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Sample records for annual coded wire

  1. Annual coded wire tag program (Washington) missing production groups: annual report for 1997; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds the ''Annual Coded Wire Tag Program - Missing Production Groups for Columbia River Hatcheries'' project. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) all operate salmon and steelhead rearing programs in the Columbia River basin. The intent of the funding is to coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to provide a holistic assessment of survival and catch distribution over time and to meet various measures of the Northwest Power Planning Councils (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The WDFW project has three main objectives: (1) coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to enable evaluation of survival and catch distribution over time, (2) recover coded-wire tags from the snouts of fish tagged under objective 1 and estimate survival, contribution, and stray rates for each group, and (3) report the findings under objective 2 for all broods of chinook, and coho released from WDFW Columbia Basin hatcheries. Objective 1 for FY-97 was met with few modifications to the original FY-97 proposal. Under Objective 2, snouts containing coded-wire tags that were recovered during FY-97 were decoded. Under Objective 3, survival, contribution and stray rate estimates for the 1991-96 broods of chinook and 1993-96 broods of coho have not been made because recovery data for 1996-97 fisheries and escapement are preliminary. This report summarizes recovery information through 1995

  2. Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Oregon Stock Assessment, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mark; Mallette, Christine; Murray, William

    2003-03-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife project 'Annual Stock Assessment - Coded Wire Tag Program (ODFW)'. Results for the 2002 contract period: Objective 1 - Over 1 million juvenile salmon were coded-wire by this program (Table 1). This accounted for about 20% of the fish ODFW coded-wire tagged in 2002 for release in the Columbia Basin; Objective 2 - ODFW recovered and processed over 50,000 snouts collected from coded-wire tagged fish (Table 2); Objective 3 - The survival data summarized below includes results for coded-wire groups funded by this program as well as coded-wire groups funded from other sources; Objective 4 - The last returns of experimental groups of coho marked with VIE tags occurred in 2002 at Sandy Hatchery. This sampling showed that 26 of 67 jack coho and 1 of 2,223 adult coho VIE marked as juveniles retained the VIE mark as adults.

  3. Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Oregon Stock Assessment, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mark; Mallette, Christine; Murray, William

    2002-03-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife project 'Annual Stock Assessment - Coded Wire Tag Program (ODFW)'. Results for the 2001 contract period: Objective 1--Over 1 million juvenile salmon were coded-wire by this program (Table 1); Objective 2--ODFW recovered and processed over 40,000 snout collected from coded-wire tagged fish (Table 2); Objective 3--Survival data is summarized below; Objective 4--The last group of VIE tagged coho was released in 2001 and returning coho were samples at Sandy Hatchery. This sampling showed only 1 of 1,160 returning coho VIE marked as juveniles retained the VIE mark as adults.

  4. Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Washington Missing Production Groups, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, Howard J.; Ashbrook, Charmane; Doty, Daniel (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1994-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds the ``Annual Coded Wire Tag Program -- Missing Production Groups for Columbia River Hatcheries`` project. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) [formerly the Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) and the Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW)], Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) all operate salmon and steelhead rearing programs in the Columbia River basin. The intent of the funding is to coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to provide a holistic assessment of survival and catch distribution over time. Data generated by this project contributes to WDFW`s obligations for representative tagging under the Endangered. Species Act (ESA) permit for operating Columbia Basin facilities. WDFW facilities operating outside the Snake River basin are required to have a Section 10, ``Incidental Take`` permit. Consistent with special conditions within this permit, WDFW has now reached it`s objective to tag representative groups from all WDFW Columbia Basin releases.

  5. Emulating Wired Backhaul with Wireless Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address the need for wireless network densification. We propose a solution wherein the wired backhaul employed in heterogeneous cellular networks is replaced with wireless links, while maintaining the rate requirements of the uplink and downlink traffic of each user. The first...... component of our solution consists of a two-way, two-phase communication between the macro base station and a user in a small cell through the small cell base station. The second component consists of an optimized adjustment of the transmit power from the macro base station during the multiple access phase......, the uplink traffic to the user, remains identical to the one performed in a wired system. In the broadcast phase, the decoding of the downlink traffic can also be guaranteed to remain identical. Hence, our solution claims an emulation of a wired backhaul with wireless network coding with same performance. We...

  6. Emulating Wired Backhaul with Wireless Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Henning; de Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address the need for wireless network densification. We propose a solution wherein the wired backhaul employed in heterogeneous cellular networks is replaced with wireless links, while maintaining the rate requirements of the uplink and downlink traffic of each user. The first component of our solution consists of a two-way, two-phase communication between the macro base station and a user in a small cell through the small cell base station. The second component consists of a...

  7. Developments in the Generation and Interpretation of Wire Codes (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three new developments in the generation and interpretation of wire codes are discussed. First, a method was developed to computer generate wire codes using data gathered from a utility database of the local distribution system and from tax assessor records. This method was used to wire code more than 250,000 residences in the greater Denver metropolitan area. There was an approximate 75% agreement with field wire coding. Other research in Denver suggests that wire codes predict some characteristics of a residence and its neighbourhood, including age, assessed value, street layout and traffic density. A third new development is the case-specular method to study the association between wire codes and childhood cancers. Recent results from applying the method to the Savitz et al and London et al studies suggest that the associations between childhood cancer and VHCC residences were strongest for residences with a backyard rather than street service drop, and for VHCC residences with LCC speculars. (author)

  8. Manchester Coding Option for SpaceWire: Providing Choices for System Level Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn; Kisin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an optional coding scheme for SpaceWire in lieu of the current Data Strobe scheme for three reasons. First reason is to provide a straightforward method for electrical isolation of the interface; secondly to provide ability to reduce the mass and bend radius of the SpaceWire cable; and thirdly to provide a means for a common physical layer over which multiple spacecraft onboard data link protocols could operate for a wide range of data rates. The intent is to accomplish these goals without significant change to existing SpaceWire design investments. The ability to optionally use Manchester coding in place of the current Data Strobe coding provides the ability to DC balanced the signal transitions unlike the SpaceWire Data Strobe coding; and therefore the ability to isolate the electrical interface without concern. Additionally, because the Manchester code has the clock and data encoded on the same signal, the number of wires of the existing SpaceWire cable could be optionally reduced by 50. This reduction could be an important consideration for many users of SpaceWire as indicated by the already existing effort underway by the SpaceWire working group to reduce the cable mass and bend radius by elimination of shields. However, reducing the signal count by half would provide even greater gains. It is proposed to restrict the data rate for the optional Manchester coding to a fixed data rate of 10 Megabits per second (Mbps) in order to make the necessary changes simple and still able to run in current radiation tolerant Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Even with this constraint, 10 Mbps will meet many applications where SpaceWire is used. These include command and control applications and many instruments applications with have moderate data rate. For most NASA flight implementations, SpaceWire designs are in rad-tolerant FPGAs, and the desire to preserve the heritage design investment is important for cost and risk considerations. The

  9. Using Wireless Network Coding to Replace a Wired with Wireless Backhaul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    Cellular networks are evolving towards dense deployment of small cells, which requires flexible and efficient backhauling solutions. A viable solution that reuses the same spectrum is wireless backhaul where the Small Base Station (SBS) acts as a relay. In this paper we consider a reference system...... wireless emulated wire (WEW), based on two-way relaying and network coding. This setup leads to a new type of broadcast problem, with decoding conditions that are specific to the requirement for equivalence to the wired backhaul. We formulate and solve the associated optimization problems. The proposed...... that uses wired backhaul and each Mobile Station (MS) in the small cell has its uplink and downlink rates defined. The central question is: if we remove the wired backhaul, how much extra power should the wireless backhaul use in order to support the same uplink/downlink rates? We introduce the idea of...

  10. Tree-code simulations of proton acceleration from laser-irradiated wire targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments using Terawatt lasers to accelerate protons deposited on thin wire targets are modeled with a new type of gridless plasma simulation code. In contrast to conventional mesh-based methods, this technique offers a unique capability in emulating the complex geometry and open-ended boundary conditions characteristic of contemporary experimental conditions. Comparisons of ion acceleration are made between the tree code and standard particle-in-cell simulations for a typical collisionless 'hole boring' scenario in slab geometry. The utility of the gridless approach is emphasized by a series of simulations in 'wire' geometry, in which electrons are permitted to circulate around the target at arbitrary distances from the focal region. The simulations reveal a number of features in common with recent experimental observations, including a disclike emission pattern of the MeV protons accelerated away from the wire

  11. Input parameters to codes which analyze LMFBR wire-wrapped bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a current summary of recommended values of key input parameters required by ENERGY code analysis of LMFBR wire wrapped bundles. This data is based on the interpretation of experimental results from the MIT and other available laboratory programs

  12. The probability for misclassification in the Wertheimer-Leeper wiring configuration code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination was made of the probability for misclassification in the Wertheimer-Leeper (WL) wiring code which has been used in health studies as a surrogate for electromagnetic field exposure. The wiring configuration code used to classify homes is based on the home's proximity to various visible components of the electrical distribution system such as transmission lines and transformers. It was found that as an average of overall exposure levels, the misclassification rate is 39%, implying only a 61% probability that a subject is classified correctly. Similar results were found when analyzing exposure dichotomies under the same protocol. Differentiation between the end-pole and very-high-current configuration classes is less ambiguous, but still poor, with a probability of misclassification of 29%. These results contradict the assumption that the WL-code represents a good surrogate for magnetic field exposure, and may indicate the possibility that the association between the code and cancer is due to an exposure agent other than magnetic fields, such as traffic density or corrosion in water distribution pipes. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  13. Study on the Pressure Drop in the Helical Wire Inserted Tube Using FLUENT Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubble departure from the surface is an important physical phenomenon in flow boiling CHF especially in subcooled and low quality region. It is necessary to remove the bubbles near the wall surface because relevant escape of bubble from the heated wall makes the maximum heat removal, the CHF increase. It is possible to remove bubbles on the inner surface of the tube wall by the centrifugal force due to the swirl flow using swirl flow generators such as wire coils, ribs and twisted tapes. It is known that the heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux are improved when swirl flow generators are used. However, at the same time, an increase of the energy consumption in the entire system is generated, because the flow resistance also increases. In the turbulent flow inside a wire inserted tube, the laminar sub-layer is disturbed by the wire, which increases the friction and thereby the pressure drop. In this context, only when the increased CHF is profitable compared to the increased pressure drop, the use of swirl generator is justifiable. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of an inserted helical wire tube on the pressure drop in the tube and optimize the effect of swirl generator in balancing pressure drop and swirl generation. Pressure drop is calculated using computational flow dynamics code, FLUENT, as the pitches and the wire diameters are varied. The working fluid is water with 0.01m inner diameter tube, which is the similar one with the actual annular fuel size. The calculated results are compared with the correlation based on experimental data

  14. Conjugate heat transfer study of a wire spacer SFR fuel assembly thanks to the thermal code SYRTHES and the CFD code Code-Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a HPC (High Performance Computing) calculation of a conjugate heat transfer simulation in fuel assembly as those found in liquid metal coolant fast reactors. The wire spacers, helically wound along each pin axis, generate a strong secondary flow pattern in opposition to smooth pins. Assemblies with a range of pins going from 7 to 271 have been simulated, 271 pins corresponding to the industrial case. Both the fluid domain, as well as the solid part, are detailed leading to large meshes. The fluid is handled by the CFD code Code-Saturne using 98 million cells, while the solid domain is taken care of thanks to the thermal code SYRTHES on meshes up to 240 million cells. Both codes are fully parallelized and run on cluster with hundreds of processors. Simulations allow access to the temperature field in nominal conditions and degraded situations. (authors)

  15. Tagging the European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) with coded wire tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, S.; Pedersen, Michael Ingemann; Holdensgaard, G.

    The coded wire tag (CWT) system was examined as a possible tool for tagging European eels (Anguilla anguilla). Two size groups of eels (3.8 and 10.2 g) were tagged with CWTs in the dorsal musculature, Tag loss 28 days after tagging was 3.1% for the small and 0.7% for the large groups of eels. Of...... the tag loss in the small eels, 61% were lost during the first 2 h after tagging. In the small group, eels that lost tags were significantly (P...

  16. A version of serial readout and data coding from wire detector electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A controller version is described analysing at the readout from wire detector register only ''non-zero'' information for which selection a special analysing flip-flop circuit is used. ''Zero'' data is read with the 10 MHz frequency. For ''non-zero'' information reading a principle of a dialogue with chamber electronics is used. The controller provides the cluster regime of coding track coordinates and allows cascading of several shift registers to one input. A total controller circuit is placed in a CAMAC unit of a unary width

  17. International Code Assessment and Applications Program: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first annual report of the International Code Assessment and Applications Program (ICAP). The ICAP was organized by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in 1985. The ICAP is an international cooperative reactor safety research program planned to continue over a period of approximately five years. To date, eleven European and Asian countries/organizations have joined the program through bilateral agreements with the USNRC. Seven proposed agreements are currently under negotiation. The primary mission of the ICAP is to provide independent assessment of the three major advanced computer codes (RELAP5, TRAC-PWR, and TRAC-BWR) developed by the USNRC. However, program activities can be expected to enhance the assessment process throughout member countries. The codes were developed to calculate the reactor plant response to transients and loss-of-coolant accidents. Accurate prediction of normal and abnormal plant response using the codes enhances procedures and regulations used for the safe operation of the plant and also provides technical basis for assessing the safety margin of future reactor plant designs. The ICAP is providing required assessment data that will contribute to quantification of the code uncertainty for each code. The first annual report is devoted to coverage of program activities and accomplishments during the period between April 1985 and March 1987

  18. Development work on the SABRE code done by the CEA. Introduction of a new detailed wire-wrap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The versatility of the SABRE 2A code was extended by the CEA through the inclusion of a detailed treatment of the helical wire spacers, which is coherent with the sharp tridimensional analysis at the basis of the code development. This model was tested satisfactorily in comparison with experimental data from assemblies geometrically similar to CRBR and SPX1 fuel assemblies. The complex flow field inside the bundle seems well calculated, which enables to represent the mixing effects of the wire spacers at a macroscopic level

  19. Modeling of Al wire-array implosions on existing generators with the ''ZPIMP'' Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum wire-array implosion experiments have been performed on a number of pulsed-power generators, including Double EAGLE, SATURN, PHOENIX, and BLACKJACK 5. Recently, the measured K-shell emissions (> 1 keV) from the first three machines were compared with predictions of the Whitney-Thornhill scaling law. The present report employs a numerical simulation code to make a similar comparison. The code ZPIMP models the imploding Al plasma shell as a single, but variable width, zone. Two MMHD momentum equations, an electron energy, an ion energy, and a magnetic diffusion equation are solved in a coupled fashion to a lumped driver circuit model. Artificial viscosity is included in this Lagrangian formulation. Al ionization dynamics and probability-of-escape radiation transport are calculated self-consistently. Atomic structure is included for all ionization stages of the Al. Results for SATURN simulations and comparisons with data will be presented in an initial radius-mass loading plane. When the region interior to the primary plasma shell is treated as an adiabatic gas, the simulations match the existing data remarkably well for energetic implosions. The significant differences for the few small η implosion are discussed. Comparisons with the other three generators mentioned above are anticipated. The report will focus on significant trends between the studied generators

  20. Evidence that coded-wire-tagging procedures can enhance transmission of Renibacterium salmoninarum in chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Binary coded wire tags (CWTs) are used extensively for identification and management of anadromous salmonid populations. A study of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in two brood year groups of hatchery-reared spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha provided strong evidence that horizontal transmission of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of BKD, might be enhanced by CWT-marking procedures. About 4 months after CWTs were implanted in the snouts of juvenile fish, 14-16 different tissues were sampled from each of 60 fish per brood year group for histological analysis. Of the fish that were positive for R. salmoninarum by histological examination, 41% (7 of 17) of the 1988 brood year fish and 24% (10 of 42) of the 1989 brood year fish had BKD lesions confined to the head near the site of tag implantation. These lesions often resulted in the destruction of tissues of one or both olfactory organs. No focal snout infections were observed in fish that had not been marked with CWTs. Further data obtained from tissue analyses by use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a fluorescent antibody test for detection of R. salmoninarum supported the hypothesis that infections of R. salmoninarum can be initiated in the snout tissues of CWT-marked fish and then spread to other organs. The tagging procedures might promote transmission of the pathogen among fish via contaminated tagging needles, by facilitating the entry of pathogens through the injection wound, or both. Limited evidence from this study suggested that implantation of passive integrated transponder tags in the peritoneal cavities of fish might also promote the transmission of R. salmoninarum or exacerbate existing infections. The results indicated a need for strict sanitary procedures during the tagging of fish in populations positive for R. salmoninarum to reduce the probability of enhanced horizontal transmission of the pathogen.

  1. Interactive Video Coding and Transmission over Heterogeneous Wired-to-Wireless IP Networks Using an Edge Proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestino James W

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital video delivered over wired-to-wireless networks is expected to suffer quality degradation from both packet loss and bit errors in the payload. In this paper, the quality degradation due to packet loss and bit errors in the payload are quantitatively evaluated and their effects are assessed. We propose the use of a concatenated forward error correction (FEC coding scheme employing Reed-Solomon (RS codes and rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC codes to protect the video data from packet loss and bit errors, respectively. Furthermore, the performance of a joint source-channel coding (JSCC approach employing this concatenated FEC coding scheme for video transmission is studied. Finally, we describe an improved end-to-end architecture using an edge proxy in a mobile support station to implement differential error protection for the corresponding channel impairments expected on the two networks. Results indicate that with an appropriate JSCC approach and the use of an edge proxy, FEC-based error-control techniques together with passive error-recovery techniques can significantly improve the effective video throughput and lead to acceptable video delivery quality over time-varying heterogeneous wired-to-wireless IP networks.

  2. A Study of Interior Wiring, Color Coding, and Switching Principles by Simulation and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, B. G.; McCormick, Robert S.

    After a preliminary introduction and a chapter on wiring and electricity safety procedures, this study text proceeds to offer a general coverage of single and polyphase alternating current electrical systems used to power factories, farms, small businesses, and homes. Electrical power, from its generation to its application, is discussed, with the…

  3. Wire-mesh sensors: an experimental tool for two-phase CDF model development and code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows:The Institute of Safety Research of the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Germany, has developed electrode-mesh sensors, which allow the measurement of the electrical conductivity distribution in a flow duct. This can be used either for the detection of the gaseous phase in a gas-liquid flow or for mixing studies in single phase flow, when the components have different electric conductivities. Two grids of crossing wires are placed into the flow closely behind each other. The wires of the first plane (transmitter plane) are supplied with pulses of a driving voltage in a successive order. The data acquisition is done by measuring the electrical currents arriving at the second grid (receiver wires). After the last transmitter electrode has been activated, a two-dimensional matrix is available that reflects the conductivities at crossing points of the electrodes of the two grids. Sequences of these 2D distributions are recorded with a rate of up to 10 kHz. Due to the high measuring rate each bubble is mapped in several successive instantaneous frames. This allows to obtain bubble size distributions as well as bubble-size resolved gas fraction profiles beside the visualisation and the calculation of profiles of the time-averaged void fraction. Two sensors placed behind each other can furthermore be used for bubble velocity measurements using cross-correlation techniques. Sensors with three layers of electrode grids can be used for the measurement of the velocity of individual bubbles. The sensor is widely used to study the evolution of the flow pattern in an upwards air-water flow. The experiments aim at closure equations describing forces acting on bubbles as well as coalescence and fragmentation frequencies for the implementation in CFD-codes. The largest sensor used until now has a circular measuring cross-section of about 200 mm diameter and is equipped with two grids of 64 wires. Therefore, the spatial resolution is 3 mm, the measuring

  4. Effects of Renibacterium salmoninarum on olfactory organs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) marked with coded wire tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Conway, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum can cause significant morbidity and mortality in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), particularly in Chinook salmon of the stream (spring) life history type, which migrate to sea as yearlings rather than subyearlings. R. salmoninarum can be transmitted vertically from the female parent to the progeny in association with the egg, as well as horizontally from fish to fish. This study was conducted as part of a research project to investigate whether the prevalence and intensity of R. salmoninarum infections in adult spring Chinook salmon could affect the survival and pathogen prevalence and intensity in their progeny (Pascho et al., 1991, 1993; Elliott et al., 1995). Fish from two brood years (1988 and 1989) were reared at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (Idaho, USA) for about 1-1/2 years, released as yearling smolts, and allowed to migrate to the Pacific Ocean for maturation. The majority of progeny fish were marked with coded wire tags (CWTs) about 4 months before they were released from the hatchery so that adult returns could be monitored. The CWTs were implanted in the snouts of the fish by an experienced team of fish markers using automated wire-tagging machines. The intended placement site was the cartilage, skeletal muscle or loose connective tissue of the snout.

  5. A subchannel analysis code MATRA-LMR for wire wrapped LMR subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In sodium cooled liquid metal reactors design limits are imposed on the maximum temperatures of the cladding and fuel pins. Thus an accurate prediction of the core coolant/fuel temperature distribution is essential to LMR core thermal hydraulic design. The detailed subchannel thermal hydraulic analysis code MATRA-LMR is being developed for LMFBR core design and analysis based on COBRA-IV-I and MATRA. The major modifications and improvements implemented in MATRA-LMR are as follows: sodium property calculation subprogram, sodium coolant heat transfer correlations, and most recent pressure drop correlations. To assess the development status of this code, benchmark calculations were performed with the ORNL 19 pin tests and EBR-II seven-assembly SLTHEN calculation results. The calculation results of MATRA-LMR were compared to the measurements and to the SABRE4 and SLTHEN code calculation results, respectively. Finally, the major technical results of the conceptual design for the KALIMER U-10%Zr binary alloy fueled core have been compared with the calculations of the MATRA-LMR, SABRE4 and SLTHEN codes

  6. Composite ceramic superconducting wires for electric-motor applications. Annual report No. 1, 30 June 1988-30 June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloran, J.W.

    1989-07-07

    This report describes progress on developing Y-123 wire for an HTSC motor. The wire development involves synthesis of Y-123 powder, spinning polymer-containing green fiber, heat treating the fiber to produce metallized superconducting filaments, and characterizing the electrical properties. A melt spinning process was developed for producing 125-micron-diameter green fiber containing 50 vol% Y-123. This fiber can be braided for producing transposed multifilamentary wire. A process was developed to coat green fiber with silver alloys which can be continuous sintering. A second process for multifilamentary ribbon wire is also being developed. The Y-123 filaments have 77 deg self-field Jc values up to 2600 A/sq cm, but Jc is reduced to 10 A/sq cm at 800 G. Preliminary data are presented on mechanical properties. A DC homopolar motor with an iron magnetic circuit is being designed to operate with early HTSC wire.

  7. The Swedish Code of Corporate Governance : An analysis of the Changes of Information Provided in Companies' Annual Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Åsa; Hendeby, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    In society today large corporations are striving to regain the trust, which has been lost dur-ing the many accounting scandals that occurred lately. As a response to minimize the con-flicts countries have introduced codes of corporate governance. It is common knowledge that a company’s stakeholders and shareholders have different knowledge and interest in the company and the annual report is the agent’s main communication channel towards the principals. The Swedish code of corporate governanc...

  8. RTE - Compliance with the code of good practices and Independence of RTE. 2013 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RTE Reseau de Transport d'Electricite (Electricity Transmission System Operator) is referred to in Article L111-40 of the French Energy Code as the company in charge of managing France's public electricity transmission grid. For this purpose, RTE must comply with all the rules and obligations that apply to transmission grid management companies as defined by the Energy Code. More particularly, the articles concerning the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) belonging to a Vertically Integrated Undertaking (VIU) apply to RTE, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Electricite de France. The purpose of these provisions is to establish and maintain over time the independence of the transmission grid operator vis-a-vis the VIU. The Commission de Regulation de l'Energie (CRE - Energy Regulation Board) certified RTE in its deliberation of January 26, 2012: To maintain this certification, RTE is required to comply with its commitments made within the framework of the certification process and maintain the conditions of independence that were approved by the CRE. Among the obligations that RTE is required to comply with as an independent transmission manager is the need to bring together 'in a code of good practices approved by the Energy Regulation Board, the organisational measures taken to prevent any risks of discriminatory practices in terms of access to the grid' (Article L111-22). RTE is also required to put in place 'a Compliance Officer in charge of ensuring [...] the conformity of its methods with the obligations of independence incumbent on it with regard to other companies belonging to the VIU', 'to verify the application [...] of the commitments appearing in the code of good practices' and to draw up an annual report [...] which it sends on to the Energy Regulating Board' on the subject (Article L111-34). This document is the report regarding compliance with the code of good practices for 2013 by the RTE Compliance Officer. It is destined for the CRE and is intended to

  9. The Application of the PEBBED Code Suite to the PBMR-400 Coupled Code Benchmark - FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the recent developments of the PEBBED code suite and its application to the PBMR-400 Coupled Code Benchmark. This report addresses an FY2006 Level 2 milestone under the NGNP Design and Evaluation Methods Work Package. The milestone states "Complete a report describing the results of the application of the integrated PEBBED code package to the PBMR-400 coupled code benchmark". The report describes the current state of the PEBBED code suite, provides an overview of the Benchmark problems to which it was applied, discusses the code developments achieved in the past year, and states some of the results attained. Results of the steady state problems generated by the PEBBED fuel management code compare favorably to the preliminary results generated by codes from other participating institutions and to similar non-Benchmark analyses. Partial transient analysis capability has been achieved through the acquisition of the NEM-THERMIX code from Penn State University. Phase I of the task has been achieved through the development of a self-consistent set of tools for generating cross sections for design and transient analysis and in the successful execution of the steady state benchmark exercises.

  10. Dosimetry characterization of $^{32}$P intravascular brachytherapy source wires using Monte Carlo codes PENELOPE and GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, J; Almansa, J F; Guerrero, R; Lallena, A M; Torres, Javier; Buades, Manuel J.; Almansa, Julio F.; Guerrero, Rafael; Lallena, Antonio M.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations using the codes PENELOPE and GEANT4 have been performed to characterize the dosimetric parameters of the new 20 mm long catheter based $^{32}$P beta source manufactured by Guidant Corporation. The dose distribution along the transverse axis and the two dimensional dose rate table have been calculated. Also, the dose rate at the reference point, the radial dose function and the anisotropy function were evaluated according to the adapted TG-60 formalism for cylindrical sources. PENELOPE and GEANT4 codes were first verified against previous results corresponding to the old 27 mm Guidant $^{32}$P beta source. The dose rate at the reference point for the unsheathed 27 mm source in water was calculated to be $0.215 \\pm 0.001$ cGy s$^{-1}$ mCi$^{-1}$, for PENELOPE, and $0.2312 \\pm 0.0008$ cGy s$^{-1}$ mCi$^{-1}$, for GEANT4. For the unsheathed 20 mm source these values were $0.2908 \\pm 0.0009$ cGy s$^{-1}$ mCi$^{-1}$ and $0.311 \\pm 0.001$ cGy s$^{-1}$ mCi$^{-1}$, respectively. Also, a compar...

  11. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  12. Hydrologic studies support, INTERCOMP code conversion. Annual report. Research report 80/15-44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary cause of mass and energy balance errors noted in IBM executed INTERCOMP code results are due to lack of precision in computing the global values of mass and energy. The correction of this problem has led to improved numerical comparisons between the CDC and IBM computer results. Small differences that exist between the improved INTERCOMP code and CDC results seem unimportant. The differences are greatest at an onset of a physical system perturbation and decrease with succeeding time steps. Good numerical comparison with analytical solutions seem to further prove the authenticity of code results

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of nuclear energy study (II). Annual report on Nuclear Code Evaluation Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report, research results discussed in 1999 fiscal year at Nuclear Code Evaluation Committee of Nuclear Code Research Committee were summarized. Present status of Monte Carlo simulation on nuclear energy study was described. Especially, besides of criticality, shielding and core analyses, present status of applications to risk and radiation damage analyses, high energy transport and nuclear theory calculations of Monte Carlo Method was described. The 18 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. Safety analysis and code development for nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Annual safety research report, JFY 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear library of the MVP-ORBURN, a Monte Carlo burnup code for burnup credit applications, was updated to the JENDL-4.0. The test analysis was performed using the selected post irradiation experiment data from the SFCOMPO database. The selected samples were: Takahama unit 3 (14 samples), Calvert Cliffs No.1 (9 samples), Fukushima-Daini unit 2 (14 samples), and H. B. Robinson unit 2 (6 samples). The preliminary results showed significant improvement in the Am and Cm densities compared with the previous version JENDL-3.3: This result partly agrees with the main conclusions obtained from the pre-analysis by JAEA. (author)

  15. Empolder and application of LiveWire program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LiveWire is a specific module of Netscape Web server to actualize CGI function; through LiveWire application program one can create dynamic web page on web site. This article introduces how to write LiveWire application code, have to compile, debug and manage LiveWire application programs, and how to apply LiveWire application program on Netscape Web server to create a dynamic web page. (authors)

  16. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  17. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1986-01-01

    Two wire chambers made originally for the R807 Experiment at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings. In 1986 they were used for the PS 201 experiment (Obelix Experiment) at LEAR, the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The group of researchers from Turin, using the chambers at that time, changed the acquisition system using for the first time 8 bit (10 bit non linear) analog to digital conversion for incoming signals from the chambers. The acquisition system was controlled by 54 CPU and 80 digital signal processors. The power required for all the electronics was 40 kW. For the period, this system was one of the most powerful on-line apparatus in the world. The Obelix Experiment was closed in 1996. To find more about how a wire chamber works, see the description for object CERN-OBJ-DE-038.

  18. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  19. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  20. Laser Wire Stripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  1. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  2. 2012 Annual Report: Simulate and Evaluate the Cesium Transport and Accumulation in Fukushima-Area Rivers by the TODAM Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2013-03-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated the application of the time-varying, one-dimensional sediment-contaminant transport code, TODAM (Time-dependent, One-dimensional, Degradation, And Migration) to simulate the cesium migration and accumulation in the Ukedo River in Fukushima. This report describes the preliminary TODAM simulation results of the Ukedo River model from the location below the Ougaki Dam to the river mouth at the Pacific Ocean. The major findings of the 100-hour TODAM simulation of the preliminary Ukedo River modeling are summarized as follows:

  3. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  4. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  5. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  6. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  7. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  8. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  9. Automating wiring formboard design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Increase in aircraft wiring complexity call for manufacturing design improvements to reduce cost and lead-time. To achieve such improvements, a joint research project was performed by the Flight Performance and Propulsion (FPP) group and Fokker Elmo BV, the second largest aircraft wiring harness man

  10. Water Desalination with Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, S; Sales, B B; Hamelers, H V M; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-06-21

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode pairs in freshwater with and in brine without an applied cell voltage, we create an ion adsorption/desorption cycle. We show experimentally how in six subsequent cycles we can reduce the salinity of 20 mM feed (brackish) water by a factor of 3, while application of a cation exchange membrane on the cathode wires makes the desalination factor increase to 4. Theoretical modeling rationalizes the experimental findings, and predicts that system performance can be significantly enhanced by material modifications. To treat large volumes of water, multiple stacks of wire pairs can be used simultaneously in a "merry-go-round" operational mode. PMID:26285717

  11. Annual stock assessment – CWT (USFWS): Annual report 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began funding the evaluation of production groups of juvenile anadromous fish not being coded-wire tagged for...

