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Sample records for annual cycle energy system

  1. Summary of annual cycle energy system workshop I held October 29--30, 1975, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H.C.; Moyers, J.C.; Hise, E.C.; Nephew, E.A. (eds.)

    1976-07-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) concept provides space heating, air conditioning, and water heating by means of a heat pump and an energy storage tank. Heat is removed in winter from the water in the tank and is added during the following summer. A workshop was held on October 29-30, 1975 in Oak Ridge, Tenn. to disseminate information on ACES. This report gives summaries of the presentations, which covered technical, economic, and institutional aspects of the concept.

  2. 3rd annual biomass energy systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The main objectives of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conference were (1) to review the latest research findings in the clean fuels from biomass field, (2) to summarize the present engineering and economic status of Biomass Energy Systems, (3) to encourage interaction and information exchange among people working or interested in the field, and (4) to identify and discuss existing problems relating to ongoing research and explore opportunities for future research. Abstracts for each paper presented were edited separately. (DC)

  3. Ocean energy conversion systems annual research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. Research projects have been funded and reported in each of these areas. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow can provide potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential costs must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is being completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are being evaluated by analysis and model testing with present emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Likewise, several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated. The use of salinity resources requires further research in membranes or the development of membraneless processes. Using the thermal resource in a Claude cycle process as a power converter is promising, and a program of R and D and subsystem development has been initiated to provide confirmation of the preliminary conclusion.

  4. Energy Systems Group annual progress report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risoe National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff members. (author)

  5. Life-cycle analysis of renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    1994-01-01

    An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants......An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants...

  6. Energy Systems Studies Program annual report, fiscal year 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, M. (ed.)

    1976-06-01

    This is the fourth annual progress report of the Energy Systems Studies Program supported at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), Office of the Assistant Administrator for Planning and Analysis. The program is coordinated under the designation of a National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems (NCAES). Five working groups with specific program responsibilities are: policy analysis, economic analysis, biomedical and environmental assessment, technology assessment, and energy data and models. Future scenarios of the implementation of groups of technologies and new resources are developed. The socio-economic and environmental consequences are analyzed in detail and impact analyses are performed. Progress during FY 1976 is summarized in the following areas: energy system model development; energy-economic model development; technology assessments and support; economic analyses; and energy model data base activities. The program plan for FY 1977 is presented. (MCW)

  7. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  8. Life Cycle Exergy Analysis of Wind Energy Systems : Assessing and improving life cycle analysis methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Wind power capacity is currently growing fast around the world. At the same time different forms of life cycle analysis are becoming common for measuring the environmental impact of wind energy systems. This thesis identifies several problems with current methods for assessing the environmental impact of wind energy and suggests improvements that will make these assessments more robust. The use of the exergy concept combined with life cycle analysis has been proposed by several researchers ov...

  9. Closing the cycle: Life-cycle impact assessment of materials used in nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life-cycle management (LCM) and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) are responses to a change in paradigms whereby (environmental) problems are being anticipated and avoided, rather than treated after they have occurred. Optimal use of (natural) resources, minimization of overall contaminant production and waste generation are essential environmental-related goals to enhance sustainability of nuclear energy systems including the mining and processing of uranium. Demonstrating an optimal use of resources with minimal environmental impact will help to increase the public acceptability nuclear energy systems. Understanding and quantification of material flows, including those from the mining and processing of fuel cycle related materials, is an essential tool for assessing and comparing options of nuclear energy systems in terms of their use of resources. Consequently, all relevant materials flows in the system should be accounted for. The IAEA has inititated a new co-ordianted research project aiming at mapping out the various material streams, including those from the fuel cycle. This paper examines the possibilities for applying Life-Cycle Impact Assessment as a tool to ensure and demonstrate the (environmental) sustainability of nuclear energy systems, focusing in particular on the fuel cycle

  10. Fuel cycle modelling of open cycle thorium-fuelled nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study three open cycle Th–U-fuelled nuclear energy systems. • Comparison of these systems is made to a reference U-fuelled EPR. • Fuel cycle modelling is performed with UK NNL code “ORION”. • U-fuelled system is economically favourable and needs least separative work per kWh. • Th–U-fuelled systems offer negligible waste and proliferation resistance advantages. - Abstract: In this study, we have sought to determine the advantages, disadvantages, and viability of open cycle thorium–uranium-fuelled (Th–U-fuelled) nuclear energy systems. This has been done by assessing three such systems, each of which requires uranium enriched to ∼20% 235U, in comparison to a reference uranium-fuelled (U-fuelled) system over various performance indicators, spanning material flows, waste composition, economics, and proliferation resistance. The values of these indicators were determined using the UK National Nuclear Laboratory’s fuel cycle modelling code ORION. This code required the results of lattice-physics calculations to model the neutronics of each nuclear energy system, and these were obtained using various nuclear reactor physics codes and burn-up routines. In summary, all three Th–U-fuelled nuclear energy systems required more separative work capacity than the equivalent benchmark U-fuelled system, with larger levelised fuel cycle costs and larger levelised cost of electricity. Although a reduction of ∼6% in the required uranium ore per kWh was seen for one of the Th–U-fuelled systems compared to the reference U-fuelled system, the other two Th–U-fuelled systems required more uranium ore per kWh than the reference. Negligible advantages and disadvantages were observed for the amount and the properties of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generated by the systems considered. Two of the Th–U-fuelled systems showed some benefit in terms of proliferation resistance of the SNF generated. Overall, it appears that there is little merit

  11. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the description of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of 100% power operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Using the developed turbomachinery models, the off-design characteristics and the sensitivities of the S-CO2 turbomachinery were investigated. For the development of PCHE models, a one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the PCHE. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO2 Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na/CO2 boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO2 gas. The long term behavior of a Na/CO2 boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated

  12. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, S. O.; Seong, S. H.; Eoh, J. H.; Lee, T. H.; Choi, S. K.; Han, J. W.; Bae, S. W

    2007-12-15

    This report contains the description of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of 100% power operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Using the developed turbomachinery models, the off-design characteristics and the sensitivities of the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery were investigated. For the development of PCHE models, a one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the PCHE. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na/CO{sub 2} boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO{sub 2} gas. The long term behavior of a Na/CO{sub 2} boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated.

  13. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) is proposed as a vapor power cycle that could potentially increase power generation and improve the utilization efficiency of renewable energy and waste heat recovery systems. A brief review of current advanced vapor power cycles including the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), the zeotropic Rankine cycle, the Kalina cycle, the transcritical cycle, and the trilateral flash cycle is presented. The premise and motivation for the OFC concept is that essentially by impro...

  14. Energy system feasibility study of an Otto cycle/Stirling cycle hybrid automotive engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of utilising a Stirling cycle engine as an exhaust gas waste heat recovery device for an Otto cycle internal combustion engine (ICE) in the context of an automotive power plant. The hybrid arrangement would produce increased brake power output for a given fuel consumption rate when compared to an ICE alone. The study was dealt with from an energy system perspective with design practicalities such as power train integration, location of auxiliaries, manufacture costs and other general plant design considerations neglected. The study necessitated work in two distinct areas: experimental assessment of the performance characteristics of an existing automotive Otto cycle ICE and mathematical modelling of the Stirling cycle engine based on the output parameters of the ICE. It was subsequently found to be feasible in principle to generate approximately further 30% useful power in addition to that created by the ICE by using a Stirling cycle engine to capture waste heat expelled from the ICE exhaust gases over the complete range of engine operating speeds. (author)

  15. Nitrogen cycling in an integrated biomass for energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate N cycling in three components of an integrated biomass for energy system, i.e. water hyacinth production, anaerobic digestion in hyacinth biomass, and recycling of digester effluent and sludge. Plants assimilated 50 to 90% of added N in hyacinth production systems. Up to 28% of the total plant N was contained in hyacinth detritus. Nitrogen loading as plant detritus into hyacinth ponds was 92 to 148 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Net mineralization of plant organic 15N during anaerobic digestion was 35 and 70% for water hyacinth plants with low and high N content, respectively. Approximately 20% of the 15N was recovered in the digested sludge while the remaining 15N was recovered in the effluent. Water hyacinth growth in digester effluents was affected by electrical conductivity and 15NH4+-N concentration. Addition of water hyacinth biomass to soil resulted in decomposition of 39 to 50% of added C for fresh plant biomass and 19 to 23% of added C for digested biomass sludge. Only 8% of added 15N in digested sludges was mineralized to 15NO3--N despite differences in initial N content. In contrast, 3 and 33% of added 15N in fresh biomass with low and high N content, respectively, was recovered as 15NO3--N. Total 15N recovery after anaerobic digestion ranged from 70 to 100% of the initial plant biomass 15N. Total N recovery by sludge and effluent recycling in the integrated biomass for energy system was 48 to 60% of the initial plant biomass 15N

  16. Fuel cycle aspects of accelerator-driven energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal by Carlo Rubbia and his associates at CERN for a particular variety of accelerator-driven system as an 'Energy Amplifier' is discussed. The paper is concerned with the fuel cycle and its implications. Using thorium is a secondary aspect of the CERN proposal, but important, and less fully established than may be supposed. The necessary processes have yet to be proved consistently reliable, tolerably inexpensive, and safe under all credible conditions to the satisfaction of regulatory bodies. This presents difficulties. Reasons for preferring thorium to uranium are often taken to be self-evidently sound, whereas the underlying assumptions are themselves questionable. The following conclusions have been arrived at. The attractions of accelerator-driven systems have prompted a great deal of interest in the physics and engineering of the basic system, considerably less in the fuel cycle needed to sustain it. In order to minimise avoidable risks on the development path, a conventional uranium or uranium-plutonium fuel would be more appropriate in the first instance than the thorium-based type postulated in the original 'energy amplifier' proposal and subject to greater problems of industrial innovation than appear to have been generally recognised. Apart from a possible capability for higher burn-up, and reactivity-flattening properties that might usefully diminish variations in the energy amplification factor, the advantages of thorium over uranium relate chiefly to its producing little of the transuranic elements and therefore being better suited to incinerating those already in existence. How far this is a feasible and worth-while objective needs to be critically examined. Difficulties are to be expected particularly in reprocessing the fuel and in separating long-lived radionuclides from present or future nuclear wastes, including those from thorium itself, where methods developed experimentally or for specialised purposes may not be readily or

  17. Building a field- and model-based climatology of local water and energy cycles in the cultivated Sahel - annual budgets and seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Issoufou, H. B.-A.; Boulain, N.; Ramier, D.; Mainassara, I.; Charvet, G.; Boucher, M.; Chazarin, J.-P.; Oï, M.; Yahou, H.; Maidaji, B.; Arpin-Pont, F.; Benarrosh, N.; Mahamane, A.; Nazoumou, Y.; Favreau, G.; Seghieri, J.

    2014-05-01

    In the African Sahel, energy and water cycling at the land surface is pivotal for regional climate, water resources and land productivity, yet it is still extremely poorly documented. As a step towards a comprehensive climatological description of surface fluxes in this area, this study provides estimates of average annual budgets and seasonal cycles for two main land use types of the cultivated Sahelian belt, rainfed millet crop and fallow bush. These estimates build on the combination of a 7 year field dataset from two typical plots in southwestern Niger with detailed physically-based soil-plant-atmosphere modelling, yielding a continuous, comprehensive set of water and energy flux and storage variables over the 7 year period. In this study case in particular, blending field data with mechanistic modelling is considered as making best use of available data and knowledge for such purpose. It extends observations by reconstructing missing data and extrapolating to unobserved variables or periods. Furthermore, model constraining with observations compromises between extraction of observational information content and integration of process understanding, hence accounting for data imprecision and departure from physical laws. Climatological averages of all water and energy variables, with associated sampling uncertainty, are derived at annual to subseasonal scales from the 7 year series produced. Similarities and differences in the two ecosystems behaviors are highlighted. Mean annual evapotranspiration is found to represent ~82-85% of rainfall for both systems, but with different soil evaporation/plant transpiration partitioning and different seasonal distribution. The remainder consists entirely of runoff for the fallow, whereas drainage and runoff stand in a 40-60% proportion for the millet field. These results should provide a robust reference for the surface energy- and water-related studies needed in this region. The model developed in this context has the

  18. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 7. Examination on design and control of the system partially recovering exhaust heat of heat pump; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 7. Bubuntekina hainetsu kaishu wo koryoshita baai no sekkei seigyoho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The capacity and performance of the existing system that recovers the overall heating and cooling exhaust heat completely into a seasonal storage tank and the system that discharges the exhaust heat slightly to the outside and recovers it partially were compared and investigated. The system uses a central single-duct discharge system as an air-conditioning system. A heat pump and a flat-plate solar collector installed on the roof of a building are used as the heat source. The seasonal storage tank in the ground just under the building is a cylindrical water tank of 5 m deep with the concrete used as body. The upper surface of a storage tank is heat-insulated by a stylo-platform of 200 mm, and the lower side surface by a stylo-platform of 100 mm. Calculation when the difference in temperature used in a seasonal storage tank is set to 35{degree}C and 25{degree}C was performed for the system that has two control methods. The overall exhaust heat recovery system is almost the same in energy performance as the partial exhaust heat recovery system. The partial exhaust heat recovery system is more advantageous on the economic side. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Energy systems. Tome 3: advanced cycles, low environmental impact innovative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This third tome about energy systems completes the two previous ones by showing up advanced thermodynamical cycles, in particular having a low environmental impact, and by dealing with two other questions linked with the study of systems with a changing regime operation: - the time management of energy, with the use of thermal and pneumatic storage systems and time simulation (schedule for instance) of systems (solar energy type in particular); - the technological dimensioning and non-nominal regime operation studies. Because this last topic is particularly complex, new functionalities have been implemented mainly by using the external classes mechanism, which allows the user to freely personalize his models. This tome is illustrated with about 50 examples of cycles modelled with Thermoptim software. Content: foreword; 1 - generic external classes; 2 - advanced gas turbine cycles; 3 - evaporation-concentration, mechanical steam compression, desalination, hot gas drying; 4 - cryogenic cycles; 5 - electrochemical converters; 6 - global warming, CO2 capture and sequestration; 7 - future nuclear reactors (coupled to Hirn and Brayton cycles); 8 - thermodynamic solar cycles; 10 - pneumatic and thermal storage; 11 - calculation of thermodynamic solar facilities; 12 - problem of technological dimensioning and non-nominal regime; 13 - exchangers modeling and parameterizing for the dimensioning and the non-nominal regime; 14 - modeling and parameterizing of volumetric compressors; 15 - modeling and parameterizing of turbo-compressors and turbines; 16 - identification methodology of component parameters; 17 - case studies. (J.S.)

  20. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  2. Energy system analyses of the marginal energy technology in life cycle assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Münster, Marie; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2007-01-01

    In life cycle assessments consequential LCA is used as the “state-of-the-art” methodology, which focuses on the consequences of decisions made in terms of system boundaries, allocation and selection of data, simple and dynamic marginal technology, etc.(Ekvall & Weidema 2004). In many LCA studies, the energy demand applied is decisive for the results. In this extended abstract, consequential LCA methodology is examined with electricity as the case. The aim is to answer three questions: Whi...

  3. Life cycle energy and GHG emission within the Turin metropolitan area urban water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Zappone, Mariantonia; Fiore, Silvia; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the urban water cycle in the Turin Metropolitan Area (Northwestern Italy), with a focus on quantifying the annual life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The study made use Material Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment methods for a defined urban water cycle system (ATO3) operated by one water utility (SMAT S.p.A.), and examines all main sub-systems of the entire urban water cycle. The study quantified the annual direct and indirect e...

  4. Technology assessment of near-term open-cycle thorium-fuelled nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the RCUK-India civil nuclear research collaboration, British and Indian researchers have sought to determine the advantages, disadvantages, and viability of open-cycle thorium-uranium fuelled (Th-U-fuelled) nuclear energy systems. The research centred on fuel cycle modelling and life-cycle assessment of three Th-U-fuelled nuclear energy systems and compared these to a reference uranium-fuelled nuclear energy system, all operating with open nuclear fuel cycles. The results indicate that thorium-based fuels offers little benefit over conventional uranium fuelled approaches for open-cycle nuclear energy production. This paper provides an overview on the project and stresses over-arching conclusions. (author)

  5. Building a field- and model-based climatology of local water and energy cycles in the cultivated Sahel - annual budgets and seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Issoufou, H. B.-A.; Boulain, N.; Ramier, D.; Mainassara, I.; Charvet, G.; Boucher, M.; Chazarin, J.-P.; Oï, M.; Yahou, H.; Maidaji, B.; Arpin-Pont, F.; Benarrosh, N.; Mahamane, A.; Nazoumou, Y.; Favreau, G.; Seghieri, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the sub-Saharan Sahel, energy and water cycling at the land surface is pivotal for the regional climate, water resources and land productivity, yet it is still very poorly documented. As a step towards a comprehensive climatological description of surface fluxes in this area, this study provides estimates of long-term average annual budgets and seasonal cycles for two main land use types of the cultivated Sahelian belt: rainfed millet crop and fallow bush. These estimates build on the combination of a 7-year field data set from two typical plots in southwestern Niger with detailed physically based soil-plant-atmosphere modeling, yielding a continuous, comprehensive set of water and energy flux and storage variables over this multiyear period. In the present case in particular, blending field data with mechanistic modeling makes the best use of available data and knowledge for the construction of the multivariate time series. Rather than using the model only to gap-fill observations into a composite series, model-data integration is generalized homogeneously over time by generating the whole series with the entire data-constrained model simulation. Climatological averages of all water and energy variables, with associated sampling uncertainty, are derived at annual to sub-seasonal scales from the time series produced. Similarities and differences in the two ecosystem behaviors are highlighted. Mean annual evapotranspiration is found to represent ~82-85% of rainfall for both systems, but with different soil evaporation/plant transpiration partitioning and different seasonal distribution. The remainder consists entirely of runoff for the fallow, whereas drainage and runoff stand in a 40-60% proportion for the millet field. These results should provide a robust reference for the surface energy- and water-related studies needed in this region. Their significance and the benefits they gain from the innovative data-model integration approach are thoroughly discussed

  6. A unified model of combined energy systems with different cycle modes and its optimum performance characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified model is presented for a class of combined energy systems, in which the systems mainly consist of a heat engine, a combustor and a counter-flow heat exchanger and the heat engine in the systems may have different thermodynamic cycle modes such as the Brayton cycle, Carnot cycle, Stirling cycle, Ericsson cycle, and so on. Not only the irreversibilities of the heat leak and finite-rate heat transfer but also the different cycle modes of the heat engine are considered in the model. On the basis of Newton's law, expressions for the overall efficiency and power output of the combined energy system with an irreversible Brayton cycle are derived. The maximum overall efficiency and power output and other relevant parameters are calculated. The general characteristic curves of the system are presented for some given parameters. Several interesting cases are discussed in detail. The results obtained here are very general and significant and can be used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of a class of combined energy systems with different cycle modes. Moreover, it is significant to point out that not only the important conclusions obtained in Bejan's first combustor model and Peterson's general combustion driven model but also the optimal performance of a class of solar-driven heat engine systems can be directly derived from the present paper under some limit conditions

  7. Modeling effects of inter-annual variability in meteorological and land use conditions on coupled water and energy cycling in the cultivated African Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Boulain, N.; Favreau, G.; Charvet, G.; Ramier, D.; Issoufou, H.; Boucher, M.; Mainassara, I.; Chazarin, J.; Oï, M.; Yahou, H.; Benarrosh, N.; Ibrahim, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the dry tropics in general and in the African Sahel in particular, hydro-ecosystems are very sensitive to climate variability and land management. In the Niamey region of South-West Niger, a severe multi-decadal drought together with large-scale vegetation clearing coincided with an unexpected increase in surface and ground water resources. Such an apparent paradoxical situation illustrates the complex way in which climate and land cover interactions control the Sahelian water cycle dynamics. This stresses the importance of understanding and reliably modeling water/energy transfers in the local soil-plant-atmosphere system, under contrasted meteorological and surface conditions. This study investigates the effects of the inter-annual variability of meteorological and land use conditions on the coupled water and energy cycles in the cultivated Sahel over a 5-year period. This is based on a comprehensive multi-year field dataset acquired for a millet crop field and a fallow savannah, the two main land cover types of South-West Niger (Wankama catchment in the mesoscale AMMA-CATCH Niger observatory, part of the French-initiated RBV network). It includes atmospheric forcing, seasonal course of vegetation phenology, soil properties and model validation variables (net radiation, turbulent fluxes, soil heat/water profiles), for the two fields. The study area is typical of Central Sahel conditions, with 400-600 mm annual rainfall concentrated in the 4-5 month wet season. Soils are mainly sandy and prone to surface crusting, leading to a strong vertical contrast in hydrodynamic properties. The SiSPAT process-based model used solves the 1D mass and heat transfer system of equations in the soil, including vapor phase and coupled with a two-component (bare soil and vegetation) water and energy budget at the surface-atmosphere interface. The study explores whether such a model can be accurately calibrated and validated for the two sites using realistic-parameter values. The

  8. Role of Thorium to Supplement Fuel Cycles of Future Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the thorium fuel cycle (ThFC) is a collaborative INPRO (International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) activity within its main area on global vision on sustainable nuclear energy for the 21st century. The current publication reports on the sustainability of nuclear power by re-examining the potential of thorium-based fuel cycles to support future large scale deployment of nuclear energy systems by increasing the availability of nuclear material. Special attention is paid to the thorium fuel cycle from the point of view of economics and proliferation resistance.

  9. Annual Report: Advanced Energy Systems Fuel Cells (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, Kirk; Richards, George

    2014-04-16

    The comprehensive research plan for Fuel Cells focused on Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) programmatic targets and included objectives in two primary and focused areas: (1) investigation of degradation modes exhibited by the anode/electrolyte/cathode (AEC), development of computational models describing the associated degradation rates, and generation of a modeling tool predicting long term AEC degradation response; and (2) generation of novel electrode materials and microstructures and implementation of the improved electrode technology to enhance performance. In these areas, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Regional University Alliance (RUA) team has completed and reported research that is significant to the SECA program, and SECA continued to engage all SECA core and SECA industry teams. Examination of degradation in an operational solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) requires a logical organization of research effort into activities such as fundamental data gathering, tool development, theoretical framework construction, computational modeling, and experimental data collection and validation. Discrete research activity in each of these categories was completed throughout the year and documented in quarterly reports, and researchers established a framework to assemble component research activities into a single operational modeling tool. The modeling framework describes a scheme for categorizing the component processes affecting the temporal evolution of cell performance, and provides a taxonomical structure of known degradation processes. The framework is an organizational tool that can be populated by existing studies, new research completed in conjunction with SECA, or independently obtained. The Fuel Cell Team also leveraged multiple tools to create cell performance and degradation predictions that illustrate the combined utility of the discrete modeling activity. Researchers first generated 800 continuous hours of SOFC experimental

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated energy system based on compressed air energy storage (CAES) system and Kalina cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An integrated energy system based on CAES and Kalina cycle is proposed. • The design and modeling of the CAES–KCS6 system are laid out. • The energy analysis and exergy analysis of the proposed system are carried out. • A parametric analysis is conducted to examine their effect on system performance. - Abstract: High penetration of renewable power sources into power system leads to significant challenge in balancing of power generation and consumption due to the highly erratic nature of renewable energies. Integrating the energy storage system (ESS) with power system can weaken these negative effects effectively. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) system as one of the grid-scale ESS technologies has grown rapidly in the past few years. However, the temperature of exhaust from low pressure turbine during discharge process is still high enough to utilize. An integrated energy system consisting of a CAES system and a Kalina cycle system 6 (KCS6) is proposed to recover this waste heat. The thermodynamic analyses including energy analysis and exergy analysis are evaluated by using steady-state mathematical model and thermodynamic laws. The second law efficiency of the proposed CAES–KCS6 system can be improved nearly 4% compared to that of the single conventional CAES system. Meanwhile, the parametric analysis is also carried out to evaluate the effects of some key parameters on system performance, such as the turbine inlet temperature (TIT), inlet pressure of low pressure turbine and the air storage cavern temperature. Results show that all of these parameters have positive effect on system exergy efficiency

  11. Designing renewable energy systems a life cycle assessment approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Leda

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses a multi-objective optimization approach in LCA that allows the flexible construction of comprehensive Pareto fronts to help understand the weightings and relative importance of its elements. The methodology is applied to the pertinent topics of thermochemical wood conversion, deep geothermal energy, and regional energy planning.

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency of a Refrigeration System with a Rankine Cycle and an Expander

    OpenAIRE

    Subiantoro, Alison

    2015-01-01

    A method to increase energy efficiency of a vapor compression refrigeration system by using a Rankine cycle and an expander is studied. The systems studied include the R134a and the transcritical CO2 cycles with a 5 kW capacity. The working fluids of the Rankine cycle are R134a, propane and R123. The available heat input power is 1-5 kW. The results show that in the R134a and CO2 systems, 18-40% and 30-67% improvements of Coefficient of Performance (COP), respectively, can be achieved. The me...

  13. Preliminary design of the supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system is presented as a promising alternative to the present Rankine cycle. The principal advantage of the S-CO2 gas is a good efficiency at a modest temperature and a compact size of its components. The S-CO2 Brayton cycle coupled to a SFR also excludes the possibilities of a SWR (Sodium-Water Reaction) which is a major safety-related event, so that the safety of a SFR can be improved. KAERI is conducting a feasibility study for the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system coupled to KALIMER(Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor). The purpose of this research is to develop S-CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion systems and evaluate their performance when they are coupled to advanced nuclear reactor concepts of the type under investigation in the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems. This paper contains the research overview of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system

  14. Economics of nuclear energy production systems: reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper relies on the main European economic studies on the comparative costs of electricity generation, published over the last six years, to show that nuclear power meets the challenge and is an economically competitive choice in the European electricity market. Indeed, although these studies were made for different purposes, by different actors and based on different methods, they all converge to show that the total base-load generation cost for new nuclear plants build in Europe is projected to be in the range of 22 to 32 euros/MWh, a total generation cost that may be 20% cheaper than the cost for combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units. Moreover, the prospects of internalization of the greenhouse gas emission cost in the total generation cost will boost even further the competitiveness of nuclear against gas-fired plants in Europe. All this is confirmed by the most recent French detailed study (DIDEME 2003), essentially performed from an investor standpoint, which concludes, for base-load generation units starting operation around 2015, that nuclear power, with a levelled generation cost of 28,4 euros/MWh, is more competitive than CCGTs (35 euros/MWh). This study also shows an overnight investment cost for nuclear power, based on the considered scenario (a series of 10 EPR units including a ''demonstrator''), of less than 1300 euros/kWe. The other major challenge, waste management obviously also includes an economic dimension. This issue is addressed in the present paper which provides a synthesis of relevant detailed French and OECD economic studies on the cost assessment of the fuel cycle back-end. (author)

  15. BioEnergy transport systems. Life cycle assessment of selected bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Goeran

    1999-07-01

    Biomass for energy conversion is usually considered as a local resource. With appropriate logistic systems, access to biomass can be improved over a large geographical area. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as method to investigate the environmental impacts of selected bioenergy transport chains. As a case study, chains starting in Sweden and ending in Holland have been investigated. Biomass originates from tree sections or forest residues, the latter upgraded to bales or pellets. The study is concentrated on production of electricity, hot cooling water is considered as a loss. Electricity is, as the main case, produced from solid biomass in the importing country. Electricity can also be produced in the country of origin and exported via the trans-national grid as transportation media. As an alternative, a comparison is made with a coal cycle. The results show that contribution of emissions from long-range transportation is of minor importance. The use of fuels and electricity for operating machines and transportation carriers requires a net energy input in bioenergy systems which amounts to typically 7-9% of delivered electrical energy from the system. Emissions of key substances such as NO{sub x}, CO, S, hydrocarbons, and particles are low. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from biocombustion are considered to be zero since there is approximately no net contribution of carbon to the biosphere in an energy system based on biomass. A method to quantify non-renewability is presented. For coal, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be 110%. For most of the cases with bioenergy, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be between 6 and 11%. Reclamation of biomass results in certain losses of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and base cations such as K, Ca and Mg. These are balanced by weathering, vitalisation or ash recirculation procedures. Withdrawal of N from the ecological system is approximately 10 times the load from the technical

  16. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  17. Annual Energy Reviews - 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend of the demand and supply of petroleum in the world, the trend of the price of petroleum, the confused energy circumstances in old USSR and the European energy charter are reported at first. Next, the environment in Japan and the general demand and supply of energy in Japan are mentioned. The situation in electric power, iron and steel making and transportation regarding energy is described. The basic matters, the trend of research and development, the trend of mining, the trend of industries and so on of coal, petroleum, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, the state of nuclear power generation, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle and the research and development regarding the utilization of atomic energy, natural energies such as solar energy, geothermal energy, wind energy and ocean energy, the development and the trend of research of oil sand and oil shale, biomass, wastes, hydrogen and alcohol are reported. Concerning energy utilization, the theory of combustion of solid, liquid and gas, cogeneration system, heat pumps, boilers, industrial furnaces, land, marine and aeronautical engines, MHD power generation, fuel cells, fluidized bed combustion, ultra super critical power generation and others are described. Finally, environmental problems are discussed. (K.I.)

  18. Change impact analysis on the life cycle carbon emissions of energy systems – The nuclear example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper evaluates the life cycle carbon emission of nuclear power in a scenario based approach. • It quantifies the impacts to the LCA results from the change in design parameters. • The methodology can give indications towards preferred or favorable designs. • The findings contribute to the life cycle inventories of energy systems. - Abstract: The life cycle carbon emission factor (measured by t-CO2/GW h) of nuclear power is much lower than those of fossil fueled power generation technologies. However, the fact of nuclear energy being a low carbon power source comes with many assumptions. These assumptions range from system and process definitions, to input–output definitions, to system boundary and cut-off criteria selections, and life cycle inventory dataset. However, there is a somewhat neglected but critical aspect – the design aspect. This refers to the impacts on the life cycle carbon emissions from the change in design parameters related to nuclear power. The design parameters identified in this paper include: (1) the uranium ore grade, (2) the critical process technologies, represented by the average initial enrichment concentration of 235U in the reactor fuel, and (3) the size of the nuclear power reactor (measured by the generating capacity). If not properly tested, assumptions in the design aspect can lead to an erroneous estimation on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. In this paper, a methodology is developed using the Process Chain Analysis (PCA) approach to quantify the impacts of the changes in the selected design parameters on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. The concept of doing so broadens the scope of PCAs on energy systems from “one-off” calculation to analysis towards favorable/preferred designs. The findings from the analyses can serve as addition to the life cycle inventory database for nuclear power as well as provide indications for the sustainability of nuclear

  19. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  20. Life-cycle impacts from novel thorium–uranium-fuelled nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • LCA performed for three open cycle Th–U-fuelled nuclear energy systems. • LCA for open cycle U-fuelled nuclear energy system (Areva’s EPR) used as benchmark. • U-fuelled EPR had lowest emissions per kWh over all systems studied in this work. • LCA model developed for thorium recovered from monazitic beach sands. • LCA model developed for the production of heavy water. - Abstract: Electricity generated from nuclear power plants is generally associated with low emissions per kWh generated, an aspect that feeds into the wider debate surrounding nuclear power. This paper seeks to investigate how life-cycle emissions would be affected by including thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle, and in particular its inclusion in technologies that could prospectively operate open Th–U-based nuclear fuel cycles. Three potential Th–U-based systems operating with open nuclear fuel cycles are considered: AREVA’s European Pressurised Reactor; India’s Advanced Heavy Water Reactor; and General Atomics’ Gas-Turbine Modular Helium Reactor. These technologies are compared to a reference U-fuelled European Pressurised Reactor. A life-cycle analysis is performed that considers the construction, operation, and decommissioning of each of the reactor technologies and all of the other associated facilities in the open nuclear fuel cycle. This includes the development of life-cycle analysis models to describe the extraction of thorium from monazitic beach sands and for the production of heavy water. The results of the life-cycle impact analysis highlight that the reference U-fuelled system has the lowest overall emissions per kWh generated, predominantly due to having the second-lowest uranium ore requirement per kWh generated. The results highlight that the requirement for mined or recovered uranium (and thorium) ore is the greatest overall contributor to emissions, with the possible exception of nuclear energy systems that require heavy water. In terms of like

  1. The annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, M.; Cloern, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial plants are powerful climate sentinels because their annual cycles of growth, reproduction and senescence are finely tuned to the annual climate cycle having a period of one year. Consistency in the seasonal phasing of terrestrial plant activity provides a relatively low-noise background from which phenological shifts can be detected and attributed to climate change. Here, we ask whether phytoplankton biomass also fluctuates over a consistent annual cycle in lake, estuarine-coastal and ocean ecosystems and whether there is a characteristic phenology of phytoplankton as a consistent phase and amplitude of variability. We compiled 125 time series of phytoplankton biomass (chloro-phyll a concentration) from temperate and subtropical zones and used wavelet analysis to extract their dominant periods of variability and the recurrence strength at those periods. Fewer than half (48%) of the series had a dominant 12-month period of variability, commonly expressed as the canonical spring-bloom pattern. About 20 per cent had a dominant six-month period of variability, commonly expressed as the spring and autumn or winter and summer blooms of temperate lakes and oceans. These annual patterns varied in recurrence strength across sites, and did not persist over the full series duration at some sites. About a third of the series had no component of variability at either the six-or 12-month period, reflecting a series of irregular pulses of biomass. These findings show that there is high variability of annual phytoplankton cycles across ecosystems, and that climate-driven annual cycles can be obscured by other drivers of population variability, including human disturbance, aperiodic weather events and strong trophic coupling between phytoplankton and their consumers. Regulation of phytoplankton biomass by multiple processes operating at multiple time scales adds complexity to the challenge of detecting climate-driven trends in aquatic ecosystems where the noise to

  2. Operating cycle optimization for a Magnus effect-based airborne wind energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Operating cycle of a Magnus effect-based AWE system has been optimized. • The cycle trajectory should be vertical and far from the ground based generator. • Vertical trajectory provides high pulling force that drives the generator. • Large distance from the generator is required for the feasibility of the cycle. - Abstract: The paper presents a control variables optimization study for an airborne wind energy production system. The system comprises an airborne module in the form of a buoyant, rotating cylinder, whose rotation in a wind stream induces the Magnus effect-based aerodynamic lift. Through a tether, the airborne module first drives the generator fixed on the ground, and then the generator becomes a motor that lowers the airborne module. The optimization is aimed at maximizing the average power produced at the generator during a continuously repeatable operating cycle. The control variables are the generator-side rope force and the cylinder rotation speed. The optimization is based on a multi-phase problem formulation, where operation is divided into ascending and descending phases, with free boundary conditions and free cycle duration. The presented simulation results show that significant power increase can be achieved by using the obtained optimal operating cycle instead of the initial, empirically based operation control strategy. A brief analysis is also given to provide a physical interpretation of the optimal cycle results

  3. Annual Energy Review 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-10-01

    This twenty-ninth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) most comprehensive look at integrated energy statistics. The summary statistics on the Nation’s energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices cover all major energy commodities and all energy-consuming sectors of the U.S. economy from 1949 through 2010. The AER is EIA’s historical record of energy statistics and, because the coverage spans six decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analysis.

  4. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  5. Renewable energy annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

  6. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  7. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  8. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  9. An Adaptive Energy Management System for Electric Vehicles Based on Driving Cycle Identification and Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since driving cycle greatly affects load power demand, driving cycle identification (DCI is proposed to predict power demand that can be expected to prepare for the power distribution between battery and supercapacitor. The DCI is developed based on a learning vector quantization (LVQ neural network method, which is assessed in both training and validation based on the statistical data obtained from six standard driving cycles. In order to ensure network accuracy, characteristic parameter and slide time window, which are two important factors ensuring the network accuracy for onboard hybrid energy storage system (HESS applications in electric vehicles, are discussed and designed. Based on the identification results, Multi-level Haar wavelet transform (Haar-WT is proposed for allocating the high frequency components of power demand into the supercapacitor which could damage battery lifetime and the corresponding low frequency components into the battery system. The proposed energy management system can better increase system efficiency and battery lifetime compared with the conventional sole frequency control. The advantages are demonstrated based on a randomly generated driving cycle from the standard driving cycle library via simulation.

  10. Energy, exergy analysis and working fluid selection of a Rankine cycle for subsea power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We propose a Rankine cycle based subsea power system for deep ocean power supply. • The turbine directly produces shaft power output. • Electrical heated boiler is utilized to conduct evaporation process. • 5 working fluids are selected and analyzed for the subsea Rankine cycle. • The turbine volumetric flow ratio (VRF) and size parameter (SP) are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, a subcritical/transcritical Rankine cycle for subsea power system is investigated. By balancing the pressure between the inner and outer side of the rotary seal, the dynamic sealing problem for the subsea power system is minimized. This Rankine cycle is electrical heated and utilizes the surrounding deep seawater as the cooling source. The mathematical model was established based on the first and second law of thermodynamics and the simulation validation was made. Water–steam, CO2, C9H20, C10H22 and C12H26 are selected as the working fluid and the comparison was made. The results show that the subsea Rankine cycle can obtain a higher thermal efficiency as the working depth increases between 1000 and 5000 m. The thermal efficiencies are obtained as: 19.4–26.7% for water–steam cycle, 9.6–31.2% for CO2 cycle, 9.1–14.7% for C9H20 cycle, 8.0–13.5% for C10H22 cycle and 6.3–11.8% for C12H26 cycle, depending on the working depth. With the same working depth, the water–steam cycle has a higher thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency and turbine power output but requires higher total energy input; while the CO2 cycle can obtain a high thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency with lower energy consumption but produces less turbine power output. In addition, it is found exergy destruction mainly occur in the boiler and condenser, accounting for more than 90% in total

  11. Controlling and maximizing effective thermal properties by manipulating transient behaviors during energy-system cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Z. J.; Shih, T. M.; Merlitz, H.; Pagni, P. J.; Chen, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Transient processes generally constitute part of energy-system cycles. If skillfully manipulated, they actually are capable of assisting systems to behave beneficially to suit designers' needs. In the present study, behaviors related to both thermal conductivities ($\\kappa$) and heat capacities ($c_{v}$) are analyzed. Along with solutions of the temperature and the flow velocity obtained by means of theories and simulations, three findings are reported herein: $(1)$ effective $\\kappa$ and eff...

  12. Annual Energy Review 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States. It documents trends and milestones in U.S. energy production, trade, storage, pricing, and consumption. Each new year of data that is added to the time series—which now reach into 7 decades—extends the story of how Americans have acquired and used energy. It is a story of continual change as the Nation's economy grew, energy requirements expanded, resource availability shifted, and interdependencies developed among nations.

  13. Life Cycle Multi-Criteria Analysis Of Alternative Energy Supply Systems For A Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rogoža

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses energy supply alternatives for a partially renovated residential building. In addition to the existing district heating (base case alternative systems, gas boilers, heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, solar cells, and combinations of these systems have been examined. Actual heat consumption of the building and electricity demand determined by the statistical method are used for simulating the systems. The process of simulation is performed using EnergyPro software. In order to select an optimal energy supply option, the life cycle analysis of all systems has been carried out throughout a life span of the building, and the estimated results of energy, environmental and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi–criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Systems analysis research for energy conversion and utilization technologies (ECUT). FY 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.J.; Gunn, M.E.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-11-01

    This Annual Report highlights ECUT accomplishments in the Systems Analysis Project for FY 1985. The Systems Analysis Project was established in 1980 along with the ECUT Division. The Systems Analysis mission is to identify, analyze, and assess R and D needs and research program strategies for advanced conservation technologies. The PNL Systems Analysis staff conducts topical research, provides technical studies, and plans program activities in three areas related to energy conversion and utilization technologies: (1) technology assessment, (2) engineering analysis, and (3) project evaluation and review. This report summarizes the technical results and accomplishments of the FY 1985 projects. They relate mostly to tribology, improved ctalysts, regenerative heat exchangers, robotics and electronics industries, and bioprocessing.

  15. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  16. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  17. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  18. Annual Energy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  19. Annual Energy Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  20. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Office. Annual report for fiscal year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This edition of the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO) for fiscal year (FY) 1994. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater programs at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants (PGDP and PORTS, respectively.) This report describes the administrative framework of the GWPO including staffing, organization, and funding sources. In addition, summaries are provided of activities involving the Technical Support staff at the five facilities. Finally, the results of basic investigations designed to improve our understanding of the major processes governing groundwater flow and contaminant migration on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are reported. These investigations are conducted as part of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Studies (ORRHAGS) program. The relevance of these studies to the overall remediation responsibilities of Energy Systems is discussed

  1. Annual Energy Review 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  2. Annual Energy Review 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-14

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA`s renewables data, see p. xix, ``Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.`` Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986.

  3. Annual Energy Review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  4. Annual Energy Review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  5. Annual Energy Review 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  6. Annual Energy Review 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration's historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA's renewables data, see p. xix, ''Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.'' Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986

  7. International energy annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports for primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude petroleum and petroleum products in selected countries. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed with respect to primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources and from United States Embassy personnel in foreign posts. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values familiar to the American public

  8. Annual energy review 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This 13th edition presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1994; thus, this report is well-suited to long-term trend analyses. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. Statistics on renewable energy sources are also included: this year, for the first time, usage of renewables by other consumers as well as by electric utilities is included. Also new is a two-part, comprehensive presentation of data on petroleum products supplied by sector for 1949 through 1994. Data from electric utilities and nonutilities are integrated as ``electric power industry`` data; nonutility power gross generation are presented for the first time. One section presents international statistics (for more detail see EIA`s International Energy Annual).

