, safety, and environmental requirements are met. Therefore, part of the response to the DNFSB concern is a task to clarify and strengthen the low-level waste management regulatory structure. This task is being conducted in two steps. First, consistent with the requirements of the current DOE waste management order and within the framework of the current organizational structure, interim clarification of a review process and the associated organizational responsibilities has been issued. Second, in coordination with the revision of the waste management order and consistent with the organizational responsibilities resulting from the strategic alignment of DOE, a rigorous, more independent regulatory oversight structure will be developed

  6. Improvements to the DOE low-level waste regulatory structure and process under recommendation 94-2 - progress to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Among the concerns expressed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) in its Recommendation 94-2 was the lack of a clearly defined and effective internal Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory oversight and enforcement process for ensuring that low-level radioactive waste management health, safety, and environmental requirements are met. Therefore, part of the response to the DNFSB concern is a task to clarify and strengthen the low-level waste management regulatory structure. This task is being conducted in two steps. First, consistent with the requirements of the current DOE waste management order and within the framework of the current organizational structure, interim clarification of a review process and the associated organizational responsibilities has been issued. Second, in coordination with the revision of the waste management order and consistent with the organizational responsibilities resulting from the strategic alignment of DOE, a rigorous, more independent regulatory oversight structure will be developed.

  7. Regionalization as a strategy for management of low-level and mixed wastes in the DOE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has been routinely performing low-level waste volume reduction and/or stabilization treatment at various sites for some time. In general, treatment is performed on waste generated onsite. Disposal is also usually performed onsite since most DOE sites have their own LLW disposal facilities. The DOE initiated studies to evaluate strategies for treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes covered in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to ensure that DOE sites are in compliance with RCRA. These studies recommend regionalization as the most cost-effective solution to the treatment and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes. The DOE's Defense Low-Level Waste Management Program conducted an additional survey of DOE sites to evaluate the status of one specific treatment method, incineration, at these sites. This study included facilities currently in use or intended for treatment of low-level and mixed wastes. A summary of the findings is presented in this paper

  8. Complex-wide review of DOE's Low-Level Waste Management ES ampersand H vulnerabilities. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a comprehensive complex-wide review of its management of low-level waste (LLW) and the radioactive component of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). This review was conducted in response to a recommendation from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) which was established and authorized by Congress to oversee DOE. The DNFSB's recommendation concerning conformance with safety standards at DOE LLW sites was issued on September 8, 1994 and is referred to as Recommendation 94-2. DOE's Implementation Plan for its response to Recommendation 94-2 was submitted to the DNFSB on March 31, 1995. The DNFSB recommended that a complex-wide review of DOE's LLW management be initiated. The goal of the complex-wide review of DOE's LLW management system was to identify both programmatic and physical vulnerabilities that could lead to unnecessary radiation exposure of workers or the public or unnecessary releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Additionally, the DNFSB stated that an objective of the complex-wide review should be to establish the dimensions of the DOE LLW problem and support the identification of corrective actions to address safe disposition of past, present, and future volumes of LLW. The complex-wide review involved an evaluation of LLW management activities at 38 DOE facilities at 36 sites that actively manage LLW and MLLW

  9. Modelling coastal low-level wind-jets: does horizontal resolution matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjha, Raza; Tjernström, Michael; Svensson, Gunilla; Semedo, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric flows in coastal regions are impacted by land-sea temperature contrasts, complex terrain, shape of the coastline, among many things. Along the west coast of central North America, winds in the boundary layer are mainly from north or northwest, roughly parallel to the coastline. Frequently, the coastal low-level wind field is characterized by a sharp wind maximum along the coast in the lowest kilometre. This feature, commonly referred to as a coastal low-level jet (CLLJ), has significant impact on the climatology of the coastal region and affects many human activities in the littoral zone. Hence, a good understanding and forecasting of CLLJs are vital. This study evaluates the issue of proper mesoscale numerical model resolution to describe the physics of a CLLJ, and its impact on the upper ocean. The COAMPS® model is used for a summer event to determine the realism of the model results compared to observations, from an area of supercritical flow adjustment between Pt. Sur and Pt. Conception, California. Simulations at different model horizontal resolutions, from 54 to 2 km are performed. While the model produces realistic results with increasing details at higher resolution, the results do not fully converge even at a resolution of only few kilometres and an objective analysis of model errors do not show an increased skill with increasing resolution. Based on all available information, a compromise resolution appears to be at least 6 km. New methods may have to be developed to evaluate models at very high resolution.

  10. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  11. Use of DOE site selection criteria for screening low-level waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) site selection criteria were applied to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and the application was evaluated to determine the criteria's usefulness in the selection of a low-level waste disposal site. The application of the criteria required the development of a methodology to provide a framework for evaluation. The methodology is composed of site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site capable of satisfying the site selection criteria. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The site selection criteria were applied to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. Results of this application were similar to those of a previous siting study on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The DOE site selection criteria when coupled with the methodology that was developed were easily applied and would be adaptable to any region of interest

  12. A DOE contractor`s perspective of environmental monitoring requirements at a low-level waste facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferns, T.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., ID (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Environmental monitoring at a low-level waste disposal facility (LLWDF) should, (1) demonstrate compliance with environmental laws; (2) detect any spatial or temporal environmental changes; and (3) provide information on the potential or actual exposure of humans and/or the environment to disposed waste and/or waste by-products. Under the DOE Order system the LLWDF site manager has more freedom of implementation for a monitoring program than either the semi-prescriptive NRC, or the prescriptive EPA hazardous waste programs. This paper will attempt to compare and contrast environmental monitoring under the different systems (DOE, NRC, and EPA), and determine if the DOE might benefit from a more prescriptive system.

  13. Groundwater modeling of source terms and contaminant plumes for DOE low-level waste performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, all sites within the DOE complex must analyze the performance of planned radioactive waste disposal facilities before disposal takes place through the radiological performance assessment process. These assessments consider both exposures to the public from radionuclides potentially released from disposal facilities and protection of groundwater resources. Compliance with requirements for groundwater protection is often the most difficult to demonstrate as these requirements are generally more restrictive than those for other pathways. Modeling of subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow and transport was conducted for two such assessments for the Savannah River site. The computer code PORFLOW was used to evaluate release and transport of radionuclides from different types of disposal unit configurations: vault disposal and trench disposal. The effectiveness of engineered barriers was evaluated in terms of compliance with groundwater protection requirements. The findings suggest that, due to the limited lifetime of engineered barriers, overdesign of facilities for long-lived radionuclides is likely to occur if compliance must be realized for thousands of years

  14. A decision methodology for the evaluation of mixed low-level radioactive waste management options for DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Devarakonda, M.; Djordjevic, S.M. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Currently, many DOE sites are developing site-specific solutions to manage their mixed low-level wastes. These site-specific MLLW programs often result in duplication of efforts between the different sites, and consequently, inefficient use of DOE system resources. A nationally integrated program for MLLW eliminates unnecessary duplication of effort, but requires a comprehensive analysis of waste management options to ensure that all site issues are addressed. A methodology for comprehensive analysis of the complete DOE MLLW system is being developed by DOE-HQ to establish an integrated and standardized solution for managing MLLW. To be effective, the comprehensive systems analysis must consider all aspects of MLLW management from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from MLLW generation to disposal). The results of the analysis will include recommendations for alternative management options for the complete DOE MLLW system based on various components such as effectiveness, cost, health and safety risks, and the probability of regulatory acceptance for an option. Because of the diverse nature of these various components and the associated difficulties in comparing between them, a decision methodology is being developed that will integrate the above components into a single evaluation scheme for performing relative comparisons between different MLLW management options. The remainder of this paper provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of the various participants of the DOE MLLW Program, and discusses in detail the components involved in the development of the decision methodology for a comprehensive systems analysis.

  15. Complex-wide review of DOE's Low-Level Waste Management ES ampersand H vulnerabilities. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume I of this report presents a summary of DOE's complex-wide review of its low-level waste management system, including the assessment scope and methodology, site-specific and complex-wide vulnerabilities, and DOE's conclusions and recommendations. Volume II presents a more detailed discussion of the assessment methodology and evaluation instruments developed by the Assessment Working Group for identifying site-specific vulnerabilities, categorizing and classifying vulnerabilities, and identifying and analyzing complex-wide vulnerabilities. Attachments A and B of this volume contain, respectively, the Site Evaluation Survey and the Vulnerability Assessment Form used in those processes. Volume III contains the site-specific assessment reports for the 36 sites (38 facilities) assessed in the complex-wide review from which the complex-wide vulnerabilities were drawn

  16. Analysis of the suitability of DOE facilities for treatment of commercial low-level radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates the capabilities of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) existing and proposed facilities to treat 52 commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed (LLMW) waste streams that were previously identified as being difficult-to-treat using commercial treatment capabilities. The evaluation was performed by comparing the waste matrix and hazardous waste codes for the commercial LLMW streams with the waste acceptance criteria of the treatment facilities, as identified in the following DOE databases: Mixed Waste Inventory Report, Site Treatment Plan, and Waste Stream and Technology Data System. DOE facility personnel also reviewed the list of 52 commercially generated LLMW streams and provided their opinion on whether the wastes were technically acceptable at their facilities, setting aside possible administrative barriers. The evaluation tentatively concludes that the DOE is likely to have at least one treatment facility (either existing or planned) that is technically compatible for most of these difficult-to-treat commercially generated LLMW streams. This conclusion is tempered, however, by the limited amount of data available on the commercially generated LLMW streams, by the preliminary stage of planning for some of the proposed DOE treatment facilities, and by the need to comply with environmental statutes such as the Clean Air Act

  17. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics

  18. Application of DOE prescribed guides to the evaluation of Hanford's Mixed Low Level Solid Waste Treatment Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent Westinghouse Hanford Company report (WHC-SD-W100-ES-008, February, 1994), compared a Vitrification process to the WRAP-2A Grout/PE process for the treatment of Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW). This comparison applied a limited scope numerical evaluation to compare technology complexity of the two processes, but focused primarily on capital and operating costs. The work reported here is supplementary to WHC-SD-Wl00-ES-008. It provides a record of the application of the more formal DOE-prescribed criteria (Treatment Selection Guides for Federal Facility Compliance Act Draft Site Treatment Plans) to the Vitrification and Grout/PE processes previously evaluated. Results of the evaluation favored the Grout/PE process by a weighted score of 83 to 78 over the Plasma arc vitrification process

  19. Fifteenth annual U.S. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste management conference: Agenda and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the conference was to give the opportunity to identify and discuss low-level radioactive waste management issues, share lessons learned, and hear about some of the latest advances in technology. Abstracts of the presentations are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) Performance Management Track: Performance assessment perspectives; Site characterization; Modeling and performance assessment; and Remediation; (2) Technical Track: Strategic planning; Tools and options; Characterization and validation; Treatment updates; Technology development; and Storage; (3) Institutional Track: Orders and regulatory issues; Waste management options; Legal, economic, and social issues; Public involvement; Siting process; and Low-level radioactive waste policy amendment acts

  20. Fifteenth annual U.S. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste management conference: Agenda and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to give the opportunity to identify and discuss low-level radioactive waste management issues, share lessons learned, and hear about some of the latest advances in technology. Abstracts of the presentations are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) Performance Management Track: Performance assessment perspectives; Site characterization; Modeling and performance assessment; and Remediation; (2) Technical Track: Strategic planning; Tools and options; Characterization and validation; Treatment updates; Technology development; and Storage; (3) Institutional Track: Orders and regulatory issues; Waste management options; Legal, economic, and social issues; Public involvement; Siting process; and Low-level radioactive waste policy amendment acts.

  1. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

  2. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance

  3. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity

  4. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. FY 1992 Annual report: Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) process was studied for destroying low-level combustible mixed wastes at Rocky Flats (RFP). Tests were performed with nonradioactive surrogate materials: Trimsol for the contaminated oils, and reagent-grade cellulose for the cellulosic wastes. Extensive testing was carried out on Trimsol in both small laboratory-scale apparatus and on a large-scale system incorporating an industrial-size electrochemical cell. Preliminary tests were also carried out in the small-scale system with cellulose. The following operating and system parameters were studied: use of a silver-nitric acid versus a cobalt-sulfuric acid system, effect of electrolyte temperature, effect of acid concentration, effect of current density, and use of ultrasonic agitation. Destruction and coulombic efficiencies were calculated using data obtained from continuous carbon dioxide monitors and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis of electrolyte samples. For Trimsol, the best performance was achieved with the silver-nitrate system at high acid concentrations, temperatures, and current densities. Destruction efficiencies of 98% or greater and coulombic efficiencies close to 50% were obtained in both small- and large-scale systems. For the cellulose, high destruction efficiencies and reasonable coulombic efficiencies were obtained for both silver-nitrate and cobalt-sulfate systems

  6. Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program for fiscal year 1994. Annual report, Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is (a) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Compressive test results of 11-year-old cement and vinyl ester-styrene solidified waste forms are presented, which show effects of aging and self-irradiation. Results of the ninth year of data acquisition from the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period

  7. Organic complexant-enhanced mobility of toxic elements in low-level wastes. Annual report, July 1983-June 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the initial results obtained in a project whose objective is to determine how and to what extent organic complexants affect the mobility of toxic elements in subsurface groundwaters at commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Generic soil components (e.g., hydrous oxides, silica, clays) are being employed so that the results will be broadly applicable. Organic complexants used in the nuclear industry are being emphasized. Data have been obtained with two radioactive (63Ni and 239Pu) and one nonradioactive toxic element (Cd). Work with 63Ni has been emphasized; it was studied with five different generic soil components (hydrous ferric oxide, silica, titania, kaolinite, and montmorillonite) and five different complexants (EDTA, NTA, picolinate, citrate, and oxalate). EDTA was the complexant studied most extensively and hydrous ferric oxide was the most studied soil component. A wide diversity of effects of organic complexants on toxic elements sorption was observed. The effects vary not only among complexants, but also among toxic elements and among soil components. In some systems the complexant results in increased toxic element sorption (decreased mobility) while in other systems the complexant results in decreased toxic element sorption (increased mobility). 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  8. Potential impact of DOE's performance objective for protection of inadvertent intruders on low-level waste disposals at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) sites include limits on radiation dose to inadvertent intruders. This paper investigates the potential impact of DOE's performance objective for protection of inadvertent intruders on the acceptability of low-level waste disposals at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis is based on waste volumes and radionuclide inventories for recent disposals and estimated doses to an inadvertent intruder for assumed exposure scenarios. The analysis indicates that more than 99% of the total volume of waste in recent disposals meets the performance objective for inadvertent intruders, and the volume of waste found to be unacceptable for disposal is only about 16 m3. Therefore, DOE's performance objective for protection of inadvertent intruders probably will not have unreasonably adverse impacts on acceptable waste disposals at ORNL

  9. Case study and presentation of the DOE treatability group concept for low-level and mixed waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 requires the US Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an inventory report of its mixed waste and treatment capacities and technologies. Grouping waste streams according to technological requirements is the logical means of matching waste streams to treatment technologies, and streamlines the effort of identifying technology development needs. To provide consistency, DOE has developed a standard methodology for categorizing waste into treatability groups based on three characteristic parameters: radiological, bulk physical/chemical form, and regulated contaminant. Based on category and component definitions in the methodology, descriptive codes or strings of codes are assigned under each parameter, resulting in a waste characterization amenable to a computerized format for query and sort functions. By using only the applicable parameters, this methodology can be applied to all waste types generated within the DOE complex: radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary/municipal. Implementation of this methodology will assist the individual sites and DOE Headquarters in analyzing waste management technology and facility needs

  10. 1987 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to Section 7(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-240), this report summarizes the progress of states and low-level radioactive waste compacts in 1987 in establishing new low-level waste disposal facilities. It also reports the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1987 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities

  11. Sixth annual DOE LLWMP Participants' Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers were presented at the following sessions: Improved Shallow Land Burial; Greater Confinement Disposal; Corrective Measures Technology; Characteristics and Treatment of Low-Level Waste; and Environmental Aspects and Performance Prediction. Three workshops were held: Predicting Source Terms for Low-Level Waste; Performance Assessment for Low-Level Disposal Facilities; and Approaches to Low-Level Disposal Facility Siting and Characterization

  12. 1992 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress; Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress States and compact regions made during 1992 in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1992 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act.

  13. Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240: 1990 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress during 1990 of states and compact regions in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1990 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended by Public Law 99-240

  14. Analysis of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of residuals from the treatment of mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Langkopf, B.S.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has stored or expects to generate over the next five years more than 130,000 m{sup 3} of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Before disposal, MLLW is usually treated to comply with the land disposal restrictions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Depending on the type of treatment, the original volume of MLLW and the radionuclide concentrations in the waste streams may change. These changes must be taken into account in determining the necessary disposal capacity at a site. Treatment may remove the characteristic in some waste that caused it to be classified as mixed. Treatment of some waste may, by reduction of the mass, increase the concentrations of some transuranic radionuclides sufficiently so that it becomes transuranic waste. In this report, the DOE MLLW streams were analyzed to determine after-treatment volumes and radionuclide concentrations. The waste streams were reclassified as residual MLLW or low-level or transuranic waste resulting from treatment. The volume analysis indicated that about 89,000 m{sup 3} of waste will require disposal as residual MLLW. Fifteen DOE sites were then evaluated to determine their capabilities for hosting disposal facilities for some or all of the residual MLLW. Waste streams associated with about 90% of the total residual MLLW volume are likely to present no significant issues for disposal and require little additional analysis. Future studies should focus on the remaining waste streams that are potentially problematic by examining site-specific waste acceptance criteria, alternative treatment processes, alternative waste forms for disposal, and pending changes in regulatory requirements.

  15. Analysis of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of residuals from the treatment of mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has stored or expects to generate over the next five years more than 130,000 m3 of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Before disposal, MLLW is usually treated to comply with the land disposal restrictions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Depending on the type of treatment, the original volume of MLLW and the radionuclide concentrations in the waste streams may change. These changes must be taken into account in determining the necessary disposal capacity at a site. Treatment may remove the characteristic in some waste that caused it to be classified as mixed. Treatment of some waste may, by reduction of the mass, increase the concentrations of some transuranic radionuclides sufficiently so that it becomes transuranic waste. In this report, the DOE MLLW streams were analyzed to determine after-treatment volumes and radionuclide concentrations. The waste streams were reclassified as residual MLLW or low-level or transuranic waste resulting from treatment. The volume analysis indicated that about 89,000 m3 of waste will require disposal as residual MLLW. Fifteen DOE sites were then evaluated to determine their capabilities for hosting disposal facilities for some or all of the residual MLLW. Waste streams associated with about 90% of the total residual MLLW volume are likely to present no significant issues for disposal and require little additional analysis. Future studies should focus on the remaining waste streams that are potentially problematic by examining site-specific waste acceptance criteria, alternative treatment processes, alternative waste forms for disposal, and pending changes in regulatory requirements

  16. Environmental assessment for DOE permission for the off-loading and transportation of commercial low-level radioactive waste across the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with DOE allowing Chem-Nuclear Systems, L.L.C. (CNS) to off-load and transport low-level radioactive waste (LLW) packages across the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina, to the nearby CNS facility. The proposed action entails DOE granting permission to CNS to use SRS for landing shipping barges at the existing SRS boat ramp and off-loading trailered LLW packages for transportation across SRS to the CNS facility. Project activities would include modification of the SRS boat ramp on the Savannah River, as needed for off-loading activities, and construction of a bridge across Lower Three Runs. The proposed action also encompasses any similar future off-loading and transportation activities for LLW en route to the CNS facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  17. Integration of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractor installations for the purpose of optimizing treatment, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages a multibillion dollar environmental management (EM) program. In June 1996, the Assistant Secretary of Energy for EM issued a memorandum with guidance and a vision for a ten year planning process for the EM Program. The purpose of this process, which became known as the Accelerated Cleanup: Focus on 2006, is to make step changes within the DOE complex regarding the approach for making meaningful environmental cleanup progress. To augment the process, Assistant Secretary requested the site contractors to engage in an effort to identify and evaluate integration alternatives for EM waste stream treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) that would parallel the 2006 Plan. In October 1996, ten DOE contractor installations began the task of identifying alternative opportunities for low level radioactive waste (LLW). Cost effective, efficient solutions were necessary to meet all requirements associated with storing, characterizing, treating, packaging, transporting, and disposing of LLW while protecting the workers' health and safety, and minimizing impacts to the environment. To develop these solutions, a systems engineering approach was used to establish the baseline requirements, to develop alternatives, and to evaluate the alternatives. Key assumptions were that unique disposal capabilities exist within the DOE that must be maintained; private sector disposal capability for some LLW may not continue to exist into the foreseeable future; and decisions made by the LLW Team must be made on a system or complex wide basis to fully realize the potential cost and schedule benefits. This integration effort promoted more accurate waste volume estimates and forecasts; enhanced recognition of existing treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities and capacities; and improved identification of cost savings across the complex

  18. The consequences of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project: Report of the DOE/Nevada Independent Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) convened a panel of independent scientists to assess the performance impact of shallow burial of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, in light of a transportation incident in December 1997 involving this waste stream. The Fernald waste has been transported to the Nevada Test Site and disposed in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) since 1993. A separate DOE investigation of the incident established that the waste has been buried in stress-fractured metal boxes, and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high-volumetric water contents). The Independent Panel was charged with determining whether disposition of this waste in the Area 5 RWMS has impacted the conclusions of a previously completed performance assessment in which the site was judged to meet required performance objectives. To assess the performance impact on Area 5, the panel members developed a series of questions. The three areas addressed in these questions were (1) reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) excess moisture in the waste. The panel has concluded that there is no performance impact from reduced container integrity--no performance is allocated to the container in the conservative assumptions used in performance assessment. Similarly, the process controlling post-closure subsidence results primarily from void space within and between containers, and the container is assumed to degrade and collapse within 100 years

  19. Low-temperature setting phosphate ceramics for stabilization of DOE problem low level mixed-waste: I. Material and waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the {open_quotes}problem{close_quotes} DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization.

