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Sample records for annual british columbia

  1. [British Columbia Hydro] annual report 1997--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third largest electric utility in Canada, B.C. Hydro services over 1.3 million customers in a area containing over 92 per cent of British Columbia's population. B.C. Hydro's mission is to generate, transmit and distribute electricity. This annual report covers the business and financial performance of B.C. Hydro, and financial statistics

  2. British Columbia Petroleum Corporation annual report 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Petroleum Corporation is a provincial Crown agency whose principal mandate is to facilitate and monitor the sale of natural gas, and to act as a central source of information specific to the natural gas industry for the benefit of all industry participants. The Corporation's activities for the year ending March 31, 1993 are summarized. With the devolution of the Corporation's marketing functions in 1990 to CanWest Gas Supply Inc. and the deregulation of the natural gas market, the Corporation no longer markets natural gas and byproducts, but performs a number of administrative functions on behalf of the province. These include issuing acquisition orders and determining the respective netback prices for the purpose of calculating royalties; collection of a production-related levy; collection of data regarding all sale transactions; monitoring of all production, sales and marketing costs; and information gathering for all sectors of the industry. In 1992/93, a total of 27 companies remained with the Corporation, representing 111 individual gas purchase agreements for a combined deliverability of 1,769,300 m3/d. At fiscal year end, a total of 713 acquisition orders were being monitored and 20 findings of producer support were issued in response to netback sales applications. Industry volume throughputs increased 8.7% over the previous year and the average netback price rose to $44.87 per 1,000 m3. Financial statements are included. 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Regional futures: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs

  4. Proceedings of the 32. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium : mine reclamation, biodiversity, and integrated land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining operators in Canada are now aiming to minimize the environmental damages and impacts to wildlife posed by resource development. Attempts to reduce impacts are now focusing on the use of appropriate soil and reforestation practices. This annual symposium provided a forum for the discussion of a wide variety of issues related to mine reclamation and land use in British Columbia (BC). The environmental impacts of mine development and land rehabilitation were discussed, and new remedial methods for soil conservation and reforestation were presented. Safety and sustainable habitat considerations were discussed. Land reclamation practices and new technologies developed in Western Australia and the Amazon were presented. The results of several bio- and geochemical studies conducted in BC were also presented. The conference featured 18 presentations, of which 7 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.

  6. Proceedings of the 33. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium : selenium, reclamation of coal mines and general aspects of mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual conference fostered the exchange of information on mine reclamation and related issues affecting coal mining in British Columbia and oil sand mining in Alberta. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation (TRCR) was launched in the early 1970 to address the need for greater communication between industry and government regarding environmental protection and mine reclamation in order to minimize the environmental damages and impacts to wildlife posed by resource development. The Acid Mine Drainage Task Force was recently amalgamated with the TRCR to ensure that acid rock drainage issues are fully addressed. The conference was attended by members of the mining industry, consultants, students, all levels of government, non government organizations, and other interested parties from within British Columbia and around the world. The environmental impacts of mine development and land rehabilitation were discussed along with new remedial methods for soil conservation, water protection and carbon sequestration. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 12 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Proceedings of the 33. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium : selenium, reclamation of coal mines and general aspects of mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Gardner, W.; McLaren, G.; Bittman, K.; Fraser, C.; Wambolt, T.; Stewart, C.; Pomeroy, K.; Howe, D.; Howell, C. (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This annual conference fostered the exchange of information on mine reclamation and related issues affecting coal mining in British Columbia and oil sand mining in Alberta. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation (TRCR) was launched in the early 1970 to address the need for greater communication between industry and government regarding environmental protection and mine reclamation in order to minimize the environmental damages and impacts to wildlife posed by resource development. The Acid Mine Drainage Task Force was recently amalgamated with the TRCR to ensure that acid rock drainage issues are fully addressed. The conference was attended by members of the mining industry, consultants, students, all levels of government, non government organizations, and other interested parties from within British Columbia and around the world. The environmental impacts of mine development and land rehabilitation were discussed along with new remedial methods for soil conservation, water protection and carbon sequestration. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 12 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  9. How British Columbia school district superintendents manage data

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Gerald Edward

    2009-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Education has been collecting demographic and academic performance information on every student in grades Kindergarten-12 since 1992. The amount of data held by the Ministry and now available for use is considerable: between 50 and 500 data elements have been collected from each of more than 500,000 students annually for the last 15 years. Most school districts also collect additional data on the performance of their students. School District Superintendents, ...

  10. Proceedings of the 34. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium and 35. annual Canadian Land Reclamation Association meeting : reclamation from planning to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Wambolt, T.; Van Zyl, D.; Riordan, B.; Hargreaves, J.; Pomeroy, K.; Beckett, P.; Giasson, M.; Polster, D.; Howell, C. (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity to exchange information on mine reclamation and related issues affecting coal mining in British Columbia and oil sand mining in Alberta. The reclamation of lands disturbed by mineral extraction and processing or by other industrial activity is aimed at returning the land to a level that is equivalent to its pre-industrial activity. The environmental impacts of mine development were discussed along with opportunities to rehabilitate disturbed lands using new remedial methods for soil conservation, water protection and carbon sequestration. A broad range of reclamation, restoration and remediation methods for oil sand mining, coal mining and metals in soils were also discussed. The conference featured 30 presentations, including posters, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Truffle diversity (Tuber, Tuberaceae) in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia. PMID:27083929

  12. Report and Recommendations of the British Columbia Teacher's Federation's (BCTF) Task Force on First Nations Education to the Annual General Meeting (January 1999). (Revised Annotated Version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, Vancouver.

    In 1998, the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) appointed an eight-member task force to investigate the effectiveness of the education system for First Nations students. The task force report and recommendations are intended to serve several groups of Aboriginal students: First Nations students, with or without status under Canada's…

  13. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  14. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  15. Annual report 1996 - North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES). Fifth meeting, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada, October 11-20, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting Agenda Report of Opening Session Report of Governing Council Meetings Reports of Science Board and Committees Science Board Working Group 5: Bering Sea (Final Report) Working Group 9: Subarctic Pacific Monitoring Report of the First Meeting Report of the Second Meeting Biological Oceanography Committee Working Group 11: Consumption of Marine Resources by Marine Birds and Mammals Fishery Science Committee...

  16. Annual plankton dynamics in a coupled physical-biological model of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M. Angelica; Masson, Diane; Callendar, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional coupled biophysical model was developed to study the dynamics of the plankton ecosystem in the Strait of Georgia (SoG) estuary. The ocean circulation component is an implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and the lower trophic level ecosystem is a nine-compartment Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) model that includes two types of phytoplankton and of zooplankton. A three year hindcast (2007-2009) is used to examine the mean annual seasonal cycle of the local plankton dynamics. For realistic values of irradiance, wind forcing and fresh water fluxes, the model predicts a seasonal cycle of salinity, nutrients and plankton in reasonable agreement with observations. In particular, the model reproduces the main features of the estuarine circulation, the marked increase in phytoplankton biomass during spring followed by intermittent less intense blooms during summer and fall, as well as the seasonal pattern of zooplankton biomass. Model results show that primary production fluctuates between low values in January and high values in April, with an annual production of 270 ± 33 (gC m-2) in the SoG. Most primary production is fueled by nitrate (f-ratio of about 0.7). Upwelling is the main source of nitrate into the upper layer, while most of the nitrate entering the Strait is exported out by horizontal advection. Physical processes, such as freshwater inflow, wind events, tidal mixing, and horizontal transports are important in maintaining the high spatio-temporal variability of the local phytoplankton biomass and production. Horizontal variability is high during the growing season (March to September). In summer, phytoplankton concentrates near the surface, in the shallow mixed layer, resulting in sporadic nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth. In the northern portion of the strait, weaker summer winds and tidal currents lead to increased near-surface stratification which restricts nutrient fluxes and limit

  17. Proceedings of the 31. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium : rejuvenation through reclamation and operating for closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Dixon, B.; Fraser, C.; Freberg, M.; Davidson, S.; Hart, B.; Jarman, P.; Wambolt, T.; Hamaguchi, B.; Howell, C.; Bellefontaine, K.; Bose, S. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    This annual symposium fosters the exchange of information on mine reclamation, including metal mines, coal mines, placer operations, sand and gravel operations and quarry operations. The presentations addressed a wide variety of environmental and reclamation issues associated with mine development as well as the rehabilitation of lands disturbed by resource exploration. Studies have shown that it is possible to minimize or eliminate environmental damage in all types of terrain by using appropriate remedial methods such as revegetation, reforestation, soil conservation, resloping, and recontouring of the soil to return the ecosystem to a natural self-sustaining state. Revegetation and reforestation efforts usually involve the selection of appropriate species that will adapt to climatic and local soil conditions. The conference featured 23 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Proceedings of the 31. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium : rejuvenation through reclamation and operating for closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual symposium fosters the exchange of information on mine reclamation, including metal mines, coal mines, placer operations, sand and gravel operations and quarry operations. The presentations addressed a wide variety of environmental and reclamation issues associated with mine development as well as the rehabilitation of lands disturbed by resource exploration. Studies have shown that it is possible to minimize or eliminate environmental damage in all types of terrain by using appropriate remedial methods such as revegetation, reforestation, soil conservation, resloping, and recontouring of the soil to return the ecosystem to a natural self-sustaining state. Revegetation and reforestation efforts usually involve the selection of appropriate species that will adapt to climatic and local soil conditions. The conference featured 23 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Ocean energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia's significant wave, tidal, ocean and river current resources will help to provide a clean, renewable energy source to meet the growing demand for electricity in local and North American markets. Various sites in the province are now being investigated for their energy development potential. A demonstration project located in the Race Rocks ecological reserve is producing electricity from tidal currents, while 3 other sites have received provincial funding in order to demonstrate new wave and tidal energy technologies off the coast of Vancouver Island. This guide provided an outline of the province's emerging ocean energy sector, and described the principal companies involved in developing ocean resources in the region. Details of new ocean energy projects were also provided. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  20. Wind energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.

  1. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  2. Wildlife Exclusion Systems for Accident Mitigation on British Columbia Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been addressing the issue of motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality on Provincial highways with wildlife exclusion fencing and related engineered structures since the 1980's. As a result, British Columbia wildlife are protected by the most extensive network of wildlife exclusion systems constructed by a transportation agency in North America. The BCMoT wildlife exclusion infrastructure consists of over 470 km of wildlife exclusion ...

  3. Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged

  4. Small farms and climate change adaptation in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Kaleen

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale farms in British Columbia (BC) face the challenge of adapting to both positive and negative climate change impacts, while maintaining their financial viability. This study explores the issue of climate change adaptation for small-scale farmers in British Columbia using semi-structured interviews and case study analysis. Small farms frequently employ soil preservation techniques, organic methods, and grow a diversity of crops, which make them more resilient to some of the negative ...

  5. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs

  6. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  7. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  8. Avulsions, channel evolution and floodplain sedimentation rates of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Ages of channels of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada, were investigated in a cross-valley transect by C-14 dating of subsurface floodplain organic material from beneath levees. The avulsion history within the transect was deduced from these data, and morp

  9. Economic impact analysis of independent power projects in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Independent power producer (IPP) projects have been active in British Columbia's (BC) regulated electricity market since the late 1980s. The 49 IPP projects developed in the province currently account for approximately 10 per cent of BC's electricity generation, and IPP development continues to expand in nearly every region. This study presented an economic impact analysis of IPP projects in BC. The economic impacts of IPP projects were divided into 2 categories: (1) existing IPP projects, and (2) potential IPP projects. The study showed that the total power potential supplied by BC IPP projects would increase from a current level of 5940 annual GWh to approximately 14,149 GWh. BC could also be generating a further 21,321 GWh of annual output to service demand domestically in addition to exporting to the United States. The value of capital investment in existing IPPs across BC was estimated at $2.8 billion. Capital investment in potential IPPs was estimated at $26.1 billion in 2009 constant dollars. Government revenues generated through the construction phase of potential IPP projects were estimated at $1.6 billion. IPP projects are expected to have a significant impact on First Nations groups, contribute to provincial energy self-sufficiency, and have little to no greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 25 refs., 19 tabs., 24 figs.

  10. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  11. Hobby Farms and the Protection of Farmland in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, T.; Cotteleer, G.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural land protection near the urban-rural fringe is a goal of many jurisdictions, and none more so than British Columbia, Canada, which uses a provincial-wide zoning scheme to prevent subdivisions and non-agricultural uses of the land. A preferential tax regulation scheme for farmers is also

  12. Nieuws uit het westen : meerouderschap en draagmoederschap in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 is in de Canadese provincie British Columbia nieuwe familierechtwetgeving in werking getreden: de Family Law Act, met daarin een regeling voor draagmoederschap, meerouderschap en meeroudergezag. Gezien de discussie in Nederland over deze onderwerpen en de instelling van de Staatscommissie He

  13. Labour Trends and Training Needs in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan P.

    In an effort to meet the training needs of the British Columbia (BC) labor force, Open College (OC), in Burnaby, has focused future activities on market-driven, employer-centered training programs utilizing advanced technologies and traditional on-site instructional methods. Designed to ensure that these courses and programs reflect actual labor…

  14. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albricht, M.

    2001-01-01

    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of wood so t

  15. Hearing care policy analysis in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Fadyeyeva, Inna

    2007-01-01

    Reduced hearing is a wide spread disability. One out of ten British Columbians estimated to suffer from a variable degree of hearing loss (CASLPA, 2005). It is the most common sensory impairment affecting 50 percent of Canadians over 65 (CHHA, 2005). The hearing loss problem is expected to progress from bad to worse due to demographic changes of the society and aging population. Hearing loss problem bears serious consequences for the affected individuals and society as a whole. This paper is ...

  16. Early Winter Habitat Use by Mountain Caribou in the North Cariboo and Columbia Mountains, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, E; McLellan, B.; Watts, G.; J. Flaa

    1996-01-01

    Winter habitat use was compared between two mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) populations in British Columbia. Regional differences were apparent during November and December. Radio-collared caribou inhabiting the gentle plateaus of the northern Cariboo Mountains, near Prince George, B.C. primarily used mid-elevation balsam-spruce stands on moderate slopes (<30%). In contrast, radio-collared caribou in the North Columbia Mountains, near Revelstoke, B.C. used low elevation hemloc...

  17. Expanding School Choice through Open Enrolment: Lessons from British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Friesen; Benjamin Cerf Harris; Simon Woodcock

    2015-01-01

    Is expanding the scope for parents to choose among competing schools an effective policy lever for improving the quality of education? What lessons can we take from British Columbia’s experience with greater school choice? In 2002, British Columbia implemented a new policy that makes it easier for parents to opt out of their neighbourhood school. Along with the province’s rich administrative and test score data, the introduction of this “open enrolment” policy provides a rare opportunity to e...

  18. British Columbia's untapped wind export potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed wind energy developments in British Columbia (BC). There are currently more than 5000 MW of wind power development activities in British Columbia, but only 325 MW of wind power purchase agreements (PPAs). Various renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas (GHG) initiatives are now being use to create demand for additional renewable energy development in the northwestern United States. Studies have demonstrated that BC wind export initiatives have the potential to deliver wind power to markets in the Pacific northwest. Canadian transmission export proposals are now examining methods of bringing renewable energy to areas with high load demands. However, the United States has more than 240,000 MW of proposed wind projects for key markets in the northwestern region. It was concluded that activities in United States wind development are now posing a challenge to Canadian wind energy exporters. Various transmission projects in the United States are now looking at developing renewable energy sources close to BC. tabs., figs.