  9. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    at the study site, may better perform on marginal sites. Switchgrass is an example of the need to grow site-adapted energy crops. The annual energy crop maize required the highest input, but at the same time yielded the most. The two crop rotation systems did not differ in yield and energy input, but the system with no-till may be more environmentally benign as it has the potential to sequester carbon. The objective of Paper II was the optimization of crop cultivation through the differentiation of input parameters to enhance the quality of the energy crop triticale, without influencing the biomass yield. The intention was to minimize the content of combustion-disturbing elements (potassium and chlorine) and the ash residue of both aboveground plant parts (grain and straw). It was done through different straw and potassium fertilizer treatments. It could be shown that the removal of straw from the previously cultivated crop and no additional potassium fertilizer could reduce the amount of combustion-disturbing elements. A high influence must also be expected from site and weather conditions. Papers III to V address the supply of different high quality biomasses, with the focus on maize for anaerobic digestion. The objective of Paper III was the assessment of the requirements of biogas plants and biomass for anaerobic digestion. It introduces potential energy crops, along with their advantages and disadvantages. Alongside maize, many other biomass types, which are preserved as silage and are high in carbohydrates and low in lignocelluloses, can be anaerobically digested. The development of potential site-specific crop rotation systems for biomass production are discussed. The objective of Papers IV and V was the identification of suitable biomass and production systems for the anaerobic digestion. The focus lay on the determination of (i) suitable energy maize varieties for Central Europe, (ii) optimal growth periods of energy crops, (iii) the influence of crop

  10. International energy annual, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production, consumption, reserves, trade, and prices for five primary energy sources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear electricity. It also presents information on petroleum products. Since the early 1980's the world's total output of primary energy has increased steadily. The annual average growth rate of energy production during the decade was 1.9 percent. Throughout the 1980's, petroleum was the world's most heavily used type of energy. In 1989, three countries--the United States, the USSR, and China--were the leading producers and consumers of world energy. Together, these countries consumed and produced almost 50 percent of the world's total energy. Global production and consumption of crude oil and natural gas liquids increased during the 1980's, despite a decline in total production and demand in the early part of the decade. World production of dry natural gas continued to rise steadily in the 1980's. For the last several years, China has been the leading producer of coal, followed by the United States. In 1989, hydroelectricity supply declined slightly from the upward trend of the last 10 years. Nuclear power generation rose slightly from the 1988 level, compared with the marked growth in earlier years. Prices for major crude oils all increased between 1988 and 1989, but remained well below the price levels at the beginning of the decade. 26 figs., 36 tabs

  11. Optimal annual operation of the dry cooling system of a concentrated solar energy plant in the south of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the optimization of the operation of a concentrated solar power plant with dry cooling over a year, evaluating the molten salts storage, the power block and the air cooling system as a function of the climate and atmospheric conditions. We locate the plant in the south of Europe, Almería (Spain), due to the high solar irradiation and for comparison purposes with a wet cooling based facility. The optimization of the system is formulated as a multiperiod MINLP (mixed integer non-linear programming problem) that is solved for the optimal production of electricity over a year defining the main operating variables of the thermal cycles and the cooling system. The power produced ranges from 9.5 MW in winter to 25 MW in summer, where 5% of this power is consumed by the air cooling system. The annual production cost of electricity is 0.16 €/kWh and the investment required is 265 M€, both slightly higher than when wet cooling is used, but with negligible water consumption. For the selected location, the wet based technology generates slightly less CO2 than the air cooled facility. - Highlights: • A CSP plant with dry cooling is optimized using mathematical programming. • The facility involves solar field, molten salts, steam and electricity generation and cooling. • Dry cooling is more expensive and requires 5% of the produced energy. • CO2 savings do not recommend dry system. Water scarcity does

  12. Annual Energy Review 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2002. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications. Related Publication: Readers of the AER may also be interested in EIA’s Monthly Energy Review, which presents monthly updates of many of the data in the AER. Contact our National Energy Information Center for more information.

  13. Controlling and maximizing effective thermal properties by manipulating transient behaviors during energy-system cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Z J; Merlitz, H; Pagni, P J; Chen, Z

    2014-01-01

    Transient processes generally constitute part of energy-system cycles. If skillfully manipulated, they actually are capable of assisting systems to behave beneficially to suit designers' needs. In the present study, behaviors related to both thermal conductivities ($\\kappa$) and heat capacities ($c_{v}$) are analyzed. Along with solutions of the temperature and the flow velocity obtained by means of theories and simulations, three findings are reported herein: $(1)$ effective $\\kappa$ and effective $c_{v}$ can be controlled to vary from their intrinsic material-property values to a few orders of magnitude larger; $(2)$ a parameter, tentatively named as "nonlinear thermal bias", is identified and can be used as a criterion in estimating energies transferred into the system during heating processes and effective operating ranges of system temperatures; $(3)$ When a body of water, such as the immense ocean, is subject to the boundary condition of cold bottom and hot top, it may be feasible to manipulate transien...

  14. International energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided

  15. International energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  16. Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System Coupled with SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the description of the S-CO2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For a system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of normal operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Computer codes were developed to analysis for the S-CO2 turbomachinery. Based on the design codes, the design parameters were prepared to configure the KALIMER-600 S-CO2 turbomachinery models. A one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the previous PCHE heat exchangers and a design data for the typical type PCHE was produced. In parallel with the PCHE-type heat exchanger design, an airfoil shape fin PCHE heat exchanger was newly designed. The new design concept was evaluated by three-dimensional CFD analyses. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO2 Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. The MMS-LMR code was also developed to analyze the transient phenomena in a SFR with a supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle to develop the control logic. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na-CO2 boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO2 gas. The long term behavior of a Na-CO2 boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated

  17. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project

  18. Holographic lens spectrum splitting photovoltaic system for increased diffuse collection and annual energy yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby D.; Wu, Yuechen; Ayala, Silvana; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrating and spectrum splitting photovoltaic (PV) modules have a limited acceptance angle and thus suffer from optical loss under off-axis illumination. This loss manifests itself as a substantial reduction in energy yield in locations where a significant portion of insulation is diffuse. In this work, a spectrum splitting PV system is designed to efficiently collect and convert light in a range of illumination conditions. The system uses a holographic lens to concentrate shortwavelength light onto a smaller, more expensive indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) PV cell. The high efficiency PV cell near the axis is surrounded with silicon (Si), a less expensive material that collects a broader portion of the solar spectrum. Under direct illumination, the device achieves increased conversion efficiency from spectrum splitting. Under diffuse illumination, the device collects light with efficiency comparable to a flat-panel Si module. Design of the holographic lens is discussed. Optical efficiency and power output of the module under a range of illumination conditions from direct to diffuse are simulated with non-sequential raytracing software. Using direct and diffuse Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) irradiance measurements, annual energy yield of the module is calculated for several installation sites. Energy yield of the spectrum splitting module is compared to that of a full flat-panel Si reference module.

  19. Annual Energy Review 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1997. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2) that: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  20. Annual Energy Review 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2000. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  1. Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Aranya

    Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to

  2. Annual energy review 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherin E. [Energy Information Adminstration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-09-30

    The Annual Energy Review 2003 is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States in modern times. Data are presented for all major forms of energy by production (extraction of energy from the earth, water, and other parts of the environment), consumption by end-user sector, trade with other nations, storage changes, and pricing. Much of the data provided covers the fossil fuels—coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are nature’s batteries; they have stored the sun’s energy over millennia past. It is primarily that captured energy that we are drawing on today to fuel the activities of the modern economy. Data in this report measure the extraordinary expansion of our use of fossil fuels from 29 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1949 to 84 quadrillion Btu in 2003. In recent years, fossil fuels accounted for 86 percent of all energy consumed in the United States. This report also records the development of an entirely new energy industry—the nuclear electric power industry. The industry got its start in this country in 1957 when the Shippingport, Pennsylvania, nuclear electric power plant came on line. Since that time, the industry has grown to account for 20 percent of our electrical output and 8 percent of all energy used in the country. Renewable energy is a third major category of energy reported in this volume. Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite in supply, renewable energy is essentially inexhaustible because it can be replenished. Types of energy covered in the renewable category include conventional hydroelectric power, which is power derived from falling water; wood; waste; alcohol fuels; geothermal; solar; and wind. Together, these forms of energy accounted for about 6 percent of all U.S. energy consumption in recent years.

  3. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    at the study site, may better perform on marginal sites. Switchgrass is an example of the need to grow site-adapted energy crops. The annual energy crop maize required the highest input, but at the same time yielded the most. The two crop rotation systems did not differ in yield and energy input, but the system with no-till may be more environmentally benign as it has the potential to sequester carbon. The objective of Paper II was the optimization of crop cultivation through the differentiation of input parameters to enhance the quality of the energy crop triticale, without influencing the biomass yield. The intention was to minimize the content of combustion-disturbing elements (potassium and chlorine) and the ash residue of both aboveground plant parts (grain and straw). It was done through different straw and potassium fertilizer treatments. It could be shown that the removal of straw from the previously cultivated crop and no additional potassium fertilizer could reduce the amount of combustion-disturbing elements. A high influence must also be expected from site and weather conditions. Papers III to V address the supply of different high quality biomasses, with the focus on maize for anaerobic digestion. The objective of Paper III was the assessment of the requirements of biogas plants and biomass for anaerobic digestion. It introduces potential energy crops, along with their advantages and disadvantages. Alongside maize, many other biomass types, which are preserved as silage and are high in carbohydrates and low in lignocelluloses, can be anaerobically digested. The development of potential site-specific crop rotation systems for biomass production are discussed. The objective of Papers IV and V was the identification of suitable biomass and production systems for the anaerobic digestion. The focus lay on the determination of (i) suitable energy maize varieties for Central Europe, (ii) optimal growth periods of energy crops, (iii) the influence of crop

  4. Assessment of the environmental footprint of nuclear energy systems. Comparison between closed and open fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy perspectives for the current century are dominated by the anticipated significant increase of energy needs. Particularly, electricity consumption is anticipated to increase by a factor higher than two before 2050. Energy choices are considered as structuring political choices that implies a long-standing and stable policy based on objective criteria. LCA (life cycle analysis) is a structured basis for deriving relevant indicators which can allow the comparison of a wide range of impacts of different energy sources. Among the energy-mix, nuclear power is anticipated to have very low GHG-emissions. However, its viability is severely addressed by the public opinion after the Fukushima accident. Therefore, a global LCA of the French nuclear fuel cycle was performed as a reference model. Results were compared in terms of impact with other energy sources. It emphasized that the French nuclear energy is one of the less impacting energy, comparable with renewable energy. In a second, part, the French scenario was compared with an equivalent open fuel cycle scenario. It demonstrates that an open fuel cycle would require about 16% more natural uranium, would have a bigger environmental footprint on the “non radioactive indicators” and would produce a higher volume of high level radioactive waste. - Highlights: • A life cycle analysis of the French close nuclear fuel cycle is performed. • The French nuclear energy is one of the less environmental impacting energy. • The French close fuel cycle is compared to an equivalent open fuel cycle. • An open fuel cycle would have a bigger environmental impact than the French fuel cycle. • Spent nuclear fuel recycling has a positive impact on the environmental footprint

  5. Annual energy review 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-29

    This eleventh edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1992. Because coverage spans four decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to tong-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents statistics on some renewable energy sources. For the most part, fuel-specific data are expressed in physical units such as barrels, cubic feet, and short tons. The integrated summary data in Section 1 are expressed in Btu. The Btu values are calculated using the conversion factors in Appendix A. Statistics expressed in Btu are valuable in that they allow for comparisons among different fuels and for the calculation of in the integrated summary statistics such as US consumption of Energy. The AER emphasizes domestic energy statistics.

  6. Annual energy review 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This eleventh edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration's historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1992. Because coverage spans four decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to tong-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents statistics on some renewable energy sources. For the most part, fuel-specific data are expressed in physical units such as barrels, cubic feet, and short tons. The integrated summary data in Section 1 are expressed in Btu. The Btu values are calculated using the conversion factors in Appendix A. Statistics expressed in Btu are valuable in that they allow for comparisons among different fuels and for the calculation of in the integrated summary statistics such as US consumption of Energy. The AER emphasizes domestic energy statistics

  7. Study on Fission Blanket Fuel Cycling of a Fusion-Fission Hybrid Energy Generation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Direct application of ITER-scale tokamak as a neutron driver in a subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor to generate electric power is of great potential in predictable future. This paper reports a primary study on neutronic and fuel cycle behaviors of a fission blanket for a new type of fusion-driven system (FDS), namely a subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation aiming at energy generation fueled with natural or depleted uranium. Using COUPLE2 developed at INET of Tsinghua University by coupling the MCNP code with the ORIGEN code to study the neutronic behavior and the refueling scheme, this paper focuses on refueling scheme of the fissionable fuel while keeping some important parameters such as tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and energy gain. Different fission fuels, coolants and their volumetric ratios arranged in the fission blanket satisfy the requirements for power generation. The results show that soft neutron spectrum with optimized fuel to moderator ratio can yield an energy amplifying factor of M> 20 while maintaining the TBR > 1.1 and the CR > 1 (the conversion ratio of fissile materials) in a reasonably long refueling cycle. Using an in-site fuel recycle plant, it will be an attractive way to realize the goal of burning 238U with such a new type of fusion-fission hybrid reactor system to generate electric power. (author)

  8. Analysis and Optimization of a Compressed Air Energy Storage—Combined Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is a commercial, utility-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage with fast ramp rates and good part-load operation. It is a promising storage technology for balancing the large-scale penetration of renewable energies, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. This study proposes a CAES-CC system, which is based on a conventional CAES combined with a steam turbine cycle by waste heat boiler. Simulation and thermodynamic analysis are carried out on the proposed CAES-CC system. The electricity and heating rates of the proposed CAES-CC system are lower than those of the conventional CAES by 0.127 kWh/kWh and 0.338 kWh/kWh, respectively, because the CAES-CC system recycles high-temperature turbine-exhausting air. The overall efficiency of the CAES-CC system is improved by approximately 10% compared with that of the conventional CAES. In the CAES-CC system, compressing intercooler heat can keep the steam turbine on hot standby, thus improving the flexibility of CAES-CC. This study brought about a new method for improving the efficiency of CAES and provided new thoughts for integrating CAES with other electricity-generating modes.

  9. Thermodynamic systems analysis of open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, B.K.; Bharathan, D.; Althof, J.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes an updated thermal-hydraulic systems analysis program called OTECSYS that studies the integrated performance of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant, specifically, the effects of component performance, design parameters, and site specific resource data on the total system performance and plant size. OTECSYS can size the various open-cycle power cycle and hydraulic components. Models for the evaporator, mist eliminator, turbine-generator diffuser, direct-contact condenser, exhaust compressors, seawater pumps, and seawater piping are included, as are evaluations of the pressure drops associated with the intercomponent connections. It can also determine the required steam, cold seawater, and warm seawater flow rates. OTECSYS uses an approach similar to earlier work and integrates the most up-to-date developments in component performance and configuration. The program format allows the user to examine subsystem concepts not currently included by creating new component models. It will be useful to the OTEC plant designer who wants to quantify the design point sizing, performance, and power production using site-specific resource data. Detailed design trade-offs are easily evaluated, and several examples of these types of investigations are presented using plant size and power as criteria.

  10. Life-cycle impacts from novel thorium–uranium-fuelled nuclear energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, S. F.; Fenner, R. A.; Nuttall, W. J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generated from nuclear power plants is generally associated with low emissions per kWh generated, an aspect that feeds into the wider debate surrounding nuclear power. This paper seeks to investigate how life-cycle emissions would be affected by including thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle, and in particular its inclusion in technologies that could prospectively operate open Th–U-based nuclear fuel cycles. Three potential Th–U-based systems operating with open nuclear fuel cycles a...

  11. Life-cycle assessment of photovoltaic systems: results of Swiss studies on energy chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology used and results obtained for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) plants in recent Swiss life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies on current and future energy systems are discussed. Mono- and polycrystalline silicon cell technologies utilised in current panels as well as monocrystalline and amorphous cells for future applications were analysed from Swiss conditions. The environmental inventories of slanted-roof solar panels and large plants are presented. Greenhouse gas emissions from present and future electricity systems are compared. The high electricity requirements for manufacturing determine most of the environmental burdens associated with current photovoltaics. However, due to increasing efficiency of production processes and cells, the environmental performance of PV systems is likely to improve substantially in the future. (Author)

  12. Life cycle emissions from renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the methodology used in the ETSU review, together with the detailed results for three of the technologies studied: wind turbines, photovoltaic systems and small, stand-alone solar thermal systems. These emissions are then compared with those calculated for both other renewables and fossil fuel technology on a similar life cycle basis. The life cycle emissions associated with renewable energy technology vary considerably. They are lowest for those technologies where the renewable resource has been concentrated in some way (e.g. over distance in the case of wind and hydro, or over time in the case of energy crops). Wind turbines have amongst the lowest emissions of all renewables and are lower than those for fossil fuel generation, often by over an order of magnitude. Photovoltaics and solar thermal systems have the highest life cycle emissions of all the renewable energy technologies under review. However, their emissions of most pollutants are also much lower than those associated with fossil fuel technologies. In addition, the emissions associated with PV are likely to fall further in the future as the conversion efficiency of PV cells increases and manufacturing technology switches to thin film technologies, which are less energy intensive. Combining the assessments of life cycle emissions of renewables with predictions made by the World Energy Council (WEC) of their future deployment has allowed estimates to be made of amount by which renewables could reduce the future global emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. It estimated that under the WEC's 'Ecologically Driven' scenario, renewables might lead to significant reductions of between 3650 and 8375 Mt in annual CO2 emissions depending on the fossil fuel technology they are assumed to displace. (author)

  13. 1982 Annual Energy Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total energy consumption in the United States equaled 70.9 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1982, a decline of 4.1% compared to 1981. Depressed economic activity was a major factor in reducing total energy demand. However, conservation also played a role as energy consumption per dollar of GNP continued to fall. Most of the decline in energy use involved petroleum and natural gas. Reduced petroleum demand translated into a 21.7% reduction in net petroleum imports. Natural gas demand and production fell, prompted by reduced economic activity and a substantial increase in prices. Crude oil prices fell for the first time in more than a decade. Weakened market conditions adversely affected the rate of domestic oil and gas exploration and development activities. Nonetheless, domestic crude oil production rose 1.2%. International activities were highlighted by a decline in crude oil production, especially by members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), a decrease in crude oil prices, and a substantial increase in electricity production by nuclear-powered utility plants in non-Communist countries. Energy production in the United States in 1982 remained essentially unchanged from that of 1981, as small gains in hydroelectric power and nuclear power production were offset by losses in natural gas production. For the third straight year, energy consumption in the United States declined. Whereas declines in 1980 and 1981 resulted primarily from consumer response to higher prices and conservation, the 1982 decline reflected primarily an economic slowdown, especially in industry. Annual per capita consumption fell to 306 million Btu, the lowest level since 1967. Changes in energy prices in 1982 were mixed. Whereas most petroleum prices declined, prices of natural gas, coal, and electricity rose

  14. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  15. Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Brunke, Michael A.; Pielke, Roger A.; Richard T. McNider; Christy, John R.; Herman, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous analyses of the Earth’s annual cycle and its trends have utilized surface temperature data sets. Here we introduce a new analysis of the global and hemispheric annual cycle using a satellite remote sensing derived data set during the period 1979–2009, as determined from the lower tropospheric (LT) channel of the MSU satellite. While the surface annual cycle is tied directly to the heating and cooling of the land areas, the tropospheric annual cycle involves additionally the gain or l...

  16. Energy Systems Group annual progress report 1 January - 31 December 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risoe National Laboratory during 1983. The activities may be roughly classified as energy planning, development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, and energy technology assessment. The report includes a list of staff members, as well as their experience and areas of interest. (author)

  17. Passive residual energy utilization system in thermal cycles on water-cooled power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a concept of a residual energy utilization in nuclear plants thermal cycles. After taking notice of the causes of the Fukushima nuclear plant accident, an idea arose to adapt a passive thermal circuit as part of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). One of the research topics of IEAv (Institute for Advanced Studies), as part of the heat conversion of a space nuclear power system is a passive multi fluid turbine. One of the main characteristics of this device is its passive capability of staying inert and be brought to power at moments notice. During the first experiments and testing of this passive device, it became clear that any small amount of gas flow would generate power. Given that in the first stages of the Fukushima accident and even during the whole event there was plenty availability of steam flow that would be the proper condition to make the proposed system to work. This system starts in case of failure of the ECCS, including loss of site power, loss of diesel generators and loss of the battery power. This system does not requires electricity to run and will work with bleed steam. It will generate enough power to supply the plant safety system avoiding overheating of the reactor core produced by the decay heat. This passive system uses a modified Tesla type turbine. With the tests conducted until now, it is possible to ensure that the operation of this new turbine in a thermal cycle is very satisfactory and it performs as expected. (author)

  18. Passive residual energy utilization system in thermal cycles on water-cooled power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Guilherme M.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F., E-mail: placco@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV/DCTA) Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, Rubens S. dos, E-mail: rsantos@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN -RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work presents a concept of a residual energy utilization in nuclear plants thermal cycles. After taking notice of the causes of the Fukushima nuclear plant accident, an idea arose to adapt a passive thermal circuit as part of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). One of the research topics of IEAv (Institute for Advanced Studies), as part of the heat conversion of a space nuclear power system is a passive multi fluid turbine. One of the main characteristics of this device is its passive capability of staying inert and be brought to power at moments notice. During the first experiments and testing of this passive device, it became clear that any small amount of gas flow would generate power. Given that in the first stages of the Fukushima accident and even during the whole event there was plenty availability of steam flow that would be the proper condition to make the proposed system to work. This system starts in case of failure of the ECCS, including loss of site power, loss of diesel generators and loss of the battery power. This system does not requires electricity to run and will work with bleed steam. It will generate enough power to supply the plant safety system avoiding overheating of the reactor core produced by the decay heat. This passive system uses a modified Tesla type turbine. With the tests conducted until now, it is possible to ensure that the operation of this new turbine in a thermal cycle is very satisfactory and it performs as expected. (author)

  19. Annual energy review 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a historical data report that tells many stories. It describes, in numbers, the changes that have occurred in US energy markets since the midpoint of the 20th century. In many cases, those markets differ vastly from those of a half-century ago. By studying the graphs and data tables presented in this report, readers can learn about past energy supply and usage in the United States and gain an understanding of the issues in energy and the environment now before use. While most of this year`s report content is similar to last year`s, there are some noteworthy developments. Table 1.1 has been restructured into more summarized groupings -- fossil fuels, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy -- to aid analysts in their examination of the basic trends in those broad categories. Readers` attention is also directed to the electricity section, where considerable reformatting of the tables and graphs has been carried out to help clarify past and recent trends in the electric power industry as it enters a period of radical restructuring. Table 9.1, which summarizes US nuclear generating units, has been redeveloped to cover the entire history of the industry in this country and to provide categories relevant in assessing the future of the industry, such as the numbers of ordered generating units that have been canceled and those that were built and later shut down. In general, the AER emphasizes domestic energy statistics. Sections 1 through 10 and Section 12 are devoted mostly to US data; Section 11 reports on international statistics and world totals. 140 figs., 141 tabs.

  20. Dynamic hybrid life cycle assessment of energy and carbon of multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Pei; Williams, Eric D

    2010-10-15

    This paper advances the life cycle assessment (LCA) of photovoltaic systems by expanding the boundary of the included processes using hybrid LCA and accounting for the technology-driven dynamics of embodied energy and carbon emissions. Hybrid LCA is an extended method that combines bottom-up process-sum and top-down economic input-output (EIO) methods. In 2007, the embodied energy was 4354 MJ/m(2) and the energy payback time (EPBT) was 2.2 years for a multicrystalline silicon PV system under 1700 kWh/m(2)/yr of solar radiation. These results are higher than those of process-sum LCA by approximately 60%, indicating that processes excluded in process-sum LCA, such as transportation, are significant. Even though PV is a low-carbon technology, the difference between hybrid and process-sum results for 10% penetration of PV in the U.S. electrical grid is 0.13% of total current grid emissions. Extending LCA from the process-sum to hybrid analysis makes a significant difference. Dynamics are characterized through a retrospective analysis and future outlook for PV manufacturing from 2001 to 2011. During this decade, the embodied carbon fell substantially, from 60 g CO(2)/kWh in 2001 to 21 g/kWh in 2011, indicating that technological progress is realizing reductions in embodied environmental impacts as well as lower module price. PMID:20860380

  1. Users' Requirements for Environmental Effects From Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Their Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the needs of the 21. century. The first part of the project focusses on the development of an understanding of the requirements of possible users of innovative concepts for reactors and fuel cycle applications. This paper reports progress made on the identification of user requirements as they relate to the environment and environmental protection. The user requirements being formulated are intended to limit adverse environmental effects from the different facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycles to be well below maximum acceptable levels. To determine if the user requirements are met, it is necessary to identify those factors that are relevant to assessment of the environmental performance of innovative nuclear systems. To this effect, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Material Flow accounting (MFA) methodologies are being appraised for the suitability for application. This paper develops and provides the rationale for the 'users' requirements' as they are currently defined. Existing Environmental Impact Assessment and Materials Flow Accounting methodologies that can be applied to determine whether or not innovative technologies conform to the User Requirements are briefly described. It is concluded that after establishing fundamental principles, it is possible to formulate sets of general and specific users' requirements against which, the potential adverse environmental effects to be expected from innovative nuclear energy systems (INES) can be assessed. The application of these users' requirements should keep the adverse environmental effects from INES's within acceptable limits. (authors)

  2. Life-cycle Energy Consumption of Urban Water System in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Liu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Within rapid urbanization and industrialization, Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in China, has been facing serious water shortage. More than 80% of water demand in Shenzhen, i.e., about 1.6 billion m3/yr, is satisfied by water diversion projects. A lot of energy has been used to extract, clean, store and transmit these water. In this paper, energy consumption of urban water system in Shenzhen, China was investigated from a life cycle perspective, and the water system can be divided into five subsystems, i.e., water diversion, water production & supply, household water use, sewage treatment and water reuse. Industrial water use was not considered here, because industrial production processes were so varied. The results showed that water diversion subsystem in Shenzhen consumed electricity of about 0.839 billion kWh/yr (0.53 kWh/m3), water production & supply subsystem about 1.241 billion kWh/yr (0.64 kWh/m3), household water use subsystem about 6.57 billion kWh/yr (9.65 kWh/m3) sewage treatment subsystem about 0.449 billion kWh/yr (0.29 kWh/m3) and water reuse treatment subsystem about 0.013 billion kWh/yr (0.33kWh/m3). So the human-related water system in Shenzhen consumes electricity of about 9.113 billion kWh/yr in total, accounting for about 11.0% of all the electricity use in Shenzhen. Among this, household water use subsystem consumed up to 72.1% of all electricity used in urban water system, followed by water production & supply subsystem (13.6%), water diversion subsystem (9.2%) and sewage treatment and reuse subsystem (5.1%). Unit energy consumption of sewage treatment and reuse subsystem was much less than that of water diversion subsystem, indicating local sewage resource development was advantageous on saving energy to water diversion from a long distance. Further, it implied that the best way to save energy in urban water system is to save portable water, since both water production and household use require to consume much energy.

  3. Simulation of the parabolic trough solar energy generation system with Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A parabolic trough solar power generation system with ORC is numerically simulated. ► The effects of key parameters on collector field and system performance are studied. ► Collector heat loss increases with small absorber and glass tube interlayer pressure. ► Heat collecting efficiency increases with initial increase of absorber HTO flow rate. ► Recommended thermal storage system volumes are different in year four typical days. -- Abstract: A model for a typical parabolic trough solar thermal power generation system with Organic Rankine Cycle (PT-SEGS–ORC) was built within the transient energy simulation package TRNSYS, which is formed by integrating several submodels for the trough collector system, the single-tank thermal storage system, the auxiliary power system and the heat-electricity conversion system. With this model, the effects of several key parameters, including the interlayer pressure between the absorber tube and the glass tube (pinter), the flow rate of high temperature oil in the absorber tube (v), solar radiation intensity (Idn) and incidence angle (θ), on the performance of the parabolic trough collector field based on the meteorological data of Xi’an city were examined. The study shows that the heat loss of the solar collector (qloss) increases sharply with the increase in pinter at beginning and then reaches to an approximately constant value. The variation of heat collecting efficiency (ηhc) with v is quite similar to the variation of qloss with pinter. However, Idn and θ exhibit opposite effect on ηhc. In addition, it is found that the optimal volume of the thermal storage system is sensitively dependent on the solar radiation intensity. The optimal volumes are 100, 150, 50, and 0 m3 for spring equinox, summer solstice, autumnal equinox and winter solstice, respectively.

  4. Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A.J.

    2010-12-31

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out of date or presented online with little supporting documentation. Often comparisons of energy systems inappropriately use 'efficiency' when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electric energy delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to build, operate, and decommission the facility.

  5. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass trigeneration system using an organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, energy and exergy analyses of a biomass trigeneration system using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) are presented. Four cases are considered for analysis: electrical-power, cooling-cogeneration, heating-cogeneration and trigeneration cases. The results obtained reveal that the best performance of the trigeneration system considered can be obtained with the lowest ORC evaporator pinch temperature considered, Tpp = 20 K, and the lowest ORC minimum temperature, T9 = 345 K. In addition, this study reveals that there is a significant improvement when trigeneration is used as compared to only electrical power production. This study demonstrates that the fuel utilization efficiency increases, in average, from 12% for electrical power to 88% for trigeneration. Moreover, the maximum exergy efficiency of the ORC is 13% and, when trigeneration is used, it increases to 28%. Furthermore, this study reveals that the electrical to cooling ratio can be controlled through changing the ORC evaporator pinch point temperature and/or the pump inlet temperature. In addition, the study reveals that the biomass burner and the ORC evaporator are the main two sources of exergy destruction. The biomass burner contributes to 55% of the total destructed exergy whereas the ORC evaporator contributes to 38% of the total destructed exergy. -- Highlights: ► The best performance can be obtained with the lowest ORC evaporator pinch temperature and the lowest ORC minimum temperature. ► There is, on average, 75 % gain in energy efficiency for trigeneration compared to electrical system. ► There is, on average, 17% gain in exergy efficiency when trigeneration is used as compared to electrical system. ► The electrical to cooling ratio is sensitive to the variation of the pinch point temperature and pump inlet temperature. ► The two main sources of the exergy destruction are the biomass burner with 55% and the ORC evaporator with 38%.

  6. Integration of energy-efficient empty fruit bunch drying with gasification/combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel integrated drying, gasification and combined cycle for empty fruit bunch. • Application of enhanced process integration to achieve high total energy efficiency. • The technology covers exergy recovery and process integration. • High overall energy efficiency can be achieved (about 44% including drying). - Abstract: A high-energy-efficient process for empty fruit bunch drying with integration to gasification and combined cycle processes is proposed. The enhancement is due to greater exergy recovery and more efficient process integration. Basically, the energy/heat involved in a single process is recovered as much as possible, leading to minimization of exergy destruction. In addition, the unrecoverable energy/heat is utilized for other processes through process integration. During drying, a fluidized bed dryer with superheated steam is used as the main evaporator. Exergy recovery is performed through exergy elevation via compression and effective heat coupling in a dryer and heat exchangers. The dried empty fruit bunches are gasified in a fluidized bed gasifier using air as the fluidizing gas. Furthermore, the produced syngas is utilized as fuel in the combined cycle module. From process analysis, the proposed integrated processes can achieve a relatively high energy efficiency. Compared to a standalone drying process employing exergy recovery, the proposed integrated drying can reduce consumed energy by about 1/3. In addition, the overall integrated processes can reach a total power generation efficiency of about 44%

  7. Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A.J.

    2011-12-31

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. The embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished plant. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy - heat is not as valuable as electrical energy.

  8. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle System with Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, C.; Dumont, O.; Nielsen, M. P.;

    2016-01-01

    power.This paper combines a dynamic model based on empirical data of the HP/ORC system with lessons learned from 140 heat pump installations operating in real-life conditions in a cold climate. These installations were monitored for a period up to 5 years.Based on the aforementioned model and real...... that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical......-life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water...

  9. Energy in Croatia 2003. Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports have kept domestic and international audience continuously informed about the latest relations and developments in the Croatian energy system. Annual report presents all characteristic indicators of the Croatian energy system in 2003, outlines their development over a longer past period, and suggests a future course of development of basic energy system indicators. Total primary energy supply in the Republic of Croatia in 2003 was 5.2 percent higher compared to the previous year. The gross domestic product increased by 4.3 percent over the same period. This means that energy intensity, primary energy supply per unit of gross domestic product, increased by 0.9 percent. Compared to the european Union average Croatian energy intensity was approximately 32 percent higher. Total primary energy production, on the other hand, decreased by 1.1 percent compared to 2002. This means that primary energy self-supply, which fell to 46.4 percent, reached its lowest level to-date in the observed period. The remaining energy needs were met by imports, which increased by 1.7 percent. In the structure of total primary energy supply, decrease has been observed only in energy conversion losses, while all other categories increased. Final energy demand increased by 6.7 percent in 2003, with the levels recorded in different sectors ranging from 2.5 percent in industry to 7.5 and 8 percent in transport and other sectors, respectively. In terms of final energy demand, an increase has been recorded in all energy forms except natural gas, whose consumption showed stagnation. This is due to lower consumption in the energy transformation sector and a significant 9.2 percent increase in its final energy demand. A continuous increase in electricity consumption - which reached 4.8 percent in the observed period - is worth nothing. Energy forms which recorded highest consumption increase levels in 2003 are coal (16 percent) and diesel fuel (15 percent). In contrast to the fast increase in

  10. Annual energy review 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report presents historical energy statistics on all major energy activities. The statistics cover consumption, production, trade, stock, and prices, for all major energy commodities including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources.

  11. Annual energy review 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents historical energy statistics on all major energy activities. The statistics cover consumption, production, trade, stock, and prices, for all major energy commodities including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources

  12. Annual energy review, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Review presents long-term historical energy data. US energy consumption, production, trade, and prices are included. Also covered are consumption indicators, energy resources, petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy. 5 figs., 129 tabs

  13. Energy and environmental analysis of an innovative system based on municipal solid waste (msw) pyrolysis and combined cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio, Paolo; Baratieri, Marco; Gasparella, Andrea; Longo, Giovanni A.

    2007-01-01

    Energy and environmental analysis of an innovative system based on municipal solid waste (msw) pyrolysis and combined cycle correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 0444 998726; fax: +39 0444 998888. (Longo, Giovanni A.) (Longo, Giovanni A.) University of Trento, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering - Via Mesiano 77--> , 38050 Trento--> - ITALY (Baggio, Paolo) University of Trento, Dept. ...

  14. Energy in Croatia 2002. Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review, in its own recognisable way, consists of the most recent and settled data on the Croatian energy system for the period up to and including the year 2002. Some data appertain to a longer time period with the aim of an easier insight into long-term prospects. In 2002 total primary energy supply exceeded the year before by 1.3 percent. Owing to the simultaneous growth of the gross domestic product by 5.2 percent, energy intensity decreased thus marking the third year of a positive trend. However, it has to be mentioned that energy intensity, which expresses the total energy consumed per unit of gross domestic product, exceeded the level of the developed European countries by 33 percent, although it was still more favourable than in the majority of transition countries. Supply from own sources fell to the less than 50 percent, and energy import, with oil in the leading position, recorded an average annual increase of 4.7 percent. In 2002 transformation losses as well as transportation and distribution losses decreased thus bringing about the already mentioned total energy consumption growth of 1.3 percent and final demand increase by 2.3 percent - this means that the energy system was more efficient. The year 2002 recorded a consumption increase in traffic by 6.2 percent, in other sectors by 3 percent, while industry realised a decrease by 3.9 percent. It should be emphasised that diesel fuel recorded a major increase and in the whole structure almost reached the level of the motor gasoline. From 1995 till the end of the period observed the gas distribution network was doubled in length. The report includes other interesting information about our energy system, i.e. capacities, energy, source prices, as well as environmental impact from the energy sector

  15. Plug-in vs. wireless charging: Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an electric bus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this study, plug-in and wireless charging for an all-electric bus system are compared from the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions perspectives. The comparison of life cycle GHG emissions is shown in the graph below. The major differences between the two systems, including the charger, battery and use-phase electricity consumption, are modeled separately and compared aggregately. In the base case, the wireless charging system consumes 0.3% less energy and emits 0.5% less greenhouse gases than plug-in charging system in the total life cycle. To further improve the energy and environmental performance of the wireless charging system, key parameters including grid carbon intensity and wireless charging efficiency are analyzed and discussed in this paper. - Highlights: • Compared life cycle energy and GHG emissions of wireless to plug-in charging. • Modeled a transit bus system to compare both charging methods as a case study. • Contrasted tradeoffs of infrastructure burdens with lightweighting benefits. • The wireless battery can be downsized to 27–44% of a plug-in charged battery. • Explored sensitivity of wireless charging efficiency & grid carbon intensity. - Abstract: Wireless charging, as opposed to plug-in charging, is an alternative charging method for electric vehicles (EVs) with rechargeable batteries and can be applicable to EVs with fixed routes, such as transit buses. This study adds to the current research of EV wireless charging by utilizing the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive framework for comparing the life cycle energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with a stationary wireless charging all-electric bus system to a plug-in charging all-electric bus system. Life cycle inventory analysis of both plug-in and wireless charging hardware was conducted, and battery downsizing, vehicle lightweighting and use-phase energy consumption were modeled. A bus system in Ann Arbor

  16. The Tasse concept (thorium based accelerator driven system with simplified fuel cycle for long term energy production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M. [IRI, TU Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste management studies, the ''one-component''. concept has to be considered as an attractive option in the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE (''Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production''.), destined to the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front and the back end of the fuel cycle, and his major goals are to provide electricity with low waste production, and with an economical competitiveness. (author)

  17. The Tasse concept (thorium based accelerator driven system with simplified fuel cycle for long term energy production)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste management studies, the ''one-component''. concept has to be considered as an attractive option in the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE (''Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production''.), destined to the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front and the back end of the fuel cycle, and his major goals are to provide electricity with low waste production, and with an economical competitiveness. (author)

  18. Energy budget of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system in solar Cycle 23

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU WenYao; DU AiMin

    2012-01-01

    The energy budget of the magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) system during 1998-2008 was examined by using Akasofu's epsilon function.The results showed that 1) the yearly average rate of solar wind energy input into the MI system was 4.51 GGJ (GGJ=1018 J),while the yearly average total dissipation was 4.30 GGJ; 2) the energy partitioning in the ring current and polar region was 56%:44%; 3) the energy input and dissipation processes continuously proceeded both in storm-substorm events and less disturbed intervals,suggesting the significant contribution of slow but long-lasting energy process during the less disturbance periods to the total energy budget.In addition,we found in this study an interesting phenomenon “self-adjustment ability” of the MI system which behaves just like a water reservoir.During solar active years,the input energy is more than the dissipated energy,implying that a portion of the input energy is not immediately released,but is stored in the magnetosphere.On the other hand,during less active years,the dissipated energy is more than the input energy,implying that the previously stored energy makes up for the energy input shortage in this period.

  19. Nuclear Energy System Department annual report. (April 1, 2002 - March 31, 2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Nuclear Energy System during the fiscal year of 2002 (April 1, 2002 - March 31, 2003). The Department has carried out researches and developments (R and Ds) of innovative nuclear energy system and their related fundamental technologies to ensure the long-term energy supply in Japan. The report deals with the R and Ds of an innovative water reactor, called Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR), which has the capability of multiple recycling and breeding of plutonium using light water reactor technologies. In addition, as basic studies and fundamental researches of nuclear energy system in general, described are intensive researches in the fields of reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics, nuclear data, nuclear fuels, and materials. These activities are essential not only for the R and Ds of innovative nuclear energy systems but also for the improvement of safety and reliability of current nuclear energy systems. The maintenance and operation of reactor engineering facilities belonging to the Department support experimental activities. The activities of the research committees to which the Department takes a role of secretariat are also summarized. (author)

  20. Cycling Performance of the Iron-Chromium Redox Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Extended charge-discharge cycling of this electrochemical storage system at 65 C was performed on 14.5 sq cm single cells and a four cell, 867 sq cm bipolar stack. Both the anolyte and catholyte reactant fluids contained 1 molar concentrations of iron and chromium chlorides in hydrochloric acid and were separated by a low-selectivity, cation-exchange membrane. The effect of cycling on the chromium electrode and the cation-exchange membrane was determined. Bismuth and bismuth-lead catalyzed chromium electrodes and a radiation-grafted polyethylene membrane were evaluated by cycling between 5 and 85 percent state-of-charge at 80 mA/sq cm and by periodic charge-discharge polarization measurements to 140 mA/sq cm. Gradual performance losses were observed during cycling but were recoverable by completely discharging the system. Good scale-up to the 867 sq cm stack was achieved. The only difference appeared to be an unexplained resistive-type loss which resulted in a 75 percent W-hr efficiency (at 80 mA/sq cm versus 81 percent for the 14.5 sq cm cell). A new rebalance cell was developed to maintain reactant ionic balance. The cell successfully reduced ferric ions in the iron reactant stream to ferrous ions while chloride ions were oxidized to chlorine gas.

  1. Nuclear energy system department annual report. April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Hajime; Ohnuki, Akira; Kunii, Katsuhiko (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Nuclear Energy System during the fiscal year of 2001 (April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2002). The Department has been organized from April 1998. The main research activity is aimed to build the basis of the development of future nuclear energy systems. The research activities of the Department cover basic nuclear data evaluation, conceptual design of a reduced-moderation water reactor, reactor physics experiments and development of the reactor analysis codes, experiment and analysis of thermal-hydrodynamics, energy system analysis and assessment, development of advanced materials for a reactor, lifetime reliability assessment on structural material, development of advanced nuclear fuel, design of a marine reactor and the research for a nuclear ship system. The maintenance and operation of reactor engineering facilities belonging to the Department are undertaken. The activities of the research committees to which the Department takes a role of secretariat are also summarized in this report. (author)

  2. Nuclear energy system department annual report. April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Nuclear Energy System during the fiscal year of 2001 (April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2002). The Department has been organized from April 1998. The main research activity is aimed to build the basis of the development of future nuclear energy systems. The research activities of the Department cover basic nuclear data evaluation, conceptual design of a reduced-moderation water reactor, reactor physics experiments and development of the reactor analysis codes, experiment and analysis of thermal-hydrodynamics, energy system analysis and assessment, development of advanced materials for a reactor, lifetime reliability assessment on structural material, development of advanced nuclear fuel, design of a marine reactor and the research for a nuclear ship system. The maintenance and operation of reactor engineering facilities belonging to the Department are undertaken. The activities of the research committees to which the Department takes a role of secretariat are also summarized in this report. (author)

  3. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V. (, - Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  4. Supplement to the annual energy outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This section of the Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 present the major assumptions of the modeling system used to generate the projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). In this context, assumptions include general features of the model structure, assumptions concerning energy markets, and the key input data and parameters that are most significant in formulating the model results. Detailed documentation of the modeling system is available in a series of documentation reports listed in Appendix B. A synopsis of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), the model components, and the interrelationships of the modules is presented. The NEMS is developed and maintained by the office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide projection of domestic energy-economy markets in the midterm time period and perform policy analyses requested by various government agencies and the private sector.

  5. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  6. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R2-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  7. Annual Energy Review, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents statistics on energy useage for 1995. A reviving domestic economy, generally low energy prices, a heat wave in July and August, and unusually cold weather in November and December all contributed to the fourth consecutive year of growth in U.S. total energy consumption, which rose to an all-time high of almost 91 quadrillion Btu in 1995 (1.3). The increase came as a result of increases in the consumption of natural gas, coal, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy. Petroleum was the primary exception, and its use declined by only 0.3 percent. (Integrating the amount of renewable energy consumed outside the electric utility sector into U.S. total energy consumption boosted the total by about 3.4 quadrillion Btu, but even without that integration, U.S. total energy consumption would have reached a record level in 1995.)