  12. Visible emission from exploding wire in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Schmidt, Jiří; Koláček, Karel; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2007), s. 53-53. ISSN 0003-0503. [The 61st Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference. Dallas,Texas, 13.10.2008-17.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Exploding wire * emission Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  13. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  14. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  15. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  16. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  17. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  18. Gaseous wire detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations

  19. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  20. A World without Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  1. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  2. Guard wires in spark chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments with spark counters have shown that by surrounding the anode wire with two wires of a larger diameter, an increase of the detection efficiency of about 25% is observed. The analysis of the amplitudes of the pulses in those guard wires with the coincident pulses in the anode wire shows that is is possible to determine. The ionizing particle incidence position with rather simple and conventional electronic circuitry. (author). 5 refs, 7 figs

  3. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  4. Simulation of wire-compensation of long range beam beam interaction in high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We present weak-strong simulation results for the effect of long-range beam-beam (LRBB) interaction in LHC as well as for proposed wire compensation schemes or wire experiments, respectively. In particular, we discuss details of the simulation model, instability indicators, the effectiveness of compensation, the difference between nominal and PACMAN bunches for the LHC, beam experiments, and wire tolerances. The simulations are performed with the new code BBTrack. (author)

  5. Safety requirements for wiring systems and connectors for photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundtveit, T.

    1984-09-01

    Safety requirements for roof-mounted photovoltaic (PV) arrays were established by considering the environmental use-conditions applicable to PV arrays and the differences between integral-, direct-, standoff- and rack-mounted modules. Those articles in the National Electrical Code (NEC) covering wiring systems are discussed to: (1) define the wiring systems; (2) identify the permitted uses and use-restrictions; (3) outline the advantages and disadvantages; and (4) address the concerns regarding support, protection against mechanical damage, and wet versus dry locations. The advantages and disadvantages of each wiring system are assessed to arrive at candidate wiring systems that are best suited for use in PV arrays. For candidate wiring systems having prohibitive use-restrictions issues are considered that need to be addressed by any proposed revision to the National Electrical Code to permit acceptance by the inspection authorities. Various wiring termination methods permitted by the NEC are discussed and those which have features that are desirable for PV applications are identified. Performance and construction requirements for PV cable and for PV connectors are presented in separate outlines of proposed investigations of these products.

  6. From Wires to Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Mustafa A

    2015-01-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  7. Twisting wire scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-15

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  8. Twisting wire scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  9. Randomly Wired Multistage Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Maggs, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    Randomly wired multistage networks have recently been shown to outperform traditional multistage networks in three respects. First, they have fast deterministic packet-switching and circuit-switching algorithms for routing permutations. Second, they are nonblocking, and there are on-line algorithms for establishing new connections in them, even if many requests for connections are made simultaneously. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, they are highly fault tolerant.

  10. Wire-wrap models for subchannel blockage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distributed resistance model has been recently implemented into the MATRA-LMR code in order to improve its prediction capability over the wire-wrap model for a flow blockage analysis in the LMR. The code capability has been investigated using experimental data observed in the FFM (Fuel Failure Mock-up)-2A and 5B for two typical flow conditions in a blocked channel. The predicted results by the MATRA-LMR with a distributed resistance model agreed well with the experimental data for wire-wrapped subchannels. However, it is suggested that the parameter n in the distributed resistance model needs to be calibrated accurately for a reasonable prediction of the temperature field under a low flow condition. Finally, the analyses of a blockage for the assembly of the KALIMER design are performed. Satisfactory results by the MATRA-LMR code were obtained through and reified a comparison with results of the SABRE code

  11. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  12. 2007 year - annual impacts of effluents in routine releases to the atmosphere and to the hydrosphere from NPP Bohunice V-2 evaluated by the code ESTE AI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual impacts of Bohunice V -2 operation caused by effluents in routine releases during the year 2007 were calculated and evaluated first time with the help of completely new program - ESTE AI. Program is approved by the 'Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic' and since January 2008 is used as legal instrument by Slovenske elektrarne a.s., NPP Bohunice. In this poster presented are annual effluents to the atmosphere and to the hydrosphere from Bohunice V-2 NPP. Presented, analyzed and discussed are main results of 2007 impacts evaluation. (authors)

  13. Right wire in orthodontics: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.

  14. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  15. Reliable Physical Layer Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Nazer, Bobak; Gastpar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    When two or more users in a wireless network transmit simultaneously, their electromagnetic signals are linearly superimposed on the channel. As a result, a receiver that is interested in one of these signals sees the others as unwanted interference. This property of the wireless medium is typically viewed as a hindrance to reliable communication over a network. However, using a recently developed coding strategy, interference can in fact be harnessed for network coding. In a wired network, (...

  16. Shot noise in parallel wires

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerqvist, Johan; Chen, Yu-Chang; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2004-01-01

    We report first-principles calculations of shot noise properties of parallel carbon wires in the regime in which the interwire distance is much smaller than the inelastic mean free path. We find that, with increasing interwire distance, the current approaches rapidly a value close to twice the current of each wire, while the Fano factor, for the same distances, is still larger than the Fano factor of a single wire. This enhanced Fano factor is the signature of the correlation between electron...

  17. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALLIC WIRES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU XIANG; GU JI-HUA; CHU JUN-HAO

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radial thickness on the thermal conductivity of a free standing wire is investigated. The thermal conductivity is evaluated using the Boltzmann equation. A simple expression for the reduction in conductivity due to the increase of boundary scattering is presented. A comparison is made between the experimental results of indium wires and the theoretical calculations. It is shown that this decrease of conductivity in wires is smaller than that in film where heat flux is perpendicular to the surface.

  18. Wire explosion in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prukner, Václav; Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Frolov, Oleksandr; Štraus, Jaroslav

    Praha, 2007 - (Schmidt, J.; Simek, M.; Pekarek, S.; Prukner, V.). s. 145-145 ISBN 978-80-87026-00-7. [XXVIII International conference on phenomena in ionized gases ICPIG’07/28th./. 15.7.2007-20.7.2007, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324; GA AV ČR KJB100430702; GA MŠk 1P04LA235 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Wire explosion * x-ray * laser * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  19. Wire explosion in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prukner, Václav; Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Frolov, Oleksandr; Štraus, Jaroslav

    Prague: Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR,v.v.i, 2008 - (Schmidt, J.; Šimek, M.; Pekárek, S.; Prukner, V.), s. 1279-1281. (ICPIG. 28). ISBN 978-80-87026-01-4. [XXVIII International conference on phenomena in ionized gases ICPIG’07. Prague (CZ), 15.07.2007-20.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324; GA AV ČR KJB100430702; GA MŠk 1P04LA235 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Wire explosion * x-ray * laser * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  1. Wire array z-pinch insights for high x-ray power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery that the use of very large numbers of wires enables high x-ray power to be generated from wire-array z-pinches represents a breakthrough in load design for large pulsed power generators, and has permitted high temperatures to be generated in radiation cavities on Saturn and Z. In this paper, changes in x-ray emission characteristics as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius, for 20-mm-long aluminum arrays on Saturn that led to these breakthrough hohlraum results, are discussed and compared with a few related emission characteristics of high-wire-number aluminum and tungsten arrays on Z. X=ray measurement comparisons with analytic models and 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) code simulations in the x-y and r-z planes provide confidence in the ability of the models and codes to predict future x-ray performance with very-large-number wire arrays

  2. Investigation of Wire Effect in Sub-channels for 7-Pin Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel assembly of the SFR system consists of long and thin wire-wrapped fuel bundles and a hexagonal duct, in which wire-wrapped fuel bundles in the hexagonal duct has triangular array. The main purpose of a wire spacer is to avoid collisions between adjacent rods. Furthermore, a vortex induced vibration can be mitigated by wire spacers. The wire spacer can enhances a convective heat transfer due to the secondary flow by helically wrapped wires. In this study, complicated and separated flow phenomena in the 7-pin fuel assembly without wire spacer and with wire spacer were captured by a RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) flow simulation with the SST (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model, and by the vortex structure identification technique based on the critical point theory. The wire effect on three-dimensional flow field and heat transfer characteristics in a helically wrapped 7-pin fuel assembly mock-up of the SFR have been investigated through a numerical analysis using the commercial CFD code, CFX. Complicated and separated flow phenomena in the 7-pin fuel assembly without wire spacer and with wire spacer were captured by the RANS flow simulation with the SST turbulence model. It is concluded that the wire spacers locally induce a tangential flow by up to about 13 % of the axial velocity. The tangential flow in the corner and edge sub-channels is much stronger than that in the interior sub-channels. The flow with a high tangential velocity is periodically rotating in a period of wire lead pitch. The cross flow due to the wire spacer can achieve to enhance heat transfer characteristics up to about 50 %

  3. Charged particle tracking through electrostatic wire meshes using the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, L. J.; Karamyshev, O.; Welsch, C. P.

    2016-06-01

    Wire meshes are used across many disciplines to accelerate and focus charged particles, however, analytical solutions are non-exact and few codes exist which simulate the exact fields around a mesh with physical sizes. A tracking code based in Matlab-Simulink using field maps generated using finite element software has been developed which tracks electrons or ions through electrostatic wire meshes. The fields around such a geometry are presented as an analytical expression using several basic assumptions, however, it is apparent that computational calculations are required to obtain realistic values of electric potential and fields, particularly when multiple wire meshes are deployed. The tracking code is flexible in that any quantitatively describable particle distribution can be used for both electrons and ions as well as other benefits such as ease of export to other programs for analysis. The code is made freely available and physical examples are highlighted where this code could be beneficial for different applications.

  4. The Current in a Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  5. Electroplated superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hard chromium solution has been considered the least efficient of all plating solutions. This is not exactly true if the correct plating conditions are used. The accepted efficiency is only 12% but that is only true for the parameters that were used long ago to make the determination. At 12% efficiency it would be impossible to plate Superconductor wire. The world's chromium plating shops have been plating at a .001 (.025u) per hour rate since the turn of the century. Shops in the Cleveland, Ohio area have been limiting their plating rate to .006 (152u) since 1935. A few have used .012 (304u) to .030 (762u) per hour for specialized jobs. These figures would indicate the apparent efficiency of the old 100 to 1 chromium, sulfate solution can be higher than 60%. The industry uses a 3 bus bar tank with wide spacing between anode and cathode. This results in high solution resistance and high heat generation and consequently slow plating rates. The Reversible Rack 2 Bus Bar System uses very close anode to cathode spacings. This results in the high plating rates with improved quality deposits. When first asked to chromium plate pure nickel wire reel to reel in long lengths, companies making reel to reel machines were asked if chromium plating was practical. In every case, the answer was it couldn't be done. Gold, tin and zinc plating was being done reel to reel. Using the same parameters that were used to determine a chromium solution efficiency was only 12%, these other metal solutions check out close to 100%

  6. Return current and proton emission from short pulse laser interactions with wire targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from laser-plasma interaction experiments using the VULCAN laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Wire targets were used to elucidate the role of the return currents generated by the relativistic electron beam leaving the target at laser intensities up to 5x1019 W cm-2. For some shots an additional wire or a foil was placed near the target wire. In other shots, a foil was used as the target with a wire behind. Three main observations were made: (i) Z-pinch behavior in the wires due to the return currents, (ii) optical transition radiation (OTR) at the second harmonic of the laser, and (iii) proton emission. The OTR and the proton emission were observed from both the primary wire target and the adjacent wire. The OTR emission is associated with electron bunches at twice the laser frequency due to ponderomotive JxB acceleration by the laser. The proton emission from the adjacent target was likely due to field emission of electrons by the large potential produced from charging of the primary wire target. The observations agree with simulations using the three-dimensional tree code PEPC and the two-and-one-half-dimensional particle-in-cell code OSIRIS

  7. WIRED — World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coperchio, M. C.; Dönszelmann, M.; de Groot, N.; Gunnarsson, P.; Litmaath, M.; McNally, D.; Smirnov, N.

    1998-05-01

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java™ language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualise and analyse events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java™ language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  8. INGDOS: a conversational computer code to implement US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109 models for estimation of annual doses from ingestion of atmospherically released radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INGDOS is a conversational FORTRAN IV program which utilizes models described in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109 for calculating: (1) concentrations of airborne radionuclides in foods; and (2) annual doses to various organs of man from ingestion of foods contaminated by radionuclides released to the atmosphere. An exception to the implementation of models described in the Regulatory Guide is the adoption of other previously described models for estimation of doses for 3H and 14C. An on-line data base provides default values for most of the parameters required in the calculation of these quantities. In most cases the program allows the user to change any of these values for a particular run. With the exception of 3H and 14C, the calculation of nuclide concentrations in and on vegetation at a given location is based on the rate of deposition of the nuclide at the given location, which is the product of the ground-level air concentration and the deposition velocity of the nuclide. The last two quantities must be supplied by the user of the code for each nuclide other than 3H or 14C involved in the run. As output from INGDOS, the user may have any (or all) of 11 tables printed which specify nuclide concentrations and annual organ doses via various pathways as well as certain ratios involving these quantities. The models for calculating nuclide concentrations and organ doses are discussed, and information is provided concerning the use of the code and its data base

  9. Mortality of sarus cranes (Grus antigone) due to electricity wires in Uttar Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although overhead electrical wires are known to have caused severe declines of bird populations, there are no studies in India that address this danger, even for endangered species. Rates of mortality, factors affecting mortality and population effects of electrical wires on the globally endangered sarus crane (Grus antigone) were assessed for breeding and non-breeding cranes in Etawah and Mainpuri districts, Uttar Pradesh, India. Non-breeding cranes were most susceptible to wires and, within territories, mortalities were higher for pre-dispersed young. Similar proportions of non-breeding and breeding cranes were killed, together accounting for nearly 1% of the total sarus crane population annually. Supply wires accounted for the majority of sarus crane deaths, and only non-breeding cranes were killed by both supply and high-tension power lines. Non-breeding crane deaths at roost sites were correlated with numbers of roosting birds and numbers of wires at each site. Over 40% of 251 known sarus crane territories had at least one overhead wire posing a risk to breeding adults and pre-dispersed young. A risk index for wires over territories of cranes was computed; mortality was not affected by increasing the number and therefore risk posed by wires. Most crane deaths in territories occurred as a result of wires at edges of territories. Wires around roosting sites, territoriality and age of sarus cranes appear to be the most important factors affecting their mortality due to wires. Mitigation measures will be most effective around roost sites and for wires that border territories of breeding pairs. (author)

  10. Mortality of sarus cranes (Grus antigone) due to electricity wires in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundar, K.S.G. [Wildlife Inst. of India, Uttaranchal (India); International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, WI (United States); Choudhury, B.C. [Wildlife Inst. of India, Uttaranchal (India)

    2005-09-15

    Although overhead electrical wires are known to have caused severe declines of bird populations, there are no studies in India that address this danger, even for endangered species. Rates of mortality, factors affecting mortality and population effects of electrical wires on the globally endangered sarus crane (Grus antigone) were assessed for breeding and non-breeding cranes in Etawah and Mainpuri districts, Uttar Pradesh, India. Non-breeding cranes were most susceptible to wires and, within territories, mortalities were higher for pre-dispersed young. Similar proportions of non-breeding and breeding cranes were killed, together accounting for nearly 1% of the total sarus crane population annually. Supply wires accounted for the majority of sarus crane deaths, and only non-breeding cranes were killed by both supply and high-tension power lines. Non-breeding crane deaths at roost sites were correlated with numbers of roosting birds and numbers of wires at each site. Over 40% of 251 known sarus crane territories had at least one overhead wire posing a risk to breeding adults and pre-dispersed young. A risk index for wires over territories of cranes was computed; mortality was not affected by increasing the number and therefore risk posed by wires. Most crane deaths in territories occurred as a result of wires at edges of territories. Wires around roosting sites, territoriality and age of sarus cranes appear to be the most important factors affecting their mortality due to wires. Mitigation measures will be most effective around roost sites and for wires that border territories of breeding pairs. (author)

  11. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  12. Wire ropes tension, endurance, reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Feyrer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to present the methods used to calculate the most important parameters for ropes, and to explain how they are applied on the basis of numerous sample calculations. The book, based on the most important chapters of the German book DRAHTSEILE, has been updated to reflect the latest developments, with the new edition especially focusing on computational methods for wire ropes. Many new calculations and examples have also been added to facilitate the dimensioning and calculation of mechanical characteristics of wire ropes. This book offers a valuable resource for all those working with wire ropes, including construction engineers, operators and supervisors of machines and installations involving wire ropes.

  13. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships. PMID:15768716

  14. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  15. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard;

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  16. Permutation codes

    OpenAIRE

    Ericson, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Slepians permutation codes are investigated in detail. In particular we optimize the initial vector and derive all dominating codes in dimension n 2 6. With the exception of the simplex and biorthogonal codes - which are always included as special cases of permutation codes - there are probably no further good codes in higher dimensions.

  17. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  18. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall...

  19. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  20. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  1. Electronic commerce: wiring the coal industry for new data technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Industry pundits predict that coal by wire may some day replace much of the industry`s long-distance shipping requirements and their attendant costs, but data by wire, also known as electronic commerce (EC) can today offer coal producers and customers the means to gather and send large volumes of data cheaply and quickly. EC`s major components - electronic data interchange (EDI), bar-coding, smart codes, radio frequency `D`, and the internet - can reduce costs in equipment-intensive industries such as mining. The US National Mining Association sponsored a forum to discuss these alternatives at its 1998 Electronic Commerce Summit held in Tuscon, Arizona, 18-20 May. A report is given of discussions at the forum and contacts are given for sources of EDI information.

  2. Wire-wrapped rod-bundle heat-transfer analysis for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical wire wraps are widely used in the LMFBR fuel and blanket assemblies to provide coolant mixing and maintain proper spacing between fuel pins. The presence of the helical wire, however, may possibly induce heat transfer problems, such as the uncertainty of the maximum clad temperature as a result of the contact between the wires and the pins. In this study, the detailed transient three dimensional velocity and temperature distributions for the coolant around the pin will be determined by solving the governing momentum and energy equation numerically. A computer code HEATRAN has been developed to perform this calculation. Before the computer code HEATRAN is applied to the wire wrapped rod bundle problem, it is used to analyze a wide range of fluid and heat transfer problem to verify its capabilities

  3. LHC magnet quench test with beam loss generated by wire scan

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Dehning, B; Emery, j; Ferrari, A; Guerrero, A; Holzer, E B; Koujili, M; Lechner, A; Nebot, E; Scheubel, M; Steckert, J; Verweij, A; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    Beam losses with millisecond duration have been observed in the LHC in 2010 and 2011. They are thought to be provoked by dust particles falling into the beam. These losses could compromise the LHC availability if they provoke quenches of superconducting magnets. In order to investigate the quench limits for this loss mechanism, a quench test using a wire scanner has been performed, with the wire movement through the beam mimicking a loss with similar spatial and temporal distribution as in the case of dust particles. This paper will show the conclusions reached for millisecond-duration dust-provoked quench limits. It will include details on the maximum energy deposited in the coil as estimated using FLUKA code, showing a reasonable agreement with quench limit estimated from the heat transfer code QP3. In addition, information on the damage limit for carbon wires in proton beamswill be presented, following electronmicroscope analysis which revealed strong wire sublimation.

  4. Wire chambers revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. A gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of ''gas only'' photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera.The only clinical detector have been developed for positron emission tomography, where thin lead or lead-glass can provide an acceptable convertor for 511 keV photons. Two MWPC positron cameras have been evaluated clinically and one is now routine use in clinical oncology. The problems of detection efficiency have not been solved by these detectors although reliability and large-area PET imaging have been proven. (orig./HSI)

  5. Physical Layer Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Shengli, Zhang; Lam, Patrick P K

    2007-01-01

    A main distinguishing feature of a wireless network compared with a wired network is its broadcast nature, in which the signal transmitted by a node may reach several other nodes, and a node may receive signals from several other nodes simultaneously. Rather than a blessing, this feature is treated more as an interference-inducing nuisance in most wireless networks today (e.g., IEEE 802.11). This paper shows that the concept of network coding can be applied at the physical layer to turn the broadcast property into a capacity-boosting advantage in wireless ad hoc networks. Specifically, we propose a physical-layer network coding (PNC) scheme to coordinate transmissions among nodes. In contrast to straightforward network coding which performs coding arithmetic on digital bit streams after they have been received, PNC makes use of the additive nature of simultaneously arriving electromagnetic (EM) waves for equivalent coding operation. And in doing so, PNC can potentially achieve 100% and 50% throughput increase...

  6. Interpretation of Wire-Scanner asymmetric profiles in a Low-Energy ring

    CERN Document Server

    Cieslak-Kowalska, Magdalena Anna

    2016-01-01

    In the CERN PS Booster, wire-scanner profile measurements performed at injection energy are affected by a strong asymmetry. The shape was reproduced with the code PyORBIT, assuming that the effect is due to the beam evolution during the scans, under the influence of space-charge forces and Multiple Coulomb Scattering at the wire itself. Reproducing the transverse profiles during beam evolution allows to use them reliably as input for simulation benchmarking.

  7. Technical innovation: Wire guided ductography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To introduce an easy and improved technique for performing ductography using inexpensive easily available intravenous cannula. Guide wire: Prolene/Surgipro 3-0 (Polypropylene mono filament non-absorbable surgical suture). A plastic 26 G intravenous cannula. Disposable syringe 2 ml. Non-ionic contrast (low density like Omnipaque 240 mg I/I). The guide wire (Prolene 3-0) is introduced into the orifice of the duct heaving discharge and 26 G intravenous plastic cannula is then passed over the guide wire. The cannula is advanced in the duct over guide wire by spinning around it. When the cannula is in place the guide wire is removed. Any air bubbles present in the hub of the cannula can be displaced by filling the hub from bottom upwards with needle attached to contrast filled syringe. 0.2–0.4 ml non-ionic contrast is gently injected. Injection is stopped if the patient has pain or burning. Magnified cranio-caudal view is obtained with cannula tapped in place and gentle compression is applied with the patient sitting. If duct filling is satisfactory a 90* lateral view is obtained. A successful adaptation of the technique for performing ductography is presented. The materials required for the technique are easily available in most radiology departments and are inexpensive, thus making the procedure comfortable for the patient and radiologist with considerable cost effectiveness.

  8. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  9. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsung-Yu; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W M; Reno, John L; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-29

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450 mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements. PMID:26191717

  10. A wired - impressa e digital

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes, Sara Raquel Machado

    2015-01-01

    O tema abordado neste relatório de estágio é a revista Wired impressa vs. digital. Tendo em conta, que uma das primeiras revistas a ser publicadas para Ipad foi a Wired, um periódico icónico que aborda assuntos referentes à tecnologia, decidi realizar uma análise exaustiva desta revista de forma a relacionar estes dois mundos tão díspares. Para tal, dividi este trabalho em duas partes distintas, sendo a primeira delas divididas em dois capítulos. No primeiro capítulo faz-se uma breve contextu...

  11. Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Gale

    1989-01-01

    Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

  12. Anode wire aging tests with selected gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a continuation of earlier wire aging investigations, additional candidates for wire chamber gas and wire have been tested. These include the gases: argon/ethane, HRS gas, dimethyl ether, carbon dioxide/ethane, and carbon tetrafluoride/isobutane. Wires used were: gold- plated tungsten, Stablohm, Nicotin, and Stainless Steel. Measurements were made of the effects upon wire aging of impurities from plumbing materials or contamination from various types of oil. Attempts were made to induce wire aging by adding measured amounts of oxygen and halogen (methyl chloride) with negative results. In this paper, the possible role of electronegativity in the wire aging process is discussed, and measurements of electronegativity are made with several single carbon Freons, using both an electron capture detector and a wire chamber operating with dimethyl ether

  13. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume IX; Comparison of Statistical Methods of Estimating Treatment-Control Ratios Using Coded-Wire Tags, Based on Spring Chinook Salmon on the Columbia River, 1986-1988 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-06-01

    The strength of a salmon run is often measured as the adult return rate from some previous brood year (i.e. the percent of a smolt population returning to spawn or captured in fisheries). The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (ACOE) program of barge transportation of smolts from collector dams is one mitigation measure used to improve smolt survival. Using Coded Wire-tags, the adult return rates of transported and untransported smolt have been tracked. A ratio of the recovered percentages of adult salmon, those transported in the smolt stage over the salmon not transported (controls), is often used to summarize the program effectiveness. There are a number of ways to estimate this transportation/control (T/C) ratio, and this paper explores six alternative statistical models to improve accuracy and precision of the estimate. Assuming the proportion of adult recoveries are binomially distributed, the data were analyzed using linear regression of arc-sine square-root and logit transformations; general linear model regression (GLM) with logit- and log-links; and a maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) of the T/C ratio. Profile likelihood intervals were calculated to generate 95% confidence interval estimates of the T/C ratio. Depending on the analytical method, T/C ratios varied greatly. Arc-sine square-root and logit transformations gave individual release T/C ratios which ranged from 1.0934 to 4.0076 and {minus}1.2193 to 1.9057, respectively. The negative T/C ratio is due to the back-transformation properties of the logit transformation. The GLM and MLE approaches produced mean T/C ratios (after adjusting for the individual release batch effects) ranging from 1.4964 to 1.4974. The recommended method from this analysis, a binomial maximum likelihood estimate adjusted for over-dispersion, produced a T/C ratio of 1.4965 with a 95% confidence interval of (1.0618, 1.9312).

  14. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

  15. Wire-based tracking using mutual information

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade-Cetto, J.; Thomas, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Wire-based tracking devices are an affordable alternative to costly tracking devices. They consist of a fixed base and a platform, attached to the moving object, connected by six wires whose tension is maintained along the tracked trajectory. One important shortcoming of this kind of devices is that they are forced to operate in reduced workspaces so as to avoid singular configurations. Singularities can be eliminated by adding more wires but this causes more wire interferences, and a higher ...

  16. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  17. Wire topology optimisation for low power CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Power optimisation has become one of the most important goals when designing integrated systems. A methodology is proposed that reduces the power consumption of a detail-routed circuit by modifying its wire topology. Its principle is a re-distribution of the local whitespace between parallel wires depending on the switching activities of the wires. The more active a wire the more space it will acquire and thus the less toggle energy is required. After optimisation, the new layout is returned...

  18. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and presents critiques of a utopian…

  19. Speech coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersho, Allen

    1990-05-01

    Recent advances in algorithms and techniques for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The advent of powerful single-ship signal processors has made it cost effective to implement these new and sophisticated speech coding algorithms for many important applications in voice communication and storage. Some of the main ideas underlying the algorithms of major interest today are reviewed. The concept of removing redundancy by linear prediction is reviewed, first in the context of predictive quantization or DPCM. Then linear predictive coding, adaptive predictive coding, and vector quantization are discussed. The concepts of excitation coding via analysis-by-synthesis, vector sum excitation codebooks, and adaptive postfiltering are explained. The main idea of vector excitation coding (VXC) or code excited linear prediction (CELP) are presented. Finally low-delay VXC coding and phonetic segmentation for VXC are described.

  20. Studies of late time behavior of exploding wires using x-ray backlighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine W, Mo, Al, NiCr, Au, Ag, Ti, and other wires, exploded by a 4.5 kA amplitude, 1.4 micros, have been imaged using direct (point-projection) x-ray backlighting as late as 12 micros after the start of the current pulse. The exploded wires, which ranged from 7.5 W to 13.5 microm W, Au, Al and Mo to 25 microm Ti and NiCr, were located about 6 cm away from two Mo X-pinch x-ray backlighter sources. The X-pinches are placed in parallel between the output electrodes of the 450 kA, 100 ns XP pulser at Cornell, each thereby producing a sub-nanosecond x-ray pulse. The source size is small enough to permit micron-scale spatial resolution images of the exploding wires on x-ray film. Changing the relative timing between the 4.5 kA current source and the XP pulser varied the image time. Wires were typically pulsed in pairs, reducing the peak current per wire accordingly. The behavior of the exploded wires on the microsecond time scale depends upon the material. For example, the W wires initially expand slowly (for ∼ 1 micros), and then quickly develop a fine structure in their interior. A more rapid expansion phase follows for a few micros leading to a few hundred microm diameter exploded wire by the time the current damps away. After that, the remnant wire core appears to break up into droplets. Mo and NiCr wires behave similarly. By contrast, high initial conductivity wires, such as Au and Ag, pass through a highly structured phase very quickly and form a rapidly expanding, radially symmetric vapor/plasma cloud in just a few hundred nanoseconds with a peak current of 2 kA per wire. By 2 micros after current initiation, Au wires have formed a several hundred microm diameter vapor/plasma which is reasonably axially uniform over the length of the wires except near the ends. The implications of these results to experiments on 10--20 MA pulsers and to code validation will be discussed

  1. code {poems}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishac Bertran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available "Exploring the potential of code to communicate at the level of poetry," the code­ {poems} project solicited submissions from code­writers in response to the notion of a poem, written in a software language which is semantically valid. These selections reveal the inner workings, constitutive elements, and styles of both a particular software and its authors.

  2. REMEDY OF WIRE LAG IN WIRE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (WEDM)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    WEDM is extensively used these days for generating complex geometries with tight tolerances on difficult-tomachine materials. Therefore, demand for improvement in precision has been ever increasing. The main source of inaccuracy is wire-lag, the cause and effect of which is well-known. Research has been going on to overcome this drawback. So far, the techniques suggested for improvement in accuracy are, in general, based on monitoring the machining process at hardware-level, which is not only...

  3. Transport through multiply connected quantum wires

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sourin; Rao, Sumathi

    2003-01-01

    We study transport through multiply coupled carbon nano-tubes (quantum wires) and compute the conductances through the two wires as a function of the two gate voltages $g_1$ and $g_2$ controlling the chemical potential of the electrons in the two wires. We find that there is an {\\it equilibrium} cross-conductance, and we obtain its dependence on the temperature and length of the wires. The effective action of the model for the wires in the strong coupling (equivalently Coulomb interaction) li...

  4. High speed aluminum wire anodizing and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high speed aluminum wire anodizing machine and process are provided which includes anodizing aluminum wire in an anodizer tank having wire ingress and egress openings. At least two adjacent rotatable wire accumulator drums are provided in the tank, preferably with means for producing a flow of anodizing electrolytes into each of the drums through an end hub thereof and out of the sidewalls of the drums passed circumferential wire separators. An anode is located proximal to the wire ingress opening, preferably in a contact cell which has an adjustable wire egress window. At least one cathode is provided in the tank. The cathode is preferably either between the drums or a pair of cathodes are provided above and below the drums adjacent to the sidewalls thereof, or both

  5. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  6. Printed wiring board process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. E.; Gentry, F. L.

    1985-07-01

    This project investigated ways of improving printed wiring board (PWB) fabrication at BKCD. The primary objective of the mechaning portion was to determine the best manufacturing techniques for rigid double-sided and multilayer printed wiring products, and to identify the process changes required to implement those techniques. Another objective was to improve solder thickness and shelf life by using the hot air leveling process. All process variables were identified and a suitable manufacturing process was established. Copper plating of PWBs presently used a solution of copper pyrophosphate that has several disadvantages. The properties of the copper deposit from an acid copper sulfate process and relative ease of chemical control offer advantages over the pyrophosphate process and are being evaluated for use.

  7. Practical circuits with Physarum Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, James G. H.; Mayne, Richard; Moody, Nadine; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Protoplasmic tubes of Physarum polycephalum, also know as Physarum Wires (PW), have been previously suggested as novel bio- electronic components. Until recently, practical examples of electronic circuits using PWs have been limited. These PWs have been shown to be self repairing, offering significant advantage over traditional electronic components. This article documents work performed to produce practical circuits using PWs. Method: We have demonstrated through manufacture and tes...