  20. Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Technical Session 2, Site closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This volume on site closure or site stabilization and closure, centers on a number of major issues which have been identified by the contractor community as requiring resolution before the topic of site stabilization and closure can be laid to rest. All papers, seven total, in this volume have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (AT)

  1. Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Technical Session 2, Site closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume on site closure or site stabilization and closure, centers on a number of major issues which have been identified by the contractor community as requiring resolution before the topic of site stabilization and closure can be laid to rest. All papers, seven total, in this volume have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (AT)

  2. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York's challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria

  3. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site

  4. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  5. Low-level liquid scitillation counting for quantification of annual {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C concentrations in tree disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopka, B. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung; Schikowski, J. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung; Porstendoerfer, J. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Isotopenlaboratorium fuer Biologische und Medizinische Forschung

    1997-03-01

    The government of Schleswig Holstein funded a study to perform the retrospective determination of airborne {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C concentrations. It is well known, that in tree rings most of the hydrogen and cabron is fixed after insertion in the matrix of wood and that the radionuclide concentration correlates with former airborne activity concentrations. For the retrospective study wood disks of trees located in the region near the nuclear power plant of Kruemmel and control disks of unsuspected areas were selected. The hydrogen of the wood was transformed to water and the carbon to carbondioxide by classical oxidation processes (combustion in a furnace). The contents of {sup 3}H in the water and {sup 14}C of the carbondioxide (solved in scintillation liquid) were determined by liquid scintillation counting, using a low-level counter (type Quantulus 1220, Wallac). (orig.)

  6. Low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 10 new disposal facilities for low level radioactive waste are now under development in the USA. They were planned in the wake of the highly visible failures of three such sites and a widespread loss of public confidence, both in shallow burial technology and the federal government's ability to regulate commercial waste disposal enterprises. The development of new technology and active involvement of state governments presents the nuclear power industry with its best opportunity for regaining the public confidence that it lost during the 1970s. This paper critically explores the fundamental technical, economic, political and value issues at stake in this process. (author)

  7. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  8. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 2: Technical basis and discussion of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 first describes the screening process used to determine the sites to be considered in the PEs. This volume then provides the technical details of the methodology for conducting the performance evaluations. It also provides a comparison and analysis of the overall results for all sites that were evaluated. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  9. Does low level laser therapy relieve the pain caused by the placement of the orthodontic separators? — A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Quan; Yang, Shuo; Jia, Fangfang; Xu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain caused by orthodontic treatment can affect patient’s compliance and even force them to terminate treatments. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate of the analgesic effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) after placement of the orthodontic separators. Methods Five databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, China Biology Medicine disc (SinoMed CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for all the appropriate studies in June, 2014. Two reviewers ...

  10. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 1: Regulatory updates, performance assessment, understanding remedial action efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Eighteen papers are presented in this volume. The section on regulatory updates present papers on EPA, NRC, and DOE regulations. The performance assessment section presents studies on disposal facilities at ORNL, Hanford, and the Feed Materials Production Center. The remedial action section papers discuss programs and remedial action activities. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford's experience within the last six years. Hanford's forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford's annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford's forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data

  12. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, K.J.; Dirks, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford`s experience within the last six years. Hanford`s forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford`s annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford`s forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data.

  13. Potential impact of DOE's performance objective for protection of inadvertent intruders on low-level waste disposals at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Order 5820.2A, Chapter III, specifies performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive waste which include limits on effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders. This paper investigates the potential impact of the performance objective for protection of inadvertent intruders on the acceptability of waste disposals in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis is based on radionuclide inventories and waste volumes for recent disposals in SWSA 6 and calculated doses to an inadvertent intruder per unit concentration of radionuclides in disposed waste for assumed exposure scenarios

  14. Low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the normal incidence of cancer in human populations is increased by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. At background radiation levels or at radiation levels which are 100 times greater, the potential health risks are considered to be directly proportional to the total accumulated dose of radiation. Some of the uncertainties associated with this assumption and with the accepted risk estimates have been critically reviewed in this document. The general scientific consensus at present suggests that the accepted risk estimates may exaggerate the actual risk of low levels of sparsely ionizing radiations (beta-, gamma- or X-rays) somewhat but are unlikely to overestimate the actual risks of densely ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, alpha-particles). At the maximum permissible levels of exposure for radiation workers in nuclear power stations, the potential health hazards in terms of life expectancy would be comparable to those encountered in transportation and public utilities or in the construction industry. At the average radiation exposures received by these workers in practice, the potential health hazards are similar to those associated with safe categories of industries. Uranium mining remains a relativly hazardous occupation. In terms of absolute numbers, the genetic hazards, which are less well established, are thought to be smaller than the carcinogenic hazards of radiation when only the first generation is considered but to be of the same order of magnitude as the carcinogenic hazards when the total number of induced genetic disorders is summed over all generations

  15. Annual status report on Federal Facility Agreement compliance for the Liquid Low-Level Waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report summarizes the status of Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and describes the progress made over the past fiscal year. In fiscal 1994, ORNL issued the final submittal of the risk characterization data for the inactive tanks, the secondary containment design demonstration report for Category B piping, and the FFA Implementation Plan. In addition, two new LLLW tanks serving Building 2026 and the Transported Waste Receiving Facility were installed; leak testing was initiated for all active, singly contained tanks and piping; sources of inflow to inactive tanks were investigated and diversion to process waste was begun; and the W-12 tank system was repaired and a request to allow its temporary use was approved by EPA/TDEC. Programmatic improvements were also made during the year: a system for improved communication of FFA plans and activities was implemented in October 1993, a survey was conducted to ensure that all inactive drains are identified and sealed, and two meetings of the ORNL FFA Technical Advisory Group were held

  16. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York`s challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria.

  17. 2010 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  18. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, Sunita [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2011 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  19. 2014 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2014 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  20. 2013 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2013 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  1. 2009 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting to review the FY2008 accomplishments and FY2009 plans for the Vehicle Technologies Program, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academic to give inputs to DOE on the Program with a structured and formal methodology.

  2. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutula, Raymond A. [DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the program for fiscal year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program’s national laboratories and university and industry partners.

  3. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-23

    The 2015 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2015 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; and market transformation.

  4. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls

  5. Investigation of Novel Electrode Materials for Electrochemically-Based Remediation of High- and Low-Level Mixed Wastes in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New materials are investigated, based on degenerately-doped titanias, for use in the electrochemical degradation of organics and nitrogen-containing compounds in sites of concern to the DOE remediation effort. The data collected in this project appear to provide a rational approach for design of more efficient nanoporous electrodes. Also, osmium complexes appear to be promising candidates for further optimization in operating photo electrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications

  6. Investigation of Novel Electrode Materials for Electrochemically-Based Remediation of High- and Low-Level Mixed Wastes in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, N.S.; Anderson, M.

    2000-12-01

    New materials are investigated, based on degenerately-doped titanias, for use in the electrochemical degradation of organics and nitrogen-containing compounds in sites of concern to the DOE remediation effort. The data collected in this project appear to provide a rational approach for design of more efficient nanoporous electrodes. Also, osmium complexes appear to be promising candidates for further optimization in operating photo electrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications.

  7. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees - 1991. Twenty-fourth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the 24th annual radiation exposure report published by US DOE and its predecessor agencies. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received by both employees and visitors at DOE and COE contractor facilities during 1991. Trends in radiations exposures are evaluated. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimates from expert groups

  8. Radiation exposure for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1979. Twelfth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the data submitted by DOE and DOE contractors for 1979 for 104,986 employees, representing 81% of all DOE and DOE contractor employees. Of all employees monitored, 47.6% received a dose equivalent that was less than measurable, 50.8% a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and 1.6% an exposure greater than 1 rem. Only three DOE contractor employees at three separate facilities received whole-body dose equivalents greater than 5 rem during 1979. The two reported cases of internal depositions were both less than the annual dose-equivalent standard and resulted from accidental exposures

  9. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards

  10. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

  11. 2012 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    The 2012 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting was held May 14-18, 2012 in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Hydrogen Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 309 individual activities were reviewed for Vehicle Technologies, by a total of 189 reviewers. A total of 1,473 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews.

  12. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  13. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  14. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  15. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  16. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE

  17. 2015 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: 258 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by 170 reviewers. A total of 1,095 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  18. 2013 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held May 13-17, 2013, in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 287 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 187 reviewers. A total of 1,382 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  19. 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 295 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 179 reviewers. A total of 1,354 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  20. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  1. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees: Nineteenth annual report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors are required to submit occupational radiation exposure records to a central repository. The data required include a summary of whole-body exposures to ionizing radiation and a summary of internal depositions of radioactive materials above specified limits. This report is a summary of the data submitted by DOE and DOE contractors for 1986. A total of 94,040 DOE and DOE contractor employees were monitored for whole-body ionizing radiation exposures in 1986. This represents 56.2% of all DOE and DOE contractor employees. In addition to the employees, 63,463 visitors were monitored. The collective dose equivalent for DOE and DOE contractor employeees was 7,911 person-rem. The collective dose equivalent for visitors was 554 person-rem. The highest average dose equivalent for all monitored individuals was observed at fuel fabrication facilities (205 mrem), and the lowest was observed for visitors (9 mrem) to DOE facilities. These averages are significantly less than the DOE 5-rem/year radiation protection standard for whole-body exposures. Three new cases of internal depositions were reported in 1986 that exceeded 50 percent of the pertinent annual dose-equivalent standard. Of these three cases, two occurred in 1974 and are reported now because recent revisions in the dose calculations established these cases as reportable depositions. The third case occurred in 1985, but was not reported until evaluation was completed in early 1987. There were no uptakes of radioactive material reported to have occurred in 1986

  2. 4th Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-03-01

    This contains abstracts from the 2009 Annual Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PI) Meeting. The ERSP seeks to advance fundamental science to understand, predict, and mitigate the impacts of environmental contamination from past nuclear weapons production and provide a scientific basis for the long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal. These ambitious goals cannot be achieved by any one project alone. Therefore, ERSP funds a combination of research programs at the DOE national laboratories, individual projects at universities and federal agencies, and large long(er)-term field site research. Integration of these activities to advance the ERSP goals is a constant challenge, but made significantly simpler by bringing together all funded ERSP researchers once a year to discuss the very latest research results. It is at these meetings where new ideas and/or scientific advancements in support of ERSP goals can be discussed and openly debated among all PIs in the program. The ERSP thrives, in part, on the new ideas, concepts, scientific connections, and collaborations generated as a result of these meetings. The annual PI Meeting is very much a working meeting with three major goals: (1) to provide opportunities for scientific interaction among the ERSP scientists, a critical element for the program; (2) to provide the ERSP program staff with an opportunity to evaluate the progress of each program and project; and (3) to showcase the ERSP to interested parties within DOE and within other federal agencies In addition to program managers from within OBER, there will be representatives from other offices within DOE and other federal agencies in attandance at the meeting.

  3. 4th Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contains abstracts from the 2009 Annual Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PI) Meeting. The ERSP seeks to advance fundamental science to understand, predict, and mitigate the impacts of environmental contamination from past nuclear weapons production and provide a scientific basis for the long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal. These ambitious goals cannot be achieved by any one project alone. Therefore, ERSP funds a combination of research programs at the DOE national laboratories, individual projects at universities and federal agencies, and large long(er)-term field site research. Integration of these activities to advance the ERSP goals is a constant challenge, but made significantly simpler by bringing together all funded ERSP researchers once a year to discuss the very latest research results. It is at these meetings where new ideas and/or scientific advancements in support of ERSP goals can be discussed and openly debated among all PIs in the program. The ERSP thrives, in part, on the new ideas, concepts, scientific connections, and collaborations generated as a result of these meetings. The annual PI Meeting is very much a working meeting with three major goals: (1) to provide opportunities for scientific interaction among the ERSP scientists, a critical element for the program; (2) to provide the ERSP program staff with an opportunity to evaluate the progress of each program and project; and (3) to showcase the ERSP to interested parties within DOE and within other federal agencies In addition to program managers from within OBER, there will be representatives from other offices within DOE and other federal agencies in attandance at the meeting.

  4. Low-level radioactive waste management at the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its preceding agencies have been managing low-level waste (LLW) for more than 50 years. Waste management at DOE includes waste minimization, generation, characterization, treatment, storage, transportation and disposal. The total volume of DOE LLW disposed through 1993 is nearly three million cubic meters. In the last decade, DOE has generated more than 100,000 cubic meters of LLW annually at six on-site facilities. In 1993, DOE disposed of approximately two-thirds of the total LLW disposed nationwide. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, mandates that DOE assure the proper management of source, byproduct and special nuclear material, allowing DOE to set radiation protection standards for itself and its contractors. DOE policies and requirements for radioactive waste management are embodied in a set of DOE Orders. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240, assigned responsibility for disposal of DOE and certain other LLW to the Federal Government. In 1987, DOE acknowledged its responsibility for managing the hazardous component of its radioactive waste under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), thereby establishing additional requirements for managing its mixed LLW. The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992, directed DOE to prepare a plan for developing mixed waste treatment capacities and technologies for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste. Several issues related to management of DOE LLW are addressed. The three initiatives addressed are likely to have significant impacts on the DOE LLW Management Program over the next decade. These initiatives include: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC LLW), and external regulation of DOE nuclear safety

  5. Assessment of LANL solid low-level waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section's capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans and procedures and identify particular areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, Chapter III sets forth the requirements and guidelines for preparation and implementation of criteria, plans and procedures to be utilized in the management of solid low-level waste. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Suggested outlines for these documents are presented as Appendix A

  6. PUREX low-level waste radionuclide characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PUREX low-level waste (LLW) radionuclide characterization document describes the methodology for the characterization of solid LLW and solid low-level mixed waste (MW) with the respect to radiological characteristics. This document only serves as an overview of the PUREX radionuclide characterization methodology and provides specific examples for how the radionuclide distribution is derived. It would be impractical to provide all background information in this document. If further clarification and background information is required, consult the PUREX Regulatory Compliance group files. This document applies to only that waste generated in or is the responsibility of the PUREX facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) establishes the requirements for radioactive solid waste in DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapters 2 and 3 from DOE Order 5820.2A requires that generators of solid wastes in the LLW categories and the radioactive mixed waste subcategories: (1) identify the major radionuclides in each solid waste matrix and (2) determine the radionuclide concentrations and waste classes of their solid wastes. In addition, the Order also requires each generator to carry out a compliance program that ensures the proper certification of the solid waste generated

  7. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold L. Sommers; R. T. Hunt

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research on advanced hydropower technology through its hydropower program, which is organized under the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2002. The program=s current focus is on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research is to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these are now being tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners to modifications of existing designs. Biological design criteria for these new turbines have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria are being combined with computational tools to locate and eliminate areas inside turbine systems that are damaging to fish. Through the combination of laboratory, field, and computational studies, new solutions are being found to environmental problems at hydropower projects. The diverse program activities continue to make unique contributions to clean energy production in the U.S. By working toward technology improvements that can reduce environmental problems, the program is helping to reposition hydropower as an acceptable, renewable, domestic energy choice.

  8. Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident

  9. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7.5 double

  10. Low level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk is an overview of the problem of radioactive waste management in general as a step in dealing with the issues it presents to emergency preparedness. Major topics covered include the following: types of radioactive waste; Low-level radioactive waste including an overview of regulations and the problems/possibilities of developing disposal sites; Barriers to LLRW disposal site development including technical issues, not in my backyard, not in my term of office, and legal issues; impacts created by lack of disposal; and possible solutions

  11. Understanding low-level radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations

  12. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  13. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R. T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Sommers, G. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Rinehart, B. N. [Consultant; Flynn, J. V. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Brookshier, P. A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2002-04-01

    This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2001. The program’s focus for FY 2002 was on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research was to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these were tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners (e.g., work by Alden Research Laboratory and Concepts NREC) to modifications to existing designs (e.g., Voith Siemens work on Minimum Gap Runners). Biological criteria have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria were combined with computational design tools to locate and eliminate damaging areas inside turbine systems.

  14. Management of defense beta-gamma contaminated solid low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In DOE defense operations, approx. 70,000 m3 of beta-gamma low-level radioactive waste are disposed of annually by shallow land burial operations at six primary sites. Waste generated at other DOE sites are transported on public roads to the primary sites for disposal. In the practice of low-level waste (LLW) disposal in the US, the site hydrology and geology are the primary barriers to radioactive migration. To date, little emphasis has been placed on waste form improvements or engineered site modifications to reduce migration potential. Compaction is the most common treatment step employed. The performance of ground disposal of radioactive waste in this country, in spite of many practices that we would consider unacceptable in today's light, has resulted in very little migration of radioactivity outside site boundaries. Most problems with previously used burial grounds have been from subsidence at the arid sites and subsidence and groundwater contact at the humid sites. The radionuclides that have shown the most significant migration are tritium, 90Sr, and 99Tc. The unit cost for disposal operations at a given DOE site is dependent on many variables, but the annual volume to be disposed is probably the major factor. The average cost for current DOE burial operation is approximately $170/m3. 23 figures

  15. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  16. Eleventh annual report of radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1968, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established a program for reporting certain occupationa radiation exposure information to a central radiation records repository maintained at the Union Carbide Computing Technology Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Annual summaries (WASH-1350-R1 through WASH-1350-R6) were reported for the years 1968-1973 and included data on AEC contracter employees as well as employees of companies in the private sector licensed by the AEC. In January 1975, the operational functions of the AEC, including the maintenance of records on the occupational radiation exposure on contractor employees, were transferred to the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the AEC's regulatory functions, including the reporting of information on the occupational radiation exposure of licenses, were transferred to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Previous AEC licenses then reported to NRC while the contractors reported to ERDA. On October 1, 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) was formed and assumed the responsibilities of ERDA. This report contains the 1978 radiation exposure data for DOE and DOE contractors

  17. Inventory and characteristics of current and projected low-level radioactive materials and waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB), under US Department of Energy (DOE) funding and guidance, provides an annual update of compiled data on current and projected inventories and characteristics of DOE and commercially owned radioactive wastes. The data base addresses also the inventories of DOE and commercial spent fuel. These data are derived from reliable information from government sources, open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The radioactive materials considered are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste (HLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, and mixed-LLW. This paper primarily focuses on LLW inventory and characterization

  18. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  19. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  20. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  1. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  2. Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data.

  3. Annual Screening with Chest X-Ray Does Not Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual screening for lung cancer using a standard chest x-ray does not reduce the risk of dying from lung cancer when compared with no annual screening, according to findings from the NCI-led Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial.