  19. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  20. Radical Neoliberalism in British Columbia: Remaking Rural Geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Young

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that rural regions of British Columbia, Canada, are currently the subject of a radical political-economic experiment dismantling traditional Fordist and Keynesian approaches to economic development and replacing them with neoliberal strategies. This experiment targets both corporate resource economies and local or community-based economies. The paper argues that current reforms aim to enhance flexibility in major resource sectors (particularly in forestry by "liberating" corporate actors from traditional obligations to environment, labour, and communities. This strategy is buttressed by concurrent reforms to community development policies to promote "entrepreneurial" forms of development that (it is assumed can be achieved independently of the dominant resource economy. Using field research from several case communities in coastal British Columbia, the paper argues that these developments are having a strong impact on traditional economic structures and practices, as neoliberal reforms seek to disaggregate corporate and community-level economies.

  1. The blended accountability regime of British Columbia land trusts

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, John Gardner

    2015-01-01

    Scholars maintain that public service activities of non-profit organizations require carefully constructed accountability mechanisms to ensure the public interest is upheld. I interviewed decision makers at public-service-oriented non-profit land trusts in British Columbia, and examined the constitutions and missions of these organizations, to investigate accountability experiences and attitudes in practice; I compared this practical perspective with accountability theory in the literature on...

  2. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  3. Screening of newborn infants for galactosemia in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Lorne T.; Norman, Margaret G.; Applegarth, Derek A.; Hardwick, David F.

    1985-01-01

    With simple microbiologic and fluorescent tests, we detected two cases of classic galactosemia, confirmed by specific enzyme assays, in the first 25 000 newborn infants in British Columbia screened for this disorder. The results were equivocally abnormal for another 31 infants, and a second blood sample was requested from each, either for repeat screening or for enzyme assays. The two infants with galactosemia were in hospital with an undiagnosed acute illness and had only a trace of nongluco...

  4. Play now, pay later: legalized internet gambling in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Sihota, Bharminder Singh

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the provincial government’s decision to expand online gambling services. In particular, the research identifies ways to decrease the problem gambling prevalence rate in British Columbia. Currently, BC has one of the highest problem gambling prevalence rates in Canada. With the increase in online gambling options, and a rise in the weekly deposit limit, the problem gambling prevalence rate could worsen. Using a case study analysis, this capstone looks at the best practices ...

  5. Very recent African immigrants and unemployment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Rameshni, Farnaz

    2012-01-01

    Despite the provincial and federal governments focus on improving employment services through the Canada-British Columbia Immigration agreement, the unemployment rate among very recent African immigrants continues to remain the highest among other ethnic groups in Canada (StatCan, 2010). As such, this study looks into the various barriers faced by very recent African immigrants in finding employment in B.C., and addresses the problem through interviews with settlement agencies and a governmen...

  6. Tweeting Tsunami: Early Warning Networks in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Oldring, Amanda Olivia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Influential Twitter users can enhance disaster warning by diffusing risk awareness through networks. While Twitter networks are frequently active during disaster warning, little work in social network analysis has been applied to the Pacific Northwest Coast, encapsulating British Columbia in Canada, and Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California in the United States. This region is vulnerable to tsunamis, and Twitter’s speed, reach, and volume could enhance early warning. This thesis locates ...

  7. Fact book on aging in British Columbia, 5th Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Wister, Andrew V; Sixsmith, Andrew; Adams, Raymond G.; Sinden, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This fifth edition of the Fact Book updates the figures with data from the 2006 census and supplemental sources. Like the first four editions of the Fact Book, this edition references all source documents and presents data primarily in numeric tabular form. Topics covered in this document are listed in the Table of Contents and include: the size and historical rate of growth of the elderly population of British Columbia; trends in life expectancy, mortality rates and causes of death; the mari...

  8. Fact book on aging in British Columbia, 4th Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Wister, Andrew V; Gutman, Gloria M.; Adams, Raymond G.; Chou, Pak Hei Benedito

    2006-01-01

    This fourth edition of the Fact Book updates the figures with data from the 2001 census and supplemental sources. Like the first three editions of the Fact Book, the fourth edition references all source documents and presents data primarily in numeric tabular form. Topics covered in this document are listed in the Table of Contents and include: the size and historical rate of growth of the elderly population of British Columbia; trends in life expectancy, mortality rates and causes of death; ...

  9. Ecological factors drive differentiation in wolves from British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Darimont, Chris T.; Wayne, Robert K; Paquet, Paul C.; Leonard, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim Limited population structure is predicted for vagile, generalist species, such as the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.). Our aims were to study how genetic variability of grey wolves was distributed in an area comprising different habitats that lay within the potential dispersal range of an individual and to make inferences about the impact of ecology on population structure. Location British Columbia, Canada – which is characterized by a continuum of biogeoclimatic zones across which grey w...

  10. Ecological Niche Modeling of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Sunny; Klinkenberg, Brian; Bartlett, Karen; Fyfe, Murray

    2009-01-01

    Background Cryptococcus gattii emerged on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 1999, causing human and animal illness. Environmental sampling for C. gattii in southwestern BC has isolated the fungal organism from native vegetation, soil, air, and water. Objectives Our aim was to help public health officials in BC delineate where C. gattii is currently established and forecast areas that could support C. gattii in the future. We also examined the utility of ecological niche mode...

  11. Union-Active School Librarians and School Library Advocacy: A Modified Case Study of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2015-01-01

    This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…

  12. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about British Columbia, about its area (947,800 sq.km), capital (Victoria), population (4.009,922 in 1998), major industries (forestry, wood and paper, petroleum and mining, tourism, agriculture, fishing, manufacturing), revenue from natural resources ($ 350 million from oil and natural gas in 1998-1999, or about 20 per cent of total provincial government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in British Columbia, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (wood products, pulp and paper products, machinery and equipment, coal, petroleum products, electricity) and upstream industry expenditures in British Columbia (in excess of $ 1 billion). map, pie-chart, figs

  13. Comprehensive Monitoring of Wildlife Mortality on British Columbia Highways Using the WARS System (1978 to 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been operating its Wildlife Accident Reporting System (WARS) for almost three decades. Detailed information on motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality is systematically collected on a daily basis on major highways throughout British Columbia. Since its inception, WARS has become an increasingly valuable tool for highway planning and operational purposes. With WARS, BCMoT is able to support the British Columbia Government’s commitmen...

  14. Preliminary tsunami hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.

  15. Contracts for small hydro development : British Columbia experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of small hydroelectric projects in British Columbia during the past decade was discussed. During that time, at least 10 small hydroelectric projects have been completed by non-utility independent power producers. This paper discusses how proponents of small hydro can become off-grid communities, or how mining/forestry companies can reduce their dependence on costly diesel generation. The paper also outlines alternative contractual arrangements for energy sales, engineering services, equipment supply, and plant construction, and describes their applicability, advantages, disadvantages and costs

  16. Bat Rabies in British Columbia 1971-1985

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, Bert; Loewen, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Rabies virus was demonstrated in 99 of 1154 bats submitted from British Columbia between 1971 and 1985. Rabies was diagnosed in seven species including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), the latter accounting for 51% of all positive cases. Colonial species represented 92.9% of all identified bats and 87.7% of all rabid cases. Most bats were submitted from the more densely populated areas of the province, and submissions and positive cases both peaked in the month of August. Daytime activity a...

  17. British Columbia's provincial nursing workload project: evidence to empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Maura; Jewell, Karen; Wardrop, Andrea; Ahmed, Ashifa; Mildon, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This case study describes an ongoing demonstration project that engages nurses and nurse leaders in decision-making with respect to workload management issues at eight practice sites within British Columbia (two per healthcare sector: acute care, long-term care, community health and community mental health). The primary goal of this project is to promote high-quality practice environments by empowering front-line nurses and their leaders: giving them the means to systematically examine and act upon factors that influence their workloads. Examples from practice sites illustrate tangible benefits from the project.

  18. GATEWAY FOR PRIVATE HOME HEALTH CARE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Altejos

    2015-01-01

    This feasibility study assesses the private home health care market in British Columbia for a business concept called Gateway to Home Health Care, or simply “Gateway.” Gateway is a new business concept recommended by the author to solve the increasing incongruence between growing health care demands and the limited care options in B.C. To conduct a feasibility study, the report examines the long-term care (LTC) industry and focuses on the role of the privatehome health care market in B.C. It ...

  19. Toolkit for community energy planning in British Columbia. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This toolkit presents the basic concepts and issues regarding the implementation of community energy planning in British Columbia. It is intended primarily for local elected officials, municipal and regional planners and engineers, real estate developers and those interested in community sustainability and energy opportunities. The objectives are to: (1) describe how energy is used in communities and how its use impacts the community, (2) show that designing for energy supports community livability objectives, (3) describe how energy considerations can be incorporated in existing community planning processes, (4) communicate the idea that community energy planning can play an important role in reducing Canada's greenhouse gas emissions, thereby slowing down climate change, and (5) provide practical advice that will help communities move toward sustainable energy development. Community energy planning encompasses land use planning and transportation, infrastructure efficiency, and alternative energy supply. This toolkit described the strategies that are related to each of these components. In addition, 6 case studies of specific initiative programs dealing with community energy planning in British Columbia were presented. These included the challenges facing developers of energy efficient sustainable buildings and municipalities, the Lillooet solar municipal pool, the community energy planning in Kamloops, improving the transportation system a small urban centre called Quesnel, BC's energy aware award winners, and the Shoal Point development on Victoria Island's Fisherman's Wharf. The efforts of each of these projects provide an opportunity to build a community that is more socially, environmentally and fiscally responsible and sustainable.

  20. Alive and inseparable : British Columbia's coastal environment : 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal population of British Columbia is projected to increase by a million people over the next 20 years. Population growth in the region will increase pressure on the environment through land-use changes and water demand, and the discharge of wastes and pollutants. Changes to the environment will have an impact on industries such as forestry, fishing, and tourism that depend on healthy ecosystems. Six technical papers were presented in this volume as part of a project reporting on the coastal environment of British Columbia. The volume was compiled to help in the future-decision making processes in the province. Reporting for the project focused on a region extending westward from the height of the Coast Mountains, and included the marine area within Canada's 200-mile limit. Papers were presented on the following topics: (1) population and economic activity; (2) climate change; (3) industrial contaminants; (4) ecosystem protection; (5) bio-diversity; and (6) fisheries. Each of the 6 papers provided an overview of issues related to their topic, a set of indicators, and a summary of results. refs., tabs., figs

  1. 55th Annual Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences Conference on Epigenetics and Genomic Stability. Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, 14–18 March 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher J; Ausió, Juan

    2012-06-01

    The 55th Annual Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences Conference on Epigenetics and Genomic Stability in Whistler, Canada, 14-18 March 2012, brought together 31 speakers from different nationalities. The organizing committee, led by Jim Davie (Chair) at the University of Manitoba (Manitoba, Canada), consisted of several established researchers in the fields of chromatin and epigenetics from across Canada. The meeting was centered on the contribution of epigenetics to gene expression, DNA damage and repair, and the role of environmental factors. A few interesting talks on replication added some insightful information on the controversial issue of histone post-translational modifications as genuine epigenetic marks that are inherited through cell division.

  2. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    central population is limited and it requires additional study. Compiling available abundance information, we estimated that in the recent past, Marbled Murrelets in Alaska numbered on the order of 1 million birds. We were unable to generate a similar estimate for historical population size in British Columbia. Using trend information from at-sea surveys spanning a wide geographic range in Alaska, murrelet numbers declined significantly at five of eight trend sites at annual rates of -5.4 to -12.7 percent since the early 1990s. Applying these rates of decline to the historical population estimate, the current murrelet population in Alaska is projected to be on the order of 270,000 birds. This represents an overall population decline of about 70 percent during the past 25 years. In British Columbia, available trend data indicate that murrelet populations there have experienced similar declines. We updated a recent (2002) population estimate for British Columbia, concluding that there are now between 54,000 and 92,000 murrelets in British Columbia. The rates of decline we observed are within, but at the high end of, a range of rates expected by chance. Given that declines were estimated for sites over essentially the entire northern range of the species, there is cause for concern about the species? status. In their marine habitats, Marbled Murrelets overlap with salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) gillnetting operations in British Columbia and in Alaska (especially in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska), and annual bycatch mortality is likely in the low thousands per year, although bycatch rates are difficult to measure. The species? inshore distribution coincides with high levels of vessel traffic and makes them especially vulnerable to both chronic oil pollution and to catastrophic spills (e.g., the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill [EVOS] in south-central Alaska, which is estimated to have killed 12,000 to 15,000 murrelets). In their forested nesting habitats, Marbled Murrelets

  3. Wind energy study in British Columbia : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Montreal based Helimax Energy Inc., an expert in wind technology, was hired by Greenpeace to assess the economic feasibility and potential economic benefits of harnessing the wind on the coast of British Columbia. The resource economy has been vital to coastal communities in British Columbia, but the decline of the fishing and logging industries has had socio-economic impacts that are already being felt by many residents who are now looking for new economic opportunities that will allow them to remain in their communities. Harnessing wind power to generate electricity is a viable option whose environmental impacts pale in comparison to those of offshore oil and gas development. The construction of wind turbines in carefully selected areas in the central and north coast approved by First Nations could generate long-term jobs for coastal residents. Wind turbines could also generate clean, abundant and endless energy. They would have to be located away from the pathways of migratory birds and in areas where noise and visual pollution would not lessen natural values. It was determined that the Port Hardy, Port Alice and Prince Rupert areas have a wind energy potential of 4,800 MW. It is estimated that 1,200 MW of wind energy could be in operation by 2011. This would require an investment of about 1 billion dollars, enabling the creation of 8,000 job-years resulting from installation, operation and maintenance of the wind turbines. If an assembly plant were to be set up in the province, then 50,000 job-years would potentially be created. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. An Early Pleistocene Till, Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Roed, M.; Smith, S.; Sanborn, P.; Greenough, J.; Layer, P. W.; Huscroft, C.; Mathewes, R.; Benowitz, J.; Tessler, D.