  8. Phonon spectra in quantum wires

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić Dušan; Raković Dejan; Šetrajčić Jovan

    2007-01-01

    Green's function method, adjusted to bound crystalline structures, was applied to obtain the phonon dispersion law in quantum wires. The condition of the existence of small mechanical atom movements defining phonon spectra can be found by solving the secular equation. This problem was presented graphically for different boundary parameters. The presence of boundaries, as well as the change of boundary parameters, leads to the appearance of new properties of the layered structure. The most imp...

  9. [Constitutive correlations for wire-wrapped subchannel analysis under forced and mixed convection conditions]. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new version of the ENERGY series code, ENERGY-IV, was written for predicting coolant temperature distributions in wire-wrapped rod assemblies used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. The ENERGY-IV Code is applicable to both steady-state forced and mixed convection operation for a single isolated assembly. (The SUPERENERGY Code, [Basehore (1980)] is applicable to core wide forced convection analysis.) ENERGY-IV is an empirical code designed to be fast running. Hence the core designer can use it as an inexpensive thermal hydraulic design or diagnosis tool

  10. EFFECTS OF WIRE LAG IN WIRE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. SINHA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available WEDM is very useful wherever complex geometry with tight tolerances needs to be generated on hard materials. In view of modern and sophisticated technology readily available these days, the expectation of accuracy in WEDM is ever-increasing, and therefore, techniques for the improvement in WEDM must be developed. The main cause of inaccuracy is wire-lag, the cause and effect of which is described in the present work, along with a technique to obviate the problem in straight cutting. In a subsequent paper, a software approach (since the problem gets too complicated for improvement of accuracy in contour cutting is described.

  11. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  12. "Cut wires grating – single longitudinal wire" planar metastructure to achieve microwave magnetic resonance in a single wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kraftmakher

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we present metastructures containing cut-wire grating and a single longitudinal cut-wire orthogonal to grating’s wires. Experimental investigations at microwaves show these structures can provide strong magnetic resonant response of a single nonmagnetic cut-wire in dependence on configuration and sizes in the case when metastructures are oriented along the direction of wave propagation and cut-wires of grating are parallel to the electric field of a plane electromagnetic wave. It is suggested a concept of magnetic response based on antiparallel resonant currents excited by magnetic field of surface polaritons in many spatial LC-circuits created from cut-wire pairs of a grating and section of longitudinal cut-wire. Three separately observed resonant effects connected with grating, LC-circuits and with longitudinal cut-wire have been identified applying measurements in waveguides, cutoff waveguides and free space. To tune and mark resonance split cut-wires are loaded with varactor diodes.

  13. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  14. LSP Calculations of Cone-Wire Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE) in Japan [1] and at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the United Kingdom [2] have shown good coupling of short-pulse high-intensity laser light into high-energy electrons channeled down a narrow fiber. Such target configurations are being considered as backlighter targets on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We will report on LSP calculations of these cone-wire experiments and other candidate target configurations. These calculations also give insight into the transport of MeV-electrons, which remains the critical issue for the achievement of fast ignition [3]. The LSP code uses a direct implicit particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in 2 or 3 dimensions to solve for beam particle transport, while treating the background particles as a fluid [4]. We have modified LSP to produce Kα photons in a non-interfering manner and will show calculated absolute Kα yields for the experiments reported by Key [2

  15. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  16. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords. PMID:17812747

  17. Vibrating Wire for Beam Profile Scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Mailian, M R; Sinenko, I G; Vasiniuk, I E

    1999-01-01

    The method for measurement of transverse profile (emittance) of the bunch by detecting of radiation arising scattering at of the bunch on the scanning wire is wide-spread. In this work the information about scattering bunch is proposed to measure using the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such way the system of radiation (or secondary particles) extraction and measurement can be removed. Dependence of oscillations frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam, influence of beam self field. Preliminary calculations show that influence caused by wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, niobium zirconium alloys). A scheme of self oscillations generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. Special method of wire fixation and elimination of trans...

  18. Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)

  19. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  20. Code Cactus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors)

  1. Anomalous Thermal Transport in Quantum Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Fazio, Rosario; Hekking, F. W. J.; Khmelnitskii, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    We study thermal transport in a one-dimensional quantum wire, connected to reservoirs. Despite of the absence of electron backscattering, interactions in the wire strongly influence thermal transport. Electrons propagate with unitary transmission through the wire and electric conductance is not affected. Energy, however, is carried by bosonic excitations (plasmons) which suffer from scattering even on scales much larger than the Fermi wavelength. If the electron density varies randomly, plasm...

  2. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  3. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  4. Wire Whip Keeps Spray Nozzle Clean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Air-turbine-driven wire whip is clamped near spray-gun mount. When spray gun is installed, wire whip is in position to remove foam buildup from nozzle face. Two lengths of wire 1 to 2 inches long and about 0.03 inch in thickness are used. Foam spray would be prevented from accumulating on nozzle face by increasing purge flow and cutting vortex-generating grooves inside cap and on nozzle flats.

  5. Aging aircraft wiring: a proactive management methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Tambouratzis, Vasileios.

    2001-01-01

    During the last years, military budgets have been dramatically reduced and the services have been unable to acquire sufficient new systems. Military aviation is one of the areas that have been severely impacted. The result is that the current fleet faces significant aging aircraft problems. Aircraft wiring is one of the areas that have severely affected by the aging process. Recent accidents involving aging wiring problems and reduced operational readiness due to aging wiring have made clear ...

  6. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  7. Wired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Every American grade school and library ought to have free access to the Internet, and universities and institutions ought to have better access, according to the Clinton Administration.In an October 10 speech in Knoxville, Tennessee, President Clinton proposed that all of the nation's 100,000 public schools and 9,000 libraries receive a two-tiered E-rate (education rate) for access to Internet services. All schools and libraries should receive basic connections for free, as well as deep discounts on video conferencing and highspeed connections (with prices influenced by how much the school can afford to pay). The basic connections (and part of the cost of the more sophisticated connections) would be paid from a special federal fund that currently provides below-cost phone service to households in poor and rural areas. That fund is currently drawn from fees assessed on local and long-distance telephone providers; the Clinton Administration would have cable operators and cellular service providers contribute as well. Companies that provide Internet services would be paid at the best available commercial rate.

  8. Wiring systems and fault finding

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    1905-01-01

    This book deals with an area of practice which many students and non-electricians find particularly challenging. It explains how to interpret circuit diagrams, wiring systems and the principles and practice of testing and fault diagnosis. It will give the reader confidence to understand the principles of testing and to apply this knowledge to fault finding in electrical circuits.It is a handy reference for anybody who needs to be able to trace faults in circuits, whether in domestic, commercial or industrial settings. It will be a time-saver for all electricians, plumbers, heating engineers, t

  9. Dose effects of guide wires for catheter-based intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Guide wires with high torquability and steerability are commonly used to navigate through a tortuous and/or branching arterial tree in a catheter-based intravascular brachytherapy procedure. The dosimetric effects due to the presence of metallic guide wires have not been addressed. This work investigates these dose effects for the three most commonly used β and γ sources (90Sr, 32P, and 192Ir). Methods and Materials: The EGS4 Monte Carlo codes were used to calculate the dose distributions for the 90Sr(NOVOSTE), 32P (Guidant), and 192Ir (BEST Ind.) with and without a guide wire in place. Energy spectra for particles exiting the sources were calculated from the full phase-space data obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations of the source constructions. Guide wires of various thicknesses and compositions were studied. Results: The dose perturbations due to the presence of guide wires were found to be far more significant for the 90Sr/90Y and 32P beta sources than those for the 192Ir gamma source. Because of the attenuation by the guide wires, a dose reduction of up to 60% behind a guide wire was observed for the beta sources, whereas the dose perturbation was found to be negligible for the γ source. For a β source, the dose perturbations depend on the thickness and the material of the guide wire. When the region behind a guide wire is part of an intravascular brachytherapy target, the presence of the guide wire results in a significant underdosing for β sources. The underdosed region can extend a few mm behind the guide wire and up to 1 mm in other directions. Conclusion: Significant dose perturbations by the presence of a metallic guide wire have been found in catheter-based intravascular brachytherapy using β sources. The dose effects should be considered in the dose prescription and/or in analyzing the treatment outcome for β sources. Such precautions are not necessary if using a gamma source

  10. Uniform wire segmentation algorithm of distributed interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Guoli; Lin Zhenghui

    2007-01-01

    A uniform wire segmentation algorithm for performance optimization of distributed RLC interconnects was proposed in this paper. The optimal wire length for identical segments and buffer size for buffer insertion are obtained through computation and derivation, based on a 2-pole approximation model of distributed RLC interconnect. For typical inductance value and long wires under 180nm technology, experiments show that the uniform wire segmentation technique proposed in the paper can reduce delay by about 27% ~ 56% , while requires 34%~69% less total buffer usage and thus 29% to 58% less power consumption. It is suitable for long RLC interconnect performance optimization.

  11. Wire alignment system for ATF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wire based alignment system is adopted to make less than 40μm precision alignment for injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system consists of two stretched SUS wires, pickup coils and active mover stages. The position of pickup coils in a mount which will be installed into LINAC stages is set to the calculated wire position prior to installation. All of LINAC stages are then moved to keep the calculated position by the active mover. The test results of wire position detection in a long term are described. (author)

  12. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  13. Gold nanoparticle wire and integrated wire array for electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Diao; Qing Cao

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle wire and integrated nanoparticle wire array have been prepared through a green technique: discontinuous vertical evaporation-driven colloidal deposition. The conducting gold nanoparticle wire made by this technique shows ability for the sensitive electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules due to its high surface to volume ratio. Furthermore, we also demonstrate a potential usage of integrated gold nanoparticle wire array for the localized detection.

  14. Gold nanoparticle wire and integrated wire array for electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Diao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle wire and integrated nanoparticle wire array have been prepared through a green technique: discontinuous vertical evaporation-driven colloidal deposition. The conducting gold nanoparticle wire made by this technique shows ability for the sensitive electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules due to its high surface to volume ratio. Furthermore, we also demonstrate a potential usage of integrated gold nanoparticle wire array for the localized detection.

  15. Effect of AC electric fields on flame spread over electrical wire

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Minkuk

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electric fields on the characteristics of flame spread over insulated electrical wire has been investigated experimentally by varying AC voltage and frequency applied to the wire in the normal gravity condition. The polyethylene (PE) insulated electrical wire was placed horizontally on electrically non-conducting posts and one end of the wire was connected to the high voltage terminal. Thus, the electrical system is the single electrode configuration. The wire was ignited at one end and the flame spread rate along the wire has been measured from the images using a video camera. Two distinct regimes existed depending on the applied AC frequency. In the low frequency regime, the flame spread rate decreased with the frequency and voltage. While in the high frequency regime, it decreased initially with voltage and then increased. At high frequency, the spread rate was even over that without applying electric fields. This result implies that fire safety codes developed without considering the effect of electric fields may require modifications. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  16. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  17. Extension of a thin-wire algorithm for wires moved laterally within a mesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, G J; Steich, D J

    1998-11-01

    It was shown that the accuracy of results for wires moved laterally from mesh edges can be greatly improved by taking account of the behavior of the field in the vicinity of the wire. Also, the distance to the end of the wire can be adjusted within a cell by using a general second-order difference form for the derivative. Making the wire location completely independent of the mesh would require the additional ability to tilt the wire with respect to the edges. This seems to be a considerably more difficult problem than moving the wires laterally, since the component of the mesh field parallel to the wire gets mixed with the larger radial electric field due to charge on the wire. Simply averaging the mesh fields did not seem to work well, except in the case where the wire was tilted in one coordinate plane, and the mesh fields above and below the plane of the wire, on edges orthogonal to the wire normal, could be averaged. Further study is needed to develop a more general capability to tilt a wire with respect to the mesh.

  18. Air ionization wire plane chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Measurement for protection level instrumentation requires large number of detectors. Since the number is large, the detector should be cost effective and yet should have good sensitivity. Gas detectors with presently available microelectronics and signal processing capabilities opened a new era in radiation monitoring. Present paper describes the use of air filled multi anode grid planes as detector for alpha detection. Due to multiple anode wire planes, the charge collection efficiency of the air ionization chamber is higher as compared to conventional ionization chamber. The signal from this Wire Plane Chamber (WPC) has a faster and narrower pulse shape as compared to conventional two-electrode chamber of similar dimensions. The reduction in capacitance also improves the signal to noise ratio so that air can be used as the ionization medium without any special cleaning procedure etc and it may be possible to use even engineering plastic as the structural material for the chamber. The paper gives the results obtained so far with this air ionization chamber. (author)

  19. REMEDY OF WIRE LAG IN WIRE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. SINHA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available WEDM is extensively used these days for generating complex geometries with tight tolerances on difficult-tomachine materials. Therefore, demand for improvement in precision has been ever increasing. The main source of inaccuracy is wire-lag, the cause and effect of which is well-known. Research has been going on to overcome this drawback. So far, the techniques suggested for improvement in accuracy are, in general, based on monitoring the machining process at hardware-level, which is not only tedious but involves extra expenditure also. In the present paper, a software approach for improvement in accuracy is described, which does not require any additional investment on the machine, and still gives very good results.

  20. Network Coding Capacity of Random Wireless Networks under a SINR Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Zhenning; Aly, Salah A.; Soljanin, Emina; Yeh, Edmund M.; Klappenecker, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Previous work on network coding capacity for random wired and wireless networks have focused on the case where the capacities of links in the network are independent. In this paper, we consider a more realistic model, where wireless networks are modelled by random geometric graphs with interference and noise. In this model, the capacities of links are not independent. By employing coupling and martingale methods, we show that, under mild conditions, the network coding capacity for random wire...

  1. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

    2008-10-01

    Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

  2. Topological transition in coated wire medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlach, Maxim A; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P; Bogdanov, Andrey A; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory of nonlocal homogenization for metamaterial consisting of parallel metallic wires with dielectric coating. It is demonstrated that manipulation of dielectric contrast between wire dielectric shell and host material results in switching of metamaterial dispersion regime from elliptic to the hyperbolic one, i.e. the topological transition takes place. We confirm our theoretical predictions by full-wave numerical simulations.

  3. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  4. Realization of a Strained Atomic Wire Superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inkyung; Goh, Jung Suk; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Sung Won; Shin, Jin Sung; Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Yeom, Han Woong

    2015-11-24

    A superlattice of strained Au-Si atomic wires is successfully fabricated on a Si surface. Au atoms are known to incorporate into the stepped Si(111) surface to form a Au-Si atomic wire array with both one-dimensional (1D) metallic and antiferromagnetic atomic chains. At a reduced density of Au, we find a regular array of Au-Si wires in alternation with pristine Si nanoterraces. Pristine Si nanoterraces impose a strain on the neighboring Au-Si wires, which modifies both the band structure of metallic chains and the magnetic property of spin chains. This is an ultimate 1D version of a strained-layer superlattice of semiconductors, defining a direction toward the fine engineering of self-assembled atomic-scale wires. PMID:26446292

  5. Integrated taut wire sensor alarm monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years mechanical taut wire intrusion detection systems have played a key role in protecting high risk facilities. The taut wire sensor has the advantage that it combines a physical barrier with an intrusion sensor, a useful feature where no fence is installed or planned. However, mechanical taut wire sensors have proven to have several major disadvantages, including: no sensitivity adjustment, no sensor self-test feature, no remote control capability, and inflexible mounting constraints. This paper deals with a new generation of solid state taut wire sensor which overcomes the deficiencies of the aging mechanical design. The new sensor uses a microprocessor to filter out sources of nuisance alarms, yet maintains exceptional sensitivity to intrusion and tamper attempts. Being solid sate, the new sensor can be mounted in any orientation, even upside down. Moreover, when combined with a new, advanced alarm monitoring system, the solid state taut wire fence will support remote sensitivity adjustment and remote sensor self-test control

  6. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosion phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the “Qiangguang I” facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of wire

  7. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  8. Prediction of Bond Wire Fatigue of IGBTs in a PV Inverter Under a Long-Term Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng;

    2016-01-01

    consumption of bond wires of IGBT modules in a Photovoltaic (PV) inverter. The variations in IGBT parameters (e.g., on-state collector-emitter voltage), lifetime models, and environmental and operational stresses are taken into account in the lifetime prediction. The distribution of the annual lifetime...

  9. Development of safety evaluation methods and analysis codes applied to the safety regulations for the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor (Annual safety research report, JFY 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study are to develop the safety evaluation methods and analysis codes needed in the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). In JFY 2010, the following results are obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination achieved for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes such as core seismic analysis code, core safety analysis code and core damage analysis code were carried out according to the plan. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied, and the seismic PSA to evaluate residual risk was studied. (author)

  10. Development of safety evaluation methods and analysis codes applied to the safety regulations for the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor (Annual safety research report, JFY 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study are to develop the safety evaluation methods and analysis codes needed in the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). In JFY 2011, the following results are obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination achieved for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes such as core seismic analysis code, core safety analysis code and core damage analysis code were earned out according to the plan. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied, and the seismic PSA to evaluate residual risk was studied. (author)

  11. Phonon spectra in quantum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Green's function method, adjusted to bound crystalline structures, was applied to obtain the phonon dispersion law in quantum wires. The condition of the existence of small mechanical atom movements defining phonon spectra can be found by solving the secular equation. This problem was presented graphically for different boundary parameters. The presence of boundaries, as well as the change of boundary parameters, leads to the appearance of new properties of the layered structure. The most important feature is that, beside the allowed energy zones (which are continuous as in the bulk structure, zones of forbidden states appear. Different values of the boundary parameters lead to the appearance of lower and upper energy gaps, or dispersion branches spreading out of the bulk energy zone. The spectra of phonons in corresponding unbound structures were correlated to those in bound structures.

  12. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  13. Application of irradiation process for the production of thin wall wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for thin wall crosslinked PVC or polyethylene insulated wires in Japan was about 15,000,000 dollars in value in 1975. Their annual sales in 1980 are estimated at about 40 million dollars which will account for approximately 20% of the sales of all thin wall thermoplastic insulated wires expected for the same year. A comparative study was made of the irradiation process and the chemical process for manufacture of wires with crosslinked PVC or polyethylene insulation. Having found the excellence of the irradiation process an accelerator (500 KeV, 65mA) was installed in 1973 and production was begun of several types of thin wall irradiation crosslinked PVC and polyethylene insulated wires ranging from 0.06 mm2 to 2.0 mm2 in the cross-sectional area of conductor, successfully putting them in extensive commercial application. This report compares the irradiation process and the chemical process, properties of several types of irradiation crosslinked PVC, and polyethylene insulated wires and their applications. (author)

  14. In Situ Electrochemical Deposition of Microscopic Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minhee; Myung, Nosang; Vasquez, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabrication of wires having micron and submicron dimensions is built around electrochemical deposition of the wires in their final positions between electrodes in integrated circuits or other devices in which the wires are to be used. Heretofore, nanowires have been fabricated by a variety of techniques characterized by low degrees of controllability and low throughput rates, and it has been necessary to align and electrically connect the wires in their final positions by use of sophisticated equipment in expensive and tedious post-growth assembly processes. The present method is more economical, offers higher yields, enables control of wire widths, and eliminates the need for post-growth assembly. The wires fabricated by this method could be used as simple electrical conductors or as transducers in sensors. Depending upon electrodeposition conditions and the compositions of the electroplating solutions in specific applications, the wires could be made of metals, alloys, metal oxides, semiconductors, or electrically conductive polymers. In this method, one uses fabrication processes that are standard in the semiconductor industry. These include cleaning, dry etching, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, lithography, dielectric deposition, electron-beam lithography, and metallization processes as well as the electrochemical deposition process used to form the wires. In a typical case of fabrication of a circuit that includes electrodes between which microscopic wires are to be formed on a silicon substrate, the fabrication processes follow a standard sequence until just before the fabrication of the microscopic wires. Then, by use of a thermal SiO-deposition technique, the electrodes and the substrate surface areas in the gaps between them are covered with SiO. Next, the SiO is electron-beam patterned, then reactive-ion etched to form channels having specified widths (typically about 1 m or less) that define the widths of the wires to be formed. Drops

  15. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  16. 1994 MCAP annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VELCOR is an integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants. The entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena, including reactor coolant system and containment thermal-hydraulic response, core heatup, degradation and relocation, and fission product release and transport is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework for both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Its current uses include the estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. Independent assessment efforts have been successfully completed by the US and international MELCOR user communities. Most of these independent assessment efforts have been conducted to support the needs and fulfill the requirements of the individual user organizations. The resources required to perform an extensive set of model and integral code assessments are large. A prudent approach to fostering code development and maturation is to coordinate the individual assessment efforts of the MELCOR user community. While retaining individual control over assessment resources, each organization using the MELCOR code could work with the other users to broaden assessment coverage and minimize duplication. In recognition of these considerations, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) has initiated the MELCOR Cooperative Assessment Program (MCAP), a vehicle for coordinating and standardizing the assessment practices of the various MELCOR users. In addition, the user community will have a forum to better communicate lessons learned regarding MELCOR applications, capabilities, and user guidelines and limitations and to provide a user community perspective on code development needs and priorities. This second Annual Report builds on the foundation laid with the first Annual Report

  17. Experimental study of free abrasive wire sawing by using multi-strands wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Chunyan; Wang Jinsheng; Peng Wei; Jin Xin; Chen Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Grains in the slurry can be brought into cutting zone by steel wire with a certain speed to achieve the purpose of removing the workpiece material in the free abrasive wire sawing machining. Because its own of multi-strands characteristics,we use it to replace the steel wire to do slicing experiment. In this paper,multi-strands wire is made by seven metal wires and has many grooves on its surface. Compared with steel wire,it can carry more grains into cutting zone which is conducive to improving the slicing efficiency. We do some comparative slic-ing experiments by applying multi-strands wire (ϕ0.25 mm) and steel wire (ϕ0.25 mm) to cut optical glass (K9). The results show that slicing efficiency and the surface roughness of the workpiece sliced by using multi-strands wire are better than that by using steel wire,but the kerf width of the former is wider than that of the latter in the same experimental conditions.

  18. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  19. Failure analysis of explanted sternal wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Ming; Su, Yea-Yang; Lin, Shing-Jong; Shih, Chun-Che

    2005-05-01

    To classify and understand the mechanisms of surface damages and fracture mechanisms of sternal wires, explanted stainless steel sternal wires were collected from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart surgery. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were examined and analyzed. Eighty fractured wires extracted from 25 patients from January 1999 to December 2003, with mean implantation interval of 55+/-149 days (range 5-729 days) after cardiac surgery, were studied by various techniques. The extracted wires were cleaned and the fibrotic tissues were removed. Irregularities and fractured ends were assayed by a scanning electron microscopy. After stereomicroscopy and documentation, the explants were cleaned with 1% sodium hypochlorite to remove the blood and tissues and was followed by cleaned with deionized water and alcohol. The explants were examined by stereomicroscopy, and irregularities on surface and fracture surfaces of sternal wires were assayed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray mapping. The explants with surrounding fibrotic tissue were stained and examined with stereomicroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Corrosion pits were found on the surface of explanted sternal wires. EDAX and X-ray mapping examinations revealed diminution of nickel concentration in the severely corroded pits on sternal wires. A feature of transgranular cracking was observed for stress corrosion cracking and striation character for typical corrosion fatigue was also identified. TEM examination of tissue showed the metallic particles in phagolysosomes of macrophages inside the surrounding sternal tissue. The synergic effect of hostile environment and the stress could be the precursors of failures for sternal wires. PMID:15576179

  20. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  1. Beyond Stabilizer Codes II: Clifford Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Klappenecker, Andreas; Roetteler, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Knill introduced a generalization of stabilizer codes, in this note called Clifford codes. It remained unclear whether or not Clifford codes can be superior to stabilizer codes. We show that Clifford codes are stabilizer codes provided that the abstract error group has an abelian index group. In particular, if the errors are modelled by tensor products of Pauli matrices, then the associated Clifford codes are necessarily stabilizer codes.

  2. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  3. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  4. Detectors Ensure Function, Safety of Aircraft Wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pedro Medelius waited patiently in his lab at Kennedy Space Center. He had just received word that a colleague was bringing over a cable from a Space Shuttle solid rocket booster to test Medelius new invention. Medelius was calm until his colleague arrived, with about 30 other people. "Talk about testing under pressure," says Medelius. "There were people there from the Navy, the Air Force, and the Federal Aviation Administration." After the group s arrival, Medelius took a deep breath and connected his Standing Wave Reflectometer (SWR) to the cable. He wiggled the cable around, and the display showed a fault (a short or open circuit in wire) about an inch and a half inside the connector on the cable. His colleague questioned the results, because he had already checked that area on the cable. Medelius used the SWR to check again but got the same result. "That is when we took the cable apart and looked inside," Medelius says. "Lo and behold, that was exactly where the fault was." The impetus for Medelius new wire inspection technology came about in 1999 when one of the space shuttles lost power due to a fault somewhere in its more than 200 miles of electrical wiring. "The backup circuit was activated and prevented a major dysfunction, but nevertheless, there was a problem with the wiring," Medelius describes. Even though technicians used a device called a multimeter to measure the electrical current to find which wire had a fault, it could not pinpoint exactly where on the wire the fault was located. For that, technicians had to visually inspect the wire. "Sometimes they would have to remove the whole wire assembly and visually inspect every single wire. It was a very tedious operation because the wires are behind cabinets. They go all over the place in the shuttle," says Medelius. "NASA needed an instrument capable of telling them exactly where the faults were occurring." To meet NASA s needs for a highly precise device to inspect electrical power bundles, wires

  5. Colloidally deposited nanoparticle wires for biophysical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sophie C.; Liu, Wen-Tao; Diao, Jia-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Among the techniques developed to prepare nanoparticle wires for multiple applications, the colloidal deposition method at interface has been regarded as cost-efficient and eco-friendly, and hence has attracted an increasing amount of research attention. In this report, the recent developments in preparing nanoparticle wires and integrated nanoparticle wire arrays using this technique have been reviewed. Furthermore, we have also discussed the application of these nanoparticle structures in detecting chemical and biological molecules. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities through Xi’an Jiaotong University and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB856304).

  6. Magnetoimpedance response in current annealed amorphous wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the magnetoimpedance (MI) effect in amorphous wires submitted to current annealing treatment in vacuum is presented. The influence of circular anisotropy and stress relaxation induced during the annealing on the impedance dependence on external magnetic field is shown. An increase in the MI ratio for the annealed wires is observed up to a maximum value which is approximately three times higher than the maximum value obtained for the as-cast wire. For high enough times of current annealing treatment a decrease in the MI ratio is observed due to the formation of crystalline phase

  7. Magnetoimpedance response in current annealed amorphous wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, D. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)]. E-mail: danielgg@usal.es; Raposo, V. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Borza, F. [Wolfson Centre for Magnetics Technology, Cardiff University, New Port Road, P.O. Box 925, CF24 0YF Cardiff (United Kingdom); Montero, O. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Iniguez, J. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    In this work, the magnetoimpedance (MI) effect in amorphous wires submitted to current annealing treatment in vacuum is presented. The influence of circular anisotropy and stress relaxation induced during the annealing on the impedance dependence on external magnetic field is shown. An increase in the MI ratio for the annealed wires is observed up to a maximum value which is approximately three times higher than the maximum value obtained for the as-cast wire. For high enough times of current annealing treatment a decrease in the MI ratio is observed due to the formation of crystalline phase.

  8. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights

  9. Pulse speed on a plucked wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odekirk, Tristan; Slaton, William V.

    2012-04-01

    This paper serves to update an elegant experiment published in The Physics Teacher to measure the speed of a pulse on a taut metal wire. Unfortunately, commercially available units2 that serve the same purpose are priced outside the range of most high school or college physics teaching laboratories. Wakeland et al. show how an affordable adaptation of the traditional standing wave apparatus using taut metal wire and horseshoe magnets can be used to measure the speed of a pulse by using an oscilloscope to measure an induced voltage in the wire as the pulse transverses the middle of the magnets, which are a known distance apart.

  10. Copper Wire Bonding Concerns and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Preeti; Zhong, Z. W.; Pecht, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Copper wire bonding of microelectronic parts has developed as a means to cut the costs of using the more mature technology of gold wire bonding. However, with this new technology, changes in the bonding processes as well as bonding metallurgy can affect product reliability. This paper discusses the challenges associated with copper wire bonding and the solutions that the industry has been implementing. The paper also provides information to enable customers to conduct qualification and reliability tests on microelectronic packages to facilitate adoption in their target applications.

  11. Long term attenuation measurements on optical ground wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarche, L.; Gagnon, D.; Miron, M. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec1 (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    The attenuation stability of optical fibers integrated in optical ground wires (OPGW) cables over temperature and time is of paramount importance in the planning of long distance links. The authors report here a mean thermal attenuation dependence of 5.5{center_dot}10{sup {minus}5} dB/(km{center_dot}C) at 1,550 nm, on a 220 km span of dispersion shifted (DS) fibers of an installed OPGW cable. This optical link is installed in the James Bay region over a 735 kV power line where temperature varies from {minus}40 C to +30 C annually. The data sample presented covers 1.5 year starting December 1993. The data sample presented covers 1.5 year starting December 1993. During that period, the authors also observed a temporal evolution of the attenuation described by the empirical relation A = A{sub 0} (t{minus}t{sub 0}){sup 0.00394}.

  12. Wire-mesh sensors for two-phase flow investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the annual report 1996 a new wire-mesh sensor for gas-liquid flows was presented. It was used to visualise the cavitation bubble behind a fast acting shut-off valve in a pipeline with a time resolution of over 1000 frames per second for the first time. In the last two years the sensor was applied to an air-water flow in a vertical pipeline (inner diameter D=51.2 mm) to study the flow structure in a wide range of superficial velocities. Besides the void fraction distributions, the high resolution of the sensor allows to calculate bubble size distributions from the primary measuring data. It was possible to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the flow path with growing distance from the gas injection (inlet length, L). (orig.)

  13. Wire Array Z-Pinch Insights for Enhanced X-Ray Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, interact. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the 2-D Eulerian-radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels

  14. Hydrodynamic Experiments for a Flow Distribution of a 61-pin Wire-wrapped Rod Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel assembly of the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast breeder Reactor) type reactor generally has wire spacers which are wrapped around each fuel pin helically in axial direction. The configuration of a helical wire spacer guarantees the fuel rods integrity by providing the bundle rigidity, proper spacing between rods and promoting coolant mixing between subchannels. It is important to understand the flow characteristics in such a triangular array wire wrapped rod bundle in a hexagonal duct. The experimental work has been undertaken to quantify the friction and mixing parameters which characterize the flow distribution in subchannels for the KAERI's own bundle geometric configuration. This work presents the hydrodynamic experimental results for the flow distribution and the pressure drop in subchannels of a 61-pin wire wrapped rod bundle which has been fabricated considering the hydraulic similarity of the reference reactor. Hydrodynamic experiments for a 61-pin wire wrapped test assembly has been performed to provide the data of a flow distribution and pressure losses in subchannels for verifying the analysis capability of subchannel analysis codes for a KAERI's own prototype SFR reactor. Three type of sampling probes have been specially designed to conserve the shape of the flow area for each type of subchannels. All 126 subchannels have been measured to identify the characteristics of the flow distribution in a 37-pin rod assembly. Pressure drops at the interior and the edge subchannels have been also measured to recognize the friction losses of each type of subchannels

  15. Strategy for silicon based hot-wire chemical vapor deposition without wire silicide formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukart, Artur, E-mail: artur.laukart@ist.fraunhofer.de; Harig, Tino; Höfer, Markus; Schäfer, Lothar

    2015-01-30

    Silicide formation of wires during hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of silicon based coatings is a key challenge which has to be overcome before HWCVD can be transferred successfully into industry. Silicide formation of tungsten wires is not occurring at temperatures of approximately 1900 °C and above when maintaining a silane partial pressure below approximately 1 Pa. Proceeding silicide formation at the cold ends where the wires are electrically contacted was completely prevented by continuously moving the cold ends of the wires into the hot deposition zone, resulting in a retransformation of the tungsten phase. Thus the maintenance period of a HWCVD manufacturing tool can be freed from wire lifetime.