  4. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided

  5. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  6. Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  8. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  9. 2nd Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2007-03-14

    Welcome to the annual 2007 Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PIs) meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to bring together all of the lead PIs and key Co-PIs in the program to share and review the results of funded research from the past year. This meeting allows program managers from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) to gauge the progress and significance of the funded research, and it is also an important venue to showcase ERSP research to interested parties within DOE and other invited federal agency representatives. Additionally, these meetings should serve as an opportunity for funded PIs to view their research in the context of the entire ERSP portfolio. Past ERSP meetings have been very important venues for detailed discussion of research results among PIs, development of new research ideas, fostering new collaborations and discussion with ERSD program managers on future research efforts and/or initiatives within the program. In short, these meetings are an important resource for both program managers and PIs. There will be only one ERSP PI meeting for 2007. In years past, ERSD has sponsored two PI meetings, one in the spring and a separate meeting in the fall that focused primarily on field research. However, this format tends to insulate laboratory-based research from the field research sponsored in the program and is incompatible with the ERSD view that laboratory-based research should progress towards understanding the relevant processes in natural environments at the field scale. Therefore the agenda for this year's PI meeting is well integrated with both lab-based and field-based projects, to allow for detailed discussion between PIs involved in each area. In the agenda, you will notice a more relaxed format than in years past. This year's meeting spans four days, but is less heavily regimented in terms of oral

  10. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low-level waste systems performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Systems Performance Assessment (PA) presents a systematic analysis of the potential risks posed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) waste management system. Potential risks to the public and environment are compared to established performance objectives as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. The report determines the associated maximum individual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to a member of the public from LLW and mixed waste. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.01 mrem could result from routine radioactive liquid effluents. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.003 mrem could result from routine radioactive gaseous effluents. No other pathways for radiation exposure of the public indicated detectable levels of exposure. The dose rate, monitoring, and waste acceptance performance objectives were found to be adequately addressed by the LLNL Program. 88 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  11. Annual report of the TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2] EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program for fiscal year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TMI-2 EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion exchange resins caused by radiation; examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins; obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion exchange resins in a disposal environment; and determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. This report summarizes accomplishments of Fiscal Year 1988. The steps taken in preparation for the third sampling of ion exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 determine degradation are noted under the Resin Degradation Task. In the Resin Solidification Task, the results of leachate analysis for Sr-90 are presented. The leachate samples were obtained from testing of waste forms after irradiation. Those results are compared to results from irradiated and unirradiated waste form Cs-137 leachate sample analysis. In the Field Testing Task, both Portland Type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois (ANL-E) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The study is designed so that continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as envirnomental conditions, will be obtained over a 20-year period. results of the third year of data acquisition are presented and discussed. 14 refs., 41 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite

  13. MESERAN Calibration for Low Level Organic Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision cleaning studies done at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T), the Kansas City Plant (KCP), and at other locations within the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons complex over the last 30 years have depended upon results from MESERAN Evaporative Rate Analysis for detecting low levels of organic contamination. The characterization of the surface being analyzed is carried out by depositing a Carbon-14 tagged radiochemical onto the test surface and monitoring the rate at which the radiochemical disappears from the surface with a Geiger-Mueller counter. In the past, the total number of counts over a 2-minute span have been used to judge whether a surface is contaminated or not and semi-quantitatively to what extent. This technique is very sensitive but has not enjoyed the broad acceptance of a purely quantitative analysis. The work on this project developed calibrations of various organic contaminants typically encountered in KCP operations. In addition, a new analysis method was developed to enhance the ability of MESERAN Analyzers to detect organic contamination and yield quantitative data in the microgram and nanogram levels

  14. Low-level radioactive waste project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes work of the US Conference of Mayors project, Local Government Review of Approaches to Management of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes. The work covered the time between April 1, 1981 and September 30, 1982, and was carried out in two phases. The objective of the first phase was to have local government officials review DOE's proposed low-level radioactive waste management program strategy document. Towards this end, the Conference was to organize meetings to obtain such review, to convey information to local representatives on policy and technical issues associated with low-level waste management, and to provide EG and G Idaho, Inc. (EG and G), the operator of DOE's Idaho Operations Office, with reports on those meetings. Because of the compression of time, funds remained unspent at the end of the first phase. After discussion, both the Conference and EG and G agreed it would be mutually beneficial to re-allocate funds within categories of the original budget, and to extend the project. The purpose of the extention was to permit follow-up to issues and suggestions raised at the Strategy Review Meetings. These included the need to monitor the on-going process of implementing the Low-Level Radioactive Policy Act, and to provide more mayors with information about the issues of low-level radioative waste disposal. As agreed, the tasks under this extension have involved preparation of three information packets for mayors, and briefings for staff of other local government associations

  15. 2009 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen Program, November 2009 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes the hydrogen and fuel cell R&D activities and accomplishments of the DOE Hydrogen Program for FY2009. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  16. Stability testing of low-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC Technical Position on Waste Form identifies methods for thermal cycle testing and biodegradation testing of low-level waste forms. These tests were carried out on low-level waste forms to establish whether the tests are reasonable and can be achieved. The thermal-cycle test is believed adequate for demonstrating the thermal stability of solidified waste forms. The biodegradation tests are sufficient for distinguishing materials that are susceptible to biodegradation. However, failure of either of these tests should not be regarded of itself as an indication that the waste form will biodegrade to an extent that the form does not meet the stability requirements of 10 CFR Part 61

  17. Phytoextraction of low level U-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fuel cycle may be a source of environmental contamination. Uranium exploitation produces large quantities of wastes but also accidental spills at nuclear fuel production, reprocessing or waste treatment plants have led to soil contamination with uranium. U-contaminated soil is generally excavated, packaged and removed which is a costly enterprise. Soil washing has also shown promising in removing U from contaminated soil, but results in the generation of liquid wastes and the deterioration of soil properties. In contrast, phytoextraction, the use of plants to remove contaminants from polluted soil, allows for in situ treatment and does not generate liquid wastes. Furthermore, the contaminated site is covered by plants during phytoextraction and wind and water erosion will be reduced. The phytoextraction potential depends on the amount of radionuclides extracted and the biomass produced. Hyper-accumulating plants often have a low biomass production. Moreover, uranium soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF: ratio of U concentration in dry plant tissue to concentration in soil) rarely exceed a value of 0.1 gg-1. With a TF of 0.1 gg-1 and a biomass yield of 15t dry weigh ha-1 only 0.1% of the soil uranium will be annually immobilised in the plant biomass. These figures clearly show that the phytoextraction option is not a feasible remediation option, unless the uranium bioavailability could be drastically increased. It was shown that citric acid addition to highly contaminated U contaminated soil increased the U-accumulation of Brassica juncea 1000-fold. The objective of the present paper is to find out if low level U contaminated soil can be phytoextracted in order to achieve proposed release limits

  18. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, B. N. [Consultant; Sommers, G. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Flynn, J. V. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Brookshier, P. A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2001-04-17

    This report describes the activities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2000 (October 1, 1999, to September 30, 2000). Background, current activities, and future plans are presented in the following sections for all components of the Program. Program focus for FY 2000 was on (1) advanced turbine development, (2) basic and applied R&D, (3) environmental mitigation, (4) low head/low power hydropower technology, and (5) technology transfer.

  19. Rocketdyne Propulsion & Power DOE Operations Annual Site Environmental Report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, R. J. [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1997-11-10

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by Rocketdyne Propulsion & Power of Boeing North American. Inc. (formerly Rockwell International Corporation). These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL and the De Soto site. The sites have been used for manufacturing; R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site essentially comprises office space and light industry with no remaining radiological operations, and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2.668 acres), warrants comprehensive monitoring to ensure protection of the environment.

  20. Low-level radioactive waste management by states and compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act) provided 7 years of interim access to the disposal sites operating in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington, Today, nearly 5 years later, we are beginning to speculate on the status of States and Compacts at the end of interim access, which is scheduled by law for January 1, 1993. In theory, by then, our job of developing a new regionally based, national low-level waste disposal system should be completed. Upon examining the evidence of progress so far, I conclude that as a Nation, we have a long way to go. An acceleration of efforts may help to put us back on schedule, but it does not look promising. The purpose of this paper it to summarize the current status of low-level waste management nationwide, and to reflect on the difficult challenges the lie ahead in developing an effective nationwide system for the next few years

  1. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  2. The Drigg low-level waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

  3. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelk, H.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State: it is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the 13th year generators have been required to submit these reports to NYSERDA. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1998. Activity is the measure of a material`s radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second. Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1998. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1998 LLRW reports were received. 2 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State: it is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the 13th year generators have been required to submit these reports to NYSERDA. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1998. Activity is the measure of a material's radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second. Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1998. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators' projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1998 LLRW reports were received. 2 figs., 23 tabs

  5. Mississippi graduate DOE EPSCor trainee project. First annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wertz, D.L.

    1992-08-01

    The promotion of an aggressive energy research initiative was identified as a goal of the Mississippi Research Consortium (MRC) from its inception in 1986. The Department of Energy EPSCOR Program has provided opportunities to address the needs and enhance the interactive programs of energy-related research in the State of Mississippi. The Mississippi DOE EPSCOR Graduate Traineeships Project is a program of education and research which will (1) increase the number of trained professionals in the energy sciences and technology, particularly those from groups traditionally under-represented in the field, and (2) interface with existing networks of universities, industry, federal, and state institutions involved in energy-related activities.

  6. 1996--1997 TEMA/DOE oversight annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) has entered into a five-year agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide emergency response activities associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The Agreement in Principle (AIP) delineates the duties and responsibilities of the parties. The agreement tasked TEMA with the following responsibilities: develop offsite emergency plans; conduct emergency management training; develop offsite emergency organizations; develop emergency communications; develop emergency facilities; conduct exercises and drills; provide detection and protection equipment; and develop an emergency staff. This report describes progress on the 14 deliverables connected with this contract.

  7. 1996-1997 TEMA/DOE oversite annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) has entered into a five-year agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide emergency response activities associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The Agreement in Principle (AIP) delineates the duties and responsibilities of the parties. The agreement tasked TEMA with the following responsibilities: develop offsite emergency plans; conduct emergency management training; develop offsite emergency organizations; develop emergency communications; develop emergency facilities; conduct exercises and drills; provide detection and protection equipment; and develop an emergency staff. This document reports on progress on these tasks during the past year.

  8. 2012 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  9. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  10. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  11. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage

  12. Tank farms compacted low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the process of Low-Level Waste (LLW) volume reduction by compaction. Also included is the data used for characterization of LLW destined for compaction. Scaling factors (ratios) are formed based on data contained in this report

  13. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections

  14. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage

  15. Low-Level Windshear Alert System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Low Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWAS) is a ground-based network of ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensors mounted on tall poles about an airport’s runways...

  16. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage.

  17. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    Prague, 2013, nestr. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-19.04.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  18. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  19. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978, President Carter established the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG) to review the nation's plans and progress in managing radioactive wastes. In its final report, issued in March 1979, the group recommended that the Department of Energy (DOE) assume responsibility for developing a national plan for the management of low-level wastes. Toward this end, DOE directed that a strategy be developed to guide federal and state officials in resolving issues critical to the safe management of low-level wastes. EG and G Idaho, Inc. was selected as the lead contractor for the Low-Level Waste Management Program and was given responsibility for developing the strategy. A 25 member task force was formed which included individuals from federal agencies, states, industry, universities, and public interest groups. The task force identified nineteen broad issues covering the generation, treatment, packaging, transportation, and disposal of low-level wastes. Alternatives for the resolution of each issue were proposed and recommendations were made which, taken together, form the draft strategy. These recommendations are summarized in this document

  20. 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 13-17, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  1. 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  2. 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  3. 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  4. 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 18-22, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; education; safety, codes, and standards; technology validation; systems analysis; and manufacturing R&D.

  5. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2010 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held June 7-11, 2010 in Washington, D.C.

  6. 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-06-13

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 9-13, 2008, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; systems analysis; and manufacturing.

  7. 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 9-13, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  8. 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  9. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1993: Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the eighth report submitted to Congress in accordance with section 5(d)(2)(E)(ii)(II) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (the Act). This section of the Act directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to summarize the annual expenditures of funds disbursed from the DOE surcharge escrow account and to assess compliance of these expenditures with the following limitations specified in the Act: establish low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities; mitigate the impact of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities on the host State; regulate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities; or ensure the decommissioning, closure, and care during the period of institutional control of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. In addition to placing these limitations on the use of these funds, the Act also requires all nonsited compact regions and nonmember States to provide DOE with an itemized report of their expenditures on December 31 of each year in which funds are expended. Within six months after receiving the individual reports, the Act requires the Secretary of Energy to furnish Congress with a summary of the reported expenditures and an assessment of compliance with the specified usage limitations. This report fulfills that requirement

  10. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  11. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1982. Fifteenth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors are required to submit occupational exposure records to a central repository. The data required includes a summary of whole-body exposures to ionizing radiation, a summary of internal depositions of radioactive materials above specified limits, and occupational exposure reports for terminating employees. This report is a summary of the data submitted by DOE and DOE contractors for 1982. A total of 85,324 DOE and DOE contractor employees were monitored for whole-body ionizing radiation exposures in 1982. In addition to the employees, 87,262 visitors were monitored. Of all employees monitored, 57.4% received a dose equivalent that was less than measurable, 41.0% a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and 1.6% an exposure greater than 1 rem. The exposure received by 86.5% of the visitors to DOE facilities was less than measurable. Only 13.5% of the visitors received a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and < 0.01% of the visitors received an exposure greater than 1 rem. No employees or visitors received a dose equivalent greater than 5 rem

  12. Low-level waste workshops. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 specifies that each state is responsible for the disposal of the low-level waste which is generated within its boundaries. The Act states that such wastes can be most safely and efficiently managed on a regional basis through compacts. It also defines low-level waste as waste which is not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or by-product material as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The Policy Act also stipulates that regional agreements or compacts shall not be applicable to the transportation, management, or disposal of low-level radioactive waste from atomic energy defense activities or federal research and development activities. It also specifies that agreements or compacts shall take affect on January 1, 1986, upon Congressional approval. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Council of State Governments' Midwestern Office. The grant was to be used to fund workshops for legislation on low-level radioactive waste issues. The purpose of the workshops was to provide discussion specifically on the Midwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Legislators from the states which were eligible to join the compact were invited: Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Virginia, Kansas and Nebraska were also eligible but had joined other compacts. Consequently, they weren't invited to the workshops. The Governor's office of West Virginia expressed interest in the compact, and its legislators were invited to attend a workshop. Two workshops were held in March. This report is a summary of the proceedings which details the concerns of the compact and expresses the reasoning behind supporting or not supporting the compact

  13. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in this report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1997. (Activity is the measure of a material's radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second.) Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1997. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators' projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1997 LLRW reports were received

  14. Applications of low level scintillation analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a liquid scintillation counter to quantitate radio-activity for low level applications is explored. The applications include 14C dating, hydrology, geology studies, food adulteration studies, environmental monitoring, biomedical, and assessing radio-isotopes in nuclear power plants. (author). 1 fig

  15. Reasons for Low Levels of Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The interactivity levels of online CSR communication are typically low. This study explores the reasons for the low levels of interactivity in the popular social media tool Twitter. An analysis of 41,864 Twitter messages (tweets) from the thirty most central corporate accounts in a CSR Twitter...

  16. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues

  17. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report

  18. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues.

  19. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

  20. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report.

  1. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 25-30. ISSN 1801-5603 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) SVV-2012-264513 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak areas * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2012/5/Slovak_en.pdf

  2. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 28-28. ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  3. Analysis of Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 63-63. ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  4. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2006 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2006-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 16-19, 2006, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  5. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2005 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S. G.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 23-26, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  6. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2007 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2007, in Washington, D.C. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  7. Annual Program Progress Report under DOE/PHRI Cooperative Agreement: (July 1, 2001-June 30, 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palafox, Neal A., MD, MPH

    2002-07-31

    OAK B188 DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)Annual Program Progress Report. The DOE Marshall Islands Medical Program continued, in this it's 48th year, to provide medical surveillance for the exposed population from Rongelap and Utrik and the additional DOE patients. The program was inaugurated in 1954 by the Atomic Energy Commission following the exposure of Marshallese to fallout from a nuclear test (Castle Bravo) at Bikini Atoll. This year marks the fourth year in which the program has been carried out by PHRI under a cooperative agreement with DOE. The DOERHRI Special Medical Care Program, awarded the cooperative agreement on August 28, 1998, commenced its health care program on January 15, 1999, on Kwajalein and January 22, 1999, on Majuro. This report details the program for the July 1, 2001, through the June 30, 2002, period. The program provides year-round, on-site medical care to the DOE patient population residing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and annual examinations to those patients living in Hawaii and on the Continental U.S.

  8. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies

  9. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  10. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitella, R.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  11. Greater-than-class C low-level waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: (1) nuclear utilities waste, (2) potential sealed sources GTCC LLW, (3) DOE-held potential GTCC LLW, and (4) other generator waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The other-generator-waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-held potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential sealed sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 m3. This was substantially less than previous estimates

  12. The dangers of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A book has been written which summarizes studies, published very largely in the last decade, which indicate that the health risks from low level radiation (less than 5-10 rem per year) are considerably higher than the official estimates. Chapters 1 to 5 are mainly concerned with techniques for estimating the risks of human exposure to low level radiation and the difficulties and uncertainties involved. Chapters 6 to 10 consider various categories of radiation exposure including the medical, industrial, military and power sectors and present evidence of the dangers to humans. Finally, chapter eleven considers a cost-benefit approach to radiation exposure. A helpful glossary of terms is included at the end of the book. (UK)

  13. IRMM low level underground laboratory in HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchel, D. [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Wordel, R. [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium)

    1997-03-01

    The operation of low background HPGe detectors at a depth of 225 m, reduced the background by two orders of magnitude; a large amount of the remaining background is still attributable to the cosmic rays. The selection of radiopure materials, the characterization of reference matrices and the measurements of low radioactivities in environmental samples are performed. Coupling the low level spectrometry with additional techniques, e.g. neutron activation, will allow to measure extremely low radioactivities. (orig.)

  14. Low - level doses and exposure rating issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is carried out of current state of the issue regarding biological effects of low - level irradiation doses in order to evaluate impact of low irradiation levels onto human health, which is required to generally understand the problem as a whole. Some proposals are offered to the state officials on developing general approaches related to preparation of a radiation safety concept for the population of Ukraine

  15. Biological Effects of Low Level Laser Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Farivar, Shirin; Malekshahabi, Talieh; Shiari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The use of low level laser to reduce pain, inflammation and edema, to promote wound, deeper tissues and nerves healing, and to prevent tissue damage has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. This review will cover some of the proposed cellular mechanisms responsible for the effect of visible light on mammalian cells, including cytochrome c oxidase (with absorption peaks in the Near Infrared (NIR)). Mitochondria are thought to be a likely site for the initia...

  16. Low Level Laser Therapy for Painful Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Momenzadeh, Sirous

    2013-01-01

    Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) uses a light source that generates extremely pure light, of a single wavelength1. The effect is not thermal, but rather related to photochemical reactions in the cells. LLLT was introduced as an alternative non-invasive treatment for OA about 10 years ago, but its effectiveness is still controversial2. A Cochrane review of LLLT in osteoarthritis included five trials, and concluded that despite some positive findings, the meta-analysis lacked data on how LLLT eff...

  17. The options for solidifying low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the methods of solidifying low level radioactive waste. The four main types of solidification agents used are bitumen (asphalt), portland cement (with or without additives), gypsum cement and vinyl-ester resin. The following properties of wastes solidified using these agents are discussed: leach resistance; thermal stability; mechanical strength; radiation stability; resistance to chemical or biological attack; sensitivity to variations in radwaste chemistry or mixing ratio; free water in the waste form after curing. (U.K.)

  18. The danger from low level radiation: a public and professional misperception?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arguments over the hazards from low level radiation have become one of the linchpins in the nuclear power debate. The use of bomb data to assess low level radiation risk is criticized. The uncertainty of such a practice is not understood by the public and it does not necessarily err on the side of safety. A new approach is urged. (author)

  19. Low level effects and mechanisms of interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This presentation will aim to briefly review the scientific evidence for biological and health effects from low level exposures to radiofrequency (RF) fields. Such low level effects have been mooted to occur at exposures below those that would elicit the established RF mechanisms of electrostimulation, heating and high energy pulse effects which provide the rationale for modern RF safety standards. An amazingly diverse range of biological endpoints have been tested for low level effects, but despite the long history of this search there still remains no convincing evidence for their existence or a plausible mechanism of interaction. Common criticisms of the experimental work in this area include the lack of repeatability of reported experiments, no consistent or plausible dose-response trends, poor dosimetry, and mishandling of statistical analysis and interpretation of data. Nonetheless, research continues, and indeed has escalated in recent times due to heightening public tensions over mobile phones and towers. Current research initiatives in Australia and overseas will be described

  20. Processing system for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive wastes are successively charged into a container while sliding a partition plate such that the wastes are kept substantially in a fully charged state in the direction of the height. Radiation rays from the low level radioactive wastes contained in the container are measured by a radiation dose measuring means constituted so as to be slidable together with the partition plate. Further, the weight of the low level radioactive wastes in the container is measured by the weight measuring means, and the radioactivity concentration per unit container is calculated by a calculation means based on the result of the measurement. Accordingly, the optimum storage period and the radioactivity level can be estimated on every containers. Further, since the measuring vessel is used also as a storage vessel, long time measurement can be conducted by measuring the radioactivity for the wastes successively to enable exact evaluation. Accordingly, it is possible to save the labors for processing operation and save the storage facility. (T.M.)