    2011-12-01

    During construction of a road cut related to the Westside Road Interchange Project in West Kelowna, British Columbia, a till was encountered below one of the Lambly Creek valley basalts. The basalts are composed of a number of flows, ranging in age from 0.97 +- 0.05 Ma to 1.62 +-0.25 Ma based on new and available 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt ground mass. Paleomagnetic data from all major units at the study site fall within one of the normal subchrons of the late Matuyama Reversed Chron and are in general agreement with the radiometric dates. Chemical signatures of the basalt are nearly identical to similar flows belonging to the Chilcotin Group of plateau lavas. This newly identified Chilcotin flow, combined with coeval flows at other locations imply that Chilcotin volcanism was more active during the Quaternary than previously thought. The underlying till is up to four metres thick and is mantled by a minimal Ah horizon in a paleosol. The till overlies laminated and cross bedded fluvial silty sand up to five metres thick that displays injection features and minor faulting. A layer of stratified gravel underlain by gray banded clay of unknown thickness underlies the sand. The till represents the earliest evidence of glaciation in the Okanagan Valley. Till fabric analysis indicates a southeasterly flow of this glacier. The present study site has yielded radiometric ages and polarities similar to those described by Mathews and Rouse for the Dog Creek locality, 320 km to the northwest in south-central British Columbia, where basalts occur below and above glacial deposits. The newly identified glacial till, here referred to as the Westbank First Nations till, is discussed in relation to other Early Pleistocene glaciations in the Cordillera and to the global paleoclimate record. Key Words: Early Pleistocene glaciations, Cordilleran glaciations in western Canada, magnetostratigraphy of glacial sediments, Lambly Creek basalt, Chilcotin Group, Ar/Ar ages of basalts

  5. British Columbia Utilities Commission 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The BC Utilities Commission is an independent regulatory agency of the provincial government that operates under the Utilities Commission Act. The Commission's main responsibility is the regulation of the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that rates charged for energy are fair, just and reasonable, and that utility operations provide safe, adequate and secure service to their clients. It approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities and their issuance of securities. The Commission's function is quasi-judical and its Decisions and Orders may be appealed to the Court of Appeal on questions of law or jurisdiction. It participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. It also reviews, evaluates, and reports on energy related matters referred to it by Cabinet. This review usually involves public hearings followed by a decision or a report and recommendations to the Lieutenant Governor in Council.

  6. British Columbia Utilities Commission 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The BC Utilities Commission is an independent regulatory agency of the provincial government that operates under the Utilities Commission Act. The Commission`s main responsibility is the regulation of the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that rates charged for energy are fair, just and reasonable, and that utility operations provide safe, adequate and secure service to their clients. It approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities and their issuance of securities. The Commission`s function is quasi-judical and its Decisions and Orders may be appealed to the Court of Appeal on questions of law or jurisdiction. It participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. It also reviews, evaluates, and reports on energy related matters referred to it by Cabinet. This review usually involves public hearings followed by a decision or a report and recommendations to the Lieutenant Governor in Council.

  7. British Columbia Power Export Corporation: Operational review for operating year, October 1989 to September 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Power Export Corporation (POWEREX) is a wholly owned subsidiary of British Columbia Hydro, established in 1988 as the single agency responsible for implementing the provincial policy of international electricity trade. POWEREX objectives are to conduct long term firm electricity trade utilizing private sector financing, operating capabilities, and generating sources. Short term electricity transactions are handled by the part of POWEREX called the Powerex Pool Operation. An operational review of POWEREX for 1989-90 is presented, giving information on export contracts, license approvals, export sales negotiations, pool operation revenues and sales, British Columbia Hydro generation and integrated system performance, and operational planning. 15 figs

  8. Trumpeter swan lead shot poisoning investigation in northwest Washington and southwest British Columbia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Trumpeter (Cygnus buccinator) and tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) populations wintering in northwest Washington State and on the Sumas Prairie, British Columbia,...

  9. Two British Columbia University Colleges and the Process of Economic Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, John S.

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative investigation identified a condition of frenetic change experienced by two colleges in British Columbia, Canada, accompanying their change from community colleges to university colleges. Explored how economic globalization influenced the formation and functioning of these institutions. (EV)

  10. Geochemistry of coal and associated sedimentary rocks from Elk Valley Coalfield, British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, F.; Cameron, A.R.; Labonte, M.; Grieve, D.A.; Beaton, A.P. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology)

    1992-01-01

    This report is on analysis of coal seams in the Elk Valley Coalfield of British Columbia for their maceral composition, using reflected light and geochemistry. Detailed elemental analysis were carried out.

  11. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories: 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, Yukon, and the Northwest...

  12. Home Oxygen Program review: Regionalization in Vancouver Coastal Health and British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot’s model an...

  13. The British Columbia Positive Women's Survey: a detailed profile of 110 HIV-infected women

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkham, C M; Lobb, D J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health, social environment, medical care received and satisfaction with medical care of HIV-infected women in British Columbia. DESIGN: Self-administered 75-item questionnaire distributed by mail or in person between March 1994 and February 1996 through community AIDS organizations and physicians' offices. SETTING: British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 HIV-positive women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic data, risk factors for HIV infection, details about...

  14. Abuse and neglect of seniors in British Columbia: an empirical and theoretical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McMullen, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of elder abuse in British Columbia by profiling the parties involved in elder abuse situations and empirically testing Gordon and Brill?s (2001) Integrated Theoretical Model of Elder Abuse as an explanation of the relevant risk factors. The data were collected from a purposive sample of cases reported to the British Columbia Coalition for the Elimination of Abuse to Seniors from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. The sample (N=392) was comprised of cases ...

  15. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  16. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies

    2005-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  17. Managing Relational Legacies: Lessons from British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Baba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to company-community relations and the social license to operate have emerged as strategic business issues. This paper aims to contribute to the growing body of research on long-term company-community relations. An analysis of the relationship between Alcan (Aluminum of Canada, Montréal, Canada part of Rio Tinto since 2007 with the Cheslatta Carrier First Nation in the Kemano-Kitimat area of northern British Columbia, Canada, provides three contributions. The first is related to the notion of relational legacy, which refers to the sedimentation of unresolved issues that have the potential to impede the realization of corporate activities and the reproduction of low levels of social license to operate. The second concerns stakeholder management. While the literature suggests that stakeholders should be managed by companies according to the degree of salience, this analysis suggests that researchers and managers should consider the evolution of the environmental context in their analyses. Third, the analysis suggests that small or marginalized groups, depicted by the stakeholder management literature as dormant stakeholders, should not be underestimated.

  18. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinski, D. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC (Canada). Energy and Minerals Div.

    2002-07-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs.

  20. Going for Gold in 2010: An Analysis of British Columbia's Literacy Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines a recent government initiative aimed at raising adult literacy levels across the Canadian province of British Columbia by 2010. Through analysis of policy documents and interviews conducted with policymakers, analysts, researchers and practitioners, the author argues that the current focus on adult literacy in British Columbia…

  1. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    central population is limited and it requires additional study. Compiling available abundance information, we estimated that in the recent past, Marbled Murrelets in Alaska numbered on the order of 1 million birds. We were unable to generate a similar estimate for historical population size in British Columbia. Using trend information from at-sea surveys spanning a wide geographic range in Alaska, murrelet numbers declined significantly at five of eight trend sites at annual rates of -5.4 to -12.7 percent since the early 1990s. Applying these rates of decline to the historical population estimate, the current murrelet population in Alaska is projected to be on the order of 270,000 birds. This represents an overall population decline of about 70 percent during the past 25 years. In British Columbia, available trend data indicate that murrelet populations there have experienced similar declines. We updated a recent (2002) population estimate for British Columbia, concluding that there are now between 54,000 and 92,000 murrelets in British Columbia. The rates of decline we observed are within, but at the high end of, a range of rates expected by chance. Given that declines were estimated for sites over essentially the entire northern range of the species, there is cause for concern about the species? status. In their marine habitats, Marbled Murrelets overlap with salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) gillnetting operations in British Columbia and in Alaska (especially in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska), and annual bycatch mortality is likely in the low thousands per year, although bycatch rates are difficult to measure. The species? inshore distribution coincides with high levels of vessel traffic and makes them especially vulnerable to both chronic oil pollution and to catastrophic spills (e.g., the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill [EVOS] in south-central Alaska, which is estimated to have killed 12,000 to 15,000 murrelets). In their forested nesting habitats, Marbled Murrelets

  2. Forecasting Impacts of Climate Change on Indicators of British Columbia's Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Keith Richard

    Understanding the relationships between biodiversity and climate is essential for predicting the impact of climate change on broad-scale landscape processes. Utilizing indirect indicators of biodiversity derived from remotely sensed imagery, we present an approach to forecast shifts in the spatial distribution of biodiversity. Indirect indicators, such as remotely sensed plant productivity metrics, representing landscape seasonality, minimum growth, and total greenness have been linked to species richness over broad spatial scales, providing unique capacity for biodiversity modeling. Our goal is to map future spatial distributions of plant productivity metrics based on expected climate change and to quantify anticipated change to park habitat in British Columbia. Using an archival dataset sourced from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite from the years 1987 to 2007 at 1km spatial resolution, corresponding historical climate data, and regression tree modeling, we developed regional models of the relationships between climate and annual productivity growth. Historical interconnections between climate and annual productivity were coupled with three climate change scenarios modeled by the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (CCCma) to predict and map productivity components to the year 2065. Results indicate we can expect a warmer and wetter environment, which may lead to increased productivity in the north and higher elevations. Overall, seasonality is expected to decrease and greenness productivity metrics are expected to increase. The Coastal Mountains and high elevation edge habitats across British Columbia are forecasted to experience the greatest amount of change. In the future, protected areas may have potential higher greenness and lower seasonality as represented by indirect biodiversity indicators. The predictive model highlights potential gaps in protection along the central interior and Rocky Mountains. Protected

  3. RADICALIZATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS: THE PRINCIPALS' PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Mitchell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay summarizes a larger study into radicalization in secondary schools (Grades 8-12 in the Province of British Columbia, Canada, from the perspective of school principals and vice-principals (PVPs. In addition to determining the extent of radicalization, the study further explored the extent to which PVPs felt they were prepared to cope with radicalization in a school environment, and obtained their assessment of the training and resources available to help them deal with this phenomenon. Quantitative and qualitative data was acquired using a survey as well as interviews with PVPs. Research participants reported an unexpectedly low level of engagement by students in radical, extremist, or violent extremist behaviour during the 2014-2015 school year. Only 3% of PVPs surveyed believed that extremist or violent extremist behaviours had increased in their own schools during the previous three-year period, while 6.6% believed it had actually declined somewhat—or even substantially—during this timeframe. There was wide variance in the levels of confidence exhibited by PVPs in their capacity to deal with incidents of extreme or violently extreme behaviours, but most stated that they would welcome additional training on dealing with potential incidents. Only half of the interview participants claimed that the procedures and protocols in place to deal with incidents involving extremist behaviours were adequate. A consistently low level of radicalization was apparent in school environments where some factors that otherwise might trigger student radicalization were identified, explored, and resolved in a supportive and open minded manner by school staff.

  4. The business case for sustainability in the energy sector in British Columbia : opportunities and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, W.K.; Schendel, K. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Berbekar, I. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bodnar, D. [Terasen Gas Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dyson, C. [British Columbia Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Floyd, M.; Stavely, R. [Canadian Business for Social Responsibility, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Rossignol, C. [Canadian Electricity Association, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    This report examines the progress that British Columbia's energy industry and energy users have made toward sustainability. It examines the energy, forestry, mining/minerals and tourism sectors as well as the engagement by First Nations. Air pollution in the Lower Mainland declined by 40 per cent between 1985 and 2000. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per capita are 29 per cent lower in British Columbia than the national average, due in part to the Power Smart, Resource Smart and clean energy programs launched by BC Hydro. All electricity distributors in the province will attempt to purchase a minimum of 50 per cent of their new power supply from renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, tidal, wave and geothermal energy. They will also pursue micro-hydro projects, innovative technologies such as fuel cells, and wood-waste cogeneration projects for large industrial settings. In February 2003, the BC government lifted a 30 year moratorium on offshore oil and gas development. It is estimated that sustainable development of oil and gas could provide the province with royalty revenues of nearly $1 billion annually for 30 years. The criteria for sustainable energy use include: an indefinite availability of the energy source; the rate of replacement of the source must not be greater than its rate of use; the supply and delivery must be limited to acceptable environmental, social, health and cultural impacts; and, the supply and delivery should not depend on household or industrial activities that are not sustainable. The report outlined the business case for sustainability with reference to the social license to operate; reduction in environmental costs; administrative efficiency; safety and risk management; share value and sustainability; and provincial economic advantage. Future prospects for environmental, economic and social sustainability were outlined. refs.

  5. Historical Meadow Dynamics in Southwest British Columbia: a Multidisciplinary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Mierendorf

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent encroachment of woody species threatening many western North American meadows has been attributed to diverse factors. We used a suite of methods in Chittenden Meadow, southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to identify the human, ecological, and physical factors responsible for its historical dynamics and current encroachment by woody vegetation. We evaluated three hypotheses about the origin and processes maintaining the meadow: the meadow is (1 of recent human origin; (2 of ancient human origin, maintained by aboriginal burning; and (3 of ancient non-human origin, not maintained by aboriginal burning. Our data supported the idea that the meadow had ancient non-human origins and its recent history and current status have resulted from complex interactions among landform, climate, and fire. Soil properties (both horizonation and charcoal content indicate that the meadow is of ancient, non-human origin. Tree ages in the meadow and surrounding forest indicate that encroachment is recent, not related to a variety of recent human activities, and is probably a result of increasing spring temperature and decreasing spring snow depth. Although ethnographic surveys and historical documents revealed indigenous use of the general area over millennia, including the use of fire as a management tool, we found little direct evidence of indigenous use of the meadow. However, there was no proxy record of fire frequency in the meadow that we could have used to determine the role of fire in maintaining the meadow in the past, or the role of humans in igniting those fires. Thus, the historical role of humans in the maintenance of the meadow by prescribed fire remains indeterminate. Based on these conclusions, we combined hypotheses (2 and (3 into an a posteriori hypothesis that reflects changing interactions among people, fire, and climate over time. Without management intervention, we expect that tree encroachment will continue. Several general lessons

  6. The influence of surface characteristics, topography, and continentality on mountain permafrost in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal offset and surface offset are terms that describe the deviation of the mean annual ground temperature from the mean annual air temperature. These offsets are controlled by surface characteristics and topo-climatic factors on a micro- and meso-scales. Macro-climatic conditions may, however, influence the effectiveness of the responsible processes. Existing knowledge on surface- and topography-specific offsets is not easily transferable and limits the applicability of empirical permafrost distribution models over large areas with macro-climatic gradients. In this paper we describe surface and thermal offsets derived from distributed measurements at seven field sites in British Columbia. Key findings are (i a surprisingly small variation of the surface offsets between different surface types and small thermal offsets in general (excluding wetlands and peat, (ii a clear influence of the micro-topography at wind exposed sites (snow cover erosion, (iii a north–south difference of the surface offset of 4 °C in near-vertical bedrock and of 1.5–3 °C on open (no canopy gentle slopes, (iv only small macro-climatic differences caused by the reverse influence of snow cover thickness and annual air temperature amplitude. These findings suggest, that empirical permafrost models based on topo-climatic variables may be applicable across regions with significant macro-climatic differences.

  7. Impacts of large scale integration of wind power into the power system of British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeer, Torsten; Djilali, Ned; Rowe, Andrew [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems; Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the impacts of increasing the contribution of wind energy to British Columbia's power generation and transmission system. A model has been developed utilizing wind energy data provided by BC Hydro, the power generating authority in the province. These wind profiles were superimposed on the British Columbia Power System. The model incorporates various wind penetration scenarios and utility assumptions regarding load growth over the next 10 years. The objectives are to determine optimal strategies that integrate wind energy generation into the power system while maintaining or improving system reliability. The simulations were conducted using MATPOWER functionality within MATLAB. The results are based on a simplified representation of British Columbia's power system and incorporate optimal power flow with unit commitment optimization. (orig.)