  16. Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaughan, Michael D. [JLAB; Tiefenback, Michael G. [JLAB; Turner, Dennis L. [JLAB

    2013-06-01

    This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

  17. t matrix of metallic wire structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, T. R., E-mail: phystrzhan@gmail.com; Chui, S. T., E-mail: chui@bartol.udel.edu [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.

  18. Fine filamentary NbTi superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present interest in NbTi composite conductors with very fine filaments has developed because of the requirements of the Superconducint Super Collider. The Fermilab Tevatron utilizes wire with 8 μm diameter filaments; the SSC may require wire with less than 3 μm diameter filaments. The reduction in filament diameter means that, while Fermilab wire required 2,000 filaments, a similar size wire for the SSC will require 40,000 or more filaments. Conventional techniques of billet assembly will no longer suffice. Recent improvements in billet design, material preparation, and billet assembly techniques have resulted in a production size NbTi billet containing 4,164 filaments. Extensive development of thermomechanical processing schedules has enabled us to optimize the critical current density in this material to a distinctly higher level than has been previously reported. Experiments have been started to explore the feasibility of scaling this material to a 40,000 filament conductor

  19. First principle study on AIN Nano wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a first-principle study on the atomic and electronic structure of AIN Nanowire and examine the dependence of surface stress on nanowire lateral size and shape. The hexagonal wire size ranging as 10-16-22 A. We investigate the unsaturated dangling bond state in the region of bandgap with varying the wires diameter. We also calculated the surface formation energy and find that it decreases with increasing the wire diameter and a greater stability (lower surface formation energy) comes with hexagonal wire. We also study the dependence of theoretical prediction on various density functional theory (DFT) treatment using DMOL3 local orbital density functional method with an effective core potential. (author)

  20. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications

  1. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joshua, E-mail: joshuk7@uci.edu; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Chu, Michael [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Pegan, Jonathan D. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Khine, Michelle, E-mail: mkhine@uci.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  2. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is...

  3. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  4. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils

  5. 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements was discussed specifically. These 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. PMID:25397618

  6. Communication and wiring in the cortical connectome

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Julian M. L.; Kisvárday, Zoltán F.

    2012-01-01

    In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring p...

  7. Communication and Wiring in the Cortical Connectome

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Budd; Zoltan F Kisvarday

    2012-01-01

    In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring p...

  8. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  9. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2008-12-29

    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  10. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  11. Ballistic transport through coupled T-shaped quantum wires

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yuh-Kae; Lin, Kao-Chin; Chuu, Der-San

    2003-01-01

    The ballistic conductance of a coupled $T$-shaped semiconductor quantum wire (CTQW) are studied. Two types of CTQW are considered, one of which is a $\\Pi $-shaped quantum wire ($\\Pi $QW) which consists of two transverse wires on the same side of the main wire and the other a $\\Pi $-clone quantum wire ($\\Pi $CQW) which consists of two transverse wires on the opposite sides of the main wire. The mode matching method and Landauer-Buttiker theory are employed to study the energy dependence of the...

  12. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    OpenAIRE

    Piyas Palit; Souvik Das; Jitendra Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The f...

  13. Optimal, Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Reliability based code calibration is considered in this paper. It is described how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to the partial safety factors and characteristic values. The code calibration problem is presented in a decision theoretical form and it is discussed how...... acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for the ultimate and the serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes a procedure for the practical implementation of...... reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  14. Adsorption of iodine on silver wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is an important process in which iodine is adsorbed on silver wire during the preparation of 125I seed sources. In this paper, a technique of adsorption of iodine on silver wire was studied. The influence of several factors, such as the type of reagent for halogenation, the time for halogenation, the time for adsorption, pH value, ion concentration, carrier iodine and so on, on the utilization rate of 131I was investigated, and the effectiveness of our proposed technique for adsorption of iodine on silver wire was confirmed. The procedure is summarized as follows: silver wire acidification: using 4 mol/L HNO3 as halogenation agent, stirring acidified for 20 min; silver wire halogenation: used 2 mol/L NaClO3 as halogenated agent, halogenation for 3 h; adsorption of iodine on silver wire: room temperature, pH value for the reaction is about 3, the time for adsorption is 30 min, carrier iodine is 27.5 μg. Original radioactivity of reaction solution was determined based on radioactivity of source-core that user required. (authors)

  15. Domain wall resistance in epitaxial Fe wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassel, C., E-mail: christoph.hassel@uni-due.d [Fachbereich Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Roemer, F.M.; Reckers, N. [Fachbereich Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Kronast, F. [Bessy GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Dumpich, G.; Lindner, J. [Fachbereich Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    We studied the magnetoresistance behavior of epitaxial Fe wires grown on GaAs(1 1 0) with varying widths at room temperature. Single nanowires show a wire width (w) dependence of the coercive field, which increases with 1/w for decreasing wire widths. This enables the pinning of a single domain wall in the connection area of two wires with different widths. Magnetoresistance measurements of such wire structures clearly reveal resistance contributions arising from a domain wall. The presence of the domain wall is proven by photoemission electron-microscopy with synchrotron radiation. Moreover, micromagnetic simulations are performed to determine the spin orientations, especially within the domain wall. This permits us to calculate the anisotropic magnetoresistance caused by the domain wall. Taking this into account, we determine the intrinsic domain wall resistance, for which we found a positive value of 0.2%, in agreement with theoretical predictions. - Research highlights: > Magnetoresistance of epitaxial Fe wires is studied. > Pinning of a single domain wall at constriction. > Detection of domain wall by resistance and XPEEM measurements. > AMR contribution calculated by micromagnetic simulations. > Positive intrinsic domain wall resistance in agreement with theory.

  16. Domain wall resistance in epitaxial Fe wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the magnetoresistance behavior of epitaxial Fe wires grown on GaAs(1 1 0) with varying widths at room temperature. Single nanowires show a wire width (w) dependence of the coercive field, which increases with 1/w for decreasing wire widths. This enables the pinning of a single domain wall in the connection area of two wires with different widths. Magnetoresistance measurements of such wire structures clearly reveal resistance contributions arising from a domain wall. The presence of the domain wall is proven by photoemission electron-microscopy with synchrotron radiation. Moreover, micromagnetic simulations are performed to determine the spin orientations, especially within the domain wall. This permits us to calculate the anisotropic magnetoresistance caused by the domain wall. Taking this into account, we determine the intrinsic domain wall resistance, for which we found a positive value of 0.2%, in agreement with theoretical predictions. - Research highlights: → Magnetoresistance of epitaxial Fe wires is studied. → Pinning of a single domain wall at constriction. → Detection of domain wall by resistance and XPEEM measurements. → AMR contribution calculated by micromagnetic simulations. → Positive intrinsic domain wall resistance in agreement with theory.

  17. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF4/iC4H10 gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF4-rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF4, acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF4/iC4H10 gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C2H6. Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl3F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds

  18. Wire-bond inspection in IC assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, Mandava; Rodd, Mike G.

    1996-02-01

    Wire-bonding in IC assembly process involves making a physical connection between the IC 'die' and the 'lead' by bonding wires between the two. Inspection of wire-bond quality is a' highly labor-intensive process and currently efforts are being made to automate it. This paper presents the results of a research conducted into developing a comprehensive automated wire- bond visual inspection system that is capable of performing final accept/reject inspection, providing on-line process feedback, and assisting in process validation. The proposed inspection system consists of the inspection of the bond on a bond pad, the bond on a lead and the inter-connecting wire between a bond pad and its corresponding lead. The algorithms are based on simple and easily extractable features that ensure achieving the desired accuracy and speed. A novel but simple illumination system is proposed to obtain the images of the inter- connecting wires. The proposed system is validated using several state-of-the-art IC samples. This work is sponsored by the Ministry of Science Technology and Environment, Malaysia and Intel Technology Pvt. Ltd., Malaysia.

  19. The technology of testing the safety of steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Hu, Caiwen

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the security of steel wire rope, the broken wire condition, the capability of the rope to bear weight and the state of stress balance of each wire in the steel wire rope were investigated. The wavelet translation method was applied to analyze the signals of magnetic field leakage from the steel wire rope. The result of the time-frequency analysis of the signals can be used to make certain of he position and the amount of the broken wire. Using the static surveillance method as a basis, a dynamic surveillance method was designed to detect the stress balance of the steel wire rope. This technology makes it possible to check the stress condition of each wire on line. It can be concluded that a wavelet translation analysis and the dynamic surveillance technique are effective methods to detect on line and real-time the broken wire and the stress balance of multistrand wire ropes.

  20. Coded aperture imaging in nuclear medicine: review and update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since mid-1972, a number of investigators have been studying the properties of coded apertures as applied to imaging distributions of gamma-emitting radiotracers in the human body. Aperture codes including the zone plate, annulus, stationary and time modulated random hole patterns and the rotating slit have been employed with a variety of detectors ranging from X-ray film to multi-wire proportional counters. These methods are described and discussed

  1. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  2. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing in...

  3. Concatenated codes with convolutional inner codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Zyablov, Viktor

    1988-01-01

    The minimum distance of concatenated codes with Reed-Solomon outer codes and convolutional inner codes is studied. For suitable combinations of parameters the minimum distance can be lower-bounded by the product of the minimum distances of the inner and outer codes. For a randomized ensemble of...... concatenated codes a lower bound of the Gilbert-Varshamov type is proved...

  4. Quantum Cyclic Code

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sagarmoy

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we define and study \\emph{quantum cyclic codes}, a generalisation of cyclic codes to the quantum setting. Previously studied examples of quantum cyclic codes were all quantum codes obtained from classical cyclic codes via the CSS construction. However, the codes that we study are much more general. In particular, we construct cyclic stabiliser codes with parameters $[[5,1,3

  5. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110}α or {112}α slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  6. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Wei; Liu, Qing

    2010-01-01

    microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates......The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron...... decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...

  7. Assembly for activity distribution measurement of wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation method is used as a basic method for the neutron fluence measurement in the LVR-15 research reactor. Activation foils have usually been used as the monitors. At present an assembly for the measurement of linear specific activity distribution of wires has been developed. The assembly allows the activation wires to be used for neutron fluence measurement mainly in the reactor core. More detailed results of linear distribution and simpler handling with radioactive material are the advantages of activation wires compared with foils. More difficult calibration and processing of measured data are disadvantages on the other hand. The assembly consists of a spectrometer with HPGe detector for gamma activity measurement, a Pb shielding collimator around the detector, an outer Pb shielding, a transporting equipment and a controlling PC. The diameter of the collimator is 20 mm. The wire from Cu, Fe, Ni or Co material with diameter of 0.3 mm to 1.0 mm is placed on a support Al stick with diameter of 6 mm. After irradiation the stick with the wire is placed in the transporting equipment above the Pb shielding collimator and measured. Response function for the point radiation source on the line, where the wire is placed during the measurement, is the main characteristic of the assembly. The response function also depends on the energy of gamma radiation. The design of the Pb shielding collimator is described and the measured response functions for a few point radiation sources are given in the paper. During the measurement the stick with the wire moves above the collimator aperture and the peak count rates depending on position of wire with step of 10 mm to 50 mm are measured. As the response function for point source has not the ideal rectangular distribution (i.e. constant positive value above the collimator aperture and zero value for points out of the aperture) the evaluation of activities is not so simple as for measurement of individual samples. In the paper the

  8. Frequency response of a thermocouple wire: Effects of axial conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, L. J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady-state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a uniform thermocouple wire and a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. For the case of a uniform wire, the amplitude ratio and phase angle compare favorably with the series solution of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) except near the ends of the wire. For the case of a non-uniform wire, the amplitude ratio at low frequency omega yields 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky for a steady-state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a non-uniform wire in the limit of infinite length l yields infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties.

  9. Vibration measurements of a wire scanner - Experimental setup and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Juan; Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new performance demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 m s-1 and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire have been identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations has been given high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This article presents a new strategy to measure the wire vibrations based on the piezoresistive effect of the wire itself. An electronic readout system based on a Wheatstone bridge is used to measure the variation of the carbon wire resistance, which is directly proportional to the wire elongation caused by the oscillations.

  10. Unconventional applications of wire bonding create opportunities for microsystem integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic wire bonding is a highly mature, cost-efficient and broadly available back-end process, intended to create electrical interconnections in semiconductor chip packaging. Modern production wire-bonding tools can bond wires with speeds of up to 30 bonds per second with placement accuracies of better than 2 μm, and the ability to form each wire individually into a desired shape. These features render wire bonding a versatile tool also for integrating wires in applications other than electrical interconnections. Wire bonding has been adapted and used to implement a variety of innovative microstructures. This paper reviews unconventional uses and applications of wire bonding that have been reported in the literature. The used wire-bonding techniques and materials are discussed, and the implemented applications are presented. They include the realization and integration of coils, transformers, inductors, antennas, electrodes, through silicon vias, plugs, liquid and vacuum seals, plastic fibers, shape memory alloy actuators, energy harvesters and sensors. (topical review)

  11. The PS Booster Fast Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, S; Priestnall, K; Raich, U

    2003-01-01

    The very tight emittance budget for LHC type beams makes precise emittance measurements in the injector complex a necessity. The PS machine uses 2 fast wire scanners per transverse plane for emittance measurement of the circulating beams. In order to ease comparison the same type of wire scanners have been newly installed in the upstream machine, the PS Booster, where each of the 4 rings is equipped with 2 wire scanners measuring the horizontal and vertical profiles. Those wire scanners use new and more modern control and readout electronics featuring dedicated intelligent motor movement controllers, which relieves the very stringent real time constraints due to the very high speed of 20m/s. In order to be able to measure primary beams at the very low injection energy of the Booster (50MeV) secondary emission currents from the wire can be measured as well as secondary particle flows at higher primary particle energies during and after acceleration. The solution adopted for the control of the devices is descri...

  12. Forgotten Kirschner Wire Causing Severe Hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire (K-wire is commonly used in the treatment of hip fracture and its migration into pelvis leading to bladder injury is a very rare complication. Nonremoval of these devices either because of lack of followup or because of prolonged requirement due to disease process is associated with this complication. We report a case of a patient who presented with acute onset severe hematuria with clot retention secondary to perforation of bladder by a migrated K-wire placed earlier, for the treatment of hip fracture. Initial imaging showed its presence in the soft tissues of the pelvis away from the major vascular structures. Patient was taken for emergency laparotomy and wire was removed after cystotomy. Postoperative period was uneventful and patient was discharged in satisfactory condition. K-wires are commonly used in the management of fracture bones and their migration has been reported in the literature although such migration in the intrapelvic region involving bladder is very rare. Early diagnosis and prompt removal of such foreign bodies are required to avert potentially fatal involvement of major structures.

  13. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  14. Comparison of actuation schemes for wire-driven parallel robots

    OpenAIRE

    Merlet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    There are two main systems that can be used to coil and uncoil the wires of a wire-driven parallel robots: a rotary motor that turns a drum on which the wire is coiled or a linear motor with a pulley system. The rotary category may be divided into two sub-categories: the system with a spiral guide for the coiling, allowing only layer for the wire and the system without guide, that allows for several wire layers with the drawback that the amount of coiled wire for one mot...

  15. Estimation of quality for steel wire ropes according

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Peterka; Boroka Ján; Kreák Jozef

    1997-01-01

    Life and work dependability of steel wire ropes depend also on their quality. Test results of the steel wire ropes for pull, bend and torque are used for determination of their work capacity by safety factors and standards. To estimate the quality of steel wire ropes a factor of unequal pull steel wires, which we evaluated for sixty nine operating steel wire ropes made in various countries, can be calculated. The tests revealed that producers of steel wire ropes use for their products steel ...

  16. Rapid Real-Time SpaceWire Emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Stephen; Parkes, Steve; Dunstan, Martin

    2015-09-01

    The SpaceWire Electronic Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) test and development unit from STAR-Dundee can be used to very rapidly emulate real-time behaviour of SpaceWire equipment. The behaviour of the equipment to emulate is described in a script using a SpaceWire specific scripting language. Once configured the SpaceWire EGSE unit operates independent of software. This paper describes three camera emulation scripts to demonstrate the rapid real-time SpaceWire emulation possible using the SpaceWire EGSE.

  17. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    OpenAIRE

    Arsana I Made; Susianto; Budhikarjono Kusno; Altway Ali

    2016-01-01

    Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Opti...

  18. A new route to process diamond wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  19. Induced voltage in an open wire

    CERN Document Server

    Morawetz, K; Trupp, A

    2015-01-01

    A puzzle arising from Faraday's law is considered and solved concerning the question which voltage is induced in an open wire feeling a time-varying homogeneous magnetic field. The longitudinal electric field contributes 1/3 and the transverse field 2/3 to the induced voltage. The representation of a homogeneous and time-varying magnetic field implies unavoidably a certain symmetry point or line dependent on the geometry of the source. As a consequence the induced voltage of an open wire is found to be the area covered with respect to the symmetry line or point perpendicular to the magnetic field. This in turn allows to find the symmetry points of a magnetic field source by measuring the voltage of an open wire. We present two exactly solvable models for a symmetry point and for a symmetry line. The results are applicable to open circuit problems and for astrophysical applications.

  20. Temperature effect on DNA molecular wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Christopher Minh

    The demand of technology and information today has further pushed the fabrication process of nanotechnology, yet there are limits and obstacles set by the primary laws of physics. Therefore, researchers are pursuing alternative technologies. Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) molecular wire is one advantageous option due to its unique characteristics including self-assembly and naturally small; size. This thesis reports the temperature effect on the electrical properties of a double-stranded ?-DNA molecular wire. The data will help expand the DNA wire application and functionality. Thus, the data supports the charge hopping theory on DNA electrical conductivity. Diverse amount of literatures has demonstrated that DNA experiences a biochemical alteration when exposed under different temperature conditions. This change will also cause a change in the electrical properties. In this research, DNA will hang between two gold covered microelectrodes with a distance of 10 to 12 microns. The microelectrodes are fabricated through negative lithography techniques. Then, the samples were exposed to a numerous range of temperature from 25°C to 180°C and went through varying cycles of heating and cooling. The experimental results revealed that the DNA experienced a hysteresis like behavior where the impedance differed between the heating and cooling phase. The impedance of the DNA molecular wire increased when exposed to higher temperature. Furthermore, the impedance stops increasing after a certain amount of heat cycles before the DNA structure failed. The biology and thermodynamics of the DNA wire was analyzed due to the temperature hysteresis effect. The melting temperature and the bond dissociation temperature were evaluated to determine the cause of the impedance trends. The studies and analysis of the temperature effect provided certain insights towards the charge hopping transport mechanism. The thesis concludes with possible applications relating to the temperature effect of

  1. Physarum wires: Self-growing self-repairing smart wires made from slime mould

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental laboratory studies on developing conductive pathways, or wires, using protoplasmic tubes of plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Given two pins to be connected by a wire, we place a piece of slime mould on one pin and an attractant on another pin. Physarum propagates towards the attract and thus connects the pins with a protoplasmic tube. A protoplasmic tube is conductive, can survive substantial over-voltage and can be used to transfer electrical current to lightning and actuating devices. In experiments we show how to route Physarum wires with chemoattractants and electrical fields. We demonstrate that Physarum wire can be grown on almost bare breadboards and on top of electronic circuits. The Physarum wires can be insulated with a silicon oil without loss of functionality. We show that a Physarum wire self-heals: end of a cut wire merge together and restore the conductive pathway in several hours after being cut. Results presented will be used in future designs ...

  2. Vacuum multilayer lamination of printed wiring boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkus, J. W.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment investigates vacuum multilayer lamination of rigid/flex, epoxy glass, polyimide glass, and polyimide quartz printed wiring boards. The effectiveness of the vacuum in removing entrapped air during the lamination cycle is demonstrated. The results of the experiment have also shown that vacuum lamination of epoxy glass multilayers improves the delamination resistance. Thus, epoxy glass multilayers that have been vacuum laminated will be able to withstand soldering temperatures longer without delaminating. Also, the experiment shows that vacuum multilayer lamination does not significantly change thickness, layer-to-layer registration, glass transition temperature, dielectric spacing between conductors, electrical resistance following thermal shock test, and other critical printed wiring board properties.

  3. Results from some anode wire aging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using twin setups to test anode wire aging in small gas avalanche tubes, a variety of different gas mixtures were tried and other parameters were varied to study their effects upon the gain drop, nomalized to charge transfer: - 1/Q dI/I. This was found to be quite sensitive to the purity of the gases, and also sensitive to the nominal gain and the gas flow rate. The wire surface material can also significantly affect the aging, as can additives, such as ethanol or water vapor. Certain gas mixtures have been found to be consistent with zero aging at the sensitivity level of this technique

  4. FRICTION COEFFICIENT OF DIAMOND WIRE SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Dunda

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the diamond wire saw upon quarrying of dimension stone, it is necessary to know the value of a friction coefficient on the driving pulley of the saw. Therefore the numerical value of the friction coefficient between diamond wire and coating of a driving pulley was determined in experimental way. The experiments were conducted under different working conditions. The resulting average value of the friction coefficient upon working in wet and muddy conditions amounted to µ = 0,32.

  5. Fatigue of High Purity Copper Wire

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, N.; Kurosaka, A.; Suzuki, K.; Kohno, O.

    1995-01-01

    The fatigue properties of 7N, OFC and Tough-Pitch copper wires were evaluated by a rotational bending method. 7N copper wires, having RRR300K/4.2K of 7600, were produced by electro-refining, vacuum melting, zonerefining followed by suitable drawing processes, using 4N class commercial OFC plates as the starting material. The fatigue failure cycles of 7N copper increased with an increased pause period imposed during the fatigue test after 5x106 cycles. Remarkable recrystallizations initiated f...

  6. Quantum Convolutional BCH Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aly, S A; Klappenecker, A; Roetteler, M; Sarvepalli, P K; Aly, Salah A.; Grassl, Markus; Klappenecker, Andreas; Roetteler, Martin; Sarvepalli, Pradeep Kiran

    2007-01-01

    Quantum convolutional codes can be used to protect a sequence of qubits of arbitrary length against decoherence. We introduce two new families of quantum convolutional codes. Our construction is based on an algebraic method which allows to construct classical convolutional codes from block codes, in particular convolutional BCH codes. These codes have the property that they contain their Euclidean, respectively Hermitian, dual codes. Hence, they can be used to define quantum convolutional codes by the stabilizer code construction. We compute BCH-like bounds on the free distances which can be controlled as in the case of block codes, and establish that the codes have non-catastrophic encoders.

  7. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  8. Annual Interviews

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Annex II, page 1, Section 3 of the Administrative Circular no. 26 (Rev. 5) states that "The annual interview shall usually take place between 15 November of the reference year and 15 February of the following year." Following the meeting of the Executive Board on 7 December 2004 and the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 19 January 2005, it has been decided, for the advancement exercise of 2005, to extend this period until 15 March 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  9. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shame M.; Godley, Richard Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis, simulation, and test data is shown to be very good.

  10. Concatenated Conjugate Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, M

    2006-01-01

    A conjugate code pair is defined as a pair of linear codes either of which contains the dual of the other. A conjugate code pair represents the essential structure of the corresponding Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) quantum code. It is known that conjugate code pairs are applicable to (quantum) cryptography. We give a construction method for efficiently decodable conjugate code pairs.

  11. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  12. Gold planar wire array radiation sources at university scale generators and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various configurations of planar wires arrays (PWA) made from wires in a broad range of atomic numbers up to 74 (W) have been extensively tested on Zebra generator at the University of Nevada, Reno. In this work, we present the results of our experiments with PWA made of the wires with an even higher atomic number, specifically 79 (Au). Two different configurations (single and double PWAs) are considered. The diagnostic set included: x-ray detectors, laser shadowgraphy, time-gated and time-integrated x-ray pinhole cameras, time-integrated spatially resolved and time-gated spatially integrated x-ray spectrometers, and a bolometer. The total x-ray yield was measured along and perpendicular to the load plane and reached the highest value measured on Zebra so far for the single PWA (perpendicular to the plane, 32 kJ). Theoretical tools included non-LTE kinetic and wire ablation dynamic models. The full set of data using aforementioned diagnostics is analyzed and specific implosion and radiative characteristics of Au PWAs. The application of gold PWAs in compact hohlraum configurations on Zebra is highlighted. VisRad (Prism Computational Sciences), a 3-D view factor code, is used to simulate the multi-dimensional radiation environment with a special emphasis on radiation temperature calculations and uniformity at the re-emission target surface. (author)

  13. Tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments at 200 TW and 2 MJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here Z, a 60 TW/5 MJ electrical accelerator located at Sandia National Laboratories, has been used to implode tungsten wire-array Z pinches. These arrays consisted of large numbers of tungsten wires (120 endash 300) with wire diameters of 7.5 to 15 μm placed in a symmetric cylindrical array. The experiments used array diameters ranging from 1.75 to 4 cm and lengths from 1 to 2 cm. A 2 cm long, 4 cm diam tungsten array consisting of 240, 7.5 μm diam wires (4.1 mg mass) achieved an x-ray power of ∼200TW and an x-ray energy of nearly 2 MJ. Spectral data suggest an optically thick, Planckian-like radiator below 1000 eV. One surprising experimental result was the observation that the total radiated x-ray energies and x-ray powers were nearly independent of pinch length. These data are compared with two-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic code calculations. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  14. Measurement and modeling of the implosion of wire arrays with seeded instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study wire array Z-pinch instabilities, perturbations have been seeded by etching 15 μm diameter aluminum wires to introduce 20% modulations in radius with a controlled axial wavelength. These perturbations seed additional imploding structures that are studied experimentally on the 1 MA, 250 ns MAGPIE generator [S. V. Lebedev et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47, A91 (2005)] and with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic calculations using the ALEGRA-HEDP [A. C. Robinson and C. J. Garasi, Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 408 (2004)] and GORGON [J. P. Chittenden et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46, B457 (2004)] codes. Simulations indicate that current path nonuniformity at discontinuities in the wire radius result in perturbation-induced magnetic bubble formation. Imploding bubbles originating from discontinuities are observed experimentally, and their collision on axis determines the start of the main x-ray pulse rise. These mechanisms likely govern dynamics of standard wire array Z pinches, and tailoring the profile of imploding mass may allow x-ray pulse shaping for inertial confinement fusion applications

  15. RADTRAN: a computer code to analyze transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code is presented which predicts the environmental impact of any specific scheme of radioactive material transportation. Results are presented in terms of annual latent cancer fatalities and annual early fatility probability resulting from exposure, during normal transportation or transport accidents. The code is developed in a generalized format to permit wide application including normal transportation analysis; consideration of alternatives; and detailed consideration of specific sectors of industry

  16. Validation of SOCRAT-BN code on rod bundle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOCRAT-BN code is developed for the analysis of design and beyond design basis accidents at NPPs with liquid sodium as a coolant. To simulate the behavior of the coolant in the reactor core heat transfer and friction in rod bundle geometry are required to consider. The code SOCRAT-BN uses specialized closing relations to simulate rod bundles. The article describes the validation of the code SOCRAT-BN on experiments with fuel rod imitators in the triangular geometry with a wire-wound. (author)

  17. Modular Wiring Offers Cost Savings and Future Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Mike; Ewald, Ann O'Connor

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular wiring, a prefabricated wiring system that replaces branch circuits in buildings. Advantages include on-site and day-to-day labor savings, and future technology cost advantages. Includes questions to ask manufacturers. (EV)

  18. Radiation of relativistic electrons in a periodic wire structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboleva, V.V., E-mail: sobolevaveronica@mail.ru; Naumenko, G.A.; Bleko, V.V.

    2015-07-15

    We present in this work the experimental investigation of the interaction of relativistic electron field with periodic wire structures. We used two types of the targets in experiments: flat wire target and sandwich wire target that represent the right triangular prism. The measurements were done in millimeter wavelength region (10–40 mm) on the relativistic electron beam with energy of 6.2 MeV in far-field zone. We showed that bunched electron beam passing near wire metamaterial prism generates coherent Cherenkov radiation. The experiments with flat wire target were carried out in two geometries. In the first geometry the electron beam passed close to the flat wire target surface. In the second case the electron beam passed through the flat wire structure with generation of a coherent backward transition radiation (CBTR). The comparison of the Cherenkov radiation intensity and BTR intensity from the flat wire target and from the flat conductive target (conventional BTR) was made.

  19. A REVIEW ON INNOVATION OF WIRE STRAIGHTENING CUTTING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHVIN S. PATEL,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Now days, there are wide verity of wire products like welding electrode, weld mesh, heat treated kitchen baskets, automobile spark plugs and exhaust valves etc. For manufacturing all aboveproducts, wire is used as primary element and is to be straighten from coil form. Now straighten wire is to be cut into wire rod as per required length. For these sequential operations, wire straighteningcutting machine is used. Now days, conventional type wire straightening cutting machine are being used in which wire is cut by stopper cutter head which is limited by its length as well as feeding speed. This paper surveys straightening and cutting process used in such machines. Although this review cannot be collectively exhaustive, it may be considered as a valuable guide for researchers who are interested to develop next generation of wire straightening cutting machines.

  20. Analysis of TPC inner drift chamber wire coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of analyzing the chemical composition of deposits on wires in a drift chamber at SLAC that failed with an argon/methane gas, the techniques of mass spectroscopy (MS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) are demonstrated. Chemical mechanisms are proposed for conversion of methane gas of polyethylene-like insulating coatings on the wires. Discussion of mass spectra for model compounds is turned toward evaluation of spectra from both field wires and sense wires. Contamination from phthalate plasticizers is found on both sets of wires, while silicone polymer is detected only on sense wires. AES data on field wires show mostly (90%+) carbon; profiles of carbon/gold/copper implicate nonuniformities in the gold coating and/or the underlying copper-beryllium alloy. Successful chamber operation was subsequently achieved by reducing the wire potentials, though polymeric deposition continued at a slower rate

  1. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  2. Technological improvements in wire rod mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestani, M.

    1996-07-01

    The paper deals with the latest rolling technologies and hi-tech equipment developed by Danieli-mogardshammar to ensure top performance of modern wire rod mills. In particular, a high reduction sizing mill, a twin module fast finishing block and a high speed cropping shear are presented. (authors)

  3. Wire chamber degradation at the Argonne ZGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience with multiwire proportional chambers at high rates at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron is described. A buildup of silicon on the sense wires was observed where the beam passed through the chamber. Analysis of the chamber gas indicated that the density of silicon was probably less than 10 ppM

  4. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Wire-Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wapperom, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating process of an MDPE melt. The melt is modeled by a nonisothermal Carreau model. The emphasis is on predicting an accurate temperature field. Therefore, it is necessary to include the heat conduction in the metal parts. A comparison...