  1. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitch [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-11

    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  2. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as (1) a tool for disseminating information about LLW management, (2) a vehicle that can foster communication, and (3) a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  3. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as a tool for disseminating information about LLW management; a vehicle that can foster communication; and a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  4. Applications of low level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level liquid scintillation counting is reviewed in terms of its present use and capabilities for measuring low activity samples. New areas of application of the method are discussed with special interest directed to the food industry and environmental monitoring. Advantages offered in the use of a low background liquid scintillation counter for the nuclear power industry and nuclear navy are discussed. Attention is drawn to the need for commercial development of such instrumentation to enable wider use of the method. A user clientele is suggested as is the required technology to create such a counter

  5. Encapsulating low level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a process for encapsulating low level radioactive liquid organic wastes into a solid form suitable for burial one part by weight of the waste is mixed with less that one part by weight of a particulate, crosslinked, organic liquid swellable, organic liquid insoluble polymer to provide discrete, noncoalescent, gelled particles of the polymer and the waste. Between 0.1 to 3 parts by weight of the gelled particles are dispersed in one part by weight of a curable liquid resin. The resin is selected from the group consisting of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins and mixtures of the resins. The liquid resin is then cured to a solid

  6. Onsite storage facility for low level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has designed and constructed an onsite storage facility for low level radwaste (LLRW) at its Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in northern Alabama. The paper addresses the function of this facility and provides a complete description of the reinforced concrete storage modules which are the principal structural elements of the facility. The loads and loading combinations for the design of the storage modules are defined to include the foundation design parameters. Other aspects of the modules that are addressed are; the structural roof elements that provide access to the modules, shielding requirements for the LLRW, and tornado missile considerations

  7. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  8. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  9. Corticomuscular Coherence with Low-Level Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakarov V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the corticomuscular synchronization in beta- (15-30 Hz and gamma-range (30-45 Hz during isometric compensation of low-level forces. It is still unknown to what extent the synchronization processes in these frequency ranges can coexist or influence each other when the static component only is modulated in a dynamic stimulation pattern. We investigated the corticomuscular coherence (CMC, as well as the cortical spectral power (SP during a visuomotor task, where 8%, 16% and 24% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC were used. Seven healthy right-handed female subjects compensated isometrically the different dynamic forces with their right index finger. EEG was recorded from 52 scalp positions and belly-tendon bipolar EMG from the first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI. Under the three conditions investigated, the beta- and gamma-range CMC existed in parallel. They behaved in a different manner: while the beta-range coherence increased linearly during higher force application, the gamma-range CMC was not significantly modulated by the force levels. Our results suggest that although gamma-range CMC is functionally associated to the isometric compensation of dynamic forces, broad beta-range CMC can fulfill functions of motor control simultaneously different when low-level forces are applied.

  10. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  11. Environmental Assessment Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, low-level and mixed waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0843, for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level and mixed waste processing. The original proposed action, as reviewed in this EA, was (1) to incinerate INEL`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF); (2) reduce the volume of INEL generated low-level waste (LLW) through sizing, compaction, and stabilization at the WERF; and (3) to ship INEL LLW to a commercial incinerator for supplemental LLW volume reduction.

  12. Source-term development for commercial low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generic source terms base don historical data have been developed for commerical low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) from fuel-cycle and non-fuel-cycle facilities. These source terms are used in DOE's Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program to estimate historical and projected volumes, radioactivity, and thermal power (from radioactive decay) of LLRW to the year 2020. Periodically, the source terms are updated as new waste is generated and as information on older waste is reviewed, redefined, and upgraded by the generator. Other segments of the nuclear industry also use source terms in planning for waste treatment, transportation, and storage systems. Several uses of source terms are illustrated. For example, the reported volume and radioactivity of LLRW added annually to commerical burial sites are compared with the calculated annual values obtained by summing contributions based on source terms for each generator. Likewise, accumulative radioactivity and thermal power of buried LLRW obtained by using an average source term and a synthesis of individual source terms are compared. 6 refs., 8 figs, 5 tabs

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development

  14. Low-level radwaste engineering economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This topical report on engineering economics for low-level radwaste systems details the methodologies used for economic analyses of radwaste treatment systems and provides examples of radwaste economic evaluations. All of the parameters and cost items used in an evaluation are defined. Examples of the present-value-of-revenue-requirements method, levelized-revenue-requirements method, and the equivalent-capital-investment method are provided. Also, the calculation to determine the maximum justifiable capital expenditure for a radwaste system is illustrated. The report also provides examples of economic evaluations for many current radwaste treatment options. These options include evaporation versus demineralization, dewatering resins versus solidification of resins, and several volume reduction systems. 15 figures, 6 tables

  15. Draft low level waste technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information

  16. Marine transportation for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As each Japanese nuclear power plant is located on the seaside, the marine transportation is the most suitable way to carry safely various types of radioactive materials. Nuclear Fuel Transport Co. (NFT) is to be in charge of the marine transportation of the spent fuel and the low level radioactive waste (LLW) from the nuclear power plants to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in 'Rokkasho Mura' including land transportation. The urgent LLW transportation is scheduled to be commenced at the end of 1992 and NFT has already been providing the necessary transport means; an exclusive use vessel, a bridge type crane, transport packages, etc. NFT puts a great emphasis on 'the concept of safe transport' in developing a new transport system. This concept has been implemented in the design of mechanical structure, radiation shieldings and automation systems. (author)

  17. R and D ERL: Low level RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superconducting RF (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is currently under development at the Collider-Accelerator Department (C-AD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The major components from an RF perspective are (a) a 5-cell SRF ERL cavity, (b) an SRF photocathode electron gun, and (c) a drive laser for the photocathode gun. Each of these RF subsystems has its own set of RF performance requirements, as well as common requirements for ensuring correct synchronism between them. A low level RF (LLRF) control system is currently under development, which seeks to leverage both technology and experience gained from the recently commissioned RHIC LLRF system upgrade. This note will review the LLRF system requirements and describe the system to be installed at the ERL.

  18. Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF6) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and open-quotes otherclose quotes. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF6 conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992

  19. Soil gas surveying at low-level radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Moor, K.S.; Hull, L.C. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1989-11-01

    Soil gas sampling is a useful screening technique for determining whether volatile organic compounds are present at low-level radioactive waste burial sites. The technique was used at several DOE sites during the DOE Environmental Survey to determine the presence and extent of volatile organic compound contamination. The advantages of the soil gas sampling are that near real time data can be obtained, no excavation is required, safety concerns are relatively minor, costs are relatively low, and large amounts of data can be obtained rapidly on the contaminants that may pose the greatest threat to groundwater resources. The disadvantages are that the data are difficult to interpret and relate to soil concentrations and environmental standards. This paper discusses the experiences of INEL sampling and analysis personnel, the advantages and disadvantages of the technique, and makes recommendations for improving the sampling and analytical procedures.

  20. Mechanisms of low level light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova, Tatiana N.

    2006-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In particular a biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect than higher levels. This introductory review will cover some of the proposed cellular chromophores responsible for the effect of visible light on mammalian cells, including cytochrome c oxidase (with absorption peaks in the near infrared) and photoactive porphyrins. Mitochondria are thought to be a likely site for the initial effects of light, leading to increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species and induction of transcription factors. These effects in turn lead to increased cell proliferation and migration (particularly by fibroblasts), modulation in levels of cytokines, growth factors and inflammatory mediators, and increased tissue oxygenation. The results of these biochemical and cellular changes in animals and patients include such benefits as increased healing in chronic wounds, improvements in sports injuries and

  1. Secondary Low-Level Waste Treatment Strategy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this analysis is to identify and review potential options for processing and disposing of the secondary low-level waste (LLW) that will be generated through operation of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). An estimate of annual secondary LLW is generated utilizing the mechanism established in ''Secondary Waste Treatment Analysis'' (Reference 8.1) and ''Secondary Low-Level Waste Generation Rate Analysis'' (Reference 8.5). The secondary LLW quantities are based on the spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) arrival schedule as defined in the ''Controlled Design Assumptions Document'' (CDA) (Reference 8.6). This analysis presents estimates of the quantities of LLW in its various forms. A review of applicable laws, codes, and standards is discussed, and a synopsis of those applicable laws, codes, and standards and their impacts on potential processing and disposal options is presented. The analysis identifies viable processing/disposal options in light of the existing laws, codes, and standards, and then evaluates these options in regard to: (1) Process and equipment requirements; (2) LLW disposal volumes; and (3) Facility requirements

  2. LABORATORY DIRECTED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ANNUAL REPORT TO THE DOE - DECEMBER 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOX,K.J.

    2001-12-01

    Brookhaven National (BNL) Laboratory is a multidisciplinary laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy. BNL's total annual budget has averaged about $450 million. There are about 3,000 employees, and another 4,500 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 4 13.2, ''Laboratory Directed Research and Development,'' March 5, 1997, and the LDRD Annual Report guidance, updated February 12, 1999. The LDRD Program obtains its funds through the Laboratory overhead pool and operates under the authority of DOE Order 4 13.2. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new ''fundable'' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research ''which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions'' for the Laboratory. As one of the premier scientific laboratories of the DOE, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and long-term vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community and foster new science and technology ideas

  3. LABORATORY DIRECTED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ANNUAL REPORT TO THE DOE - DECEMBER 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhaven National (BNL) Laboratory is a multidisciplinary laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy. BNL's total annual budget has averaged about$450 million. There are about 3,000 employees, and another 4,500 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 4 13.2, ''Laboratory Directed Research and Development,'' March 5, 1997, and the LDRD Annual Report guidance, updated February 12, 1999. The LDRD Program obtains its funds through the Laboratory overhead pool and operates under the authority of DOE Order 4 13.2. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new ''fundable'' R and D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research ''which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions'' for the Laboratory. As one of the premier scientific laboratories of the DOE, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and long-term vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community and foster new science and technology ideas, which becomes a major factor in achieving and maintaining staff excellence

  4. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and

  5. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  6. Conditioning characterization of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been carried out in the radioactive waste management laboratory Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. The main purpose of this work is method development for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid waste in order to improve radiation protection level in the country. For that purpose a liquid radioactive material containing Cs-137 was treated using the developed method. In the method different type of materials (cement, sands, concrete..etc) were tested for absorption of radiation emitted from the source as well as suitability of the material for storage for long time. It was found that the best material to be used is Smsmia concrete. Where the surface dose reduced from 150 to 3μ/h. Also design of storage container was proposed (with specification: diameter 6.5 cm, height 6 cm, placed in internal cylinder of diameter 10.3 cm, height 12.3 cm) and all are installed on the concrete and cement in the cylinder. Method was used in the process of double-packaging configuration. For more protection it is proposed that a mixed of cement to fill the void in addition to the sand be added to ensure low amount of radiation exposure while transport or storage. (Author)

  7. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a β-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10-12 input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10-12 to 10-9 input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses

  8. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O.

    1965-03-15

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a {beta}-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10{sup -12} input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -9} input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses.

  9. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  10. Dielectric Properties of Low-Level Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. E. Lagos; M. A. Ebadian

    1998-10-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop a data collection containing values for the dielectric properties of various low-level liquid waste (LLLW) simulants measured as a function of frequency, temperature, and composition. The investigation was motivated by current interest in the use of microwave processing for the treatment of radioactive waste. A large volume of transuranic liquid and sludge produced by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) during the production of nuclear fiel bars is stored at several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites around the United States. Waste storage and disposal space is scarce, expensive, and must be minimized. Thus, several DOE sites are pursuing the use of microwave heating as a means of achieving volume reduction and solidification of low-level liquid wastes. It is important to know which microwave frequencies should be employed tc achieve the most efficient processing at a range of different temperatures. The dielectric properties of the LLLW simulants can be utilized to determine the optimum frequencies for use with a particular LLLW or with other LLLWS of similar composition. Furthermore, nonlinear thermal processes, such as thermal runaway, which occur in the material being treated cannot be modeled without a knowledge of the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties. Often, this data does not exist; however, when it does, only very limited data near room temperature are available. The data collection generated in this study can be used to predict the behavior of a variety of microwave thermal treatment technologies, which have the potential of substantially reducing the volume of the LLLWS that are currently stored at many DOE sites. This information should help the users of the microwave reduction and solidification technology to optimize microwave processes used in the treatment of LLLW. The microwave reduction and solidification technology has clear advantages over other methods of reducing LLLWS. These

  11. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  12. A low-level radioactive waste disposal facility siting simulation exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facilities. This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation consists of two sessions: in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred site is chosen from three suitable candidate sites. Several workshops involving the simulation have been conducted for persons involved in the planning of LLW management activities. The simulation is useful as (a) a training tool, (b) a vehicle to foster communication, and (c) a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The siting simulation is now available through the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in the development of LLW disposal facilities

  13. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  14. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations)

  15. An update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, P.L.; Barker, R.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office

    1993-03-01

    This paper gives an overview and update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada. To provide a relevant perspective, Canadian data are compared with US data on annual waste arisings and with disposal initiatives of the US compacts and states. Presented also is an assessment of the data and its implications for disposal solutions in Canada.

  16. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth report submitted to Congress under section 5(d)(2)(E)(ii)(II) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1985 (the Act). This section of the Act directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to summarize the annual expenditures of funds disbursed from the DOE surcharge escrow account and to assess compliance of these expenditures with the limitations specified in the Act. In addition to placing limitations on the use of these funds, the Act also requires the nonsited compact regions and nonmember States to provide DOE with an itemized report of their expenditures on December 31 of each year in which funds are expended. Within 6 months after receiving the individual reports, the Act requires the Secretary to furnish Congress with a summary of the reported expenditures and an assessment of compliance with the specified usage limitations. This report fulfills that requirement. DOE disbursed funds totaling $15,037,778.91 to the States and compact regions following the July 1, 1986, January 1, 1988, and January 1, 1990, milestones specified in the Act. Of this amount, $3,517,020.56 was expended during calendar year 1991 and $6,602,546.24 was expended during the prior 5 years. At the end of December 1991, $4,918,212.11 was unexpended. DOE has reviewed each of the reported expenditures and concluded that all reported expenditures comply with the spending limitations stated in section 5(d)(2)(E)(i) of the Act

  17. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fifth report submitted to Congress under Title 1, section 5(d)(2)(E) of Public Law 99--240, ''The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985'' (the Act). This section of the Act requests the Department of Energy (DOE) to summarize the annual expenditures of funds disbursed from the DOE surcharge escrow account and to assess compliance of these expenditures with the specified limitations. The Act places limitations on the use of these funds and requires the nonsited compact regions and nonmember States to provide DOE with an itemized report of their expenditures on December 31 of each year in which funds are expended. Within 6 months after receiving the individual reports, DOE is to furnish Congress a summary of the reported expenditures and an assessment of compliance with the limitations on the use of these funds specified in the Act. This report fulfills that requirements. DOE disbursed funds totaling $15,006,587.76 to the States and compact regions following the July 1, 1986, January 1, 1988, and January 1, 1990, milestones. Of this amount, $4,328,340.44 was expended during calendar year 1990 and $2,239,205.80 was expended during the prior 4 years. At the end of December 1990, $8,439,041.52 was unexpended. 5 tabs

  18. Low-level waste management - suggested solutions for problem wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problem wastes are those wastes which are difficult or require unusual expense to place into a waste form acceptable under the requirements of 10 CFR 61 or the disposal site operators. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been investigating the use of various solidification agents as part of the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for several years. Two of the leading problem wastes are ion exchange resins and organic liquids. Ion exchange resins can be solidified in Portland cement up to about 25 wt % resin, but waste forms loaded to this degree exhibit significantly reduced compressive strength and may disintegrate when immersed in water. Ion exchange resins can also be incorporated into organic agents. Mound Laboratory has been investigating the use of a joule-heated glass melter as a means of disposing of ion exchange resins and organic liquids in addition to other combustible wastes

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, L.K. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part II: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part 2: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change

  1. New study sees greater low-level radiation threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new analysis of Energy Department medical records has found higher than expected cancer rates among workers at DOE's Hanford nuclear weapons plant, suggesting occupational exposure to low-level radiation may be more dangerous than previously thought. The study, released Tuesday by the Philadelphia-based Three Mile Island Public Health Fund, is important not only because of its controversial conclusions, but also because it represents the first independent review of DOE's long-secret worker medical records. The new study done by Stewart and Kneale looked at Hanford worker health records dating up to 1986 - part of a huge trove of data withheld by DOE from independent researchers until two years ago. In their re-analysis of the Hanford worker records, Stewart and Kneale found increased cancer rates among older workers who were over 40 years of age when exposed. And they said that increased susceptibility of older people to radiation-induced cancer was not reflected in the highly influential Japanese atomic bomb studies because people over 50 years of age were open-quotes grossly under-representedclose quotes in the A-bomb analyses, possibly because many bomb victims suffered early deaths from high doses

  2. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management

  3. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power DOE operations annual site environmental report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, R.J. [ed.

    1997-11-10

    Rocketdyne currently operates several facilities in the San Fernando Valley/Simi Valley area, for manufacturing, testing, and research and development (R and D). These operations include manufacturing liquid-fueled rocket engines, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and engines used for expendable launch vehicles used to place artificial satellites into orbit. This work includes fabrication and testing of rocket engines, lasers, and heat-transfer systems; and R and D in a wide range of high-technology fields, such as the electrical power system for the Space Station. Previously, this work also included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials, under the Atomics International Division (AI). AI was merged into Rocketdyne in 1984 and many of the AI functions were transferred to existing Rocketdyne departments. This nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. The majority of this work is done for the Department of Energy (DOE). This Annual Site Environmental Report for 1996 concentrates on the environmental conditions related to DOE operations at Area IV of SSFL and at De Soto.

  4. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power DOE operations annual site environmental report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocketdyne currently operates several facilities in the San Fernando Valley/Simi Valley area, for manufacturing, testing, and research and development (R and D). These operations include manufacturing liquid-fueled rocket engines, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and engines used for expendable launch vehicles used to place artificial satellites into orbit. This work includes fabrication and testing of rocket engines, lasers, and heat-transfer systems; and R and D in a wide range of high-technology fields, such as the electrical power system for the Space Station. Previously, this work also included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials, under the Atomics International Division (AI). AI was merged into Rocketdyne in 1984 and many of the AI functions were transferred to existing Rocketdyne departments. This nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. The majority of this work is done for the Department of Energy (DOE). This Annual Site Environmental Report for 1996 concentrates on the environmental conditions related to DOE operations at Area IV of SSFL and at De Soto

  5. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power DOE Operations annual site environmental report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, K.S. [ed.

    1998-11-23

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test sites operated in the Los Angeles area by Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power of Boeing North American, Inc. These are identified as Area 4 of the SSFL and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for research and development (R and D), engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields primarily in energy research and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site had research and development laboratories involved with nuclear research. This work was terminated in 1995 and only D and D activities will have potential for impact on the environment. Since 1956, Area 4 has been used for work with nuclear materials, including fabricating nuclear reactor fuels, testing nuclear reactors, and dissembling used fuel elements. This work ended in 1988 and subsequent efforts have been directed toward decommissioning and decontamination of the former nuclear facilities. The primary purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring of DOE-sponsored activities to the regulatory agencies responsible for oversight. Information presented here concentrates on Area 4 at SSFL, which is the only area at SSFL where DOE operations were performed.

  6. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power DOE Operations annual site environmental report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test sites operated in the Los Angeles area by Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power of Boeing North American, Inc. These are identified as Area 4 of the SSFL and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for research and development (R and D), engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields primarily in energy research and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site had research and development laboratories involved with nuclear research. This work was terminated in 1995 and only D and D activities will have potential for impact on the environment. Since 1956, Area 4 has been used for work with nuclear materials, including fabricating nuclear reactor fuels, testing nuclear reactors, and dissembling used fuel elements. This work ended in 1988 and subsequent efforts have been directed toward decommissioning and decontamination of the former nuclear facilities. The primary purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring of DOE-sponsored activities to the regulatory agencies responsible for oversight. Information presented here concentrates on Area 4 at SSFL, which is the only area at SSFL where DOE operations were performed

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ``Physical and Technological Research.`` The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics.