  8. Mass care and the University of British Columbia: A new approach to disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Reg

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a major earthquake affecting the lower mainland of British Columbia, the University of British Columbia (UBC) would be expected to provide emergency services and support to a population of over 51,000 students, 14,000 faculty and staff and over 10,000 UBC community residents and private companies who live and work on the Point Grey peninsula. This paper will detail how UBC would provide shelter, food, accommodation and support (together known as mass care) to this demographic. PMID:27318287

  9. Social space, social class and Bourdieu: health inequalities in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.

  10. : Carbon Taxation and the Double Dividend Hypothesis: A Case Study Of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Stumpe, Rian

    2014-01-01

    This project is interdisciplinary research combining economics with PSR. The paper is a case study of British Columbia, Canada, investigating the attempt to have both a decrease in carbon emissions, with the possibility of economic growth. Climate change is debatably the most prominent issue of our time. Carbon emissions have continued to rise at an unprecedented rate. Some scientists are suggesting that change must happen sooner than later. In response to this, the province of British Columb...

  11. An Extended Industry Analysis of the Water Facilities Design Industry in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Imtiaz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extended industry analysis of British Columbia’s water facilities design industry. The paper analyzes the industry using two models to determine the competitive position, profitability, linkages and competitive scopes of typical engineering consulting firms with water facilities design practices in British Columbia. Strategies to be pursued are then recommended based on these analyses. The extended industry analysis is first conducted using the Five Forces model. This m...

  12. Sampling location for harbor seal genetics in Washington and British Columbia from 1993-08-25 to 2009-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0148458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using skin samples from 777 unweaned pups collected in 9 different regions in WA state and British Columbia (WA Coastal Estuaries, WA North Coast, British Columbia,...

  13. Landslide-generated tsunami geomorphology at Chehalis Lake, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; McKillop, R.; Clague, J. J.; Lawrence, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The 2007 Chehalis Lake tsunami in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia is one of the most comprehensively described landslide-generated tsunamis in the world. We use field observations and remotely sensed data collected during the two years following the tsunami to characterize its geomorphic impact and propose a suite of geomorphic features characteristic of tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides. On December 4, 2007, a highly fragmented 3 Mm3 rockslide entered the north end of Chehalis Lake and generated a tsunami that drastically altered much of the shore of the 8.5-km-long lake, with local run-up exceeding 35 m. The tsunami continued as a surge down lower Chehalis River, at the south end of the lake. We characterized geomorphic features produced by the tsunami by collecting multi-scale data, starting immediately after the event. Data included reconnaissance helicopter and ground observations, low-altitude aerial digital photography and aerial LiDAR survey, detailed GPS-controlled field traverses, and an underwater survey using side-scan sonar and swath bathymetric sounding. The impact of the tsunami was greatest on low-gradient shores and the shoreline nearest the landslide. Erosional features include wave-cut scarps, soil erosion, and complete removal of forest, leaving sharp trimlines. Debris transported by the tsunami stripped bark from standing trees, left impact marks on them, and embedded gravel in them. Depositional features include imbricated cobbles and boulders, ripples in sand and gravel, pebble lags, rip-up clasts of glaciolacustrine silt, and trash lines of woody debris in forest at and near the limit of tsunami run-up. Similar features have been reported at sites of landslide-triggered tsunamis, notably in Alaska, Chile, Norway, and elsewhere in Canada. We grouped geomorphic features at Chehalis Lake on the basis of their areal distribution and their inferred formative energy. The geomorphic groups form a continuum, reflecting

  14. Hidden Fragility: Closure among Licensed Child-Care Services in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Paul; Forer, Barry; Goelman, Hillel

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that stability is one component of quality child care. We investigate the understudied phenomenon of the stability of child-care facilities over time, focusing on the province of British Columbia, Canada. Although net figures show growth in the number of providers between 1997 and 2001, they obfuscate a dramatic level of closure…

  15. Suicide by Oxygen Deprivation with Helium: A Preliminary Study of British Columbia Coroner Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Russel D.; Hassan, Shereen

    2011-01-01

    This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners…

  16. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), ...

  17. Benefits and costs of impeding free trade: Revisiting British Columbia's restrictions on log exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2014-01-01

    The government of British Columbia (BC) imposes restrictions on the export of logs from public and private forestlands, primarily to promote local processing and associated employment benefits. Most economists wholeheartedly oppose BC's export restrictions, arguing that BC's citizens are worse off a

  18. The El Niño Southern Oscillation index and wildfire prediction in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Zhen; Kooten, van G.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the potential to predict monthly wildfires and area burned in British Columbia's interior using El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) and the generalized Pareto (GP) distributions are used, respectively, to account for uncertainty in

  19. Children in Need of Protection: Reporting Policies in British Columbia School Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewchuk, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    High profile sexual assault cases by British Columbia elementary school teachers in 2010 revealed BC school boards had "disturbingly inconsistent" child protection policies. As a result of the intense media scrutiny, the BC Ministry of Education required all school boards to reassess and update their policies on reporting suspected child…

  20. From Casual Work to Economic Security: The Case of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Fiona; Bowles, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of casual work in British Columbia is an important issue given that the increase in casual work has been greater in this province than in other provinces in Canada and given that the labour market has been substantially deregulated since 2001. In this paper, we analyse how individuals' casual employment status affects their economic…

  1. Knowledge, Compliance, and Attitudes of Teachers toward Mandatory Child Abuse Reporting in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kirk A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of, compliance with, and attitudes toward mandatory child abuse reporting were studied for 216 elementary and secondary school teachers in British Columbia (Canada). Teachers were aware of the law's existence but not its particulars. The tendency to report abuse varied as a function of the type of maltreatment. (SLD)

  2. Who Uses Interest Arbitration? The Case of British Columbia's Teachers, 1947-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet

    1989-01-01

    A simple model that incorporates elements of the leading hypotheses is tested using a unique data set spanning 35 years of conventional arbitration experience among teachers in British Columbia. Found that bargaining units that used arbitration in earlier round of negotiations were more likely than others to use it in the current round. (JOW)

  3. Acute care utilization due to hospitalizations for pediatric lower respiratory tract infections in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Santibanez Pablo; Gooch Katherine; Vo Pamela; Lorimer Michelle; Sandino Yurik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pediatric LRTI hospitalizations are a significant burden on patients, families, and healthcare systems. This study determined the burden of pediatric LRTIs on hospital settings in British Columbia and the benefits of prevention strategies as they relate to healthcare resource demand. Methods LRTI inpatient episodes for patients

  4. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    British Columbia`s approach to water quality management is discussed. The BC efforts include regulating `end of pipe` point discharges from industrial and municipal outfalls. The major remaining cause of water pollution is from non-point sources (NPS). NPS water pollution is caused by the release of pollutants from different and diffuse sources, mostly unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture and other forms of land development. The importance of dealing with such problems on an immediate basis to avoid a decline in water quality in the province is emphasized. Major sources of water pollution in British Columbia include: land development, agriculture, storm water runoff, onsite sewage systems, forestry, atmospheric deposition, and marine activities. 3 tabs.

  5. Impacts of the operation of existing hydroelectric developments on fishery resources in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of 46 hydroelectric dams and diversions in British Columbia are reviewed, and available information on the inland sport fish resources within and below the impoundments are summarized. The projects are collectively responsible for ca 95% of the electrical power used in the province. The characteristics detailed include water license and operational constraints, electrical generation, enhancement facilities, operational regime, physical and chemical environment, downstream system, sportfish populations, and recreational fishery. All the hydroelectric impoundments reviewed, with the possible exceptions of some small headponds, support sport fish populations. Recreational angling quality is considered good for about one quarter of impoundments for which information is available. Low population density is the dominant reason for poor angling quality. Drawdowns exceeding 10 m annually and/or low water retention times are significant impediments to sport fish stock densities. Recommended measures to improve sport fishery resources in and below hydroelectric impoundments include evaluation of the efficiency of ongoing compensation programs, improvement to impact assessment procedures to ensure adequate documentation of pre- and post-impoundment conditions, and enhancement of several systems through stock or nutritional supplementation. 161 refs., 95 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Steady-state critical loads of acidity for forest soils in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in acid rain research in western Canada where sulphur (S and nitrogen (N emissions are expected to increase during the next two decades. One region of concern is southern British Columbia, specifically the Georgia Basin, where emissions are expected to increase owing to the expansion of industry and urban centres (Vancouver and Victoria. In the current study, weathering rates and critical loads of acidity (S and N for forest soils were estimated at nineteen sites located within the Georgia Basin. A base cation to aluminium ratio of 10 was selected as the critical chemical criterion associated with ecosystem damage. The majority of the sites (58% had low base cation weathering rates (≤50 meq m–2 y–1 based on the PROFILE model. Accordingly, mean critical load for the study sites, estimated using the steady-state mass balance model, ranged between 129–168 meq m–2 y–1. Annual average total (wet and dry S and N deposition during the period 2005–2006 (estimated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality model, exceeded critical load at five–nine of the study sites (mean exceedance = 32–46 meq m–2 y–1. The high-elevation (>1000 m study sites had shallow, acid sensitive, soils with low weathering rates; however, critical loads were predominantly exceeded at sites close to Vancouver under higher modelled deposition loads. The extent of exceedance is similar to other industrial regions in western and eastern Canada.

  7. Saskatchewan Joins British Columbia in Introducing an Immunize or Mask Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Zarzeczny

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal influenza is a contagious respiratory infection for which certain populations, particularly seniors in long-term care and medically vulnerable individuals receiving care as in-patients in health care facilities, are at heightened risk for serious complications. Accordingly, annual influenza vaccination is a public health objective. In September 2014, Saskatchewan joined British Columbia and became the second Canadian province to implement a so-called “immunize or mask” policy that applies to individuals in patient care locations including, but not limited to, health care workers. The policy is focused on promoting patient safety by reducing the transmission of influenza in regional health authority facilities. On its face, this policy aligns well with the Ministry of Health’s commitments to patient-centered care, to quality improvement, and to thinking and acting as one system. The policy will be adopted and implemented by each of the 13 regional health authorities and the single cancer agency in the province. Preliminary evaluation is anticipated after this first year of policy implementation.

  8. Reconstructing Fire Disturbances in Coastal Temperate Rainforests on the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kira; Smith, Dan; Lertzman, Ken; Starzomski, Brian

    2015-04-01

    The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia's Central Coast are comprised of old growth, mixed-age stands and a mosaic of non-forested bogs. This region receives approximately 4000 mm of annual rainfall, and fire disturbances caused by lightning are thought to be very rare. Because of the late successional characteristics of these forests and the presumed lack of visible fire evidence, fires have been estimated to occur at up to 6000-year return intervals. We attempt to distinguish the roles of natural and cultural (First Nations) fires using multiple lines of evidence from tree ring records, fire-scarred trees, soil charcoal and archaeological evidence from First Nations settlement areas. To reconstruct the Holocene fire history of the study area located on Hecate Island (N 51 38 W -128 05), thirty 400m2 forest mensuration plots were systematically established in a 287-hectare area burned in 1893. Analyses focused on the relationship between fire events and climate recorded in tree rings and instrumental records, as well as nutrient concentrations and pH of soils and plant community characteristics. Four fire events (1893, 1776, 1525, 1372) were recorded in forty-five living, fire-scarred western redcedar (Thuja plicata), yellow cedar (Xanthocyparis nootkatensis) and shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) trees. Five additional fire events (1785 Cal BP, 2760 Cal BP, 3355 Cal BP, 4735 Cal BP, 7740 Cal BP) were dated with accelerated mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of in situ macro charcoal (> 5mm) buried in stratigraphy in both organic and mineral soils. The short intervals between fire events, coupled with the long history of First Nations settlement and land use in the study area, suggest purposeful and repeated low-intensity ground fires. Our research demonstrates that fires are more widespread and common than previously recorded on the very wet Central Coast of British Columbia. It is important to incorporate cultural fires into fire history

  9. Residence, income and cancer hospitalizations in British Columbia during a decade of policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penning MJ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through the 1990s, governments across Canada shifted health care funding allocation and organizational foci toward a community-based population health model. Major concerns of reform based on this model include ensuring equitable access to health and health care, and enhancing preventive and community-based resources for care. Reforms may act differentially relative to specific conditions and services, including those geared to chronic versus acute conditions. The present study therefore focuses on health service utilization, specifically cancer hospitalizations, in British Columbia during a decade of health system reform. Methods Data were drawn from the British Columbia Linked Health Data resource; income measures were derived from Statistics Canada 1996 Census public use enumeration area income files. Records with a discharge (separation date between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 1998 were selected. All hospitalizations with ICD-9 codes 140 through 208 (except skin cancer, code 173 as principal diagnosis were included. Specific cancers analyzed include lung; colorectal; female breast; and prostate. Hospitalizations were examined in total (all separations, and as divided into first and all other hospitalizations attributed to any given individual. Annual trends in age-sex adjusted rates were analyzed by joinpoint regression; longitudinal multivariate analyses assessing association of residence and income with hospitalizations utilized generalised estimating equations. Results are evaluated in relation to cancer incidence trends, health policy reform and access to care. Results Age-sex adjusted hospitalization rates for all separations for all cancers, and lung, breast and prostate cancers, decreased significantly over the study period; colorectal cancer separations did not change significantly. Rates for first and other hospitalizations remained stationary or gradually declined over the study period. Area of residence and

  10. Restorative justice in British Columbia's youth probation service

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Christine Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has brought with it new youth criminal justice legislation: the Youth Criminal Justice Act. This federal legislation created more options for practitioners (e.g., police, courts and probation) but, more importantly, a much more definitive stance on the use of restorative justice measures when dealing with youth in conflict with the law. This paper examines the ways in which youth probation and restorative justice are conceptualized and put into practice by the British Columb...

  11. Chronic Hepatitis C in Western Canada: A Survey of Practice Patterns among Gastroenterologists in Alberta and British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To survey gastroenterologists in British Columbia and Alberta with regard to awareness of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV management and practice patterns among physicians who treat and do not treat HCV-infected patients.

  12. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia: An action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to protect British Columbia water quality by regulating point discharges from municipal and industrial sources have generally been successful, and it is recognized that the major remaining cause of water pollution in the province is from non-point sources. These sources are largely unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture, and other forms of land development. The first part of this report reviews the provincial commitment to clean water, the effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, and the management of NPS in the province. Part 2 describes the main causes of NPS in British Columbia: Land development, agriculture, stormwater runoff, on-site sewage systems, forestry and range activities, atmospheric deposition, and boating/marine activities. Finally, it presents key components of the province's NPS action plan: Education and training, prevention at site, land use planning and co-ordination, assessment and reporting, economic incentives, legislation and regulation, and implementation.

  13. PRICING ATTRIBUTES OF WINES FROM EMERGING SUPPLIERS ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica YOO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine British Columbia (BC wine consumers’ valuation of wine imported from emerging suppliers (Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia and Hungary using hedonic pricing technique. BC Liquor Distribution Branch retail sales data covering weekly sales of table wine imported into the province of British Columbia from all five countries for the period April 20th, 2002 to May 8th, 2004 are applied to estimate the influence of wine attributes on prices. The results indicate that grape variety, brand name, country of origin, and alcohol content are important factors influencing prices paid by consumers. In particular, Chilean white and red wines are associated with larger price premia as compared to Argentinean wines. Wines from Hungary, Bulgaria, and Croatia, although sold in large quantities in the BC market, are substantially discounted in comparison to New World wines. Cabernet Sauvignon fetches a higher price when blended with other varietals and Chardonnay appears to be popular and highly valued by consumers among white wines.