  6. Tunable permeability of magnetic wires at microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panina, L.V., E-mail: lpanina@plymouth.ac.uk [National University of Science and Technology, MISiS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Design Problems in Microelectronics, RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Makhnovskiy, D.P. [School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom); Morchenko, A.T.; Kostishin, V.G. [National University of Science and Technology, MISiS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis into microwave magnetic properties of magnetic microwires and their composites in the context of applications in wireless sensors and tunable microwave materials. It is demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of wires has a wide frequency dispersion with relatively large values in the GHz band. In the case of a specific magnetic anisotropy this results in a tunable microwave impedance which could be used for distributed wireless sensing networks in functional composites. The other range of applications is related with developing the artificial magnetic dielectrics with large and tunable permeability. The composites with magnetic wires with a circumferential anisotropy have the effective permeability which differs substantially from unity for a relatively low concentration (less than 10%). This can make it possible to design the wire media with a negative and tunable index of refraction utilising natural magnetic properties of wires. - Highlights: • Applications of magnetic microwires for functional composites and distributed sensor networks are proposed. • Diluted composites with magnetic microwires can demonstrate tunable left-handed properties. • Large microwave permeability combined with a specific magnetic structure lead to a large and sensitive microwave magnetoimpedance. • Microwave magnetoimpedance highly sensitive to temperature is demonstrated.

  7. High power electrical wire explosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full Text:Experimental and magneto-hydro-dynamic simulation results of nanosecond time scale underwater electrical Al, Cu and W wires explosions are presented. A water forming line generator with current amplitude up to 100 kA was used. Maximal current rise rate and maximal Joule heating power achieved during wire explosions were 500 Ga/s and 6 GW, respectively. Extremely high energy deposition of up to 60 times the atomization enthalpy was registered comparing to the best reported result of energy deposition obtained in vacuum wire explosion of 20 times the atomization enthalpy. A discharge channel evolution and surface temperature were analyzed by streak shadow imaging and using fast photo-diode with a set of interference filters, respectively. A 1D magneto-hydro-dynamic simulation demonstrated good agreement with such experimental parameters as discharge channel current, voltage, radius, and temperature. Material conductivity has been calculated to produce best correlation of the simulated and experimentally obtained voltage. It has been shown that conductivity may significantly vary as a function of energy deposition rate in nanosecond time scale underwater electrical wire explosions

  8. Ultra-Wideband Design of the Wire Conical Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; HE Qing-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Using the wire construction technique, a conical monopole antenna is fabricated. With the method of moments, the dependences of the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) on the number of the trapezoid wire elements, conical angles, wire radius, etc. are investigated. The calculation and the experiment show that the designed wire conical antenna has the ultra-wideband property and can be used for the engineering.

  9. ePLAS modeling of hot electron transport in nail-wire targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic electron transport in short-pulse laser illuminated nail-wire and foil targets has been studied with the e-PLAS implicit/hybrid plasma simulation code in a cylindrical geometry. The intensities are typical of the Vulcan and Titan petawatt lasers (1.06 μm, 1.7x1020 W/cm2) in 10 μm diameter Gaussian spots, producing hot electrons at a relativistic γ = 3.4 according to Beg scaling, and with 20% absorption assumed. The targets are 200 μm long nail-headed copper wires 20 μm in diameter, and copper foils 120 μm thick. The code dumps energy at constant intensity for a picosecond at the critical surface into an isotropic relativistic Maxwellian particle-in-cell hot electron distribution. The emitted hot particles draw a cold electron return current scattering off the background ions taken as ionized at a fixed Z = 15. Transport of the hot electrons is impeded by the electric field from a Spitzer resistivity acting on the cold electron return current. Assumed emission angle is shown to seriously affect hot e- penetration in the wires.

  10. Modelling wire-to-wire corona discharge action on aerodynamics and comparison with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Velez, J-C [ONERA, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Degond, P [Institut de Mathematiques, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Rogier, F [ONERA, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Seraudie, A [ONERA, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Thivet, F [ONERA, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2008-02-07

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a simple model for plasma generation and effect on fluids at atmospheric pressure. Experiments are conducted using a wire-to-wire corona discharge actuator in a subsonic boundary layer flow. Velocity gains of several metres per second are observed. A quasi-2D numerical model of the discharge is proposed and explains the creation of two corona discharges around the electrodes. A one-way approach of the plasma aerodynamics coupling gives access to the ionic wind. It is confirmed that the actuator accelerates the flow from the anode to the cathode. Order of magnitudes of the ionic wind and flow velocity profiles are close to experiments. A first attempt to perform a 2D simulation of the wire-to-wire discharge is presented as the starting point of future works.

  11. International Accreditation of ASME Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASME established a Boiler Code Committee to develop rules for the design, fabrication and inspection of boilers. This year we recognize 75 years of that Code and will publish a history of that 75 years. The first Code and subsequent editions provided for a Code Symbol Stamp or mark which could be affixed by a manufacturer to a newly constructed product to certify that the manufacturer had designed, fabricated and had inspected it in accordance with Code requirements. The purpose of the ASME Mark is to identify those boilers that meet ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements. Through thousands of updates over the years, the Code has been revised to reflect technological advances and changing safety needs. Its scope has been broadened from boilers to include pressure vessels, nuclear components and systems. Proposed revisions to the Code are published for public review and comment four times per year and revisions and interpretations are published annually; it's a living and constantly evolving Code. You and your organizations are a vital part of the feedback system that keeps the Code alive. Because of this dynamic Code, we no longer have columns in newspapers listing boiler explosions. Nevertheless, it has been argued recently that ASME should go further in internationalizing its Code. Specifically, representatives of several countries, have suggested that ASME delegate to them responsibility for Code implementation within their national boundaries. The question is, thus, posed: Has the time come to franchise responsibility for administration of ASME's Code accreditation programs to foreign entities or, perhaps, 'institutes.' And if so, how should this be accomplished?

  12. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a...

  13. Plasmon assisted transport through disordered array of quantum wires

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovskiy, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Phononless plasmon assisted thermally activated transport through a long disordered array of finite length quantum wires is investigated analytically. Generically strong electron plasmon interaction in quantum wires results in a qualitative change of the temperature dependence of thermally activated resistance in comparison to phonon assisted transport. At high temperatures, the thermally activated resistance is determined by the Luttinger liquid interaction parameter of the wires.

  14. Processing of flexible high-Tc superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wires superconducting at temperatures above 77 K are produced by using YBa2Cu3O7 materials. Flexibility was obtained by support from prefabricated fibers or a metallic coating on the extruded YBa2Cu3O7 wires. The microstructure, the Tc and the critical current densities of the wires were determined. Processing variables and steps are described

  15. Quantum stability and magic lengths of metal atom wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lan, Haiping; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Niu, Qian; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-06-01

    Metal atom wires represent an important class of nanomaterials in the development of future electronic devices and other functional applications. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we carry out a systematic study of the quantum stability of freestanding atom wires consisting of prototypical metal elements with s -, s p -, and s d -valence electrons. We explore how the quantum mechanically confined motion and local bonding of the valence electrons in these different wire systems can dictate their overall structural stability and find that the formation energy of essentially all the wires oscillates with respect to their length measured by the number n of atoms contained in the wires, establishing the existence of highly preferred (or magic) lengths. Furthermore, different wire classes exhibit distinctively different oscillatory characteristics and quantum stabilities. Alkali metal wires possessing an unpaired s valence electron per atom exhibit simple damped even-odd oscillations. In contrast, Al and Ga wires containing three s2p1 valence electrons per atom generally display much larger and undamped even-odd energy oscillations due to stronger local bonding of the p orbitals. Among the noble metals, the s -dominant Ag wires behave similarly to the linear alkali metal wires, while Au and Pt wires distinctly prefer to be structurally zigzagged due to strong relativistic effects. These findings are discussed in connection with existing experiments and should also be instrumental in future experimental realization of different metal atom wires in freestanding or supported environments with desirable functionalities.

  16. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  17. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nicolas Delerue; Sudhir Dixit; Fred Gannaway; David Howell; Myriam Qurshi; Grahame Blair; Stewart Boogert; Gary Boorman; Chafik Driouichi; Lawerence Deacon; Alexander Aryshev; Pavel Karataev; Nobuhiro Terunnuma; Junji urakawa; Axel Brachmann; Joe Frisch; Marc Ross

    2007-12-01

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  18. 21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. 872.4880... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a) Identification. An intraosseous fixation screw or wire is a metal device intended to be...

  19. Electronic conductance of quantum wire with serial periodic potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory based on the total transfer matrix is presented to investigate the electronic conductance in a quantum wire with serial periodic potentials. We apply the formalism in computation of the electronic conductance in a wire with different physical parameters of the wire structure. The numerical results could be used in designing some future quantum electronic devices. (author)

  20. 21 CFR 872.4600 - Intraoral ligature and wire lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral ligature and wire lock. 872.4600 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4600 Intraoral ligature and wire lock. (a) Identification. An intraoral ligature and wire lock is a metal device intended to constrict fractured...

  1. Communication and Wiring in the Cortical Connectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Budd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimise communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction and temporal (routing costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fibre tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for

  2. Delayed migration of K-wire into popliteal fossa used for tension band wiring of patellar fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Breakage of K-wires and stainless steel wires which are used for fracture fixation is not uncommon, but migration is rare. We report a case of migration of bro-ken K-wire used for patella tension band wiring to the popliteal fossa. The broken hardware was removed surgically. We would like to suggest that K-wire and wire fixation used for treatment of patellar fractures can migrate into the posterior compartment of the knee and cause clini-cal symptoms. Close clinical and radiological follow-up af-ter internal fixation to identify the presence of hardware breakage or movement and removal of wires once fracture has united can avert such complications. Key words: Patella; Fracture fixation, internal; Bone wires

  3. Forecasting of Corrosion Properties of Steel Wires for Production of Guide Wires for Cardiological Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Przondziono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents evaluation of the influence of strain in drawing process and of surface modification on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires made of stainless steel for production of guide wires used in invasive cardiology. The results of static tensile test enabled us to determine the course of flow curve of wires made of X10CrNi 18-8 steel as well as mathematical form of flow stress function. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method. The tests were performed in solution simulating human blood on samples that were electrolytically polished and samples that were polished and then chemically passivated. Exemplary anodic polarisation curves were given. It was proved that with the applied strain, corrosion properties decrease. It was found that chemical passivation improves wire corrosion characteristics. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant dependence between corrosion properties (polarisation resistance Rp and strain ε applied in drawing process. Functions that present the change Rp=f(ε were selected. The issue is of importance to guide wire manufacturers because application of the suggested methodology will enable us to forecast corrosion characteristics of wire with the required strength drawn with the applied strain.

  4. Feasibility studies on the direct wire readout on wire scanners in electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bachelor thesis deals essentially with the signal processing of a so-called wire scanner, a special monitor, which comes to application in the beam diagnostics of particle accelerators. In this direct wire readout the voltage signal, which is induced by the particle beam in the measurement wire of the wire scanner, shall be directly read out. The aim of this thesis is to show fundamental considerations and perform studies, which study, whether and how in the future by means of a suited data transmission as well as readout electronics conclusion on the most important parameters of the beam, like position and profile, are possible. The measurement system presented here is divided in three main components: Signal measurement, signal preparation, and signal stretching. A suited test facility was developed and is presented in detail, in which then all components, like for instance the transmission cables, the wire-scanner fork, and the developed measurement circuit, are studied, which are of importance for a faultless signal transmission and presentation. Extensive measurements on the single components, as well as calculations for the signal transmission on and in the wire scanner were performed, whereby a good agreement could be found. Thereafter a comparison and a selection of the component used in this project were made. Furthermore improvement proposals, new constructions, and outlooks are presented, which could be of importance in further works.

  5. Twisted Permutation Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Neil I.; Praeger, Cheryl E.; Spiga, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We introduce twisted permutation codes, which are frequency permutation arrays analogous to repetition permutation codes, namely, codes obtained from the repetition construction applied to a permutation code. In particular, we show that a lower bound for the minimum distance of a twisted permutation code is the minimum distance of a repetition permutation code. We give examples where this bound is tight, but more importantly, we give examples of twisted permutation codes with minimum distance...

  6. Transitive nonpropelinear perfect codes

    OpenAIRE

    Mogilnykh, I. Yu.; Solov'eva, F. I.

    2014-01-01

    A code is called transitive if its automorphism group (the isometry group) of the code acts transitively on its codewords. If there is a subgroup of the automorphism group acting regularly on the code, the code is called propelinear. Using Magma software package we establish that among 201 equivalence classes of transitive perfect codes of length 15 from \\cite{ost} there is a unique nonpropelinear code. We solve the existence problem for transitive nonpropelinear perfect codes for any admissi...

  7. Annual budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that all businesses, including individuals, should have a budget - that is, an estimation of income and expense over an annual cycle. For companies, the budget is generally prepared and approved about one quarter before the start of the company's fiscal year and is updated and revised each quarter during the year. Although budgeting is a task dreaded by most exploration managers, it is usually the vehicle by which drilling prospects, the heart of any exploration program, are sold to the final decision makers. The budgeting process should be viewed as an opportunity rather than as a chore to be completed as quickly as possible

  8. 2005 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents information on the activities, on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety, of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2005. The main topics are the water measurements associated with the expert's report of Ezeiza, the emergency systems, the environmental control, the institutional relations and the non-proliferation, the training and the public information, the safeguards and the physical protection, the quality assurance in the ARN, the environmental monitoring, and the human and economic resources. Also, this publication has annexes with the following content: the regulatory framework; regulatory documents; inspections to medical, industrial and training installations; international expert's report on the application of the radiological protection international standards of the public at the Ezeiza Atomic Center zone; ethical code

  9. 2006 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents information on the activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina during 2006. The main topic are: the quality assurance of the ARN; the institutional communications; the licensing and inspection of nuclear power plants and critical facilities; the emergency systems; the safeguards and the physical protection; the environmental control; the institutional relations; the training and the public information. Also, this publication have annexes with the following content: the regulatory framework; regulatory documents; inspections to medical, industrial and training installations; measurement and evaluation of the drinking water of Ezeiza; international expert's report on the application of the international standards of radiological protection at the Ezeiza Atomic Center zone; ethical code

  10. 2004 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2004. The main topics are the regulatory framework, the national systems to supervise nuclear installations, the emergency systems, the environmental control, the laboratories of the ARN, the institutional relations and the non-proliferation, the training and the public information, the radiological and the nuclear safety inspections, the safeguards and the physical protection, the quality assurance in the ARN, the environmental monitoring, and the human and economic resources. Also, this publication has four annexes with the following content: regulatory documents; inspections to medical, industrial and training installations; ethical code; measurements and evaluations of the drinking water in Ezeiza (Argentina)

  11. Homological stabilizer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev’s toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev’s toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: ► We show that Kitaev’s toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. ► We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. ► We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. ► We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  12. Development of rolling mill for rectangular orthodontic wires production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Totten

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In orthodontic treatments, wires of different metallic alloys are used for alignment, leveling, correction of the molar position, space closing, finish and retention. The purpose of the paper is the characteristics of austenitic stainless steel wires, with a square traverse section, which were produced using a rolling mill built for this purpose, are presented hereDesign/methodology/approach: With respect to finish and retention, these wires are responsible for adequate positioning of the upper teeth on the lower teeth. Wires that are subjected to incisor torque require high resistance and stiffness. For this, wires of rectangular austenitic stainless steel are used due to high modulus of elasticity and good corrosion resistance in the oral environment. Because of the rectangular geometry, wire production requires process development suitable for industrial scale manufacture with geometric characteristics and mechanical properties better adapted to the use conditions.Findings: To obtain wires with such characteristics, a rolling mill was developed for the production of rectangular wires by a rolling process with the objective of reducing cost of the cold drawing process that is currently used which utilize complex and expensive wire-drawing dies. In addition to the rolling process itself, wire deformation, microhardness, tension and bend tests were also performed.Research limitations/implications: A rolling-mill was built that successfully produced dental wires within acceptable tolerances and physical/mechanical properties.These wires exhibited excellent hardness and tensile strength, although slightly less than analogous commercial wires. It is expected that this problem are corrected by using initial wires with a higher hardness, since this property is directly related with the tensile strength.Originality/value: In these tests, wire geometry, surface finish and mechanical properties were successfully adapted for use in orthodontic

  13. Detecting broken-wire flaws at multiple locations in the same wire of prestressing strands using guided waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Wu, Xinjun; Sun, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Broken wires often occur at multiple locations in the same wire of a strand due to the recovery length, which is defined as the length of the wire taking up its full share of the axial load from the break point. The detection of broken-wire flaws at multiple locations along the same wire is investigated using guided waves below 400kHz. Herein, a sample with three broken-wire flaws in the same wire is analyzed using magnetostrictive guided waves. Our data show that three flaws are found using the low-frequency guided waves (50kHz) but only one flaw is found using the high-frequency guided waves (320kHz). By analyzing the reflection and transmission coefficients at the three different flaws, we observe that the energy exchange decreases as the frequency increases along the same propagating distance. Hence, the recovery length for elastic waves, the length of the wire taking up its full share of elastic-wave energy from the break point, is observed. The recovery length for elastic waves in prestressing strands increases with the frequency. To detect prestressing strands using magnetostrictive guided waves, several one-broken-wire flaws at different locations can be distinguished from in different wires or the same wire by employing both low-frequency waves and high-frequency waves. Nevertheless, we cannot identify in which wire the flaws are located because the magnetostrictive sensor analyzes the whole strand. PMID:22658860

  14. The Quantum Socket: Three-Dimensional Wiring for Extensible Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Béjanin, J H; Rinehart, J R; Earnest, C T; McRae, C R H; Shiri, D; Bateman, J D; Rohanizadegan, Y; Penava, B; Breul, P; Royak, S; Zapatka, M; Fowler, A G; Mariantoni, M

    2016-01-01

    Quantum computing architectures are on the verge of scalability, a key requirement for the implementation of a universal quantum computer. The next stage in this quest is the realization of quantum error correction codes, which will mitigate the impact of faulty quantum information on a quantum computer. Architectures with ten or more quantum bits (qubits) have been realized using trapped ions and superconducting circuits. While these implementations are potentially scalable, true scalability will require systems engineering to combine quantum and classical hardware. One technology demanding imminent efforts is the realization of a suitable wiring method for the control and measurement of a large number of qubits. In this work, we introduce an interconnect solution for solid-state qubits: The quantum socket. The quantum socket fully exploits the third dimension to connect classical electronics to qubits with higher density and better performance than two-dimensional methods based on wire bonding. The quantum ...

  15. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  16. Universality versus material dependence of fluctuation forces between metallic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the Casimir interaction between two parallel wires and between a wire and a metal plate. The dielectric properties of the objects are described by the plasma, Drude, and perfect metal models. We find that at asymptotically large separation interactions involving plasma, wires and/or plates are independent of the material properties but depend on the dc conductivity σ for Drude wires. Counterintuitively, at intermediate separations the interaction involving Drude wires can become independent of σ. At smaller separations, we compute the interaction numerically and observe an approach to the proximity approximation.

  17. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  18. Torsional Deformations in Subnanometer MoS Interconnecting Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ai Leen; Wang, Shanshan; Ataca, Can; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Sinclair, Robert; Warner, Jamie H

    2016-02-10

    We use aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to track the real time atomic level torsional dynamics of subnanometer wires of MoS interconnecting monolayer regions of MoS2. An in situ heating holder is used inside the transmission electron microscope to raise the temperature of the sample to 400 °C to increase crystallization rates of the wires and reduce contamination effects. Frequent rotational twisting of the MoS wire is captured, demonstrating elastic torsional deformation of the MoS wires. We show that torsional rotations of the crystal structure of the MoS wires depend upon the specific atomic structure of the anchored sections of the suspended wire and the number of unit cells that make up the wire length. Elastic torsional flexibility of the MoS wires is revealed to help their self-adapting connectivity during the structural changes. Plastic torsional deformation is also seen for MoS wires that contain defects in their crystal structure, which produce small scale rotational disorder within the wires. Upon removal of the defects, the wire returns back to pristine form. These results provide detailed insights into how the atomic structure of the anchoring site significantly influences the nanowire configurations relative to the monolayered MoS2. PMID:26785319

  19. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...... including an outer BCH code correcting a few bit errors....

  20. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Cryogenically Treated Music Wire

    CERN Document Server

    Heptonstall, A; Robertson, N A

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO - the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For th...

  1. Growth and FMR Characterization of Ni-Nano wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in magnetic nano wires is excited by the fact that data storage devices, magneto-electronic devices, magnetic random access memories, field emission sources, etc. are real technological issues of the nano tecnology. The growth of Ni nano wire arrays(NWS) by electrodeposition technique and their magnetic properties are studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The Ni nano wire arrays posses hexagonal symmetry in lateral dimensions and are perpendicular to the film plane. Samples with the same wire diameter but different wire lengths have been characterized. The FMR measurements have been performed using X-band (∼9.8GHZ) commercial Bruker EMX spectrometer at room temperature. Anisotropic spectra have been observed at different angles of out-of plane geometry (OPG, the applied field is rotating from the wire axis to the perpendicular to the wire axis). The line width, amplitude and resonance field of the OPG spectra strongly depended on the applied field direction

  2. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  3. Superconducting wire turns to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years after the discovery that magnesium diboride is a superconductor, engineers and entrepreneurs are keen to transform its properties into profit. The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in the metallic compound magnesium diboride two years ago created quite a stir. Since then, physicists and chemists have come a long way in understanding the curious set of circumstances that lead to such a high critical temperature in this widely available material. At the same time, metallurgists, engineers and entrepreneurs have been focusing on the commercial potential of magnesium diboride as superconducting wire, which was the subject of a one-day meeting in Cambridge, UK, in April. Superconducting wire made from magnesium diboride could make 'second- generation' electrical machines commercially viable. (U.K.)

  4. Guide wire migration during femoral vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Abbasi, Rozita; Sadigh, Gelareh

    2010-10-01

    Central vein catheterization is a routine and relatively safe procedure in critically ill patients. Complications with this procedure depend to the site of catheterization and the skill of the operator. In addition to the common complications with femoral vein catheterization there are some rare usually preventable side effects related to guide wire and catheter. In our patient who underwent femoral catheterization for acute hemodialysis, we report migration of guide wire through the systemic circulation from the femoral vein to the jugular vein. This is a very rare complication that is a human error and is totally preventable by doing the procedure by a skilled doctor and considering the standards described for central vein catheter insertion. PMID:20852377

  5. Radiotherapy simulators and independent field wire movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique which has evolved in Glasgow using the existing features of the Varian simulator (Ximatron CX series) to determine boundaries and centre of a symmetrical field is outlined: 1. With field wires in the symmetrical mode, an approximate field size and centre is selected. 2. With the asymmetrical mode selected, the field wires are then moved independently to indicate the desired field edges. 3. The field size is noted and the field edges are marked on the patient's skin surface. 4. The field is then set up in symmetrical mode and the treatment couch shifted until field edges match with patient marks, enabling correct simulation of the treatment beam and the marking of the field centre. (author)

  6. Fluorescent silver nanoparticles via exploding wire technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alqudami Abdullah; S Annapoorni

    2005-11-01

    Aqueous solution containing spherical silver nanoparticles of 20–80 nm size have been generated using a newly developed novel electro-exploding wire (EEW) technique where thin silver wires have been exploded in double distilled water. Structural properties of the resulted nanoparticles have been studied by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The absorption spectrum of the aqueous solution of silver nanoparticles showed the appearance of a broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak centered at a wavelength of 390 nm. The theoretically generated SPR peak seems to be in good agreement with the experimental one. Strong green fluorescence emission was observed from the water-suspended silver nanoparticles excited with light of wavelengths 340, 360 and 390 nm. The fluorescence of silver nanoparticles could be due to the excitation of the surface plasmon coherent electronic motion with the small size effect and the surface effect considerations.

  7. Hot wire in low Reynolds number flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, M. A.; Covert, E. E.

    1984-01-01

    Progress reports were issued on the following experiments: (1) low Reynolds number flow phenomenon of periodic vortex shedding in the wake behind a cylinder as studied by applying the hot wire anemometer technique of flow measurement. The downstream diffusion of these shed vortices was of prime concern. An evaluation of the performance of the hot wire at low Reynolds number is also considered. (2) A brief examination of the back sections of the Wright Brothers wind tunnel circuits were conducted to establish whether or not gross flow deviations were present at corners, or turning vane regions. A calibration of the test sections was done. (3) The attractiveness of using rembedded grids for airfoil calculations modeled by the Euler equations was explored. These calculations were extended to C-type grids and then to Navier-Stokes calculations,

  8. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  9. Processing of Intermetallic Titanium Aluminide Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Kühn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the possibility of processing titanium aluminide wires by cold deformation and annealing. An accumulative swaging and bundling technique is used to co-deform Ti and Al. Subsequently, a two step heat treatment is applied to form the desired intermetallics, which strongly depends on the ratio of Ti and Al in the final composite and therefore on the geometry of the starting composite. In a first step, the whole amount of Al is transformed to TiAl3 by Al diffusion into Ti. This involves the formation of 12% porosity. In a second step, the complete microstructure is transformed into the equilibrium state of -TiAl and TiAl3. Using this approach, it is possible to obtain various kinds of gradient materials, since there is an intrinsic concentration gradient installed due to the swaging and bundling technique, but the processing of pure -TiAl wires is possible as well.

  10. High velocity pulsed wire-arc spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas (Inventor); Massey, Dennis W. (Inventor); Kincaid, Russell W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Wire arc spraying using repetitively pulsed, high temperature gas jets, usually referred to as plasma jets, and generated by capillary discharges, substantially increases the velocity of atomized and entrained molten droplets. The quality of coatings produced is improved by increasing the velocity with which coating particles impact the coated surface. The effectiveness of wire-arc spraying is improved by replacing the usual atomizing air stream with a rapidly pulsed high velocity plasma jet. Pulsed power provides higher coating particle velocities leading to improved coatings. 50 micron aluminum droplets with velocities of 1500 m/s are produced. Pulsed plasma jet spraying provides the means to coat the insides of pipes, tubes, and engine block cylinders with very high velocity droplet impact.

  11. Superconducting wire turns to electrical power

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, P

    2003-01-01

    Two years after the discovery that magnesium diboride is a superconductor, engineers and entrepreneurs are keen to transform its properties into profit. The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in the metallic compound magnesium diboride two years ago created quite a stir. Since then, physicists and chemists have come a long way in understanding the curious set of circumstances that lead to such a high critical temperature in this widely available material. At the same time, metallurgists, engineers and entrepreneurs have been focusing on the commercial potential of magnesium diboride as superconducting wire, which was the subject of a one-day meeting in Cambridge, UK, in April. Superconducting wire made from magnesium diboride could make 'second- generation' electrical machines commercially viable. (U.K.)

  12. Discrete versus continuous wires on quantum networks

    OpenAIRE

    Aharony, Amnon; Entin-Wohlman, Ora

    2008-01-01

    Mesoscopic systems and large molecules are often modeled by graphs of one-dimensional wires, connected at vertices. In this paper we discuss the solutions of the Schr\\"odinger equation on such graphs, which have been named "quantum networks". Such solutions are needed for finding the energy spectrum of single electrons on such finite systems or for finding the transmission of electrons between leads which connect such systems to reservoirs. Specifically, we compare two common approaches. In t...

  13. Continuous Wire Reinforcement for Jammed Granular Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Fauconneau, Matthias; Wittel, Falk K.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of continuous fiber reinforced granular columns is simulated by means of a Discrete Element Model. Spherical particles are randomly deposited simultaneously with a wire, that is deployed following different patterns inside of a flexible cylinder for triaxial compression testing. We quantify the effect of three different fiber deployment patterns on the failure envelope, represented by Mohr-Coulomb cones, and derive suggestions for improved deployment strategies.

  14. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  15. Affine Grassmann codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant

    2010-01-01

    We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show that...... affine Grassmann codes have a large automorphism group and determine the number of minimum weight codewords....

  16. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both the...... coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  17. Discrete versus continuous wires on quantum networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Amnon; Entin-Wohlman, Ora

    2009-03-26

    Mesoscopic systems and large molecules are often modeled by graphs of one-dimensional wires connected at vertices. In this paper, we discuss the solutions of the Schrödinger equation on such graphs, which have been named "quantum networks". Such solutions are needed for finding the energy spectrum of single electrons on such finite systems or for finding the transmission of electrons between leads which connect such systems to reservoirs. Specifically, we compare two common approaches. In the "continuum" approach, one solves the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation on each continuous wire and then uses the Neumann-Kirchoff-de Gennes matching conditions at the vertices. Alternatively, one replaces each wire by a finite number of "atoms" and then uses the tight binding model for the solution. Here, we show that these approaches cannot generally give the same results, except for special energies, unless the lattice constant of the tight binding model tends to zero. Even in the limit of the vanishing lattice constant, the two approaches coincide only if the tight binding parameters obey very special relations. The different consequences of the two approaches are then demonstrated via the example of a T-shaped scatterer. PMID:19673064

  18. Negative excess noise in gated quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical current noise of a quantum wire is expected to increase with increasing applied voltage. We show that this intuition can be wrong. Specifically, we consider a single channel quantum wire with impurities and with a capacitive coupling to a metallic gate, and find that its excess noise, defined as the change in the noise caused by the finite voltage, can be negative at zero temperature. This feature is present both for large (c>>cq) and small (cq) capacitive coupling, where c is the geometrical and cq the quantum capacitance of the wire. In particular, for c>>cq, negativity of the excess noise can occur at finite frequency when the transmission coefficients are energy dependent, i.e. in the presence of Fabry-Perot resonances or band curvature. In the opposite regime c q, a non trivial voltage dependence of the noise arises even for energy independent transmission coefficients: at zero frequency the noise decreases with voltage as a power law when cq/3, while, at finite frequency, regions of negative excess noise are present due to Andreev-type resonances.

  19. NA48: Wiring up for Change

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The NA48 Collaboration is rebuilding its drift chambers ready for the experiment to start up again this coming July. An intricate task involving the soldering of over 24,000 wires! The future of the NA48 experiment is coming right down to the wire, that is, the wires which the Collaboration is installing in the clean room of Hall 887 on the Prévessin site. Six days a week, technicians are working in shifts to rebuild the experiment's drift chambers. The original chambers were damaged when a section of a vacuum tube imploded at the end of 1999. A year ago, CERN gave the green light for this essential part of the spectrometer to be rebuilt, so the NA48 experiment, which studies CP violation (see box), still has a bright future ahead of it. Three years of data-taking ahead The NA48 experiment aims to penetrate the secrets of CP (Charge Parity) violation. Charge and parity are two parameters which distinguish a particle from an antiparticle. In other words, an electron possesses a negative electric ...

  20. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation

  1. Delayed migration of K-wire into popliteal fossa used for tension band wiring of patellar fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjay Meena; Hira Lal Nag; Senthil Kumar; Nilesh Barwar; Samarth Mittal; Amit Singla

    2013-01-01

    Breakage of K-wires and stainless steel wires which are used for fracture fixation is not uncommon,but migration is rare.We report a case of migration of broken K-wire used for patella tension band wiring to the popliteal fossa.The broken hardware was removed surgically.We would like to suggest that K-wire and wire fixation used for treatment ofpatellar fractures can migrate into the posterior compartment of the knee and cause clinical symptoms.Close clinical and radiological follow-up after internal fixation to identify the presence of hardware breakage or movement and removal of wires once fracture has united can avert such complications.