  9. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: disposal volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northeastern states, with support of the Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG), are developing compact(s) for the disposal and management of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in the eleven northeastern states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont). The Technical Subcommittee has made a projection of future low-level radioactive waste to the year 2000 based on existing waste volume data and anticipated growth in the Northeast states. Aware of the difficulties involved with any long range projection - unforeseen events can drastically change projections based on current assumptions - the Technical Subcommittee believes that waste volume projections should be reviewed annually as updated information becomes available. The Technical Subcommittee made the following findings based upon a conservative projection methodology: volumes of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states individually and collectively are expected to grow continually through the year 2000 with the rate of increase varying by state; by the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 58,000 m3 of low-level waste annually, about 1.9 times the current average; and based on current estimates, 47% of the total projected waste volume in the year 2000 will be produced by nuclear power plants, compared to the current average of 54%. Non-reactor wastes will equal 53% of the total in the year 2000 compared to the current 46%

  10. Low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed fin 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive material (RAM) transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the US DOE National Transportation Program (NTP). Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events involving low-level waste (LLW) that have occurred in the US for the period 1971 through 1996. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents, and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred. Where information is available, accident and incident history and package response for LLW packages in transportation accidents will be described

  11. Overview of management of low level radioactive wastes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Canada, the programme for the management of low level radioactive wastes is one of continued reliance on interim storage methods while putting in place the policies, regulations and technologies for the transition to permanent disposal which should begin early in the 1990s. The Canadian regulatory authority has issued a policy statement on the objectives, requirements and guidelines for the disposal of radioactive wastes and has proposed a basis for the identification of a de minimis category. The regulations impose a maximum annual risk of 10-6 and are directed at minimizing the burden placed on future generations as well as protecting human health and the environment. Several conceptual and site specific repositories have been designed and evaluated by the major producers in Canada. Proposals for the disposal of uranium contaminated wastes, which comprise the majority of the existing inventory, encountered strong public opposition to suggested sites. This led to the formation of a federal task force which has recommended a community driven siting process. Little opposition has been evident, however, to the operation of most of the existing storage sites for the wastes continuing to arise from the nuclear industry. Processing and storage techniques are being further developed to improve their efficiency. Also, funding for the construction of the first prototype disposal vault has been committed. (author). 22 refs, 1 tab

  12. Costs of mixed low-level waste stabilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection of final waste forms to be used for disposal of DOE's mixed low-level waste (MLLW) depends on the waste form characteristics and total life cycle cost. In this paper the various cost factors associated with production and disposal of the final waste form are discussed and combined to develop life-cycle costs associated with several waste stabilization options. Cost factors used in this paper are based on a series of treatment system studies in which cost and mass balance analyses were performed for several mixed low-level waste treatment systems and various waste stabilization methods including vitrification, grout, phosphate bonded ceramic and polymer. Major cost elements include waste form production, final waste form volume, unit disposal cost, and system availability. Production of grout costs less than the production of a vitrified waste form if each treatment process has equal operating time (availability) each year; however, because of the lower volume of a high temperature slag, certification and handling costs and disposal costs of the final waste form are less. Both the total treatment cost and life cycle costs are higher for a system producing grout than for a system producing high temperature slag, assuming equal system availability. The treatment costs decrease with increasing availability regardless of the waste form produced. If the availability of a system producing grout is sufficiently greater than a system producing slag, then the cost of treatment for the grout system will be less than the cost for the slag system, and the life cycle cost (including disposal) may be less depending on the unit disposal cost. Treatment and disposal costs will determine the return on investment in improved system availability

  13. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  14. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance objectives included in regulations for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61 for commercial waste and DOE Order 5820.2 for defense waste) are generic principles that generate technical requirements which must be factored into each phase of the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility. These phases include a determination of the quantity and characteristics of the waste, selection of a site and appropriate facility design, use of sound operating practices, and closure of the facility. The collective experience concerning shallow land burial operations has shown that achievement of the performance objectives (specifically, waste isolation and radionuclide containment) requires a systems approach, factoring into consideration the interrelationships of the phases of facility development and operation and their overall impact on performance. This report presents the technical requirements and procedures for the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility for low-level radioactive waste. The systems approach is embodied in the presentation. The report is not intended to be an instruction manual; rather, emphasis is placed on understanding the technical requirements and knowing what information and analysis are needed for making informed choices to meet them. A framework is developed for using the desired site characteristics to locate potentially suitable sites. The scope of efforts necessary for characterizing a site is then described and the range of techniques available for site characterization is identified. Given the natural features of a site, design options for achieving the performance objectives are discussed, as are the operating practices, which must be compatible with the design. Site closure is presented as functioning to preserve the containment and isolation provided at earlier stages of the development and operation of the facility

  15. Plans for managing greater-than-glass C low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level waste is defined in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Title I, Public Law 99-240) as radioactive waste that is neither high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, nor by-product material (mill tailings). This paper presents proposed plans for the Department of Energy to fulfill its responsibility to dispose of GTCC LLW under the 1985 law, and to ensure that safe options are available for long-term management of such, pending the availability of disposal capacity. In the absence of a concentration-based definition for high-level waste, there currently is no upper bound for the concentration of radionuclides in low-level waste. DOE's plans for managing and disposing of GTCC LLW are generally consistent with a report issued by the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment in October 1988, An Evaluation of Options for Managing Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste

  16. Proposed low-level radioactive waste handling building at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Building at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. As a result of the high energy physics program at Fermilab, small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes are generated. These wastes are collected, sorted and packaged for shipment to an off-site disposal facility in Hanford, Washington. The proposed project includes the construction of a new building to house, all low-level radioactive waste handling operations. The building would provide workspace for five full-time workers. The proposed project would improve the efficiency and safety of the low-level radioactive waste handling at Fermilab by upgrading equipment and consolidating operations into one facility.

  17. Status of low-level radioactive waste requirements development in the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level radioactive waste in accordance with the policies, guidelines and requirements specified in DOE Order 5820.2A, 'Radioactive Waste Management', issued in 1988. Since that time, DOE has reorganized its waste management programs, instituted new policies with emphasis on environmental protection, safety and health protection, and strengthened the management of hazardous waste. An evaluation of DOE Order 5820.2A has shown the need to revise the Order in light of recent organizational and operational policies. In addition, the Order should be more comprehensive, clarify organizational responsibilities, and be more compatible with similar Federal regulations. A revision could also integrate recent interim guidance for management of low-level waste (LLW), such as determination of material as radioactive waste, management of naturally-occurring radioactive material, use of commercial disposal facilities, and the management of special case waste that is unique to DOE. (author)

  18. Operational and regulatory impacts of regional management on transportation of commercial low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 96th Congress of the United States, as part of the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-573), instructed the Secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a report on the current US low-level waste management situation and the conditions and requirements for management on a regional basis. The Transportation Technology Center has compared the transportation requirement and regional management scenarios for commercial low-level radioactive waste in support of the DOE response to this instruction. Using 1979 low-level waste volumes shipped to commercial burial grounds and six management regions postulated by DOE, transportation requirements were estimated and compared for the two management scenarios in terms of cumulative shipping distance and transportation cost. Effects of these results on the demand for transportation services and equipment and on population risks were considered. Finally, current regulatory issues and the potential effects of regional management on regulation of low-level waste transportation were reviewed

  19. Low-Level Waste Forum notes and summary reports for 1994. Volume 9, Number 2, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    This is a publication of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants. The topics of the publication include DOE policy, state concerns and activities, court hearings and decisions, federal agency activities, US NRC waste management function reorganization, low-level radioactive waste storage and compaction, and US NRC rulemaking and hearings.

  20. Low-Level Waste Forum notes and summary reports for 1994. Volume 9, Number 2, April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a publication of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants. The topics of the publication include DOE policy, state concerns and activities, court hearings and decisions, federal agency activities, US NRC waste management function reorganization, low-level radioactive waste storage and compaction, and US NRC rulemaking and hearings

  1. A probability-based approach to setting annual catch levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Shertzer, Kyle W.; Prager, Michael H.; Williams, Erik H.

    2008-01-01

    The requirement of setting annual catch limits to prevent overfishing has been added to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006 (MSRA). Because this requirement is new, a body of applied scientific practice for deriving annual catch limits and accompanying targets does not yet exist. This article demonstrates an approach to setting levels of catch that is intended to keep the probability of future overfishing at a preset low level. The proposed fra...

  2. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power. DOE Operations Annual Site Environmental Report, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, K. S. [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1998-11-23

    This .Annual Site Environmental Report for 1997 concentrates on the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory) (SSFL) and De Soto facilities. In the past. these operations included development. fabrication. and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel and other radioactive materials, under the Atomics International Division (AI). Other activities included the operation of large scale liquid metal facilities for the testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). a government owned company operated, test facility within Area IV. .AI was merged into Rocketdyne in 1981 and many of the AI functions were transferred to existing Rocketdyne departments. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently. all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large scale D&D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996.

  3. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  4. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behaviour of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behaviour of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  5. Low-Level and High-Level Microarray Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Microarray data analysis involves low-level and high-level analysis.The low-level analysis focuses on how to get accurate and precisegene expression data. The analysis built on gene expression data isthe high-level analysis such as differential gene expressionanalysis, SFP detection, eQTL analysis and so on. This thesisfocuses on applications in both low-level and high-level analysis.In the low-level analysis, the proposed L-GCRMA method combines theadvantage of the GCRMA model and the Langmu...

  6. A nationwide low-level waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Governors' Association, in conjunction with the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program, invited various representatives of states, regions, and federal agencies to comment on their perceptions of what major features would constitute a nationwide low-level waste management system. Three meetings were conducted and this report summarizes results of those meetings. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 placed primary responsibility on the states for disposal of low-level waste. Although initial efforts of states have been directed toward establishing compacts, it is evident that a successful long term system requires significant cooperation and communication among states, regions, federal agencies, and Congress

  7. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  8. Management of low level wastes at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), after start-up of the commercial operation, radioactive wastes will be generated. Wastes generated from a reprocessing plant generally consist of many kinds of characteristics in view of ''activity level'', ''nuclide composition'', ''chemical properties'', ''physical properties'', and so on. For stable operation of a reprocessing plant, we should treat, ''condition'' and ''dispose'' these wastes considering these wastes characteristics. To contribute to the nuclear fuel cycle project, it is important to evaluate technologies such as, ''Treatment'', ''Conditioning'' and ''Final Disposal'', not only for technical but also for economical aspects. Considering the final disposal in the future, the basic policy in ''Treatment'' and ''Conditioning'' at RRP is shown below: Recover and reuse chemicals (such as nitric acid and TBP, etc.) in plant; Radioactive waste shall be divided, classified and managed according to activity level, nuclide composition, the radiation level, its physical properties, chemical properties, etc.; Treat them based on ''classification'' management with proper combination; Condition them as intermediate forms in order to keep flexibility in the future disposal method; Original volume of annually generated wastes at RRP is estimated as 5600m3 except highly radioactive vitrified waste, and these wastes shall be treated in the following units, which are now under commisioning, in order to reduce and stabilize wastes. Low-level concentrated liquid waste to be treated with a ''Drying and peptization'' unit; Spent solvent to be treated with a ''Pyrolysis and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; Relatively low-level non-alfa flammable wastes to be treated with a ''Incineration and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; CB/BP (Channel Box and Burnable Poison) to be processed with a ''Cutting'' unit; Other wastes to be kept as their generated state with a ''Intermediate storage''. As a result of these treatments

  9. Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

  10. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. The circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW

  11. Hanford low-level waste process chemistry testing data package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) among the State of Washington Department of Ecology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the cleanup of the Hanford Site was renegotiated. The revised agreement specifies vitrification as the encapsulation technology for low level waste (LLW). A demonstration, testing, and evaluation program underway at Westinghouse Hanford Company to identify the best overall melter-system technology available for vitrification of Hanford Site LLW to meet the TPA milestones. Phase I is a open-quotes proof of principleclose quotes test to demonstrate that a melter system can process a simulated highly alkaline, high nitrate/nitrite content aqueous LLW feed into a glass product of consistent quality. Seven melter vendors were selected for the Phase I evaluation: joule-heated melters from GTS Duratek, Incorporated (GDI); Envitco, Incorporated (EVI); Penberthy Electomelt, Incorporated (PEI); and Vectra Technologies, Incorporated (VTI); a gas-fired cyclone burner from Babcock ampersand Wilcox (BCW); a plasma torch-fired, cupola furnace from Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC); and an electric arc furnace with top-entering vertical carbon electrodes from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM)

  12. Mind-sets, low-level exposures, and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of our environmental policy is based on the notion that carcinogenic agents are harmful at even minuscule doses. From where does this thinking come? What is the scientific evidence that supports such policy? Moreover, why is the public willing to buy into this? Or is it the other way around: Has the scientific community bought into a paradigm that has its origins in public imagery? Or, most likely, are there interactions between the two? It is essential that we find out whether or not there are risks associated with low-level exposures to radiation. The author can see three obvious areas where the future depends on better information: The increasing radiation exposures resulting from the use of medical diagnostic and therapeutic practices need to be properly evaluated for safety; Environmental policies, which direct enormous resources to the reduction of small radiation exposures, needs to be put on a firmer scientific basis; The future of nuclear energy, dependent as it is on public acceptance, may well rely upon a better understanding of low-dose effects. Nuclear energy could provide an important solution of global warming and other possible environmental hazards, but will probably not be implemented as long as fear of low-dose radiation persists. Although an established paradigm has great resilience, it cannot resist the onslaught of inconsistent scientific observations or of the social value system that supports it. Only new research will enable us to determine if a paradigm shift is in order here

  13. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20)

  14. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  15. The management of mixed low-level radioactivewaste in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of investigations sponsored by the nuclear power industry, the definition of mixed low-level radioactive waste (mixed waste) in the industry is clarified. A methodology for estimating the annual generation rate of mixed waste is presented and its application to a typical nuclear power plant is illustrated. Effective management practices to minimize the generation of mixed waste are described and strategies to deal with unavoidable mixed waste are identified

  16. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders

  17. Responses to the low-level-radiation controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-10-07

    Some data sets dealing with the hazards of low-level radiation are discussed. It is concluded that none of these reports, individually or collectively, changes appreciably or even significantly the evaluations of possible low-level radiation effects that have been made by several authoritative national and international groups. (ACR)

  18. The semi-empirical low-level background statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A semi-empirical low-level background statistics was proposed. The one can be applied to evaluated the sensitivity of low background systems, and to analyse the statistical error, the 'Rejection' and 'Accordance' criteria for processing of low-level experimental data. (author). 5 refs, 1 figs

  19. Low-Level Plutonium Bioassay Measurements at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Brown, T; Hickman, D; Marchetti, A; Williams, R; Kehl, S

    2007-06-18

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) are important alpha emitting radionuclides contained in radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing. {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu are long-lived radionuclides with half-lives of 24,400 years and 6580 years, respectively. Concerns over human exposure to plutonium stem from knowledge about the persistence of plutonium isotopes in the environment and the high relative effectiveness of alpha-radiation to cause potential harm to cells once incorporated into the human body. In vitro bioassay tests have been developed to assess uptakes of plutonium based on measured urinary excretion patterns and modeled metabolic behaviors of the absorbed radionuclides. Systemic plutonium absorbed by the deep lung or from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion is either excreted or distributed to other organs, primarily to the liver and skeleton, where it is retained for biological half-times of around 20 and 50 years, respectively. Dose assessment and atoll rehabilitation programs in the Marshall Islands have historically given special consideration to residual concentrations of plutonium in the environment even though the predicted dose from inhalation and/or ingestion of plutonium accounts for less than 5% of the annual effective dose from exposure to fallout contamination. Scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a state-of-the-art bioassay test to assess urinary excretion rates of plutonium from Marshallese populations. This new heavy-isotope measurement system is based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system at LLNL far exceeds the standard measurement requirements established under the latest United States Department of Energy (DOE) regulation, 10CFR 835, for occupational monitoring of plutonium, and offers several advantages over classical as well as competing new technologies for low-level detection and measurement of plutonium isotopes. The United States

  20. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is submitted in response to Title 1 of the 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, (the Act). The report summarizes expenditures made by compact regions and unaffiliated states during calendar year 1995 of surcharge rebates from the July 1, 1986, January 1, 1988, and January 1, 1990, milestones, and the January 1, 1993, deadline. Section 5(d)(2)(A) of the Act requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to administer a surcharge escrow account. This account consists of a portion of the surcharge fees paid by generators of low-level radioactive waste in nonsited compact regions (compact regions currently without disposal sites) and nonmember states (states without disposal sites that are not members of compact regions) to the three sited states (states with operating disposal facilities--Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington) for the use of facilities in sited states through the end of 1992. In administering the surcharge escrow account, the Act requires DOE to: (1) Invest the funds in interest-bearing United States Government securities with the highest available yield; (2) Determine eligibility for rebates of the funds by evaluating compact region and state progress toward developing new disposal sites against the milestone requirements set forth in the Act; (3) Disburse the collected rebates and accrued interest to eligible compact regions, states, or generators; (4) Assess compliance of rebate expenditures in accordance with the conditions and limitations prescribed in the Act; and (5) Submit a report annually to Congress summarizing rebate expenditures by state and compact region and assessing the compliance of each such state or compact region with the requirement for expenditure of the rebates as provided in section 5(d)(2)(E) of the Act

  1. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Fluor Hanford, Inc. will implement the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, as the requirements relate to the continued operation of the low-level waste disposal facilities on the Hanford Site. DOE Order 435.1 requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) of a low-level waste disposal facility. The objective of this Order is to ensure that all DOE radioactive waste is managed in a manner that protects the environment and personnel and public health and safety. The manual (DOE Order 435.1 Manual) implementing the Order states that a disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility. In fulfillment of the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds. The disposal authorization statement constitutes approval of the performance assessment and composite analysis, authorizes operation of the facility, and includes conditions that the disposal facility must meet. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds be written and approved by the DOE-RL. The monitoring plan is to be updated and implemented within 1 year following issuance of the disposal authorization statement to

  2. Intelligent Low-level RF System by Non-destructive Beam Monitoring Device for Cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Malafeh, M S Sharifi Asadi; Afarideh, H; Chai, J S

    2015-01-01

    The project of a10MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF suitable for Most of the AVF cyclotron accelerators was designed by the beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, for the RF phase detection does not need to signal processing by microcontroller

  3. Intelligent low-level RF system by non-destructive beam monitoring device for cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Asadi Malafeh, M. S.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Afarideh, H.; Chai, J. S.; Yoon, Sang Kim

    2016-04-01

    The project of a 10 MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of the cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work an Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF, suitable for most AVF cyclotron accelerators, is designed using a beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, the RF phase detection does not need signal processing by a microcontroller.

  4. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventh report submitted to Congress in accordance with section 5(d)(2)(E)(ii)(II) of Title I--Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act). This section of the Act directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to summarize the annual expenditures of funds disbursed from the DOE surcharge escrow account and to assess compliance of these expenditures with the limitations specified in the Act. In addition to placing limitations on the use of these funds, the Act also requires the nonsited compact regions and nonmember States to provide DOE with an itemized report of their expenditures on December 31 of each year in which funds are expended. Within 6 months after receiving the individual reports, the Act requires the Secretary to furnish Congress with a summary of the reported expenditures and an assessment of compliance with the specified usage limitations. This report fulfills that requirement. DOE disbursed funds totaling $15,037,778.91 to the States and compact regions following the July 1, 1986, January 1, 1988, and January 1, 1990, milestones specified in the Act. Of this amount, $1,445,701.61 was expended during calendar year 1992 and $10,026,763.87 was expended during the prior 6 years. At the end of December 1992, $3,565,313.43 was unexpended. DOE has reviewed each of the reported expenditures and concluded that all reported expenditures comply with the spending limitations stated in section 5(d)(2)(E)(i) of the Act

  5. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  6. Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group was made up of individuals from various waste generating industries, environmental and public interest groups, medical and academic institutions, and affected state agencies. This final report document contains the following staff project reports: Proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, February 1983 and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in Massachusetts - Actions to be Considered for Implementation in 1984-1986, December 1983. These two staff reports represent the completion of the Massachusetts Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. The first report provides some of the background material to the issues and some of the alternative courses of action which can be considered by state policy-makers. The second report provides the next phase in the process by delineating specific steps which may be taken before 1986 in order to address the low-level waste problem, and the estimated amount of time needed to complete each step

  7. Low-level radioactive material information management system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) has designed and tested a monitoring system for reporting and tracking the movement of low-level radioactive waste from generator through transporter or broker to disposal site. This demonstration project has been an attempt to show the feasibility of a system with wider regional and national scope. In conjunction with the development of this closed-loop system, a low-level waste generators' survey has been conducted in 10 pilot states to collect, analyze and present low-level waste data for state management purposes. These states are Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia

  8. The treatment of low-level waste at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program at Mound Laboratory to handle low-level radioactive waste has two major objectives: 1) to design a volume reduction system for low-level combustible waste, both solid and liquid, and 2) to develop separation methods for removing radionuclides from liquid waste, both, low-level and intermediate-level. The result of the former effort is the Cyclone Incinerator which provides a volume reduction of >35:1. In meeting the latter objective, ultrafiltration has been demonstrated to be a feasible way of reducing the generation of secondary waste. Development of such techniques will significantly reduce waste management costs in the nuclear industry

  9. Low-level radioactive waste activities in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1982, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority began the process for the selection, construction, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Texas. The statute creating the Authority is a very comprehensive law which calls for the orderly completion of a step-by-step process in the development of the disposal facility. The organization of the Authority and its use of external resources, both professional organizations and citizens groups, are functioning extremely well in the performance of the Authority's objectives. Continued success will lead to the development and operation of a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas prior to 1988

  10. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  11. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-09-12

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  12. Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness. Part 2. Ecological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 38 reports for this Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. This part dealt with research conducted in the ecological sciences

  13. Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness. Part 2. Ecological Sciences. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1982-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 38 reports for this Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. This part dealt with research conducted in the ecological sciences.