  14. Financial reporting for the Powersmart programs of British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Powersmart program at British Columbia Hydro seeks to minimize the short- and long-term energy costs to customers through the efficient or avoided use of electricity. In determining the overall financial reporting of Powersmart, four areas were reviewed in depth. The question of deferral or expensing of expenditures was examined with reference to accounting principles and industry practice in Canada and the USA. Discussion is provided on the costs that would be deferred, the amortization period of deferred expenses, and financial statement presentation. Deferral and amortization appear appropriate if the costs incurred are recoverable under future rates. The design, development, and implementation of power saving programs are outlined as well as the criteria for selection of an amortization period. At British Columbia Hydro, all Powersmart programs are treated as one type of expense and an amortization period of 7 years has been selected for all programs to simplify the accounting

  15. Creating a safety culture at the Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoor, Katrina N; Taylor, Annemarie; Northway, Tracie L; Hudson, Denise G; Van Stolk, Dori E; Shearer, Kim J; McDougall, Debbie L; Miller, Georgene

    2007-02-01

    The Children's' and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia (C&W) is the largest hospital providing specialized care to women and children across the province of British Columbia in Canada. The values of quality and safety are threaded throughout the C&W strategic plan which emphasizes that safety is vital for better health. At C&W, a multifaceted approach is used to create and sustain a culture of safety. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) has developed tools to facilitate the development of safety cultures within hospital settings. This article describes the implementation of some of these tools, such as the Safety Briefings Model and Patient Safety Leadership Walkrounds. We will discuss how we adapted these strategies to our pediatric settings; what we learned through the implementation process-our successes and challenges; and implications for future success.

  16. An Audit of Pain Management Following Pediatric Day Surgery at British Columbia Children’s Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Shum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective audit of 225 children was conducted to evaluate current pain management strategies both in-hospital and at home following day surgery at British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia. Anesthetic, postanesthetic care unit and surgical day care unit records were collected to generate in-hospital data. A telephone questionnaire was administered 48 h postdischarge for at home data. Pain reports and scores were significantly higher (P<0.01 at home compared with in-hospital. Children undergoing certain procedures were more likely to experience significant pain. Although good pain control was commonly achieved after surgery, improvements may be possible by increasing the use of multimodal analgesia, providing standardized written discharge instructions and using surgery-specific pediatric analgesia guidelines.

  17. Upstream regulatory reform, positioning British Columbia natural gas for the future : a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the upstream gas regulation in British Columbia was reviewed. Most of the natural gas gathering and processing facilities in the province are owned by Westcoast Energy Inc., which is regulated by the federal National Energy Board using what the provincial government considers an outdated and inappropriate approach. Recently, the upstream natural gas sector in British Columbia has shown signs of weakness which is an indication that there is an urgent need to reform the method of economic regulation of federally regulated upstream facilities in the province. It is the view of the BC government that the split regulatory jurisdiction between the provincial and federal governments as regards pipeline toll methodology, risk sharing by gas shippers, and effects on gas resource development, must be harmonized. Various recommendations for reform were presented

  18. Two new species in the family Axinellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia and adjacent waters

    OpenAIRE

    William Austin; Bruce Ott; Henry Reiswig; Paula Romagosa; Neil McDaniel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, Auletta krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m) and Dragmacidon kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m). We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among spe...

  19. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  20. The opportunity for retail drug store development in rural British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, Robert Mark

    2005-01-01

    The drug store industry provides pharmacy service, cosmetic product and other health, beauty, and convenience goods to the population of British Columbia in urban, suburban and rural markets. Many different store formats compete in the industry using a variety of different strategic approaches. The mix of formats varies between urban and rural markets. A review of the value chain and a competitive force analysis identifies key success factors for the industry. The impact on these factors of d...

  1. Future forest management in British Columbia: A proposed vision, goals, and forest management framework

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, W.W.

    2004-01-01

    During a time when British Columbia's forest policy is undergoing unprecedented change, a lack of clarity surrounds what is desired for the forest industry and how future forests will be managed. This paper focuses on desirable changes to forest management to achieve sustainability. The author comments on current forest industry structure and recommends adoption of the Chief Forester's vision of the industry as "... the best managers of naturally forested landscapes in the world." A set of go...

  2. A Strategic Analysis of a Facility Supply Distributor in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a business level strategic analysis of RST Corporation’s facility supplydivision, in British Columbia Canada.The facility supply industry is in decline. Firms find it increasingly difficult to achieveprofitability. Despite its decline, this industry will provide opportunities for a smaller number offirms with the correct strategy to take advantage of them. This paper explores the industryenvironment, RST’s resources, current strategy, and performance. It then goes on to de...

  3. Reducing produced water leaks and spills by improving industry compliance in British Columbia's natural gas sector

    OpenAIRE

    Notte, Chelsea Althea

    2014-01-01

    The International Energy Association asserts that natural gas is poised to enter a golden age. This is particularly true for British Columbia, which possesses world-class shale gas reserves. Produced water – the water emanating from fracturing shale - is the largest waste stream associated with oil and gas activities. Wastewater associated with natural gas extraction is highly toxic and has serious implications for environmental and human health if spilled or leaked. Because of the corrosive ...

  4. School administration in a different voice : the careers of women administrators in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tabin, Yvonne Emilie

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if and how the experiences of recent women appointees to the principalship differ from those of earlier appointees. Given the rather recent increase in the number of women assuming administrative posts in British Columbia, it is possible that conditions for women may have changed. Interviews with nine new and eight experienced women principals revealed some differences between the two groups in their careers and experiences. Although recent women ...

  5. Comparison of breast cancer survival in two populations: Ardabil, Iran and British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Babaei Masoud; Nouraie Mehdi; Ghorbani Anahita; Bashash Morteza; Bajdik Chris; Hislop T Gregory; Sadjadi Alireza; Malekzadeh Reza; Yavari Parvin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Patterns in survival can provide information about the burden and severity of cancer, help uncover gaps in systemic policy and program delivery, and support the planning of enhanced cancer control systems. The aim of this paper is to describe the one-year survival rates for breast cancer in two populations using population-based cancer registries: Ardabil, Iran, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods All newly diagnosed cases of female breast cancer were identified in ...

  6. A comparison of two methods for surveying mortality of beached birds in British Columbia.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, C; Burger, A E

    1994-01-01

    Systematic surveys of beached birds are often limited in their ability to classify the causes of death of the carcasses recovered. Two methods of determining the cause of death of seabirds encountered during surveys of beaches of southwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, are compared. Birds were either subjected to external visual examinations by volunteer beach surveyors or submitted for gross postmortem examination by a veterinarian. The reliance on external examination of birds on b...

  7. Talking Trash: the politics of sustainability and waste management in Whistler, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Temenos, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Resort Municipality of Whistler, British Columbia began shipping its solid waste to a landfill in Redmond, Washington as part of its solid waste management program. According to the municipality this practice is in line with Whistler 2020, its fifteen-year comprehensive sustainability plan, adopted in 2004. Whistler’s waste management policy and practices raise questions of municipal, citizen, business, and visitor responsibility regarding waste management and sustainability in r...

  8. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Darimont Chris T; Paquet Paul C; Reimchen Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus) predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resou...

  9. Creating Possibilities: An Examination of University Career Support Services for International Students in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kelkar, Deepshika

    2016-01-01

    Given the projected increase in the international student population, there is a need to understand the existing state of career support services on university campuses in British Columbia (BC) and whether these services meet their needs. Currently, the limited research in this area illustrates that international students intending to stay in the host country may not be adequately prepared to navigate the Canadian labour market. This study investigates the availability of career support servi...

  10. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenco Grant; Brauer Gerhard; Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl; Georges Karla

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies) and British Columbia (Canada). These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant intervi...

  11. Cannabis in British Columbia: How Can We Take the High Road?

    OpenAIRE

    Bockner, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how to reduce the harms and enhance the benefits that are produced by cannabis legislation in British Columbia. Criminalization of recreational cannabis aims to decrease demand. However, prior research reveals that this approach has little effect on usage rates. Although there are hazards associated with cannabis use, studies suggest that alcohol and tobacco consumption are more dangerous, yet it is legal to possess those drugs. Furthermore, the status quo allows criminal ...

  12. The British Columbia natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the natural gas market in British Columbia (BC) and discusses several issues facing the market. The main challenges facing the market in recent years have been rising prices, price spikes and increased price volatility. New exploration and development projects have been announced along with new gas pipeline projects that move gas to eastern markets. Industrial consumers are exploring fuel alternatives to reduce natural gas consumption. Despite these challenges, the Board believes the natural gas market in British Columbia is working well. Natural gas prices are integrated with the North American market, consumers have responded to higher prices by reducing demand, and producers have increased exploration and production. Price discovery has improved due to better pricing reporting standards and access to electronic gas trading at pricing points for BC gas. The small market size in British Columbia and the lack of storage in the Lower Mainland limit market liquidity in comparison with other major market centres. 20 figs

  13. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Weckworth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  14. Neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Devon J; Orsel, Karin; Waddington, Josh; Rajeev, Malavika; Sweeny, Amy R; Joseph, Tomy; Grigg, Michael E; Raverty, Stephen A

    2016-03-15

    The protozoan pathogen Neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. To evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in British Columbia, Canada. Retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia, a provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratory, from January 2007 to July 2013 identified 182 abortion cases (passive surveillance). From July 2013 to May 2014, an active surveillance program identified a further 54 abortion cases from dairy farmers in the Upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Of the total 236 fetal submissions analyzed, N. caninum was diagnosed in 18.2% of cases, making it the most commonly identified infectious agent associated with fetal loss. During active surveillance, N. caninum was associated with 41% of fetuses submitted compared to 13.3% during passive surveillance (page had the highest prevalence of N. caninum. There was no significant association with dam parity. N. caninum was diagnosed in every year except 2009 and cases were geographically widespread throughout the province. Furthermore, the active surveillance program demonstrates that N. caninum is highly prevalent in the Upper Fraser Valley and is a major causal agent of production losses in this dairy intensive region. PMID:26872927

  15. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  16. Impacts of Mountain Pine Beetle on Peak Flow in the Fraser Basin in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, C.; Rosin, K.; Weiler, M.

    2008-12-01

    Increasing winter temperature in combination with forest management practices are the main drivers for the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) epidemic in British Columbia (BC). The infestation of MPB has now turned into a major threat to the natural habitat of the province. The Fraser basin, the largest watershed in BC, is the most affected watershed with an infested forest area of 7.7 million hectares (88% of the watershed) [Redding and Pike 2007]. Forest cover is a key modifier of the watershed's peak flow regime. The peak flow generally increases when forest cover is reduced. Major parts of the Fraser basin have only a limited number of gauging stations (or are even ungauged). The goal of the project was to develop a hydrological model that can predict peak flow increases but does not rely on complex data inputs for its validation and calibration procedures. The model consists of two major components: climate input and runoff. The climate input component determines the mean annual snowmelt as well as the maximum rainfall based on long term climatic averages. This information is then used to determine the time and the capacity of the peak flow for every 3rd order watershed. The runoff component delineates hydrologic processes such as Hortonain Overland Flow, Saturation Overland Flow and Shallow Surface Flow. The model combines the two components and computes a map of peak flow contribution. A peak flow analysis has been carried out to validate the model results using available gauging stations in subcatchments. The validated model has been then applied to the entire watershed to analyze the impacts of MPB on peak flow in the Fraser basin. The presentation will show the conceptual presentation of the hydrological model. It will highlight the results of the peak flow analysis and show initial results of the application of the model. Cited Literature: Redding, T. and Pike, R (2007). Mountain Pine Beetle and Watershed Hydrology Workshop Summary, Streamline Watershed

  17. Revisiting the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis: Argon-argon geochronology and paleomagnetism of the Ecstall, Butedale, and Smith Island plutons, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Sarah Jo

    The controversy concerning terrane displacements in western British Columbia, otherwise known as the Baja-BC hypothesis, is revisited using paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and thermal modeling. We studied three plutons in northwest British Columbia, the Ecstall, Butedale, and Smith Island plutons. The Ecstall pluton is the focus of this research as it has been the subject of considerable debate over the cause of systematic variations in paleomagnetic direction across the ˜25 km wide pluton. Hollister et al. (2004) proposed that magnetization carried by lamellar magnetism in ilmenite-hematite was variably reset during reheating by emplacement of the younger Quottoon plutonic complex on the eastern margin of the Ecstall pluton, thus causing the systematic variations in paleomagnetic direction. To test this hypothesis we conducted a number of studies on samples from the Ecstall pluton. First, a detailed mineralogic study using scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy found evidence of microstructural and mineralogic changes to the magnetic oxides of the Ecstall pluton as a function of distance from the Quottoon plutonic complex. Second, rock magnetic experiments on single crystals of Fe-Ti oxides confirm changes to the magnetic properties of single crystals that are related to both microstructure and distance from the Quottoon plutonic complex. Third, spatial trends in 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from hornblende and biotite were found to be consistent with reheating by the Quottoon plutonic complex. In addition to reheating by the Quottoon plutonic complex, thermal modeling suggests that spatial trends in 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages are most consistent with a thermal history that also includes northeast side up tilt of the Ecstall. The Smith Island and Butedale plutons do not show evidence for tilting in their 40Ar/39Ar cooling age trends, and paleomagnetic directions from these plutons are approximately concordant with the

  18. Cretaceous Apparent Polar Wander Relative to the Major Cratons and Displacement Estimates of Baja British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    When paleogeographic interpretations derived from independent observations conflict, the methods and results from each discipline come under careful scrutiny, as illustrated by the Baja British Columbia controversy. Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from a large region of the Canadian Cordillera render paleopoles which are far-sided with respect to cratonic North American poles, suggesting this region, designated Baja British Columbia, translated northward during Late Cretaceous - Paleogene time. Criticism of this interpretation based on other geological reasoning prompted me to perform new reviews of Cretaceous to Eocene paleomagnetic results from the Cordillera and from the major cratons of the globe. The global review follows the method of Besse and Courtillot (1991; 2002). One difference between our methods is that I compiled paleomagnetic results from highly studied rock units to single results to balance data weightings spatially and temporally, thus reducing the number of individual results. For the period 160 to 40 Ma, 51 poles were included compared to 92 poles by Besse and Courtillot (2002). Differences between apparent polar wander paths in their and my analyses are never significant at 95% confidence, however mean pole positions differ by up to 500 km, which is important for paleogeographic analysis. The global distribution of sampling localities and the tight clustering of the paleomagnetic poles after plate reconstruction provide invaluable confirmation of plate tectonically derived Euler rotations, the reliability of paleomagnetic remanence directions, and the geocentric dipole geometry of the geomagnetic field. My Cordilleran review shows that paleolatitudes derived from plutons and remagnetized rocks are significantly more scattered than those derived from bedded rocks. Using bedded rocks only, the paleomagnetic record shows that Baja British Columbia sat 2100 ± 500 km south of its present position with respect to cratonic North America during the

  19. THE BRITISH COLUMBIA WINE INDUSTRY: CAN IT COMPETE WITH THE BIG GUYS?

    OpenAIRE

    Cartier, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In 1989, the Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was implemented and dramatically changed the course of the wine industry’s development in British Columbia (BC). The FTA forced the industry to make the transition from being highly protected, and inefficient, to a competitive market contender. Although considered initially to be a victim of the FTA, by 2010, the BC wine industry contributed $295.8 million to the BC economy, or 0.15% of provincial GDP, and provided 5,100 direct an...