  2. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savi, Daniel, E-mail: d.savi@umweltchemie.ch [Dipl. Environmental Sci. ETH, büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Kasser, Ueli [Lic. Phil. Nat. (Chemist), büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Ott, Thomas [Dipl. Phys. ETH, Institute of Applied Simulation, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We’ve analysed data on the dismantling of electronic and electrical appliances. • Ten years of mass balance data of more than recycling companies have been considered. • Percentages of dismantled batteries, capacitors and PWB have been studied. • Threshold values and benchmarks for batteries and capacitors have been identified. • No benchmark for the dismantling of printed wiring boards should be set. - Abstract: The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given.

  3. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We’ve analysed data on the dismantling of electronic and electrical appliances. • Ten years of mass balance data of more than recycling companies have been considered. • Percentages of dismantled batteries, capacitors and PWB have been studied. • Threshold values and benchmarks for batteries and capacitors have been identified. • No benchmark for the dismantling of printed wiring boards should be set. - Abstract: The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given

  4. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  5. Polyphase alternating codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Markkanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

  6. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  7. Development of superconductor wires by means of HIP and wire drawing. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of manufacturing high Tc-superconductor wires on the basis of YBaCuO-123 had to be evaluated. Powder-pressed specimens of YBaCuO-123 were encapsulated in copper tubes (precursors) and shaped to wires by means of HIP and wire drawing. A barrier system against O2-loss as well as the addition of Ag2O acting as O2-donator had been provided in this precursors. Fine-dispersed Ag was added to the high Tc-powder as ductilization component. Furthermore, the feasibility an orientation of the superconductor phase in direction of the wire axis corresponding with the best current bearing capacity of the sc phase was investigated. Since the technological aspects of this investigation (wire, drawing, geometrical reduction of the precursors to thin filaments, texturization and densification of the 123-structure) are very promising. The thermodynamic stability of the high Tc-phase YBaCuO-123 seems not to be compatible with this process combination: Thermal decomposition under high O2-pressure and the loss of superconductivity as well as the formation of unusual phase compositions require further fundamental investigations of the phase relationships in this system with respect to the process technology used in this study. (orig.)

  8. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaodan [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Godfrey, Andrew, E-mail: awgodfrey@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu [Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions, Materials Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Liu Wei [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Liu Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm ({epsilon} = 0) to 2 nm ({epsilon} = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} or {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  9. Three dimensional conjugated heat transfer analysis in sodium fast reactor wire-wrapped fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast reactors with liquid metal coolant have recently received a renewed interest owing to a more efficient usage of the primary uranium resources, and they are one of the proposal for the next Generation IV. In order to evaluate nuclear power plant design and safety, 3D analysis of the flow and heat transfer in a wire spacer fuel assembly are ongoing at EDF. The introduction of the wire wrapped spacers, helically wound along the pin axis, enhances the mixing of the coolant between sub-channels and prevents contact between the fuel pins. The mesh generation step constitutes a challenging task if a reasonable amount of cells in conjunction with a suitable spatial discretization is wanted. Several approaches have been investigated and will be presented. Quite complex global flow patterns are found using either k-ε or preferably Reynolds Stress turbulent models. Preliminary conjugated heat transfer calculations using a coupling between the finite element thermal code SYRTHES and the finite volume CFD code Code Saturne are also shown. (author)

  10. Coupling CFD code with system code and neutron kinetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyskocil, Ladislav, E-mail: Ladislav.Vyskocil@ujv.cz; Macek, Jiri

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet was created. • Athlet code is internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. • Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains was used. • A coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent codes was successfully tested on a real case. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop the coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. The coupling interface is intended for simulation of complex transients such as Main Steam Line Break scenarios, which cannot be modeled separately first by system and neutron kinetic code and then by CFD code, because of the feedback between the codes. In the first part of this article, the coupling method is described. Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains is used in this work. The second part of the article presents a demonstration simulation performed by the coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D and Fluent. The “Opening a Steam Dump to the Atmosphere” test carried out at the Temelin NPP (VVER-1000) was simulated by the coupled system. In this simulation, the primary and secondary circuits were modeled by Athlet, mixing in downcomer and lower plenum was simulated by Fluent and heat generation in the core was calculated by Dyn3D. The results of the simulation with Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent were compared with the experimental data and the results from a calculation performed with Athlet/Dyn3D without Fluent.

  11. Coupling CFD code with system code and neutron kinetic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet was created. • Athlet code is internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. • Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains was used. • A coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent codes was successfully tested on a real case. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop the coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. The coupling interface is intended for simulation of complex transients such as Main Steam Line Break scenarios, which cannot be modeled separately first by system and neutron kinetic code and then by CFD code, because of the feedback between the codes. In the first part of this article, the coupling method is described. Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains is used in this work. The second part of the article presents a demonstration simulation performed by the coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D and Fluent. The “Opening a Steam Dump to the Atmosphere” test carried out at the Temelin NPP (VVER-1000) was simulated by the coupled system. In this simulation, the primary and secondary circuits were modeled by Athlet, mixing in downcomer and lower plenum was simulated by Fluent and heat generation in the core was calculated by Dyn3D. The results of the simulation with Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent were compared with the experimental data and the results from a calculation performed with Athlet/Dyn3D without Fluent

  12. Teseo code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report some validation tests for the TESEO code are described. The TESEO code was developed at ENEA - Clementel Center in the framework of the C2RV code sequence. This code sequence produces multigroup resonance cross sections for fast reactor analysis. It consists of the codes TESEO, MC2-II, GERES, ANISN, MEDIL. The TESEO code processes basic nuclear data in ENDF-B format and produces an ultrafine group (2082 groups) cross section library for the MC2-II code. To validate the TESEO algorithms, the data produced by TESEO code were compared with the data produced by other well-tested codes which use different algorithms. No substantial differences was found between these data and the data produced by TESEO code. TESEO algorithms showed high reliability. A detailed study of TESEO calculation options was carried out. Their use and functions are shown to inform the user of the code

  13. Thermal analysis for wire scanners in the CSNS Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Fu, Shinian; Xu, Taoguang; Xu, Zhihong; Meng, Ming; Qiu, Ruiyang; Tian, Jianmin; Zeng, Lei; Li, Peng; Li, Fang; Wang, Biao

    2014-10-01

    3 MeV H- beam from the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) will be accelerated to 80 MeV in the CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source) linear accelerator (Linac). The wire scanner is used to measure the transverse beam profile and the emittance, and the carbon or tungsten wire is considered to use. Thermal analysis of the wire scanners in the Linac is presented in this paper. The maximum temperature (Tm) of the wire decreases as the beam energy increases, and we also calculate the influence of all possible parameters on Tm. Tm of carbon wire is significantly lower than tungsten wire if both the beam parameters and wire geometric parameters are set to the same, which can be attributed to its higher heat capacity and radiant emissivity. In addition, we present the results of sublimation rate of the wire, which show that tungsten wire has a much lower evaporation rate than carbon wire in the same temperature, which can be attributed to the different vapor pressures of the two materials. To limit the thermionic emission, the maximum beam frequency approximately has an exponential relationship with beam rms size at a certain beam pulse width.

  14. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  15. Assessment of Proton Deflectometry for Exploding Wire Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat Nadeem [University of California San Diego

    2013-09-25

    This project provides the first demonstration of the application of proton deflectometry for the diagnosis of electromagnetic field topology and current-carrying regions in Z-pinch plasma experiments. Over the course of this project several milestones were achieved. High-energy proton beam generation was demonstrated on the short-pulse high-intensity Leopard laser, (10 Joules in ~350 femtoseconds, and the proton beam generation was shown to be reproducible. Next, protons were used to probe the electromagnetic field structure of short circuit loads in order to benchmark the two numerical codes, the resistive-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, Gorgon, and the hybrid particle-in-cell code, LSP for the interpretation of results. Lastly, the proton deflectometry technique was used to map the magnetic field structure of pulsed-power-driven plasma loads including wires and supersonic jets formed with metallic foils. Good agreement between the modeling and experiments has been obtained. The demonstrated technique holds great promise to significantly improve the understanding of current flow and electromagnetic field topology in pulsed power driven high energy density plasmas. Proton probing with a high intensity laser was for the first time implemented in the presence of the harsh debris and x-ray producing z-pinch environment driven by a mega-ampere-scale pulsed-power machine. The intellectual merit of the program was that it investigated strongly driven MHD systems and the influence of magnetic field topology on plasma evolution in pulsed power driven plasmas. The experimental program involved intense field-matter interaction in the generation of the proton probe, as well as the generation of plasma subjected to 1 MegaGauss scale magnetic fields. The computational aspect included two well-documented codes, in combination for the first time to provide accurate interpretation of the experimental results. The broader impact included the support of 2 graduate students, one at

  16. Hood River and Pelton Ladder monitoring and evaluation project and Hood River fish habitat project : annual progress report 1999-2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat[contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000

  17. Locally Orderless Registration Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  18. Decentralized Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Fragouli, C.; Soljanin, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes deterministic algorithms for decentralized network coding. Decentralized coding allows to locally specify the coding operations at network nodes without knowledge of the overall network topology, and to accommodate future changes in the network such as addition of receivers. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first deterministic decentralized algorithms proposed for network coding.

  19. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... discusses code as the artist’s material and, further, formulates a critique of Cramer. The seductive magic in computer-generated art does not lie in the magical expression, but nor does it lie in the code/material/text itself. It lies in the nature of code to do something – as if it was magic: in the...

  20. Successful removal of an intravesical electrical wire cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyunsoo; Son, Hwancheol

    2014-08-01

    A few previous reports have described cases wherein electrical wire cables were inserted into the male urethra and bladder. Electrical wire cables are available at home and are easy to insert. However, after they coil in the patient's bladder, they are difficult to remove. In February 2013, a 30-year-old man presented to the emergency room of SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center with a urethral foreign body. He had inserted an electrical wire cable into his urethra for the purpose of masturbation, despite having a regular sex partner and no underlying disease. A kidney-ureter-bladder radiography showed a tangled wire in his bladder and urethra. On the next day, we tried to remove the wire cystoscopically, but this proved to be impossible because of complex coiling and the slippery surface of the wire. A Pfannenstiel incision was made to remove the foreign body. No postoperative complications were noted. PMID:25237664

  1. Influence of insulating coating on aluminum wire explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Jian, E-mail: jxjawj@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Sheng, Liang; Zhao, Jizhen; Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Bodong [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Li, Xingwen [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Single wire explosions are widely used in understanding the early stages of z-pinch experiments. This paper presents a serial of experiments conducted on the pulse power generator with ∼1 kA peak current and ∼10 ns rising time in Xi'an Jiao Tong University. Polyimide coated aluminum wires and uncoated ones were tested under three different voltages to analyze the effect of insulating coating. Experimental results showed that insulating coating can increase the energy deposition 10%∼30% in aluminum wires by delaying the voltage collapse and raising the maximum load resistance. The substantial energy deposition resulted in about 20% faster expansion rates for coated wires. Experimental evidence that plasma channel shunts the current from the wire core was observed by streak camera and schlieren graphs. This paper also briefly discussed the influence of nonuniform coating on the morphology of wire expansion.

  2. Investigation the parameters for torsion ductility of bead wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torsion testing is used to determine the quality of steel wire used for beads in pneumatic tires. However, strain aging (dynamic and static) caused by interstitial carbon and nitrogen atoms bound to mobile dislocations increases yield strength and decreases bead formability. Processing parameters of bead wire, such as line speed, lead bath temperature and wire diameter, were investigated, and theoretical calculations were made to estimate the effect of these parameters on strain aging. Nitrogen concentration was measured in bead wire samples with varying numbers of twists to failure during torsion testing. Surface morphologies of twisted bead wires were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Experimental data showed that torsional properties of bead wire were a function of stress relief temperature on and theoretical calculations showed that line speed and temperature have to be optimized for optimum torsion ductility.

  3. Welding wire velocity modelling and control using an optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a method for controlling the velocity of a welding wire at the tip of the handle is described. The method is an alternative to the traditional welding apparatus control system where the wire velocity is controlled internal in the welding machine implying a poor disturbance reduction...... velocity at the tip has been constructed. The optical sensor may be used but some problems due to focusing cause noise in the control loop demanding a more precise mechanical wire feed system or an optical sensor with better focusing characteristics........ To obtain the tip velocity a dynamic model of the wire/liner system is developed and verified.  In the wire/liner system it turned out that backlash and reflections are influential factors. An idea for handling the backlash has been suggested. In addition an optical sensor for measuring the wire...

  4. Copper Nanoparticle Synthesis By The Wire Explosion Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wire explosion technique is performed by passing a high power pulsed current through a metallic wire to disintegrate it through Joule heating effect. In this work, the production of nanoparticles by the wire explosion technique has been investigated. Copper wires with a diameter of 125 μm and a length of 3.5 cm are exploded in air at two different pressures, namely, 1 bar and 10-2 mbar. Particles produced from the wire explosion are collected for characterization. The characterization of the particles is done by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX). The morphology and chemical composition of the particles produced at the two different pressures are compared. Discharge current and optical emission spectra of the wire explosion at the two pressures are also presented.

  5. Audel guide to the 2002 national electrical code

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Get a grip on the 2002 NECThe 2002 NEC is here-but what do the changes mean for you on the job? This easy-to-follow interpretive guide walks you article by article through the 2002 Code, clarifying terms, explaining new standards, highlighting compliance issues, and providing practical worksite tips. It's the one reference you need to make sense of the NEC-and make sure each job gets done by the book.* Know the rules for wiring design, protection, methods, and materials* Identify standards that apply for general use equipment* Discover what the Code says about electrical re

  6. Increasing Physical Layer Security through Scrambled Codes and ARQ

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Marco; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    We develop the proposal of non-systematic channel codes on the AWGN wire-tap channel. Such coding technique, based on scrambling, achieves high transmission security with a small degradation of the eavesdropper's channel with respect to the legitimate receiver's channel. In this paper, we show that, by implementing scrambling and descrambling on blocks of concatenated frames, rather than on single frames, the channel degradation needed is further reduced. The usage of concatenated scrambling allows to achieve security also when both receivers experience the same channel quality. However, in this case, the introduction of an ARQ protocol with authentication is needed.

  7. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  8. Polyphase alternating codes

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Markku

    2007-01-01

    This work introduces a method for constructing polyphase alternating codes in which the length of a code transmission cycle can be $p^m$ or $p-1$, where $p$ is a prime number and $m$ is a positive integer. The relevant properties leading to the construction alternating codes and the algorithm for generating alternating codes is described. Examples of all practical and some not that practical polyphase code lengths are given.

  9. Constructing quantum codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum error correcting codes are indispensable for quantum information processing and quantum computation.In 1995 and 1996,Shor and Steane gave first several examples of quantum codes from classical error correcting codes.The construction of efficient quantum codes is now an active multi-discipline research field.In this paper we review the known several constructions of quantum codes and present some examples.

  10. Large Eddy Simulation of turbulent flow in wire wrapped fuel pin bundles cooled by sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study is to understand the thermal hydraulics in a core sub-assembly with liquid sodium as coolant by performing detailed numerical simulations. The passage for the coolant flow between the fuel rods is maintained by thin wires wrapped around the rods. The contact point between the fuel pin and the spacer wire is the region of creation of hot spots and a cyclic variation of temperature in hot spots can adversely affect the mechanical properties of the clad due to the phenomena like thermal stripping. The current status quo provides two different models to perform the numerical simulations, namely Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The two models differ in the extent of modelling used to close the Navier-Stokes equations. LES is a filtered approach where the large scale of motions are explicitly resolved while the small scale motions are modelled whereas RANS is a time averaging approach where all scale of motions are modelled. Thus LES involves less modelling as compared to RANS and so the results are comparatively more accurate. An attempt has been made to use the LES model. The simulations have been performed using the code Trio-U (developed by CEA). The turbulent statistics of the flow and thermal quantities are calculated. Finally the goal is to obtain the frequency of temperature oscillations at the region of hot spots near the spacer wire. (authors)

  11. Quantum Wire Hybridized with a Single-Level Impurity

    OpenAIRE

    Lerner, Igor V.; Yudson, Vladimir I.; Yurkevich, Igor V.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied low-temperature properties of interacting electrons in a one-dimensional quantum wire (Luttinger liquid) side-hybridized with a single-level impurity. The hybridization induces a back-scattering of electrons in the wire which strongly affects its low energy properties. Using a one-loop renormalization group approach valid for a weak electron-electron interaction, we have calculated a transmission coefficient through the wire, $\\mathcal{T}(\\varepsilon)$, and a local density of ...

  12. Superradiance in a Two-Channel Quantum Wire

    OpenAIRE

    Tayebi, Amin; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional, two-channel quantum wire is studied in the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian framework. Analytical expressions are derived for the band structure of the isolated wire. Quantum states and transport properties of the wire coupled to two ideal leads at the edges are studied in detail. The width distribution of the quasistationary states varies as a function of the coupling strength to the environment. At weak coupling, all the eigenenergies uniformly acquire small widths. Th...

  13. GaP/Si wire array solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tamboli, Adele C.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Malhotra, Manav; Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2010-01-01

    Si wire arrays have recently demonstrated their potential as photovoltaic devices [1-3]. Using these arrays as a base, we consider a next generation, multijunction wire array architecture consisting of Si wire arrays with a conformal GaN_xP_(1-x-y)As_y coating. Optical absorption and device physics simulations provide insight into the design of such devices. In particular, the simulations show that much of the solar spectrum can be absorbed as the angle of illumination...

  14. Induced quantum dots and wires: electron storage and delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek, S.; Szafran, B; R. Dudek; Lis, K.

    2007-01-01

    We show that quantum dots and quantum wires are formed underneath metal electrodes deposited on a planar semiconductor heterostructure containing a quantum well. The confinement is due to the self-focusing mechanism of an electron wave packet interacting with the charge induced on the metal surface. Induced quantum wires guide the transfer of electrons along metal paths and induced quantum dots store the electrons in specific locations of the nanostructure. Induced dots and wires can be usefu...

  15. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  16. Study of superconducting wire motion in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out to study the motion of superconducting wire under the influence of electromagnetic force. Different insulating material such as Zylon cloth, Dyneema cloth and Polyimide film are used as a base insulating material at the interface of superconducting wire and base material. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying applied tension to test superconducting wire. The experimental method and the test results are reported in this paper. (author)

  17. Rigid-flexible printed wiring boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydow, E. V.

    1993-05-01

    Rigid-flexible printed wiring board materials, fabrication processes, product requirements, and reliability were established. Considerable effort was spent testing plated-through holes, analyzing plated-through hole failure mechanisms, and then incorporating materials, processes, and product requirements to provide adequate control and reduce failures. The principal processes developed were tooling concepts, process sequence, lamination, drilling, plasma etchback, copper electroplating, and solder coating. Product requirements and reliability were established with thermal shock, thermal stress, innerlayer adhesion, and fold flexibility tests. Plated-through hole failure mechanisms were analyzed with thermal mechanical and finite element analyses.

  18. Wiring Watkins University: Does IT Really Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Borchers

    2004-01-01

    This case describes the “wiring†of Watkins University (a fictional name for a real Midwestern university) between 1997 and 2003 as the university responded to competitive pressures in the higher education market. After describing the University and the competitive challenges it faced, the case takes the student into a strategy session between the organization’s CFO, CTO and Provost as they review progress on four key initiatives: Web based teaching, student laptop program, a Web based E...

  19. Heat conduction in silicon nano wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volz, S.G.; Chen, G. [California Univ., Los Angeles (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The paper investigates the thermal conductivity of silicon nano wires based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE). The simulated thermal conductivity of a nanowire with variable square cross-sections and rigid boundaries is found to be about two orders of magnitude smaller than bulk Si in a wide range of temperatures (200K-500K). Results obtained from MD simulations are compared to the predictions of the BTE solved under the relaxation time approximation by considering various specular/diffusive scattering rates of phonons at the surface.

  20. Oscillations in Arcturus from WIRE photometry

    OpenAIRE

    Retter, A.; Bedding, T.; Buzasi, D. L.; Kjeldsen, H.; Kiss, L. L.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the red giant Arcturus (Alpha Boo) obtained with the star tracker on the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) satellite during a baseline of 19 successive days in 2000 July-August are analysed. The amplitude spectrum has a significant excess of power at low-frequencies. The highest peak is at about 4.1 micro-Hz (2.8 d), which is in agreement with previous ground-based radial velocity studies. The variability of Arcturus can be explained by sound waves, but it is not clear wheth...

  1. Oscillations in Arcturus from WIRE photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Retter, A; Buzasi, D L; Kjeldsen, H; Kiss, L L

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the red giant Arcturus (Alpha Boo) obtained with the star tracker on the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) satellite during a baseline of 19 successive days in 2000 July-August are analysed. The amplitude spectrum has a significant excess of power at low-frequencies. The highest peak is at about 4.1 micro-Hz (2.8 d), which is in agreement with previous ground-based radial velocity studies. The variability of Arcturus can be explained by sound waves, but it is not clear whether these are coherent p-mode oscillations or a single mode with a short life-time.

  2. Sistema prototipo Fly-by-Wire

    OpenAIRE

    García Abián, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Este proyecto está destinado a ofrecer una herramienta a la carrera de aeronáutica para realizar experimentos de navegación y seguimiento de aviones, de la forma más real posible. Con este prototipo lo que se pretende es introducir practicas reales a esta carrera. En este documento se presenta un prototipo para guiado de aviones Radio control (RC). Se ha diseñado la implementación de un sistema FLY by WIRE (FbW) reducido, para incorporarlo en un modelo de RC, capaz de recoge...

  3. Development of Polyamide-imide / Silica Nanocomposite Enameled Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hideyuki; Hanawa, Hidehito; Honda, Yuki

    The nanocomposite material based on polyamide-imide was not able to prevent nano-particles from aggregating up to now, therefore the development of this material was extremely difficult. However we prevented aggregation of nano-particles by developing the hygroscopicity solvent and copolyamide-imide, and commercialized the new partial discharge resistant enameled wire with nanocomposite polyamide-imide insulating material in 2010. The lifetime of newly developed partial discharge resistant nanocomposite polyamide-imide enameled wire has 1000 or more times compared to general organic enameled wire. Moreover lifetime of new wire is also extremely excellent in the high temperature atmosphere.

  4. Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates for Nano wires Array Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the process developed to fabricate anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) templates suitable for the fabrication of nano wire arrays. Anodization process has been used to fabricate the AAO templates with pore diameters ranging from 15 nm to 30 nm. Electrodeposition of parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were demonstrated using these fabricated AAO templates. The nano wires produced were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the orientations of the electrodeposited nickel nano wires were governed by the deposition current and electrolyte conditions. (author)

  5. Framtidslayout för Motala Wire Work

    OpenAIRE

    Tonring, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis was conducted at Motala Wire Works Ltd (MWW) in Motala during the autumn and winter of 2007-2008. The thesis named “Future layout of Motala Wire Works” focuses on making a better planed layout for the factory, which also take in to consideration future changes. Motala Wire Work produces wire mesh products of varying sorts for the white goods industry. The factory was started by Electrolux during the 1950’s. The factory was bought by Motalaverken and got it’s present form in...

  6. Seal Wire Integrity Verification Instrument: Evaluation of Laboratory Prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamper indicating devices (TIDs) provide evidence that sensitive items, to which they have been applied, have been tampered with or not. Passive wire-loop seals, a class of TIDs, are generally comprised of a multi-strand seal wire that is threaded through or around key features and a unique seal body that captures and restrains the seal wire. Seal integrity resides with unique identification of the seal and the integrity of the seal body and the seal wire. Upon inspection, the seal wire may be cut and the full length inspected. A new seal may be applied in the field as a replacement, if desired. Seal wire inspection typically requires visual and tactile examinations, which are both subjective. A need therefore exists to develop seal wire inspection technology that is easy to use in the field, is objective, provides an auditable data trail, and has low error rates. Expected benefits, if successfully implemented, are improved on-site inspection reliability and security. The work scope for this effort was restricted to integrity of seal wire used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and resulted in development of a wire integrity verification instrument (WIVI) laboratory prototype. Work included a performance evaluation of a laboratory-bench-top system, and design and delivery of two WIVI laboratory prototypes. The paper describes the basic physics of the eddy current measurement, a description of the WIVI laboratory prototype, and an initial evaluation performed by IAEA personnel.

  7. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  8. Analyzing a Vibrating Wire Transducer using Coupled Resonator Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POP, S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to be an approach on the vibrating wire transducer from the perspective of the necessary rules used for a correct measurement procedure. There are several studies which analyze the vibrating wire transducer as a mechanical system. However, a comparative time-domain analysis between the mechanical and the electrical model is lacking. The transducer analysis is based on a theoretical analysis of the equivalent circuit, on both excitation and response time intervals. The electrical model consists of two magnetic coupled resonating circuits. When connected to an excitation source, there will be an energy transfer from the coil to the wire. The maximum energy transfer will occur at the vibrating wire's frequency of resonance. Using the transient regime analysis, it has been proven that, in the response time interval - when the wire vibrates freely, the current through the circuit that models the wire describes the oscillating movement of the wire. A complex signal is obtained, that contains both coil's and wire's frequencies of resonance, strongly dependent with theirs parasitic elements. The mathematical analysis highlights the similarity between mechanical and electrical model and the procedures in order to determine the wire frequency of resonance from the output signal.

  9. Seeded perturbations in wire array Z-Pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled seeding of perturbations is employed to study the evolution of wire array z-pinch implosion instabilities which strongly impact x-ray production when the 3D plasma stagnates on axis. Wires modulated in radius exhibit locally enhanced magnetic field and imploding bubble formation at discontinuities in wire radius due to the perturbed current path. Wires coated with localized spectroscopic dopants are used to track turbulent material flow. Experiments and MHD modeling offer insight into the behavior of z-pinch instabilities.

  10. Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Aging Wire Insulation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2001-01-01

    Environmentally aged wire insulation can become brittle and crack and thus expose the underlying conductive wire to the potential for short circuits and fire. The feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves to measure insulation condition was examined. First a simple model to study guided wave propagation in a bare and thin plastic coated wire was examined and then some aviation grade wire samples that had been heat-damaged. Initial measurements indicate that ultrasonic guided wave velocity can be used to monitor insulation stiffness.

  11. Elastic anisotropy in multifilament Nb$_3$Sn superconducting wires

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Alknes, P; Arnau, G; Bjoerstad, R; Bordini, B

    2015-01-01

    The elastic anisotropy caused by the texture in the Nb3Sn filaments of PIT and RRP wires has been calculated by averaging the estimates of Voigt and Reuss, using published Nb3Sn single crystal elastic constants and the Nb3Sn grain orientation distribution determined in both wire types by Electron Backscatter Diffraction. At ambient temperature the calculated Nb3Sn E-moduli in axial direction in the PIT and the RRP wire are 130 GPa and 140 GPa, respectively. The calculated E-moduli are compared with tensile test results obtained for the corresponding wires and extracted filament bundles.

  12. Ultrahigh-strength submicron-sized metallic glass wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ deformation experiments were performed in a transmission electron microscope to investigate the mechanical properties of submicron-sized Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 metallic glass (MG) wires. Results show that the submicron-sized MG wires exhibit intrinsic ultrahigh tensile strength of ∼2.8 GPa, which is nearly twice as high as that in their bulk counterpart, and ∼5% elastic strain approaching the elastic limits. The tensile strength, engineering strain at failure and deformation mode of the submicron-sized MG wires depend on the diameter of the wires

  13. After 4 years' work, revised Code of Ethics goes to General Council for decision.

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, D M; Williams, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The CMA's Committee on Ethics will present a revised Code of Ethics for consideration by General Council during the annual meeting in Sydney, NS, later this month. This article outlines the reasons for updating the current (1990) version of the code and explains some of the significant changes and omissions. If approved by General Council, the revised code will take effect immediately.

  14. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF PLASTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WIRE OF STEEL 70 AT HIGH-SPEED WIRE DRAWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Bobarikin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The carried out numerical experiments subject to initial and boundary conditions indicate that mathematical model of elastic-plastic characteristics of steel 90 can be used for numerical calculations of wire drawing routes for this grade of steel.

  15. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.

    2000-05-23

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.

  16. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here

  17. LLNL NESHAPs 2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bertoldo, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gallegos, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacQueen, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wegrecki, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 μSv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 4.0.1.17, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual member of the public for the Livermore Site and Site 300.

  18. LLNL NESHAPs 2014 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 μSv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 4.0.1.17, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual member of the public for the Livermore Site and Site 300.

  19. UK audit committees and the Revised Code

    OpenAIRE

    Cowton, Christopher J.; Avison, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The audit committee is one of the most prominent board sub-committees, having a potentially important role to play in ensuring sound corporate governance. This paper examines and discusses the behaviour of companies following revisions to the UK’s Revised Code. Design/methodology/approach - A variety of annual report data from a sample of 50 UK companies, stratified according to size, is collected and analyzed. Findings - General compliance with many provisions of the Rev...

  20. Formation of highly structured dense cores from exploding wires with 1--5 kAper wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of the current-induced explosion of fine (7.5--40 microm diameter) metal wires has been studied experimentally for times up to 12 micros at 1--5 kA/wire. The main diagnostic technique is direct x-ray backlighting imaging of the exploding wires with 1 microm scale spatial resolution, obtained by using very short-time ( 30 kA per wire), exploding wires typically show fast evaporation and ionization of the wire surface forming an unstable coronal plasma around a dense core. However, in the low-current regime (17/cm2 areal density). During the foam formation, the wire remnant typically expands ten times in diameter, keeping the cylindrical form of the original wire. In the final stage (4) of the discharge (>5 micros), when the current through the wire remnant is negligible, the slow cooling of the sponge leads to a tree-like structure with gradual condensation of the remaining liquid phase material into separate drops. No typical plasma phenomena such as pinching and collapse of the plasma column are observed in these low current experiments. This behavior is typical for metals with high melting and boiling temperatures, W, Mo, NiCr and Ti, which also have relatively high resistivity, but not for Au, which vaporizes rapidly and with little structure

  1. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2009-01-01

    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  2. A New Superconducting Wire for Future Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CARE/NED project has developed a new superconducting wire that can achieve very high currents (1400 amps) at high magnetic fields (12 teslas). Cross-section of the CARE/NED wire produced by SMI. As we prepare to enter a new phase of particle physics with the LHC, technological development is a continuous process to ensure the demands of future research are met. The next generation of colliders and upgrades of the present ones will require significantly larger magnetic fields for bending and focusing the particle beams. NED (Next European Dipole) is one of the projects taking on this challenge to push technology beyond the present limit (see: More about NED). The magnets in the LHC rely on niobium titanium (NbTi) as the superconducting material, with a maximum magnetic field of 8 to 10T (tesla). In order to exceed this limitation, a different material together with the corresponding technology needs to be developed. NED is assessing the suitability of niobium tin (Nb3Sn), which has the potential to at le...