  14. Issues in performance assessments for disposal of US Department of Energy low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have long been pioneers in the field of radiological performance assessment (PA). Much effort has been expended in developing technology and acquiring data to facilitate the assessment process. This is reflected in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management Chapter III of the Order lists policy and requirements to manage the DOEs low-level waste; performance objectives for low-level waste management are stated to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. A radiological PA is also required to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. DOE Order 5820.2A further requires that an Oversight and Peer Review Panel be established to ensure consistency and technical quality around the DOE complex in the development and application of PA models that include site-specific geohydrology and waste composition. The DOE has also established a Performance Assessment Task Team (PATT) to integrate the activities of sites that are preparing PAs. The PATT's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to DOE on issues that impact PAs so that the approaches taken are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex

  15. Development of a low-level radon reference chamber; Entwicklung einer Low-Level-Radon-Referenzkammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzmaier, Diana

    2013-01-04

    The naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas radon-222 exists worldwide in different activity concentrations in the air. During the decay of radon-222, decay products are generated which are electrically charged and attach to aerosols in the air. Together with the aerosols, the radon is inhaled and exhaled by humans. While the radon is nearly completely exhaled, ca. 20 % of the inhaled aerosols remain in the lungs in one breath cycle. Due to ionizing radiation, in a chain of events, lung cancer might occur. Consequently, radon and its decay products are according to the current findings the second leading cause of lung cancer. At the workplace and in the home measurements of radon activity concentration are performed to determine the radiation exposition of humans. All measurement devices for the determination of radon activity concentration are calibrated above 1000 Bq/m{sup 3}, even though the mean value of the present investigation in Germany shows only 50 Bq/m{sup 3}. For the calibration of measurement devices in the range below 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} over a long time period, the generation of a stable reference atmosphere is presented in this work. Due to a long term calibration (t>5 days) of the measurement devices, smaller uncertainties result for the calibration factor. For the calibration procedure, a so-called low-level radon reference chamber was set up and started operation. The generation of a stable reference atmosphere is effected by means of emanation sources which consist of a radium-226 activity standard. On the basis of {gamma}-spectrometry, the effective emanation coefficient ofthe emanation sources is determined. The traceability of the activity concentration in the reference volume is realized via the activity ofthe radium-226, the emanation coefficient and the volume. With the emanation sources produced, stable reference atmospheres within the range of 150 Bq/m{sup 3} to 1900 Bq/m{sup 3} are achieved. For the realization, maintenance and

  16. Low level cloud motion vectors from Kalpana-1 visible images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inderpreet Kaur; S K Deb; C M Kishtawal; P K Pal; Raj Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Till now low-level winds were retrieved using Kalpana-1 infrared (IR) images only. In this paper, an attempt has been made to retrieve low-level cloud motion vectors using Kalpana-1 visible (VIS) images at every half an hour. The VIS channel provides better detection of low level clouds, which remain obscure in thermal IR images due to poor thermal contrast. The tracers are taken to be 15 × 15 pixel templates and hence each wind corresponds to about 120km × 120km at sub-satellite point. Multiplet based wind retrieval technique is followed for VIS wind derivation. However, for height assignment of VIS winds, collocated IR image is used. Due to better contrast between cloud and ocean surface, the low level atmospheric flow is captured better as compared to IR winds. The validation of the derived VIS winds is done with Global Forecast System (GFS) model winds and Oceansat-II scatterometer (OSCAT) winds.

  17. Conflict resolution in low-level waste facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting a low-level waste facility is only one part of the low-level waste management process. But it is a crucial part, a prism that focuses many of the other issues in low-level waste management. And, as the 1990 and 1992 milestones approach, siting has a urgency that makes the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) techniques especially appropriate, to avoid protracted and expensive litigation and to reach creative and durable solutions. Drawing upon literature in the ADR field, this paper discusses ADR techniques as they apply to low-level waste management and the groundwork that must be laid before they can be applied. It also discusses questions that can arise concerning the terms under which negotiations are carried out. The paper then give suggestions for achieving win/win negotiations. Potential objections to negotiated agreements and potential answers to those objections are reviewed, and some requisites for negotiation are given

  18. Use of segregation techniques to reduce stored low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of segregation techniques in reducing the stored Low Level Waste on Intermediate Waste Repository 1, at Angra Nuclear Power Plant Site, from 1701 to 425 drums of compacted waste. (author)

  19. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options

  20. Low-Level Radioactive Waste siting simulation information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a simulation exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The siting simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, can involve 14-70 participants (or more), and requires approximately eight hours to complete. The exercise is available for use by states, regional compacts, or other organizations for use as part of the planning process for low-level waste disposal facilities. This information package describes the development, content, and use of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation. Information is provided on how to organize a workshop for conducting the simulation. 1 ref., 1 fig

  1. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made

  2. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  3. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  4. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied

  5. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  6. Environmental assessment for the treatment of Class A low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste generated by the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating low-level radioactive waste management alternatives at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located on the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York. The WVDP's mission is to vitrify high-level radioactive waste resulting from commercial fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the WNYNSC from 1966 to 1972. During the process of high-level waste vitrification, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MILLW) will result and must be properly managed. It is estimated that the WVDP's LLW storage facilities will be filled to capacity in 1996. In order to provide sufficient safe storage of LLW until disposal options become available and partially fulfill requirements under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the DOE is proposing to use U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed and permitted commercial facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Clive, Utah; and Houston, Texas to treat (volume-reduce) a limited amount of Class A LLW and MLLW generated from the WVDP. Alternatives for ultimate disposal of the West Valley LLW are currently being evaluated in an environmental impact statement. This proposed action is for a limited quantity of waste, over a limited period of time, and for treatment only; this proposal does not include disposal. The proposed action consists of sorting, repacking, and loading waste at the WVDP; transporting the waste for commercial treatment; and returning the residual waste to the WVDP for interim storage. For the purposes of this assessment, environmental impacts were quantified for a five-year operating period (1996 - 2001). Alternatives to the proposed action include no action, construction of additional on-site storage facilities, construction of a treatment facility at the WVDP comparable to commercial treatment, and off-site disposal at a commercial or DOE facility

  7. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves

  8. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr. [Vista Research, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves.

  9. Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this.

  10. Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this

  11. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 to assist states and compacts in their siting and licensing efforts for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) is the element of the DOE that performs the key support activities under the Act. The NLLWMP's activities are driven by the needs of the states and compacts as they prepare to manage their low-level waste under the Act. Other work is added during the fiscal year as necessary to accommodate new requests brought on by status changes in states' and compacts' siting and licensing efforts. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during FY 1997

  12. Environment, safety and health at DOE facilities. Annual report, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE has set forth its basic environmental, safety, and health policy and program requirements in Order DOE 5480.1, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for DOE Operations. Additional orders address specific areas within the ES and H programs. The program was established to protect the health and safety of approximately 132,000 contractor employees, the general public, DOE property which has a replacement value of about $66 billion, and the natural environment from harm that could result from DOE operations. This report is a review of the 1982 environmental, safety, and health performance for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) federal contractor operations, as presented by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Safety, and Environment. 26 figures, 8 tables

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development.

  15. Illinois perspective on low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illinois is a big generator of low level radioactive waste. It has had extensive experience with controversial waste disposal and storage facilities. This experience makes it difficult for the public and political leaders in Illinois to support the establishment of new disposal facilities in the state. Yet, with extensive debates and discussions concerning the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the proposed Midwest Compact, political leaders and the public are facing up to the fact that they must be responsible for the disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in the state. The Governor and many political leaders from Illinois support the regional approach and believe it can be an innovative and progressive way for the state to deal with the range of low level waste management and disposal problems. A version of the Midwest Interstate Low Level Waste Compact has become Illinois law, but it has significant differences from the one adopted by five other states. Like other states in the midwest and northeast, Illinois is opposed to Congressional consent of the four pending compacts before the remaining two compacts, the northeast and midwest are sent to Washington and interregional agreements are negotiated between the sited and non-sited regions. A new national system must be established before access to existing commercial disposal becomes restricted

  16. Low-level radioactive waste regulation: Science, politics and fear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inevitable consequence of the use of radioactive materials is the generation of radioactive wastes and the public policy debate over how they will be managed. In 1980, Congress shifted responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from the federal government to the states. This act represented a sharp departure from more than 30 years of virtually absolute federal control over radioactive materials. Though this plan had the enthusiastic support of the states in 1980, it now appears to have been at best a chimera. Radioactive waste management has become an increasingly complicated and controversial issue for society in recent years. This book discusses only low-level wastes, however, because Congress decided for political reasons to treat them differently than high-level wastes. The book is based in part on three symposia sponsored by the division of Chemistry and the Law of the American Chemical Society. Each chapter is derived in full or in part from presentations made at these meetings, and includes: (1) Low-level radioactive wastes in the nuclear power industry; (2) Low-level radiation cancer risk assessment and government regulation to protect public health; and (3) Low-level radioactive waste: can new disposal sites be found

  17. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rates, depths, erosion potential, increased subsurface transport rates, and annual exceedance probability for potential flooding scenarios have been evaluated for the on-site alternatives of Idaho National Laboratory's proposed remote handled low-level waste disposal facility. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of flood impacts are required to meet the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE-O 435.1), its natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95), and the Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) guidance in addition to being required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental assessment (EA). Potential sources of water evaluated include those arising from (1) local precipitation events, (2) precipitation events occurring off of the INL (off-site precipitation), and (3) increased flows in the Big Lost River in the event of a Mackay Dam failure. On-site precipitation events include potential snow-melt and rainfall. Extreme rainfall events were evaluated for the potential to create local erosion, particularly of the barrier placed over the disposal facility. Off-site precipitation carried onto the INL by the Big Lost River channel was evaluated for overland migration of water away from the river channel. Off-site precipitation sources evaluated were those occurring in the drainage basin above Mackay Reservoir. In the worst-case scenarios, precipitation occurring above Mackay Dam could exceed the dam's capacity, leading to overtopping, and eventually complete dam failure. Mackay Dam could also fail during a seismic event or as a result of mechanical piping. Some of the water released during dam failure, and contributing precipitation, has the potential of being carried onto the INL in the Big Lost River channel. Resulting overland flows from these flood sources were evaluated for their

  18. Alternative methods for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Volume 3. Task 2b: technical requirements for aboveground vault disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 2b (Technical Requirements for Aboveground Vault Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste) of a four-task study entitled ''Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities.'' The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available potential license applicants. The above-ground vault disposal alternative is one of several methods that may be proposed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. In this report, the term aboveground vault refers to an engineered structure with roof, walls and floor enclosing the disposal space. The limited experience and knowledge gained with this method are described and updated in this report. The short term experience does not conclusively demonstrate the capability of this method to satisfy the Part 61 Performance Objectives. A generic description of the features and components and operation of an aboveground vault disposal facility is provided. Features and components that could enhance the long-term performance are described. The applicability of existing criteria developed for near-surface disposal (10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D) to the aboveground vault disposal method, as assessed in Task 1, are reassessed herein. With few exceptions, these criteria were found to be applicable in the reassessment. These conclusions differ slightly from the Task 1 findings. 22 refs., 5 figs

  19. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste: The elastic waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for disposal of greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). A recent DOE study projects that some 3,240 cubic meters of GTCC LLW will be generated through 2035. As important as the projection, however, are the caveats about the uncertainties involved in the projection. GTCC LLW is labeled the elastic waste stream, not because of characteristics of the waste, but because legal interpretations and regulatory policies will have a major affect on the volume of waste ultimately considered GTCC LLW. For the past several years, DOE has implemented a three-phase strategy for implementing its responsibilities for GTCC LLW. Under the strategy, DOE would provide for interim storage of GTCC LLW that poses a potential threat to public health and safety, would plan for a dedicated storage system that would accept GTCC LLW on a less restricted basis, and would plan for eventual disposal of the waste. Based on information developed by the GTCC LLW over the past several years, the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management and the Idaho Operations Office have directed that the program reassess whether this is the most effective strategy to meet DOE's responsibilities under the Act

  20. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Julio C Rojas1,2, F Gonzalez-Lima1 1Departments of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; 2Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Low-level light therapy (LLLT using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic revolution spearheaded by LLLT is largely propelled by progress in the basic science fields of photobiology and bioenergetics. This paper describes the mechanisms of action of LLLT at the molecular, cellular, and nervous tissue levels. Photoneuromodulation of cytochrome oxidase activity is the most important primary mechanism of action of LLLT. Cytochrome oxidase is the primary photoacceptor of light in the red to near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is also a key mitochondrial enzyme for cellular bioenergetics, especially for nerve cells in the retina and the brain. Evidence shows that LLLT can secondarily enhance neural metabolism by regulating mitochondrial function, intraneuronal signaling systems, and redox states. Current knowledge about LLLT dosimetry relevant for its hormetic effects on nervous tissue, including noninvasive in vivo retinal and transcranial effects, is also presented. Recent research is reviewed that supports LLLT potential benefits in retinal disease, stroke, neurotrauma, neurodegeneration, and memory and mood disorders. Since mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in neurodegeneration, LLLT has potential significant applications against retinal and brain damage by counteracting the consequences of mitochondrial failure. Upon transcranial delivery in vivo, LLLT induces brain metabolic and antioxidant beneficial effects, as measured by increases in cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Increases

  1. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part four of the PNL Annual Report for 1990 includes research in physical sciences. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases in the following areas: Dosimetry Research; Measurement Science; Radiological and Chemical Physics; Radiation Dosimetry; Radiation Biophysics; and Modelling Cellular Response to Genetic Damage. (FL)

  3. Low-dose glyphosate does not control annual bromes in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bromes (downy brome and Japanese brome) have been shown to decrease perennial grass forage production and alter ecosystem functions in northern Great Plains rangelands. Large-scale chemical control might be a method for increasing rangeland forage production if low application rates confer co...

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.; Stults, B.R.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    Part four of the PNL Annual Report for 1990 includes research in physical sciences. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases in the following areas: Dosimetry Research; Measurement Science; Radiological and Chemical Physics; Radiation Dosimetry; Radiation Biophysics; and Modelling Cellular Response to Genetic Damage. (FL)

  5. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  6. Low Level Laser Therapy: A Panacea for oral maladies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Vartika; Kalra, Gauri

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To review the applications of low level laser therapy on various soft and hard oral tissues. A variety of therapeutic effects of Low Level Laser Therapy have been reported on a broad range of disorders. It has been found amenably practical in dental applications including soft as well as hard tissues of the oral cavity. LLLT has been found to be efficient in acceleration of wound healing, enhanced remodelling and bone repair, regeneration of neural cells following injury, pain attenuation, endorphin release stimulation and modulation of immune system. The aforementioned biological processes induced by Low level lasers have been effectively applied in treating various pathological conditions in the oral cavity. With is article, we attempt to review the possible application of Low Laser Therapy in the field of dentistry. PMID:26557737

  7. Shallow ground burial of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes are presented for adoption throughout Australia, a continent in which there are readily available areas in arid, sparsely inhabited places, likely to be suitable as sites for shallow ground burial. Drawing upon overseas practices and experiences, criteria have been developed for low-level waste disposal and are intended to be applicable and relevant to the Australian situation. Concentration levels have been derived for a shallow ground burial facility assuming a realistic institutional control period of 200 years. A comparison is made between this period and institutional control for 100 years and 300 years. Longer institutional control periods enable the acceptance of higher concentrations of radionuclides of intermediate half-lives. Scenarios, which have been considered, include current Australian pastoral practices and traditional Aboriginal occupancy. The derived radionuclide concentration levels for the disposal of low level wastes are not dissimilar to those developed in other countries. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  9. Compilation of costs for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our goal was to provide a complete accounting of costs incurred to date an projected through disposal facility life cycle pursuant to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). To help achieve this goal, a study was conducted to determine (1) how much the United States has spent and will spend on the development of new low-level radioactive (LLW) disposal capacity; and (2) how much other countries, specifically Finland, France, Spain, and Sweden have spent to develop and operate their LLW disposal facilities. The results are published in an Office of Policy Planning (OPP) document (1)

  10. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. The US Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program is directed toward a coordinated program covering the period from low-level radioactive waste generation through the decommissioning of the disposal site. This paper addresses the treatment portion of the program. The development efforts include: mechanical methods for metal and compactible waste volume reduction; incineration of trash or other combustibles through the use of controlled air, cyclone, or molten glass furnaces; ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, biological or chemical destruction of nitrates; adsorption treatment of low-concentration aqueous waste streams; combustion of organic liquids; and smelting of metal wastes to reduce their volume and conserve our natural resources. (author)

  11. Successfully burying low-level waste for fun and profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of Washington, now receiving more than half the nation's waste, is here to provide a practical review of the benefits of having a low-level waste disposal site and to provide our perspective on how the state of Washington carries out its responsibilities through regulation of that disposal site. This information is offered in the hope that it may be useful to other states when they accept their responsibility to provide for the disposal of their low-level radioactive waste. The 1980 Low-Level Waste Policy Act very directly gave the responsibility for finding and developing new waste disposal capacity to the states. Through the process of compacting, the states have begun to accept this responsibility. From Washington's perspective, however, the progress shown to date, especially in some states generating very large amounts of waste, has not been adequate to meet the 1986 deadline

  12. Radiation Protection Research: Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 1999 are reported. Particular emphasis is SCK-CEN's contribution to the EULEP-EURADOS Action Group on 'Derivation of parameter values for application in the new model of the human respiratory tract for occupational exposure'.

  13. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E. (comps.)

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop.

  14. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC

  15. Development of a low-level Ar-37 calibration standard

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, R M; Bowyer, T W; Day, A R; Fuller, E S; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoppe, E W; Humble, P H; Keillor, M E; LaFerriere, B D; Mace, E K; McIntyre, J I; Miley, H S; Myers, A W; Orrell, J L; Overman, C T; Panisko, M E; Seifert, A

    2016-01-01

    Argon-37 is an environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level Ar-37 standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in developing a process to generate and quantify low-level Ar-37 standards, which can be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. This paper presents a discussion of the measurement analysis, along with assumptions and uncertainty estimates.

  16. A robotic inspector for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy has low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at several facilities. Weekly visual inspections are required. A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed to survey and inspect the stored drums. The robot will travel through the three- foot wide aisles of drums stacked four high and perform a visual inspection, normally performed by a human operator, making decisions about the condition of the drums and maintaining a database of pertinent information about each drum. This mobile robot system will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure.

  17. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Low-level radioactive wastes bituminization - ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the research and development of low level radioactive waste treatment by bituminization process in Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN). Low level radioactive solid waste was simulated by mixed ion exchange resin. Cation exchange and anion resin were loaded with lithium and boric acid respectively and were incorporated in bitumen of suitable rheological properties. The simulated solid wastes incorporated in bitumen were 30 to 46 weight %. The rheological properties of waste product bitumen-mixed resin have been reported. The waste product with bitumen V-65 showed best physical and rheological properties and grave lowest leaching rates of boron and lithium. (author)

  19. Depleted uranium determination at the Novi Sad low level facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural uranium determination in environmental samples at the low-level gamma-spectroscopy laboratory of the Faculty of Science in Novi Sad has more than 20 years long tradition. When the issue of depleted uranium emerged the experimental advantages of the measuring equipment (GMX type of HPGe detector with enhanced efficiency below 100 keV, and iron low level shielding) where fully exploited. A detection technique selective for depleted uranium was developed. The details of this method together with the results for about 100 samples (soil, plants, water, food) are presented, and discussed. (author)

  20. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  1. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop

  2. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed

  3. Low-level radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Canada, all low-level radioactive wastes are presently stored. The wastes are classified into two major categories, that is, historic wastes for which the original generator/producer can no longer be held responsible and for which the federal government has assumed residual management responsibility, and ongoing wastes, which are the responsibility of the present waste producers. This paper will present the approach being taken for the management of each class of waste and will also briefly discuss the community-based, cooperative and consultative approach being used to find sites for the long-term management/disposal of historic low-level radioactive wastes

  4. Low-level waste injury: liability, insurance, and indemnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It would be worth developing compatible policies to address the issues involving third-party liabilities which remain unanswered before the different states and interstate compact agreements implementing the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act develop a range of approaches. A plan that draws resources from a number of states would have economic and technological benefits, and could help ensure public confidence in the management of low level radioactive wastes. Interstate cooperation and coordination to produce such a plan would benefit from a Congressional mandate. An appendix arranged alphabetically by state illustrates the range of immunity/waiver, insurance, and limits that already exist

  5. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  6. External guard counters for low-level counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high background reduction that has been obtained with a low-level Ge-crystal counting system with external, rather than internal, guard counters is analyzed. It is shown that this arrangement eliminates not only the muon component of the cosmic rays, but also a large part of the secondary gamma radiation it produces in the passive shield and therefore gives a much higher background reduction than the conventional arrangement with the guard system inside the main passive shield. The implication of this result for low-level counting is discussed with special reference to gas proportional counting systems used for radiocarbon dating. (orig.)