  20. Sincere but naive: methodological queries concerning the British Columbia polygamy reference trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sean Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Academics frequently serve as expert witnesses in legal cases, yet their role as transmitters of social scientific knowledge remains under-examined. The present study analyzes the deployment of social science within British Columbia's polygamy reference trial where research is used to support the assertion that polygamy is inherently harmful to society. Within the trial record and the written decision, the protection of monogamy as an institution is performed in part through the marginalization of qualitative methodology and the concurrent privileging of quantitative studies that purportedly demonstrate widespread social harms associated with the practice of polygyny.

  1. Acid mine drainage: mining and water pollution issues in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The importance of protecting water quality and some of the problems associated with mineral development are described. Negative impacts of mining operations such as sedimentation, water disturbances, and water pollution from waste rock and tailings are considered. Mining wastes, types of water pollution from mining, the legacy of acid mine drainage, predicting acid mine drainage, preventing and mitigating acid mine drainage, examples from the past, and cyanide heap-leaching are discussed. The real costs of mining at the Telkwa open pit coal mine are assessed. British Columbia mines that are known for or are potentially acid generating are shown on a map. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Two new species in the family Axinellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae from British Columbia and adjacent waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Austin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, A. krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m and D. kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m. We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among species in principal spicules that form the ascending tracts to be either oxeas, styles or strongyles rather than just oxeas.

  3. Land use, fishing, climate change, and decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, M. J.; Irvine, J. R. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)

    2000-01-01

    Reasons for the decline in abundance of Pacific salmon population in the Thompson River watershed in British Columbia was investigated. Results suggests that the decline could be the result of a declining trend in productivity related to changes in ocean conditions, overfishing, and changes in the freshwater habitat. The abundance of salmon correlated with agricultural land use, road density, and qualitative changes in stream habitat status; logging appeared to have had no such effect. It was concluded that salmon populations will continue to decline unless limits on fishing are strictly enforced, and unless salmon producing watersheds are restored and ocean conditions are significantly improved . 12 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Ambient nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations over a region of natural gas production, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S. M. Nazrul; Jackson, Peter L.; Aherne, Julian

    2016-10-01

    The Peace River district of Northeastern British Columbia, Canada is a region of natural gas production that has undergone rapid expansion since 2005. In order to assess air quality implications, Willems badge passive diffusive samplers were deployed for six two-week exposure periods between August and November 2013, at 24 sites across the region to assess the ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The highest concentrations of both species (NO2: 9.1 ppb, SO2: 1.91 ppb) during the whole study period (except the 1st exposure period), were observed in Taylor (Site 14), which is consistent with its location near major industrial sources. Emissions from industrial activities, and their interaction with meteorology and topography, result in variations in atmospheric dispersion that can increase air pollution concentrations in Taylor. However, relatively high concentrations of NO2 were also observed near the center of Chetwynd (site F20), indicating the importance of urban emissions sources in the region as well. Observations of both species from the other study sites document the spatial variability and show relatively high concentrations near Fort St. John and Dawson Creek, where unconventional oil and gas development activities are quite high. Although a few sites in Northeastern British Columbia recorded elevated concentrations of NO2 and SO2 during this investigation, the concentrations over the three-month period were well below provincial annual ambient air quality objectives. Nonetheless, given the limited observations in the region, and the accelerated importance of unconventional oil and gas extraction in meeting energy demands, it is imperative that monitoring networks are established to further assess the potential for elevated ambient concentrations associated with industrial emissions sources in the Peace River region.

  5. Characterizing the Water Balance of the Sooke Reservoir, British Columbia over the Last Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arelia T. Werner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure such as dams and reservoirs are critical water-supply features in several regions of the world. However, ongoing population growth, increased demand and climate variability/change necessitate the better understanding of these systems, particularly in terms of their long-term trends. The Sooke Reservoir (SR of British Columbia, Canada is one such reservoir that currently supplies water to ~300,000 people, and is subject to considerable inter and intra-annual climatic variations. The main objectives of this study are to better understand the characteristics of the SR through an in-depth assessment of the contemporary water balance when the basin was intensively monitored (1996–2005, to use standardized runoff to select the best timescale to compute the Standard Precipitation (SPI and Standard Precipitation Evaporation Indices (SPEI to estimate trends in water availability over 1919 to 2005. Estimates of runoff and evaporation were validated by comparing simulated change in storage, computed by adding inputs and subtracting outputs from the known water levels by month, to observed change in storage. Water balance closure was within ±11% of the monthly change in storage on average when excluding months with spill pre-2002. The highest evaporation, dry season (1998 and lowest precipitation, wet season (2000/2001 from the intensively monitored period were used to construct a worst-case scenario to determine the resilience of the SR to drought. Under such conditions, the SR could support Greater Victoria until the start of the third wet season. The SPEI and SPI computed on a three-month timescale had the highest correlation with the standardized runoff, R2 equaled 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. A trend toward drier conditions was shown by SPEI over 1919 to 2005, while moistening over the same period was shown by SPI, although trends were small in magnitude. This study contributes a validated application of SPI and SPEI, giving more

  6. Vegetation response to right-of-way clearing procedures in coastal British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, A.B.

    1988-09-01

    The response of the flora of forested sites to the methods employed by British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority for the initial clearing of transmission line rights-of-way in coastal British Columbia was assessed. Seven immature forest vegetation units adjacent to, and seven early seral vegetation units on, the transmission line rights-of-way were identified. The environmental parameter most highly correlated with both the immature forest and the early seral vegetation units was the slope position. The degree of disturbance and seeding with agronomic grass and legume species complicated the determination of relationships between immature forest and early seral vegetation units. The majority of seeds in the forest samples were found in the floor layers, and seed bank samples from the high-disturbance sites had the fewest germinable seeds, primarily because the floor had been removed. The seed rain was dominated by tree species within the forests, and shrub and herbaceous species on rights of way. The seed rain was higher and percent germinability was higher in the second year than in the first. Important species vegetatively invading after, or recovering from, plot scarification included Gaultheria shallon, Pteridium aquilinum, and Rubus ursinus. Successful seeding establishment was rare: only Alnus rubra, Anaphalis margaritacea, and Rubus ursinus seedlings were observed in significant numbers and few survived to the following year. 142 refs., 28 figs., 39 tabs.

  7. Does sex matter? Temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflict in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, Kristine J; Cristescu, Bogdan; Nielsen, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor) habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978-2007) involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998-2007) conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict. PMID:24040312

  8. Networking to build a world-class bioenergy industry in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weedon, M. [BC Bioenergy Network, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described the role of the BC Bioenergy Network and its goal of maximizing the value of biomass resources in British Columbia (BC) and developing a world-class bioenergy industry in the province. Established in March 2008 with $25 million in funding from the BC government, the BC Bioenergy Network is an industry-led association that promotes the development of near-term bioenergy technologies and demonstration of new bioenergy technologies that are environmentally appropriate for the province of BC. The following technology areas require funding support: solid wood residues, pulp and paper residues, harvesting and pelleting, agriculture residues, municipal wastewater, municipal landfill waste, municipal solid waste, and community heating-electricity greenhouse systems. This presentation demonstrated that BC is well positioned to become a major player in the global bioenergy sector, as it has one of the largest forested areas in the world, and is a leader in biomass to value-added wood products. The opportunities, challenges, and requirements to build a world class bioenergy industry in British Columbia were discussed along with successful Canadian, US, and European collaborations with industry, research, and government. tabs., figs.

  9. British Columbia offshore oil and gas socio-economic issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Factors in Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Co-management in British Columbia Salmon Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Pinkerton

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten years of research and efforts to implement co-management in British Columbia fisheries have demonstrated that we lack neither good models nor the political will in communities to design and test local and regional institutions for successful involvement in various aspects of management. The barriers lie rather in the distrust and resistance of management agencies and the lack of broadly organized political support. The nature of the barriers and some of the elements of a successful approach to overcoming them are identified and discussed. The analysis is focused around the barriers encountered by two differently situated fishing communities or regions that have launched conservation initiatives through cooperation between local aboriginal and nonaboriginal fishing groups. In attempting to overcome the political barriers, the communities seek to develop expertise in selective fishing technology for more sustainable harvest, principled multi-stakeholder negotiation, marketing, shared databases, and preliminary ecosystem monitoring. The communities exemplify small- and medium-scale bottom-up approaches to adaptive management. The analysis shows the key and possibly unique contributions of processes at these levels, and suggests how they can be scaled up and linked to processes at other levels. Both types of analysis are largely missing in adaptive management theory, which has tended to focus on larger scale processes and to dismiss the potential of smaller scale ones to transform, expand, and link. This analysis focuses on salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. fisheries of British Columbia, Canada, but the literature suggests that the findings have far broader applicability.

  11. Genomic Analysis of a Serotype 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth R. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause a wide spectrum of disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD. From 2005 to 2009 an outbreak of IPD occurred in Western Canada, caused by a S. pneumoniae strain with multilocus sequence type (MLST 289 and serotype 5. We sought to investigate the incidence of IPD due to this S. pneumoniae strain and to characterize the outbreak in British Columbia using whole-genome sequencing. Methods. IPD was defined according to Public Health Agency of Canada guidelines. Two isolates representing the beginning and end of the outbreak were whole-genome sequenced. The sequences were analyzed for single nucleotide variants (SNVs and putative genomic islands. Results. The peak of the outbreak in British Columbia was in 2006, when 57% of invasive S. pneumoniae isolates were serotype 5. Comparison of two whole-genome sequenced strains showed only 10 SNVs between them. A 15.5 kb genomic island was identified in outbreak strains, allowing the design of a PCR assay to track the spread of the outbreak strain. Discussion. We show that the serotype 5 MLST 289 strain contains a distinguishing genomic island, which remained genetically consistent over time. Whole-genome sequencing holds great promise for real-time characterization of outbreaks in the future and may allow responses tailored to characteristics identified in the genome.

  12. Grand design : British Columbia sets out to become an energy powerhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia is eager for petroleum companies to build on the conventional drilling successes that took place in the northeastern section of the province to explore unconventional natural gas reserves, such as coalbed methane, shale, and tight rock formations elsewhere in the province. The province hopes to attract 24 billion dollars in investment along with 8,000 new jobs in energy and mining sectors. During the first year of this century, 850 wells were drilled, with production reaching one trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 17 million barrels of oil. It has been acknowledged that the transportation infrastructure needs work to improve access to the northeastern region, as well as other regions of the province hoping to increase resource development. The British Columbia (BC) government is planning more involvement in land use planning and better access to information on oil and gas potential. Road building partnerships are being developed, and an expansion phase is beginning for the gas pipeline and processing network. Offshore resources show promise, with an estimated 9.8 billion barrels of oil and 43.4 trillion cubic feet of gas in four basins, according to the Geological Survey of Canada. Work on coalbed methane is beginning in the province, after a favorable royalty regime was implemented, with nine experimental projects under way. The government will consider reduced royalties for other unconventional resources like shale and tight gas

  13. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenco Grant

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies and British Columbia (Canada. These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys, grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British Columbia (BC. A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97 in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper. Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas. More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies reflect stronger evidence of efficacy.

  14. Does sex matter? Temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflict in British Columbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J Teichman

    Full Text Available Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978-2007 involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998-2007 conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict.

  15. Transfer Credit Assessment for B.C. College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia in the 1997/98 Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh-Bosch, Susan; Atkins, Lorraine

    This report assesses the transfer credit process for British Columbia (BC) college transfer applicants to the University of British Columbia (UBC). Results indicate that students are earning on average 49.7 credits from the BC college attended and are being granted an average of 42.2 credits when transferring to UBC. This translated into 84.9% of…

  16. Registration for public drug benefits across areas of differing ethnic composition in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Sabrina T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the government of British Columbia, Canada introduced a universal drug benefit plan to cover drug costs that are high relative to household income. Residents were required to register in order to be eligible for the income-based benefits. Given past research suggesting that registration processes may pose an access barrier to certain subpopulations, we aimed to determine whether registration rates varied across small geographic areas that differed in ethnic composition. Methods Using linked population-based administrative databases and census data, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the probability of registration for the public drug plan varied across areas of differing ethnic composition, controlling for household-level predisposing, enabling and needs factors. Results The adjusted odds of registration did not differ across regions characterized by high concentrations (greater than 30% of residents identifying as North American, British, French or other European. Households located in areas with concentrations of residents identifying as an Asian ethnicity had the highest odds of program registration: Chinese (OR = 1.21, CI: 1.19-1.23 and South Asian (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.16-1.22. Despite this positive finding, households residing in areas with relatively high concentrations of recent immigrants had slightly lower adjusted odds of registering for the program (OR = 0.97, CI: 0.95-0.98. Conclusions This study identified ethnic variation in registration for a new public drug benefit program in British Columbia. However, unlike previous studies, the variation observed did not indicate that areas with high concentrations of certain ethnicities experienced disadvantages. Potential explanations are discussed.

  17. Impact of the Mountain Pine Beetle on the Forest Carbon Cycle in British Columbia from 1999 TO 2008 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Czurylowicz, P.; Mo, G.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The unprecedented mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreak in British Columbia starting in 1998 affected about 50% of the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests occupying about 50% of the land area of the province. The impact of this outbreak on the C cycle is assessed in this study. Annual leaf area index (LAI) maps of the affected area from 1999 to 2008 were produced using SPOT VEGETATION data, and net ecosystem production (NEP) was modeled using inputs of LAI, land cover, soil texture and daily meteorological data with the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). Both LAI and NEP were validated using field measurements. LAI was found to decrease on average by 20% compared to pre-outbreak conditions, while NEP decreased on average by 90%. Annual NEP values ranged from 2.4 to -8.0 Tg C between 1999 and 2008, with the ecosystem changing from a carbon sink to a carbon source in 2000. The annual average NEP was -2.9 Tg C over the 10 years, resulting in a total loss of carbon of 29 Tg C to the atmosphere. The inter-annual variability of both LAI and NEP was characterized by substantial initial decreases followed by steady increases from 2006 to 2008 with NEP returning to near carbon neutrality in 2008 (-1.8 Pg C/y). The impact of this MPB outbreak appears to be less dramatic than previously anticipated. The apparent fast recovery of LAI and NEP after MPB attacks is examined under the framework of ecosystem resilience which was manifested in the form of secondary overstory and understory growth and increased production of non-attacked host trees.

  18. Evaluation of the Courtlink Auto Crime Prevention Program (CACPP) for Senior Elementary and Alternative School Students in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Charles K.; Meehan, George

    This study evaluated the Courtlink Auto Crime Prevention Program (CACPP), a 13-hour curriculum for senior elementary school and secondary school alternative program at-risk students in British Columbia, Canada. The program provides students with information about automobile crime and its costs, consequences, and prevention. It promotes positive…

  19. Myiasis in pet animals in British Columbia: The potential of forensic entomology for determining duration of possible neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Gail S.; Huitson, Niki R.

    2004-01-01

    Results of a survey of veterinarians in British Columbia included 25 past cases of myiasis and 10 active cases. Most respondents received at least 5 to 10 cases per year, with some as high as 30 per year. This study revealed some advantages and disadvantages of using forensic entomology in living animals.