  3. Wire chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wire chamber radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced

  4. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  5. Underwater electrical explosion of a Cu wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results and analysis of a microsecond time scale underwater electrical wire explosion are presented. Experiments were carried out with a Cu wire exploded by a current pulse ≤100 kA with microsecond time duration. The analysis is based on shadow and spectrally resolved streak photography which were used to monitor the evolution of the discharge channel and the shock wave. The obtained data were used for hydrodynamic calculation of the generated water flow parameters, such as pressure and flow velocity distribution between the discharge channel and the shock wave. In particular, the pressure at the discharge channel boundary and the energy transferred to the water were estimated. The results of the calculation have been verified by comparing the measured and calculated trajectories of the shock wave. Based on the results of the calculation the energy transferred to the water was estimated. In addition, the analysis shows that the energy initially deposited in the discharge channel continues to produce mechanical work after the deposition of the electrical energy has ended

  6. Polyphase alternating codes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Markkanen; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We ...

  7. RANS simulations of turbulent diffusion in wire-wrapped sodium fast reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a broader effort to develop an advanced, integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of future generations of nuclear power plants, the development of an integrated multi-resolution thermal hydraulic analysis tool package has been initiated. Initial development efforts have focused on high-fidelity highly-scalable Direct Numerical Simulation and Large Eddy Simulation methods for prediction of detailed flow and thermal distributions in localized regions of a reactor core. To aid in prioritizing investment of resources and to begin to establish the mechanisms for communicating data between resolution levels, the range of applicability of each level of resolution is being evaluated through benchmark comparisons between the developed codes and the commercial RANS-bases CFD code Star-CD, beginning with simulations of the fueled region of a single wire-wrapped sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel assembly. From a design perspective, one potentially significant advantage of higher resolution simulation of the fuel assembly is improved predictions of the exchange of coolant between individual flow channels, which is the primary mechanism for subchannel-to-subchannel heat transfer. Initial comparisons of Large Eddy Simulation predictions using the spectral element code Nek 5000 and Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes predictions using the commercial finite volume code Star-CD suggest that the lower order RANS methods can likely be used to predict the hydrodynamic behavior within the assembly with similar accuracy to the LES simulations. In this work, predictions of turbulent diffusion in a large wire-wrapped bundle using the commercial CFD code Star-CCM+ will be compared with legacy experimental data examining coolant mixing in a 217-pin wire-wrapped bundle. In the isothermal experimental studies, a saline solution is injected into a single channel of a full-scale assembly test section using water as a surrogate fluid. The diffusion of the

  8. Development of RHQT-processed Nb3Al wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the present status and R and D issues related to the rapid heating/quenching and transformation (RHQT)-processed Nb3Al superconducting wires. The RHQT-processed Nb3Al wires were first proposed by Y. Iijima, et al. in 1994. Eighteen years have already passed, and this wire is still undergoing R and D towards the realization of practical superconducting wires. The RHQT-processed Nb3Al wires are made utilizing three unique fabrication stages: jelly-rolled precursor fabrication, rapid heating/quenching treatment and electroplated copper stabilizer fabrication. Recently, even though a RHQT-processed Nb3Al wire with copper stabilizer of over 1 km in length was fabricated, several difficult problems still remain to be resolved before industrial mass production is possible. In the stage of precursor fabrication, much improvement in the mechanical cold-workability of tantalum raw materials is required in order to avoid wire breakage. Additionally, the homogeneity of the cross-section of the precursor wires in the longitudinal direction needs to be improved for carrying out the homogeneous rapid heating/quenching treatment. The copper stabilizer for the RHQT-processed Nb3Al wires is fabricated using high-speed reel-to-reel electroplating. Furthermore, reel-to-reel copper ion-plating with a thickness of 1 μm is performed before the thick electroplating, thereby obtaining good bonding between the Nb3Al wire and copper stabilizer. The maximum current density during electroplating is currently 40 A/dm2, and approximately one week is needed to electroplate 1 km of Nb3Al wire with a 1.0 mm outer diameter and 1.0 Cu/non Cu ratio. Future R and D will focus on significantly shortening the electroplating time. (author)

  9. Joint Crosstalk-Avoidance and Error-Correction Coding for Parallel Data Buses

    OpenAIRE

    Niesen, Urs; Kudekar, Shrinivas

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing transistor sizes and lower voltage swings cause two distinct problems for communication in integrated circuits. First, decreasing inter-wire spacing increases interline capacitive coupling, which adversely affects transmission energy and delay. Second, lower voltage swings render the transmission susceptible to various noise sources. Coding can be used to address both these problems. So-called crosstalk-avoidance codes mitigate capacitive coupling, and traditional error-correction ...

  10. Constitutive correlations for wire-wrapped subchannel analysis under forced and mixed convection conditions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple subchannel analysis method based on the ENERGY series of codes, ENERGY-IV, has been established for predicting the temperature field in a single isolated wire-wrapped Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassembly under steady state forced and mixed convection conditions. The ENERGY-IV is a totally empirical code employed for fast running purposes and requires well calibrated lead length averaged input parameters to achieve satisfactory predictions. These input parameters were identified to be the inlet flow split parameters, the subchannel friction factors, the interchannel mixing parameters, the conduction shape factor, and the transverse velocity at the edge gap. Experiments were performed in a 37-pin wire-wrapped rod bundle with a geometry between that of a typical LMFBR fuel subassembly and blanket subassembly for filling the gap in the available data base for the input parameters. The isokinetic extraction method for measuring subchannel velocity, the pitot-static probe for measuring pressure drop, and the salt tracer injection method for estimating the interchannel mixing, were used in these experiments

  11. Construction of Codes for Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Elsenhans, Andreas-Stephan; Wassermann, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Based on ideas of K\\"otter and Kschischang we use constant dimension subspaces as codewords in a network. We show a connection to the theory of q-analogues of a combinatorial designs, which has been studied in Braun, Kerber and Laue as a purely combinatorial object. For the construction of network codes we successfully modified methods (construction with prescribed automorphisms) originally developed for the q-analogues of a combinatorial designs. We then give a special case of that method which allows the construction of network codes with a very large ambient space and we also show how to decode such codes with a very small number of operations.

  12. TIPONLINE Code Table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coded items are entered in the tiponline data entry program. The codes and their explanations are necessary in order to use the data

  13. Balanced Permutation Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrys, Ryan; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by charge balancing constraints for rank modulation schemes, we introduce the notion of balanced permutations and derive the capacity of balanced permutation codes. We also describe simple interleaving methods for permutation code constructions and show that they approach capacity

  14. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  15. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting...

  16. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from...

  17. A KBE Application for Automatic Aircraft Wire Harness Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; La Rocca, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wire harness design is an increasingly complex task. Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) and optimization techniques can be used to support designers in handling this complexity. The wire harness design process can be divided in three main parts, namely electrical design, configuration design and geom

  18. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of...

  19. Behaviour of Nb3Sn multifilamentary wire with H additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports the effect of the addition of hydrogen on the superconducting performance of a Nb3Sn multifilamentary wire. Thermodynamic properties (thermal conductivity and specific heat) are also determined in order to investigate the effect of the doping on the stability of the wire. (author)

  20. Variations in the Magnetic Torque Acting on a Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonati, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The relation M = [mu] x B is presented in all elementary courses on electromagnetism, but it is usually given just for the simple case of a rectangular wire. We will present a completely general but elementary proof of this relation together with two more advanced proof methods. We will then provide some extensions: non-closed wires and…

  1. Representations of Education in HBO's "The Wire", Season 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2010-01-01

    "The Wire" is a crime drama that aired for five seasons on the Home Box Office (HBO) cable channel from 2002-2008. The entire series is set in Baltimore, Maryland, and as Kinder (2008) points out, "Each season "The Wire" shifts focus to a different segment of society: the drug wars, the docks, city politics, education, and the media" (p. 52). In…

  2. Electronic transport in Si:P δ-doped wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, J. S.; Drumm, D. W.; Budi, Akin;

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of Si:P δ-doped wires for modern nanoelectronics, there are currently no computational models of electron transport in these devices. In this paper we present a nonequilibrium Green’s function model for electronic transport in a δ-doped wire, which is described by a tight-b...

  3. Multi-element wire antenna array scattering characteristics numerical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsevich, A. V.; Bobkov, Yuri Y.; Al-Rifay, A.; Yurtsev, Oleg A.

    2007-01-01

    The new method of antenna scattering diagram and radar cross section calculation for multi-element wire antenna array is present in the work. The new method is combination of thin wire integral equation method and complex object RCS calculation method.

  4. Quantum Wires and Quantum Dots for Neutral Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Schmiedmayer, Joerg

    1998-01-01

    By placing changeable nanofabricated structures (wires, dots, etc.) on an atom mirror one can design guiding and trapping potentials for atoms. These potentials are similar to the electrostatic potentials which trap and guide electrons in semiconductor quantum devices like quantum wires and quantum dots. This technique will allow the fabrication of nanoscale atom optical devices.

  5. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... notice in the Federal Register of April 7, 2011 (76 FR 19382). The conference was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in...

  6. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... notice in the Federal Register on November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72721). The hearing was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings...

  7. Unfolding the color code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubica, Aleksander; Yoshida, Beni; Pastawski, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The topological color code and the toric code are two leading candidates for realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we show that the color code on a $d$-dimensional closed manifold is equivalent to multiple decoupled copies of the $d$-dimensional toric code up to local unitary transformations and adding or removing ancilla qubits. Our result not only generalizes the proven equivalence for $d=2$, but also provides an explicit recipe of how to decouple independent components of the ...

  8. Informal control code logic

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  9. Informal Control code logic

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  10. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow the...

  11. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change in...... the structure and crystallography when a randomly oriented cementite structure in a patented wire during wire drawing is transformed into a lamellar structure parallel to the drawing axis. Changes in the interlamellar spacing and in the misorientation angle along and across the ferrite lamellae show...... significant through-diameter variations in wires drawn to large strains ⩾ 1.5. The structural evolution is hierarchical as the structural variations have their cause in a different macroscopic orientation of the cementite in the initial (patented) structure with respect to the wire axis. The through...

  12. Development Status of AMSC Amperium® Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshler, S.; DeMoranville, K.; Gannon, J., Jr.; Li, X.; Podtburg, E.; Rupich, M. W.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Tucker, D.; Whitman, L.

    2014-05-01

    AMSC produces Second Generation (2G) HTS wire for utility power applications as well as coil, motor and generator solutions. In this paper, various types of AMSC's Amperium® wire suitable to power cables, fault current limiters and coils are reviewed. In addition, recently developed performance-improvements in amperage, reduced ac power loss and mechanical properties are summarized. The introduction of thicker HTS layers coupled with optimized heat treatments to enhance critical current density dramatically improve both cable and coil wire current-carrying capability. A non-magnetic RABiTSTM substrate has now been developed to the point where it is compatible with the manufacturing process and capable of sustaining large critical currents. Finally, the ability of Amperium® wires to withstand cable-winding stresses, and to exhibit the high transverse c-axis strength critical to the reliability of the wire in coils, are discussed.

  13. Development of Rotary Axis For Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parthiban, C. Manigandan, G. Muthu Venkadesh, M. Ranjith Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of setting up a rotary axis to the existing WEDM machine to investigate the machining parameters in WEDG of harder materials. There are a number of hybrid machining processes (HMPs seeking the combined advantage of EDM and other machining techniques. One such combination is wire electrical discharge grinding (WEDG, which is commonly used for micro-machining of fine and hard rods. WEDG employs a single wire guide to confine the wire tension within the discharge area between the rod and the front edge of the wire and also to minimize the wire vibration. Other advantages of WEDG include the ability to machine hard- to- machine materials with large aspect ratio.

  14. Thermal neutron flux monitors based on vibrating wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutunian, S.G., E-mail: femto@yerphi.am [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. St. 2, Yerevan 0036 (Armenia); Bergoz, J. [Bergoz Instrumentation, 156 Rue du Mont Rond, 01630 (France); Chung, M., E-mail: mchung@unist.ac.kr [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Harutyunyan, G.S.; Lazareva, E.G. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. St. 2, Yerevan 0036 (Armenia)

    2015-10-11

    Two types of neutron monitors with fine spatial resolutions are proposed based on vibrating wires. In the first type, neutrons interact with a vibrating wire, heat it, and lead to the change of its natural frequency, which can be precisely measured. To increase the heat deposition during the neutron scattering, the use of gadolinium layer that has the highest thermal neutron capture cross-section among all elements is proposed. The second type uses the vibrating wire as a “resonant target.” Besides the measurement of beam profile according to the average signal, the differential signal synchronized with the wire oscillations defines the beam profile gradient. The monitor's spatial resolution is defined by the wire's diameter.

  15. Towards slide enhancement with the titanium-molybdenum wire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Pol; Barthélémi, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to improve the tribological properties of titanium-molybdenum wire. Following an analysis of the wire/bracket/ligation friction parameters and an overview of the technological research into means of reducing such friction,we set up several types of surface treatment in the laboratory by physical deposition in the vapor phase and using cold plasma technology. The specimens obtained underwent two types of tribological tests and were then subjected to traction and bending tests in order to determine the variations in their mechanical properties induced by the different types of treatment. For purposes of comparison, all the tests were conducted on untreated wire, TMA® Low-friction® wire and stainless steel wire and with two types of elastomeric ties. We were able to demonstrate some remarkable slide performances obtained using cold plasma nitriding while preserving the mechanical properties. A significant difference was observed relative to the other surface treatments. PMID:21094102

  16. Electronic transport in Si:P δ -doped wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. S.; Drumm, D. W.; Budi, A.; Vaitkus, J. A.; Cole, J. H.; Russo, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the importance of Si:P δ -doped wires for modern nanoelectronics, there are currently no computational models of electron transport in these devices. In this paper we present a nonequilibrium Green's function model for electronic transport in a δ -doped wire, which is described by a tight-binding Hamiltonian matrix within a single-band effective-mass approximation. We use this transport model to calculate the current-voltage characteristics of a number of δ -doped wires, achieving good agreement with experiment. To motivate our transport model we have performed density-functional calculations for a variety of δ -doped wires, each with different donor configurations. These calculations also allow us to accurately define the electronic extent of a δ -doped wire, which we find to be at least 4.6 nm.

  17. Proposal of thermal neutron flux monitors based on vibrating wire

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Chung, M; Harutyunyan, G S; Lazareva, E G

    2015-01-01

    Two types of neutron monitors with fine spatial resolution are proposed based on vibrating wire. In the first type, neutrons interact with the vibrating wire, heat it, and lead to the change of natural frequency, which can be precisely measured. To increase the heat deposition during the neutron scattering, use of gadolinium layer which has the highest thermal neutron capture cross section among all elements is proposed. The second type of the monitor uses vibrating wire as a resonant target. Besides the measurement of beam profile according to the average signal, the differential signal synchronized with the wire oscillations defines the gradient of beam profile. Spatial resolution of the monitor is defined by the diameter of the wire.

  18. Generation and Analysis of Wire Rope Digital Radiographic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhlov, S.; Anpilogov, P.; Batranin, A.; Osipov, S.; Zhumabekova, Sh; Yadrenkin, I.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealt with different structures of the digital radiographic system intended for wire rope radiography. The scanning geometry of the wire rope is presented and the main stages of its digital radiographic image generation are identified herein. Correction algorithms are suggested for X-ray beam hardening. A complex internal structure of the wire rope is illustrated by its 25 mm diameter image obtained from X-ray computed tomography. The paper considers the approach to the analysis of digital radiographic image algorithms based on the closeness of certain parameters (invariants) of all unit cross-sections of the reference wire rope or its sections with the length equaling to the lay. The main invariants of wire rope radiographic images are identified and compared with its typical defects.

  19. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a...

  20. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of...

  1. The Researches on Performance and Technology of Strengthened Pure Platinum Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Buying; WU Baoan; PAN Xiong; YANG Hao; WANG Yunchun; CHEN Xiaojun; WANG Jianshen; LI Guogang; XUE Liqian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses about the purity of strengthened pure platinum wire and the development method of platinum micro wire,in order to solve the difficulties of low tensile strength,easy to break,and low rate of micro wire.And it contrasts some performance of strengthened pure platinum wire and sponge Pt wire.The researches draw a conclusion that the thermoelectric properties of strengthened pure platinum micro wire was in accordance with national standards and satisfied users' requirements.

  2. The Procions` code; Le code Procions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, D.; Samba, G.

    1994-12-19

    This paper presents a new code to simulate plasmas generated by inertial confinement. This multi-kinds kinetic code is done with no angular approximation concerning ions and will work in plan and spherical geometry. First, the physical model is presented, using Fokker-Plank. Then, the numerical model is introduced in order to solve the Fokker-Plank operator under the Rosenbluth form. At the end, several numerical tests are proposed. (TEC). 17 refs., 27 figs.

  3. Universal Rateless Codes From Coupled LT Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that spatial coupling of individual low-density parity-check codes improves the belief-propagation threshold of the coupled ensemble essentially to the maximum a posteriori threshold of the underlying ensemble. We study the performance of spatially coupled low-density generator-matrix ensembles when used for transmission over binary-input memoryless output-symmetric channels. We show by means of density evolution that the threshold saturation phenomenon also takes place in this setting. Our motivation for studying low-density generator-matrix codes is that they can easily be converted into rateless codes. Although there are already several classes of excellent rateless codes known to date, rateless codes constructed via spatial coupling might offer some additional advantages. In particular, by the very nature of the threshold phenomenon one expects that codes constructed on this principle can be made to be universal, i.e., a single construction can uniformly approach capacity over the cl...

  4. Current-assisted cooling in atomic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniry, Eunan J; Todorov, Tchavdar N; Dundas, Daniel

    2009-05-13

    The effects of inelastic interactions between current-carrying electrons and vibrational modes of a nanoscale junction are a major limiting factor on the stability of such devices. A method for dynamical simulation of inelastic electron-ion interactions in nanoscale conductors is applied to a model system consisting of an adatom bonded to an atomic wire. It is found that the vibrational energy of such a system may decrease under bias, and furthermore that, as the bias is increased, the rate of cooling, within certain limits, will increase. This phenomenon can be understood qualitatively through low-order perturbation theory, and is due to the presence of an anti-resonance in the transmission function of the system at the Fermi level. Such current-assisted cooling may act as a stabilization mechanism, and may form the basis for a nanoscale cooling 'fan'. PMID:21825478

  5. A Compressed Sensing Wire-Tap Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Galen; Milosavljevic, Nebojsa; Gastpar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A multiplicative Gaussian wire-tap channel inspired by compressed sensing is studied. Lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived, and shown to be relatively tight in the large system limit for a large class of compressed sensing matrices. Surprisingly, it is shown that the secrecy capacity of this channel is nearly equal to the capacity without any secrecy constraint provided that the channel of the eavesdropper is strictly worse than the channel of the intended receiver. In other words, the eavesdropper can see almost everything and yet learn almost nothing. This behavior, which contrasts sharply with that of many commonly studied wiretap channels, is made possible by the fact that a small number of linear projections can make a crucial difference in the ability to estimate sparse vectors.

  6. Controlling electromagnetic scattering with wire metamaterial resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Filonov, Dmitry S; Iorsh, Ivan; Belov, Pavel A; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of radiation is required for enabling a span of electromagnetic applications. Since properties of antennas and scatterers are very sensitive to a surrounding environment, macroscopic artificially created materials are good candidates for shaping their characteristics. In particular, metamaterials enable controlling both dispersion and density of electromagnetic states, available for scattering from an object. As the result, properly designed electromagnetic environment could govern waves' phenomena. Here electromagnetic properties of scattering dipoles, situated inside a wire medium (metamaterial) are analyzed both numerically and experimentally. Impact of the metamaterial geometry, dipole arrangement inside the medium, and frequency of the incident radiation on scattering phenomena was studied. It was shown that the resonance of the dipole hybridizes with Fabry-Perot modes of the metamaterial, giving rise to a complete reshaping of electromagnetic properties. Regimes of controlled scattering sup...

  7. 3D Wire 2015 Gamification Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias;

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...... proposed new ones (viralization of the event on social networks and improvement of the integration of international attendees). On the other hand we defined a set of research objectives related to the study of gamification in an eminently social place like an event. Most of the goals have been met and......, therefore, we’ve drawn conclusions and recommendations for future editions of the event, also generalizable to other experiences of gamification especially in events. This report details the methodology and working elements from the design phase, human resources and organization of production, to the...

  8. Microstructures of 2219 twin wire welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wenli; Li Qingfen; Meng Qingguo; Gao Na; Fang Hongyuan

    2005-01-01

    With thick plates of 2219 high-strength alloy, the microstructures of welded joints with twin wire MIG welding were analyzed. Experimental results show that no hot crack was found in the weld due to discontinuous distribution of cocrystallization with low melting temperature, but porosity is serious in the first weld seam that is mainly composed of equiaxial grains with uneven sizes. As the poor position of the whole welded joint, fusion zone has big and coarse grains,uneven microstructures ; In quenching zone, there exist a lot of soaked microstructures that cocrystallization with low melting temperature solute into matrix, thus strengthening the metal in this zone; In excessive aging zone, much more phases that distribute evenly will be separated from the matrix; Outside this zone, properties and microstructures of the metal are basically similar to matrix due to the relatively low temperature or unaffected heat in the zone during welding.

  9. Quantum wire network with magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge transport and the noise of a quantum wire network, made of three semi-infinite external leads attached to a ring crossed by a magnetic flux, are investigated. The system is driven away from equilibrium by connecting the external leads to heat reservoirs with different temperatures and/or chemical potentials. The properties of the exact scattering matrix of this configuration as a function of the momentum, the magnetic flux and the transmission along the ring are explored. We derive the conductance and the noise, describing in detail the role of the magnetic flux. In the case of weak coupling between the ring and the reservoirs, a resonant tunneling effect is observed. We also discover that a non-zero magnetic flux has a strong impact on the usual Johnson–Nyquist law for the pure thermal noise at small temperatures.

  10. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important to...... understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  11. Codes from difference sets

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Cunsheng

    2014-01-01

    This is the first monograph on codebooks and linear codes from difference sets and almost difference sets. It aims at providing a survey of constructions of difference sets and almost difference sets as well as an in-depth treatment of codebooks and linear codes from difference sets and almost difference sets. To be self-contained, this monograph covers necessary mathematical foundations and the basics of coding theory. It also contains tables of best BCH codes and best cyclic codes over GF(2) and GF(3) up to length 125 and 79, respectively. This repository of tables can be used to benchmark

  12. (Sigma-Delta) Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Boulagouaz, M.; Leroy, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of cyclic ($f(t),\\sigma,\\delta$)-codes for $f(t)\\in \\Ore$. These codes generalize the $\\theta$-codes as introduced by D. Boucher, F. Ulmer, W. Geiselmann \\cite{BGU}. We construct generic and control matrices for these codes. As a particular case the ($\\si,\\de$)-$W$-code associated to a Wedderburn polynomial are defined and we show that their control matrices are given by generalized Vandermonde matrices. All the Wedderburn polynomials of $\\mathbb F_q[t;\\t...

  13. Multicellular computing using conjugation for wiring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Goñi-Moreno

    Full Text Available Recent efforts in synthetic biology have focussed on the implementation of logical functions within living cells. One aim is to facilitate both internal "re-programming" and external control of cells, with potential applications in a wide range of domains. However, fundamental limitations on the degree to which single cells may be re-engineered have led to a growth of interest in multicellular systems, in which a "computation" is distributed over a number of different cell types, in a manner analogous to modern computer networks. Within this model, individual cell type perform specific sub-tasks, the results of which are then communicated to other cell types for further processing. The manner in which outputs are communicated is therefore of great significance to the overall success of such a scheme. Previous experiments in distributed cellular computation have used global communication schemes, such as quorum sensing (QS, to implement the "wiring" between cell types. While useful, this method lacks specificity, and limits the amount of information that may be transferred at any one time. We propose an alternative scheme, based on specific cell-cell conjugation. This mechanism allows for the direct transfer of genetic information between bacteria, via circular DNA strands known as plasmids. We design a multi-cellular population that is able to compute, in a distributed fashion, a Boolean XOR function. Through this, we describe a general scheme for distributed logic that works by mixing different strains in a single population; this constitutes an important advantage of our novel approach. Importantly, the amount of genetic information exchanged through conjugation is significantly higher than the amount possible through QS-based communication. We provide full computational modelling and simulation results, using deterministic, stochastic and spatially-explicit methods. These simulations explore the behaviour of one possible conjugation-wired

  14. Handbook on the wiring regulations the IEE wiring regulations BS 7671

    CERN Document Server

    (ECA), Electrical Contractors' Association

    2008-01-01

    This well established handbook, written and sponsored by the Electrical Contractors' Association and Select (formerly the Electrical Contractors' Association of Scotland), provides a detailed, authoritative guide to the Wiring Regulations, BS 7671: Requirements for Electrical Installations. As the regulations are not drafted by topic, the handbook will be particularly useful in guiding designers, installers, inspectors and testers round the various requirements. It gives practical guidance on how to approach new installations, extensions to existing installations, and the more extensi

  15. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  16. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  17. Annual Check-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Annual Check-Up Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 January 2015. + ... I get ready for my annual medical check-up? If this is your first visit to your ...

  18. On the behavior of a wire of the Wire Scanner in the IPHI diagnosis line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton beam of 3 MeV energy and 100 mA intensity during 200 μs and a period T a second crosses an 150 mm x 33 μm carbon wire. The particles in the packet are distributed according to a di-Gaussian law with σX = 2 mm and σY = 6 mm. In these conditions the wire of the X plane centered in the beam acquires a peak temperature of about 1800 deg. C. The intensity of the secondary electron current recovered on the wire amounts about 306 μA. The thermo-electronic current for a time t = 200 μs (at the period T) has an intensity of 45 μA, i.e. 15% of the nominal signal. These figures for current are orders of magnitude, particularly for the thermo-electronic current where an intervening parameter is affected by a high uncertainty. The calculation method gives the spatial and time distribution of the temperatures by taking into account the radiative and conductive thermic transfers as well as the linearity of the materials characteristics as functions depending on temperature

  19. AFSC/ABL:Coded-wire tag (CWT) database for NOAA Fisheries, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information on CWT salmonids throughout the Pacific region is available in an on-line coastwide database, the Regional Mark Information System (RMIS). This database...

  20. Permutation codes for sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T.; Jelinek, F.; Wolf, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Source encoding techniques based on permutation codes are investigated. For a broad class of distortion measures it is shown that optimum encoding of a source permutation code is easy to instrument even for very long block lengths. Also, the nonparametric nature of permutation encoding is well suited to situations involving unknown source statistics. For the squared-error distortion measure a procedure for generating good permutation codes of a given rate and block length is described. The performance of such codes for a memoryless Gaussian source is compared both with the rate-distortion function bound and with the performance of various quantization schemes. The comparison reveals that permutation codes are asymptotically ideal for small rates and perform as well as the best entropy-coded quantizers presently known for intermediate rates. They can be made to compare favorably at high rates, too, provided the coding delay associated with extremely long block lengths is tolerable.

  1. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990’s. A code C  GF (r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector’s coordinates. The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs). How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem. The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS), Reed-Muller (RM), cyclic, dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes. In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions). We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  2. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  3. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  4. Magnetic properties of electroplated wires coated by ferrofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-frequency magnetic properties of ferromagnetic composite wires were studied with and without coating by ferrofluid. Non-magnetic CuBe wires of 0.1 mm diameter were electroplated with FeCoNi layer of 1 μm thickness. Magnetization curves were measured in the frequency range of 10 Hz-3 kHz. The composite CuBe/FeCoNi/ferrofluid material shows a hysteretic behaviour in a small field. The hysteresis loop of ferrofluid covered electroplated wire is not a simple sum of the ferrofluid 'wire' plus non-covered wire signals. It indicates an interaction between magnetic wire and ferrofluid which can be revealed by low-frequency measurements. The combination 'electroplated wire/ferrofluid' can be considered as a new type of composite magnetic material consisting of solid magnetic core coated by complementary liquid magnetic material. Low-frequency measurements in presence of ferrofluid can be a useful method to study magnetic properties of ferromagnets

  5. Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb3Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb3Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb3Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb3Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb3Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system

  6. Investigation of mechanical properties of cryogenically treated music wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heptonstall, A.; Waller, M.; Robertson, N. A.

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article, we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For the samples we studied, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the properties of interest for application in gravitational wave detectors.

  7. Crosslinking of wire and cables with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first electron beam accelerator was established in a wire and cable manufacturer in Japan, about 25 years have elapsed. First, the wires for electronic appliances insulated with cross-linked polyvinyl chloride, cross-linked polyethylene and cross-linked flame retardant polyethylene were produced with electron beam machines. Nowadays, large quantities of electron beam cross-linked materials such a PVC, PE, FRPE and flame retardant polyolefine are used for the insulation and jacket of electronic wires and cables. In this paper, the reason why the electron beam cross-linking production in wire and cable industry has increased year by year is discussed. 38 electron beam accelerator machines are used by 13 wire and cable manufacturers. The market share and the sales of wire and cable manufacturers are shown. The advantageous properties brought about by cross-linking are solder resistance, heat resistance and good mechanical properties. The results of main tests are reported. Electron beam cross-linked products are listed, most of which were approved by UL and CSA. The electron beam processing system for wires and cables, the technical and economical comparison of electron beam process with other competitive processes and radiation control are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Heath A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shurter, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  9. Gardens of Eden in systems of bistable nanoscopic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garden of Eden (GoE) is the nickname of an irreproducible state, which can appear only as an initial configuration, and not as a result of time evolution. Here we investigate GoEs in systems of bistable nanoscopic wires, which interact magnetostatically. The wires are randomly distributed on a square lattice, with their directions parallel (Nx wires) or perpendicular (Ny=N−Nx wires) to the applied magnetic field. The results are presented on the statistics of GoEs, as dependent on Nx. As a rule, most GoEs appear when Nx is close to Ny. Also, most GoEs include many wires parallel to the field and/or a few wires perpendicular to the field. The results can be useful for modelling safety devices. - Highlights: ► Hysteresis loops of sets of magnetostatically interacting nanoscopic wires are simulated. ► Statistics is gathered on appearance of configurations which cannot be obtained in the hysteresis experiments. ► An application is proposed for safety systems.

  10. Electrically isolated, high melting point, metal wire arrays and method of making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Cunningham, Joseph P.; D' Urso, Brian R.; Hendricks, Troy R.; Schaeffer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    A method of making a wire array includes the step of providing a tube of a sealing material and having an interior surface, and positioning a wire in the tube, the wire having an exterior surface. The tube is heated to soften the tube, and the softened tube is drawn and collapsed by a mild vacuum to bring the interior surface of the tube into contact with the wire to create a coated wire. The coated wires are bundled. The bundled coated wires are heated under vacuum to fuse the tube material coating the wires and create a fused rod with a wire array embedded therein. The fused rod is cut to form a wire array. A wire array is also disclosed.