  8. Towards prospective life cycle sustainability analysis: exploring complementarities between social and environmental life cycle assessments for the case of Luxembourg's energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability typically relies on the durable interaction between humans and the environment. Historically, modelling tools such as environmental-life cycle assessment (E-LCA) have been developed to address the mitigation of environmental impacts generated by human activities. More recently, social-life cycle assessment (S-LCA) methods have been proposed to investigate the social sustainability sphere, looking at the life cycle effects generated by positive or negative pressures on social endpoints (i.e. well-being of stakeholders). Despite this promising added value, however, S-LCA methods still show limitations and challenges to be faced, e.g. regarding the lack of high quality datasets and the implementation of consensual social impact assessment indicators. This paper discusses on the complementarity between S-LCA and E-LCA towards the definition of prospective life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA) approaches. To this aim, a case study is presented comparing (i) E-LCA results of business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios of energy supply and demand technology changes in Luxembourg, up to 2025, based on economic equilibrium modeling and hybrid life cycle inventories, with (ii) a monetary-based input-output estimation of the related changes in the societal sphere. The results show that environmental and social issues do not follow the same impact trends. While E-LCA outputs highlight contrasting patterns, they do generally underlie a relatively low decrease in the aggregated environmental burdens curve (around 20% of decrease over the single-score impact trend over time). In contrast, social hotspots (identified in S-LCA by specific risk indicators of human rights, worker treatment, poverty, etc.) are typically increasing over time according to the growth of the final energy demand. Overall, the case study allowed identifying possible synergies and tradeoffs related to the impact of projected energy demands in Luxembourg. Despite the studied approach does not fully

  9. Diurnal to annual variations in the atmospheric water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ruane, Alexander C

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation examines aspects of diurnal to annual variability in the atmospheric water cycle in observations and global numerical weather prediction models. Investigations begin with an in-depth evaluation of variance at a single time scale, followed by a comprehensive analysis of a particular water cycle component, and finally a complete description of the balances and exchanges of water cycle components across time scales. Comparisons of global and regional reanalyses reveal ...

  10. International energy annual, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  11. Nuclear energy system department annual report. April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Nuclear Energy System during the fiscal year of 2000 (April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001). The Department has been organized from April 1998. The main research activity is aimed to build the basis of the development of future nuclear energy systems. The research activities of the Department cover basic nuclear and atomic and molecular data evaluation, conceptual design of a reduced-moderation water reactor, reactor physics experiments and development of the reactor analysis codes, experiment and analysis of thermal-hydrodynamics, energy system analysis and assessment, development of advanced materials for a reactor, lifetime reliability assessment on structural material, development of advanced nuclear fuel, study of nuclear transmutation systems, design of a marine reactor and the research for a nuclear ship system. The maintenance and operation of reactor engineering facilities belonging to the Department are undertaken. The activities of the research committees to which the Department takes a role of secretariat are also summarized in this report. (author)

  12. Nuclear energy system department annual report. April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Nuclear Energy System during the fiscal year of 1999 (April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000). The Department has been organized from April 1998. The main research activity is aimed to build the basis of the development of a future nuclear energy system. The research activities of the fiscal year cover basic nuclear and atomic and molecular data evaluation, conceptual design of a reduced-moderation water reactor, reactor physics experiments and development of the reactor analysis codes, experiment and analysis of thermal-hydrodynamics, development of advanced materials for a reactor, lifetime reliability assessment on structural material, development of advanced nuclear fuel, design of a marine reactor and the research for a nuclear ship system. The maintenance and operation of reactor engineering facilities belonging to the Department are undertaken. The activities of the research committee to which the Department takes a role of secretariat are also summarized in this report. (author)

  13. Nuclear energy system department annual report. April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Nuclear Energy System during the fiscal year of 1999 (April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000). The Department has been organized from April 1998. The main research activity is aimed to build the basis of the development of a future nuclear energy system. The research activities of the fiscal year cover basic nuclear and atomic and molecular data evaluation, conceptual design of a reduced-moderation water reactor, reactor physics experiments and development of the reactor analysis codes, experiment and analysis of thermal-hydrodynamics, development of advanced materials for a reactor, lifetime reliability assessment on structural material, development of advanced nuclear fuel, design of a marine reactor and the research for a nuclear ship system. The maintenance and operation of reactor engineering facilities belonging to the Department are undertaken. The activities of the research committee to which the Department takes a role of secretariat are also summarized in this report. (author)

  14. Advanced energy systems and technologies research in Finland. NEMO-2 Programme Annual Report 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced energy technologies were linked to the national energy research in the beginning of 1988 when energy research was reorganised in Finland. The Ministry of Trade and Industry established several energy research programmes and NEMO was one of them. Major objectives of the programme were to assess the potential of new energy systems for the national energy supply system and to promote industrial activities. Within the NEMO 2 programme for the years 1993-1998, research was focused on a few promising technological solutions. In the beginning of 1995, the national energy research activities were passed on to the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The NEMO 2 programme is directed towards those areas that have particular potential for commercial exploitation or development. Emphasis is placed particularly on solar and wind energy, as well as supporting technologies, such as energy storage and hydrogen technology. Resources have been focused on three specific areas: arctic wind technology, wind turbine components, and the integration of solar energy into applications (including thin film solar cells). In Finland, the growth of the new energy technology industry is concentrated on these areas. The turnover of the Finnish industry has been growing considerably due to the national research activities and support of technology development. The sales have increased more than 10 times compared with the year 1987 and is now over 300 million FIM. The support to industries and their involvement in the program has grown considerably. In this report, the essential research projects of the programme during 1996-1997 are described. The total funding for these projects was about 30 million FIM per year, of which the TEKES's share was about 40 per cent. The programme consists of 10 research projects, some 15 joint development projects, and 9 EU projects. In case the research projects and joint development projects are acting very closely, the description of the project is

  15. Advanced energy systems and technologies research in Finland. NEMO-2 Programme Annual Report 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Advanced energy technologies were linked to the national energy research in the beginning of 1988 when energy research was reorganised in Finland. The Ministry of Trade and Industry established several energy research programmes and NEMO was one of them. Major objectives of the programme were to assess the potential of new energy systems for the national energy supply system and to promote industrial activities. Within the NEMO 2 programme for the years 1993-1998, research was focused on a few promising technological solutions. In the beginning of 1995, the national energy research activities were passed on to the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The NEMO 2 programme is directed towards those areas that have particular potential for commercial exploitation or development. Emphasis is placed particularly on solar and wind energy, as well as supporting technologies, such as energy storage and hydrogen technology. Resources have been focused on three specific areas: arctic wind technology, wind turbine components, and the integration of solar energy into applications (including thin film solar cells). In Finland, the growth of the new energy technology industry is concentrated on these areas. The turnover of the Finnish industry has been growing considerably due to the national research activities and support of technology development. The sales have increased more than 10 times compared with the year 1987 and is now over 300 million FIM. The support to industries and their involvement in the program has grown considerably. In this report, the essential research projects of the programme during 1996-1997 are described. The total funding for these projects was about 30 million FIM per year, of which the TEKES`s share was about 40 per cent. The programme consists of 10 research projects, some 15 joint development projects, and 9 EU projects. In case the research projects and joint development projects are acting very closely, the description of the project is

  16. What regulates the annual cycle of stratospheric water vapor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucker, Martin; Gerber, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Stratospheric water vapor is a potent greenhouse gas and active chemical tracer. Most of the stratosphere is well below saturation due to freeze drying at the tropical cold point -- the coldest region of the lower stratosphere where most air enters the middle atmosphere. The leading mode of variability of the tropical cold point is an annual cycle, despite the semi-annual cycle of radiative forcing in the tropics. This causes the stratospheric water vapor mixing ratio to follow a similar annual cycle, even remotely from the entry point, the so-called tape recorder. We develop an idealized GCM to investigate the origin of the annual cycle in the tropical cold point, with a particular focus on the interaction between dynamics and radiation. By varying the surface conditions of the model, we first show that planetary scale asymmetries in the midlatitude troposphere drive the annual cycle in the cold point. Both large scale topography and land sea contrast are important, influencing synoptic and planetary scale wave forcing. We then probe the impact of water vapor on the stratospheric circulation by comparing fully interactive integrations of the model to companion integrations where the coupling between the circulation and water vapor is disconnected. Our findings have implications in estimating the impacts of stratospheric water vapor feedbacks on decadal time scales and sensitivities to climate change.

  17. Thermal analysis on N2 and S-CO2 Brayton cycle for the energy conversion system of small scale ultra-long cycle fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultra-long cycle fast reactor (UCFR) is one of the SFR designs operating in a long cycle without refueling. The operational mechanism of long cycle fast reactor is once-through fuel cycle through breed and burn system. The benefits of long cycle fast reactor include capital/operation cost reductions, low proliferation risk, and the interim storage of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. For the power conversion system of next generation nuclear reactor, Brayton cycle has been mainly considered. Brayton cycle not only increases overall thermal efficiency in corresponding temperature range of GenIV reactors, but also solves sodium-water reaction issues. As a working fluid in Brayton cycle, many inactive gases are selected. For the power conversion system of next generation nuclear reactor, Brayton cycle has been mainly considered. Among the candidates for working fluid in Brayton power cycle, S-CO2 and N2 are analyzed in thermal aspect. For the major parameters including maximum system pressure, isentropic efficiencies of compressor and turbine, and pinch point, S-CO2 cycle shows the highest thermal performance. However, N2 cycle without intermediate loop gives comparable thermal performance, if high pressure around 70 bar and high isentropic efficiency of each component are maintained

  18. Annual energy review, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical and current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States are presented. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  19. The influence of control algorithm on the annual energy consumption of automated climate systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azivskaya S.S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the estimation of energy consumption of the automated ventilating systems and air conditionings (V and AC under condition of their regulation "on deviation" is reviewed.The analysis of processes descending in V and AC and maintained room is given. The outcomes of numerical calculation of a non-steady thermal mode of a room with the computer program designed by authors are adduced. Calculations were organized on different combinations of radiant and convective components of variable heat ingress.The optimal control algorithm of V and AC from the point of view of minimal general energy consumption during the heating system is found. The presentation is illustrated by a graphic stuff and by a numerical example of technical and economical estimation of optimal control algorithm using.

  20. Non-ideal torque control of wind turbine systems: Impacts on annual energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Hackl, Christoph M.; Schechner, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    We discuss non-ideal torque control in wind turbine systems (WTS). Most high-level controllers generate a reference torque which is then send to the underlying electrical drive system (generator+inverter) of the WTS to steer the turbine/generator to its optimal operation point (depending on the wind speed). The energy production heavily depends on the mechanical power (i.e. the product of rotational speed and generator torque). However, since torque sensors in the MW range are not available o...

  1. Annual Energy Review 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Fifty Years of History. That’s what you will find in this report—energy data from 1949 through 1998. Remarkable change occurred in half a century. The U.S. population grew by 82 percent while consumption of energy increased by 194 percent. At the end of the period, the average amount of energy used per person in one year was 62 percent greater than at the beginning. At mid-century, America was nearly self-sufficient in petroleum; we were a net exporter of natural gas; most of our coal came from underground mines and was produced at the rate of seven-tenths of a short ton per miner hour; nuclear electric power had not been developed; and almost twice as much electricity was used at industrial sites as in homes. Near the end of the century, half of the petroleum we use comes from other countries; 15 percent of our natural gas consumption is imported; more of our coal comes from surface mines than underground mines and U.S. miners produce coal at a rate of over 6 short tons per miner hour; about a fifth of U.S. electricity is supplied by nuclear electric power; and residences use more electricity than industrial sites.

  2. Analysis and performance assessment of a multigenerational system powered by Organic Rankine Cycle for a net zero energy house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper develops a new Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based multigenerational system to meet the demands of a net zero energy building and assesses such a system for an application to a net zero energy house in Lebanon. Solar energy is the prime source for the integrated system to achieve multigeneration to supply electricity, fresh and hot water, seasonal heating and cooling. The study starts by optimizing the power system with and without grid connection. Then, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis through energy and exergy, and a parametric study to assess the sensitivity and improvements of the overall system are conducted. Furthermore, exergoeconomic analysis and a follow-up optimization study for optimizing the total system cost to the overall system efficiency using genetic algorithm to obtain the optimal design or a set of optimal designs (Pareto Front), are carried out. The present results show that the optimum solar energy system for a total connected load to the house of 90 kWh/day using a combination of ORC, batteries, convertor has a total net present cost of US $52,505.00 (based on the prices in 2013) with a renewable energy fraction of 1. Moreover, the optimization for the same connected load with ORC, batteries and converter configuration with grid connection results in a total net present cost of $50,868.00 (2013) with a renewable energy fraction of 0.992 with 169 kg/yr of CO2 emissions. In addition, exergoeconomic analysis of the overall system yields a cost of $117,700.00 (2013), and the multi-objective optimization provides the overall exergetic efficiency by 14% at a total system cost increase of $10,500.00 (2013). - Highlights: • To develop a new Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based multigenerational system to meet the demands of a net zero energy building. • To perform a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis through energy and exergy approaches. • To apply an exergoeconomic model for exergy-based cost accounting. • To undertake

  3. Diagnostic metrics for evaluation of annual and diurnal cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology and International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kikuchi, Kazuyoshi [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kitoh, Akio [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Two sets of diagnostic metrics are proposed for evaluation of global models' simulation of annual and diurnal cycles of precipitation. The metrics for the annual variation include the annual mean, the solstice and equinoctial asymmetric modes of the annual cycle (AC), and the global monsoon precipitation domain and intensity. The metrics for the diurnal variation include the diurnal range, the land-sea contrast and transition modes of the diurnal cycle (DC), and the diurnal peak propagation in coastal regions. The proposed modes for the AC and DC represent faithfully the first two leading empirical orthogonal functions and explain, respectively, 82% of the total annual variance and 87% of the total diurnal variance over the globe between 45 S and 45 N. The simulated AC and DC by the 20-km-mesh MRI/JMA atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) are in a wide-ranging agreement with observations; the model considerably outperforms any individual AMIP II GCMs and has comparable performance to 12-AMIP II model ensemble simulation measured by Pearson's pattern correlation coefficient. Comparison of four versions of the MRI/JMA AGCM with increasing resolution (180, 120, 60, and 20 km) reveals that the 20-km version reproduces the most realistic annual and diurnal cycles. However, the improved performance is not a linear function of the resolution. Marked improvement of the simulated DC (AC) occurs at the resolution of 60 km (20 km). The results suggest that better represented parameterizations that are adequately tuned to increased resolutions may improve models' simulation on the forced responses. The common deficiency in representing the monsoon domains suggests the models having difficulty in replicating annual march of the Subtropical Highs that is largely driven by prominent east-west land-ocean thermal contrast. Note that the 20-km model reproduces realistic diurnal cycle, but fails to capture realistic Madden-Julian Oscillation. (orig.)

  4. Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Brunke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of the Earth’s annual cycle and its trends have utilized surface temperature data sets. Here we introduce a new analysis of the global and hemispheric annual cycle using a satellite remote sensing derived data set during the period 1979–2009, as determined from the lower tropospheric (LT channel of the MSU satellite. While the surface annual cycle is tied directly to the heating and cooling of the land areas, the tropospheric annual cycle involves additionally the gain or loss of heat between the surface and atmosphere. The peak in the global tropospheric temperature in the 30 year period occurs on 10 July and the minimum on 9 February in response to the larger land mass in the Northern Hemisphere. The actual dates of the hemispheric maxima and minima are a complex function of many variables which can change from year to year thereby altering these dates.Here we examine the time of occurrence of the global and hemispheric maxima and minima lower tropospheric temperatures, the values of the annual maxima and minima, and the slopes and significance of the changes in these metrics.  The statistically significant trends are all relatively small. The values of the global annual maximum and minimum showed a small, but significant trend. Northern and Southern Hemisphere maxima and minima show a slight trend toward occurring later in the year. Most recent analyses of trends in the global annual cycle using observed surface data have indicated a trend toward earlier maxima and minima.

  5. Nuclear Energy System Department annual report (April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Nuclear Energy System during the fiscal year of 1998 (April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999). The Department has been organized from April 1998. The main research activity is aimed to build the basis of the development of future nuclear energy system. The research activities of the fiscal year cover basic nuclear and atomic and molecular data evaluation, conceptual design of reduced-moderation water reactor, development of reactor analysis code, reactor physics study on fast neutron system, control and sensing technology development for nuclear reactor, experiment and analysis of thermal-hydrodynamics, development of advanced material for reactor, lifetime reliability assessment on structural material for advanced reactor, development of advanced nuclear fuel, design of marine reactor and the research for nuclear ship system. The maintenance and operation of reactor engineering facilities belonging to the Department are undertaken. The activities of the research committee to which the Department takes a role of secretariat are also summarized in this report. The 98 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Nuclear Energy System Department annual report (April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Nuclear Energy System during the fiscal year of 1998 (April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999). The Department has been organized from April 1998. The main research activity is aimed to build the basis of the development of future nuclear energy system. The research activities of the fiscal year cover basic nuclear and atomic and molecular data evaluation, conceptual design of reduced-moderation water reactor, development of reactor analysis code, reactor physics study on fast neutron system, control and sensing technology development for nuclear reactor, experiment and analysis of thermal-hydrodynamics, development of advanced material for reactor, lifetime reliability assessment on structural material for advanced reactor, development of advanced nuclear fuel, design of marine reactor and the research for nuclear ship system. The maintenance and operation of reactor engineering facilities belonging to the Department are undertaken. The activities of the research committee to which the Department takes a role of secretariat are also summarized in this report. The 98 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Novel Energy-Efficient Miner Monitoring System with Duty-Cycled Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Guo; Tao Jiang; Kui Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Target monitoring is an important application of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we develop an energy-efficient miner monitoring system with sensor nodes. To keep monitoring miners’ activities in tunnels, periodical localization and timely data transmission are both required. Since the localization and data transmission much depend on the media access control (MAC) scheme, codesign of localization and MAC scheme is actually needed for the resource-constrained system, which is seldom ...

  8. Mirador - Water and Energy Cycles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Through water and energy cycle research we can improve hurricane prediction, quantify tropical rainfall and eventually begin...

  9. Life-cycle analysis of the total Danish energy system. An assessment of the present Danish energy system and selected furture scenarios. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmel, B.; Soerensen, B.

    1997-01-01

    The promise of life-cycle analysis (LCA) is to enable the incorporation of environmental and social impacts into decision-making processes. The challenge is to do it on the basis of the always incomplete and uncertain data available, in a way that is sufficiently transparent to avoid that the modeller introduces any particular bias into the decision process, by the way of selecting and treating the incomplete data. The life-cycle analysis of the currently existing system is to be seen as a reference, against which alternative solutions to the same problem is weighed. However, as it takes time to introduce new systems, the alternative scenarios are for a future situation, which is chosen as the middle of the 21st century. The reason for using a 30-50 year period is a reflection on the time needed for a smooth transition to an energy system based on sources different from the ones used today, with implied differences all the way through the conversion and end-use system. A scenario will only be selected if it has been identified and if there is social support for it, so construction of more exotic scenarios by the researcher would only be meaningful, if its advantages are so convincing that an interest can be created and the necessary social support be forthcoming. One may say that the energy scenarios based on renewable energy sources are in this category, as they were identified by a minority group (of scientists and other individuals) and successfully brought to the attention of the public debate during 1970ies. In any case it should be kept in mind, that no claim of having identified the optimum solution can be made after assessing a finite number of scenarios. (EG) 88 refs.

  10. IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-05-01

    The twenty-third IEA Wind Energy Annual Report reviews the progress during 2000 of the activities in the Implementing Agreement for Co-operation in the Research and Development on Wind Turbine Systems under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). The agreement and its program, which is known as IEA R&D Wind, is a collaborative venture among 19 contracting parties from 17 IEA member countries and the European Commission.

  11. Hydrogen--halogen energy storage system. Annual report, January--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBreen, J.; Srinivasan, S.; Salzano, F.J.; Beaufrere, A.H.

    1978-09-01

    Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory on the electrochemically regenerative hydrogen--chlorine energy storage system has included electrochemical investigations, materials studies, and technoeconomic assessment. Electrochemical studies have confirmed the reversibility of the cell reactions and the possibility of using the same cell in the electrolysis and fuel cell mode. The hydrogen--chlorine cell differs from most batteries in that the open circuit potential varies appreciably with temperature and depth of discharge. The temperature variation of the open circuit potential reflects the large negative entropy of formation of HCl. A detailed heat and mass balance analysis has been carried out for the H/sub 2//Cl/sub 2/ system for one method of reactant storage and two schemes of heat exchange between the hydrochloric acid storage subsystem and the reactant storage subsystems. Characterization of Nafion membranes in H/sub 2//Cl/sub 2/ cells is reported. From a cost comparison on a 20 MW/200 MWh electrochemically regenerative hydrogen--halogen system it was concluded that the use of either clorine or bromine or alternative methods of chlorine storage had an insignificant effect on the overall cost of the system. The most cost effective method of hydrogen storage is very dependent on the cost of activated metal hydrides.

  12. Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

  13. Energetic analysis of a novel vehicle power and cooling/heating cogeneration energy system using cascade cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposes and investigates a novel VCES (Vehicle power and cooling/heating Cogeneration Energy System), including a topping vehicle engine subsystem, and a bottoming waste-heat recovery subsystem which uses the zeotropic working fluid. The various grade exhaust and coolant waste-heat of the topping subsystem are cascade recovered by the bottoming subsystem, and slide-temperature thermal match in waste heat recovery heat exchangers and the condenser is considered also, obtaining power output and cooling/heating capacity. Based on the experimental data from an actual vehicle's energy demands and its waste-heat characteristics, the proposed VCES (vehicle cogeneration energy system) model is built and verified. Using ammonia-water as working fluid of the bottoming subsystem, integrated thermodynamic performances of the VCES are discussed through introducing three variables: an ambient temperature, the vehicle's velocity and the number of seated occupants. The influence of above three variables on the proposed VCES′ overall thermodynamic performance is analyzed by comparing it to a conventional VCES, and suitable operation conditions are recommended under cooling and heating conditions. - Highlights: • A novel vehicle cogeneration energy system is proposed. • Slide-temperature thermal match at two levels are considered. • Integration of the topping vehicle engine and bottoming waste heat recovery cycle is designed. • The cogeneration system model is built and verified based on experimental data. • Energy-saving potential of the proposed system is investigated

  14. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  15. Energy systems group environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil, vegetation, and surface water were routinely sampled for radioactivity to a distance of 10 miles from Energy Systems Group (ESG) sites. Continuous ambient air sampling and radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed on-site for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from ESG facilities is continuously sampled and monitored to ensure that levels released to unrestricted areas are within appropriate limits, and to identify processes which may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity levels in such effluents. In addition, selected nonradioactive constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to unrestrictted areas are determined. Monitoring results for 1979 are summarized and discussed. The random variations observed in the environmental monitoring data indicate that no local source of unnatural radioactive material exists in the environs. Additionally, the similarity between on-site and off-site results further indicates that the contribution to general environmental radioactivity due to operations at the ESG is essentially nonexistent. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources and to fallout of radioactive material from foreign atmospheric testing of nuclear devices

  16. Assumptions for the Annual Energy Outlook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an auxiliary document to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO) (DOE/EIA-0383(93)). It presents a detailed discussion of the assumptions underlying the forecasts in the AEO. The energy modeling system is an economic equilibrium system, with component demand modules representing end-use energy consumption by major end-use sector. Another set of modules represents petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity supply patterns and pricing. A separate module generates annual forecasts of important macroeconomic and industrial output variables. Interactions among these components of energy markets generate projections of prices and quantities for which energy supply equals energy demand. This equilibrium modeling system is referred to as the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS). The supply models in IFFS for oil, coal, natural gas, and electricity determine supply and price for each fuel depending upon consumption levels, while the demand models determine consumption depending upon end-use price. IFFS solves for market equilibrium for each fuel by balancing supply and demand to produce an energy balance in each forecast year

  17. The annual cycle in lower stratospheric temperatures revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fueglistaler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Observed lower stratospheric temperatures show a prominent annual cycle. The cycles in the tropics and Northern Hemisphere are in phase and the cycle in the Southern Hemisphere has the opposite phase. In an elegant and influential paper, Yulaeva, Holton and Wallace (1994 explained the observed pattern as a direct consequence of hemispheric asymmetries in the dynamical forcing of the stratospheric circulation. They showed that in Microwave Sounding Unit channel 4 (weighting centered in the lower stratosphere data the combined extratropical and the tropical temperature cycle nearly compensate and interpreted the out-of-phase temperature variations between tropics and extratropics as the temperature response to an annual cycle in the wave driven residual circulation. We show that the near-compensation of temperature variations observed by Yulaeva et al. (1994 is artefact of the weighting function of the MSU-4 channel and does not hold on individual pressure levels. We discuss in detail the conditions required that temperature variations compensate, and what insights can be obtained from analysis of tropical, extratropical and global mean temperature variations. Dynamically induced seasonal variations of lower stratospheric ozone lead to an amplification of the seasonal temperature cycle particularly in the tropics. The latitudinal structure of static stability also induces a significant deviation from compensation of tropical and combined extratropical temperature variations. In line with Yulaeva et al. (1994 we affirm that the see-saw pattern in the annual cycles of tropical and combined extratropical temperatures provides an important pointer to mechanistic models for interannual variability and trends, but additionally conclude that the feedback of dynamically induced ozone variations on temperatures and the latitudinal structure of static stability should be included as leading order processes in such models.

  18. Conceptual design of a thermo-electrical energy storage system based on heat integration of thermodynamic cycles – Part B: Alternative system configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo-electrical energy storage (TEES) based on thermodynamic cycles is currently under investigation at ABB corporate research as an alternative solution to more consolidated but site-dependent electricity storage technologies such as pump-hydro or compressed air energy storage. During charge electricity is converted into thermal energy by means of a heat pump and during discharge a thermal engine converts thermal energy into electricity. The synthesis and the thermodynamic optimization of a TEES system based on hot water, ice storage and on transcritical CO2 cycles is discussed in two papers (part A and part B). A methodology for the conceptual design of a TEES system based on Pinch Analysis tools was introduced in part A together with the results of a thermodynamic optimization of a base case. The overall synthesis problem was solved by implementing in the optimization a heuristic procedure for the synthesis of the heat exchanger network and the storage tanks thus letting the optimal complete system structure and its design parameters to be found for given values of cycle parameters. In part A, basic topologies for the CO2 heat pump (HP) and thermal engine (TE) were considered, and no alternative cycle configurations were investigated through the optimization. A larger synthesis problem involving the change of cycle topologies is addressed in this second paper. Different system configurations were generated by modifying the base case configuration through an organized procedure and were optimized separately following the objective of maximum roundtrip efficiency only, as done for the base case in part A. The optimization results of the new configurations are discussed and compared with the base case scenario. A complete picture of the impact of design choices on the maximum system performances is obtained. -- Highlights: ► A thermo-electrical energy storage (TEES) system based on hot water, ice storage and transcritical CO2 cycles is investigated.

  19. Talisman Energy : 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Calgary-based Talisman Energy was presented in this annual report and a review of their 2002 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Talisman Energy is one of Canada's leading natural gas producers and a successful international operator. In 2002, the company posted its fourth consecutive year of record cash flow per share and production was up 6 per cent to 445,000 boe per day, a record high. Production in the North Sea was increased by 15 per cent as 2 new oil fields were brought on stream. The major oil and gas development projects in Malaysia and Vietnam are more than 60 per cent complete. Talisman also announced the sale of its 25 per cent interest in Sudan. This annual report includes an auditor's report of the companies financial statements and summarized the company's energy resource activities. An operations review was also presented along with consolidated financial statements, summarized balance sheet of assets, liabilities/surplus and net assets, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  20. The Biogeochemical Cycling of Nitrogen in Annual and Perennial Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, A.; Cogger, C.

    2010-12-01

    Organic agricultural systems are dependent upon fertilizer amendments that undergo ammonification prior to the release of plant available nitrogen (N) as ammonium. Ammonia may be further transformed via nitrification to nitrate resulting in greater potential for leaching or volatilization. Additions of plant residue and animal amendments contribute to soil N and carbon pools improving soil quality and the potential for release of ammonium. Therefore, agricultural systems that relay on organic inputs as fertilizer sources must be monitored to insure stored nutrients are released during plant uptake to prevent N losses. Our experimental design allows us to determine the effects of several organic cropping systems and fertility regimes on plant available N, nitrification potential and nitrifier gene copy number g-1 dry soil across season in a grass ley and two annual systems receiving chicken manure or compost. Nitrification potentials measured via the shaken slurry method, KCl extractable N and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) gene copy numbers g-1 dry soil measured via quantitative PCR were monitored. Nitrification potentials measured in March revealed increases in nitrification where compost had historically been applied (7.78 vs. 5.26 ± 0.856). Treatment affects were significant in June the closest date to application of amendments and when ammonification from soil N was optimal. Animal amendments were added yearly in annual systems (31.0 ± 2.91) vs every three years in the ley pasture (12.9 ± 2.91) resulting in a management effect. Copy numbers of AOB (2.69 x 108 ± 4.94 x 107) were greatest in plots receiving compost vs chicken manure. Preliminary measurements of AOA gene copy numbers reveal a similar trend to that of AOB. But, gene copy numbers of AOA (105 to 106) were lower than those of AOB. Nitrification potentials were not different across treatments in September, 11.8 ± 2.28. This research will contribute to the development of novel

  1. IECEC '91; Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Boston, MA, Aug. 4-9, 1991. Vol. 5 - Renewable resource systems, Stirling engines and applications, systems and cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various papers on energy conversion engineering are presented. The general topics considered are: developments in nuclear power, energy from waste and biomass, system performance and materials in photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, wind energy systems, Stirling cycle analysis, Stirling cycle power, Stirling component technology, Stirling cooler/heat pump developments, Stirling engine concepts, Stirling engine design and optimization, Stirling engine dynamics and response, Stirling engine solar terrestrial, advanced cogeneration, AMTC, fossil fuel systems and technologies, marine energy

  2. CO_2 Annual and Semiannual Cycles From Multiple Satellite Retrievals and Models

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xun; Crisp, David; Olsen, Edward T.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Miller, Charles E.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Liang, Maochang; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite CO_2 retrievals from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and in-situ measurements from the Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA-ESRL) Surface CO_2 and Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) are utilized to explore the CO_2 variability at different altitudes. A multiple regression method is used to calculate the CO_2 annual cycle and semiannual cycle amplitudes from different data...

  3. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Tracing Energy and Carbon through a Fuel-Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used by engineers to make measurements of net energy, greenhouse gas production, water consumption, and other items of concern. This article describes an activity designed to walk students through the qualitative part of an LCA. It asks them to consider the life-cycle costs of ethanol production, in terms of…

  4. Solar cycle signatures in the NCEP equatorial annual oscillation

    OpenAIRE

    H. G. Mayr; Mengel, J. G.; F. T. Huang; Nash, E. R.

    2009-01-01

    Our analysis of temperature and zonal wind data (1958 to 2006) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis (Re-1), supplied by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), shows that the hemispherically symmetric 12-month equatorial annual oscillation (EAO) contains spectral signatures with periods around 11 years. Moving windows of 44 years show that, below 20 km, the 11-year modulation of the EAO is phase locked to the solar cycle (SC). The spectral feat...

  5. Trends in the amplitude of Baltic Sea level annual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo (Inst. for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (DE)). e-mail: birgit.huenicke@gkss.de

    2008-01-15

    Baltic Sea tide gauge data and climatic data sets are statistically analysed to investigate the centennial trends in the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic sea level. In almost all gauge stations analysed, an increase of the amplitude (winter-spring sea level) is detected. These trends are not large compared to the decadal variations of the annual cycle, but they are statistically significant. The magnitude of the trends is almost spatially uniform, with exception of the Skagerrak area. Since interannual and decadal variability of sea level displays a clear spatial pattern, the mechanism responsible for the trends in the annual cycle seem to be not regional, but affect the Baltic Sea basin as a whole. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain these centennial trends on the winter-minus-spring sea level: wind (through the SLP field), the barometric effect, temperature and precipitation. By elimination of three of the working hypothesis, seasonal Baltic precipitation remains a plausible candidate. For the other three, either the sign or magnitude of the trend makes them unlikely the sole explanation

  6. Life cycle assessment and evaluation of energy payback time on high-concentration photovoltaic power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, A.; Hayashi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Hirota, M.; Kato, S. [Mie Univ., Tsu, Mie (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ito, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Integrated Research Inst.; Araki, K. [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan). Research and Development Lab.; Hu, E.J. [Deakin Univ., Geelong, Victoria (Australia). School of Engineering and Information Technology

    2008-07-01

    Photovoltaic power generation (PV) which uses renewable solar energy is considered to be a promising technology to meet the rapidly increasing energy demands of the future. In particular, a high-concentration photovoltaic power generation system (HCPV) has the advantage of high power conversion efficiency by a small solar cell chip with the aid of a solar radiation concentration lens. This study used a life cycle assessment (LCA) scheme to evaluate the environmental load of a very large-scale PV system during its life cycle. It also estimated the energy payback time (EPT) which is usually used for energy recovery evaluation. Two hypothetical case studies in Toyohashi, Japan and Gobi dessert in China were used to determine how location and PV type affect the environmental load and EPT of an HCPV. The study involved the use of a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic power generation system (mc-Si PV). This flat plate type PV system is usually placed on roofs and is a competitor for HCPV. The study showed that for a 100 MW PV system, the total impacts of the HCPV installed in Toyohashi was larger than that of the HCPV installed in Gobi desert by 5 per cent, without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of the HCPV installed in Gobi desert was shorter than the EPT of the HCPV installed in Toyohashi by 0.64 year. The results indicated that it is preferable to install a PV system in the Gobi desert. A comparison of the HCPV and mc-Si PV showed that the ratio of the total impacts of the mc-Si PV to that of the HCPV was 0.34 without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of the HCPV was longer than the EPT of the mc-Si PV by 0.27 year. The amount of global solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of the mc-Si PV was larger than the amount of direct solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of the HCPV by about 188 kWh/(m{sup 2} per year) in the Gobi desert. It was concluded that the using the mc-Si PV in the Gobi desert

  7. Life Cycle Network Modeling Framework and Solution Algorithms for Systems Analysis and Optimization of the Water-Energy Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Garcia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The water footprint of energy systems must be considered, as future water scarcity has been identified as a major concern. This work presents a general life cycle network modeling and optimization framework for energy-based products and processes using a functional unit of liters of water consumed in the processing pathway. We analyze and optimize the water-energy nexus over the objectives of water footprint minimization, maximization of economic output per liter of water consumed (economic efficiency of water, and maximization of energy output per liter of water consumed (energy efficiency of water. A mixed integer, multiobjective nonlinear fractional programming (MINLFP model is formulated. A mixed integer linear programing (MILP-based branch and refine algorithm that incorporates both the parametric algorithm and nonlinear programming (NLP subproblems is developed to boost solving efficiency. A case study in bioenergy is presented, and the water footprint is considered from biomass cultivation to biofuel production, providing a novel perspective into the consumption of water throughout the value chain. The case study, optimized successively over the three aforementioned objectives, utilizes a variety of candidate biomass feedstocks to meet primary fuel products demand (ethanol, diesel, and gasoline. A minimum water footprint of 55.1 ML/year was found, economic efficiencies of water range from −$1.31/L to $0.76/L, and energy efficiencies of water ranged from 15.32 MJ/L to 27.98 MJ/L. These results show optimization provides avenues for process improvement, as reported values for the energy efficiency of bioethanol range from 0.62 MJ/L to 3.18 MJ/L. Furthermore, the proposed solution approach was shown to be an order of magnitude more efficient than directly solving the original MINLFP problem with general purpose solvers.

  8. Energy in Croatia 2007, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a great deal of pleasure we present the sixteenth edition of the review Energy in Croatia. With this Review the Ministry of Economy, Labor and Entrepreneurship continues the practice of informing domestic and foreign public on relations and trends within the Croatian energy sector. This Review gives data and characteristic values relevant to the Croatian energy sector, providing an overview on energy production and consumption at all levels. There is a detailed analysis of the trends present in the energy sector as well as a number of information on capacities, reserves, prices and energy balances for crude oil, all petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, heat energy, coal and renewable energy sources. The Review also brings the main economic and financial indicators, data on air pollutant emissions and main energy efficiency indicators. It also gives the ODEX energy efficiency index, which is determined according to the methodology used in the European Union. This indicator monitors the energy efficiency trends over a period of time in the sectors of industry, transport, households and in total consumption. Finally, the Review brings the energy balances of the Republic of Croatia for the years 2006 and 2007, made following the EUROSTAT and IEA methodologies. Total annual energy consumption in Croatia in 2007 increased by 1.5 percent from the previous year. At the same time gross domestic product increased by 5.6 percent, which resulted in a continuing energy intensity reduction, by 3.8 percent. In relation the European Union (EU 27), energy intensity in Croatia was 16.5 percent above the European average. In 2007 the Croatian production of primary energy decreased by 6.4 percent. The production decrease was recorded in most of primary energy forms. The only energy forms with growing production in 2007 were natural gas production and energy from renewable sources. Due to unfavorable hydrology in 2007, hydro power utilization decreased by 27.4 percent

  9. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, water and land use for concentrated solar power plants with different energy backup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrated solar power (CSP) is unique among intermittent renewable energy options because for the past four years, utility-scale plants have been using an energy storage technology that could allow a CSP plant to operate as a baseload renewable energy generator in the future. No study to-date has directly compared the environmental implications of this technology with more conventional CSP backup energy options. This study compares the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and direct, onsite land use associated with one MW h of electricity production from CSP plants with wet and dry cooling and with three energy backup systems: (1) minimal backup (MB), (2) molten salt thermal energy storage (TES), and (3) a natural gas-fired heat transfer fluid heater (NG). Plants with NG had 4–9 times more life cycle GHG emissions than plants with TES. Plants with TES generally had twice as many life cycle GHG emissions as the MB plants. Dry cooling reduced life cycle water consumption by 71–78% compared to wet cooling. Plants with larger backup capacities had greater life cycle water consumption than plants with smaller backup capacities, and plants with NG had lower direct, onsite life cycle land use than plants with MB or TES. - highlights: • We assess life cycle environmental effects of concentrated solar power (CSP). • We compare CSP with three energy backup technologies and two cooling technologies. • We selected solar field area to minimize energy cost for plants with minimal backup and salt storage. • Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions were 4–9 times lower with thermal energy storage than with fossil fuel backup. • Dry cooling reduced life cycle water use by 71–78% compared to wet cooling

  10. The NASA Energy and Water cycle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.; Entin, J. K.; Schiffer, R. A.; Belvedere, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    In 2003 NASA established the NASA Energy and Water-cycle Study (NEWS), whose long-term grand challenge is to document and enable improved, observationally based, predictions of water and energy cycle consequences of Earth system variability and change. Over the past two years, the NEWS team has been working on how to refine its approach to science integration . To this end, NEWS has created four working groups that identify integration needs and make the needed connections to partner and coordinate with water & energy cycle research and application activities going on at other organizations within NASA, nationally, and internationally. The four groups are: (1) Drought & Flood Extremes- including water and energy aspects of abrupt climate change, (2) Evaporation & Latent Heating - including both land and ocean, (3) Water and Energy Cycle Climatology - to exploit and influence evolving observing systems, and (4) Modeling & Water Cycle Prediction - foster interaction with the global modeling community. The first phase of NEWS focuses on the first coordinated attempt to describe the complete global energy and water cycle using existing and forthcoming satellite and ground based observations, and laying the foundation for essential NEWS developments in model representations of atmospheric energy and water exchange processes. This comprehensive energy and water data analysis program must exploit crucial datasets, some still requiring complete re-processing, and new satellite measurements. These data products will then be evaluated for accuracy and consistency, in part by using them in the first diagnosis of the weather-scale (space and time) variations of the global energy and water cycle over the past one-two decades. The primary objective is to ensure that results of this analysis effort serve as a recognized data basis to compare with corresponding climate statistics produced by existing climate models, quantify systematic deficiencies, and identify needed

  11. Temperature response of Earth to the annual solar irradiance cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We directly determine the sensitivity and time delay of Earth's surface temperature response to annual solar irradiance variations from 60 years of data. A two-layer energy balance model is developed to interpret the results. Explaining both the resulting low sensitivity and time delay of 1-2 months requires negative feedback

  12. The Climate of the Canary Islands by Annual Cycle Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, B.

    2016-06-01

    Annual cycle parameters (ACP) provide a global climatology of annual land surface temperature (LST) based on daily 1 km MODIS observations. These are based on a simple model of the annual temperature cycle and allow estimating LST patterns under largely cloud-free conditions for every day of year. Further, they deliver measures for the LST variability and the frequency of cloud occurrence. It has been demonstrated, that they reproduce important surface climate characteristics at global and urban scale but their ability to reproduce topo-climates has yet to be studied in detail. In this paper their suitability to investigate climatic variability at km scale were studied at the case of the Canary Islands (Spain). This Archipelago, has a very stable climate dominated by the Azores high and the trade wind belt, but shows a large number of micro-climates ranging from arid hot climates to cold climates. It was found that ACPs are a relevant source of climatic information at km scale in complex orography. Specifically, known features such as subsidence inversion, the resulting sea of clouds, the strong differentiation in precipitation between the flat and high islands, as well as the northern and southern slopes at the latter were clearly visible in the parameters.