  20. Patient Preference and Willingness to Pay for Transient Elastography versus Liver Biopsy: A Perspective from British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Y Kan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cost of liver biopsy (LB is publicly funded in British Columbia, while the cost of transient elastography (FibroScan [FS], Echosens, France is not. Consequently, there is regional variation regarding FS access and monitoring of liver disease progression.

  1. Communication Disorders and the Inclusion of Newcomer African Refugees in Rural Primary Schools of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2012-01-01

    In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…

  2. University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre Partners with CPTAC - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal.

  3. Microplastic Ingestion by Wild and Cultured Manila Clams (Venerupis philippinarum) from Baynes Sound, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Katie; Dudas, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Microplastics, plastic particles Baynes Sound, British Columbia were chosen to examine the microplastic concentrations in wild and cultured Manila clams. Microplastics were isolated using a nitric acid digestion technique and enumerated from 54 clams (27 farmed and 27 non-farmed). Qualitative attributes, such as colour and microplastic type (fiber, fragment, or film) also were recorded. There was no significant difference (F = 1.29; df = 1,4; P = 0.289) between microplastic concentrations in cultured and wild clams. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 5.47 particles/g (from reference beach and shellfish farm clams, respectively). Fibers were the dominant microplastic (90 %); colourless and dark gray fibers were the most common colours observed (36 and 26 %, respectively). Although this indicates that microplastics are definitely present in seafood consumed by humans, shellfish aquaculture operations do not appear to be increasing microplastic concentrations in farmed clams in this region.

  4. The conversion of evenaged into unevenaged mixed conifer forests in southern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichel, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed description of the conditions and history leading to the establishment and continuity of all-aged mixed coniferous forests in the montane south central region of British Columbia, Canada. Also described are the attempts by one forest products company to perpetuate and proportionally increase this type of forest cover through the selective removal necessitated by bark beetle depredation of the component, Pinus contorta. The report concludes with a description of and recommendations for the post-harvest management employing treatments which imitate natural conditions leading to a gradual and lasting conversion of natural multi-species stands into unevenaged or all-aged stands of mixed conifers which are conducive to single tree or group selection harvests at more or less regular intervals. 10 figs, 1 tab

  5. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade. PMID:18397991

  6. The use of joint ventures to accomplish aboriginal economic development: Two examples from British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Boyd

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available “Aboriginal economic development” differs from other forms of development by emphasizing aboriginal values and community involvement. Joint ventures, while providing business advantages, may not be able to contribute to aboriginal economic development. This paper examines two joint ventures in the interior of British Columbia to examine their ability or inability to contribute the extra dimensions of development desired by aboriginal communities. The AED framework examines business structure; profitability; employment; aboriginal capacity in education, experience, and finance; preservation of traditional values, culture and language; control of forest management over traditional territory; and community support. Established in the context of unresolved land claims, both enterprises partially contribute to aboriginal economic development, but in different ways and with different overall results.

  7. Using Alternative Silvicultural Systems to Integrate Mountain Caribou and Timber Management in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold M. Armleder

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Even-aged forest management using the clearcutting silvicultural system as it is currently applied threatens mountain caribou habitat in British Columbia. Since neither complete preservation nor maximum development of timber resources are socially acceptable alternatives, forest managers are anxious to find integrated management options. We describe alternative silvicultural systems currently being tested, including single-tree and group selection. All the treatments have the goal of periodically extracting viable timber volumes while perpetually retaining stand characteristics necessary for caribou. The effects of these logging prescriptions on lichen biomass and growth rates are being tested. Alternative silvicultural systems may become part of a larger strategy to maintain caribou habitat in managed forests.

  8. Review of forestry practices in caribou habitat in southeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Stevenson

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern British Columbia feed mainly on arboreal lichens in winter. Some modified forestry practices that have been used or proposed for caribou ranges are reviewed. Partial cutting results in the retention of some forage lichens. Partial cutting and small patch harvesting may improve lichen growth on the remaining trees. Retention of advanced regeneration and some residual trees may improve lichen growth in the remaining stand. Extension of the rotation age increases the amount of harvestable forest useful to caribou at any one time. Progressive cutting minimizes road access to caribou ranges, and may be combined with partial cutting. Most forestry practices intended to maintain lichen production will result in increased human activity in caribou ranges, unless road access is controlled. The management strategy selected depends on site conditions and on the relative importance assigned to the impact of habitat alteration and human activity on caribou.

  9. Autoimmune liver disease and the Canadian First Nations Aboriginal Communities of British Columbia's Pacific Northwest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric M Yoshida; Mark Riley; Laura T Arbour

    2006-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a well-known but uncommon chronic liver disease that is presumed to be of autoimmune etiology. Recently, investigations in British Columbia (BC), a province of Canada situated along the Pacific North-West of North America, have suggested that PBC is not a rare disease amongst BC's Aboriginal (i.e. First Nations) communities. Geographically, BC is adjacent to South East Alaska, an American state that has also reported an increased prevalence of PBC amongst its Aboriginal communities. In this article, the medical evidence supporting a hypothesis of increased risk of PBC amongst BC's First Nations communities is reviewed. Evidence suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis is also more likely amongst BC's First Nations communities is also presented.(C)2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  10. A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siduo; Bi, Xiaotao Tony; Clift, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled cases applicable in British Columbia, to evaluate non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and human toxicity. Compared to conventional practice, an integrated system has the potential to nearly halve eutrophication and respiratory effects caused by inorganic emissions and to reduce non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, and acidification by 65-90%, while respiratory effects caused by organic emissions become negative as co-products substitute for other materials. Co-digestion of other livestock manures, greenhouse plant waste, or food and food processing waste with dairy manure can further improve the performance of the integrated system. PMID:24138886

  11. Liver transplant candidate unsuitability: A review of the British Columbia experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Jaber; Ramji, Alnoor; Ho, Jin K; Scudamore, Charles H; Erb, Siegfried R; Cheung, Elsie; Kopit, Bina; Bannon, Clare A; Chung, Stephen W; Soos, John G; Buczkowski, Andrezj K; Brooks, Eileen M; Steinbrecher, Urs P; Yoshida, Eric M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Every centre has contraindications to liver transplantation and declares patients unsuitable for medical or nonmedical reasons. To date, there has been no published review of any centre’s experience. METHODS A retrospective chart review was completed from 1997 to 2001, inclusive of all patients referred for liver transplant to the British Columbia Transplant Society who were declared unsuitable for transplantation, as well as the reasons for unsuitability. RESULTS One hundred fifty patients were considered to be unsuitable for transplantation. During this period, 167 transplants were performed and 737 patients were referred for candidacy. Data were missing on three patients; analysis was performed on the remaining 147. Patients’ ages ranged from 15 to 72 years, and 33.3% were female. The most common primary liver disease was hepatitis C (n=53, 35%), followed by alcoholic liver disease (n=35, 24%) and autoimmune liver diseases (n=23, 16%). Medical contraindications constituted 74 patients (49.0%) and the most common reasons for unsuitability were no need of a liver transplant (29 patients [39%]), exclusion due to hepatoma or extrahepatic malignancy (20 patients [27%]) and multisystem failure (12 patients [16%]). Nonmedical contraindications constituted 73 patients. Failure to meet minimal alcohol criteria comprised the largest group (n=39, 53.4%) followed by inadequate social support (n=12, 16.4%), failure to follow up medical assessment (n=10, 13.7%) and drug abuse (n=6, 8.2%). CONCLUSIONS Although many patients were declined for transplantation, the proportion is relatively small compared with the number of referred patients. Nonmedical reasons, including failure to meet alcohol criteria and lack of social support, remain a significant reason for unsuitability in British Columbia. Community intervention before transplant referral is recommended. PMID:16482235

  12. Modeling the Coast Mountains Batholith, British Columbia, Canada with 3D Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinonez, S. M.; Olaya, J. C.; Miller, K. C.; Romero, R.; Velasco, A. A.; Harder, S. H.; Cerda, I.

    2011-12-01

    The Coast Mountains Batholith on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada comprises a series of granitic to tonalitic plutons; where felsic continental crust is generated from the subduction of mafic oceanic crust by partial melting and fractionation, leaving ultra-mafic roots. In July of 2009, a large controlled-source experiment was conducted along a 400km east - west transect from Bella Bella into central British Columbia. Student volunteers from multiple universities deployed 1,800 one-component and 200 three-component geophones plus 2400 Texan data recorders with 200-m spacing intervals and shot spacing at 30-km. The 18-point sources ranged from 160 to 1,000 kg of high explosive. The geoscience component of the NSF-funded Cyber-ShARE project at UTEP focuses on fusing models developed from different data sets to develop 3-D Earth models. Created in 2007, the Cyber-ShARE Center brings together experts in computer science, computational mathematics, education, earth science, and environmental science. We leverage the Cyber-ShARE work to implement an enhanced 3-D finite difference tomography approach for P-wave delays times (Hole, 1992) with a graphical user interface and visualization framework. In particular, to account for model sensitivity to picked P-wave arrival times, we use a model fusion approach (Ochoa et al., 2010) to generate a model with the lowest RMS residual that a combination of a set of Monte Carlo sample models. In order to make the seismic tomography process more interactive at many points, visualizations of model perturbation at each iteration will help to troubleshoot when a model is not converging to highlight where the RMS residual values are the highest to pinpoint where changes need to be made to achieve model convergence. Finally, a model of the upper mantle using 3-D P-wave tomography will be made to determine the location of these ultra-mafic roots.

  13. Costs of Planned Home vs. Hospital Birth in British Columbia Attended by Registered Midwives and Physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Janssen

    Full Text Available Home birth is available to women in Canada who meet eligibility requirements for low risk status after assessment by regulated midwives. While UK researchers have reported lower costs associated with planned home birth, there have been no published studies of the costs of home versus hospital birth in Canada.Costs for all women planning home birth with a regulated midwife in British Columbia, Canada were compared with those of all women who met eligibility requirements for home birth and were planning to deliver in hospital with a registered midwife, and with a sample of women of similar low risk status planning birth in the hospital with a physician. We calculated costs of physician service billings, midwifery fees, hospital in-patient costs, pharmaceuticals, home birth supplies, and transport. We compared costs among study groups using the Kruskall Wallis test for independent groups.In the first 28 days postpartum, we report a $2,338 average savings per birth among women planning home birth compared to hospital birth with a midwife and $2,541 compared to hospital birth planned with a physician. In longer term outcomes, similar reductions were observed, with cost savings per birth at $1,683 compared to the planned hospital birth with a midwife, and $1,100 compared to the physician group during the first eight weeks postpartum. During the first year of life, costs for infants of mothers planning home birth were reduced overall. Cost savings compared to planned hospital births with a midwife were $810 and with a physician $1,146. Costs were similarly reduced when findings were stratified by parity.Planned home birth in British Columbia with a registered midwife compared to planned hospital birth is less expensive for our health care system up to 8 weeks postpartum and to one year of age for the infant.

  14. Standing at the crossroads: Identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Thomas

    Modern technical education in British Columbia has been affected by two societal trends: in industry, engineering technology evolved as a discipline to bridge the increasing chasm between the process-oriented skill sets of tradespersons/technicians, and the declarative knowledge focus of engineering; in education, the provincial college and institute system was created to address the need for a new post-secondary credential situated between trades certificates and university degrees. The Applied Science Technologist arguably forms the intersection of these two concepts. Almost forty years after its inception, it is timely to ask if the original model has matured into a distinct occupational category in industry, education, and in the public mind. The thesis proposes three environments, the Formative, Market and Public Domain, respectively. Interviews, surveys and personal experience afforded insights into the dynamics of these domains with respect to a fledgling occupational category, while the socio-philosophical concepts of culture, habitus and social imaginary provide the tools to interpret the findings. The thesis postulates that an emerging occupational category will not only challenge existing cultures and habitus, but that over time it will influence the imaginaries of each domain and society as a whole. Ultimately, the occupational category will be truly successful only when the general public is able to distinguish it from related disciplines. Charles Taylor's writings on multiculturalism are used to discuss identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in each domain while Pierre Bourdieu's perspectives on the existence of habitus and self-proliferating elites form the framework to examine the relationships between technologists and engineers. Taylor's theory of multiple concurrent social imaginaries guides the comparison of divergent expectations among academic, career and vocational instructors at British Columbia's colleges. The thesis

  15. Is worst-case scenario streamflow drought underestimated in British Columbia? A multi-century perspective for the south coast, derived from tree-rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Bethany; Smith, Dan J.; Meko, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent streamflow droughts in south coastal British Columbia have had major socioeconomic and ecological impacts. Increasing drought severity under projected climate change poses serious water management challenges, particularly in the small coastal watersheds that serve as primary water sources for most communities in the region. A 332-year dendrohydrological record of regionalized mean summer streamflow for four watersheds is analyzed to place recent drought magnitudes in a long-term perspective. We present a novel approach for optimizing tree-ring based reconstructions in small watersheds in temperate environments, combining winter snow depth and summer drought sensitive proxies as model predictors. The reconstruction model, estimated by regression of observed flows on Tsuga mertensiana ring-width variables and a tree-ring derived paleorecord of the Palmer Drought Severity Index, explains 64% of the regionalized streamflow variance. The model is particularly accurate at estimating lowest flow events, and provides the strongest annually resolved paleohydrological record in British Columbia. The extended record suggests that since 1658 sixteen natural droughts have occurred that were more extreme than any within the instrumental period. Flow-duration curves show more severe worst-case scenario droughts and a higher probability of those droughts in the long-term reconstruction than in the hydrometric data. Such curves also highlight the value of dendrohydrology for probabilistic drought assessment. Our results suggest current water management strategies based on worst-case scenarios from historical gauge data likely underestimate the potential magnitudes of natural droughts. If the low-flow magnitudes anticipated under climate change co-occur with lowest possible natural flows, streamflow drought severities in small watersheds in south coastal British Columbia could exceed any of those experienced in the past ∼350 years.

  16. Hibernation-associated changes in persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and patterns in British Columbia grizzly bears (ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Yunker, Mark B; Ross, Peter S

    2007-03-15

    We hypothesized that depleted fat reserves in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) following annual hibernation would reveal increases in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations compared to those present in the fall. We obtained fat and hair from British Columbia grizzly bears in early spring 2004 to compare with those collected in fall 2003, with the two tissue types providing contaminant and dietary information, respectively. By correcting for the individual feeding habits of grizzlies using a stable isotope-based approach, we found that polychlorinated biphenyls (sigmaPCBs) increased by 2.21x, polybrominated diphenylethers (sigmaPBDEs) increased by 1.58x, and chlordanes (sigmaCHL) by 1.49x in fat following hibernation. Interestingly, individual POPs elicited a wide range of hibernation-associated concentration effects (e.g., CB-153, 2.25x vs CB-169, 0.00x), resulting in POP pattern convergence in a PCA model of two distinct fall feeding groups (salmon-eating vs non-salmon-eating) into a single spring (post-hibernation) group. Our results suggest that diet dictates contaminant patterns during a feeding phase, while metabolism drives patterns during a fasting phase. This work suggests a duality of POP-associated health risks to hibernating grizzly bears: (1) increased concentrations of some POPs during hibernation; and (2) a potentially prolonged accumulation of water-soluble, highly reactive POP metabolites, since grizzly bears do not excrete during hibernation.

  17. Concepts for diamond exploration in "on/off craton" areas—British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, George J.