  11. Annual report for 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article VI.J of the IAEA's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2004. The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three pillars of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2004. The introductory chapter, 'The Agency and the World in 2004', seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Cooperation Report. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is also provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's iaea.org web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2004/). The Board of Governors oversees the ongoing operations of the Agency. It comprises 35 Member States and generally meets five times a year or more frequently if required for specific situations. Among its functions, the Board adopts the Agency's programme for the incoming biennium and makes recommendations on the Agency's budget to the General Conference. In 2004, the Board considered the Nuclear Technology Review 2004 and various activities related to nuclear science, technology and applications. This included authorizing the implementation of the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). In the area of safety and security, it considered the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2003 and related activities. It approved four Action Plans on various safety related activities and

  12. Annual report for 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article VI.J of the IAEA's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the aff airs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2004. The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three pillars of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2004. The introductory chapter, 'The Agency and the World in 2004', seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Cooperation Report. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is also provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's iaea.org web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2004/). The Board of Governors oversees the ongoing operations of the Agency. It comprises 35 Member States and generally meets five times a year or more frequently if required for specific situations. Among its functions, the Board adopts the Agency's programme for the incoming biennium and makes recommendations on the Agency's budget to the General Conference. In 2004, the Board considered the Nuclear Technology Review 2004 and various activities related to nuclear science, technology and applications. This included authorizing the implementation of the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). In the area of safety and security, it considered the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2003 and related activities. It approved four Action Plans on various safety related activities

  13. Assessment of the wire-wrap models and improvement of the MATRA-LMR for subchannel blockage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distributed resistance model has been newly implemented into MATRA-LMR to improve its prediction capability over the wire-wrap model for the flow blockage analysis in LMR. The code capability has been investigated using the experimental data observed in FFM(Fuel Failure Mock-up)-2A and 5B for the two typical flow conditions in a blocked channel. The predicted results by MATRA-LMR with the distributed resistance model have agreed well with the experimental data for the wire-wrapped subchannels. However, it has been suggested that the parameter n in the distributed resistance model needs to be calibrated accurately for the reasonable prediction of the temperature field under a low flow condition

  14. Seal Wire Integrity Verification Instrument: Evaluation of Laboratory Prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, Morris S.; Skorpik, James R.; Kravtchenko, Victor; Wishard, Bernard; Prince, James M.; Pardini, Allan F.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Mathews, Royce; Khayyat, Sakher; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Undem, Halvor A.

    2009-10-07

    Tamper indicating devices (TIDs) provide evidence that sensitive items, to which they have been applied, have been tampered with or not. Passive wire-loop seals, a class of TIDs, are generally comprised of a multi-strand seal wire that is threaded through or around key features and a unique seal body that captures and restrains the seal wire. Seal integrity resides with unique identification of the seal and the integrity of the seal body and the seal wire. Upon inspection, the seal wire may be cut and the full length inspected. A new seal may be applied in the field as a replacement, if desired. Seal wire inspection typically requires visual and tactile examinations, which are both subjective. A need therefore exists to develop seal wire inspection technology that is easy to use in the field, is objective, provides an auditable data trail, and has low error rates. Expected benefits, if successfully implemented, are improved on-site inspection reliability and security. The work scope for this effort was restricted to integrity of seal wire used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and resulted in development of a wire integrity verification instrument (WIVI) laboratory prototype. Work included a performance evaluation of a laboratory-bench-top system, and design and delivery of two WIVI laboratory prototypes. The paper describes the basic physics of the eddy current measurement, a description of the WIVI laboratory prototype, and an initial evaluation performed by IAEA personnel. --- Funding was provided by the U.S. Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS).

  15. Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (−62 °C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%. (paper)

  16. The anomalous behaviour of fermions in a thin wire

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    1998-01-01

    Motivated by the recent development of insulated nano-tubes and the attempts to develop conducting nano wires in such tubes, we examine the Fermionic behaviour in extremely thin wires. Although the one- dimensional problem has been studied in detail over the years, it is an extreme idealization: We consider the more realistic scenario of thin wires which are nevertheless three dimensional. We show that the assembly of Fermions behaves as if it is below the Fermi temperature, and in the limit of one dimension, in the ground state as well. Thus there are indeed Bosonization features. These conclusions are checked from an independent stand point.

  17. Band Structure Modifications in Deformed InP Quantum Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kuryliuk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The work describes the features of the band structure of deformed InP nanowires with different diameters. It is shown that the bending of quantum wires is capable of creating local minima in the conduction and valence bands which are separated from the surface of the cylindrical wire. This result opens up new possibilities for controlling both the lifetime of photoexcited carriers by keeping them at these minima and the magnitude of the photovoltage in solar energy conversion devices based on quantum wires. The work lies within a common goal aiming to develop new methods of functionalization of nanostructured surfaces using mechanical deformations.

  18. Optimized light absorption in Si wire array solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing reflection and transmission losses in photovoltaic devices is essential for realizing highly efficient power conversion. Here, we theoretically investigate arrays of radial junction silicon wires to determine the optimal geometry for maximized light absorption. Using a generalized rigorous coupled wave analysis, we calculate the scattering spectra of arrays of varying wire radii, length, and lattice filling factors. Near unity absorption, far exceeding that of conventional thin film devices, is calculated for a square array of 20 µm long wires with radii of 200 nm and a filling fraction of 30%. These results suggest a potentially cost-effective route toward high efficiency solar cells

  19. The development of piano-wire probability screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, Q. (China University of Mining and Technology (China). Department of Coal Preparation and Utilization)

    1991-12-01

    Piano-wire Probability Screen is a newly developed screen for separating moist, fine raw coal. This high efficiency screening equipment has all the advantages of Probability Sizing Screen (PSS), but in addition, it uses piano-wire decks, which have a new structure, great open area, and great self-cleaning capacity. Therefore the screen is suitable for separating fine particles from sticky and moist materials. This paper describes the results of fundamental studies on the Piano-wire Probability Screen and discusses the data obtained from pilot plant studies. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Characterising mechanical transmission wire ropes’ typical failure modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Espejo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia’s Engineering School’s AFIS research group has helped several public and private institutions during the last five years in analysing the causes of failures presented in elevation and trans- port machinery leading to expensive consequences and even the loss of life. A group of typical wire rope failure modes have been identified, along with their common causes. These are presented in this work to offer help to our industry’s engineers and technicians, allowing them to identify possible risk situations in their routine work regarding the wire ropes which they use and approaches for carrying out wire rope failure analysis.

  1. Thermal Aware Floorplanning Incorporating Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, AndreasThor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto;

    2015-01-01

    Temperature has a negative impact on metal resistance and thus wire delay. In state-of-the-art VLSI circuits, large thermal gradients usually exist due to the uneven distribution of heat sources. The difference in wire temperature can lead to performance mismatch because wires of the same length ...... metric in the evaluation of a floorplan. In addition, we consider other temperature dependent factors such as congestion and interconnect reliability. The experiment results show that a shorter delay can be achieved using the proposed method....

  2. Entanglement due to Delayed Removal of a Buddy Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vorpahl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A buddy wire is often used to aid in the delivery of balloons and stents when negotiating tortuous or calcified vessels. We present a planned two-stent mini-crush intervention complicated by entanglement of the buddy wire with the second stent and subsequent distortion of the stent within the guiding catheter. Based on this case, we suggest removing the buddy wire immediately after successful positioning of the first stent, because entrapment with a second stent is possible and may lead to challenging situations in a simultaneous two-stent strategy.

  3. Studies on hot wire and hot film under water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerns some problems involved in the use of a hot wire and a hot film immersed in water. Some theoretical considerations are made concerning the sensitivity and the calibration of hot wires. A specially designed water blower and a measurement apparatus are described. Various calibrations have been carried out as a function of the velocity and of the temperature for different wires and films. Measurements of the amount of turbulence and of the energy distribution made in the centre of the tube are in good agreement with those already carried out in air. (authors)

  4. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  5. Evaluation of Pd-Cr Wires for Strain Gage Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Greer, L. C., III; Oberle, L. G.

    1995-01-01

    A newly developed alloy, palladium-13 weight percent chromium (Pd13Cr), was identified by United Technologies Research Center under a NASA contract to be the best material for high temperature strain gage applications. An electrical resistance strain gage that can provide accurate static strain measurement to a temperature higher than that of a commercially available gage is urgently needed in aerospace and aeronautics research. A strain gage made of a 25.4 micron (1 mil) diameter Pd13Cr wire has been recently demonstrated to be usable for static strain measurements to 800 C. This compares to the 400 C temperature limit of the commercially available strain gages. The performance of the Pd-Cr gage, however, strongly depends on the quality of the Pd13Cr wire. Four batches of Pd-Cr wires purchased from three different manufacturers were therefore evaluated to determine the best source of the wire for strain gage applications. The three suppliers were Precious Metal Institute in China, Sigmund Cohn Co., and G & S Titanium, Inc. in the United States. Two batches of wires obtained from Previous Metal Institute in 1987 and 1992, respectively are referred to herein as China87 and China92 wires. The mechanical, chemical and electrical properties of these wires, both as-received and after high temperature exposures at 800 C for 50 hours were analyzed. The elastic modulus and the failure strength of the wires were evaluated using a tensile test machine equipped with a laser speckle strain measurement system. The chemical and microstructural properties of the wires were inspected using a plasma atomic emission spectrometer and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS). The electrical stability and repeatability of the wires were determined by measuring the electrical resistance of the wires during three thermal cycles to 1000 C and a ten-hour soak at 1000 C. As a result of this study, the wire which has the highest

  6. Aircraft wire system laboratory development : phase I progress report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Lopez, Christopher D.

    2003-08-01

    An aircraft wire systems laboratory has been developed to support technical maturation of diagnostic technologies being used in the aviation community for detection of faulty attributes of wiring systems. The design and development rationale of the laboratory is based in part on documented findings published by the aviation community. The main resource at the laboratory is a test bed enclosure that is populated with aged and newly assembled wire harnesses that have known defects. This report provides the test bed design and harness selection rationale, harness assembly and defect fabrication procedures, and descriptions of the laboratory for usage by the aviation community.

  7. Predicted efficiency of Si wire array solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kelzenberg, M. D.; Putnam, M. C.; Turner-Evans, D. B.; Lewis, N. S.; Atwater, H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Solar cells based on arrays of CVD-grown Si nano- or micro-wires have attracted interest as potentially low-cost alternatives to conventional wafer-based Si photovoltaics [1-6], and single-wire solar cells have been reported with efficiencies of up to 3.4% [7]. We recently presented device physics simulations which predicted efficiencies exceeding 17%, based on experimentally observed diffusion lengths within our wires [8]. However, this model did not take into account the optical properties ...

  8. Optoelectronic analysis of multijunction wire array solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Chen, Christopher T.; Emmer, Hal; McMahon, William E.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    Wire arrays have demonstrated promising photovoltaic performance as single junction solar cells and are well suited to defect mitigation in heteroepitaxy. These attributes can combine in tandem wire array solar cells, potentially leading to high efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate initial growths of GaAs on Si_(0.9)Ge_(0.1) structures and investigate III-V on Si_(1-x)Ge_x device design with an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. We consider Si_(0.1)Ge_(0.9) wires coated with a GaA...

  9. Kinetics of Vapor Emissions near Wire Explosion Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belony, Paul Andre, Jr.

    Wire explosion phenomena have been of great experimental interest in recent years in studies of plasma pinch and soft x-ray generation. Numerical modeling of vapor emissions from a thin metallic wire under Ohmic heating by an electrical current pulse invariably has led to heating of the wire to its gas-liquid critical point before explosive emission of vapors commences. We have thus examined, in a series of experiments, vapor emission kinetics near the explosion threshold. Wires, 38.1 to 50.8 mum in diameter, of nickel, iron and copper-nickel alloy were used. A two-stage Marx generator with total capacitance of 50 nF and charged to 40 kV provided the current pulse; one of the spark gaps was triggered by a 0.5 J, 1.06 mum Q-switched laser pulse incident on a gap electrode. Vapor emission was visualized using imaging by shadowgraphy of shock waves in air driven by the vapors from the wire explosion during a gating time period ranging from 35 to 100 ns. We have observed that there is always more than one spherical shock front and a cylindrical front. The spherical shock fronts expand faster than the cylindrical front. The current being uniform along the length of the wire, high-resistance spots due to corrosion or contact resistance heat up faster, driving the spherical front, than the uniform heating of the wire, which gives rise to the cylindrical front. Not all spherical shock fronts expand at the same rate. Shock fronts are found to grow as t2/5 for spherical fronts, and as t1/2 for cylindrical fronts, t being the time; these are in good agreement with dimensionless scaling analysis. Determination of the vapor temperature was also carried out for the nickel wire. Continuum emissions from the vapors were captured by gated emission spectroscopy. After corrections by the NIST-traceable gray-body standard, the lowest detectable temperature was found to be at 9500+/-500 K. This is quite in line with the critical temperature of 9460 K from a numerical simulation. We

  10. The Modeling of Vibration Damping in SMA Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D R; Kloucek, P; Seidman, T I

    2003-09-16

    Through a mathematical and computational model of the physical behavior of shape memory alloy wires, this study shows that localized heating and cooling of such materials provides an effective means of damping vibrational energy. The thermally induced pseudo-elastic behavior of a shape memory wire is modeled using a continuum thermodynamic model and solved computationally as described by the authors in [23]. Computational experiments confirm that up to 80% of an initial shock of vibrational energy can be eliminated at the onset of a thermally-induced phase transformation through the use of spatially-distributed transformation regions along the length of a shape memory alloy wire.

  11. Design of automotive X-by-Wire systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wilwert, Cédric; Navet, Nicolas; Song, Ye-Qiong; Simonot-Lion, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    http://www.taylorandfrancis.com/ X-by-Wire is a generic term referring to the replacement of mechanical or hydraulic systems, such as braking or steering, by electronic ones. In this chapter, we analyze the real-time and dependability constraints of X-by-Wire systems, review the fault-tolerant services that are needed and the communication protocols (TTP/C, FlexRay and TTCAN) considered for use in such systems. Using a Steer-by-Wire case-study, we detail the design principles and verificat...

  12. Exciton dephasing in ZnSe quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Bacher, G.; Kümmell, T.; Forchel, A.

    1998-01-01

    within the wire due to the electron trapping in surface states and exciton localization. The exciton-exciton scattering efficiency, determined by the density dependence of the exciton dephasing, is found to increase with decreasing win width. This is assigned to the reduced phase space in a quasi......The homogeneous linewidths of excitons in wet-etched ZnSe quantum wires of lateral sizes down to 23 nm are studied by transient four-wave mixing. The low-density dephasing time is found to increase with decreasing wire width. This is attributed mainly to a reduction of electron-exciton scattering...

  13. Wire system ageing assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, P.F. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) (Norway))

    2009-07-15

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report contains the results of experiments performed in collaboration with Tecnatom SA, Spain, to compare several cable condition monitoring techniques including LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis) (au)

  14. 1981 inertial fusion research annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report consists of the following two topics: (1) target fabrication technology, and (2) fusion experiments. The first section is reported by the following seven areas: (1) characterization, (2) fuel shell technology, (3) polymer technology, (4) lithium foil development, (5) precision etch technology, (6) analytical instrumentation, and (7) target fabrication. The second area is reported by the following topics: (1) experiments, (2) plasma theory, (3) code development and simulation, and (4) lasers and optics

  15. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  16. Preliminary validation of the MATRA-LMR-FB code for the flow blockage in a subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the flow blockage in a subassembly of a Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), the MATRA-LMR-FB code has been developed and validated for the existing experimental data. Compared to the MATRA-LMR code, which had been successfully applied for the core thermal-hydraulic design of KALIMER, the MATRA-LMR-FB code includes some advanced modeling features. Firstly, the Distributed Resistance Model (DRM), which enables a very accurate description of the effects of wire-wrap and blockage in a flow path, is developed for the MATRA-LMR-FB code. Secondly, the hybrid difference method is used to minimize the numerical diffusion especially at the low flow region such as recirculating wakes after blockage. In addition, the code is equipped with various turbulent mixing models to describe the active mixing due to the turbulent motions as accurate as possible. For the validation of the MATRA-LMR-FB code the ORNL THORS test and KOS 169-pin test are analyzed. Based on the analysis results for the temperature data, the accuracy of the code is evaluated quantitatively. The MATRA-LMR-FB code predicts very accurately the exit temperatures measured in the subassembly with wire-wrap. However, the predicted temperatures for the experiment with spacer grid show some deviations from the measured. To enhance the accuracy of the MATRA-LMR-FB for the flow path with grid spacers, it is suggested to improve the models for pressure loss due to spacer grid and the modeling method for blockage itself. The developed MATRA-LMR-FB code is evaluated to be applied to the flow blockage analysis of KALIMER-600 which adopts the wire-wrapped subassemblies

  17. Preliminary validation of the MATRA-LMR-FB code for the flow blockage in a subassembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Ha, K. S.; Kwon, Y. M.; Chang, W. P.; Lee, Y. B.; Heo, S

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the flow blockage in a subassembly of a Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), the MATRA-LMR-FB code has been developed and validated for the existing experimental data. Compared to the MATRA-LMR code, which had been successfully applied for the core thermal-hydraulic design of KALIMER, the MATRA-LMR-FB code includes some advanced modeling features. Firstly, the Distributed Resistance Model (DRM), which enables a very accurate description of the effects of wire-wrap and blockage in a flow path, is developed for the MATRA-LMR-FB code. Secondly, the hybrid difference method is used to minimize the numerical diffusion especially at the low flow region such as recirculating wakes after blockage. In addition, the code is equipped with various turbulent mixing models to describe the active mixing due to the turbulent motions as accurate as possible. For the validation of the MATRA-LMR-FB code the ORNL THORS test and KOS 169-pin test are analyzed. Based on the analysis results for the temperature data, the accuracy of the code is evaluated quantitatively. The MATRA-LMR-FB code predicts very accurately the exit temperatures measured in the subassembly with wire-wrap. However, the predicted temperatures for the experiment with spacer grid show some deviations from the measured. To enhance the accuracy of the MATRA-LMR-FB for the flow path with grid spacers, it is suggested to improve the models for pressure loss due to spacer grid and the modeling method for blockage itself. The developed MATRA-LMR-FB code is evaluated to be applied to the flow blockage analysis of KALIMER-600 which adopts the wire-wrapped subassemblies.

  18. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Deborah L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  19. Radiographic verification of pedicle screw pilot hole placement in thoracic spine using Kirschner wires versus spiral wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi 刘一; ZHANG Shao-kun 张绍昆; MIAO Wei-wei 苗巍巍; SHAN Yu-xing 单玉兴; SUN Da-hui 孙大辉; WANG Bai 王柏; LI Yin-liang 李印良; HUANG Xiao-gang 黄晓刚

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of the pedicle screw pilot holes placement in thoracic spine using the spiral wires as the guide pin.Methods: The pedicle screw pilot holes were drilled within the center of the pedicle and the lateral and medial pedicle walls were violated in 9 human dried thoracic vertebrae.Kirschner wires or spiral wires were separately placed in the holes, and then the posteroanterior and lateral radiographs were taken.The radiographs were evaluated by 3 experienced spine surgeons and 3 young orthopedists.After radiographs were shown to these observers, they combined the posteroanterior and lateral radiographs in each place and determined whether the pedicle screw pilot hole violated the pedicle cortex or not.The results were analyzed by a statistical software.Results: Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the method using spiral wires to detect pedicle pilot hole placement were significantly higher than those of using Kirschner wires.With a true posteroanterior radiograph, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the method using spiral wires approximated or attained 100%.Conclusions: The method of intrapedicular pilot hole placement verification using spiral wires is effective for guiding the accurate placement of pedicle screws.

  20. Wire number dependence of the implosion dynamics, stagnation, and radiation output of tungsten wire arrays at Z driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report results of the experimental campaign, which studied the initiation, implosion dynamics, and radiation yield of tungsten wire arrays as a function of the wire number. The wire array dimensions and mass were those of interest for the Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. An optimization study of the x-ray emitted peak power, rise time, and full width at half maximum was effectuated by varying the wire number while keeping the total array mass constant and equal to ∼5.8 mg. The driver utilized was the ∼20-MA Z accelerator before refurbishment in its usual short pulse mode of 100 ns. We studied single arrays of 20-mm diameter and 1-cm height. The smaller wire number studied was 30 and the largest 600. It appears that 600 is the highest achievable wire number with present day's technology. Radial and axial diagnostics were utilized including crystal monochromatic x-ray backlighter. An optimum wire number of ∼375 was observed which was very close to the routinely utilized 300 for the ICF program in Sandia.

  1. Wire number dependence of the implosion dynamics, stagnation, and radiation output of tungsten wire arrays at Z driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Stygar, William A.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Nash, Thomas J.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Keith Matzen, M.; Porter, John L.; Struve, Kenneth W.; McDaniel, Dillon H. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Deeney, Christopher E. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, D.C. 20585 (United States); Douglas, Melissa R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Chittenden, Jerry [Imperial College, London, SW and 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    We report results of the experimental campaign, which studied the initiation, implosion dynamics, and radiation yield of tungsten wire arrays as a function of the wire number. The wire array dimensions and mass were those of interest for the Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. An optimization study of the x-ray emitted peak power, rise time, and full width at half maximum was effectuated by varying the wire number while keeping the total array mass constant and equal to {approx}5.8 mg. The driver utilized was the {approx}20-MA Z accelerator before refurbishment in its usual short pulse mode of 100 ns. We studied single arrays of 20-mm diameter and 1-cm height. The smaller wire number studied was 30 and the largest 600. It appears that 600 is the highest achievable wire number with present day's technology. Radial and axial diagnostics were utilized including crystal monochromatic x-ray backlighter. An optimum wire number of {approx}375 was observed which was very close to the routinely utilized 300 for the ICF program in Sandia.

  2. Security of QR Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Kapsalis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The 2-dimensional barcodes known as QR (Quick Response) Codesare increasing their popularity as they appear in more places in theurban environment. QR Codes can be considered as physical hyper-linksthat give the ability to users to access, through their mobile devicesthat are able to scan QR Codes, additional information located in aweb-page. Apart from marketing, QR Codes have been also adopted indifferent areas such as the on-line payments. This development alongwith the trend that some of ...

  3. Practices in Code Discoverability

    OpenAIRE

    Teuben, Peter; Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Much of scientific progress now hinges on the reliability, falsifiability and reproducibility of computer source codes. Astrophysics in particular is a discipline that today leads other sciences in making useful scientific components freely available online, including data, abstracts, preprints, and fully published papers, yet even today many astrophysics source codes remain hidden from public view. We review the importance and history of source codes in astrophysics and previous efforts to d...

  4. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  5. Progressive fractal coding

    OpenAIRE

    Kopilovic, Ivan; Saupe, Dietmar; Hamzaoui, Raouf

    2001-01-01

    Progressive coding is an important feature of compression schemes. Wavelet coders are well suited for this purpose because the wavelet coefficients can be naturally ordered according to decreasing importance. Progressive fractal coding is feasible, but it was proposed only for hybrid fractal-wavelet schemes. We introduce a progressive fractal image coder in the spatial domain. A Lagrange optimization based on rate-distortion performance estimates determines an optimal ordering of the code bit...

  6. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when....... Instead we propose that the promise of coding-based research lies in its ability to open up new qualitative questions....

  7. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  8. Locally Repairable Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Papailiopoulos, Dimitris S.; Dimakis, Alexandros G.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed storage systems for large-scale applications typically use replication for reliability. Recently, erasure codes were used to reduce the large storage overhead, while increasing data reliability. A main limitation of off-the-shelf erasure codes is their high-repair cost during single node failure events. A major open problem in this area has been the design of codes that {\\it i)} are repair efficient and {\\it ii)} achieve arbitrarily high data rates. In this paper, we explore the r...

  9. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  10. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  11. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  12. Validation of subchannel code KAMUI: analysis of outlet temperature profiles of a 19-pin test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal hydraulic analysis of a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor test assembly has been performed by employing subchannel analysis code KAMUI. The code has been updated by incorporating some recent physical models for pressure drop and coolant mixing. Performance of several conventional flow resistance and mixing models was assessed, by comparing predicted outlet temperature profiles against available experimental data. The calculations were carried out for high, transitional, and low Reynolds number regions. The prediction capability of the code for a wire-wrapped bundle has been successfully demonstrated in this paper. (author)

  13. Magnetization processes in thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous magnetic microwires are novel materials, which are characterized by the unique magnetic properties. Their magnetization process runs through the depining and subsequent propagation of the single-domain wall. This allows us to study the magnetization processes of the single-domain wall either in static (when the domain wall lies in its potential) or dynamic (when the domain wall propagates along the wire) mode. In the given work, we present surprising results that were found during the single-domain wall switching and propagation in microwires. The negative critical propagation field during the propagation of the single-domain wall in microwires has been found. Moreover, new contribution (based on the structural relaxation) to the domain wall damping during its propagation in microwire was found. The complex shape of the single-domain wall potential, which consists of two contributions, has been found in microwires. The magnetoelastic one coming from the magnetoelastic interaction of the domain wall with the stresses applied on microwires and the stresses introduced during the microwire's production and stabilization one coming from the structural relaxation on atomic level

  14. Polarization dynamics in optical ground wire network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Jesse; Bao, Xiaoyi; Côté, Alain

    2009-04-20

    We report the polarization dynamics in an optical ground wire (OPGW) network for a summer period and a fall period for what is believed to be the first time. To better observe the surrounding magnetic fields contribution to modulating the state of polarization (SOP) we installed a Faraday rotating mirror to correct reciprocal birefringence from quasi-static changes. We also monitored the OPGW while no electrical current was present in the towers' electrical conductors. The spectral analysis, the arc length mapped out over a given time interval on a Poincaré sphere, histograms of the arc length, and the SOP autocorrelation function are calculated to analyze the SOP changes. Ambient temperature changes, wind, Sun-induced temperature gradients, and electrical current all have a significant impact on the SOP drift in an OPGW network. Wind-generated cable oscillations and Sun-induced temperature gradients are shown to be the dominant slow SOP modulations, while Aeolian vibrations and electrical current are shown to be the dominant fast SOP modulations. The spectral analysis revealed that the electrical current gives the fastest SOP modulation to be 300 Hz for the sampling frequency of 1 KHz. This has set the upper speed limit for real-time polarization mode dispersion compensation devices. PMID:19381169

  15. Laser Wire and Beam Position Monitor tests

    CERN Document Server

    Boogert, S T; Lyapin, A; Nevay, L; Snuverink, J

    2013-01-01

    This subtask involved two main activities; Firstly the development and subsequent usage of high resolution beam position monitors (BPM) for the International Linear Collider (ILC) and Compact Linear Collider projects (CLIC); and secondly the development of a laser-wire (LW) transverse beam size measurement systems. This report describes the technical progress achieved at a large-scale test ILC compatible BPM system installed at the Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2). The ATF2 is an energy-scaled demonstration system for the final focus systems required to deliver the particle beams to collision at the ILC and CLIC. The ATF2 cavity beam position monitor system is one of the largest of its kind and rivals systems used at free electron lasers. The ATF2 cavity beam position system has achieved a position resolutionof 250 nm (with signal attuenation) and 27 nm (without attenuation). The BPM system has been used routinely for lattice diagnostics, beam based alignment and wakefield measurements. Extensive experience...

  16. Nonequilibrium functional bosonization of quantum wire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Dinh, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.ngodinh@kit.edu [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bagrets, Dmitry A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Mirlin, Alexander D. [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    We develop a general approach to nonequilibrium nanostructures formed by one-dimensional channels coupled by tunnel junctions and/or by impurity scattering. The formalism is based on nonequilibrium version of functional bosonization. A central role in this approach is played by the Keldysh action that has a form reminiscent of the theory of full counting statistics. To proceed with evaluation of physical observables, we assume the weak-tunneling regime and develop a real-time instanton method. A detailed exposition of the formalism is supplemented by two important applications: (i) tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity, and (ii) quantum Hall Fabry-Perot interferometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonequilibrium functional bosonization framework for quantum wire networks is developed Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the study of observables in the weak tunneling regime a real-time instanton method is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer quantum Hall regime.

  17. A parallel wire robot for epicardial interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Adam D; Wood, Nathan A; Passineau, Michael J; Moraca, Robert J; Bailey, Stephen H; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Riviere, Cameron N

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a planar parallel wire robot that adheres to the surface of the beating heart and provides a stable platform for minimally invasive epicardial therapies. The device is deployed through a small subxiphoid skin incision and attaches to the heart using suction. This methodology obviates mechanical stabilization and lung deflation, which are typically required during minimally invasive beating-heart surgery. The prototype design involves three vacuum chambers connected by two flexible arms. The chambers adhere to the epicardium, forming the vertices of a triangular base structure. Three cables connect a movable end-effector head to the three bases; the cables then pass out of the body to external actuators. The surgical tool moves within the triangular workspace to perform injections, ablation, or other tasks on the beating heart. Tests in vitro and in vivo were conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. Tests in vivo successfully demonstrated the ability to deploy through a subxiphoid incision, adhere to the surface of the beating heart, move the surgical tool head within the robot's workspace, and perform injections into the myocardium. PMID:25571402

  18. From Metal String Complexes to Metal Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; SheMing

    2001-01-01

    Our efforts to extend the metal number from dinuclear metal complexes to linear oligonuclear metal complexes with all-syn form of oligo-( α-pyridyl)amido ligands are successful. The oligonuclear complexes are divided into two systems according their MM bond strength, one is the oligonickel( Ⅱ ) complexes without M-M bond, the other is the oligochromium(Ⅱ) and cobalt(H) complexes with a strong M-M bond. Their structures and magnetic behaviors for various metal complexes with specific metal numbers are summarized. The potential application of these metal complexes as a molecular metal wire is discussed by the band structures of hypothetical onedinensional metal strings based on the polynuclear Cr, Co and Ni complexes. Moreover, self-assembled monolayers of n-alkanethiols are employed as a two-dinensional matrix to isolate the metal string complexes, which exhibit protrusions under the measurements of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging. The topographic STM images reveal that the protruding features for tricobalt and trichromium complexes are, respectively, 0.3 nm and 0.6 nm higher than that of trinickel complex. The increasing trend in conductivity is consistent with their bond orders, obtained from qualitative EHMO calculations.  ……

  19. From Metal String Complexes to Metal Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG SheMing

    2001-01-01

    @@ Our efforts to extend the metal number from dinuclear metal complexes to linear oligonuclear metal complexes with all-syn form of oligo-( α-pyridyl)amido ligands are successful. The oligonuclear complexes are divided into two systems according their MM bond strength, one is the oligonickel( Ⅱ ) complexes without M-M bond, the other is the oligochromium(Ⅱ) and cobalt(H) complexes with a strong M-M bond. Their structures and magnetic behaviors for various metal complexes with specific metal numbers are summarized. The potential application of these metal complexes as a molecular metal wire is discussed by the band structures of hypothetical onedinensional metal strings based on the polynuclear Cr, Co and Ni complexes. Moreover, self-assembled monolayers of n-alkanethiols are employed as a two-dinensional matrix to isolate the metal string complexes, which exhibit protrusions under the measurements of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging. The topographic STM images reveal that the protruding features for tricobalt and trichromium complexes are, respectively, 0.3 nm and 0.6 nm higher than that of trinickel complex. The increasing trend in conductivity is consistent with their bond orders, obtained from qualitative EHMO calculations.

  20. Microglia Modulate Wiring of the Embryonic Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Squarzoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of microglia, the tissue macrophages of the brain, has been associated with the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistently, microglia have been shown to regulate neurogenesis and synaptic maturation at perinatal and postnatal stages. However, microglia invade the brain during mid-embryogenesis and thus could play an earlier prenatal role. Here, we show that embryonic microglia, which display a transiently uneven distribution, regulate the wiring of forebrain circuits. Using multiple mouse models, including cell-depletion approaches and cx3cr1−/−, CR3−/−, and DAP12−/− mutants, we find that perturbing microglial activity affects the outgrowth of dopaminergic axons in the forebrain and the laminar positioning of subsets of neocortical interneurons. Since defects in both dopamine innervation and cortical networks have been linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, our study provides insights into how microglial dysfunction can impact forebrain connectivity and reveals roles for immune cells during normal assembly of brain circuits.