  13. Energy Program annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Program emphasizes applied R ampersand D for energy technologies that will be important to the US in the next fifty years and which may be important long after that. Historically, we have focused on coal gasification; the development of alternative liquid fuels from oil shale, coal, and natural gas; transportation uses of electric power from refuelable batteries; geothermal energy; and support of nuclear energy through the development of new technologies for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Our current program addresses three objectives of the National Energy Strategy: (1) To enhance energy security by ensuring stable costs, increasing energy supplies, and developing alternatives to Middle East oil. (2) To improve environmental quality by implementing energy technologies that effect better air and water quality, improve land use, and protect global environmental systems. (3) To encourage economic growth through technologies that reduce the costs of energy production, storage, transport, transmission, and distribution; promote efficiency by reducing costs and end-user services; and strengthen resiliency and flexibility of energy systems. We have just begun a major program to commercialize the technology to extract oil from the large US reserves (greater than 700 billion barrels) of oil shale. Perhaps the single greatest barrier to the public acceptance of nuclear power is the perceived lack of a technical solution to the permanent disposal of wastes. We have developed new concepts that are aimed at improving the likelihood of technical assurance of long-term containment

  14. Should Alberta upgrade oil sands bitumen? An integrated life cycle framework to evaluate energy systems investment tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions costs in energy systems investment decision-making requires the development of a framework that accounts for GHG and economic tradeoffs. This paper develops such a framework by integrating partial cost–benefit analysis with life cycle assessment to explore the question of whether bitumen should be upgraded in the Canadian province of Alberta to produce synthetic crude oil (SCO), or blended with light hydrocarbons to produce lower-quality diluted bitumen (dilbit). The net present value (NPV) of these options is calculated from the stakeholder perspectives of the oil sands industry, the Alberta public, and a climate-concerned Alberta resident. This calculation includes monetized GHG emissions costs stemming from a hypothetical economy-wide GHG price, and a sensitivity analysis explores the effects of variations in technical and economic conditions on stakeholders’ preferences. We find that under most plausible sets of conditions, industry would prefer the dilution option, while the climate-concerned Alberta resident would prefer the upgrading option. In contrast, the preferences of the general Alberta public depend on the values of key variables (e.g., the SCO-dilbit price differential). Key drivers of differences among stakeholders’ preferences include different perceptions of risks and responsibilities for life cycle GHG emissions. - Highlights: • We develop a novel integrated partial cost-benefit analysis/LCA framework. • We consider stakeholder perspectives, and technical and GHG price variations. • Upgrading is typically less GHG-intensive than dilution per barrel of bitumen. • Dilution is typically less GHG-intensive than upgrading per mega joule of gasoline. • Even stringent GHG prices may not align preferences on energy systems investment decisions

  15. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  16. Innovative Bioenergy Systems in Action. The Mureck bio-Energy Cycle: Synergistic Effects and Socio-economic, Political and Sociocultural Aspects of Rural Bioenergy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomescu, Mihai

    2005-10-15

    In this thesis the development of three bioenergy projects within the Austrian province of Styria is discussed. The projects - a biodiesel cooperative (SEEG), a biomass district heating plant (Nahwaerme) and a biogas plant that produces 'green' electricity (Oekostrom) - are co-located on the outskirts of Mureck, a small rural community on the border with Slovenia. The projects, jointly referred to as the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle, are explored in terms of interaction with each other, interactions between key stakeholders and political support. The thesis also adopts a system dynamics perspective and investigates the historical development and evolution of the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle over time. To explore this case, the embedded case study method was chosen. Five factors were selected for analysis: (1) the synergies and complementarities between the three different bioenergy projects comprising the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle (for instance when the biogas plant uses byproducts from the biodiesel fabrication process), (2) economies of scale due to integrated deployment of the three systems (such as specialisation, knowledge-transfer and integration of certain activities), (3) local cooperation that allowed the formation of reliable supply chains, (4) the attitude of authorities and (5) the existing local opinion and the benefits associated by residents with the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle. The objective was to find out whether these factors have played a crucial role for the development of the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle, and to discuss how they contributed to the development of the system. A first important finding of this research is that the three bioenergy projects in Mureck have gradually evolved into an industrial ecosystem that is characterised by a more efficient, closed-loop use of materials and energy, and in which by-products from one process serve as feedstock for other processes. This evolution was triggered by glycerine - an important byproduct that occurs

  17. Energy and environmental analysis of an innovative system based on municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis and combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggio, Paolo; Baratieri, Marco [University of Trento, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Via Mesiano 77, 38050 Trento (Italy); Gasparella, Andrea [University of Padova, Department of Management and Engineering, Str.lla S.Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Longo, Giovanni A. [University of Padova, Department of Management and Engineering, Str.lla S.Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy)], E-mail: tony@gest.unipd.it

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents the energy and the environmental impact analysis of an innovative system based on the pyrolysis of MSW which produces solid (char), liquid (tar) and gas (syngas) fuels used in a combined cycle for electric power generation. The syngas, after filtration and compression, feeds two gas turbines. In turn, the exhaust from the gas turbines, after post-combustion with char and tar, drives a steam turbine power plant. Before being discharged, the flue gas is processed in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit to reduce CO, VOC and NO{sub x} content and is filtered to remove particulate matter. This innovative approach to energy recovery from MSW combines high energy efficiency with a low level of polluting emissions. The estimated global efficiency of the plant, referred to the LHV of the MSW, is around 28-30%, a much higher value than ordinarily obtained in traditional waste incineration plants. The environmental analysis includes a study of the polluting emissions and the simulation of their concentration in the area surrounding the plant: the emissions of the plant have a negligible influence on the original polluting levels of the settlement area.

  18. Annual cycle of photosynthetically active radiation in maritime pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to model the photosynthesis of an evergreen forest, knowledge of the seasonal variation in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is indispensable. This paper studies the annual cycle of different components of the PAR above and within a maritime pine forest. From measurements of transmitted PAR made on days close to the solstices and the equinoxes, as well as continuous measurements of global and diffuse PAR throughout the year, the annual variation of PAR, within and above the forest was obtained. The relationship between the proportion of diffuse PAR to total PAR was also derived. The PAR reflectance above the canopy varied from 0.035 to 0.07 throughout the year. On clear sky days, roughly 65% of the incident PAR was absorbed by the needles, stems and branches and 20% was reflected; the remaining 15% was absorbed by the understorey. (author)

  19. Economic evaluation of the annual cycle energy system (ACES). Final report. Volume III, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume consists of seven appendices related to ACES, the first three of which are concerned with computer programs. The appendices are entitled: (A) ACESIM: Residential Program Listing; (B) Typical Inputs and Outputs of ACESIM; (C) CACESS: Commercial Building Program Listing; (D) Typical Weather-Year Selection Requirements; (E) Building Characteristics; (F) List of Major Variables Used in the Computer Programs; and (G) Bibliography. 79 references.

  20. Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with Projections to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO2009), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), presents long-term projections of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2030, based on results from EIA’s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). EIA published an “early release” version of the AEO2009 reference case in December 2008.

  1. Nuclear energy development and Kondratiev cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searchers from IIASA (international institute for applied system analysis) have considered the spreading of an idea or an innovation among human societies similar to the evolution of an epidemic. This study shows a correlation between the birth of a major invention and the rise of a new source of energy. The invention of computers and nuclear energy seem to be linked in that way. The time interval between 2 major innovations is about 55 years, this value also corresponds to the length of crisis cycles that were discovered by the soviet economist N.D.Kondratiev in 1926. According to Kondratiev capitalist economies have undergone or will undergo cycles between the following dates: 1830, 1885, 1940, 1995 and 2050. After a period of expansion where jobs, wages and prices increase, a crisis happens where unemployment, social trouble and international conflicts develop. The crisis ends with the surge of innovations that feed the system by creating new markets in a modified social context. We are at the beginning of a new cycle, this cycle will see the expansion of nuclear energy, then its predominance and the emergence of a new source of energy in 50 years. (A.C.)

  2. A CAR AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM BASED ON AN ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION CYCLE USING SOLAR ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Kumar; Nitin Kumar; Vinod Sehrawat; Tarun Gupta

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to design and study an environment friendly vapour absorption refrigeration system of 0.2 TR capacity using ammonia (R-717) and water as the working fluids. In sunny days (summer season) vehicles becomes too much warm within a few hours a...

  3. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  4. A full annual cycle modeling framework for American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor; Devers, Patrick K.; Brook, Rodney W.; Huang, Min; Jones, Malcom; McAuley, Daniel G.; Zimmerman, Guthrie

    2016-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) are a harvested, international migratory waterfowl species in eastern North America. Despite an extended period of restrictive harvest regulations, the black duck population is still below the population goal identified in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP). It has been hypothesized that density-dependent factors restrict population growth in the black duck population and that habitat management (increases, improvements, etc.) may be a key component of growing black duck populations and reaching the prescribed NAWMP population goal. Using banding data from 1951 to 2011 and breeding population survey data from 1990 to 2014, we developed a full annual cycle population model for the American black duck. This model uses the seven management units as set by the Black Duck Joint Venture, allows movement into and out of each unit during each season, and models survival and fecundity for each region separately. We compare model population trajectories with observed population data and abundance estimates from the breeding season counts to show the accuracy of this full annual cycle model. With this model, we then show how to simulate the effects of habitat management on the continental black duck population.

  5. TECO Energy, Inc. 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achievements of TECO Energy, Inc., during 1992 are summarized in the annual report which includes financial data for the year up to 31 December 1992. Work continues on Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station, utilizing IGCC technology planned to come on line in 1995/6. Many energy conservation projects have been completed such as one to promote energy efficient cordless electric lawnmowers. TECO Transport and Trade continued to expand its transloading and shipping business. TECO Coal completed its acquisition of additional low-sulfur coal reserves in eastern Kentucky and Tennessee. Although Tampa Electric is its principal customer, in 1992 shipments of coal were made to other customers. Earnings from TECO Coalbed Methane more than doubled in 1992, a major factor being the federal tax credit available on production. In 1992, the company acquired most of the interests of its operator, Taurus Exploration. In 1992 on additional 47 wells were drilled. TECO Power Services completed construction of a 295 MW combined-cycle power plants known as the Hardee Power Station in central Florida

  6. Institute of Atomic Energy - Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1999. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well

  7. Institute of Atomic Energy - Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute in 1998. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well

  8. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  9. Stuart Energy annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart Energy is a leading global provider of integrated solutions for distributed hydrogen infrastructure requirements based on water electrolysis. Their product line includes integrated, turn-key solutions for onsite hydrogen production, compression, storage, fuel dispensing and distributed power generation. The company integrates its proprietary hydrogen generation systems with other leading hydrogen products from its partners. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2004, Stuart Energy delivered significant growth in its hydrogen markets, industrial power and transportation. Strong results were delivered in core areas such as accelerated sales growth, gross margin improvements, significant cost reductions, disciplined product development and improved financial strength. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  10. Morphological and metabolic adjustments in the small intestine to energy demands of growth, storage, and fasting in the first annual cycle of a hibernating lizard (Tupinambis merianae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Lucas Francisco R; da Silveira, Lilian Cristina; Nisembaum, Laura Gabriela; Colquhoun, Alison; Abe, Agusto S; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Silvia Cristina R

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal plasticity in the small intestine of neonatal tegu lizards was investigated using morphometry and analysis of enzymes involved in supplying energy to the intestinal tissue. In the autumn, the intestinal mass (Mi) was 1.0% of body mass and the scaling exponent b=0.92 indicated that Mi was larger in smaller neonates. During arousal from dormancy Mi was 23% smaller; later in spring, Mi increased 60% in relation to the autumn and the exponent b=0.14 indicated that the recovery was disproportionate in smaller tegus. During the autumn, the intestinal villi were greatly elongated; by midwinter, the Hv, SvEp, and VvEp were smaller than during the autumn (59%, 54%, 29%) and were restored to autumn levels during spring. In the active tegus, the maximum activity (Vmax) of enzymes indicated that the enterocytes can obtain energy from different sources, and possess gluconeogenic capacity. During winter, the Vmax of CS, HOAD, GDH, PEPCK was 40-50% lower in relation to the autumn and spring, while the Vmax of HK, PK, LDH, AST was unchanged. The hypoglycemia and the mucosal atrophy/ischemia during winter would prevent the enterocytes from using glucose, whereas they could slowly oxidize fatty acids released from body stores and amino acids from the tissue proteolysis to satisfy their needs of energy. Contrastingly, starvation during spring caused severe mass loss (50%); the tissue protein and the VvEp and VvLP did not change while the thickness of the muscular layer increased 51%, which suggested different effects along the length of the organ. In addition, the Vmax of the glycolytic enzymes was lower, indicating that a regulatory mechanism would spare blood glucose for vital organs during unanticipated food restriction. PMID:26872995

  11. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  12. Conceptual design of a thermo-electrical energy storage system based on heat integration of thermodynamic cycles – Part A: Methodology and base case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in large scale electricity storage (ES) with discharging time longer than 1 h and nominal power greater than 1 MW, is increasing worldwide as the increasing share of renewable energy, typically solar and wind energy, imposes severe load management issues. Thermo-electrical energy storage (TEES) based on thermodynamic cycles is currently under investigation at ABB corporate research as an alternative solution to pump hydro and compressed air energy storage. TEES is based on the conversion of electricity into thermal energy during charge by means of a heat pump and on the conversion of thermal energy into electricity during discharge by means of a thermal engine. The synthesis and the thermodynamic optimization of a TEES system based on hot water, ice storage and transcritical CO2 cycles, is discussed in two papers. In this first paper a methodology for the conceptual design of a TEES system based on the analysis of the thermal integration between charging and discharging cycles through Pinch Analysis tools is introduced. According to such methodology, the heat exchanger network and temperatures and volumes of storage tanks are not defined a priori but are determined after the cycle parameters are optimized. For this purpose a heuristic procedure based on the interpretation of the composite curves obtained by optimizing the thermal integration between the cycles was developed. Such heuristic rules were implemented in a code that allows finding automatically the complete system design for given values of the intensive parameters of the charging and discharging cycles only. A base case system configuration is introduced and the results of its thermodynamic optimization are discussed here. A maximum roundtrip efficiency of 60% was obtained for the base case configuration assuming turbomachinery and heat exchanger performances in line with indications from manufacturers. -- Highlights: ► Energy storage based on water, ice, and transcritical CO2 cycles is

  13. No evidence for melatonin-linked immunoenhancement over the annual cycle of an avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Deborah M; Koolhaas, Anita; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Schwabl, Ingrid; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis; Tieleman, B Irene

    2009-05-01

    The winter immunoenhancement hypothesis associates long nights and increased exposure to melatonin with enhanced immune function in winter when resource availability is low and the chances of becoming ill are high. Thus, increased exposure to melatonin in the winter could be adaptive for species facing difficult winter conditions. This idea has found some support in studies of resident mammals. In birds, the link between day length and melatonin over the annual cycle is weaker, and contributions of melatonin to seasonal timing are unclear. Furthermore, many species, especially migrants, do not experience the most difficult conditions of their annual cycle in winter. In this study, we tested whether the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis holds in an avian species, the red knot Calidris canutus. We found that melatonin duration and amplitude varied significantly over the annual cycle with the highest values occurring in winter. However, peaks did not correspond to the winter solstice or with annual variation in immune function. Our findings do not support the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis in knots and question whether the idea that immune function should be bolstered in winter can be generalized to systems where winter is not the most difficult time of the year. PMID:19234709

  14. Life cycle cost analysis of solar heating and DHW systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) is an easy and friendly computer program, IBM compatible for economic evaluation of solar energy system which involves comparison of the capital and operating costs of a conventional system. In this section we would like to suggest the ELCCA-PC program as a new tools using life cycle cost analysis for annual and cumulative cash flow methodology that take into account all future expenses. ELCCA-PC program considers fixed and changeable items that are involved in installing the equipment such as interest of money borrowed, property and income taxes, current energy cost for electricity operating system, maintenance, insurance and fuel costs and other economic operating expenses. Moreover fraction of annual heating load supplied from solar system is considered in this analysis. ECC-PC program determines the yearly outflow of money over the period of an economic analysis that can be converted to a series of equal payments in today's money

  15. Energy in Croatia 2004, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report represents a continuous information source for both national and international public on relations and trends in the Croatian energy system. This edition brings certain changes in the energy topics' outline and broader scope of information compared to the previous editions. However, the representative features of the Croatian energy sector, related to supply and demand of energy at all levels, kept the familiar outlook of presentation.Besides the detailed analysis of energy trends, this edition provides numerous information on capacity, reserves and prices of energy as well as individual energy sources' balances - crude oil and oil derivates, natural gas, electricity, heat, coal and renewable energy sources. In addition, Croatian basic and economic and financial indicators, emission of air pollutants plus basic energy efficiency indicators were presented in order to give better understanding of the Croatian energy sector environment. Finally, there is a special novelty of representing energy balances of the Republic of Croatia made in the compliance with EUROSTAT and IEA methodology for years 2003 and 2004. Total primary energy supply in the Republic of Croatia in 2004 was 4.1 percent higher compared to the previous year. The gross domestic product increased by 3.8 percent over the same period. This means that energy intensity, primary energy supply per unit of gross domestic product, increased by 0.3 percent. Compared to the European Union average Croatian energy intensity was approximately 24 percent higher. Total primary energy production, on the other hand, increased by 11.2 percent due to extremely favourable hydrological conditions. The raise i n hydropower by 48.5 percent improved Croatian primary energy self-supply to 49.6 percent. In the structure of total primary energy supply for 2004, the losses of transmission and distribution of energy were reduced only while the rest of the categories of energy consumption increased. The 3.3 percent increase

  16. Life cycle assessment and evaluation of energy payback time on high-concentration photovoltaic power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the environmental load of photovoltaic power generation system (PV) during its life cycle and energy payback time (EPT) are evaluated by LCA scheme. Two hypothetical case studies in Toyohashi, Japan and Gobi dessert in China have been carried out to investigate the influence of installation location and PV type on environmental load and EPT. The environmental load and EPT of a high-concentration photovoltaic power generation system (hcpV) and a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic power generation system (mc-Si PV) are studied. The study shows for a PV of 100 MW size, the total impacts of the hcpV installed in Toyohashi is larger than that of the hcpV installed in Gobi desert by 5% without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of the hcpV assumed to be installed in Gobi desert is shorter than EPT of the hcpV assumed to be installed in Toyohashi by 0.64 year. From these results, the superiority to install PV in Gobi desert is certificated. Comparing with hcpV and mc-Si PV, the ratio of the total impacts of mc-Si PV to that of hcpV is 0.34 without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of hcpV is longer than EPT of mc-Si PV by 0.27 year. The amount of global solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of mc-Si PV is larger than the amount of direct solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of hcpV by about 188 kW h/(m2 year) in Gobi desert. Consequently, it appears that using mc-Si PV in Gobi desert is the best option.

  17. Life cycle assessment and evaluation of energy payback time on high-concentration photovoltaic power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, A.; Hayashi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Hirota, M.; Kato, S. [Division of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Ito, M. [Integrated Research Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, I6-25 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Araki, K. [R and D Lab, Daido Steel Co., Ltd., 2-30 Daido-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8545 (Japan); Hu, E.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, the environmental load of photovoltaic power generation system (PV) during its life cycle and energy payback time (EPT) are evaluated by LCA scheme. Two hypothetical case studies in Toyohashi, Japan and Gobi dessert in China have been carried out to investigate the influence of installation location and PV type on environmental load and EPT. The environmental load and EPT of a high-concentration photovoltaic power generation system (hcpV) and a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic power generation system (mc-Si PV) are studied. The study shows for a PV of 100 MW size, the total impacts of the hcpV installed in Toyohashi is larger than that of the hcpV installed in Gobi desert by 5% without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of the hcpV assumed to be installed in Gobi desert is shorter than EPT of the hcpV assumed to be installed in Toyohashi by 0.64 year. From these results, the superiority to install PV in Gobi desert is certificated. Comparing with hcpV and mc-Si PV, the ratio of the total impacts of mc-Si PV to that of hcpV is 0.34 without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of hcpV is longer than EPT of mc-Si PV by 0.27 year. The amount of global solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of mc-Si PV is larger than the amount of direct solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of hcpV by about 188 kW h/(m{sup 2} year) in Gobi desert. Consequently, it appears that using mc-Si PV in Gobi desert is the best option. (author)

  18. Institute for Energy Technology, Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report gives a brief account of the activities of Institute for Energy Technology and presents a fairly comprehensive anasis of the budgetary dispositions in 1981 and, for comparison, 1980. (RF)

  19. Energy in Croatia, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of Economic Affairs continues its task of observing and informing about the Croatian energy system. The review consists of the most recent and classified data on 1997 and the previous four years. Compared to previous year, in 1997 the total primary energy supply decreased by 1,3 percent. At the same time the gross domestic product increased by 6,5 percent, thus the energy intensity dropped, which is a positive trend. The energy intensity, the value showing the total energy consumed per unit of gross domestic product, exceeds the level realised by the Western European countries, but it is at the same time more favourable related to the transition economy countries. On the other hand, 1997 saw a decrease in the primary energy production by 8,9 percent, resulting from the decline in the production of natural gas, oil and coal, and naturally, unfavourable hydrological conditions. Thus, own supply dropped to 57 percent, the lowest recorded in the past five years. In 1997 the losses and operational consumption of energy decreased more than the non-energy consumption increased, but despite the decrease of the total primary energy supply there occurred an increase of final energy demand by total of 4,4 percent, 2,1 of which in general consumption, 5,5 in transport and 7,8 percent in industry. Apart from these data, the review considers all other relevant indicators showing a positive shift but leaving space for further improvements with the aim of achieving higher energy system efficiency

  20. Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report (the Supplement) is a comparison document to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 1991 (AEO). The Supplement tables formerly appeared in EIA's Annual Outlook for Oil and Gas, Annual Outlook for US Coal, Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade, Annual Outlook for US Electric Power, and Commercial Nuclear Power; Prospects for the United States and the World. Also included are end-use consumption and price tables which have previously been published in various EIA service reports. Supplement tables generally disaggregate AEO data and projections regionally. The domestic coal, electric power, commercial nuclear power, end-use consumption, and end-use price tables present AEO forecasts at the 10 Federal Regional level. World coal tables provide data and projections on international flows of steam coal and metallurgical coal, and the oil and gas tables disaggregate the AEO oil and gas supply forecast by Oil and gas Supply Regions

  1. Solar cycle signatures in the NCEP equatorial annual oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Mayr

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Our analysis of temperature and zonal wind data (1958 to 2006 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR reanalysis (Re-1, supplied by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP, shows that the hemispherically symmetric 12-month equatorial annual oscillation (EAO contains spectral signatures with periods around 11 years. Moving windows of 44 years show that, below 20 km, the 11-year modulation of the EAO is phase locked to the solar cycle (SC. The spectral features from the 48-year data record reveal modulation signatures of 9.6 and 12 years, which produce EAO variations that mimic in limited altitude regimes the varying maxima and minima of the 10.7 cm flux solar index. Above 20 km, the spectra also contain modulation signatures with periods around 11 years, but the filtered variations are too irregular to suggest that systematic SC forcing is the principal agent.

  2. Energy in Croatia, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication creates a condensed review of the state of affairs within our energy system. It includes the latest data for 1996, which were at the same time compared to the situations from the previous four years in order to achieve a more accurate insight into all the related problems. The relation of the gross domestic product (GDP) and the electric energy consumption illustrates the fact that the economic conditions are closely connected to the development of the energy sector. In 1996 the gross domestic product was 4.2% higher than in the year before and the electric energy consumption increased by approximately the same figure. It rose from the consumed 12958.0 GWh in 1995 to 12877.9 GWh in 1996, i.e. 4.2%. The total energy consumption in 1996 increased by entire 10.8%, amounting to 352.56 PJ, this predominantly being a result of growing hydro power and natural gas consumption. The immediate energy consumption grew by 8.3%, from 185.96 PJ in 1995 to 201.35 PJ in 1996. Apart from the data included in the review, there are also other presentations referring to the energy generation and consumption in Croatia. A special chapter comprises an analysis of oil and gas system, i.e. hydrocarbon and coal reserves as well as the capacities required for oil and gas processing and transportation. The attention was directed to positive environmental incentives, as the energy sector is responsible for more than 90% of all polluting substances. Apart from the economic and financial indices, the publication includes the prices for electric energy, natural gas and oil derivations as well as maps showing the route of the gas and JANAF systems and the transmission electric energy network. The review puts forward some positive achievements in the development of our energy sector, which create the basis for continued efforts in order to bring about the desired objectives. This will be realized by defining the legislation system and the institutions ensuring high-quality market

  3. Systems based on Maisotsenko cycle : Coolerado coolers

    OpenAIRE

    Gorshkov, Viacheslav

    2013-01-01

    A large part of the world's energy is consumed by ventilation and air-conditioning. One of the most energy-intensive processes in the ventilation and air-conditioning is the process of air cooling. Tradi-tional systems based on the compressor cycle consume a lot of energy. Refrigerants contained in com-pressor circuits are often very harmful to the environment. These factors led to the active development of evaporative coolers. And the former soviet scientist Valery Maisotsenko improved evapo...

  4. ITER fuel cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document records the assumptions under which the ITER Fuel Systems cost estimates were prepared. These are order of magnitude estimates, obtained without flow sheet or detailed equipment analysis by applying factors, ratios, and escalation to the known cost of an installation considered to be similar. The estimates include equipment and installation costs for each component. (5 figs., 16 refs.)

  5. Three Connected Climate Education Interactives: Carbon Cycle, Earth System Energy Flows, and Climate Change Impacts/Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai'i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and focus on adaptation strategies that can increase resiliency with respect to climate change impacts. Unfortunately the vast majority of the science texts used in schools come from the US mainland and feature contexts that do not relate to the lives of Pacific island students. The curricular materials also tend to be older and to have very weak climate science content, especially with respect to tropical islands and climate change. In collaboration with public broadcast station WGBH, PCEP has developed three climate education interactives that sequentially provide an introduction to key climate change education concepts. The first in the series focuses on the global carbon cycle and connects increased atmospheric CO2 with rising global temperatures. The second analyzes Earth system energy flows to explain the key role of the increased greenhouse effect. The third focuses on four climate change impacts (higher temperatures, rising sea level, changes in precipitation, and ocean acidification), and adaptation strategies to increase resiliency of local ecosystems and human systems. While the interactives have a Pacific island visual and text perspective, they are broadly applicable for other education audiences. Learners can use the interactives to engage with the basic science concepts, and then apply the climate change impacts to their own contexts.

  6. Life Cycle Cost optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszal, A.J.

    2011-12-15

    -connected ZEBs - Net ZEBs, and the annual primary energy balance. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis conducted with a study case of a multi-storey residential Net ZEB aimed to determine the cost-optimal ''zero'' energy balance, minimum energy performance requirements and options of supplying renewable energy. The calculation encompassed three levels of energy frames, which mirrored the Danish low-energy building classes included in the current building code, and ten renewable energy supply systems including both on-site and off-site options. The results indicated that although the off-site options have lower life cycle costs than the on-site alternatives, their application would promote renewable technologies over energy efficiency measures. Thus, they oppose the Danish plans to gradually make the energy performance requirements stricter. Moreover, the results showed that district heating is a less cost-attractive solution than a ground source heat pump for a private building owner. Finally, with 2010-level of energy prices, cost-optimal ''zero'' energy balance accounts only for the building related energy use. (Author)

  7. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production); Contribution a une proposition d'un developpement a long terme de l'energie nucleaire: le concept TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V

    2000-10-30

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  8. Energy in Croatia, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review consists of the most recent and settled data for the year 2000 as well as data for the five-years period. In 2000 total energy consumption decreased by 2.8 percent compared to the previous year. As at the same time the gross domestic product increased by 3.7 percent, energy intensity grew, thus presenting a positive change of trend . The energy intensity, the measurement showing the total energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product, exceeded the level realised by the Western European countries, but was still more favourable than in most transition countries. At the same time 2000 saw an decrease of primary energy generation by 1.7 percent but, as a consequence of extremely favourable hydrological conditions, with a decreased production of natural gas and oil. The supply from own sources remained 51 percent but the trend is expected to be negative in the following few years bearing in mind the condition of the gas and oil reserves, i.e. cessation of coal production in Istria. Only partly will the process be slowed down by the production of natural gas from the Northern Adriatic. Natural gas production grew by 6.8 percent compared to the previous year, causing the share of natural gas in energy production to exceed 32 percent. In 2000 the transformation losses fell by 11 percent, transportation and distribution losses fell by 6.7 percent and non-energy consumption by 2.4 percent, while energy sector own use rose by 1.4 percent.. The result of this was that, despite the increase of total energy production by 2.8 percent, final energy demand fell by only 0.2 percent, i.e. 1.5 percent in other sectors and transport, and 2.9 percent increase in industry. Apart from these data, the publication includes all other relevant indicators about our energy system, i.e. system capacities, energy source prices, environmental influence, etc

  9. Analysis of life cycle assessment of food/energy/waste systems and development and analysis of microalgae cultivation/wastewater treatment inclusive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kristina Ochsner

    Across the world, crises in food, energy, land and water resources, as well as waste and greenhouse gas accumulation are inspiring research into the interactions among these environmental pressures. In the food/energy/waste problem set, most of the research is focused on describing the antagonistic relationships between food, energy and waste; these relationships are often analyzed with life cycle assessment (LCA). These analyses often include reporting of metrics of environmental performance with few functional units, often focusing on energy use, productivity and environmental impact while neglecting water use, food nutrition and safety. Additionally, they are often attributional studies with small scope which report location-specific parameters only. This thesis puts forth a series of recommendations to amend the current practice of LCA to combat these limitations and then utilizes these suggestions to analyze a synergistic food/waste/energy system. As an example analysis, this thesis describes the effect of combining wastewater treatment and microalgae cultivation on the productivity and scalability of the synergistic system. To ameliorate the high nutrient and water demands of microalgae cultivation, many studies suggest that microalgae be cultivated in wastewater so as to achieve large scale and low environmental costs. While cultivation studies have found this to be true, none explore the viability of the substitution in terms of productivity and scale-up. The results of this study suggest that while the integrated system may be suitable for low-intensity microalgae cultivation, for freshwater microalgae species or wastewater treatment it is not suitable for high intensity salt water microalgae cultivation. This study shows that the integration could result in reduced lipid content, high wastewater requirements, no greenhouse gas emissions benefit and only a small energy benefit.

  10. Annual Climatology of the Diurnal Cycle on the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K Betts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We show the annual climatology of the diurnal cycle, stratified by opaque cloud, using the full hourly resolution of the Canadian Prairie data. The opaque cloud field itself has distinct cold and warm season diurnal climatologies; with a near-sunrise peak of cloud in the cold season and an early afternoon peak in the warm season. There are two primary climate states on the Canadian Prairies, separated by the freezing point of water, because a reflective surface snow cover acts as a climate switch. Both cold and warm season climatologies can be seen in the transition months of November, March and April with a large difference in mean temperature. In the cold season with snow, the diurnal ranges of temperature and relative humidity increase quasi-linearly with decreasing cloud, and increase from December to March with increased solar forcing. The warm season months, April to September, show a homogeneous coupling to the cloud cover, and a diurnal cycle of temperature and humidity that depends only on net longwave. Our improved representation of the diurnal cycle shows that the warm season coupling between diurnal temperature range and net longwave is weakly quadratic through the origin, rather than the linear coupling shown in earlier papers. We calculate the conceptually important 24-h imbalances of temperature and relative humidity (and other thermodynamic variables as a function of opaque cloud cover. In the warm season under nearly clear skies, there is a warming of +2oC and a drying of -6% over the 24-h cycle, which is about 12% of their diurnal ranges. We summarize results on conserved variable diagrams and explore the impact of surface windspeed on the diurnal cycle in the cold and warm seasons. In all months, the fall in minimum temperature is reduced with increasing windspeed, which reduces the diurnal temperature range. In July and August, there is an increase of afternoon maximum temperature and humidity at low windspeeds, and a

  11. Energy in Croatia, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review, in its own recognisable way, consists of the most recent and settled data for the year 2001, i.e. for the period from 1996 until 2001. We have, however, added data appertaining to a longer time period together with future expectations with the aim of an easier insight into long-term prospects. In 2001 total primary energy supply increased by 3.3 percent compared to the preceding year. Owing to the simultaneous growth of the gross domestic product by 4.1 percent, energy intensity decreased and consequently a positive trend continues. Energy intensity, which expressed the total energy consumed per unit of gross domestic product, exceeds the realised level of the developed European countries, but it is still more favourable than in the majority of transition countries. We would particularly like to stress the fact about the recorded growth of primary energy production by 7 percent, which in 2001 occurred partly as the consequence of favourable hydrological conditions and partly of a considerable increase in natural gas production. Supply from own sources grew to 52.8 percent. In 2001, natural gas production in the structure of the domestic production amounted to more than 36 percent. Energy import recorded an increase of 2.2 percent, whereby the portion of the imported crude oil was 65 percent. In 2001 transformation losses increased by 15.9 percent, transportation and distribution losses by 22.6 percent, energy sector own use by 10.3 percent, while non-energy consumption decreased by 15 percent. This brought about the situation that, together with the above mentioned growth of the total energy consumed of 3.3 percent, final demand grew by 2.6 percent - 2.3 percent in other sectors, 1.1 percent in traffic with the simultaneous increase in industry of 5.1 percent. Apart from these data, the publication comprises other interesting facts about our energy system, its capacities, energy source prices and environmental impact

  12. Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination (AD) system have been identified all possible evaporator temperature scenarios. ► Temperature of evaporator determines the cycle. ► Higher evaporator temperature leads to higher water production if no cooling is required. -- Abstract: The potential to use waste heat to co-generate cooling and fresh water from saline water using adsorption on silica is attracting increasing attention. A variety of different thermodynamic cycles of such an adsorption desalination (AD) system arise as the temperature of the saline water evaporator is varied relative to temperature of the water used to cool the adsorbent as it adsorbs the evaporated water. In this paper, all these possible thermodynamic cycles are enumerated and analysed to determine their relative performances in terms of specific energy consumption and fresh water productivity.

  13. Energy Program annual report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of work done during FY 1988 (October 1, 1987--September 30, 1988) by the Energy Program of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The program addresses problems relating to supply and utilization of energy in the US. Traditionally the focus of activities has been on long-range technical challenges that are unlikely to be pursued by the private sector. Individual projects making up the Energy Program are divided into three sections in this review: Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Nonfossil Energy. (Nonfossil Energy research includes work on geothermal resources and combustion chemistry.)

  14. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1997 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1997 Annual Report is published in a special year for Israel, marking the 50th anniversary of its independece and statehood. From its inception, and the election of a distinguished scientist as its first president, Israel has regarded science and technology as a central pillar for future AEC development and a lever for improved quality of life of its people. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission, which will be celebrating its own anniversary in a few years, has made a modest but significant contribution to the establishment and growth of the technological infrastructure of the country. The first article in this Annual Report focuses attention on yet another aspect of our continuing investigation of the basic properties of technologically interesting and important materials, presented in our 1994 and 1996 Annual Reports. The current entry describes an application of the nuclear Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation technique to the study of the structure and properties of metal-hydrogen compounds, of potential interest within the framework of future, environmentally attractive hydrogen-burning energy systems, and in fusion power reactors. The second article also relates to some basic aspects of nuclear fusion. A theoretical study of the behavior and properties of laser-generated hot plasmas resulted in the proposal of a new confinement scheme, in which a plasma generated by circularly polarized laser light is confined in a miniature magnetic bottle created by magnetic fields induced in the plasma by the same light. The paper discusses the conditions under which such confinement and ensuing energy gain may be achieved. Measurements of actual axial magnetic fields generated in plasma by intense circularly polarized laser light are also reported. The third report describes one of our ongoing efforts to improve and streamline the techniques and procedures used in medical applications of radioisotopes. Replacement of the customary )311 solutions for

  15. International energy annual 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-23

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and area of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and coal in selected countries. (VC)

  16. TRUE multi-annual energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-annual energy planning (PPE) has been introduced by the French government to transcribe the objectives of the law on energy transition into evolutions for energy consumption and production for different periods (2016-2018 and 2019-2023). This publication first indicates various assessments for these periods regarding energy consumption, electricity consumption, fossil energy consumption, renewable energy production, the share of electric renewable energies, and the decrease of the nuclear share. These objectives are then discussed with respect to different scenarios, and notably a reference scenario

  17. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  18. Comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. General framework and preliminary results for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of the effects of electricity producing systems is of growing importance in decision-making processes for energy planning. This report documents the preliminary results of a project for the CEC-DG XII Radiation Protection Programme on the comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. The work reported in this document has also been supported by EDF - Mission Environnement. In order to profit from the comparative studies already existing, some of the most important ones were surveyed. The aim of these past energy comparison studies was mainly to obtain a global measure of the risks associated with an energy cycle, with a view to ranking the various electricity production systems; but this is now recognised as merely an academic exercise, with a limited impact in decision-making. For energy planning the development of a multi-dimensional approach seems more suitable, as this allows the different types of indicators and measures needed to assess the risks of different energy cycles to be compared. From the past studies it has been seen that health indicators are generally well established, but a weakness is noted with respect to indicators of environmental impacts. This remains a difficult subject, and until such indicators are established, surrogates like concentrations in the environment will have to be used, or qualitative comparisons must suffice. This report presents a general framework allowing for consistent comparisons between different energy systems. The key issues discussed are: assessment by fuel cycle, consideration of the dimensions of time and space, the impact pathway approach for assessing risk, and coherent indicators that can be used to measure the impacts. First results are presented for four activities of the nuclear fuel cycle according to the approach developed: (1) the construction and dismantling of a 900 MWe pressurized water reactor, (2) the transportation of materials between

  19. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of a HP/ORC (heat pump/organic Rankine cycle) system with different hot water tank storage configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    2016-01-01

    -life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water....... The results with the two different configurations are simulated in the Modelica language and compared in terms of energy shift potential in order to optimize RES integration, as well as the economic feasibility of the system in a cold climate....

  20. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  1. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen energy pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades transportation sector is a priority for environmental research. Indeed, it is the most impacting sector because it involves greenhouse emissions and fossil resources exhaustion. The Group of 'Ecole des Mines' (GEM), in France, carries out studies concerning clean and renewable energies for this sector with the 'H2-PAC' project. The GEM with four teams performs studies concerning energy systems for transportation sector and more particularly the hydrogen system. The four teams of the GEM work each one on a process of this system. More precisely, the team of Albi studies biomass gasification in order to produce synthesis gas. The team of Nantes studies purification of this gas to obtain pure hydrogen and hydrogen storage on activated carbon. The team of Paris studies fuel cell use and especially Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. Finally, the team of St Etienne evaluates this system along its life cycle from an environmental point of view. This paper presents this environmental evaluation witch is realized according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. (authors)

  2. On the Driving Mechanism of the Annual Cycle of the Florida Current Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Czeschel, Lars; Eden, Carsten; Greatbatch, Richard John

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in setting the annual cycle of the Florida Current transport are revisited using an adjoint model approach. Adjoint sensitivities of the Florida Current transport to wind stress reproduce a realistic seasonal cycle with an amplitude of ~1.2 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1). The annual cycle is predominantly determined by wind stress forcing and related coastal upwelling (downwelling) north of the Florida Strait along the shelf off the North American coast. Fast barotropic waves ...

  3. Energy efficiency analysis and impact evaluation of the application of thermoelectric power cycle to today's CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High efficiency thermoelectric generators (TEG) can recover waste heat from both industrial and private sectors. Thus, the development and deployment of TEG may represent one of the main drives for technological change and fuel substitution. This paper will present an analysis of system efficiency related to the integration of TEG into thermal energy systems, especially Combined Heat and Power production (CHP). Representative implementations of installing TEG in CHP plants to utilize waste heat, wherein electricity can be generated in situ as a by-product, will be described to show advantageous configurations for combustion systems. The feasible deployment of TEG in various CHP plants will be examined in terms of heat source temperature range, influences on CHP power specification and thermal environment, as well as potential benefits. The overall conversion efficiency improvements and economic benefits, together with the environmental impact of this deployment, will then be estimated. By using the Danish thermal energy system as a paradigm, this paper will consider the TEG application to district heating systems and power plants through the EnergyPLAN model, which has been created to design suitable energy strategies for the integration of electricity production into the overall energy system.

  4. Open-cycle OTEC system performance analysis. [Claude cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, A.A.; Olson, D.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    1980-10-01

    An algorithm developed to calculate the performance of Claude-Cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems is described. The algorithm treats each component of the system separately and then interfaces them to form a complete system, allowing a component to be changed without changing the rest of the algorithm. Two components that are subject to change are the evaporator and condenser. For this study we developed mathematical models of a channel-flow evaporator and both a horizontal jet and spray director contact condenser. The algorithm was then programmed to run on SERI's CDC 7600 computer and used to calculate the effect on performance of deaerating the warm and cold water streams before entering the evaporator and condenser, respectively. This study indicates that there is no advantage to removing air from these streams compared with removing the air from the condenser.

  5. Determining Mean Annual Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Folley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Expected Release Date: 20 June 2016. This robust book presents all the information required for numerical modelling of a wave energy converter, together with a comparative review of the different available techniques...

  6. An introduction to the life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for sustainable energy and product generation: Relevance and key aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Anoop; Bogaert, Gilbert Van;

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are devices capable of converting organic waste fraction present in wastewaters into useful energy vectors such as electricity or hydrogen. In recent years a large amount of research has been done on these unique systems in order to improve their performance both...... in terms of waste treatment as well as electric current production. Already there are plans to upscale this technology to convince the end-users of its potential. However, there are not many studies available on the life cycle of these systems with the current state of the art. In this article a...

  7. International Atomic Energy Agency annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three pillars of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2006-2007 (GC(49)/2). The introductory chapter seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2006 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2006/. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to technology are: nuclear power; nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies; capacity building and nuclear knowledge maintenance for sustainable energy development; nuclear science; food and agriculture; human health; water resources; assessment and management of marine and terrestrial environments; radioisotope production and radiation technology; safety and security; incident and emergency preparedness and response; safety of nuclear installations; radiation and transport safety; management of radioactive waste; nuclear security

  8. Annual Cycle and Interannual Variability in the Tropical Pacific as Simulated by Three Versions of FGOALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yongqiang; HE Jie; ZHENG Weipeng; LUAN Yihua

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal cycle and interannual variability in the tropical oceans simulated by three versions of the Flexible Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (FGOALS) model (FGOALS-g1.0,FGOALS-g2 and FGOALS-s2),which have participated in phases 3 and 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5),are presented in this paper.The seasonal cycle of SST in the tropical Pacific is realistically reproduced by FGOALS-g2 and FGOALS-s2,while it is poorly simulated in FGOALS-g1.0.Three feedback mechanisms responsible for the SST annual cycle in the eastern Pacific are evaluated.The ocean-atmosphere dynamic feedback,which is successfully reproduced by both FGOALS-g2 and FGOALS-s2,plays a key role in determining the SST annual cycle,while the overestimated stratus cloud-SST feedback amplifies the annual cycle in FGOALS-s2.Because of the serious warm bias existing in FGOALS-g1.0,the ocean-atmosphere dynamic feedback is greatly underestimated in FGOALS-g1.0,in which the SST annual cycle is mainly driven by surface solar radiation.FGOALS-g1.0 simulates much stronger ENSO events than observed,whereas FGOALS-g2 and FGOALS-s2 successfully simulate the observed ENSO amplitude and period and positive asymmetry,but with less strength.Further ENSO feedback analyses suggest that surface solar radiation feedback is principally responsible for the overestimated ENSO amplitude in FGOALS-g1.0.Both FGOALS-g1.0 and FGOALS-s2 can simulate two different types of El Ni(n)o events with maximum SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific (EP) or in the central Pacific (CP)-but FGOALS-g2 is only able to simulate EP E1 Ni(n)o,because the negative cloud shortwave forcing feedback by FGOALS-g2 is much stronger than observed in the central Pacific.