  7. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: revised waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste generated in the eleven Northeast states has undergone significant change since the inital 1982 analysis and projection. These revised projections incorporate improved data reporting and evidence of sharp declines in certain categories of waste. Volumes in the 1982-1983 period reflect waste shipped for disposal as reported by disposal site operators. Projected waste volumes represent waste intended for disposal. The recent dramatic changes in source reduction and waste management practices underscore the need for annual review of waste volume projections. The volume of waste shipped for off-site disposal has declined approximately 12% in two years, from an average 1,092,500 ft3 annually in 1979 to 1981 to an average annual 956,500 ft3 in 1982 to 1983; reactor waste disposal volumes declined by about 39,000 ft3 or 7% during this period. Non-reactor waste volumes shipped for disposal declined by over 70,000 ft3 or 15% during this period. The data suggest that generators increased their use of such management practices as source reduction, compaction, or, for carbon-14 and tritium, temporary storage followed by disposal as non-radioactive waste under the NRC de minimus standard effective March 1981. Using the Technical Subcommittee projection methodology, the volume of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states, individually and collectively, is expected to increase through the year 2000, but at a significantly lower rate of increase than initially projected. By the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 1,137,600 ft3 of waste annually, an increase of about 20% over 1982 to 1983 average volume

  8. DOE [Department of Energy]-Nuclear Energy Standards Program annual assessment, FY 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the objectives of the programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This standards program is carried out in accordance with the principles in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980. The purposes of this effort, as set forth in three subtasks, are to (1) manage the NE Standards Program, (2) manage the development and maintenance of NE standards, and (3) operate an NE Standards Information Program. This report assesses the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) activities in terms of the objectives of the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) funded programs. To meet these objectives, PAPO administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This task is carried out in accordance with the principles set forth in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980, and DOE memorandum, Implementation of DOE Orders on Quality Assurance, Standards, and Unusual Occurrence Reporting for Nuclear Energy Programs, March 3, 1982, and with guidance from the DOE-NE Technology Support Programs. 1 tab. (JF)

  9. DOE Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report of Packaging- and Transportation-related Occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) is an interactive computer system designed to support DOE-owned or -operated facilities in reporting and processing information concerning occurrences related to facility operations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been charged by the DOE National Transportation Program Albuquerque (NTPA) with the responsibility of retrieving reports and information pertaining to packaging and transportation (P and T) incidents from the centralized ORPS database. These selected reports are analyzed for safety concerns, trends, potential impact on P and T operations, and ''lessons learned'' in P and T safety. To support this analysis and trending, the Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) was established by the NTPA in fiscal year (FY) 1998. Its chief goal is to augment historical reporting of occurrence-based information by providing (1) management notification of those incidents that require attention, (2) an accurate picture of contractors' P and T-related performance, and (3) meaningful statistics on occurrences at particular sites, including comparisons among different contractor sites and between DOE and the private sector. This annual report contains information on those P and T-related occurrences reported to the ORPS during the period from October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000. Only those incidents that occur in preparation for transport, during transport, and during unloading of hazardous material are considered as packaging- or transportation-related occurrences

  10. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  11. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  12. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  13. Evaluating public involvement in the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy contracted with the Keystone Center to evaluate the effectiveness of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program's public-involvement efforts. The Center chose six evaluators with diverse training and experience related to low-level waste management and public-participation programs. Keystone's evaluation was based on (a) observations by the evaluators who attended the National Program-sponsored strategy review meetings and fairs; (b) interviews with low-level waste generators, local government officials, state legislators, public-interest groups, and members of the general public; and (c) observations of the final National Program strategy task force meeting. The evaluators concluded that, overall, the public-participation processes yielded some very positive results - for policy development and for DOE and the EG and G staff. They judged the strategy document to be complete, concise, and helpful to public dialogue on low-level waste issues. They also made specific recommendations for improvements to the public-participation program

  14. United States Department of Energy defence low level waste classification: Basis and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the revision of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2, Chapter III, a process for developing a site specific low level radioactive waste (LLW) classification system for DOE defence LLW is being considered. Waste classification is a mechanism that can help ensure that overall performance objectives established to protect public health and ensure public safety will be met. The DOE follows the guidance of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) to the fullest extent practicable with respect to radiation protection standards. The NCRP endorses most of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Thus, the DOE has adopted ICRP 30 and ICRP 48 as the basis for all internal dose calculations. For LLW management practices, the DOE is requiring equivalence with US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. However, system-wide classification will be less practical for the DOE than the NRC because of dissimilarities of waste mixtures and disposal methods between DOE sites. Site specific waste stream characterization, source term determination and radiological performance assessment will be required for DOE disposal facilities to determine the maximum disposal capacity and the most efficient disposal practices for defence LLW. This process will also demonstrate compliance with the overall performance objectives, thus providing the public health and safety. The paper discusses the procedure that the DOE is considering in the development of a site and waste specific LLW classification system for DOE defence wastes. (author). 10 refs, 1 tab

  15. Low-level radioactive-waste-management handbook series: methods to decrease low-level-waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the methods of low-level waste generation by commercial nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, installations engaged in government-related nuclear activities, hospitals, universities, and research foundations that use nuclear materials for research, and industrial processors and users of radioactive materials is made by site visits and interviews. The literature on low-level waste is also reviewed to obtain documentation on preventive waste generation. Few unique developments or technological breakthroughs have been identified. The most significant waste-generation reduction results from systematic evaluation of waste generation factors throughout the facility. Methods of decreasing waste generation in terms of facility and equipment design, operation and maintenance, decontamination, and administrative controls are presented with cost/benefit relationships and examples of each method. Appendix A documents the need for decreased low-level waste generation. A bibliography is provided for each method discussed in the handbook

  16. MT DOE/EPSCoR planning grant. Annual technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Scruggs, V.L.

    1992-08-31

    The Montana DOE/EPSCoR planning process has made significant changes in the state of Montana. This is exemplified by notification from the Department of Energy`s Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (DOE/EPSCoR) recommendation to fund Montana`s 1992 graduate traineeship grant proposal in the amount of $500,000. This is a new award to Montana. DOE traineeship reviewers recognized that our planning grant enabled us to develop linkages and build the foundation for a competitive energy-related research and traineeship program in Montana. During the planning, we identified three major focus areas: Energy Resource Base, Energy Production, and Environmental Effects. For each focus area, we detailed specific problem areas that the trainees may research. We also created MORE, a consortium of industrial affiliates, state organizations, the Montana University System (MUS), tribal colleges, and DOE national laboratories. MORE and our state-wide Research and Education Workshop improved and solidified working relationships. We received numerous letters of support. DOE reviewers endorsed our traineeship application process. They praised the linkage of each traineeship with a faculty advisor, and the preference for teams of faculty members and two or more students. ``Particularly commendable`` were our programs to involve Native American educators and the ``leveraging effect`` of this on the human resources in the state. Finally, the DOE reviewers indicated that cost-sharing via support of Native Americans was creative and positive.

  17. MT DOE/EPSCoR planning grant. [Annual Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Scruggs, V.L.

    1992-08-31

    The Montana DOE/EPSCoR planning process has made significant changes in the state of Montana. This is exemplified by notification from the Department of Energy's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (DOE/EPSCoR) recommendation to fund Montana's 1992 graduate traineeship grant proposal in the amount of $500,000. This is a new award to Montana. DOE traineeship reviewers recognized that our planning grant enabled us to develop linkages and build the foundation for a competitive energy-related research and traineeship program in Montana. During the planning, we identified three major focus areas: Energy Resource Base, Energy Production, and Environmental Effects. For each focus area, we detailed specific problem areas that the trainees may research. We also created MORE, a consortium of industrial affiliates, state organizations, the Montana University System (MUS), tribal colleges, and DOE national laboratories. MORE and our state-wide Research and Education Workshop improved and solidified working relationships. We received numerous letters of support. DOE reviewers endorsed our traineeship application process. They praised the linkage of each traineeship with a faculty advisor, and the preference for teams of faculty members and two or more students. Particularly commendable'' were our programs to involve Native American educators and the leveraging effect'' of this on the human resources in the state. Finally, the DOE reviewers indicated that cost-sharing via support of Native Americans was creative and positive.

  18. Catalog of documents produced by the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalog provides a ready reference for documents prepared by the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste (GTCC LLW) Management Program. The GTCC LLW Management Program is part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP). The NLLWMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is responsible for assisting the DOE in meeting its obligations under Public Law 99-240, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. This law assigns DOE the responsibility of ensuring the safe disposal of GTCC LLW in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NLLWMP is managed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  19. Low level liquid scintillation analysis for environmental and biomedical quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past five years low level liquid scintillation counting has become increasing popular because of the large number of applications which can be performed using this technique. These applications include environmental monitoring (3H, 90Sr/90Y, etc.), radiocarbon dating (for age determination to 50,000 years), food adulteration studies (alcohol and beverage industries), radon monitoring (air/water), nuclear power plant monitoring (low level 3H) and metabolism studies (pharmaceutical research). These applications can be performed with either a dedicated low level LSC or using a standard liquid scintillation counter in conjunction with the new technique of time-resolved LSC (TR-LSC). This technique when used on a standard LSC reduces the instrument background without substantially effecting the background, thus increasing the performance (E2/B) of the LSC. Data will be presented for each of the applications mentioned above, comparing the standard LSC and the new TR-LSC techniques. The optimization of the samples for each of these applications will be explored in detail with experimental results. In conclusion, by using the TR-LSC technique in conjunction with a standard LSC the performance of the standard LSC can be increased substantially without dedicating the LSC to doing only low level samples

  20. Low level air radioactivity measurements in Prague, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rulík, P.; Malá, H.; Bečková, V.; Hölgye, Z.; Schlesingerová, E.; Světlík, Ivo; Škrkal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 67, - (2009), s. 969-973. ISSN 0969-8043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : atmospheric radionuclides * monitoring * low level activities Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.094, year: 2009

  1. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  2. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  3. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Low Level Laser Therapy for Patients with Cervical Disk Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Okuni, Ikuko; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Harada, Takashi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Ohshiro, Toshio; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Musya, Yoshiro

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic shoulder joint pain, elbow, hand and finger pain, and low back pain. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic neck pain.

  5. Commission administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one in a series of commission option documents prepared for the US Department of Energy, designed to assist regional low-level waste compact commissions in their organization, administration and efforts to effectively manage waste within their regions. In particular, this report addresses topics related to commission administrative procedures, personnel, procurement and finance

  6. Effects of low levels of radiation on humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of knowledge on effects of low-level ionizing radiations on humans is reviewed. Several problems relating to dose thresholds or lack of thresholds for several types of cancer and high LET radiations and the effects of fractionation and dose protection are discussed

  7. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most credible option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

  8. A Multicounter System for Scanning Ultra-Low-Level Radiochromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Theodorsson, P.

    1977-01-01

    A multicounter system consisting of an integrated array of flow counters for the scanning of ultra-low-level radioactivity on paper and thin-layer chromatograms was developed. Experience with routine measurements over a prolonged period has proved the advantages of this system over other systems...

  9. Low-level waste management at the Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general overview of low-level radioactive waste management at the Nuclear Investigation Centre (CIN) of Uruguay is presented. The CIN is a pilot centre of research and development of techniques for implementing measurements for radioactive waste storage and control. (M.C.K.)

  10. The storage center of very-low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low level radioactive wastes have a radioactivity level as same as the natural radioactivity. This wastes category and their storage has been taken into account by the french legislation. This document presents the storage principles of the site, containment, safety and the Center organization. (A.L.B.)

  11. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies

  12. On Low-level Cognitive Components of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    In this paper we analyze speech for low-level cognitive features using linear component analysis. We demonstrate generalizable component ‘fingerprints’ stemming from both phonemes and speakers. Phonemes are fingerprints found at the basic analysis window time scale (20 msec), while speaker...

  13. On Low-level Cognitive Components of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze speech for low-level cognitive features using linear component analysis. We demonstrate generalizable component 'fingerprints' stemming from both phonemes and speaker. Phonemes are fingerprints found at the basic analysis window time scale (20 msec), while speaker...

  14. Disposal of low-level mixed waste in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was created to provide disposal capacity for all low-level radioactive waste generated within the state of Texas. In the opinion of the Authority staff this legislative directive as well as the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act require that the Authority provide capacity for the disposal of low-level mixed waste. To accomplish this the Authority has met with representatives of the Bureau of Radiation Control, the Agreement State agency in Texas, and the Texas Water Commission, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-delegated agency for the state of Texas. These meetings have served to alert both agency's to some of the conflicting administrative procedures and to obtain guidance regarding an acceptable disposal unit design. The Authority used as a starting point the conceptual design which was agreed to by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency. This paper presents the results of the preliminary design effort for a mixed waste disposal unit for the Texas facility. This proposed design has not been reviewed by either of the licensing agencies involved and should not be considered as being approved by either agency

  15. Siting and engineering design activities for the development of the Texas low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a case study of the design of a landfill repository for low-level radioactive waste. Low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material that has a half-life of 35 years or less or that has less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics. Low-level radioactive waste does not include irradiated reactor fuel. About 70% of the waste that will be sent to the Texas facility will be low-level waste generated at the state's two nuclear power plants; the remainder will be low-level wastes generated in hospital and medical research facilities in Texas. The low-level wastes will be placed in steel-reinforced concrete canisters, which have a design life of 500 years. This landfill will not have a synthetic lining because this type of liner will not last for 500 years. This landfill will be located in an areas of the state that receives very little precipitation. The depth to groundwater at the site is 600-1,000 feet. The natural geology of the site will provide an excellent barrier between the waste and the groundwater. The landfill is being designed to receive low-level radioactive waste for 30 years

  16. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  17. Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee annual report: Summary of DOE hydrogen programs for FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FY 1988 Summary is the eleventh consecutive yearly report providing an overview of the hydrogen-related programs of the DOE offices represented on the HECC. A historical summary of the hydrogen budgets of these offices is given. The distribution by mission-related program element for FY 1988, and the non-mission-related activities are given. Total DOE funding in FY 1988 for mission-related hydrogen research was $5.2 million; DOE non-mission-related hydrogen research funding totaled $30.0 million. The individual program elements are described in the body of this report, and more specific program information is given in the Technology Summary Forms in Appendix A. 2 tabs

  18. Environmental assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico offsite transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) within the boundaries of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated by some of the activities performed at SNL/NM in support of the DOE. This report describes potential environmental effects of the shipments of low-level radioactive wastes to other sites

  19. Environmental assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico offsite transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) within the boundaries of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated by some of the activities performed at SNL/NM in support of the DOE. This report describes potential environmental effects of the shipments of low-level radioactive wastes to other sites.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempf, R.E. (ed.)

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE's long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE's contribution to the US Global Change Research

  1. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis for Low-Level Waste Generated at the Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a study that identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contact-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most credible options are selected after a systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. (authors)

  2. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  3. Neutron Multiplicity And Active Well Neutron Coincidence Verification Measurements Performed For March 2009 Semi-Annual DOE Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Analytical Development (AD) Section field nuclear measurement group performed six 'best available technique' verification measurements to satisfy a DOE requirement instituted for the March 2009 semi-annual inventory. The requirement of (1) yielded the need for SRNL Research Operations Department Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) group to measure the Pu content of five items and the highly enrich uranium (HEU) content of two. No 14Q-qualified measurement equipment was available to satisfy the requirement. The AD field nuclear group has routinely performed the required Confirmatory Measurements for the semi-annual inventories for fifteen years using sodium iodide and high purity germanium (HpGe) γ-ray pulse height analysis nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments. With appropriate γ-ray acquisition modeling, the HpGe spectrometers can be used to perform verification-type quantitative assay for Pu-isotopics and HEU content. The AD nuclear NDA group is widely experienced with this type of measurement and reports content for these species in requested process control, MC and A booking, and holdup measurements assays Site-wide. However none of the AD HpGe γ-ray spectrometers have been 14Q-qualified, and the requirement of reference 1 specifically excluded a γ-ray PHA measurement from those it would accept for the required verification measurements. The requirement of reference 1 was a new requirement for which the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Research Operations Department (ROD) MC and A group was unprepared. The criteria for exemption from verification were: (1) isotope content below 50 grams; (2) intrinsically tamper indicating or TID sealed items which contain a Category IV quantity of material; (3) assembled components; and (4) laboratory samples. Therefore all (SRNL) Material Balance Area (MBA) items with greater than 50 grams total Pu or greater than 50 grams HEU were subject to a verification measurement. The pass/fail criteria of

  4. GRABGAM: A Gamma Analysis Code for Ultra-Low-Level HPGe SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been developed for analysis of ultra-low-level HPGe gamma spectra. The code employs three different size filters for the peak search, where the largest filter provides best sensitivity for identifying low-level peaks and the smallest filter has the best resolution for distinguishing peaks within a multiplet. GRABGAM basically generates an integral probability F-function for each singlet or multiplet peak analysis, bypassing the usual peak fitting analysis for a differential f-function probability model. Because F is defined by the peak data, statistical limitations for peak fitting are avoided; however, the F-function does provide generic values for peak centroid, full width at half maximum, and tail that are consistent with a Gaussian formalism. GRABGAM has successfully analyzed over 10,000 customer samples, and it interfaces with a variety of supplementary codes for deriving detector efficiencies, backgrounds, and quality checks.

  5. Site selection handbook: Workshop on site selection for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide technical assistance to ''...those compact regions, host States and nonmember States determined by the Secretary to require assistance.'' Technical assistance has been defined to include, but not be limited to, ''technical guidelines for site selection.'' This site selection workshop was developed to assist States and Compacts in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in accordance with the requirements of the LLRWPAA. The workshop comprises a series of lectures, discussion topics, and exercises, supported by this Site Selection Workshop Handbook, designed to examine various aspects of a comprehensive site selection program. It is not an exhaustive treatment of all aspects of site selection, nor is it prescriptive. The workshop focuses on the major elements of site selection and the tools that can be used to implement the site selection program

  6. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ross, W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nakaoka, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schumacher, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Cunnane, J.; Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  7. Low-Level Legacy Waste Processing Experience at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents detailed results and lessons learned from the very challenging and highly successful 2005 low level radioactive waste sorting, packaging, and shipping campaign that removed over 95% of the available inventory of 350,000 ft3 of legacy low level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project near West Valley, New York. First some programmatic perspective and site history is provided to provide pertinent context for DOE's waste disposal mandates at the site. This is followed by a detailed description of the waste types, the storage locations, the containers, and the varied sorting and packaging facilities used to accomplish the campaign. The overall sorting and packaging protocols for this inventory of wastes are defined. This is followed by detailed sorting data and results concluding with lessons learned. (authors)

  8. New method to determine the decision threshold for low-level radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss a new method to determine the value of a decision threshold that can be used to decide whether to choose a one-sided confidence interval or a two-sided confidence interval. The method is based on the Feldman–Cousins unified approach providing a unique confidence region for estimated parameters. We apply this method to a net count rate measurand in low-level radioactivity measurements which is physically restricted to nonnegative values. We tabulate the values of the decision threshold and detection limit of the measurand for some typical coverage probabilities. The decision threshold in this method does indeed enable a decision on whether or not the physical effect quantified by the measurand is present. - Highlights: • A new method to determine decision threshold is discussed. • A net count rate in low-level measurements is analyzed. • The decision threshold enables a decision on the physical effect

  9. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available

  10. Development of a computerized data base for low-level waste leaching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized data base (db) of low-level waste (LLW) leaching data is being compiled by Brookhaven National Laboratory under contract to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program. Although this db is being compiled as part of an effort to develop accelerated leach test procedures for LLW forms, other involved in LLW management may find it useful. The db is implemented on an IBM PC XT and is self-contained in that its data manipulation and analysis programs are not proprietary (i.e., need not be purchased). The db includes data from the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program plus selected literature data, which have been selected based on criteria that include completeness of the experimental description and elucidation of leaching mechanisms. 6 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  12. Annual assessment of the DOE unusual occurrence reports program for FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (EH), Office of Safety Compliance funded programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers an unusual occurrence reporting (UOR) system program. The policy for this effort, as set forth in DOE Order 5000.3, Unusual Occurrence Reporting System, is that unusual occurrences be promptly reported, UORs be critically reviewed, and information of generic significance be disseminated to interested DOE organizational elements. This report presents an assessment of the DOE UOR program for FY 1988 and covers only the activities of the PAPO. There were 508 UORs processed during the year and these include Initial, Initial-Final, Interim, and Final reports. There was a total of 316 occurrences; therefore, the number of UORs processed was larger than the number of occurrences. There was a 12% decrease in UORs processed relative to FY 1987. There is a continuing trend of declining numbers of reported occurrences since FY 1984, and there was a 7% decrease in the number of occurrences in FY 1988 relative to FY 1987. Five operations offices issued 88% of the occurrences. The Operation Offices are Albuquerque (AL), Chicago (CH), Idaho (ID), Oak Ridge (OR), and Richland (RL). 3 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  13. ANNUAL REPORT. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY FOR MONITORING CORROSION IN SIMULATED DOE LIQUID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current report summarizes work performed on the project over the past calendar year (2001). The work concentrated on four areas: the fracture of AISI 4340 steel simulating weld heat affected zones in DOE liquid waste storage tanks, investigation of the passive state on nickel...