  9. ECN, energy innovation Annual Report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report includes a brief survey of the nuclear research activities of the Netherlands Energy Research Center (ECN) in Petten during 1988. They cover the following subjects: reactor safety, processing, storage and disposal of radioactive waste, advanced nuclear reactors, radiation protection, nuclear analysis, and contributions to the European thermonuclear-fusion research. (H.W.). 22 figs.; 32 fotos; 1 tab

  10. Netherlands Energy Research Foundation Annual Report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report includes a brief survey of the nuclear research activities of the Netherlands Energy Research Center (ECN) in Petten during 1987. They cover the following subjects: reactor safety, processing, storage and disposal of radioactive waste, advanced nuclear reactors, radiation protection, nuclear analysis, and contributions to the European thermonuclear-fusion research. (H.W.). 20 figs.; 18 fotos; 1 tab

  11. [SaskEnergy, Inc.]. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual report of SaskEnergy Inc., a Crown corporation established in 1992 to provide a secure supply of natural gas to over 293,000 customers. The report provides an overview of the year's activities; a corporate profile; financial and operating highlights; details on distribution, transmission and storage; corporate and social responsibility; and the future outlook. Financial statements are included

  12. [SaskEnergy, Inc.]. Annual report, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual report of SaskEnergy Inc., a Crown corporation established in 1992 to provide a secure supply of natural gas to over 293,000 customers. The report provides an overview of the year's activities; a corporate profile; financial and operating highlights; details on distribution, transmission and storage; corporate and social responsibility; and the future outlook. Financial statements are included

  13. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  14. Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-17

    The Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993 is a companion document to the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO). Supplement tables provide the regional projections underlying the national data and projections in the AEO. The domestic coal, electric power, commercial nuclear power, end-use consumption, and end-use price tables present AEO forecasts at the 10 Federal Region level. World coal tables provide data and projections on international flows of steam coal and metallurgical coal, and the oil and gas tables provide the AEO oil and gas supply forecasts by Oil and Gas Supply Regions and by source of supply. All tables refer to cases presented in the AEO, which provides a range of projections for energy markets through 2010.

  15. Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993 is a companion document to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO). Supplement tables provide the regional projections underlying the national data and projections in the AEO. The domestic coal, electric power, commercial nuclear power, end-use consumption, and end-use price tables present AEO forecasts at the 10 Federal Region level. World coal tables provide data and projections on international flows of steam coal and metallurgical coal, and the oil and gas tables provide the AEO oil and gas supply forecasts by Oil and Gas Supply Regions and by source of supply. All tables refer to cases presented in the AEO, which provides a range of projections for energy markets through 2010

  16. Analysis of Russian transition scenarios to innovative nuclear energy system based on thermal and fast reactors with closed nuclear fuel cycle using INPRO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of modeling of Russian nuclear energy (NE) scenarios on the basis of thermal and fast reactors with closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). Modeling has been carried out with use of CYCLE code (SSC RF IPPE's tool) designed for analysis of Nuclear Energy System (NES) with closed NFC taking into account plutonium and minor actinides (MA) isotopic composition change during multi-recycling of fuel in fast reactors. When considering fast reactor introduction scenarios, one of important questions is to define optimal time for their introduction and related NFC's facilities. Analysis of the results obtained has been fulfilled using the key INPRO indicators for sustainable energy development. It was shown that a delay in fast reactor introduction led to serious ecological, social and finally economic risks for providing energy security and sustainable development of Russia in long-term prospects and loss of knowledge and experience in mastering innovative technologies of fast reactors and related nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  17. Energy in Croatia 2009, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the eighteenth edition of the Review Energy in Croatia, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship continues the practice of informing domestic and foreign public on relations and trends within the Croatian energy sector. This Review gives, in a recognizable and comprehensible way, data and characteristic values relevant to the Croatian energy sector, providing an overview on energy production and consumption at all levels. There is a detailed analysis of the trends present in the energy sector as well as a number of information on capacities, reserves, prices and energy balances for crude oil, all petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, heat energy, coal and renewable energy sources. The Review also brings the main economic and financial indicators, data on air pollutant emissions and main energy efficiancy indicators. It also gives the ODEX energy efficiancy index, which is determined according to the methodology used in the European Union. This indicator monitors the energy efficiancy trends over a period of time in the sectors of industry, transport, households and in total consumption. Finally, the Review brings the energy balances of the Republic of Croatia for the years 2008 and 2009, made following the EUROSTAT and IEA methodologies. In 2009 total energy demand in Croatia was 1.6 percent lower than the year before. At the same time, gross domestic product fell by 5.8 percent, which as a result gave a 4.4 percent higher level of energy intensity in total energy consumption. When compared to the average energy intensity level in the EU (EU27), the energy intensity in Croatia was 6.8 percent higher. The primary energy production in 2009 was 7.1 percent higher form the previous year. Also, due to favorable hydrological situation the hydropower utilization grew by 31 percent. The energy from renewable sources increased by 29.8 percent and the energy from fuel wood increased by 5.6 percent. The production of crude oil in 2009 decreased by 6

  18. Energy in Croatia 2011, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the twentieth edition of the Review Energy in Croatia, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship continues the practice of informing domestic and foreign public on relations and trends within the Croatian energy sector. This Review gives, in a recognizable and comprehensible way, data and characteristic values relevant to the Croatian energy sector, providing an overview on energy production and consumption at all levels. There is a detailed analysis of the trends present in the energy sector as well as a number of information on capacities, reserves, prices and energy balances for crude oil, all petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, heat energy, coal and renewable energy sources. The Review also brings the main economic and financial indicators, data on air pollutant emissions and main energy efficiancy indicators. It also gives the ODEX energy efficiency index, which is determined according to the methodology used in the European Union. This indicator monitors the energy efficiancy trends over a period of time in the sectors of industry, transport, households and in total consumption. Finally, the Review brings the energy balances of the Republic of Croatia for the years 2010 and 2011, made following the EUROSTAT and IEA methodologies. In 2011 total primary energy supply in Croatia was 6.8 percent lower than the year before. At the same time, gross domestic product slightly decreased by 0.01 percent, which resulted in lowering energy intensity of total energy consumption by a 6.8 percent. When compared to the average energy intensity level in the EU (EU27), the energy intensity in Croatia was only 1.2 percent higher. The primary energy production in 2011 decreased by 18 percent from the previous year. Also, due to unfavorable hydrological situation the hydropower utilization was as much as 46.6 percent lower than in 2010. The energy from renewable sources increased by 13.3 percent and the energy from fuel wood, ondustrial waste wood, energy

  19. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND... § 305.5 Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost,...

  20. Energy in Croatia 2012, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the twenty-first edition of the Review Energy in Croatia, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship continues the practice of informing domestic and foreign public on relations and trends within the Croatian energy sector. This Review gives, in a recognizable and comprehensible way, data and characteristic values relevant to the Croatian energy sector, providing an overview on energy production and consumption at all levels. There is a detailed analysis of the trends present in the energy sector as well as a number of information on capacities, reserves, prices and energy balances for crude oil, all petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, heat energy, coal and renewable energy sources. The Review also brings the main economic and financial indicators, data on air pollutant emissions and main energy efficiancy indicators. It also gives the ODEX energy efficiency index, which is determined according to the methodology used in the European Union. This indicator monitors the energy efficiancy trends over a period of time in the sectors of industry, transport, households and in total consumption. Finally, the Review brings the energy balances of the Republic of Croatia for the years 2011 and 2012, made following the EUROSTAT and IEA methodologies. In 2012 total energy demand in Croatia was 4.7 percent lower than the year before. At the same time, gross domestic product fell by 2 percent, which resulted in a decrease in a total primary energy supply intensity by 2.8 percent. When compared to the average energy intensity level in the EU (EU27), the energy intensity in Croatia was 6.9 percent higher. The primary energy production in 2012 decreased by 5.6 compared to the previous year. Also, due to hydrological situation the hydropower utilization grew by 6.7 percent. The energy from renewable sources increased by 29.8 percent and the energy from fuel wood increased by 5.6 percent. The production of crude oil in 2012 decreased by 9.7 percent and of natural

  1. INPRO Assessment of the Planned Nuclear Energy System of Belarus. A report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was started in 2001 on the basis of IAEA General Conference resolution GC(44)/RES/21. INPRO activities have since been continuously endorsed by IAEA General Conference resolutions and by the General Assembly of the United Nations. The objectives of INPRO are to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute, in a sustainable manner, to the goal of meeting the energy needs of the 21st century, and to bring together technology holders and users so that they can jointly consider the international and national actions required for ensuring sustainability of nuclear energy through innovations in technology and/or institutional arrangements. To fulfill these objectives, INPRO has developed a set of basic principles, user requirements and criteria, and an assessment method which, taken together, comprise the INPRO methodology for the evaluation of the long term sustainability of innovative nuclear energy systems. The INPRO methodology is documented in IAEA-TECDOC-1575 Rev.1, comprising an overview volume and eight additional volumes covering economics, institutional measures (infrastructure), waste management, proliferation resistance, physical protection, environment (impact of stressors and availability of resources), safety of reactors, and safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This publication is the final report of an assessment of the planned nuclear energy system of Belarus using the INPRO methodology. The assessment was performed in 2009-2011 by Belarusian experts in a strategic partnership with the Russian Federation and with support from the IAEA's INPRO Group

  2. Development of a methodology for life cycle building energy ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally the majority of building energy use has been linked to its operation (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.), and much attention has been directed to reduce this energy use through technical innovation, regulatory control and assessed through a wide range of rating methods. However buildings generally employ an increasing amount of materials and systems to reduce the energy use in operation, and energy embodied in these can constitute an important part of the building's life cycle energy use. For buildings with 'zero-energy' use in operation the embodied energy is indeed the only life cycle energy use. This is not addressed by current building energy assessment and rating methods. This paper proposes a methodology to extend building energy assessment and rating methods accounting for embodied energy of building components and systems. The methodology is applied to the EU Building Energy Rating method and, as an illustration, as implemented in Irish domestic buildings. A case study dwelling is used to illustrate the importance of embodied energy on life cycle energy performance, particularly relevant when energy use in operation tends to zero. The use of the Net Energy Ratio as an indicator to select appropriate building improvement measures is also presented and discussed. - Highlights: → The definitions for 'zero energy buildings' and current building energy ratings are examined. → There is a need to integrate a life cycle perspective within building energy ratings. → A life cycle building energy rating method (LC-BER), including embodied energy is presented. → Net Energy Ratio is proposed as an indicator to select building energy improvement options.

  3. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William D

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  4. Energy in Croatia 2005, Annual Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report presents the latest information on relations and trends in the Croatian energy sector. The reports gives a familiar overview of comprehensive data about and representative features of the Croatian energy sector, related to the supply and demand of energy at all levels. It produces a detailed analysis of energy trends and provides extensive data on capacity, reserves and prices as well as balances of individual energy sources - crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, heat, coal and renewable source of energy. Basic economic and financial indicators, emissions of air pollutants and basic energy efficiency indicators for Croatia are also presented. In 2005, total primary energy supply in Croatia decreased slightly by 0.1 per cent with respect to the previous year. At the same time, GDP rose by 4.3 per cent, resulting in a drop in energy intensity of the total primary energy supply of 4.2 per cent. The energy intensity in Croatia was 20.1 per cent higher than the average energy intensity in the European Union, but a positive decreasing trend was noted during the past period. In 2005 the total primary energy production in Croatia fell by 3.5 per cent with respect to the previous year. The highest decrease was recorded in harnessing hydro power, and the production of crude oil and fuel wood also declined. Only the production of natural gas showed a growth of 3.5 per cent. Due to the decrease in the primary energy production, energy self-supply was also reduced to 47.9 per cent. A less value was achieved only in the year 2003. A continuing trend towards a gradual decline in energy self-supply was present throughout the past several years. Final energy demand increased by 3 per cent while demands in other sectors decreased. Energy transformation losses were reduced by 7 per cent, non-energy use declined by 5.6 per cent and energy transmission and distribution losses by 5.5 per cent, and there was a slight drop of 0.2 per cent in demand in energy

  5. Sodium fast reactors energy conversion systems. Na-CO2 interaction. Comparison with Na-water interaction of conventional water Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sodium Fast Reactor is a very promising candidate for the development of Fast Neutron Reactors. It is well known owing to its wide development since the 1950's, throughout all countries involved in the development of nuclear power plants. The development of Sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors is possible due to its very attractive sodium, nuclear, physical and even some of its chemical properties. Nevertheless, the operational feedback has shown that the concept has several drawbacks: difficulties for In-Service Inspection and Repair operations due to the sodium opacity and possible detrimental effects of its reactivity with air and water when the heat conversion is performed with a conventional Rankine cycle. Moreover, the various design projects have shown some difficulties in enhancing its competitiveness with regards to existing NPPs without any new innovative options, i.e. the possibility of suppressing the intermediate circuits and/or the development of an optimized energy conversion system. The Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle option for the energy conversion has been widely suggested because of its high thermodynamic efficiency (over 40%), its potential compactness of the Balance Of Plant equipment due to the small-sized turbo machinery system, and for its applicability to both Direct or Indirect Cycle (Na, PbBi, He) assuming the hypothesis that the Supercritical CO2-Na interaction has less serious potential consequences than sodium-water consequences in the conventional Rankine cycle. Within the framework of the SMFR (Small Modular Fast Reactor) project, developed jointly by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-USA), the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' (CEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA, formerly Japan Nuclear Cycle development), this option has been selected and investigated. This paper deals with the study of the interaction between Na and CO2, based on a literature review: the result of this study will allow the definition of R and D tracks

  6. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  7. Husky Energy Inc. : 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Husky Energy Inc. was presented in this first annual report and a review of their 2000 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Husky Energy is an integrated energy and energy-related company. With the acquisition of Renaissance Energy Ltd. in August 2000, Husky Energy became one of Canada's largest petroleum companies in terms of production and the value of its asset base. Upstream activities were focused in Western Canada, offshore Eastern Canada and in China. Sales and operating revenues in 2000 were $5,090 million, up 82 per cent from 1999. Strong commodity prices increased production volumes from new developments and acquisitions. The midstream business contributed to the profitability of the company. The acquisition of Renaissance Energy provided proved reserves of 390 million boe. The acquisition cost of reserves was about $6.50 per boe on a proved plus half-probable basis. Annual production volumes in 2000 averaged 176,800 boe per day, up considerably from 1999 due to the acquisition of the Valhalla and Wapiti properties in Western Canada. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  8. Approaches to Energy System Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Jakobsen, Arne

    2002-01-01

    of many energy systems, identification of so-called cycle specification variables, their physical meaning and their numerical implications are discussed specifically. The example chosen is a Rankine power or cooling cycle. Similarities between modeling of power cycles and cooling cycles are finally summed...

  9. 1999 Annual Report: Delivering energy value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Union Gas Limited, a subsidiary of Westcoast Energy Company, is a major Canadian natural gas utility, providing energy delivery and related services to 1.1 million residential, commercial and industrial customers in over 400 communities in northern, southwestern and eastern Ontario. Union Gas also provides natural gas storage and transportation services for other utilities and energy market participants in Ontario, Quebec and the northeastern United States. In 1999 the Company had revenues of 1.5 billion, net income of $ 95 million, and assets totalling $ 3.8 billion. Net income was down from $ 109 million in 1998, due mainly to the impact of the sale of the Company's retail merchandise program to Union Energy, a lower approved rate of return on common equity. Full-time employees number about 2,500. Total throughput for 1999 was 34.6 billion cubic metres of natural gas, up 8.9 per cent from 1998. The Company undertook significant reorganization and restructuring during 1999, to emphasize critical business processes. The reorganization, which saw the divestiture of the retail merchandise programs to an unregulated affiliate, Union Energy, resulted in a flat, flexible and efficient enterprise, more capable of timely response to changing market opportunities and customer needs. Union Gas also filed application with the Ontario Energy Board for rates for the year 2000 and beyond, using the performance-based regulation framework; completed construction of a $ 16 million, 90 km pipeline to make natural gas service available to Parry Sound; Launched 'enoms' a new Internet-based natural gas nominations system; completed the first phase of the $ 17 million Century Pools storage development project, and applied to build the second phase, comprising a $37 million addition to the storage pools at the Mandasumin, Bluewater and Oil City pools; and completed several smaller projects totalling $ 5.2 million to give access to natural gas to 2,300 new customers at various parts of

  10. Assumptions for the Annual Energy Outlook 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report serves a auxiliary document to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication Annual Energy Outlook 1992 (AEO) (DOE/EIA-0383(92)), released in January 1992. The AEO forecasts were developed for five alternative cases and consist of energy supply, consumption, and price projections by major fuel and end-use sector, which are published at a national level of aggregation. The purpose of this report is to present important quantitative assumptions, including world oil prices and macroeconomic growth, underlying the AEO forecasts. The report has been prepared in response to external requests, as well as analyst requirements for background information on the AEO and studies based on the AEO forecasts

  11. Towards a Sustainable Urban Metabolism: Algae-to-Energy Systems as Clean Cycles in the Urban Water Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Menger-Krug, Eve

    2013-01-01

    This study includes an analysis of the urban water chain in Germany (water supply, wastewater and sludge management); followed by an analysis of the integration of algae systems on the level of wastewater treatment plants. Then, the scope of the study is extended to put the results in context of the urban metabolism. The relevance of the urban water chain - with and without algae - for the urban energy balance and the urban flows of nutrients and anthropogenic micropollutants is assessed.

  12. MULTIPARAMETER OPTIMIZATION STUDIES ON GEOTHERMAL ENERGY CYCLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, W.L.; Pines, H.S.; Silvester, L.F.; Green, M.A.; Williams, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    Various standard geothermal power cycles are modeled and optimized with program GEOTHM. The results are displayed in 3-D isometric form. These graphical plots vividly display the sensitivity of energy cost and other performance criteria as a result of departures from the design operating point. For example, we will present the mutual interaction of energy cost, resource utilization efficiency, and resource temperature as an EC-RUE-RT surface for a range of temperatures between 100 C and 300 C. Calculation results will be presented for subcritical and supercritical binary cycles with several pure fluids, and on two stage flashed steam cycles for practical non-condensable gas levels.

  13. Sexual dimorphism in immune function changes during the annual cycle in house sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Péter László; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Vágási, Csongor István; Barta, Zoltán; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Difference between sexes in parasitism is a common phenomenon among birds, which may be related to differences between males and females in their investment into immune functions or as a consequence of differential exposure to parasites. Because life-history strategies change sex specifically during the annual cycle, immunological responses of the host aiming to reduce the impact of parasites may be sexually dimorphic. Despite the great complexity of the immune system, studies on immunoecology generally characterise the immune status through a few variables, often overlooking potentially important seasonal and gender effects. However, because of the differences in physiological and defence mechanisms among different arms of the immune system, we expect divergent responses of immune components to environmental seasonality. In male and female house sparrows ( Passer domesticus), we measured the major components of the immune system (innate, acquired, cellular and humoral) during four important life-history stages across the year: (1) mating, (2) breeding, (3) moulting and (4) during the winter capture and also following introduction to captivity in aviary. Different individuals were sampled from the same population during the four life cycle stages. We found that three out of eight immune variables showed a significant life cycle stage × sex interaction. The difference in immune response between the sexes was significant in five immune variables during the mating stage, when females had consistently stronger immune function than males, while variables varied generally non-significantly with sex during the remaining three life cycle stages. Our results show that the immune system is highly variable between life cycle stages and sexes, highlighting the potential fine tuning of the immune system to specific physiological states and environmental conditions.

  14. Spectral representation of the annual cycle in the climate change signal

    OpenAIRE

    T. Bosshard; S. Kotlarski; Ewen, T.; Schär, C.

    2011-01-01

    The annual cycle of temperature and precipitation changes as projected by climate models is of fundamental interest in climate impact studies. Its estimation, however, is impaired by natural variability. Using a simple form of the delta change method, we show that on regional scales relevant for hydrological impact models, the projected changes in the annual cycle are prone to sampling artefacts. For precipitation at station locations, these artefacts may have amplitudes that are comparable t...

  15. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird specie

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, A.P; E. FLENSTED-JENSEN; W. MARDAL

    2009-01-01

    Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the ent...

  16. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selden, R.H. (ed.)

    1991-06-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goals and accomplishments of the Energy Division are described in this annual progress report for FY 1990. The Energy Division is a multidisciplinary research organization committed to (1) increasing the knowledge and understanding of how societies make choices in energy use; (2) improving society's understanding of the environmental, social, and economic implications of technological change; (3) developing and transferring energy efficient technologies; and (4) developing improved transportation planning and policy. Disciplines of the 129 staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, chemical heat pumps, refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building enveloped (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), retrofits for existing buildings, and electric power systems. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination. 48 refs., 34 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Electricity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto

    Electricity systems represent a major source of global pollutants. Whilst currently relying heavily on fossil fuels, electricity systems are progressively shifting towards renewable sources to mitigate climate change and enhance energy security. The goal of this PhD project was to develop...... a systematic framework for the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity systems, which aimed at providing: •Scientifically sound recommendations for decision-making processes, leading to more sustainable energy systems; •Accurate and transparent LCA data for electricity supply, thereby increasing...... the robustness of LCA results for a multitude of products producing or consuming electricity throughout the lifecycle. The main findings in relation to: (i) electricity generation, (ii) power transmission and distribution and (iii) low-carbon electricity systems are reported in the following paragraphs. A great...

  18. The Sub-Annual Breeding Cycle of a Tropical Seabird

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, S. James; Martin, Graham R.; Dawson, Alistair; Wearn, Colin P.; Hughes, B. John

    2014-01-01

    Breeding periodicity allows organisms to synchronise breeding attempts with the most favourable ecological conditions under which to raise offspring. For most animal species, ecological conditions vary seasonally and usually impose an annual breeding schedule on their populations; sub-annual breeding schedules will be rare. We use a 16-year dataset of breeding attempts by a tropical seabird, the sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), on Ascension Island to provide new insights about this classica...

  19. Energy efficiency analysis and impact evaluation of the application of thermoelectric power cycle to today's CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min; Lund, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2010-01-01

    High efficiency thermoelectric generators (TEG) can recover waste heat from both industrial and private sectors. Thus, the development and deployment of TEG may represent one of the main drives for technological change and fuel substitution. This paper will present an analysis of system efficiency...... related to the integration of TEG into thermal energy systems, especially Combined Heat and Power production (CHP). Representative implementations of installing TEG in CHP plants to utilize waste heat, wherein electricity can be generated in situ as a by-product, will be described to show advantageous...... configurations for combustion systems. The feasible deployment of TEG in various CHP plants will be examined in terms of heat source temperature range, influences on CHP power specification and thermal environment, as well as potential benefits. The overall conversion efficiency improvements and economic...

  20. Multiple Limit Cycles in an Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-cheng Huang; Le-min Zhu; Minaya Villasana

    2008-01-01

    The nonlinear oscillatory phenomenon has been observed in the system of immune response, which corresponds to the limit cycles in the mathematical models. We prove that the system simulating an immune response studied by Huang has at least three limit cycles in the system. The conditions for the multiple limit cycles are useful in analyzing the nonlinear oscillation in immune response.

  1. Husky Energy Inc. : 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Calgary-based Husky Energy Inc. was presented in this annual report and a review of their 2002 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Husky Energy is one of Canada's largest producers of oil and gas. It is an integrated energy and energy-related company consisting of 3 segments, upstream, midstream and refined products. The report lists the major achievements for 2002 and plans for 2003. Among the achievements is the first oil production from Terra Nova and Wenchang and the commencement of the White Rose oil field development project. In the midstream and refined products businesses, Husky Energy achieved record volumes of more than 850,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day and a new record for asphalt sales. The company also received several awards for their performance in the areas of health, safety and the environment. It was noted that 2003 will likely be characterized by more volatility in commodity prices, and natural gas prices are expected to remain strong. Husky is expected to increase production of both oil and gas in 2003. This annual report includes an auditor's report of the company's financial statements and summarized the company's energy resource activities. An operations review was also presented along with consolidated financial statements, summarized balance sheet of assets, liabilities/surplus and net assets, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  2. A Didactic Model of the Seasonal Cycle in Energy Fluxes and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, A.; Battisti, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the annual mean, the polar regions receive a deficit of solar insolation relative to the global average. The local energy budget is balanced primarily by atmospheric heat transport into the region, with smaller contributions from ocean heat transport and anomalously low outgoing longwave radiation (relative to the global average). In contrast, the annual cycle features large seasonal anomalies (departures from the local annual average) in solar insolation in the polar regions that are primarily balanced by ocean heat storage anomalies; changes in meridional heat transport, emitted long wave radiation, and atmospheric heat storage play a decreasingly important role in the seasonal energy balance. Land-ocean contrasts also have a large impact on the seasonal energetics of the polar climate system. Over the ocean, zonal heat transport from the land domain is maximized during the summer, and the sum of the insolation and zonal heat transport anomalies is balanced by ocean heat storage. In contrast, over the land, the primary summertime balance is excess solar insolation balanced by an enhanced zonal heat export. In this study we examine the global scale climate and the aforementioned seasonal cycle of energy fluxes using an aquaplanet atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean and a simplified energy balance model that interacts with the underlying ocean. The gross climate and seasonal energetics in both models are highly sensitive to the specification of ocean mixed layer depth. The observed seasonal cycle of energy fluxes and the land and ocean temperatures are also replicated in a simplified energy balance model that includes land-ocean contrast and the hemispheric differences in fractional land area. The sensitivity of the seasonal cycle in climate (atmosphere and ocean temperatures) - and in the gross partitioning of the mix of energy flux processes that determine the climate - to the fractional land area is further explored in an ensemble of

  3. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  4. The role of land-surface processes in modulating the Indian monsoon annual cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollasina, Massimo A.; Ming, Yi

    2013-11-01

    The annual cycle of solar radiation, together with the resulting land-ocean differential heating, is traditionally considered the dominant forcing controlling the northward progression of the Indian monsoon. This study makes use of a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model in a realistic configuration to conduct “perpetual” experiments aimed at providing new insights into the role of land-atmosphere processes in modulating the annual cycle of precipitation over India. The simulations are carried out at three important stages of the monsoon cycle: March, May, and July. Insolation and SSTs are held fixed at their respective monthly mean values, thus eliminating any external seasonal forcing. In the perpetual May experiment both precipitation and circulation are able to considerably evolve only by regional internal land-atmosphere processes and the mediation of soil hydrology. A large-scale equilibrium state is reached after approximately 270 days, closely resembling mid-summer climatological conditions. As a result, despite the absence of external forcing, intense and widespread rains over India are able to develop in the May-like state. The interaction between soil moisture and circulation, modulated by surface heating over the northwestern semi-arid areas, determines a slow northwestward migration of the monsoon, a crucial feature for the existence of desert regions to the west. This also implies that the land-atmosphere system in May is far from being in equilibrium with the external forcing. The inland migration of the precipitation front comprises a succession of large-scale 35-50 day coupled oscillations between soil moisture, precipitation, and circulation. The oscillatory regime is self-sustained and entirely due to the internal dynamics of the system. In contrast to the May case, minor changes in the land-atmosphere system are found when the model is initialized in March and, more surprisingly, in July, the latter case further emphasizing

  5. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  6. Mechanisms Controlling the Annual Cycle of Precipitation in the Tropical Atlantic Sector in an Atmospheric GCM(.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, M.; Battisti, D. S.; Sarachik, E. S.

    2004-12-01

    A set of AGCM experiments is used to study the annual cycle of precipitation in the region surrounding the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The experiments are designed to reveal the relative importance of insolation over land and the (uncoupled) SST on the annual cycle of precipitation over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Africa, and the tropical Americas.SST variations impact the position of the maritime ITCZ by forcing the hydrostatic adjustment of the atmospheric boundary layer and changes in surface pressure and low-level convergence. The condensation heating released in the ITCZ contributes substantially to the surface circulation and the maintenance of the SST-induced ITCZ anomalies.The remote influence of SST is felt in equatorial coastal areas and the Sahel. The circulation driven by condensation heating in the maritime ITCZ extends to the coastal regions, thus communicating the SST signal onshore. Conversely, the Sahel responds to variations in SST through boundary layer processes that do not involve the maritime ITCZ. The atmospheric response to changes in subtropical SST is advected inland and forces changes in sea level pressure and low-level convergence across a large part of tropical Africa.The impact of local insolation on continental precipitation can be explained by balancing net energy input at the top of the atmospheric column with the export of energy by the divergent circulation that accompanies convection. Increased insolation reduces the stability of the atmosphere in the main continental convection centers, but not in monsoon regions.Insolation over land impacts the intensity of the maritime ITCZ via its influence on precipitation in Africa and South America. Reduced land precipitation induces the cooling of the Atlantic upper troposphere and the enhancement of convective available potential energy in the maritime ITCZ.

  7. Effect of driving cycles on energy efficiency of electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI FenZhu; XU LiCong; WU ZhiXin

    2009-01-01

    Based on several typical domestic and foreign driving cycles, the energy usage efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle (EV) is analyzed.The energy usage efficiency of EVs and the evaluation index of electromotor efficiency are studied.The concepts of "interval usage percentage of energy efficiency" and "exertion degree of energy efficiency" of electromotor are presented.The effects of driving cycles on the distribution of the running status of electromotor and the efficiency are investi-gated.The efficiency of electromotor and the trend of average driving force at different driving cycles are discussed.The exertion degree of energy efficiency and the total power train efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle at typical driving cycles are analyzed and calculated.The result in-dicates that the driving cycle engenders a big influence on the exertion degree of electromotor energy efficiency at different driving cycles.Dissimilar driving cycles result in different efficiency distributions of electromotor, the control system as well as the average driving force and driving range are variable.

  8. Effect of driving cycles on energy efficiency of electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on several typical domestic and foreign driving cycles, the energy usage efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle (EV) is analyzed. The energy usage efficiency of EVs and the evaluation index of electromotor efficiency are studied. The concepts of "interval usage percentage of energy efficiency" and "exertion degree of energy efficiency" of electromotor are presented. The effects of driving cycles on the distribution of the running status of electromotor and the efficiency are investi-gated. The efficiency of electromotor and the trend of average driving force at different driving cycles are discussed. The exertion degree of energy efficiency and the total power train efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle at typical driving cycles are analyzed and calculated. The result indicates that the driving cycle engenders a big influence on the exertion degree of electromotor energy efficiency at different driving cycles. Dissimilar driving cycles result in different efficiency distributions of electromotor, the control system as well as the average driving force and driving range are variable.

  9. Amplitude-Phase Characteristics of the Annual Cycle of Surface Air Temperature in the Northern Hemisphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The amplitude-phase characteristics (APC) of surface air temperature (SAT) annual cycle (AC)in the Northern Hemisphere are analyzed. From meteorological observations for the 20th century andmeteorological reanalyses for its second half, it is found that over land negative correlation of SAT ACamplitude with annual mean SAT dominates. Nevertheless, some exceptions exist. The positive correlationbetween these two variables is found over the two desert regions: in northern Africa and in Central America.Areas of positive correlations are also found for the northern Pacific and for the tropical Indian and PacificOceans. Southward of the characteristic annual mean snow-ice boundary (SIB) position, the shape ofthe SAT AC becomes more sinusoidal under climate warming. In contrast, northward of it, this shapebecomes less sinusoidal. The latter is also found for the above-mentioned two desert regions. In theFar East (southward of about 50°N), the SAT AC shifts as a whole: here its spring and autumn phasesoccur earlier if the annual mean SAT increases. From energy-balance climate considerations, those trendsfor SAT AC APC in the middle and high latitudes are associated with the influence of the albedo-SATfeedback due to the SIB movement. In the Far East the trends are attributed to the interannual cloudinessvariability, and in the desert regions, to the influence of a further desertification and/or scattering aerosolloading into the atmosphere. In the north Pacific, the exhibited trends could only be explained as aresult of the influence of the greenhouse-gases loading on atmospheric opacity. The trends for SAT ACAPC related to the SIB movement are simulated reasonably well by the climate model of intermediatecomplexity (IAP RAS CM) in the experiment with greenhouse gases atmospheric loading. In contrast,the tendencies resulting from the cloudiness variability are not reproduced by this model. The model alsopartly simulates the tendencies related to the desertification

  10. On multi-timescale variability of temperature in China in modulated annual cycle reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Wu, Zhaohua; Fu, Congbin; Zhou, Tianjun

    2010-09-01

    The traditional anomaly (TA) reference frame and its corresponding anomaly for a given data span changes with the extension of data length. In this study, the modulated annual cycle (MAC), instead of the widely used climatological mean annual cycle, is used as an alternative reference frame for computing climate anomalies to study the multi-timescale variability of surface air temperature (SAT) in China based on homogenized daily data from 1952 to 2004. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method is used to separate daily SAT into a high frequency component, a MAC component, an interannual component, and a decadal-to-trend component. The results show that the EEMD method can reflect historical events reasonably well, indicating its adaptive and temporally local characteristics. It is shown that MAC is a temporally local reference frame and will not be altered over a particular time span by an extension of data length, thereby making it easier for physical interpretation. In the MAC reference frame, the low frequency component is found more suitable for studying the interannual to longer timescale variability (ILV) than a 13-month window running mean, which does not exclude the annual cycle. It is also better than other traditional versions (annual or summer or winter mean) of ILV, which contains a portion of the annual cycle. The analysis reveals that the variability of the annual cycle could be as large as the magnitude of interannual variability. The possible physical causes of different timescale variability of SAT in China are further discussed.

  11. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, M.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  12. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report. FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This Building America FY2012 Annual Report includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  13. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1996 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selecting the research efforts to be highlighted in the Israel Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report from the large body and broad spectrum of ongoing work is not an easy task. The extensive bibliography of published results attached to the report attests to the scope of this difficulty. Of the many worthwhile projects, four were chosen to represent best the current trends in the continuing R and D program at the research centers of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission. One of these trends is the growing cooperation with private industry, in an attempt to gear our R and D programs to respond to market demands. Another feature, noted already several years ago, is the extensive collaboration of our scientists and engineers with colleagues at other institutions, in Israel and abroad. some of the work reported is part of evolving international industrial cooperation projects, illustrating both these trends. Following a trend common to many nuclear research centers around the world, a substantial part of our research effort is non-nuclear in nature. This is illustrated in the first article, which deals with advances in the application of non-linear optics in diverse fields of science and technology. These include state-of-the-art solid-state lasers, rapid modulation of light signals, development and generation of tunable sources of coherent light, optical data storage and the microscopic probing of biological and inorganic samples. The present work reports on a range of R and D, from the fundamentals of non-linear optical materials to proof-of-principle demonstrations of non-linear subwavelength resolution microscopy, to fabrication of prototype commercial tunable laser systems The second report considers the microstrain characteristics in some alloys using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The research utilizes XRD line broadening effects to study the characteristics of alloys from especially prepared surfaces. These characteristics include the homogeneity of alloying

  14. Introduction to the use of the INPRO methodology in a nuclear energy system assessment. A Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was initiated in 2001 on the basis of an IAEA General Conference resolution in 2000 (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO activities have since that time been continuously endorsed by resolutions of the IAEA General Conference and by the General Assembly of the United Nations. The objectives of INPRO are to: Help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute, in a sustainable manner, to the goal of meeting energy needs in the 21st century; Bring together technology holders and users so that they can jointly consider the international and national actions required to ensure the sustainability of nuclear energy through innovations in technology and/or institutional arrangements. To fulfil these objectives, INPRO developed a set of basic principles, user requirements and criteria, along with an assessment method, which are the basis of the INPRO methodology for evaluation of the sustainability of innovative nuclear energy systems. To provide additional guidance in using the INPRO methodology, the nine volume INPRO Manual was developed; it consists of an overview volume and eight volumes covering the areas of economics, institutional measures (infrastructure), waste management, proliferation resistance, physical protection, environment (including the impact of stressors and the availability of resources), reactor safety, and the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. To assist Member States in applying the INPRO methodology, the nuclear energy system assessment (NESA) support package is being developed. This includes a database (containing input data for assessment), provision of training courses in the INPRO methodology and examples of comprehensive assessments. This publication provides guidance on how a variety of potential users, including nuclear technology developers, experienced users and prospective first time nuclear technology users (newcomers) can apply the INPRO methodology for

  15. Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 40 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Electric Utilities. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  16. International Energy Agency 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The IEA Executive Director’s Annual Report 2012 is the first of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It is presented to the IEA Governing Board and released publicly to ensure transparency and also to take stock of the organisation’s activities from a strategic perspective. 2012 was a transitional year for the IEA, given fundamental changes in the global energy economy as well as internal management and budget issues. At the same time demand for IEA products set new records, and the public and political impact of IEA work through effective communication was measured as high.

  17. Comparison of Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas, biodiesel and diesel buses of the Madrid transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparative study on the use of three after-treatment technologies: i) EGR + DPF, ii) SCR + Urea and iii) 3-way catalyst when implemented in urban buses, to determinate the energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), direct Land Use Change (dLUC), abiotic depletion of fossil energy by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The process of production, conditioning and transporting of the fuels used by the buses (diesel, biodiesel (B100), a blended biodiesel at 20% (B20) and natural gas) were also analyzed (Well-to-Tank analysis) along with the environmental impact due to its combustion in the bus (Tank-to-Wheel analysis). The environmental impact of the manufacturing, maintenance and recycling process of the urban buses and exhaust after-treatment systems has also been evaluated. Main results shows that Life Cycle of SCR + Urea technology reduces environmental impact to a greater extent than its global Life Cycle increases it when gasoil is used resulting in a final balance more efficient than the other options, the same behavior is observed with the use of B20 and B100 but only when 0%dLUC is assumed since if the percentage of dLUC increases the effectiveness of the SCR + Urea technology in the reduction of environmental impact tend to decrease. -- Highlights: ► We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each technology, fossil fuel, biofuel and vehicle. ► Biodiesel environmental impact depends largely on land transformed for grow crops. ► Using SCR + Urea technology and gasoil as a fuel in the bus further reduces the environmental impact.

  18. Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems Based on a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors. A report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Joint Study was started in 2005 and completed in 2007 within the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Canada, China, France, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine participated in this study. The objectives were to assess a nuclear energy system based on a closed fuel cycle (CNFC) with fast reactors (FR) regarding its sustainability, determine milestones for the nuclear energy system deployment, and establish frameworks for, and areas of, collaborative R and D work. The assessment was carried out in accordance with the requirements of INPRO methodology and guiding documents of the Joint Study developed and approved by the participating parties (Canada and Ukraine participated in the discussions during the Joint Study, but did not contribute to the assessments themselves). The Joint Study was implemented in steps. In its first step, nominated experts, during the course of extensive discussions, analyzed the country/region/world context data; discussed national and global scenarios of introduction of the CNFC-FR systems; identified technologies suitable for the INS; and arrived at a broad definition of a common CNFC-FR system. In the second step, the participants of the study examined characteristics of CNFC-FR systems for compliance with criteria of sustainability developed in the INPRO methodology in the area of economics, safety, environment, waste management, proliferation resistance, and infrastructure. The results of the study were submitted to and endorsed by the INPRO Steering Committee in meetings held in Vienna 2005 - 2007. The authors of the Joint Study report highly appreciate the valuable comments provided by delegates of the INPRO Steering Committee meetings as well as the advice and assistance of the other experts. Due to the length of the Joint Study report, a summary of the results was produced, which is the content of this publication. The full text of the Joint Study

  19. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  20. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  1. Thermal Energy Storage: Fourth Annual Review Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The development of low cost thermal energy storage technologies is discussed in terms of near term oil savings, solar energy applications, and dispersed energy systems for energy conservation policies. Program definition and assessment and research and technology development are considered along with industrial storage, solar thermal power storage, building heating and cooling, and seasonal thermal storage. A bibliography on seasonal thermal energy storage emphasizing aquifer thermal energy is included.

  2. Hopf limit cycles estimation in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquin, J.; Gomez, T.; Pagola, L.F. [Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica

    1995-11-01

    This paper addresses the computation of the Hopf limit cycle. This limit cycle is associated to the appearance of an oscillatory instability in dynamical power systems. An algorithm is proposed to estimate the dimensions and shape of this limit cycle. The algorithm is computationally efficient and is able to deal with large power systems. 7 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. The use of life-cycle analysis to address energy cycle externality problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life-cycle analysis is defined and the various impacts from energy systems to be included in such analysis are discussed. A preliminary version of a scenario for a future Danish energy systems based upon a bottom-up energy demand scenario and renewable energy sources. LCAs of wind turbine and Si solar roof-top modules are presented. The various impacts from Danish wind and building-integrated solar power generation are discussed and compared with the impacts from coal-fired power generation. The former electricity generating system looks more favorable. (author). 20 refs, 9 figs

  4. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.N. [ed.

    1992-04-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge Laboratory. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1991. The division`s total expenditures in FY 1991 were $39.1 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 124 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division`s programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include electric power systems, building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, advanced refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and technical issues for improving energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  5. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.N. (ed.)

    1992-04-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge Laboratory. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1991. The division's total expenditures in FY 1991 were $39.1 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 124 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include electric power systems, building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, advanced refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and technical issues for improving energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  6. Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic uncertainty

  7. Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Edward A. Hoffman; Gretchen E. Matthern; Kent A. Williams

    2009-06-01

    This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic

  8. Supplement to the annual energy outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This report is a companion document to the Annual Energy Outlook 1994 (AEO94), (DOE/EIA-0383(94)), released in Jan. 1994. Part I of the Supplement presents the key quantitative assumptions underlying the AEO94 projections, responding to requests by energy analysts for additional information on the forecasts. In Part II, the Supplement provides regional projections and other underlying details of the reference case projections in the AEO94. The AEO94 presents national forecasts of energy production, demand and prices through 2010 for five scenarios, including a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices. These forecasts are used by Federal, State, and local governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers in the public and private sectors.

  9. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  10. Fourth Annual Report on Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we present the main elements of the annual report on energy efficiency 2015. The results indicate that, thanks to national policies for energy efficiency, Italy saved over 7.5 million tons of oil equivalent per year in the period 2005-2013. Compared to the National Plan for Energy Efficiency 2014, the report shows that the 2020 objectives have already been achieved for more than 20%, with residential (35.7% of the target) and industry (26.6%) among the sectors that contributed most to this result. Substantial savings could result from the agribusiness sector through the dissemination of efficient technologies in the logistics and large retail chains. A key role lies with the banks: 86% of banks has developed products dedicated to efficiency, necessitating guidelines for replicability of projects, and audit and rating to assess their quality

  11. International Energy Agency 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    The IEA Executive Director's Annual Report 2013 is the second of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It was presented to the IEA Governing Board and is also released publicly to ensure transparency and to take stock of the organisation's activities from a strategic perspective. 2013 was a banner year for the IEA, given continued changes in the global energy economy as well as the IEA Ministerial meeting in November which brought together Energy Ministers from all 28 IEA member countries, accession countries Chile and Estonia, seven key partner countries - Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa - as well as more that 30 top-level executives from the energy industry. Key Ministerial outcomes included the first IEA Ministers' Joint Statement on Climate Change and a declaration of association by six key partner countries to build multilateral cooperation with the IEA.

  12. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  13. Expanders for micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Guoquan; Liu, Hao; Riffat, Saffa

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The continual increases in global energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions call for more and more utilisation of sustainable energy sources, such as solar energy, biomass energy, and waste heat. Solar thermal energy, the heat of biomass combustion and waste heat may be used to drive a combined heat and power (CHP) system. In recent years, several micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) suitable for domestic applications (1-10kWe) driven by solar thermal, bioma...

  14. Cost-benefit analysis of sustainable energy development using life-cycle co-benefits assessment and the system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The energy policy was assessed using the system dynamics approach. • A life table approach was presented to estimate averted loss of life expectancy. • The mortality benefits estimated by VSL and VSLY are found to be similar. • Economic feasibility of the energy policy for climate change mitigation was presented. - Abstract: A novel Air Resource Co-benefits model was developed to estimate the social benefits of a Sustainable Energy Policy, involving both renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency improvements (EEI). The costs and benefits of the policy during 2010–2030 were quantified. A system dynamics model was constructed to simulate the amount of energy saving under the scenario of promoting both RE and EEI. The life-cycle co-reductions of five criteria pollutants (PM10, SO2, NOx, CO, and ozone) and greenhouse gas are estimated by assuming coal fired as marginal electricity suppliers. Moreover, a concise life table approach was developed to estimate averted years of life lost (YOLL). The results showed that YOLL totaling 0.11–0.21 years (41–78 days) per capita, or premature deaths totaling 126,507–251,169, is expected to be averted during 2010–2030 under the RE plus EEI scenario. Specifically, because of the higher investment cost, the benefit-cost ratio of 1.9–2.1 under the EEI scenario is lower than the 7.2–7.9 under the RE scenario. This difference reveals that RE is more socially beneficial than EEI. The net benefit of the RE and EEI scenarios during 2010–2030 totaled approximately US$ 5,972–6,893 per person or US$ 170–190 per MW h. To summarize, this study presents a new approach to estimate averted YOLL, and finds that the health benefits can justify the compliance costs associated with the Sustainable Energy Policy

  15. Energy Coupling Between the Solar Wind and Ionosphere-Thermosphere System in HSS Events of the Ascending Phase of the Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mannucci, Anthony; Tsurutani, Bruce; Mlynczak, Martin; Hunt, Linda; Redmon, Robert; Knipp, Delores; Green, Janet

    2014-05-01

    We analyze two CIR-HSS events during the ascending phase of the current solar cycle. The first event occurred on 29 April - 4 May 2011 and the second event occurred on 8-12 May 2012. We focus on understanding solar-wind coupling with the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system throughout the HSS events through estimating energy transfer (the coupling functions) and corresponding energy partitioning in the IT response. Heliospheric power dynamics and energy deposition by precipitating particles in different energy ranges are analyzed based on DMSP/SSJ and POES/MEPED. Joule heating is estimated. With the focus on high- to middle-latitudes, we analyze the TIMED/SABER zonal flux of nitric oxide (NO) infrared cooling radiation and the global total infrared emission energy. Co-located study of increased NO emission, lower thermospheric heating and nighttime E-layer enhancements measured with the COSMIC satellite will be presented. We discuss differences and similarities of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling during these two events.

  16. Advanced Turbine System Program: Phase 2 cycle selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latcovich, J.A. Jr. [ABB Power Generation, Inc., Midlothian, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objectives of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 2 Program were to define a commercially attractive ATS cycle and to develop the necessary technologies required to meet the ATS Program goals with this cycle. This program is part of an eight-year Department of Energy, Fossil Energy sponsored ATS Program to make a significant improvement in natural gas-fired power generation plant efficiency while providing an environmentally superior and cost-effective system.

  17. Renewable energy annual 1998, with data for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This is the fourth annual report published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) which presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data; US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities; and US geothermal heat pump manufacturing activities. It updates and provides more detail on renewable energy information than what`s published in the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Annual Energy Review 1997. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, wood waste, municipal solid waste, ethanol, and biodiesel); geothermal; wind; solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic); and hydropower. However, hydropower is also regarded as a conventional energy source because it has furnished a significant amount of electricity for more than a century. Therefore, the contribution of hydropower to total renewable energy consumption is discussed, although hydropower as an individual energy source is not addressed. Since EIA collects data only on terrestrial (land-based) systems, satellite and military applications are not included in this report. 13 figs., 44 tabs.

  18. Theoretical Study on CO2 Transcritical Cycle Combined Ejector Cycle Refrigeration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢苇; 马一太; 李敏霞; 查世彤

    2003-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons(HCFCs) are as main refrigerants used in traditional refrigeration systems driven by electricity from burning fossil fuels, which is regarded as one of the major reasons for ozone depletion (man-made refrigerants emission) and global warming (CO2 emission). So people pay more and more attention to natural refrigerants and energy saving technologies. An innovative system combining CO2 transcritical cycle with ejector cycle is proposed in this paper. The CO2 compression sub-cycle is powered by electricity with the characteristics of relatively high temperature in the gas cooler (defined as an intercooler by the proposed system). In order to recover the waste heat, an ejector sub-cycle operating with the natural refrigerants (NH3, H2O) is employed. The two sub-cycles are connected by an intercooler. This combined cycle joins the advantages of the two cycles together and eliminates the disadvantages. The influences of the evaporation temperature in CO2 compression sub-cycle, the evaporation temperature in the ejector sub-cycle, the temperature in the intercooler and the condensation temperature in the proposed system performance are discussed theoretically in this study. In addition, some unique features of the system are presented.

  19. Global Sea Ice Coverage from Satellite Data: Annual Cycle and 35-Year Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Well-established satellite-derived Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents are combined to create the global picture of sea ice extents and their changes over the 35-yr period 1979-2013. Results yield a global annual sea ice cycle more in line with the high-amplitude Antarctic annual cycle than the lower-amplitude Arctic annual cycle but trends more in line with the high-magnitude negative Arctic trends than the lower-magnitude positive Antarctic trends. Globally, monthly sea ice extent reaches a minimum in February and a maximum generally in October or November. All 12 months show negative trends over the 35-yr period, with the largest magnitude monthly trend being the September trend, at -68,200 +/- 10,500 sq km/yr (-2.62% 6 +/- 0.40%/decade), and the yearly average trend being -35,000 +/- 5900 sq km/yr (-1.47% +/- 0.25%/decade).

  20. Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems based on a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors. A Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Joint Study was started in 2005 and completed in 2007 within the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Canada, China, France, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine participated in this study. The objectives were to assess a nuclear energy system based on a closed fuel cycle (CNFC) with fast reactors (FR) regarding its sustainability, determine milestones for the nuclear energy system deployment, and establish frameworks for, and areas of, collaborative R and D work. The assessment was carried out in accordance with requirements of INPRO methodology and guiding documents of the Joint Study developed and approved by the participating parties (Canada and Ukraine participated in the discussions during the Joint Study but did not contribute to the assessments themselves). The Joint Study was implemented in steps. In its first step, nominated experts in course of extensive discussions analyzed the country/region/world context data, discussed national and global scenarios of introduction of the INS CNFC-FR, identified technologies suitable for the INS, and arrived at a broad definition of a common INS CNFC-FR. In the second step, the participants of the study examined characteristics of INS CNFC-FR for compliance with criteria of sustainability developed in the INPRO methodology in the domain of economics, safety, environment, waste management, proliferation resistance, physical protection and infrastructure. The results of the study were submitted to and endorsed by the INPRO Steering Committee meetings held in Vienna 2005-2007. The authors of the report highly appreciate the valuable comments provided by delegates of INPRO Steering Committee meetings as well as the advice and assistance of the other experts. Due to the length of the Joint Study report a summary of the results was produced, which was published as a hard copy. The full text of the Joint Study report is available on the CD

  1. Life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems for alternative legacy scenarios of the London Olympic Park.

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, O.; Lettieri, P.; Bogle, I. D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) of 10 integrated waste management systems (IWMSs) for 3 potential post-event site design scenarios of the London Olympic Park. The aim of the LCA study is to evaluate direct and indirect emissions resulting from various treatment options of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually generated on site together with avoided emissions resulting from energy, materials and nutrients recovery. IWMSs are modelled using GaBi v6.0 Product Su...

  2. Performance assessment and optimization of a combined heat and power system based on compressed air energy storage system and humid air turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A combined heat and power system based on CAES and HAT is proposed. • The design and modeling of the CAES–HAT based CHP system are laid out. • The performance assessment of the proposed system is carried out. • The system optimization is conducted to decide the maximum conditions. - Abstract: Renewable energy based power sources have grown rapidly in the past few years owing to the dual constraint of climate change and pollution control. Compressed air energy storage (CAES), as a large-scale energy storage system (ESS) technology, has huge potential to manage the intermittent renewable energy based power sources effectively. However, the compression heat generated during charge and waste heat carried in turbine exhaust during discharge are not fully recuperated in current stage. A combined heat and power (CHP) system consisting of a CAES system and a humid air turbine (HAT) system is proposed to utilize the both types of heat energy. The proposed system can boost the power output, enhance performance and improve efficiency through a simultaneous supply of power and heat. The thermodynamic analysis shows that the expansion train power can be improved about 26% compared with the conventional CAES system. The parametric analysis reveals that the exergy efficiency increases with the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of high pressure turbine (HPT) and inlet pressure of low pressure turbine (LPT), but decreases with the TIT of LPT, L/G ratio and dry air inlet temperature of saturator. Meanwhile, the system optimization is carried out via particle swarm optimization (PSO) to determine the maximum power and exergy efficiency conditions

  3. Rankine-cycle heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Design for domestic or commercial solar heating and cooling system based on rankine heat pump cycle includes detailed drawings, performance data, equipment specifications, and other pertinent information.

  4. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  5. The evolution of an annual life cycle in killifish: adaptation to ephemeral aquatic environments through embryonic diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Andrew I

    2016-08-01

    An annual life cycle is characterized by growth, maturity, and reproduction condensed into a single, short season favourable to development, with production of embryos (seeds, cysts, or eggs) capable of surviving harsh conditions which juveniles or adults cannot tolerate. More typically associated with plants in desert environments, or temperate-zone insects exposed to freezing winters, the evolution of an annual life cycle in vertebrates is fairly novel. Killifish, small sexually dimorphic fishes in the Order Cyprinodontiformes, have adapted to seasonally ephemeral water bodies across much of Africa and South America through the independent evolution of an annual life history. These annual killifish produce hardy desiccation-resistant eggs that undergo diapause (developmental arrest) and remain buried in the soil for long periods when fish have perished due to the drying of their habitat. Killifish are found in aquatic habitats that span a continuum from permanent and stable to seasonal and variable, thus providing a useful system in which to piece together the evolutionary history of this life cycle using natural comparative variation. I first review adaptations for life in ephemeral aquatic environments in killifish, with particular emphasis on the evolution of embryonic diapause. I then bring together available evidence from a variety of approaches and provide a scenario for how this annual life cycle evolved. There are a number of features within Aplocheiloidei killifish including their inhabitation of marginal or edge aquatic habitat, their small size and rapid attainment of maturity, and egg properties that make them particularly well suited to the colonization of ephemeral waters. PMID:25969869

  6. Thermal–economic–environmental analysis and multi-objective optimization of an ice thermal energy storage system for gas turbine cycle inlet air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a mathematical model of an ice thermal energy storage (ITES) system for gas turbine cycle inlet air cooling is developed and thermal, economic, and environmental (emissions cost) analyses have been applied to the model. While taking into account conflicting thermodynamic and economic objective functions, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is employed to obtain the optimal design parameters of the plant. Exergetic efficiency is chosen as the thermodynamic objective while the total cost rate of the system including the capital and operational costs of the plant and the social cost of emissions, is considered as the economic objective. Performing the optimization procedure, a set of optimal solutions, called a Pareto front, is obtained. The final optimal design point is determined using TOPSIS decision-making method. This optimum solution results in the exergetic efficiency of 34.06% and the total cost of 28.7 million US$ y−1. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that inlet air cooling using an ITES system leads to 11.63% and 3.59% improvement in the output power and exergetic efficiency of the plant, respectively. The extra cost associated with using the ITES system is paid back in 4.72 years with the income received from selling the augmented power. - Highlights: • Mathematical model of an ITES system for a GT cycle inlet air cooling is developed. • Exergetic, economic and environmental analyses were performed on the developed model. • Exergy efficiency and total cost rate were considered as the objective functions. • The total cost rate involves the capital, maintenance, operational and emissions costs. • Multi-objective optimization was applied to obtain the Pareto front

  7. Weighing the ocean with bottom-pressure sensors: robustness of the ocean mass annual cycle estimate

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Joanne; Hughes, C. W.; Tamisiea, M. E; Williams, S. D. P.

    2014-01-01

    We use ocean bottom-pressure measurements from 17 tropical sites to determine the annual cycle of ocean mass. We show that such a calculation is robust, and use three methods to estimate errors in the mass determination. Our final best estimate, using data from the best sites and two ocean models, is that the annual cycle has an amplitude of 0.85 mbar (equivalent to 8.4 mm of sea level, or 3100 Gt of water), with a 95% chance of lying within the range 0.61–1.17 mbar. The time of the peak in o...

  8. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  9. Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems: system development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubin, F S; Halfon, A; Herzog, P

    1979-08-01

    The ice-generating HP-ICES uses the heat of fusion of water as a heat source for the heat pump, thus converting the water into ice. The ice will be stored in a bin and used the following summer for cooling which, therefore, could be considered a by-product of heating. The annual overall Coefficient of Performance is expected to reach a value of 4.85 and related to source energy a value of 4.85 x 0.31 = 1.5. In a detailed case study on the Market Square project in Washington, D.C., it was found that for the HP-ICES the annual source energy input is about 60% and the life cycle annual average cost is 40% of the corresponding quantities for a conventional central system with equal heating and cooling capacity. The annual average operating and administration cost for the HP-ICES is less than 70% of the corresponding costs for the conventional system, while the first cost of the HP-ICES is about 70% larger than the first cost of the conventional system. With the values assumed for the discount rate, interest rate, etc., the return on investment was found to be about 15%, which gives a discounted payback period of about 6.7 years. For the Park Plaza in Boston, the annual source energy input for the HP-ICES is 35% and the energy cost is about 30% of the corresponding quantities for the conventional system. The annual average operating and administration cost for the HP-ICES is 4.5 times as great as the first cost for the conventional system. The return on investment is 13% and the payback is 8 years. These results show that the HP-ICES can be better both in energy usage and in life cycle cost than a conventional system of the same heating and cooling capacity, and holds great promise as an energy saving system.

  10. Assessment of global annual atmospheric energy balance from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun, Wenbo; Fan, Tai-Fang; Hinkelman, Laura M.

    2008-08-01

    Global atmospheric energy balance is one of the fundamental processes for the earth's climate system. This study uses currently available satellite data sets of radiative energy at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface as well as latent and sensible heat over the oceans for the year 2000 to assess the global annual energy budget. Over land, surface radiation data are used to constrain assimilated results and to force the radiation, turbulent heat, and heat storage into balance due to a lack of observation-based turbulent heat flux estimates. Global annual means of the TOA net radiation obtained from both satellite direct measurements and calculations are close to zero. The net radiative energy fluxes into the surface and the surface latent heat transported into the atmosphere are about 113 and 86 W/m2, respectively. The estimated atmospheric and surface heat imbalances are about -8 and 9 W/m2, respectively, values that are within the uncertainties of surface radiation and sea surface turbulent flux estimates and the likely systematic biases in the analyzed observations. The potential significant additional absorption of solar radiation within the atmosphere suggested by previous studies does not appear to be required to balance the energy budget: the spurious heat imbalances in the current data are much smaller (about half) than those obtained previously and debated about a decade ago. Progress in surface radiation and oceanic turbulent heat flux estimations from satellite measurements has significantly reduced the bias errors in the observed global energy budgets of the climate system.

  11. Assessment of Global Annual Atmospheric Energy Balance from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Stackhouse, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun, Wenbo; Fan, Tai-Fang (Alice); Hinkelman, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Global atmospheric energy balance is one of the fundamental processes for the earth's climate system. This study uses currently available satellite data sets of radiative energy at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface and latent and sensible heat over oceans for the year 2000 to assess the global annual energy budget. Over land, surface radiation data are used to constrain assimilated results and to force the radiation, turbulent heat, and heat storage into balance due to a lack of observation-based turbulent heat flux estimations. Global annual means of the TOA net radiation obtained from both direct measurements and calculations are close to zero. The net radiative energy fluxes into the surface and the surface latent heat transported into the atmosphere are about 113 and 86 Watts per square meter, respectively. The estimated atmospheric and surface heat imbalances are about -8 9 Watts per square meter, values that are within the uncertainties of surface radiation and sea surface turbulent flux estimates and likely systematic biases in the analyzed observations. The potential significant additional absorption of solar radiation within the atmosphere suggested by previous studies does not appear to be required to balance the energy budget the spurious heat imbalances in the current data are much smaller (about half) than those obtained previously and debated at about a decade ago. Progress in surface radiation and oceanic turbulent heat flux estimations from satellite measurements significantly reduces the bias errors in the observed global energy budgets of the climate system.

  12. Annual review of energy. Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, J. M.; Simmons, M. K.; Wood, D. O.

    Developments in the areas of energy resources and supply technologies, energy end use and conservation, energy policy, energy-related risks and the sociopolitical aspects of energy are reviewed. Progress in solar energy technologies over the last five years is discussed, along with the implications for reactor safety of the accident at Three Mile Island, the derivation of biomass fuels from agricultural products and the application of probabilistic risk assessment to energy technologies. Attention is also given to a program for national survival during an oil crisis, energy conservation in new buildings, the development of a United States synthetic fuel industry, the role of OPEC policies in world oil availability, the social impacts of soft and hard energy systems, and the energy implications of fixed rail mass transportation systems. Additional topics include the energy consumptions of industries, the relative economics of nuclear, coal and oil-fired electricity generation, and the role of petroleum price and allocation regulations in the management of energy shortages.

  13. Ciclo anual de precipitação como função de índices de instabilidade termodinâmica e fluxos de energia estática: análises em Maxaranguape-RN Annual rainfall cycle as a function of thermodynamic instability indexes, and static energy fluxes: analysis in Maxaranguape-RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Moisés Santos e Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se índices de instabilidade termodinâmica, conteúdo de água precipitável e fluxos de energia estática associados ao ciclo anual de precipitação sobre Maxaranguape, situada no litoral do Rio Grande do Norte. O período de coleta de dados através de radiossondagens foi de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2009 no âmbito do projeto South Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ. Os índices termodinâmicos não explicam o máximo de precipitação observado em julho, porém apresentam-se em fase com um máximo secundário em abril. Os fluxos de energia estática úmida e saturada mostram que o ciclo anual da precipitação é modulado pelos mecanismos que geram instabilidade termodinâmica associados à convergência de umidade em baixos níveis.The relation between thermodynamic instability indexes, precipitable water content, static energy flux, and rainfall annual cycle over Maxaranguape (coastland site, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast of Brazil was investigated. The radiosonde dataset covered the period from January 2002 to December 2009 within the South Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ project. The thermodynamics indexes variability do not explain the maximum rainfall in July, however they are in phase with the secondary maximum in April. The annual cycle of the moist and saturated static energy fluxes showed that rainfall cycle is modulated by both thermodynamics and low level moisture convergence mechanisms.

  14. TRAC-MIP: Tropical Rain bands with an Annual cycle and Continent - Model Intercomparison Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michela; Voigt, Aiko; Scheff, Jack; Zeppetello, Lucas Randall

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and modeling tropical rainfall has proven to be one of the most stubborn challenges in climate science. Tropical rainfall biases such as a double inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the East Pacific have now persisted more than two decades despite the general improvements of climate models, and projections for the ITCZ and the monsoon systems remain uncertain in magnitude and sign. Progress in these areas can be fostered by a set of idealized experiments that target the dynamics of tropical rain band, as long as these simple experiments are properly integrated within a full hierarchy of model simulations. To this aim, we have designed the "Tropical Rain belts with an Annual cycle and Continent - Model Intercomparison Project." TRAC-MIP involves five experiments using idealized aquaplanet and land setups to explore the dynamics of tropical rainfall. By using interactive sea-surface temperatures and seasonally-varying insolation TRAC-MIP fills the gap between idealized aquaplanet simulations with prescribed SSTs and the fully-coupled realistic model simulations of CMIP5. TRAC-MIP includes the participation of 13 state-of-the art comprehensive climate models, and it also includes a simplified model that neglects cloud and water-vapor radiative feedbacks, thus allowing a more direct connection between the results from the TRAC-MIP comprehensive models and the theoretical studies of tropical rain belt dynamics. We will present preliminary results from the ensemble, aiming to examine the mechanisms controlling tropical precipitation in the context of forced variability. First and foremost, we are interested in the largest forced variation: the annual cycle. Second, we are interested in the response to key forcings of the future (greenhouse gases) and of the Holocene (insolation). We will draw out the similarities and the distinctions between oceanic and continental rain bands, study the ways in which the two interact with each other, and investigate

  15. NEA activities in 1992. 21. Annual report of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report gives informations on OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities in 1992. This report is divided into ten chapters: 1 Trends in nuclear power. 2 Nuclear development and the fuel cycle. 3 Reactor safety and regulation. 4 Radiation protection. 5 Radioactive waste management. 6 Nuclear science. 7 Joint projects. 8 Legal affairs. 9 Informations programs. 10 Relations with non-member countries

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  17. The water and energy cycles in an upcoming NASA reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Bosilovich, M. G.

    2008-05-01

    Global water and energy cycles are tightly related and critical components of the Earth climate system. In current assimilation systems, model output is only locally constrained by available observations, which are always uncompleted and contaminated by random error and biases. Thus the global water and energy balances are good yet high standard indicators of the performance of an assimilation system. In this study, we use several independent observed datasets to evaluate the water and energy cycles in an upcoming NASA global reanalysis, the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) based on NASA GEOS-5 data assimilation system. The observed datasets include CERES ERBE-like TOA radiation fluxes, GPCP precipitation, CMAP precipitation etc. Comparison with other reanalyses will also be given.

  18. Rankine-cycle solar-cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, H. M.

    1979-01-01

    Report reviews progress made by three contractors to Marshall Space Flight Center and Department of Energy in developing Rankine-cycle machines for solar cooling and testing of commercially available equipment involved.

  19. Annual cycle of solar radiation in a deciduous forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periodic solar radiation measurements within and above an east Tennessee Liriodendron forest and continuous records of insolation from a nearby NOAA weather station were used to derive an approximation of the animal radiation regime within and above the deciduous forest. The interaction of changing solar elevations, insolation, and forest phenology are shown to control the radiation climate within the forest. Maximum radiation penetrates the forest in early spring as solar paths rise higher in the sky each day just prior to leaf expansion. After leaf expansion begins, average radiation received within the forest decreases rapidly despite continued increases in solar elevations and daily insolation. This forest attains full leaf in early June and from then until the advent of leaf abscission near the autumnal equinox, forest structure remains relatively static. Solar elevations and daily insolation decline following the summer solstice, however, and as a result, average radiation penetrating the forest slowly declines throughout the summer reaching an annual minimum in early autumn. With leaf fall, slightly increased amounts of radiation penetrate the forest but as within-forest solar paths continue to lengthen, radiation within the forest again declines. Minimum amounts of solar radiation penetrate the leafless forest around the winter solstice

  20. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  1. Energy system evaluation of thermo-chemical biofuel production : Process development by integration of power cycles and sustainable electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Bojler Görling, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Fossil fuels dominate the world energy supply today and the transport sector is no exception. Renewable alternatives must therefore be introduced to replace fossil fuels and their emissions, without sacrificing our standard of living. There is a good potential for biofuels but process improvements are essential, to ensure efficient use of a limited amount of biomass and better compete with fossil alternatives. The general aim of this research is therefore to investigate how to improve efficie...

  2. Extreme migration and the annual cycle: individual strategies in New Zealand Bar-tailed Godwits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conklin, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance migration places severe constraints on the annual cycles of birds, as they balance the energetic and scheduling requirements of breeding, moult, pre-migratory fuelling, and the journey itself. The most extreme migrations, traversing vast, inhospitable areas of the globe in protracted n

  3. A framework for modelling the annual cycle of trees in boreal and temperate regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hänninen, H.; Kramer, K.

    2007-01-01

    Models of the annual development cycle of trees in boreal and temperate regions were reviewed and classified on the basis of their ecophysiological assumptions. In our classification we discern two main categories of tree development: 1) fixed sequence development, which refers to irreversible ontog

  4. Annual cycle of Antarctic baseline aerosol: controlled by photooxidation-limited aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fiebig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the annual cycle observed in the Antarctic baseline aerosol scattering coefficient, total particle number concentration, and particle number size distribution (PNSD as measured at Troll Atmospheric Observatory. Mie-theory shows that the annual cycles in microphysical and optical aerosol properties have a common cause. By comparison with observations at other Antarctic stations, it is shown that the annual cycle is not a local phenomenon, but common to Central Antarctic baseline air masses. Observations of ground-level ozone at Troll as well as backward plume calculations for the air masses arriving at Troll demonstrate that the baseline air masses originate from the free troposphere and lower stratosphere region, and descend over the Central Antarctic continent. The Antarctic summer PNSD is dominated by particles with diameters 3/(MJ m. Further research is proposed to investigate the applicability of this number to other atmospheric reservoirs, and to use the observed annual cycle in Antarctic baseline aerosol properties as a benchmark for the representation of natural atmospheric aerosol processes in climate models.

  5. 5th Annual Earth System Grid Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the Fifth Annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Face-to-Face (F2F) Conference was to present the most recent information on the state of ESGF’s software stack and to identify and address the data needs and gaps for the climate and weather communities that ESGF supports.

  6. Toward efficient aeroelastic energy harvesting through limit cycle shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschmeier, Benjamin; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Increasing demand to harvest energy from renewable resources has caused significant research interest in unsteady aerodynamic and hydrodynamic phenomena. Apart from the traditional horizontal axis wind turbines, there has been significant growth in the study of bio-inspired oscillating wings for energy harvesting. These systems are being built to harvest electricity for wireless devices, as well as for large scale mega-watt power generation. Such systems can be driven by aeroelastic flutter phenomena which, beyond a critical wind speed, will cause the system to enter into limitcycle oscillations. When the airfoil enters large amplitude, high frequency motion, leading and trailing edge vortices form and, when properly synchronized with the airfoil kinematics, enhance the energy extraction efficiency of the device. A reduced order dynamic stall model is employed on a nonlinear aeroelastic structural model to investigate whether the parameters of a fully passive aeroelastic device can be tuned to produce limit cycle oscillations at desired kinematics. This process is done through an optimization technique to find the necessary structural parameters to achieve desired structural forces and moments corresponding to a target limit cycle. Structural nonlinearities are explored to determine the essential nonlinearities such that the system's limit cycle closely matches the desired kinematic trajectory. The results from this process demonstrate that it is possible to tune system parameters such that a desired limit cycle trajectory can be achieved. The simulations also demonstrate that the high efficiencies predicted by previous computational aerodynamics studies can be achieved in fully passive aeroelastic devices.

  7. Life cycle assessment of waste to energy micro-pyrolysis system: case study for an Italian town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste disposal represents an important aspect of the policies of politics of developed countries. It is well known that waste management entails several social, economical and environmental aspects. Many different technical solutions have been proposed and evaluated, more or less complicated, from a social and economic point of view, but the environmental burden linked to these solutions still remains an open problem not definitively resolved yet. One of the most promising ways for investigating and comparing the environmental consequences connected to different human activities seems to be represented by the LCA analysis. In this work the LCA analysis of a micro-pyrolysis with micro-gas turbine waste to energy plant, has been performed with the aid of a commercial simulation code. The scenario is analysed with regard to a small, isolated, Italian town. A comparison between the current and proposed case has also been carried out. (Author)

  8. Lessons Learned from Nuclear Energy System Assessments (NESA) Using the INPRO Methodology. A Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was initiated in 2001 on the basis of a resolution of the IAEA General Conference in 2000 (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO activities have since been continuously endorsed by resolutions of IAEA General Conferences and by the General Assembly of the United Nations. The objectives of INPRO are to: Help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute, in a sustainable manner, to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century; Bring together technology holders and users so that they can consider jointly the international and national actions required for achieving desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. INPRO is proceeding in steps. In its first step, referred to as Phase 1, 2001 to 2006, INPRO developed a set of basic principles, user requirements and criteria together with an assessment method, which taken together, comprise the INPRO methodology for the evaluation of innovative nuclear energy systems. To provide additional guidance in using the INPRO methodology an INPRO Manual was developed; it is comprised of an overview volume and eight additional volumes covering the areas of economics, infrastructure, waste management, proliferation resistance, physical protection, environment, safety of reactors, and safety of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Based on a decision of the 9 INPRO steering committee in July 2006, INPRO has entered into Phase 2. This phase has three main directions of activity: methodology improvement, infrastructure/institutional aspects and collaborative projects. As of March 2009, INPRO had 28 members: Argentina, Armenia, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United States of America and the European Commission. This IAEA-TECDOC is part of

  9. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Yee; Guthrie, George

    2014-03-11

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  10. Annual Energy Consumption Forecasting Based on PSOCA-GRNN Model

    OpenAIRE

    Huiru Zhao; Sen Guo

    2014-01-01

    Accurate energy consumption forecasting can provide reliable guidance for energy planners and policy makers, which can also recognize the economic and industrial development trends of a country. In this paper, a hybrid PSOCA-GRNN model was proposed for the annual energy consumption forecasting. The generalized regression neural network (GRNN) model was employed to forecast the annual energy consumption due to its good ability of dealing with the nonlinear problems. Meanwhile, the spread param...

  11. Sustainable Energy Technologies annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calgary based Sustainable Energy Technologies is a public company that develops and manufactures alternative energy products that enable distributed renewable energy resources to be integrated with the existing electrical infrastructure. The company has moved from a development stage company to one that manufactures power electronic products that can compete globally and which will play an important role in the transition to a cleaner world. Achievements in the past year have included a joint effort with RWE Piller GmbH to develop a power electronics platform for a fuel cell inverter. Ten inverters were delivered to Nuvera Fuel Cells and were reported to have performed very well in the Avanti distributed generation fuel cell. The universality of the inverter was demonstrated when the same power electronics platform was used to support a 5 kW grid interactive converter for the solar power market. During the 18-month period ending on March 31, 2003, the company invested $1.5 million to create their first two commercial product lines, without net investment of shareholder equity. The objective for the future is to generate cash flow and earnings from sales into the solar power market and to build a leadership role in the stationary fuel cell industry. The major challenge will lie in product support and customer service. As the customer base expands, the company will invest in product-tracking software. This annual report includes an auditor's report, consolidated financial statements including balance sheets, statements of income and deficit, statements of cash flows, and notes to the consolidated financial statements. tabs

  12. Female germ cell renewal during the annual reproductive cycle in Ostariophysians fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildner, Daniel Dantas; Grier, Harry; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to characterize female germ cell renewal during the annual reproductive cycle in two species of ostariophysian fish with distinct reproductive strategies: a siluriform, Pimelodus maculatus, in which oocyte development is group synchronous and the annual reproductive period is short; and a characiform, Serrasalmus maculatus, with asynchronous oocyte development and a prolonged reproductive period. These reproductive strategies result in fish determinate and indeterminate fecundity, respectively. Annual reproductive phases were determined by biometric and histologic analysis of gonads and interpreted according to new proposals for phase classification and stages of oocyte development (with special attention to germinal epithelium activity). Histologically, there were two types of oogonia in the germinal epithelium: single oogonia and those in mitotic proliferation. Oogonial proliferation and their entry into meiosis resulted in formation of cell nests (clusters of cells in the ovarian lamellae). Morphometric analysis was used to estimate germ cell renewal. Based on numbers of single oogonia in the lamellar epithelium, and nests with proliferating oogonia or early prophase oocytes throughout the annual reproductive cycle, oogonial proliferation and entrance into meiosis were more intense during the regenerating phase and developing phase, but decreased sharply (P < 0.05) during the spawning-capable phase. Oogonial proliferation gradually recovered during the regressing phase. We concluded that, independent of species or features of the reproductive cycle, germ cell renewal occurred during the regenerating phase, ensuring availability of eggs for the spawning event. PMID:23317762

  13. Revisiting annual mean and seasonal cycle of deep meridional overturning circulation of the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiqiang; Xie, Qiang; Li, Sha; Zhu, Xiuhua

    2014-05-01

    The annual mean and seasonal cycle of the deep meridional overturning circulation (MOC) of the Indian Ocean is being revisited here using GECCO synthesis. Resulting from ocean general circulation models, the annual mean deep MOC of the Indian Ocean are generally weak with inflow in the bottom layer and outflow in the intermediate and upper layer mixing with strong Indonesian Throughflow. For seasonal cycle of deep MOC, two significant and seasonal reversed counter-rotating deep cells over full depth of water column, roughly separated by 20S, are revealed during boreal summer and winter. The coincidences of the latitude 20S with where the maximum climatological wind curl for most of seasons reveals intimate relations between the deep meridional overturning and surface winds. Dynamical decompositions on annual mean and complete seasonal cycle of the meridional overturning show varying relative contribution of each dynamical component at different time scale. For annual mean deep MOC, Ekman dynamics is found to be dominant in the region of north of 25S, particularly in upper 3000m, whereas south of 25S external and vertical shear components show remarkable "seamount" features and are compensated with much larger strengths because of topo-modulated strong western boundary topography. At seasonal time scale, dominant role of Ekman dynamics and secondary role of external mode are found in the deep cell north of 20S in January and July. However in transition seasons, vertical shear is responsible for major part of meridional overturning and Ekman dynamics has comparable contribution north of Equator.

  14. Areva - 2012 Annual Report. Forward looking energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an interview of the Chief Executive Officer, a presentation of the company's governance and organization, and a brief overview of its strategy (with its five pillars: safety and security, operation and customers, economic competitiveness, technology and innovation, people), this report indicates and presents the various projects across the world. It outlines the main activities and objectives: preservation of nuclear and occupational safety, service to customer over the long term, fuel supply security, expertise, sustainability of nuclear power, contribution to the energy mix of tomorrow. It outlines the belief of Areva in the future of nuclear and renewable energies (brief presentations of activities and examples in different countries and in different domains), describes how Areva offers comprehensive solutions for power generation with less carbon, and indicates the distribution of revenues by business group and by geographic area. It comments a year of mining operations, the activities concerning the front end of the fuel cycle, those related to reactors and nuclear services, to recycling (fuel recycling, site dismantling and reuse, material storage and disposal), to the booming business of renewable energies, to engineering services. The report proposes some key figures concerning greenhouse gas emissions, environmental footprint, occupational safety, and radiation protection within the group. It outlines the importance of innovation in terms of investment, personnel and patents. It comments the activities related to nuclear safety and to the control of the environment. It outlines the human resource policy, evokes the activity of the Areva foundation. A summarized presentation of financial statements is given

  15. CHANGES IN THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN AN ANNUAL CYCLE OF SPORT TRAINING OF YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Śliwowski, R.; Andrzejewski, M; Wieczorek, A.; Barinow-Wojewódzki, A.; Jadczak, Ł.; Adrian, S.; Pietrzak, M.; Wieczorek, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test ma...

  16. Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing of a SOFC system for distributed power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of 230 kW SOFC system from a life cycle perspective. • LCA–LCC toolbox developed to compare SOFC and MGT. • Eight sustainability indicators are identified as drivers for decision making. • Investment cost is a bottle-neck for SOFC systems. • SOFC systems show environmental–economic benefits for household applications. - Abstract: Through the combination of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) in a dedicated toolbox, the aim of this paper is to evaluate both potential environmental impacts and potential costs of the operation of a 230 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. LCA and LCC methodologies have been here applied for a comparison with a conventional technology, i.e. Micro Gas Turbine (MGT) for distributed power generation applications. A contribution analysis for the SOFC system fuelled with natural gas, reveals that the fuel supply is responsible of a relevant share of the environmental impact. The same system, fed with biogas, shows environmental benefits on global and regional impact categories, depending on the power energy mix used during the digestion process. For both SOFC and MGT systems, the life cycle hotspots are identifiable in the operation stage for the global warming category, and in the fuel supply stage for all the remaining impact categories. The LCA–LCC comparison between SOFC and MGT systems, based on a toolbox embedding a set of 8 sustainability indicators for decision making, shows that the SOFC system presents environmental and economic benefits in a life cycle perspective, particularly for household application. However, cost results to be the most sensitive bottle-neck for benchmarking with traditional energy systems. Therefore, the SOFC system is preferable to the conventional MGT technology when the sustainability of investment cost is demonstrated, whilst a wide advantage in environmental performance along the life cycle has been proved

  17. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1991. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using the CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed

  18. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1992. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using the CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed

  19. Hawaii Natural Energy Institute: Annual report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This progress report from the University of Hawaii at Manoa's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology describes state of the art research in tapping the energy in and around the Hawaiian Islands. Researchers are seeking new ways of generating electricity and producing methanol from sugarcane waste and other biomass. They are finding ways to encourage the expanded use of methanol as a transportation fuel. They are creating innovative and cost-efficient methods of producing and storing hydrogen gas, considered the fuel of the future''. Researchers are also developing the techniques and technologies that will enable us to tap the unlimited mineral resources of the surrounding ocean. they are testing methods of using the oceans to reduce the carbon dioxide being discharged to the atmosphere. And they are mapping the strategies by which the seas can become a major source of food, precious metals, and space for living and for industry. The achievements described in this annual report can be attributed to the experience, creativity, painstaking study, perseverance, and sacrifices of our the dedicated corps of researchers.

  20. Annual energy outlook 1995, with projections to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95) presents the midterm energy forecasts of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This year`s report presents projections and analyses of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2010, based on results from the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Quarterly forecasts of energy supply and demand for 1995 and 1996 are published in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (February 1995). Forecast tables for the five cases examined in the AEO95 are provided in Appendixes A through C. Appendix A gives historical data and forecasts for selected years from 1992 through 2010 for the reference case. Appendix B presents two additional cases, which assume higher and lower economic growth than the reference case. Appendix C presents two cases that assume higher and lower world oil prices. Appendix D presents a summary of the forecasts in units of oil equivalence. Appendix E presents a summary of household energy expenditures. Appendix F provides detailed comparisons of the AEO95 forecasts with those of other organizations. Appendix G briefly describes NEMS and the major AEO95 forecast assumptions. Appendix H presents a stand-alone high electricity demand case. Appendix 1 provides a table of energy conversion factors and a table of metric conversion factors. 89 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Philippine Atomic Energy Commission: Annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication gives the highlights of the research and development projects of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission in agriculture and food, nuclear fuels and power system technology, medicine, public health and nutrition, environmental surveillance, supportive basic research, social response to nuclear technology, nuclear licensing and safeguards, supportive technology and international and local linkages including manpower development. (ELC)

  2. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Laura [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Smith, Paul [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Rizea, Steven [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Van Ryzin, Joe [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Morgan, Charles [Planning Solutions, Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States); Noland, Gary [G. Noland and Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Pavlosky, Rick [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Thomas, Michael [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-05-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  3. A Satellite View of Global Water and Energy Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The global water cycle describes liquid, solid and vapor water dynamics as it moves through the atmosphere, oceans and land. Life exists because of water, and civilization depends on adapting to the constraints imposed by water availability. The carbon, water and energy cycles are strongly interdependent - energy is moved through evaporation and condensation, and photosynthesis is closely related to transpiration. There are significant knowledge gaps about water storage, fluxes and dynamics - we currently do not really know how much water is stored in snowpacks, groundwater or reservoirs. The view from space offers a vision for water science advancement. This vision includes observation, understanding, and prediction advancements that will improve water management and to inform water-related infrastructure that planning to provide for human needs and to protect the natural environment. The water cycle science challenge is to deploy a series of coordinated earth observation satellites, and to integrate in situ and space-borne observations to quantify the key water-cycle state variables and fluxes. The accompanying societal challenge is to integrate this information along with water cycle physics, and ecosystems and societal considerations as a basis for enlightened water resource management and to protect life and property from effects of water cycle extremes. Better regional to global scale water-cycle observations and predictions need to be readily available to reduce loss of life and property caused by water-related hazards. To this end, the NASA Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS) has been documenting the satellite view of the water cycle with a goal of enabling improved, observationally based, predictions of water and energy cycle consequences of Earth system variability and change. NEWS has fostered broad interdisciplinary collaborations to study experimental and operational satellite observations and has developed analysis tools for characterizing air

  4. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    derived from products and system, and calculate resource consumptions. However, the complexity of LCA poses restrictions to its use in current product and system development given the need for a reduction in product development cycle time which is needed to meet the increasing competitive pressures and...... discusses a number of possibilities which can be introduced in the design stage compared to the other life cycle stages of the product system. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life...... cycle assessment strategies. The paper reviews the current environmental evaluation practices with respect to product life cycles. As a number of deficiencies in LCA are identified, strategies are presented to provide a solution to many of the deficiencies. The result of the paper is a definition of the...

  5. Annual energy outlook 1999, with projections to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 1999 (AEO99) presents midterm forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2020 prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The projections are based on results from EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The report begins with an Overview summarizing the AEO99 reference case. The next section, Legislation and Regulations, describes the assumptions made with regard to laws that affect energy markets and discusses evolving legislative and regulatory issues. Issues in Focus discusses current energy issues--the economic decline in East Asia, growth in demand for natural gas, vehicle emissions standards, competitive electricity pricing, renewable portfolio standards, and carbon emissions. It is followed by the analysis of energy market trends. The analysis in AEO99 focuses primarily on a reference case and four other cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices than in the reference case. Forecast tables for these cases are provided in Appendixes A through C. Appendixes D and E present a summary of the reference case forecasts in units of oil equivalence and household energy expenditures. The AEO99 projections are based on Federal, State, and local laws and regulations in effect on July 1, 1998. Pending legislation and sections of existing legislation for which funds have not been appropriated are not reflected in the forecasts. Historical data used for the AEOI99 projections were the most current available as of July 31, 1998, when most 1997 data but only partial 1998 data were available.