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  16. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Low level laser therapy in the treatment of aphthous ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common and painful ulcerative lesions of the oral cavity, but until now no cure has been recognized for it. Two patients diagnosed with minor RAS were treated in a single sitting with low level laser therapy using 940-nm diode laser. The lesions healed completely within 3-4 days and a follow-up for 1 showed no recurrence in these patients. According to the results of this study, low level laser therapy can decrease the healing time, pain intensity, size, and recurrence of the lesion in patients with minor RAS, and hence can be considered the most appropriate treatment modality for minor RAS, with greatest clinical effectiveness.

  18. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  19. Financing a new low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site has been licensed in the past decade. During the time, inflation has wreaked havoc on the costs for the labor, equipment, and buildings that will be necessary to develop and operate new sites. The regulatory environment has become much more complex with enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the recent issuance by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of a draft set of comprehensive regulations for land disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61). Finally, the licensing process itself has become much lengthier as both the site developers and regulators respond to the public's desire to be more involved in decisions that may affect their lives

  20. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, James Paul; Carboneau, Michael Leonard; Allred, William Edgar

    1999-03-01

    The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

  1. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.P. Adams; M.L. Carboneau; W.E. Allred

    1999-02-01

    The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

  2. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, A

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg sup - sup 1. The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author)

  3. Low-level RF control for the AFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limiting factor in the performance of the Los Alamos Advanced Free Electron Laser (AFEL) is the stability of the RF accelerating field. A high-performance low-level RF control system has been implemented that uses analog feedback and digital feed forward to regulate the RF field. This low-level RF control system has achieved long-term amplitude and phase stabilities better than ±0.25% and ±0.33 degree respectively. In order to improve the RF field stability further, a detailed system analysis and design is proceeding. Subsystem measurements are being used to model the system performance, predict the performance-limiting components, and determine possible improvements. Results to-date, modeling analyses, and suggested future improvements are presented

  4. Environment impact of a very low level waste specific landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating enrichment plants, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities will give rise to large volumes of waste material (concrete, steel and others metals, technological wastes heat insulators...) and most of them, in term of quantities, will be categorized as very low level wastes. This paper deals with the environmental impact of a specific landfill as a final destination for the very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) with the aim of providing technical elements for safer workers practices during the operational and the monitoring phases and for a public occupation after closure of the site. This study has been made on the basis of inventories in terms of estimated quantities and spectra of the French VLLW for a set of scenarios which are representative of practices in a landfill. (author)

  5. Tradescantia in studies of genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tradescantia in studies on genetic effects of low level radiation is briefly introduced. Radiosensitivity, method of screening stamen hair mutation, materials in current uses, spontaneous mutation rate, and modifying factors are refered. For stamen hair mutation b values in exponential model were lower in irradiation with low dose rate at high environmental temperature. The dose response curves under these modifying conditions, when extrapolated to low dose range, well fit to the line which was obtained by Sparrow's experiment of low level irradiation. In chronic irradiation, the frequency of stamen hair mutation reaches to the constant value after 17 days from the start of irradiation, and is as much as 4 times higher than the peak value in one day irradiation at the same exposure rate. The spontaneous mutation rate of KU-7 varied with temperature. The increase with 10C increment of mean temperature was -0.04%. Uses of Tradescantia in monitoring the environmental radiation is discussed. (auth.)

  6. A robotic inspector for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at several facilities. Weekly visual inspections are required. A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed to survey and inspect the stored drums. The robot will travel through the three-foot wide aisles of drums stacked four high and perform a visual inspection, normally performed by a human operator, making decisions about the condition of the drums and maintaining a database of pertinent information about each drum. This mobile robot system will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. 4 refs., 3 figs

  7. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg-1. The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author)

  8. New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Status Report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attridge, T.; Rapaport, S.; Yang, Qian

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generation in New York State for calendar year 1992. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority) and on data from the US Department of Energy. The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the seventh year generators have been required to submit reports on their waste to the Energy Authority. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are three sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, radioactivity and other characteristics of waste generated in 1992. Section 2 shows historical LLRW generation over the years and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 3 provides a list of all facilities for which 1992 LLRW reports were received.

  9. National procurement of private-sector treatment for U.S. Department of Energy mixed low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of bringing DOE into compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act may be dramatically reduced if the private sector treats DOE mixed low level waste. If the DOE clearly defines this market by using national procurement contracts, the private sector will be able to decide if investing in DOE waste treatment contracts is good business. DOE can structure the mixed waste treatment market to influence the profitability of the contracts and to influence the quality of private sector responses. National procurement contracts will incorporate advice from the private sector so that issues of concern to industry are adequately incorporated

  10. Low-level radioactivity measurements in an ocean shellfish matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference marine biological samples are necessary to test the performance of the analytical methods employed in surveying and monitoring radioactive materials in the sea. The measurement of artificial and natural radionuclide activity concentrations in ocean shellfish material by nondestructive ultra low-level γ-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory is reported. The material analysed, a composite material made of Irish Sea and White Sea mussel and Japan Sea oyster, was prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  11. Preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary assessments of the post-closure radiological impact from the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow engineered facilities at four sites are presented. This provides a framework to practice and refine a methodology that could be used, on behalf of the Department, for independent assessment of any similar proposal from Nirex. Information and methodological improvements that would be required are identified. (author)

  12. Target representation on an autonomous vehicle with low level sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Bicho, E.; Mallet, Pierre; Schöner, Gregor

    2000-01-01

    How can low-level autonomous robots with only very simple sensor systems be endowed with cognitive capabilities? Specifically, we consider a system that uses seven infrared sensors and five microphones to avoid obstacles and acquire sound targets. The cognitive abilities of the vehicle consist of representing the direction in which a sound source lies. This representation supports target detection, estimation of target direction, selection of one out of multiple-detected targets, storage of t...

  13. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  14. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for processing low level, light weight, bulky, combustible nuclear solid waste material comprising the steps of reacting said solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 deg - 300 deg C and simultaneously, subsequently, or both simultaneously and subsequently contacting said waste with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen oxides whereby carbonaceous material is oxidized to gaseous byproducts and a low volume residue. (author)

  15. Role of Low-Level Laser Therapy in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Javad T.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Osmani, Bushra Z.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Naeser, Margaret A.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the laser. The development of lasers for medical use, which became known as low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation, followed in 1967. In recent years, LLLT has become an increasingly mainstream modality, especially in the areas of physical medicine and rehabilitation. At first used mainly for wound healing and pain relief, the medical applications of LLLT have broadened to include diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarc...

  16. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on scar tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Carla; Melo, Cristina Argel de; Alexandrino, Ana Silva; Noites, Andreia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapy has a very important role in the maintenance of the integumentary system integrity. There is very few evidence in humans. Nevertheless, there are some studies about tissue regeneration using low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Aim: To analyze the effectiveness of LLLT on scar tissue. Methods: Seventeen volunteers were stratified by age of their scars, and then randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) — n = 9 – and a placebo group (PG) – n = 8. Fifteen sessions wer...

  17. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas JC; Gonzalez-Lima F

    2011-01-01

    Julio C Rojas1,2, F Gonzalez-Lima1 1Departments of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; 2Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Low-level light therapy (LLLT) using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic rev...

  18. Low-Level Laser Therapy Decreases Renal Interstitial Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Fabiana Aparecida Mayrink; Moraes, Ana Carolina Meneghin; Paiva, Amanda Povoa; Schinzel, Vânia; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Semedo, Patricia; Castoldi, Angêla; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Oliveira, Roberto Sotto-Maior Fortes; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2012-01-01

    Objective: the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Background data: Regardless of the etiology, CKD involves progressive widespread tissue fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and loss of kidney function. This process also occurs in kidney allograft. At present, effective therapies for this condition are lacking. We investigated the effects of LLLT on the interstitia...

  19. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Julio C Rojas1,2, F Gonzalez-Lima1 1Departments of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; 2Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Low-level light therapy (LLLT) using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic re...

  20. B Plant low level waste system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the report of the integrity assessment activities for the B Plant low level waste system. The assessment activities were in response to requirements of the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), 173-303-640. This integrity assessment report supports compliance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order interim milestone target action M-32-07-T03

  1. Low-level losses in ultraviolet laser window materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM); Ochoa, E.; Baumeister, P.

    1981-01-01

    The low-level insertion losses have been measured for uv grade CaF/sub 2/ and MgF/sub 2/ using the multipass reflectometer. These losses include surface absorption and surface losses as well as bulk absorption. Comparing our data with absorption measured by calorimetric methods indicates that insertion losses are dominated by surface effects and bulk properties play only a minor role.

  2. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  3. Interference control in low-level analysis of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work analyses the integration of several steps applied to control potentials sources of error in the determination of 129I and prevent spurious results in order to achieve the minimum detection limit. The procedure of pre and post-irradiation purification, neutron irradiation, radioactive counting and data analysis are needed. High resolution gamma spectrometry was used for detection and measurement of low level interferences. (author)

  4. Low-Level Burial Grounds Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage and/or disposal at the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  5. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going

  6. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards

  7. Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy in TMD Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Simel Ayyildiz; Faruk Emir; Cem Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) is one of the most recent treatment modalities in dentistry. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is suggested to have biostimulating and analgesic effects through direct irradiation without causing thermal response. There are few studies that have investigated the efficacy of laser therapy in temporomandibular disorders (TMD), especially in reduced mouth opening. The case report here evaluates performance of LLLT with a diode laser fo...

  8. Management of low-level radioactive wastes in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management system of low level radioactive wastes in Mexico is presented. The radioactive wastes are produced by medical institutions, research establishments and universities as well as in industry, clinics and laboratories. The National Institute of Nuclear Research is the organization responsible for managing these wastes. Mexico classifies its wastes in accordance with the IAEA recommendations. The system of collection and transport, the processes of treatment and the final storage of radioactive wastes, are described. (M.C.K.)

  9. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report's information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  10. Low-level measurements of tritium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a liquid scintillation counter, an experimental procedure for measuring low-level activity concentrations of tritium in environmental water has been developed by our laboratory, using the electrolytic tritium enrichment. Additionally, some quality tests were applied in order to assure the goodness of the method. Well-known water samples collected in the Tagus River (West of Spain) and the Danube River (Bulgaria), both affected by nuclear plant releases, were analysed and results were compared to previous data. The analytical procedure was applied to drinking water samples from the public water supply of Seville and mineral waters from different springs in Spain in order to characterize its origin. Due to the very low levels of tritium in the analysed samples, some results were reported as lower than the minimum detectable activity concentration (MDA). However, the count rate of these measurements was over the background count rate of LS counter in all the cases. For that reason, an exhaustive discussion about the meaning of the MDA, using an experimental essay, was made in order to establish a rigorous criterion that leads to a reliable value in the case of low-level measurements

  11. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental ampersand Regulatory Planning ampersand Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria

  12. Treatment of wet solid low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently low-level radioactive waste has caused much concern because of its long term impact on the environment. Most of the low-level radioactive waste is produced by nuclear power plants while a small fraction comes from medical applications, for example, radioactive isotopes. This waste exists in gas, liquid and solid forms. Research was carried out on wet solid low-level wastes, which were treated with polymeric materials. Their properties and applications were studied and evaluated. Wet solid radioactive wastes come from evaporated condensates produced by light-water reactors. The main component of boiling-water reactor waste is Na2SO4 and that of pressure-water reactor waste is H3BO3. Furthermore the spent ion exchange resin also constitutes a major portion of the solid radioactive waste. In this research, unsaturated polyesters, such as ETERSET 2565P and 2144 HCM, were employed to solidify the wastes; i.e. Na2SO4, Ca3(BO3)2.2H2O, cationic ion exchange resin Duolite ARA 9366 and anionic ion exchange resin Duolite ARC 9351. It was found that the properties, such as density, compressive strength, water resistance and thermal stability of unsaturated polyester solidified wastes were excellent. The radiation resistance could be as high as 108 Rad and the leachability was low. The volume reduction ratios of all samples were better than those of cement solidified waste

  13. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description

  14. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies

  15. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  16. Effect of Low-Level Laser Stimulation on EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Huah Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, L.K. [ed.; Wildung, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part 2: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  18. TEMA-DOE annual report, July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) will develop off-site Multi-Jurisdictional Emergency Response Plans (MJERPs) in coordination with Federal, State, and local agencies. The MJERPs will describe actions to minimize the risks to the citizens of Tennessee as a result of an off-site release of hazardous material from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. This report describes actions made during each quarter of the year.

  19. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ''no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections

  20. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  1. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ''National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.'' The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities

  2. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  3. Review of private sector and Department of Energy treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for low-level and mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, R.A.; Ball, L.W.; Mousseau, J.D.; Piper, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Private sector capacity for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of various categories of radioactive waste has been researched and reviewed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, the primary contractor for the INEL. The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to the INEL and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in determining if private sector capabilities exist for those waste streams that currently cannot be handled either on site or within the DOE complex. The survey of private sector vendors was limited to vendors currently capable of, or expected within the next five years to be able to perform one or more of the following services: low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction, storage, or disposal; mixed LLW treatment, storage, or disposal; alpha-contaminated mixed LLW treatment; LLW decontamination for recycling, reclamation, or reuse; laundering of radioactively-contaminated laundry and/or respirators; mixed LLW treatability studies; mixed LLW treatment technology development. Section 2.0 of this report will identify the approach used to modify vendor information from previous revisions of this report. It will also illustrate the methodology used to identify any additional companies. Section 3.0 will identify, by service, specific vendor capabilities and capacities. Because this document will be used to identify private sector vendors that may be able to handle DOE LLW and mixed LLW streams, it was decided that current DOE capabilities should also be identified. This would encourage cooperation between DOE sites and the various states and, in some instances, may result in a more cost-effective alternative to privatization. The DOE complex has approximately 35 sites that generate the majority of both LLW and mixed LLW. Section 4.0 will identify these sites by Operations Office, and their associated LLW and mixed LLW TSD units.

  4. Review of private sector and Department of Energy treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for low-level and mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Private sector capacity for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of various categories of radioactive waste has been researched and reviewed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, the primary contractor for the INEL. The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to the INEL and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in determining if private sector capabilities exist for those waste streams that currently cannot be handled either on site or within the DOE complex. The survey of private sector vendors was limited to vendors currently capable of, or expected within the next five years to be able to perform one or more of the following services: low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction, storage, or disposal; mixed LLW treatment, storage, or disposal; alpha-contaminated mixed LLW treatment; LLW decontamination for recycling, reclamation, or reuse; laundering of radioactively-contaminated laundry and/or respirators; mixed LLW treatability studies; mixed LLW treatment technology development. Section 2.0 of this report will identify the approach used to modify vendor information from previous revisions of this report. It will also illustrate the methodology used to identify any additional companies. Section 3.0 will identify, by service, specific vendor capabilities and capacities. Because this document will be used to identify private sector vendors that may be able to handle DOE LLW and mixed LLW streams, it was decided that current DOE capabilities should also be identified. This would encourage cooperation between DOE sites and the various states and, in some instances, may result in a more cost-effective alternative to privatization. The DOE complex has approximately 35 sites that generate the majority of both LLW and mixed LLW. Section 4.0 will identify these sites by Operations Office, and their associated LLW and mixed LLW TSD units

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.A. (ed.)

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  6. Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee annual report: Summary of DOE hydrogen programs for FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HECC was established over 13 years ago to ensure that the many varied aspects of hydrogen technology within the Department are coordinated. Each year the committee brings together technical representative within the Department to coordinate activities, share research results and discuss future priorities and directions. This FY 1990 summary is the thirteenth consecutive yearly report. It provides an overview of the hydrogen-related programs of the DOE offices represented in the HECC for the fiscal year. For the purposes of this report, the research projects within each division have been organized into two categories: Fuels-related Research and Non-fuels-related Research. An historical summary of the hydrogen budgets of the several divisions is given. Total DOE funding in FY 1990 was $6.8 million for fuels-related research and $32.9 million for non-fuels-related research. The individual program elements are described in the body of this report, and more specific program information can be found in the Technology Summary Forms in Appendix A

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes

  8. National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Strategy for the Remote-Handled Low-level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Hinman

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to have disposal capability for remote-handled low level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the time the existing disposal facility is full or must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the INL Subsurface Disposal Area in approximately the year 2017.

  9. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  10. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control

  11. Effectiveness of low-level laser on carpal tunnel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Hua-Feng; Ma, Xin-Long; Tian, Peng; Huang, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been applied in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) for an extended period of time without definitive consensus on its effectiveness. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser in the treatment of mild to moderate CTS using a Cochrane systematic review. Methods: We conducted electronic searches of PubMed (1966–2015.10), Medline (1966–2015.10), Embase (1980–2015.10), and ScienceDirect (1985–2015.10), using the terms “carpal tunnel syndrome” and “laser” according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Relevant journals or conference proceedings were searched manually to identify studies that might have been missed in the database search. Only randomized clinical trials were included, and the quality assessments were performed according to the Cochrane systematic review method. The data extraction and analyses from the included studies were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. The results were expressed as the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the continuous outcomes. Results: Seven randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria; there were 270 wrists in the laser group and 261 wrists in the control group. High heterogeneity existed when the analysis was conducted. Hand grip (at 12 weeks) was stronger in the LLLT group than in the control group (MD = 2.04; 95% CI: 0.08–3.99; P = 0.04; I2 = 62%), and there was better improvement in the visual analog scale (VAS) (at 12 weeks) in the LLLT group (MD = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.84–1.11; P 95% in the calculation of these 3 parameters. There were no statistically significant differences in the other parameters between the 2 groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that low-level laser improve hand grip, VAS, and SNAP after 3 months of follow-up for mild to moderate CTS. More high-quality studies using the same laser intervention protocol are needed to

  12. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) requirements for each of the three concepts

  13. Overview of treatment and conditioning of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration of alternative technologies in low-level waste management is assumed to be partly a response to current demands for lower risk in waste disposal. One of the determinants of risk in waste disposal is the set of characteristics of the materials placed into disposal cells, i.e., the products of treatment and conditioning operations. The treatment and conditioning operations that have been applied to waste streams are briefly examined. Three operations are the most important determinants of the stability that will contribute to reducing risk at the disposal cell: compaction, high-integrity containers, and solidification. The status of these three operations is reviewed

  14. Improvement of the detection limit for low level artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the detection limit of artificial radionuclides, following measurement procedures were applied to a seaweed (Sargasso) sample collected in the vicinity of Shika Nuclear Power Station; method-1 (use of Ge-LEPS in Ogoya underground laboratory), method-2 (40K removal + Ge-LEPS in underground lab.) and method-3 (40K removal + well type Ge in underground lab.). By these measurements, the activities of low level artificial radionuclides of the Sargasso sample were below the detection limit, suggesting that the background level of 108mAg, 110mAg and 60Co was < ∼ 8 mBq/Kg-fresh. (author)

  15. The Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Shawn S.; Bentler, Ruth A.; Dittberner, Andrew; Mertes, Ian B.

    2013-01-01

    One purported use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is to promote healing in damaged cells. The effects of LLLT on hearing loss and tinnitus have received some study, but results have been equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine if LLLT improved hearing, speech understanding, and/or cochlear function in adults with hearing loss. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, subjects were assigned to a treatment, placebo, or control group. The treatment group was g...

  16. Treatment of lymphedema praecox through low level laser therapy (LLLT)

    OpenAIRE

    Manoochehr Mahram; Majid Rajabi

    2011-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl with right lower extremity lymphedema praecox was treated through Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), by means of a GaAs and GaAlAs diodes laser-therapy device. Treatment sessions were totally 24, each cycle containing 12 every other day 15-minute sessions, and one month free between the cycles. The treatment was achieved to decrease the edema and no significant increase in circumference of involved leg was found following three months after the course of treatment. Although LL...

  17. Treatment of lymphedema praecox through low level laser therapy (LLLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Mahram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old girl with right lower extremity lymphedema praecox was treated through Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT, by means of a GaAs and GaAlAs diodes laser-therapy device. Treatment sessions were totally 24, each cycle containing 12 every other day 15-minute sessions, and one month free between the cycles. The treatment was achieved to decrease the edema and no significant increase in circumference of involved leg was found following three months after the course of treatment. Although LLLT can be considered a beneficial treatment for Lymphedema Praecox, any definite statement around its effectiveness needs more studies on more cases.

  18. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text

  19. MAPPER, a low-level geographic information system

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado, G; Froese, R.

    1993-01-01

    A Low-Level Geographic Information System (LL-GIS) was developed to provide a simple low-cost mapping program which can be executed in any personal computer, by individuals with different levels of knowledge in computing. MAPPER is an add-on module of FishBase - a global database with key information on the biology of fish - where it creates on-screen maps with information on biodiversity and the occurrence of species. In another application, MAPPER is used to display and analyzed geographica...

  20. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)