  6. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird specie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. MØLLER

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the entire annual cycle. Such a phenotypic shift could generate accumulating effects over the years for individuals, but also across generations. Here we test this novel hypothesis of phenotypic response to climate change by using long-term data on the Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea. Mean breeding date advanced by almost three weeks during the last 70 years. Annual arrival date at the breeding grounds during a period of 47 years was predicted by environmental conditions in the winter quarters in the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic and by mean breeding date the previous year. Annual mean breeding date was only marginally determined by timing of arrival the current year, but to a larger extent by arrival date and breeding date the previous year. Learning affected arrival date as shown by a positive correlation between arrival date in year (i + 1 relative to breeding date in year (i and the selective advantage of early breeding in year (i. This provides a mechanism for changes in arrival date being adjusted to changing environmental conditions. This study suggests that adaptation to changing climatic conditions can be achieved through learning from year to year

  7. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.P.M(φ)LLER; E.FLENSTED-JENSEN; W.MARDAL

    2009-01-01

    Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the entire annual cycle. Such a phenotypic shift could generate accumulating effects over the years for individuals, but also across generations. Here we test this novel hypothesis of phenotypic response to climate change by using long-term data on the Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea. Mean breeding date advanced by almost three weeks during the last 70 years. Annual arrival date at the breeding grounds during a period of 47 years was predicted by environmental conditions in the winter quarters in the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic and by mean breeding date the previous year. Annual mean breeding date was only marginally determined by timing of arrival the current year, but to a larger extent by arrival date and breeding date the previous year. Learning affected arrival date as shown by a positive correlation between arrival date in year (i+1) relative to breeding date in year (i) and the selective advantage of early breeding in year (i). This provides a mechanism for changes in arrival date being adjusted to changing environmental conditions. This study suggests that adaptation to changing climatic conditions can be achieved through learning from year to year[Current Zoology 55(2):92-101,2009].

  8. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts

  9. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  10. The cardiac cycle: regulation and energy oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman-Coffelt, J; Sievers, R; Coffelt, R J; Parmley, W W

    1983-08-01

    Cyclical changes in energy-related metabolites were observed in glucose-perfused but not pyruvate-perfused isolated working rat hearts. A chronological study of various phases of the cardiac cycle indicated maximum changes in metabolites occurred at half time to peak pressure (dF/dtmax). The high-energy phosphates ATP and phosphocreatine, as well as the glycolytic metabolites, glucose 6-phosphate and pyruvate, reached minimum values immediately prior to peak systole and maximum values during late diastole. The products of high-energy phosphate hydrolysis, ADP, inorganic phosphate, and creatine, as well as the regulator, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, showed the phase alternate. It was necessary to study cyclical changes in a maximally stressed glucose-perfused heart because the cyclical changes were small and appeared to be the result of rate-limiting steps in glycolysis and the slow transport of NADH into the mitochondria. For stressing the heart, thereby increasing ATP utilization and augmenting cyclical changes, the afterload chamber was set at 110 mmHg, and the perfusate contained high concentrations of calcium (3.5 mM, free) and isoproterenol (5 X 10(-9) M). When correction was made for binding and compartmentation of metabolites, data indicated that the free energy of ATP hydrolysis was preserved during the contraction process by a continuous binding and recycling of ADP. PMID:6881368

  11. Energy analysis program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This report provides an energy analysis overview. The following topics are described: building energy analysis; urban and energy environmental issues; appliance energy efficiency standards; utility planning and policy; energy efficiency, economics, and policy issues; and international energy and environmental issues.

  12. Analysis of annual cooling energy requirements for glazed academic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S.A. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hassan, A.H. [Vinyl Chloride Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Terengganu (Malaysia). Dept. of Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Malaysia experienced rapid increase in energy consumption in the last decade due to its high economic growth and increase in the standard living of household. Energy is becoming more costly and the situation is worsened by the global warming as a result of greenhouse gas emission. A more efficient energy usage and significant reduction in the released emission is therefore required. Space cooling with the use of air conditioners is practiced all year round in Malaysia and this accounts for 42% of total electricity energy consumption for commercial buildings and 30% of residential buildings. Reduction in the energy used for cooling in the built environment is a vital step to energy conservation in Malaysia. The objective of the present study was to analyze the annual cooling energy of highly glazed academic buildings which are located in a university in Malaysia. The outcome of the study would enable further remedial actions in reducing the energy consumption of the buildings' air conditioning system. The study is conducted by computer simulation using EnergyPlus software to calculate the cooling energy of a selected building or area. Comparison is made against the rated equipment load (i.e., the air handling unit) installed in the buildings. Since the buildings in the present study are not constructed parallel to each other the effect of building orientations with respect to the sun positions are also studied. The implications of shades such as venetian blind on the cooling energy are investigated in assessing their effectiveness in reducing the cooling energy, apart from providing thermal comfort to the occupants. In the aspect of operation, the present study includes the effects of reducing the set point air temperature and infiltration of outdoor air due to doors that are left open by the occupants. It is found from the present study that there are significant potentials for savings in the cooling energy of the buildings.

  13. No evidence for melatonin-linked immunoenhancement over the annual cycle of an avian species

    OpenAIRE

    Buehler, Deborah M.; Koolhaas, Anita; Van't Hof, Thomas J.; Schwabl, Ingrid; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2009-01-01

    The winter immunoenhancement hypothesis associates long nights and increased exposure to melatonin with enhanced immune function in winter when resource availability is low and the chances of becoming ill are high. Thus, increased exposure to melatonin in the winter could be adaptive for species facing difficult winter conditions. This idea has found some support in studies of resident mammals. In birds, the link between day length and melatonin over the annual cycle is weaker, and contributi...

  14. Annual cycle of the upper-ocean circulation and properties in the tropical western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Manyilizu, M.; Penven, Pierrick; Reason, C. J. C.

    2016-01-01

    A regional ocean model was used to simulate the annual cycle of the upper-ocean dynamics and its influence on ocean properties in the tropical western Indian Ocean. Surface winds and heat fluxes from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis forced the model (Model_NCEP) with initial and lateral boundary conditions derived from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA). The model findings were in good agreement with previous research, satellite and observational data...

  15. Electrothermal energy storage with transcritical CO2 cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel type of bulk electricity storage – electrothermal energy storage (ETES) – is presented. The concept is based on heat pump and heat engine technologies utilizing transcritical CO2 cycles, storage of pumped heat in hot water, and ice generation and melting at the cold end of the cycles. The paper first describes the growing need for large scale electrical energy storage and the role of storage in the integration of renewable intermittent generation such as wind energy into the electricity network. The background and a short review on ETES is given and the main principles of (i) reversible heat pumping using vapor compression, (ii) thermal energy storage, and finally (iii) back conversion of thermal energy into electricity via a thermal engine are explained. Following the introduction of ETES as a general concept, the transcritical CO2 based system is presented by providing a description of the thermodynamic cycles and the corresponding operating conditions. Next the overview of an envisioned transcritical ETES plant is given with information on the main equipment including the turbomachines such as compressor and turbine, high pressure plate heat exchangers, and ice storage. Key properties of the proposed transcritical ETES system are then reviewed with an emphasis on energy storage efficiency, scalability, site-independence, and minimal environmental impact. Information about the operating characteristics such as start-up and standby times and storage duration of the proposed system is also given. The paper is concluded by discussing the future perspectives for the proposed system mainly by focusing on potential technology improvements for the CO2 machines and the storage materials for both hot and cold ends of the system.

  16. Annual report 2004. Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, L.; Zevenhoven, R. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This fifth annual report in this series, covering year 2004, gives an overview of the research, education and other activities of the Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection at Helsinki University of Technology. From the research point of view, the laboratory continues in the Nordic Energy Research Program (2003-2006) in the field of CO{sub 2} capture and storage, and in the EU project 'ToMeRed' on toxic trace elements emissions control. The laboratory is also the operating agent for the IEA project 'Energy systems integration between society and industry'. The bulk of the research can be classified into three groups, in short: energy systems; spraying and combustion and combustion and waste treatment. This research takes mainly place in national and international consortia, but sometimes also in a direct cooperation with one industry partner. Some of the work involves the use and development of models and sub- models for the simulation and optimisation of energy systems and processes. Commercial softwares like Aspen Plus and Prosim are important tools for our work as well. Besides this, single particle modelling can be applied to fuel droplets, fuel particles or particles found in metallurgical industry. We make CFD calculations with commercial codes are made as well, while working on the improvement of (sub-) models for multiphase fluid dynamics.

  17. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Spanish Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  18. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [French Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  19. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Chinese Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Russian Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Arabic Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  2. Global Sea Ice Coverage from Satellite Data: Annual Cycle and 35-Yr Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Well-established satellite-derived Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents are combined to create the global picture of sea ice extents and their changes over the 35-yr period 1979-2013. Results yield a global annual sea ice cycle more in line with the high-amplitude Antarctic annual cycle than the lower-amplitude Arctic annual cycle but trends more in line with the high-magnitude negative Arctic trends than the lower-magnitude positive Antarctic trends. Globally, monthly sea ice extent reaches a minimum in February and a maximum generally in October or November. All 12 months show negative trends over the 35-yr period, with the largest magnitude monthly trend being the September trend, at -68200 +/- 10500 km sq yr(exp -1) (-2.62% +/- 0.40%decade(exp -1)), and the yearly average trend being -35000 +/-5900 km sq yr(exp -1) (-1.47% +/- 0.25%decade(exp -1)).

  3. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Its purpose is to identify existing and planned nuclear fuel cycle facilities throughout the world and to indicate their main parameters. It includes information on facilities for uranium ore processing, refining, conversion and enrichment, for fuel fabrication, away-from-reactor storage of spent fuel and reprocessing, and for the production of zirconium metal and Zircaloy tubing. NFCIS currently covers 271 facilities in 32 countries and includes 171 references

  4. Systems Analysis Department annual progress report 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risø National Laboratory during 1998. The department undertakes research within Energy Systems Analysis, Integrated Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, IndustrialSafety and Reliability, Man/Machine Interac......The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risø National Laboratory during 1998. The department undertakes research within Energy Systems Analysis, Integrated Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, IndustrialSafety and Reliability, Man...

  5. From "farm to fork" strawberry system: current realities and potential innovative scenarios from life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and green house gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Baudino, Claudio; Tecco, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we analysed the environmental profile of the strawberry industry in Northern Italy. The analysis was conducted using two scenarios as reference systems: strawberry crops grown in unheated plastic tunnels using currently existing cultivation techniques, post-harvest management practices and consumption patterns (scenario 1) and the same strawberry cultivation chain in which some of the materials used were replaced with bio-based materials (scenario 2). In numerous studies, biodegradable polymers have been shown to be environmentally friendly, thus potentially reducing environmental impacts. These materials can be recycled into carbon dioxide and water through composting. Many materials, such as Mater-BI® and PLA®, are also derived from renewable resources. The methodology chosen for the environmental analysis was a life cycle assessment (LCA) based on a consequential approach developed to assess a product's overall environmental impact from the production system to its usage and disposal. In the field stage, a traditional mulching film (non-biodegradable) could be replaced with a biodegradable product. This change would result in waste production of 0 kg/ha for the bio-based product compared to 260 kg/ha of waste for polyethylene (PE). In the post-harvest stage, the issue addressed was the use and disposal of packaging materials. The innovative scenario evaluated herein pertains to the use of new packaging materials that increase the shelf life of strawberries, thereby decreasing product losses while increasing waste management efficiency at the level of a distribution platform and/or sales outlet. In the event of product deterioration or non-sale of the product, the packaging and its contents could be collected together as organic waste without any additional processes because the packaging is compostable according to EN13432. Scenario 2 would achieve reductions of 20% in the global warming potential and non-renewable energy impact categories. PMID

  6. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a waste management system relies on many internal characteristics such as pollution control systems and recovery efficiencies. It also relies on technical externalities supporting the waste management system in terms of capital goods and energy and material production systems. In the past, capital goods have often been disregarded because of a lack of time and assumptions of lower environmental impacts from these capital goods compared to the total impacts o...

  7. Systems efficiency and specific mass estimates for direct and indirect solar-pumped closed-cycle high-energy lasers in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Based on expected advances in technology, the maximum system efficiency and minimum specific mass have been calculated for closed-cycle CO and CO2 electric-discharge lasers (EDL's) and a direct solar-pumped laser in space. The efficiency calculations take into account losses from excitation gas heating, ducting frictional and turning losses, and the compressor efficiency. The mass calculations include the power source, radiator, compressor, fluids, ducting, laser channel, optics, and heat exchanger for all of the systems; and in addition the power conditioner for the EDL's and a focusing mirror for the solar-pumped laser. The results show the major component masses in each system, show which is the lightest system, and provide the necessary criteria for solar-pumped lasers to be lighter than the EDL's. Finally, the masses are compared with results from other studies for a closed-cycle CO2 gasdynamic laser (GDL) and the proposed microwave satellite solar power station (SSPS).

  8. Energy Conversion and Storage Program: 1992 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  9. Annual energy outlook 1997 with projections to 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 1997 (AEO97) presents midterm forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2015 prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). These projections are based on results of EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This report begins with a summary of the reference case, followed by a discussion of the legislative assumptions and evolving legislative and regulatory issues. ``Issues in Focus`` discusses emerging energy issues and other topics of particular interest. It is followed by the analysis of energy market trends. The analysis in AEO97 focuses primarily on a reference case and four other cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices than in the reference case. Forecast tables for these cases are provided in Appendixes A through C. Appendixes D and E present summaries of the reference case forecasts in units of oil equivalence and household energy expenditures. Twenty-three other cases explore the impacts of varying key assumptions in NEMS--generally, technology penetration, with the major results shown in Appendix F. Appendix G briefly describes NEMS and the major AEO97 assumptions, with a summary table. 114 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Annual energy outlook 1997 with projections to 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Energy Outlook 1997 (AEO97) presents midterm forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2015 prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). These projections are based on results of EIA's National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This report begins with a summary of the reference case, followed by a discussion of the legislative assumptions and evolving legislative and regulatory issues. ''Issues in Focus'' discusses emerging energy issues and other topics of particular interest. It is followed by the analysis of energy market trends. The analysis in AEO97 focuses primarily on a reference case and four other cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices than in the reference case. Forecast tables for these cases are provided in Appendixes A through C. Appendixes D and E present summaries of the reference case forecasts in units of oil equivalence and household energy expenditures. Twenty-three other cases explore the impacts of varying key assumptions in NEMS--generally, technology penetration, with the major results shown in Appendix F. Appendix G briefly describes NEMS and the major AEO97 assumptions, with a summary table. 114 figs., 22 tabs

  11. Hydro-Quebec 2005 annual report : people with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydro-Quebec generates, transmits and distributes electricity mainly produced by renewable energy sources. Its sole shareholder is the Quebec government. This annual report reviewed the operations of Hydro-Quebec, and provided data on energy sales, production and details of the utility's environmental programs. Information on Hydro-Quebec subsidiaries in 2005 was presented in the following separate sections: Hydro-Quebec Production; Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie; Hydro-Quebec Distribution; Hydro-Quebec Equipement; and the Societe d'energie de la Baie James. In 2005, Hydro-Quebec Distribution signed contracts for an initial block of 990 MW of wind power and issued a tender call for an additional 2000 MW of wind power. A generator balancing service was created and authorized by the Regie de l'energie. Hydro-Quebec customers have achieved energy savings of nearly 450 GWh in 2005. The commissioning of Toulnustouc generating station was achieved 5 months ahead of schedule. The 526 MW facility will generate 2.7 TWh annually. Work at the Chute-Allard and Rapide-des-Coeurs sites has continued, as well as construction at Mercier and Peribonka and Eastmain-1. Income from continuing operations came to $2.25 billion, a $124 million increase that was attributed to a rise in domestic sales and net short-term exports. The income was offset by higher pension expenses, depreciation and amortization, as well as by cost of supply on external markets and financial expenses. All other operating expenses were lower than in 2004. Capital spending for the transmission system reached its highest level since 1997, with $793 million invested, including $336 million to meet growth. Data on the company's financial performance, executive changes and reorganization were provided. Financial statements included a review and analysis of financial transactions, an auditor's report, as well as customary notes to the consolidated financial statement including balance sheets, assets, liabilities and

  12. Total energy cycle energy use and emissions of electric vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. K.

    1999-04-29

    A total energy cycle analysis (TECA) of electric vehicles (EV) was recently completed. The EV energy cycle includes production and transport of fuels used in power plants to generate electricity, electricity generation, EV operation, and vehicle and battery manufacture. This paper summarizes the key assumptions and results of the EVTECA. The total energy requirements of EVS me estimated to be 24-35% lower than those of the conventional, gasoline-fueled vehicles they replace, while the reductions in total oil use are even greater: 55-85%. Greenhouse gases (GHG) are 24-37% lower with EVs. EVs reduce total emissions of several criteria air pollutants (VOC, CO, and NO{sub x}) but increase total emissions of others (SO{sub x}, TSP, and lead) over the total energy cycle. Regional emissions are generally reduced with EVs, except possibly SO{sub x}. The limitations of the EVTECA are discussed, and its results are compared with those of other evaluations of EVs. In general, many of the results (particularly the oil use, GHG, VOC, CO, SO{sub x}, and lead results) of the analysis are consistent with those of other evaluations.

  13. Diagnostic system for combine cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed the Diagnostic System for Combined Cycle Power Plant which enables inexperienced operators as well as experienced operators to cope with abnormal conditions of Combined Cycle Power Plant. The features of this system are the Estimate of Emergency Level for Operation and the Prediction of Subsequent Abnormality, adding to the Diagnosis of Cause and the Operation Guidance. Moreover in this system, Diagnosis of Cause was improved by using our original method and support screens can be displayed for educational means in normal condition as well. (Authors)

  14. Annual Report 2002 of the Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy described the results of the research works carried out at the Institute in 2002 year. The Report contains the information on technical and research studies developed by all Institute Departments and Laboratories

  15. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1988 covers: Research Company; CANDU Operations; Radiochemical Company; Medical Products Division; The Future; Financial Sections; Board of Directors and Officers; and AECL locations

  16. Optimum operation cycle of nuclear plant in power system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extension of nuclear power plant operation cycle leads to improvement of its capacity factor and affects to suppress thermal plant generation of which fuel cost is relatively high. On the other hand, the number of nuclear fuel assembly to be exchanged at the time of maintenance increases with the operation cycle extension and this makes the fuel cost of nuclear generation high. For this reason, there exists the optimum operation cycle from the power system operation. This report deals with the optimum operation cycle of nuclear plant as the optimum sharing problem of generated energy between nuclear and thermal plants. The incremental fuel cost is considered to find the optimum value. The effects of the generation mix and high burn-up fuel on optimum operation cycle are examined. (author)

  17. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  18. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MWe; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system

  19. Systems analysis department annual progress report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1986. The activities may be classified as energy systems analysis and risk and reliability analysis. The report includes a list of staff members. (author)

  20. Thorium fuel cycle concept for KAERI's accelerator driven system project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been carrying out accelerator driven system related research and development called HYPER for transmutation and energy production. HYPER program is aiming to develop the elemental technologies for the subcritical system by 2001 and build a small bench scale test facility (∼5MW(th)) by the year 2006. Some major features of HYPER have been developed and employed, which are on-power fueling concepts, a hollow cylinder-type metal fuel, and Pb-Bi as a coolant and spallation target material. Another fuel cycle concept for HYPER has been also studied to utilize thorium as a molten salt form to produce electricity as well as to transmute TRU elements. At the early stage of the fuel cycle, fissile plutonium isotopes in TRU will be incinerated to produce energy and to breed 233U from thorium. Preliminary calculation showed that periodic removal of fission products and small amount of TRU addition could maintain the criticality without separation of 233Pa. At the end of the fuel cycle, the composition of fissile plutonium isotopes in TRU was significantly reduced from about 60% to 18%, which is not attractive any more for the diversion of plutonium. Thorium molten salt fuel cycle may be one of the alternative fuel cycles for the transmutation of TRU. The TRU remained at the end of fuel cycle can be incinerated in HYPER having fast neutron spectrums. (author)

  1. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 2nd Annual Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-03-30

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are pleased to provide the proceedings of the second annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop held on March 29-30, 2001 in Arlington. The package includes the presentations made during the workshop, a list of participants, and the results of the breakout sessions. Those sessions covered stack materials and processes, power electronics, balance of plant and thermal integration, fuel processing technologies, and stack and system performance modeling. The breakout sessions have been reported as accurately as possible; however, due to the recording and transcription process errors may have occurred. If you note any significant omissions or wish to provide additional information, we welcome your comments and hope that all stakeholder groups will use the enclosed information in their planning endeavors.

  2. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1993. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects nd work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using the CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed. In experimental nuclear physics the section staff members are engaged within three main fields: nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics. In theoretical physics the group is concerned with the many-body description of nuclear properties as well as with the foundation of quantum physics

  3. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of energy exchange above a boreal Scots pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    S. Launiainen

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-years of eddy-covariance measurements conducted above a boreal Scots pine forest in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, were analyzed to assess the seasonal and inter-annual variability of surface conductance (gs) and energy partitioning. The gs had distinct annual course, driven by the seasonal cycle of the Scots pine. Low gs (2–3 mm s−1 in April...

  4. Seasonal and inter annual variability of energy exchange above a boreal Scots pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    S. Launiainen

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-years of eddy-covariance measurements conducted above a boreal Scots pine forest in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, were analyzed to assess the seasonal and inter-annual variability of surface conductance (gs) and energy partitioning. The gs had distinct annual course, driven by the seasonal cycle of the Scots pine. Low gs (2–3 mm s−1

  5. Life-cycle energy of residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of rapid urbanization and new construction in rural China, residential building energy consumption has the potential to increase with the expected increase in demand. A process-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is used to quantify the life-cycle energy use for both urban and rural residential buildings in China and determine the energy use characteristics of each life cycle phase. An input–output model for the pre-use phases is based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data. A process-based life-cycle assessment model for estimating the operation and demolition phases uses historical energy-intensity data. Results show that operation energy in both urban and rural residential buildings is dominant and varies from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. Gaps in living standards as well as differences in building structure and materials result in a life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings that is 20% higher than that of rural residential buildings. The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of operational energy intensity excluding heating energy which depends on both the occupants' energy-saving behavior as well as the performance of the building itself. -- Highlights: •We developed a hybrid LCA model to quantify the life-cycle energy for urban and rural residential buildings in China. •Operation energy in urban and rural residential buildings is dominant, varying from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. •Compared with rural residential buildings, the life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings is 20% higher. •The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of daily activity energy

  6. Systems Analysis Department annual report 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risø National Laboratory during 2000. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Safety,Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology...

  7. Systems Analysis Department annual progress report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risø National Laboratory during 1999. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Safety,Realiability and Human Factors, and Technology...

  8. Systems Analysis Department annual report 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risø National Laboratory during 2003. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning – UNEP Centre, Safety,Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology...

  9. Systems Analysis Department annual report 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risø National Laboratory during 2002. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning – UNEP Centre, Safety,Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology...

  10. Systems Analysis Department annual report 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risø National Laboratory during 2001. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Safety,Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology...

  11. Systems Analysis Department. Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Jensen, E.; Larsen, H.; Skipper, S. (eds.)

    2002-04-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 2001. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Safety, Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and lists of publications, committees and staff members. (au)

  12. Systems Analysis Department. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Jensen, E.; Larsen, H.; Olsson, C.

    2001-05-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 2000. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Safety, Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and lists of publications, committees and staff members. (au)

  13. Systems Analysis Department. Annual Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.; Olsson, C. (eds.)

    2004-04-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 2003. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning UNEP Centre, Safety, Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and list of staff members. (au)

  14. Systems Analysis Department annual progress report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Olsson, Charlotte; Loevborg, Leif [eds.

    1999-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1998. The department undertakes research within Energy Systems Analysis, Integrated Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Industrial Safety and Reliability, Man/Machine Interaction and Technology Scenarios. The report includes lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 111 refs.

  15. Systems Analysis Department. Annual Progress Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Olsson, Charlotte; Loevborg, Leif [eds.

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1999. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning-UNEP Centre, Safety, Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and lists of publications, committees and staff members. (au)

  16. Systems Analysis department. Annual progress report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Olsson, Charlotte; Petersen, Kurt E.

    1998-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1997. The department is undertaking research within Energy systems Analysis, Integrated Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Industrial Safety and Reliability and Man/Machine Interaction. The report includes lists of publications lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 110 refs.

  17. Systems Analysis Department. Annual progress report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.; Olsson, C.; Petersen, K.E. [eds.

    1997-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1996. The department is undertaking research within Simulation and Optimisation of Energy Systems, Energy and Environment in Developing Countries - UNEP Centre, Integrated Environmental and Risk Management and Man/Machine Interaction. The report includes lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 131 refs.

  18. System Analysis Department. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Jensen, E.; Larsen, H.; Skipper, S. (eds.)

    2002-04-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 2001. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Safety, Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and lists of publications, committees and staff members. (au)

  19. Energy and exergy performance investigation of transcritical CO2-based Rankine cycle powered by solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XinRong; LI XiaoJuan

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive performance evaluation of a solar assisted transcritical CO2-based Rankine cycle system is made with exergy analysis method.The actual thermal data taken from the all-day experiment of the system are utilized to determine energy transfer and the exergy destructions in each component of the system.In addition,a hypothetical carbon dioxide expansion turbine is introduced,then two thermodynamic models for solar transcritical carbon dioxide Rankine cycles with a throttling valve (experiment) and with an expansion turbine have been established with exergy analysis method.The obtained results clearly show that solar collector contributes the largest share to system irreversibility and entropy generation in the all-day working state,and the exergy improvement potential of solar collector is the maximum in the working state.So this component should be the optimization design focus to improve system exergy effectiveness.For the cycle with the turbine,the energy efficiency and the entropy generation are not much higher than the cycle with throttling valve,but the exergy efficiency of the cycle with turbine is twice of the cycle with throttling valve.It provides more guidance when the transcritical CO2-based Rankine system is in a large-scale solar application.

  20. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2006. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications and hybrid systems within mini-grids. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  1. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2008. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids as well as health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  2. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2007. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids and PV environmental health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 22 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  3. Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: With Thermodynamic-Based Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with energy harvesting from temperature variations using ferroelectric materials as a microgenerator. The previous researches show that direct pyroelectric energy harvesting is not effective, whereas thermodynamic-based cycles give higher energy. Also, at different temperatures some thermodynamic cycles exhibit different behaviours. In this paper pyroelectric energy harvesting using Lenoir and Ericsson thermodynamic cycles has been studied numerically and the two cycles were compared with each other. The material used is the PMN-25 PT single crystal that is a very interesting material in the framework of energy harvesting and sensor applications.

  4. Plains Energy Services Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plains Energy Services Ltd. (Plains) is a two year old public company in the oil and gas service industry. It provides an integrated pool of services, concentrating on the life cycle of oil and gas wells as the driver for its expansion. Although the industry saw a marked decrease in well drilling activity for 1998, Plains was able to sustain a consistent income and cash flow because of its focus on ensuring access to the well during drilling, completion, production and abandonment. For 1998, revenue reached a record $93.3 million, an 85 per cent increase over 1997. This report presented Plain's major achievements for 1998. These included the completed construction of a technical, machining and manufacturing facility to enhance the development and implementation of technology and equipment among all business units. The company also introduced coiled tubing drilling services in the North American marketplace, as well as the first commercial version of a casing inspection tool. Plain's also introduced production logging through their wireline services business and applied for four new patents in relation to downhole tool development. In 1998, the company consolidated their operations into four divisions including consolidation of administration, benefits, banking and related overhead services. This report also described the company's efforts in addressing the year 2000 challenge. The company's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, as well as statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  5. Development of multilateral comparative evaluation method for fuel cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future, Japanese nuclear fuel cycle system will be promoted by national nuclear energy policy, and it''s options i.e. once through, thermal cycle and fast breeder cycle must be selected by multilateral comparative evaluation method from various aspects of safety, society, economy, and e.t.c. Therefore such a problem can be recognized as a social problem of decision making and applied for AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) that can multilaterally and comparatively evaluate the problem. On comparative evaluation, much information are needed for decision making, therefore two kinds of databases having these information have been constructed. And then, the multilateral comparative evaluation method consisting of two kinds of databases and AHP for optimum selection of fuel cycle system option have been developed. (author)

  6. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  7. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO2 emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO2 reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO2 emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO2 emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic value of these local

  8. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  9. Energy: annual report and accounts 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report and accounts (1994) of the Midlands Electricity plc contains the Chairman's statement, the Chief Executive's review, and the Directors and Auditors' reports. A financial review is presented, and the group's historical cost profit and loss account, the group's financial history, and summary current cost accounting information are detailed. (UK)

  10. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2000. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance and design of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, the grid interconnection of building-integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, very large scale photovoltaic power generation systems and the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. The status and prospects in the 20 countries participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  11. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2005. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  12. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2004. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  13. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2003. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. The programme's tenth anniversary is noted. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance, maintenance and sizing of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 20 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  14. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2001. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance, maintenance and sizing of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system and the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. The status and prospects in the 20 countries participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  15. Network Theory Integrated Life Cycle Assessment for an Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heetae Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we allocate Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of electricity transmission to the consumers. As an allocation basis, we introduce energy distance. Energy distance takes the transmission load on the electricity energy system into account in addition to the amount of electricity consumption. As a case study, we estimate regional GHG emissions of electricity transmission loss in Chile. Life cycle assessment (LCA is used to estimate the total GHG emissions of the Chilean electric power system. The regional GHG emission of transmission loss is calculated from the total GHG emissions. We construct the network model of Chilean electric power grid as an undirected network with 466 nodes and 543 edges holding the topology of the power grid based on the statistical record. We analyze the total annual GHG emissions of the Chilean electricity energy system as 23.07 Mt CO2-eq. and 1.61 Mt CO2-eq. for the transmission loss, respectively. The total energy distance for the electricity transmission accounts for 12,842.10 TWh km based on network analysis. We argue that when the GHG emission of electricity transmission loss is estimated, the electricity transmission load should be separately considered. We propose network theory as a useful complement to LCA analysis for the complex allocation. Energy distance is especially useful on a very large-scale electric power grid such as an intercontinental transmission network.

  16. NEA activities in 1991. 20. Annual report of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report gives informations on OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities in 1991. This report is divided into ten chapters: 1 Trends in nuclear power. 2 Nuclear development and the fuel cycle. 3 Nuclear safety and regulation. 4 Radiation protection. 5 Radioactive waste management and disposal. 6 Nuclear science: Reactor physics, nuclear data, NEA data bank. 7 Joint projects and coordinated research programs. 8 Legal affairs. 9 informations programs. 10 relations with non-member countries

  17. Energy analysis of nuclear power plants and their fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy analysis has become an increasingly feasible and practical additional method for evaluating the engineering, economic and environmental aspects of power-producing systems. It compares total direct and indirect energy investment into construction and operation of power plants with their lifetime energy output. This method was applied to nuclear power-producing systems and their fuel cycles. Results were adapted to countries with various levels of industrialization and resources. With dynamic energy analysis different scenarios were investigated. For comparison purposes fossil-fuelled and solar power plants were analysed. The global results of static evaluation analysis were specifically modified according to the economic situations of countries with various levels of industrialization. The influence of energy imports upon energy analysis is also discussed. By dynamic energy analyses the cumulative energy requirements for specific power plant construction programmes have been compared with their total energy output. Investigations of this sort are extremely valuable not only for economic reasons, but especially for their usefulness in showing the advantages and disadvantages of a specific power programme with respect to its alternatives. Naturally the impact of these investigations on the fuel requirements is of importance, especially because of the frequently cited ''valuable cumulated fossil fuel savings''. (author)

  18. 2003 annual report. Information and health, defense, energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the 2003 annual report of the French atomic energy commission (CEA). It presents, first, the main highlights of the research activity of the CEA in three domains: the national defense (the Simulation program and the share of the technical means with the scientific community, the nuclear warheads, the nuclear propulsion, the cleansing of the Rhone valley facilities, the monitoring of treaties respect and the fight against proliferation and terrorism; the energy: the researches on nuclear wastes, the optimization of industrial nuclear systems, the innovations devoted to future nuclear systems, the new energy-related technologies, the basic energy research; the technologies devoted to information and health: micro- and nano-technologies, the software technologies, the basic research. It presents also the main research facilities opened to the community of scientific and industrial users, the training activities, partnerships, agreements and the improvements made in the general organization of the CEA: scientific evaluation, planning, optimization, manpower, international relations, communication, risk management, certification, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. The financial data are added at the end of the document. (J.S.)

  19. Annual cycle of methane emission from a boreal fen measured by the eddy covariance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northern wetlands are one of the major sources of methane into the atmosphere. We measured annual methane emission from a boreal minerotrophic fen, Siikaneva, by the eddy covariance method. The average wintertime emissions were below 1 mg/m2/h, and the summertime emissions about 3.5 mg/m2/h. The water table depth did have any clear effect on methane emissions. During most of the year the emission depended on the temperature of peat below the water table. However, during the high and late summer the emission was independent on peat temperature as well. No diurnal cycle of methane flux was found. The total annual emission from the Siikaneva site was 12.6 g/m2. The emissions of the snow free period contributed 91% to the annual emission. The emission pulse during the snow melting period was clearly detectable but of minor importance adding only less than 3% to the annual emission. Over 20% of the carbon assimilated during the year as carbon dioxide was emitted as methane. Thus methane emission is an important component of the carbon balance of the Siikaneva fen. This indicates need of taking methane into account when studying carbon balances of northern fen ecosystems

  20. Surface radiation budget in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) effort and in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, Thomas P.; Smith, G. L.; Rose, Fred G.

    1990-01-01

    The surface radiation budget (SRB) and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (ARD) are vital components of the weather and climate system. The importance of radiation in a complex international scientific endeavor, the GEWEX of the World Climate Research Programme is explained. The radiative transfer techniques and satellite instrumentation that will be used to retrieve the SRB and ARD later in this decade with the CERES are discussed; CERES is a component of the Earth Observing System satellite program. Examples of consistent SRB and ARD retrievals made with Nimbus-7 and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data from July 1983 are presented.

  1. Annual cycles of organochlorine pesticide enantiomers in Arctic air suggest changing sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Hung, H.; Ma, J.; Stern, G. A.; Rosenberg, B.; Racine, J.

    2015-02-01

    Air samples collected during 1994-2000 at the Canadian Arctic air monitoring station Alert (82°30' N, 62°20' W) were analysed by enantiospecific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC). Results were expressed as enantiomer fractions (EF = peak areas of (+)/[(+) + (-)] enantiomers), where EFs = 0.5, 0.5 indicate racemic composition, and preferential depletion of (+) and (-) enantiomers, respectively. Long-term average EFs were close to racemic values for α -HCH (0.504 ± 0.004, n = 197) and CC (0.505 ± 0.004, n = 162), and deviated farther from racemic for TC (0.470 ± 0.013, n = 165). Digital filtration analysis revealed annual cycles of lower α-HCH EFs in summer-fall and higher EFs in winter-spring. These cycles suggest volatilization of partially degraded α-HCH with EF 0.5 during the cold season. The contribution of sea-volatilized α-HCH was only 11% at Alert, vs. 32% at Resolute Bay (74.68° N, 94.90° W) in 1999. EFs of TC also followed annual cycles of lower and higher values in the warm and cold seasons. These were in phase with low and high cycles of the TC/CC ratio (expressed as FTC = TC/(TC+CC)), which suggests greater contribution of microbially "weathered" TC in summer-fall versus winter-spring. CC was closer to racemic than TC and displayed seasonal cycles only in 1997-1998. EF profiles are likely to change with rising contribution of secondary emission sources, weathering of residues in the environment, and loss of ice cover in the Arctic. Enantiomer-specific analysis could provide added forensic capability to air monitoring programs.

  2. Hawaii Natural Energy Institute annual report, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This tenth anniversary special reviews each project over the past 10 years, with research in progress included for FY83-84 for biomass, geothermal, ocean energy, solar energy, wind research and other renewable energy research. (PSB)

  3. Energy and Environmental Division annual report, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W. (ed.)

    1976-01-01

    Separate entries were made for the nine main sections of the report. These sections deal with geosciences, controlled thermonuclear research, solar energy, chemical processes, engineering, energy use, instrumentation, environment, and energy analysis.

  4. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Annual Report 2011 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2011. The main part of the report, starting on page 21, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2011 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available in electronic form only on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report.

  5. Energy and environment. Annual report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.G.; Lizama, L.R. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following programs: geothermal and geosciences; controlled thermonuclear research; chemical processing; instrument development; environment; energy use and conservation; energy analysis; and engineering sciences.

  6. Development of FBR cycle data base system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System (F/S)'. scenario evaluations, cost-benefit evaluations and system characteristic evaluations to show significance of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) cycle system introduction concretely are performed in parallel with a design study for FBR plants, reprocessing systems and fabrication systems. In these evaluations, informations such as economic prospects, prospects for supply and demand of resources and a progress of engineering development are used in addition to design information. This report explains a FBR Cycle Database in order to carry out management and search of various design information and the relating information. The prototype system of the database was completed in the 2000 fiscal year, and the problem of the user number restriction of the prototype system has been improved by Web-ization in the 2001 fiscal year. About 7,000 data are stored in this data base (as of the end of March, 2002). The expansion of user etc., and the continuation of input work of various evaluation information will be carried out, in the phase 2 of F/S. (author)

  7. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, B.D.; Riis, U. (eds.)

    2003-12-01

    Research and development activities of the Wind Energy Department range from boundary layer meteorology, fluid dynamics, and structural mechanics to power and control engineering as well as wind turbine loading and safety. The overall purpose of our work is to meet the needs for knowledge, methods and procedures from government, the scientific community, and the wind turbine industry in particular. Our assistance to the wind turbine manufacturers serve to pave the way for technological development and thus further the exploitation of wind energy worldwide. We do this by means of research and innovation, education, testing and consultancy. In providing services for the wind turbine industry, we are involved in technology development, design, testing, procedures for operation and maintenance, certification and international wind turbine projects s as well as the solution of problems encountered in the application of wind energy, e.g. grid connection. A major proportion of these activities are on a commercial basis, for instance consultancy, software development, accredited testing of wind turbines and blades as well as approval and certification in co-operation with Det Norske Veritas. The departments activities also include research into atmospheric physics and environmental issues related to the atmosphere. One example is the development of online warning systems for airborne bacteria and other harmful substances. The department is organized in programmes according to its main scientific and technical activities. Research programmes: 1) Aeroelastic Design, AED; 2) Atmospheric Phyrics, ATM; 3) Electrical DEsign and Control, EDS; 4) Wind Power Meteorology, VKM; 5) Wind Turbines, VIM; 6) Wind Turbine Diagnostics, VMD. Commercial programmes: 1) The Test Station for Large Wind Turbines, Hoevsoere, HOeV; 2) Risoe Wind Consult, INR; 3) Wind Turbine Testing; 4) Sparkaer Blade Test Centre.(au)

  8. SFEN Annual Convention 2012 - The nuclear energy one year after Fukushima. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the 2012 edition of the Annual Convention of the French society of nuclear energy (SFEN) on the topic of nuclear energy one year after Fukushima. Twenty four presentations (slides) are compiled in this document: 1 - Presentation and introduction of the Annual Convention (Luc Oursel - SFEN President); 2 - Status of onsite/offsite remedial actions, key lessons learned (Akira Omoto, Tokyo univ., Japan Atomic Energy Commission); 3 - Complementary Safety Assessments (CSA) of the French NPP fleet (Dominique Miniere, EDF); 4 - Speech of M. Francois Fillon - Prime Minister; 5 - CSA of the fuel cycle facilities (Philippe Knoche, Areva); 6 - CSA of the EPR (Bertrand de l'Epinois, Areva; Jean-Luc Foret, EDF CNEN); 7 - The collective responsibility of the operators: the action of WANO (Laurent Stricker, WANO); 8 - Conclusions of French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - Safety measures to be strengthened; 9 - Opinion no. 2012-AV-013 from January 3, 2012 of the French Nuclear Safety Authority - ASN (Sophie Mourlon, ASN; Caroline Lavarenne, IRSN); 10 - Nuclear energy: an energy for the future (Bernard Bigot, CEA); 11 - The nuclear phaseout in Germany from the view of German industry (Eberhard von Rottenburg, BDI); 12 - Prospects in China (Wei Lu, CGNP Europe); 13 - Industry Current Status and its Prospects in the United States (J. Spina, CENG); 14 - Nuclear energy prospects in France: recommendations of the Commission 'Energy 2050' (Jacques Percebois, Creden); 15 - Electrical generation system efficiency and economy (Yves Giraud, EDF); 16 - Electrical generation systems and distribution networks (Herve Mignon, Rte); 17 - Prospects in the UK (Tim Stone, DECC/OND, Senior Adviser to the Secretary of State); 18 - Climatic changes and energy policy (Laura Cozzi, IEA); 19 - The young nuclear professionals network (Boris Supiot, SFEN Young Generation Group); 20 - Socio-economic impacts of the nuclear power industry in

  9. Annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass in the subarctic Atlantic and Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Toby K.; Schultz, Patrick; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Dunne, John P.; Hiscock, Michael R.; Maritorena, Stephane; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Siegel, David A.

    2016-02-01

    High-latitude phytoplankton blooms support productive fisheries and play an important role in oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. In the subarctic North Atlantic Ocean, blooms are a recurrent feature each year, while in the eastern subarctic Pacific only small changes in chlorophyll (Chl) are seen over the annual cycle. Here we show that when evaluated using phytoplankton carbon biomass (Cphyto) rather than Chl, an annual bloom in the North Pacific is evident and can even rival blooms observed in the North Atlantic. The annual increase in subarctic Pacific phytoplankton biomass is not readily observed in the Chl record because it is paralleled by light- and nutrient-driven decreases in cellular pigment levels (Cphyto:Chl). Specifically, photoacclimation and iron stress effects on Cphyto:Chl oppose the biomass increase, leading to only modest changes in bulk Chl. The magnitude of the photoacclimation effect is quantified using descriptors of the near-surface light environment and a photophysiological model. Iron stress effects are diagnosed from satellite chlorophyll fluorescence data. Lastly, we show that biomass accumulation in the Pacific is slower than that in the Atlantic but is closely tied to similar levels of seasonal nutrient uptake in both basins. Annual cycles of satellite-derived Chl and Cphyto are reproduced by in situ autonomous profiling floats. These results contradict the long-standing paradigm that environmental conditions prevent phytoplankton accumulation in the subarctic Northeast Pacific and suggest a greater seasonal decoupling between phytoplankton growth and losses than traditionally implied. Further, our results highlight the role of physiological processes in shaping bulk properties, such as Chl, and their interpretation in studies of ocean ecosystem dynamics and climate change.

  10. Energy basis of disasters and the cycles of order and disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative theory of cycles order and disorder was applied to the earth and evaluated to form an energy basis for the global cycles, surges, and disasters. Energy circuit language was used to diagram the world system and show a common pattern in the order--disorder processes. Storms, floods, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, urban fires, and wars were modeled as the catastrophic release of energy previously converged and stored. Released energy disordered and recycled material available to stimulate a new cycle of growth. Cascading of catastrophic processes of disasters was modeled with a world web. The feedback in the global energy web was provided by the control action of disaster pulses. The global model was presented in both diagrammatic and differential equation form with the energy flows and storages evaluated. Order--disorder models of the atmospheric, oceanic, biological, geological, and urban systems of earth were connected to form an energy convergence network. The global energy model was used to calculate energy quality factors (ratio of energy of one type generating energy of another type) for the earth's major energy transformations. The theory provided suggestions for land-use policy. Energy ratios that provide a quantitative basis for disaster planning can be developed for a local environment of pulsing energy. Possibilities were considered that cycles of order and disorder of the earth are synchronized by cycles of sunspots. Energy quality and pulse amplifier ratios of solar flares may be high enough to control many global cycles

  11. Annual energy outlook 1993 with projections to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO93) presents forecasts for energy prices, supply, demand, and imports over the period 1990 to 2010. These projections take into account existing legislation, including the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Even though the world oil market remains relatively tight, the long-term outlook for oil prices has been revised downward since the Annual Energy Outlook 1992 as expectations for both the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC production potential have been revised upward. Domestic natural gas prices are also expected to be lower than projected last year, in part because of a more optimistic outlook for drilling technology. Finally, lower growth in the demand for electricity is expected because of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which mandates efficiency standards for new energy-using equipment. These are the most striking differences between last year's EIA evaluation of long-term energy market trends and this year's evaluation

  12. Slow and fast annual cycles of the Asian summer monsoon in the NCEP CFSv2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chul-Su; Huang, Bohua

    2016-07-01

    The climatological Asian summer monsoon (ASM) is decomposed into the slow and fast annual cycles (SAC and FAC). The FAC represents the abrupt onset and breaks phase-locked to the ASM seasonal progression. This study evaluates how well the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) simulates the SAC and FAC over the Indian and East Asia monsoon regions (IMR and EAMR). The simulated SACs are in good agreement with observations in both regions. The FAC also represents the northward propagation in both observations and CFSv2. It is further demonstrated that the FAC is associated with a thermodynamic air-sea interaction. In particular, the different roles played by the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback may account for the faster propagation in the IMR than the EAMR. However, compared with observations, the simulated FAC shows earlier monsoon onset and long-lasting stronger dry and wet phases in the IMR but delayed monsoon onset with weaker and less organized FAC in the EAMR. These reversed behaviors may originate from a warm (cold) SST bias in the IMR (EAMR) in boreal spring and enhanced by an overly sensitive surface evaporation to wind changes in the CFSv2. As a result, the warm spring SST bias in the IMR initiates a strong WES feedback and changes of solar insolation during boreal summer, which leads to a cold SST bias in early fall. On the other hand, the cold spring SST bias in the EAMR accounts for a weaker air-sea coupling, which in turn results in a warm SST bias after the withdrawal of the monsoon.

  13. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  14. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  15. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  16. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  17. Energy in Croatia, Annual Energy Report 1995 - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review consists of the most recent and settled data for the year 1999 as well as for the preceding four years. In 1999 total energy consumption increased by 4.5 percent compared to the previous year. As at the same time the gross domestic product decreased by 0.3 percent, energy intensity grew, thus presenting negative trend. The energy intensity, the measurement showing the total energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product, exceeded the level realised by the Western European countries, but was still more favourable than in most transition countries. At the same time 1999 saw an increase of primary energy generation by 1.5 percent but, as a consequence of extremely favourable hydrological conditions, with a decreased production of natural gas and oil. This caused a drop of the supply from own sources to 50.4 percent, the lowest value so far. This trend is expected to continue in the following few years bearing in mind the condition of the gas and oil reserves, i.e. cessation of coal production in Istria. Only partly will the process be slowed down by the production of natural gas from the Northern Adriatic. In 1999 the transformation losses rose by 7.3 percent, energy sector own use by 4.5 percent and non-energy consumption by 14.2 percent. Transportation and distribution losses fell by 9.9 percent. The result of this was that, despite the increase of total energy production by 4.5 percent, final energy demand grew by only 3.4 percent: 7.5 percent in transport, 4.5 percent in other sectors, and a 4.4 percent decrease in industry. Apart from these data, the publication includes all other relevant indicators about our energy system, i.e. system capacities, energy source prices, environmental influence, etc

  18. Annual Cycle of Bacterial Specific Biovolumes in Howe Sound, a Canadian West Coast Fjord Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Albright, L. J.; McCrae, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    The mean specific biovolumes (biovolume cell−1) of the bacterioplankton within a 250-m-deep water column in Howe Sound, British Columbia, were determined for the period of 4 September 1984 to 23 October 1985. These bacteria had an annual cycle in mean specific biovolume; they were small (ca. 0.058 μm3) in mid-winter, larger in spring (ca. 0.076 μm3), larger again in summer (up to 0.102 μm3), and largest (ca. 0.133 μm3) in early fall (immediately after the decrease in phytoplankton production)...

  19. On the Relationship Between Solar Wind Speed, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Solar Cycle Using Annual Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    The aa index can be decomposed into two separate components: the leading sporadic component due to solar activity as measured by sunspot number and the residual or recurrent component due to interplanetary disturbances, such as coronal holes. For the interval 1964-2006, a highly statistically important correlation (r = 0.749) is found between annual averages of the aa index and the solar wind speed (especially between the residual component of aa and the solar wind speed, r = 0.865). Because cyclic averages of aa (and the residual component) have trended upward during cycles 11-23, cyclic averages of solar wind speed are inferred to have also trended upward.

  20. Energy and Environment Division annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, J.A. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities of this Division are reported under nine separate programs, namely: Energy Analysis; Solar Energy; Energy-Efficient Buildings; Chemical Process Research and Development; Environmental Research; Atmospheric Aerosol Research; Oil Shale Research; Instrumentation Development; and Combustion Research. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the nine programs, each of which contained several individual research summaries, with responsible researchers listed. All of the abstracts will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), and five will appear in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  1. Sustainability Indicators for Open-Cycle Thorium-Fuelled Nuclear Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, S. F.; Fenner, R. A.; Nuttall, W. J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential for countries which currently have a nominal nuclear energy infrastructure to adopt thorium-uranium-fuelled nuclear energy systems, using a once-through ?open? nuclear fuel cycle, has been presented by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This paper highlights Generation III and III+ nuclear energy technologies that could potentially adopt an open thorium-uranium fuel cycle and qualitatively highlights the main differences between the open thorium-uranium and open uranium fue...

  2. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J. [Deutsche Aerospace AG, Munich (Germany)]|[Technical Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  3. Solar power satellite—Life-cycle energy recovery considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    1995-05-01

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for a cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead of monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power plant components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on Earth (rectenna) requires in the order of 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production, installation and operation, is in the order of two years.

  4. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  5. Using Screening Level Environmental Life Cycle Assessment to Aid Decision Making: A Case Study of a College Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Wesley W.; Curran, Mary Ann; Gonzalez, Michael A.; Hawkins, Troy R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the life cycle environmental impacts of the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences' current printed annual report to a version distributed via the internet. Design/methodology/approach: Life cycle environmental impacts of both versions of the report are modeled using…

  6. The National Energy Board's annual report 2002 to Parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001 Canada's energy industry accounted for about 6 per cent of Canada's Gross Domestic product and employed 293,000 people. The National Energy Board informs Canadians about energy market trends. This annual report provides a summary of Canadian energy supply, consumption, production, prices and trade with an emphasis on developments in 2001. The National Energy Board dealt with applications for new pipeline facilities, new international power lines, tolls and tariff filings as well as approvals for exploration and development activity north of sixty. The year 2001 began with record high natural gas prices throughout North America, a crisis in the electricity market in California, and the highest oil prices since the 1991 Gulf war. Normal levels in oil and gas prices returned by the spring of 2001. In 2001, the Canadian pipeline infrastructure responded well to the market demands, delivering approximately $85 billion of natural gas, crude oil and petroleum products. The notable change was that the Alliance Pipeline and Vector Pipeline systems were in their first year of full operation, providing alternatives to TransCanada PipeLines system to deliver western Canadian natural gas to central Canadian markets. These new pipelines have created more competition between pipeline systems. There has also been significant consolidation within the industry. The events of September 11, 2001 emphasized the need to ensure security of Canada's natural gas and oil pipeline infrastructure. Most pipelines have been pro-active in protecting the overall security of the pipeline network in Canada. The Board also ensures that pipelines are operated in a manner that protects the environment, conducting audits of the environmental programs of regulated companies. There were no incidents in 2001 that resulted in severe degradation of the environment in which Canadian pipelines operate. tabs., figs

  7. Annual review of energy. Vol. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents papers on the oil market, energy conservation, the nuclear power industry, unconventional energy sources, international energy developments, and rate structure. Topics considered include the transition from oil in Western Europe, unconventional sources of natural gas, the evolution of the US electric utility rate design, Mexico's energy future, Israel's Dead Sea project, the Canadian experience with oil sands, the French energy policy, recent changes in US energy consumption, efficiency improvements in space heating by gas and oil, future energy savings in US housing, methanol as a viable energy source in today's world, the prospects for the US nuclear reactor industry, the development of breeder reactors in the US, energy and security in the 1980s, the price of world oil, and the prospects for solar industrial process heat

  8. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  9. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2012. - The IAEA Annual Report 2012 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2012-2013 (GC(55)/5). - The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2012 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. - Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available, in electronic form only, on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report. - Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. - The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. - The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. - The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non- Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear-weapon State' is as used

  10. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2013. The IAEA Annual Report 2013 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report, starting on page 15, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2012-2013 (GC(55)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2013 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available, in electronic form only, on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear- Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear-weapon State' is as used in

  11. 40th annual meeting on energy law. Review and lookout; 40. Energierechtliche Jahrestagung: Rueckblick und Ausschau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehricke, Ulrich (ed.)

    2012-11-01

    Within the 40th energy legal annual meeting at 3rd November, 2011 in Cologne (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Development of the electrical grid as a central element of the future energy supply (Matthias Kurth); (2) Practice of cartel law in times of the energy policy turnaround (Andreas Mundt); (3) The annual meetings of the Institute for Energy Law (Juergen F. Bauer); (4) On the relation between energy law and energy industry (Marc Oliver Bettzuege); (5) Constitutional issues of the nuclear power phaseout (Rupert Scholz); (6) 5 Years of price regulation of the power distribution systems: Inventory and expectations (Boris Scholtka); (7) Impacts of the energy policy turnaround on the Energy State and Industry State North Rhine-Westphalia (Harry K. Voigtsberger); (8) On the way to an environmentally friendly energy supply in Germany - what was actually achieved? Which tasks will surrender yet? (Ursula Heinen-Esser).

  12. Carbon Dioxide Direct Cycle Modular Reactors for Decentralized Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide is achievable higher cycle efficiency than helium in a direct gas turbine cycle system due to the real gas effect or inter molecular attraction force in the compression process especially in the vicinity of the critical points. Analyzing the cycle thermal performance of full, partial and non condensation cycles, the cycle efficiency is highest in the partial condensation cycle. A fast reactor employing the partial condensation cycle is expected to be a potential alternative option to LMFRs, allowing higher cycle efficiency than LMFRs at the same core outlet temperature, and excluding the problems related to safety, cost and maintenance. A thermal reactor employing the partial condensation cycle provides higher cycle efficiency (48%) at the moderate core outlet temperature of 650? than that of PBMR (46%) operated at 900? (author)

  13. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, ''Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,'' part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program's researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings

  14. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, ``Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,`` part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program`s researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

  15. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,'' part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program's researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Selected Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy Systems in Denmark and Ghana - with a focus on greenhouse gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present project has been to establish an LCA methodology for assessing different biomass energy systems in Denmark and Ghana in relation to their emission of greenhouse gases. The biomass systems which have been studied are willow chips, surplus straw and biogas from manure for Den...

  17. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; D.J. Francuz; J.D. Maclay; J. Brouwer; A. Verma; M. Li; G.S. Samuelsen

    2008-09-30

    The main objective is to identify and assess advanced improvements to the Brayton Cycle (such as but not limited to firing temperature, pressure ratio, combustion techniques, intercooling, fuel or combustion air augmentation, enhanced blade cooling schemes) that will lead to significant performance improvements in coal based power systems. This assessment is conducted in the context of conceptual design studies (systems studies) that advance state-of-art Brayton cycles and result in coal based efficiencies equivalent to 65% + on natural gas basis (LHV), or approximately an 8% reduction in heat rate of an IGCC plant utilizing the H class steam cooled gas turbine. H class gas turbines are commercially offered by General Electric and Mitsubishi for natural gas based combined cycle applications with 60% efficiency (LHV) and it is expected that such machine will be offered for syngas applications within the next 10 years. The studies are being sufficiently detailed so that third parties will be able to validate portions or all of the studies. The designs and system studies are based on plants for near zero emissions (including CO{sub 2}). Also included in this program is the performance evaluation of other advanced technologies such as advanced compression concepts and the fuel cell based combined cycle. The objective of the fuel cell based combined cycle task is to identify the desired performance characteristics and design basis for a gas turbine that will be integrated with an SOFC in Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) applications. The goal is the conceptualization of near zero emission (including CO{sub 2} capture) integrated gasification power plants producing electricity as the principle product. The capability of such plants to coproduce H{sub 2} is qualitatively addressed. Since a total systems solution is critical to establishing a plant configuration worthy of a comprehensive market interest, a baseline IGCC plant scheme is developed and used to study

  18. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-31

    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  19. Annual report 1997. Energies and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives the important directions of French energy policy. Nuclear energy, electric power, natural gas, coal and petroleum products are reviewed. The situations and the forecasting for raw materials are also given. (N.C.)

  20. Energy analysis program. 1995 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.

    1996-05-01

    This year the role of energy technology research and analysis supporting governmental and public interests is again being challenged at high levels of government. This situation is not unlike that of the early 1980s, when the Administration questioned the relevance of a federal commitment to applied energy research, especially for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Then Congress continued to support such activities, deeming them important to the nation`s interest. Today, Congress itself is challenging many facets of the federal role in energy. The Administration is also selectively reducing its support, primarily for the pragmatic objective of reducing federal expenditures, rather than because of principles opposing a public role in energy. this report is divided into three sections: International Energy and the global environment; Energy, economics, markets, and policy; and Buildings and their environment.

  1. Hybridisation of solar and geothermal energy in both subcritical and supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hybrid solar and geothermal energy conversion system was modelled using subcritical and supercritical ORCs. • Solar thermal and geothermal energy can be effectively hybridised. • Greater thermodynamic advantages and economic benefits can be achieved using the supercritical hybrid plant. • Hybrid plants can produce up to 19% more annual electricity than the two stand-alone plants. • Solar-to-electricity cost in the supercritical hybrid plant is about 4–19% less than in the subcritical plant. - Abstract: A supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is renowned for higher conversion efficiency than the conventional ORC due to a better thermal match (i.e. reduced irreversibility) presented in the heat exchanger unit. This improved thermal match is a result of the obscured liquid-to-vapor boundary of the organic working fluid at supercritical states. Stand-alone solar thermal power generation and stand-alone geothermal power generation using a supercritical ORC have been widely investigated. However, the power generation capability of a single supercritical ORC using combined solar and geothermal energy has not been examined. This paper thus investigates the hybridisation of solar and geothermal energy in a supercritical ORC to explore the benefit from the potential synergies of such a hybrid platform. Its performances were also compared with those of a subcritical hybrid plant, stand-alone solar and geothermal plants. All simulations and modelling of the power cycles were carried out using process simulation package Aspen HYSYS. The performances of the hybrid plant were then assessed using technical analysis, economic analysis, and the figure of merit analysis. The results of the technical analysis show that thermodynamically, the hybrid plant using a supercritical ORC outperforms the hybrid plant using a subcritical ORC if at least 66% of its exergy input is met by solar energy (i.e. a solar exergy fraction of >66%), namely producing 4–17

  2. Combined Cycle Fatigue Investigation Based on Energy Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Kalynenko Mykyta

    2016-01-01

    We present a modified energy-principle based model of fatigue damage accumulation in high temperature alloys usually used in gas turbine engine under combined high cycle fatigue and low cycle fatigue (LCF/HCF) loading conditions. Our model is based on the energy principle which includes a modified approximation formula that describes fatigue crack origin depending on the relative amplitude of stress intensity in the ranges of both high- and low-cycle fatigue under non-isothermal loading. Func...

  3. Planning the annual cycle in groups of cadet combat sports perfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananchenko Konstantin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within a large training cycle in conditions of high general level of stress the authors recommend optimal implementation of planning undulating dynamics of cadets’ combat exercise stress. The article proves the efficiency of one-cycle construction of training highly- qualified single-combat cadets at the stage of maximal realization of sporting possibilities, which includes both features of traditional cycles (preparatory, competitional, transitional and module-sectional composition of training. It scientifically substantiates, that the choice of those or other types of microcycles which present the structure of mesocycles is determined by a few basic factors which must be necessarily taken into account while planning the training process of sportsmen of different qualification. It is suggested to use certain varieties of microcycles in the practice of preparation of single combat cadets. It is substantiated that accounting in planning the annual cycle in groups of sporting perfection of students of the educed types of microcycles for every type of single combats is an actual task of further scientific research.

  4. Annual Energy Balance Sheets 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the year 2002 the primary supply of energy reached 629 TWh, which is 7.7 TWh less than 2001. The decrease originates mainly from the reduced electricity production from water power. Also the electricity production in nuclear power plants decreased by 4.5 TWh. If we were to look at the supplied energy for final consumption we will find a slightly rise by 1.8 TWh. The year 2002 was warmer than a 'normal' year and that consequently brings lower energy needs. Compared with 2001, 2002 was not warmer and a net electricity import of 5.4 TWh covered the energy needs. The energy use increased by 3.3 TWh between 2002 and 2001. The industry sector shows the largest rise by 2.9 TWh, nearly 2 per cent. Within that sector, energy from biomass fuel had a rise by 6.7 per cent. The household sector decreases its energy use by 2.7 per cent, and oil and electricity show the largest decrease. The proportionately high electricity price probably had a slowing down effect on the electricity use. The balance sheets of energy sources are showing the total supply and consumption of energy sources expressed in original units, i.e. units recorded in the primary statistics - mainly commercial units. The production of derived energy commodities is recorded on the supply - side of the balance sheets of energy sources, which is not the case in the energy balance sheets. The balance sheets of energy sources also include specifications of input--output and energy consumption in energy conversion industries. The energy balance sheets are based on primary data recorded in the balance sheets of energy sources, here expressed in a common energy unit, TJ. The production of derived energy is recorded in a second flow-step comprising energy turnover in energy conversion and is also specified in complementary input - output tables for energy conversion industries. The following items are shown in the energy balance sheets. 1.1 Inland supply of primary energy; 1.3 Import; 1.4 Export; 1.5 Changes in

  5. Energy Conversion Advanced Heat Transport Loop and Power Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, C. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. Many aspects of the NGNP must be researched and developed in order to make recommendations on the final design of the plant. Parameters such as working conditions, cycle components, working fluids, and power conversion unit configurations must be understood. Three configurations of the power conversion unit were demonstrated in this study. A three-shaft design with 3 turbines and 4 compressors, a combined cycle with a Brayton top cycle and a Rankine bottoming cycle, and a reheated cycle with 3 stages of reheat were investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting process heat to a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and an 80% nitrogen, 20% helium mixture (by weight) were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms cycle efficiency and development cost. In each of these configurations the relative component size were estimated for the different working fluids. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the three-shaft and combined cycles were performed to determine the effect of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of these cycles to various

  6. Control system to a Rankine cycle with a Tesla turbine using arduino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat in energy. This cycle occurs in steady state, in other words the cycle is a closed loop circuit with continuous feedback, which guarantees the reuse process one energy transformed in the various stages of the cycle. This cycle is used to drive a turbine type TESLA designed for the system. The objective of this work is to create the control and automation of this cycle using an micro-controlled system with Arduino that will hold the collection of sensors and the system will act to maintain the balance of the cycle causing it to behave continuously and with less interference from human operation for maintenance. Data will be collected and further processed, where it will display all the sensors and the situation of the actuators involved. Using Arduino system ensures the stability and reliability with a low cost of implementation

  7. Control system to a Rankine cycle with a Tesla turbine using arduino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Josenei G., E-mail: joseneigodoi@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco (FATESF), Jacarei, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Lamartine F.; Placco, Guilherme M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: placco@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (ENU/IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The thermal Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat in energy. This cycle occurs in steady state, in other words the cycle is a closed loop circuit with continuous feedback, which guarantees the reuse process one energy transformed in the various stages of the cycle. This cycle is used to drive a turbine type TESLA designed for the system. The objective of this work is to create the control and automation of this cycle using an micro-controlled system with Arduino that will hold the collection of sensors and the system will act to maintain the balance of the cycle causing it to behave continuously and with less interference from human operation for maintenance. Data will be collected and further processed, where it will display all the sensors and the situation of the actuators involved. Using Arduino system ensures the stability and reliability with a low cost of implementation.

  8. Species versus guild level differentiation revealed across the annual cycle by isotopic niche examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodey, Thomas W; Ward, Eric J; Phillips, Richard A; McGill, Rona A R; Bearhop, Stuart

    2014-03-01

    Interspecific competitive interactions typically result in niche differentiation to alleviate competition through mechanisms including character displacement. However, competition is not the sole constraint on resource partitioning, and its effects are mediated by factors including the environmental context in which species coexist. Colonial seabirds provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the importance of competition in shaping realized niche widths because their life histories lead to variation in intra- and interspecific competition across the annual cycle. Dense breeding aggregations result in intense competition for prey in surrounding waters, whereas non-breeding dispersal to larger geographical areas produces lower densities of competitors. Bayesian hierarchical models of the isotopic niche, closely aligned to the trophic niche, reveal the degree of segregation between species and functional groups during both time periods. Surprisingly, species explained far more of the variance in the isotopic niche during the non-breeding than the breeding period. Our results underline the key role of non-breeding dynamics in alleviating competition and promoting distinctions between species through the facilitation of resource partitioning. Such situations may be common in a diverse range of communities sustained by ephemeral but abundant food items. This highlights how consideration of the hierarchical grouping of competitive interactions alongside consideration of abiotic constraints across the complete annual cycle allows a full understanding of the role of competition in driving patterns of character displacement. PMID:24215391

  9. Annual cycle in lakes and rivers from CryoSat-2 altimetry — The Brahmaputra river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    2014-01-01

    A key concern of the CryoSat-2 orbit has been its long repeat period of 369 days, which is usually undesirable for river and lake monitoring. However, the results of this study show that CryoSat-2 data can indeed be used for such monitoring by utilizing the high spatial coverage and the sub......-cycle period of 30 days. The performance of CryoSat-2/SIRAL altimetry for river level monitoring is investigated by studying river levels retrieved from Ganges and Brahmaputra. An evaluation of CryoSat-2 river levels from LRM, SAR and SARIn data is performed by comparing with Envisat data from the period in...... which the two missions overlapped (2010–2012). Time series constructed using simple linear interpolation are fitted with a model to compare the captured annual signals and amplitudes. The annual cycles seen in CryoSat-2 and Envisat altimetry data agree very well and provide confidence in using CryoSat-2...

  10. Risoe DTU annual report 2009. Highlights from Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risoe DTU is the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark. The research focuses on development of energy technologies and systems with minimal effect on climate, and contributes to innovation, education and policy. Risoe has large experimental facilities and interdisciplinary research environments, and includes the national centre for nuclear technologies. The 2009 annual report gives highlights on Risoe's research in the following areas: wind energy, bioenergy, solar energy, fusion energy, fuel cells and hydrogen, energy systems and climate change, and nuclear technologies. It also includes information on Education and training, Innovation and business, Research facilities, and Management, Personnel and Operating statements. (LN)

  11. Risoe DTU annual report 2008. Highlights from Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Birgit; Bindslev, H. (eds.)

    2009-08-15

    Risoe DTU is the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark. The research focuses on development of energy technologies and systems with minimal effect on climate, and contributes to innovation, education and policy. Risoe has large experimental facilities and interdisciplinary research environments, and includes the national centre for nuclear technologies. The 2008 annual report gives highlights on Risoe's research in the following areas: wind energy, bioenergy, solar energy, fusion energy, fuel cells and hydrogen, energy systems and climate change, and nuclear technologies. It also includes information on Education and training, Innovation and business, Research facilities, and Management, Personnel and Operating statements. (LN)

  12. Risoe DTU annual report 2009. Highlights from Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Birgit; Bindslev, H. (eds.)

    2010-06-15

    Risoe DTU is the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark. The research focuses on development of energy technologies and systems with minimal effect on climate, and contributes to innovation, education and policy. Risoe has large experimental facilities and interdisciplinary research environments, and includes the national centre for nuclear technologies. The 2009 annual report gives highlights on Risoe's research in the following areas: wind energy, bioenergy, solar energy, fusion energy, fuel cells and hydrogen, energy systems and climate change, and nuclear technologies. It also includes information on Education and training, Innovation and business, Research facilities, and Management, Personnel and Operating statements. (LN)

  13. Risoe DTU annual report 2008. Highlights from Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risoe DTU is the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark. The research focuses on development of energy technologies and systems with minimal effect on climate, and contributes to innovation, education and policy. Risoe has large experimental facilities and interdisciplinary research environments, and includes the national centre for nuclear technologies. The 2008 annual report gives highlights on Risoe's research in the following areas: wind energy, bioenergy, solar energy, fusion energy, fuel cells and hydrogen, energy systems and climate change, and nuclear technologies. It also includes information on Education and training, Innovation and business, Research facilities, and Management, Personnel and Operating statements. (LN)

  14. The University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) field test facility -- system description, aquifer characterization, and results of short-term test cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, M.; Hoyer, M.C.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Holm, N.L.; Holm, T.R.; Kanivetsky, R.; Jirsa, M.A.; Lee, H.C.; Lauer, J.L.; Miller, R.T.; Norton, J.L.; Runke, H. (Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Phase 1 of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Project at the University of Minnesota was to test the feasibility, and model, the ATES concept at temperatures above 100{degrees}C using a confined aquifer for the storage and recovery of hot water. Phase 1 included design, construction, and operation of a 5-MW thermal input/output field test facility (FTF) for four short-term ATES cycles (8 days each of heat injection, storage, and heat recover). Phase 1 was conducted from May 1980 to December 1983. This report describes the FTF, the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville (FIG) aquifer used for the test, and the four short-term ATES cycles. Heat recovery; operational experience; and thermal, chemical, hydrologic, and geologic effects are all included. The FTF consists of monitoring wells and the source and storage well doublet completed in the FIG aquifer with heat exchangers and a fixed-bed precipitator between the wells of the doublet. The FIG aquifer is highly layered and a really anisotropic. The upper Franconia and Ironton-Galesville parts of the aquifer, those parts screened, have hydraulic conductivities of {approximately}0.6 and {approximately}1.0 m/d, respectively. Primary ions in the ambient ground water are calcium and magnesium bicarbonate. Ambient temperature FIG ground water is saturated with respect to calcium/magnesium bicarbonate. Heating the ground water caused most of the dissolved calcium to precipitate out as calcium carbonate in the heat exchanger and precipitator. Silica, calcium, and magnesium were significantly higher in recovered water than in injected water, suggesting dissolution of some constituents of the aquifer during the cycles. Further work on the ground water chemistry is required to understand water-rock interactions.

  15. Changes in the anaerobic threshold in an annual cycle of sport training of young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwowski, R; Andrzejewski, M; Wieczorek, A; Barinow-Wojewódzki, A; Jadczak, L; Adrian, S; Pietrzak, M; Wieczorek, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test made it possible to determine the 4 millimolar lactate threshold (T LA 4 mmol · l(-1)) on the basis of the lactate concentration in blood [LA], to establish the threshold running speed and the threshold heart rate [HR]. The threshold running speed at the level of the 4 millimolar lactate threshold was established using the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. The obtained indicators of the threshold running speed allowed for precise establishment of effort intensity used in individual training in developing aerobic endurance. In order to test the significance of differences in mean values between four dates of tests, a non-parametric Friedman ANOVA test was used. The significance of differences between consecutive dates of tests was determined using a post-hoc Friedman ANOVA test. The tests showed significant differences in values of selected indicators determined at the anaerobic threshold in various stages of an annual training cycle of young soccer players. The most beneficial changes in terms of the threshold running speed were noted on the fourth date of tests, when the participants had the highest values of 4.01 m · s(-1) for older juniors, and 3.80 m · s(-1) for younger juniors. This may be indicative of effective application of an individualized programme of training loads and of good preparation of teams for competition in terms of players' aerobic endurance. PMID:24744480

  16. Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A corporate profile of Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. was presented for the benefit of shareholders. Direct Energy is responsible for marketing and distributing natural gas to residential, commercial and industrial customers. The company owns physical natural gas reserves that serve as a supply hedge to its growing customer base. The highlights for the natural gas distribution income fund (OPTUS) for 1998 were described. OPTUS acquired WestCastle Energy, adding 38 mmcf/d of natural gas supply. It also amalgamated Channel Lake Petroleum and WestCastle Energy into Direct Energy and created the production division, Direct Energy Resources. It also formed Energy America with Sempra Energy, adding over 160,000 retail customers in Michigan and Ohio. Direct Energy's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, and statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  17. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2009. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented, as are activities planned for 2010. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids, PV environmental health and safety activities, performance and reliability of PV systems and high penetration PV in electricity grids. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  18. Life-cycle air emissions from PV power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the air emission of grid supply versus grid-connected and off-grid photovoltaic power generation, using the framework of life-cycle assessment, in the contents of rural household energy supply in Australia. Emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxde and nitrous oxides are calculated for the three life-cycle stages of manufacture, use and disposal. Sensitivities to materials and data inputs, as well as to component efficiencies, lifetimes and sizing are discussed. For each supply option, demand management options, including insulation and appliance choice, and the substitution of solar heating or bottled gas for electricity are considered. The best option in all cases, in terms of life-cycle air emissions, is a grid-connected photovoltaic system used to supply an energy-efficient household with a mix of solar, gas and electric appliances. However, in financial terms, with current Australian energy prices, this option represents a high capital and life-cycle costs. Additionally, for the grid options, electricity costs do not significantly disadvantage the high demand scenarios. Both results provide a clear illustration of current Australian energy-pricing policies being in conflict with long-term environmental sustainability. (Author)

  19. Performance analysis and modeling of energy from waste combined cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in a substantial amount with minimal fluctuations throughout the year. The analysis of carbon neutrality of MSW on a life cycle basis shows that MSW is about 67% carbon-neutral, suggesting that only 33% of the CO2 emissions from incinerating MSW are of fossil origin. The waste constitutes a 'renewable biofuel' energy resource and energy from waste (EfW) can result in a net reduction in CO2 emissions. In this paper, we explore an approach to extracting energy from MSW efficiently - EfW/gas turbine hybrid combined cycles. This approach innovates by delivering better performance with respect to energy efficiency and CO2 mitigation. In the combined cycles, the topping cycle consists of a gas turbine, while the bottoming cycle is a steam cycle where the low quality fuel - waste is utilized. This paper assesses the viability of the hybrid combined cycles and analyses their thermodynamic advantages with the help of computer simulations. It was shown that the combined cycles could offer significantly higher energy conversion efficiency and a practical solution to handling MSW. Also, the potential for a net reduction in CO2 emissions resulting from the hybrid combined cycles was evaluated.

  20. Chain modeling for life cycle systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, J.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shapiro, V. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Spatial Automation Lab.

    1997-12-01

    Throughout Sandia`s history, products have been represented by drawings. Solid modeling systems have recently replaced drawings as the preferred means for representing product geometry. These systems are used for product visualization, engineering analysis and manufacturing planning. Unfortunately, solid modeling technology is inadequate for life cycle systems engineering, which requires maintenance of technical history, efficient management of geometric and non-geometric data, and explicit representation of engineering and manufacturing characteristics. Such information is not part of the mathematical foundation of solid modeling. The current state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering is comprised of painstakingly created special purpose tools, which often are incompatible. New research on {open_quotes}chain modeling{close_quotes} provides a method of chaining the functionality of a part to the geometric representation. Chain modeling extends classical solid modeling to include physical, manufacturing, and procedural information required for life cycle engineering. In addition, chain modeling promises to provide the missing theoretical basis for Sandia`s parent/child product realization paradigm. In chain modeling, artifacts and systems are characterized in terms of their combinatorial properties: cell complexes, chains, and their operators. This approach is firmly rooted in algebraic topology and is a natural extension of current technology. The potential benefits of this approach include explicit hierarchical and combinatorial representation of physics, geometry, functionality, test, and legacy data in a common computational framework that supports a rational decision process and partial design automation. Chain modeling will have a significant impact on design preservation, system identification, parameterization, system reliability, and design simplification.

  1. Energy in Croatia, Annual Energy Report. 1994-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of Economy continues with observing and informing the domestic and foreign public about the Croatian energy system. The review consists of the most recent and settled data for the year 1998 as well as for the preceding four years. In 1998 total energy consumption increased by 1,7 per cent related to the previous year. As at the same time the gross domestic product grew by 2,7 per cent energy intensity was reduced, which is a positive trend. The energy intensity, the measurement showing the total energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product, exceeded the level realised by the Western European countries, but was still more favourable than in most transition economy countries. At the same time 1998 saw a decrease of primary energy generation by 5,1 per cent as a consequence of the reduced natural gas and oil production. This caused a drop of the supply from own sources to 51,9 per cent, the lowest value recorded in the past five years. This trend is expected to continue in the years to come bearing in mind the reserves of gas and oil fields, i.e. cessation of coal production in Istria. Only partial will this process slow down with the beginning of natural gas production in the North Adriatic. As in 1998 the increase of the transformation as well as the transport and distribution losses exceeded the non-energy consumption decrease, and in spite of the increase of total energy consumption by 1,7 per cent, final energy demand grew by only 1,1 per cent, i.e. 1,0 per cent in industry, 4,5 per cent in other sectors. This was a result of a relatively modest general increase of economic activities. Apart from these data, the publication includes all other relevant indicators showing certain positive changes but also opportunities for further development with the aim of achieving better energy system efficiency. This specially regards the transmission and distribution losses, whereby the technical losses are to be distinguished from the commercial, i

  2. Focus and execution : Westcoast Energy Inc. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual operating and financial information from Westcoast Energy Inc. is presented. Westcoast Energy is a leading energy company with assets of $11 billion. Westcoast Energy is a major partner in many of the largest pipeline projects in North America and plans to continue investing substantial capital into pipeline operations. Investments and capital expenditures in 1998 exceeded one billion dollars, a 28 per cent increase over 1997. This annual report provides details of the company's activities and financial performance, and common share information. The company's earnings were down from 1997. The drop in earnings was attributed to a variety of factors, among them the weather, which in Canada was the warmest on record, resulting in a lower demand for energy. The company, like much of Canada's resource-based economy, also felt the impact of the global economic turmoil in 1998. tabs., figs

  3. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: indra@um.edu.my; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-10-15

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification.

  4. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification

  5. System dynamics studies of advanced fuel cycle scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes dynamic analysis studies of possible U.S. deployment scenarios of advanced nuclear energy systems. Different scenarios of future nuclear energy demand and different spent nuclear fuel management strategies to respond to those demands are considered. The management strategies include once-through, limited recycling, and transitional and sustained recycling strategies. The scenarios descriptions, data, timeline, and analysis are provided. Comparisons between the once-through and the recycling strategies show that the continuation of the current once-through fuel cycle practice can lead to unfavorable consequences as the demand for nuclear energy increase in the US. Those consequences include substantial increase in the number of geologic repository sites, continued accumulation of weapons-usable materials, and inefficient use of limited uranium resources. The analysis presented here shows that those concerns can only be addressed by employing an advanced fuel cycle. (author)

  6. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  7. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  8. Wind Energy Department. Annual progress report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrumsager, B.; Larsen, S.; Hauge Madsen, P. (eds.)

    2002-10-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 2001. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2001 is shown, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  9. Wind Energy Department. Annual progress report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 2001. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2001 is shown, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  10. Life cycle management of service water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nuclear plants age, more attention must focus on age and time dependent degradation mechanisms such as corrosion, erosion, fatigue, etc. These degradation mechanisms can best be managed by developing a life cycle management plan which integrates past historical data, current conditions and future performance needs. In this paper we present two examples of life cycle management. In the first example, the 20-year maintenance history of a sea water cooling system (cement-lined, cast iron) is reviewed to develop attributes like maintenance cost, spare part inventory, corrosion, and repair data. Based on this information, the future expected damage rate was forecast. The cost of managing the future damage was compared with the cost to replace (in kind and with upgraded materials. A decision optimization scheme was developed to choose the least cost option from: a) Run as-is and repair; b) replace in kind; or c) replace with upgraded material and better design. In the second example, life cycle management techniques were developed for a ceilcote lined steel pipe cooling water system. Screens (fixed and traveling), filters, pumps, motors, valves, and piping were evaluated. (author)

  11. Nutrient balances in the forest energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden, recycling of stabilised wood-ashes to forests is considered to compensate for nutrient removals from whole-tree harvesting (i.e. use of harvest residues - slash - for energy purposes). This study has analysed nutrient fluxes through the complete forest energy cycle and estimated mass balances of nutrients in harvested biomass with those in ashes, to investigate the realism in large-scale nutrient compensation with wood-ash. Expected nutrient fluxes from forests through energy plants were calculated based on nutrient and biomass data of forest stands in the Nordic countries, and from data on nutrient fluxes through CFB-plants. The expected stoichiometric composition of wood-ashes was compared with the composition of CFB-fly ashes from various Swedish energy plants. Nutrient contents for different tree fractions were calculated to express the average nutrient concentrations in slash and stems with bark, respectively. A nutrient budget synthesis of the effects of whole-tree harvesting on base cation turnover in the following stand was presented for two experimental sites. Major conclusions from the study are: In the CFB-scenario, where the bottom ash is deposited and only the fly ash can be applied to forests, the fly ash from the slash do not meet the demands for nutrient compensation for slash harvesting. Stem material (50% wood, 50% bark) must be added at equivalent amounts, as the slash to produce the amounts of fly ash needed for compensation of slash harvesting. In the scenario where more stem material was added (75% of total fuel load), the amounts of fly ashes produced hardly compensated for nutrient removals with both stem and slash harvesting. The level of nutrient compensation was lowest for potassium. The stoichiometric nutrient composition of CFB-fly ashes from Swedish energy plants is not similar with the nutrient composition of tree biomass. The higher Ca/P ratio in ashes is only partly explained by the mixture of fuels (e.g. increasing bark

  12. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanse, B.D.; Riis. U. (eds.)

    2004-12-01

    This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2003. It comprises departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-conficential projects and a review of the key issues of 2003. (au)

  13. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2003

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2003. It comprises departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-confidential projects and a review of the key issues of 2003.

  14. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2002. It contains departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-confidential projects and a review of this year’s key issues.......This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2002. It contains departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-confidential projects and a review of this year’s key issues....

  15. Wind Energy Department annual progress report 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2003. It comprises departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-confidential projects and a review of the key issues of 2003.......This report covers the scientific work of the Wind Energy Department in 2003. It comprises departmental programmes as well as brief summaries of all non-confidential projects and a review of the key issues of 2003....

  16. Annual summary of programs in energy sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This report presents an inventory and brief overview of the research programs carried out in the Energy Sciences area of the BNL Department of Energy and Environment. More complete and extensive descriptions of these programs exist in other documents, including the various publications cited herein. Each program description includes a statement of activities planned for the coming year. Thus, some sense of direction is indicated for each program. (RWR)

  17. Philippine Atomic Energy Commission: Annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication enumerates the research and development activities of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission with priorities geared towards achieving the economic and social upliftment of the Filipinos in the field of agriculture, energy, industry, health and environment. Highlights are summaries of investigations and studies of great importance in crop improvement, animal production, nuclear fuels, nutrition research, not to mention its supportive technology, technical services, nuclear information and public acceptance, and nuclear manpower development. (RTD)

  18. Energy Analysis Program. 1992 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Program became deeply involved in establishing 4 Washington, D.C., project office diving the last few months of fiscal year 1942. This project office, which reports to the Energy & Environment Division, will receive the majority of its support from the Energy Analysis Program. We anticipate having two staff scientists and support personnel in offices within a few blocks of DOE. Our expectation is that this office will carry out a series of projects that are better managed closer to DOE. We also anticipate that our representation in Washington will improve and we hope to expand the Program, its activities, and impact, in police-relevant analyses. In spite of the growth that we have achieved, the Program continues to emphasize (1) energy efficiency of buildings, (2) appliance energy efficiency standards, (3) energy demand forecasting, (4) utility policy studies, especially integrated resource planning issues, and (5) international energy studies, with considerate emphasis on developing countries and economies in transition. These continuing interests are reflected in the articles that appear in this report.

  19. World situation of atomic energy and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the International Conference organized by the IAEA in May 1976, several sections dealt with problems of the production of atomic energy and of the nuclear fuel cycle. However, the whole spectrum of these problems was discussed including problems of economic policy, politics and ethical problems, too. Reports were presented on trends of the development of atomic energy in developed and developing countries. Besides the systems of nuclear power plants and the trends of their development, the Conference attached prominent importance to the supply of nuclear fuels and to the fuel cycle, respectively. Owing to important factors, the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel was emphasized. The problem area of the treatment of radioactive wastes, the protection of workers in immediate contact and of environment against radiations, the possibilities of ensuring nuclear safety, the degrees of hazards and the methods of protection of fast breeder reactors and up-to-date equipments were discussed. In contrast to earlier conferences the complex problem of the correlation of atomic energy to public opinion played an important role, too. (P.J.)

  20. On the annual cycle of the sea surface temperature and the mixed layer depth in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, V.M.; Villanueva, E.E.; Adem, J. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-04-01

    Using an integrated mixed layer model, we carry out a simulation of the annual cycle of the sea surface temperature (SST) and of the mixed layer depth (MLD) in the Gulf of Mexico. We also compute the annual cycle of the entrainment velocity in the deepest region of the Gulf of Mexico. The model is based on the thermal energy equation and on an equation of mechanical and thermal energy balance based on the Kraus-Turner theory; both equation are coupled and are vertically integrated in the mixed layer. The model equations are solved in a uniform grid of 25 km in the Gulf of Mexico, the northwestern region of the Caribbean Sea and the eastern coast of Florida. The surface ocean current velocity and the atmospheric variables are prescribed in the model using observed values. We show the importance of the Ekman pumping in the entrainment velocity. We found that the upwelling plays an important role in increasing the entrainment velocity, producing an important reduction in the SST and diminishing the depth of the mixed layer in the Campeche Bay. In the rest of the Gulf of Mexico the downwelling tends to reduce the entrainment velocity, increasing the SST and the MLD. Comparison of the computed annual cycle of the SST and the MLD with the corresponding observations reported by Robinson (1973) shows a good agreement. In the deepest region of the Gulf of Mexico, the photosynthetic pigment concentration data obtained from the Mexican Pacific Cd-Rom of environmental analysis shows significant correlation with the computed annual cycle of the computed entrainment velocity only in January, April, May, June and September. [Spanish] Usando un modelo integrado en la capa de mezcla hemos obtenido una simulacion del ciclo anual de la temperatura de la superficie del mar (SST), de la profundidad de la capa de mezcla (MLD) en el Golfo de Mexico, asi como el ciclo anual de la velocidad de penetracion vertical turbulenta a traves de la termoclina en la region mas profunda del golfo de