    2004-09-01

    The tectonic setting of British Columbia (BC) differs from classic diamond-bearing intracratonic regions such as the Northwest Territories and South Africa. Nevertheless, several diamond occurrences have been reported in BC. It is also known that parts of the province are underlain by Proterozoic and possibly Archean basement. Because the continents of today are composites of fragments of ancient continents, it is possible that some of the regions underlain by old crystalline basement in eastern British Columbia were associated with a deep crustal keel. The keel may have predated the break-up of the early Neoproterozoic supercontinent called Rodinia and was preserved possibly until the Triassic. Some of these old continental fragments may have been displaced relative to their position of origin and dissociated from their keel, or the keel may have since been destroyed. Such fragments represent favourable exploration grounds in terms of the "Diamondiferous Mantle Root" model (DMR model) if they were intersected by kimberlites or lamproites prior to displacement or destruction of their underlying deep keel. Therefore, extrapolation of fragments of the diamond-bearing Precambrian basement from the Northwest Territories or Alberta to BC provides a sufficient reason for initiating reconnaissance indicator mineral surveys. The "Eclogite Subduction Zone" model (ES model) predicts formation of diamonds at lower pressure (i.e., depth) than required by the DMR model in convergent tectonic settings. Although not proven, this model is supported by thermal modeling of cold subduction zones and recent discoveries of diamonds in areas characterized by convergent tectonic settings. If the ES model is correct, then the parts of BC with a geological history similar to today's "cold" subduction zones, such as Honshu (Japan), or to continental collision zones, such as Kokchetav massif (Kazakhstan) and the Dabie-Sulu Terrane (east central China), may be diamondiferous. The terranes

  18. Colonizing minds: public education, the textbook Indian, and the struggle for settler hegemony in British Columbia, 1920-1970

    OpenAIRE

    Carleton, Sean Foster Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between public education, the representations of indigenous peoples as the Textbook Indian in secondary school textbooks, and the struggle for settler hegemony in British Columbia between 1920 and 1970. In drawing inspiration from Marxist Theory and critical pedagogy, this work shows how education in general and textbooks in particular were powerful tools of a project of colonizing minds. The colonizing minds project refers to the state’s process of manuf...

  19. Assessing the vulnerability of wild rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks to overfishing in the Thompson Nicola Region of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Stacy Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Overfishing is more commonly associated with commercial fisheries than recreational fisheries, but evidence increasingly suggests recreational fisheries are not immune. In my study, I use a generalized linear model to examine if wild stocks of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in British Columbia's Southern Interior lakes are vulnerable to overharvest from recreational anglers. Assuming high angling effort implies high harvest rates, I determined which factors make a lake attractive to angler...

  20. Influence of bigleaf maple (Acer Macrophyllum Pursh) on soil properties in a conifer forest of southwest British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Julia

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to detect the influence of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh) on soils in a conifer forest of southwest British Columbia. Forest floor properties were measured beneath bigleaf maple along six transects and on two 36 m x 36 m plots. Wavelet analysis, kriging, spatial autocorrelation analysis, local indicators of spatial association, and parametric statistics were used to explore and confirm bigleaf maple patterns of influence on surrounding soils...

  1. Modelling Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Dispersion from Marine Salmon Farms in the Discovery Islands, British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G G Foreman; Ming Guo; Kyle A Garver; Dario Stucchi; Peter Chandler; Di Wan; John Morrison; Darren Tuele

    2015-01-01

    Finite volume ocean circulation and particle tracking models are used to simulate water-borne transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) among Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia, Canada. Historical simulations for April and July 2010 are carried out to demonstrate the seasonal impact of river discharge, wind, ultra-violet (UV) radiation, and heat flux conditions on near-surface currents, viral dispersion and survival. Nu...

  2. After the outbreak: how the British Columbia commercial poultry industry recovered after H7N3 HPAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Victoria A

    2007-03-01

    In spring 2004, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H7N3, occurred in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. The active outbreak lasted more than 90 days; 42 commercial poultry farms were identified as infected premises, and more than 17 million birds were culled. Through the depopulation of HPAI-positive farms and the strategic depopulation of adjacent test-negative farms, a total of 410 commercial poultry farms were emptied. The goals for the commercial poultry industry were to expedite restocking, reduce nonproductive downtime, negotiate equitable financial compensation, review and restructure emergency disease response plans, and identify and implement mitigation strategies. After the outbreak, multijurisdictional reviews identified the strengths and weaknesses of the outbreak control strategy. Lessons learned were incorporated into current emergency disease response protocols for both industry and government. The industry-led challenge to initial compensation values, especially for specialty poultry and breeder birds, resulted in a review of the federal Health of Animals Act. The British Columbia poultry industry, in collaboration with the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, developed an Enhanced Biosecurity Initiative that included the identification of mandatory on-farm biosecurity standards for commercial producers, an educational biosecurity self-assessment guide, and provisions for a producer self-quarantine to be enacted upon the first suspicion of disease.

  3. Hydroclimatic variables and acute gastro-intestinal illness in British Columbia, Canada: A time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, L. P.; Allen, D. M.; Parkes, M. W.; Li, L.; Takaro, T. K.

    2015-02-01

    Using epidemiologic time series analysis, we examine associations between three hydroclimatic variables (temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) and waterborne acute gastro-intestinal illness (AGI) in two communities in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. The communities were selected to represent the major hydroclimatic regimes that characterize BC: rainfall-dominated and snowfall dominated. Our results show that the number of monthly cases of AGI increased with increasing temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the same month in the context of a rainfall-dominated regime, and with increasing streamflow in the previous month in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime. These results suggest that hydroclimatology plays a role in driving the occurrence and variability of AGI in these settings. Further, this study highlights that the nature and magnitude of the effects of hydroclimatic variability on AGI are different in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime versus a rainfall-dominated regimes. We conclude by proposing that the watershed may be an appropriate context for enhancing our understanding of the complex linkages between hydroclimatic variability and waterborne illness in the context of a changing climate.

  4. Sub-tidal Circulation in a deep-silled fjord: Douglas Channel, British Columbia (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Di; Hannah, Charles; Foreman, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Douglas Channel, a deep fjord on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, is the main waterway in Kitimat fjord system that opens to Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. The fjord is separated from the open shelf by a broad sill that is about 150 m deep, and there is another sill (200 m) that separates the fjord into an outer and an inner basin. This study examines the low-frequency (from seasonal to meteorological bands) circulation in Douglas Channel from data collected from three moorings deployed during 2013-2015, and the water property observations collected during six cruises (2014 and 2015). Estuarine flow dominates the circulation above the sill-depth. The deep flows are dominated by a yearly renewal that takes place from early June to September, and this dense water renews both basins in the form of gravity currents at 0.1 - 0.2 m/s with a thickness of 100 m. At other times of the year, the deep flow structures and water properties suggest horizontal and vertical processes and support the re-circulation idea in the inner and the outer basins. The near surface current velocity fluctuations are dominated by the along-channel wind. Overall, the circulation in the meteorological band is a mix of the estuarine flow, direct wind driven flow, and the baroclinic response to changes to the surface pressure gradient caused by the wind driven currents.

  5. Caries experience of Native children of British Columbia, Canada, 1980-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R L; Davis, D W

    1993-04-01

    Surveys of the dental health of Native children in British Columbia, Canada, were conducted in 1980, 1984 and 1988 by Medical Services Branch, Health and Welfare Canada. Data were gathered on children turning 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 yr of age in each survey year. This paper analyzes the findings related to dental caries and the treatment of caries. Comparisons were made between the 1980 and 1988 surveys using Student's t-tests; data from the 1984 survey were included for comparison. Results of these surveys demonstrate a continuous improvement in the dental health of Native children between the years 1980 and 1988, but the improvement was limited to the permanent dentition. The deft for 5-yr-olds remained constant over the time interval. In contrast, the DMFT for each group significantly decreased from 1980 to 1988 (P tooth mortality (tooth abscessed or with crown destroyed) in 5-yr-olds did not change. However, the percentage of children surveyed with caries-free permanent teeth improved significantly at each survey year and permanent tooth mortality significantly declined (P < 0.05). The proportion of filled, compared with carious, primary and permanent teeth increased from 1980 to 1988. In contrast, the number of extracted primary teeth stayed relatively constant for 5-yr-olds, but the proportion of missing teeth declined significantly for all other age groups (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Competent professionals and modern methods: state medicine in British Columbia during the 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Megan J

    2002-01-01

    Little has been written about the formation of state medicine in early-twentieth-century Canada, particularly during the Depression era. Indeed, many historians and policy analysts have assumed that this was a time of stagnation and retrenchment in state health provision. To foster a more nuanced analysis of the formation of the Canadian medical state during the Depression decade, this article focuses on British Columbia and the public health initiatives brought in by the provincial Liberal government of T. D. Pattullo. In B.C., an energetic cadre of policymakers and bureaucrats sought to reform existing services by using professionally educated personnel, centralized administrative hierarchies, community education, and the surveillance of target health populations. Funding from the provincial government and the Rockefeller Foundation permitted considerable expansion in a range of public health sectors that included vital statistics, rural health centers, tuberculosis and venereal disease treatment schemes, and laboratory services. This article tells the story of this important period by bringing together details of the professional and personal lives of key individuals--the majority of whom were men--and exploring the new provincial health programs that were developed in B.C. during the interwar years.

  7. Mind the gap : a blueprint for climate action in British Columbia : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailie, A.; Campbell, K.; Horne, M.; Jamison, A.; MacNab, J.; Picketts, I.; Wong, R.

    2007-11-15

    While the premier of British Columbia (BC) has stated that GHG emissions will be cut by 33 per cent by 2020, emissions in the province are continuing to rise. This paper provided recommendations for reducing the province's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by a further 31 million tonnes. The report suggested that in order to achieve its GHG reduction goals, the province must take action by implementing emission pricing through carbon taxes and a trade system within business and industry. Aggressive emission pricing and regulation is required in the oil and gas industry. Efficiency improvements in vehicles must be accompanied by a reduction in driving demand. Energy efficiency and renewable energy programs for residential buildings should be accelerated. The province should also consider imposing stricter regulations on methane in both the waste and agricultural sectors. Innovations in all sectors may contribute up to 16 million tonnes of GHG reductions. It was concluded that strong leadership is required to ensure that GHG reductions in the province are achieved. 14 refs., 9 tabs.

  8. Preliminary identification of fullerenes in the lowermost Jurassic strata, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Randall S.; Haggart, James W.; Ward, Peter D.

    2004-02-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) mass extinction (~200 mya) event is one of the most severe in geologic history. It is also one of the most poorly understood. Few geologic sections containing the TJ boundary interval have been identified globally, and most of those are poorly preserved; the paucity of suitable stratigraphic sections has prevented corroborative geochemical studies of this interval. Recently, fullerene molecules (C60 to C200) have been shown to be present in the mass extinction boundary intervals of the Permian-Triassic (PT) event (~251.4 mya), as well as the well-known "dinosaur" extinction event of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) (~65 mya). The presence of fullerenes in both these extinction intervals has been used to invoke an extraterrestrial impact cause for the extinctions. Preliminary results of laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of selected samples from the Kennecott Point TJ boundary section, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, suggest that fullerenes (C60 to ~C200) are present in the section, stratigraphically above the extinction interval (as defined by paleontological and isotopic data), but not actually within the interval itself. The presence of fullerenes may not be diagnostic of an impact event.

  9. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine McIntyre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft ripened cheese (SRC caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC, Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m., an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant’s water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant’s open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  10. A study of challenges and opportunities for long-term care dietitians in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Dunham, Rebecca; Kafka, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    While demand for long-term care (LTC) in Canada is expected to grow in the coming years, little is known about the current LTC dietetic workforce or its members' practice-related concerns. A web-based survey was developed and distributed to and subsequently completed by 75 LTC dietitians in British Columbia. The survey was intended to characterize dietitians' demographic characteristics, educational and employment experiences, salaries and benefits, future employment plans, and concerns about current practice. Regression models were used to examine the associations between demographic, educational, and employment characteristics and self-reported hourly wages. The majority of respondents were employed at more than one facility (57%) and did not belong to a union (71%). The mean hourly wage for LTC dietetics positions was $37.50 ± $5.85, and was significantly higher for positions that did not provide additional employee benefits (p < 0.05). Hourly wages were not significantly higher for dietitians with more years of experience or graduate-level education. Concerns were raised about potential implications of revised residential care regulations for workload, and only 36% of respondents reported being committed to working in the area of LTC dietetics in the future. This study highlights practice-related challenges and future opportunities to build the LTC dietetic workforce, and can inform planning for training, recruitment, and retention.

  11. A comparison of two methods for surveying mortality of beached birds in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, C; Burger, A E

    1994-10-01

    Systematic surveys of beached birds are often limited in their ability to classify the causes of death of the carcasses recovered. Two methods of determining the cause of death of seabirds encountered during surveys of beaches of southwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, are compared. Birds were either subjected to external visual examinations by volunteer beach surveyors or submitted for gross postmortem examination by a veterinarian. The reliance on external examination of birds on beaches often prevented the accurate classification of the reproductive status and cause of death of the birds collected, but was valuable for describing the species, locations, and numbers of birds affected. The use of gross postmortem examinations of carcasses allowed for a more refined classification of the cause of death, as well as providing reliable descriptions of the bodily condition and sex of the birds examined. However, almost one half of the carcasses encountered were unsuitable for necropsy because of scavenging and decomposition. It is concluded that a combination of field and necropsy observations provides a useful method with which to monitor the pattern of mortality of beached seabirds. PMID:7994705

  12. Measurements and modelling of turbulent fluxes at two glaciers in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, V.; Fitzpatrick, N.; Tessema, M.; Menounos, B.; Shea, J. M.; Dery, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The most physically-based method to simulate surface glacier melting is by surface energy balance models since they account for radiative and turbulent heat exchanges occurring at the snow or ice surface. Direct measurements of turbulent fluxes, however, are uncommon given the complexity of making reliable measurements of turbulent energy exchange on alpine glaciers. Most studies thus rely on the bulk aerodynamic method used to parametrize turbulent fluxes; an approach that may be inaccurate due to poorly specified empirical coefficients, such as the transfer coefficient and roughness lengths. Here we present direct measurements of turbulent energy fluxes for two alpine glaciers in British Columbia: Castle Glacier in the Interior Mountains for ablation seasons 2010 and 2012, and Nordic Glacier in Canadian Rockies for ablation season 2014. On both glaciers the turbulent heat fluxes may account for up to 35% of energy available for daily melt. Using eddy-covariance method we derive the roughness lengths for momentum, temperature and humidity, and evaluate the performance of bulk method with different parametrizations for transfer coefficient in simulating the turbulent fluxes. Finally, we estimate the transfer coefficient directly from our measurements, and investigate its dependence on meteorological variables measured at the glaciers.

  13. Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya

    2008-09-01

    Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443

  14. Physiological effects of work stress and pesticide exposure in tree planting by British Columbia silviculture workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D G; Trites, D G; Banister, E W

    1993-08-01

    Tree planters in British Columbia have reported symptoms that are congruent with musculoskeletal stress and organophosphate or carbamate pesticide intoxication. The purpose of this research was to determine the existence of any physiological or biochemical correlate supporting the existence of these potential hazards in tree planting. Worker's health complaints were assessed from regularly distributed questionnaires. Blood samples were obtained from 14 male and three female Canadian subjects before and after tree planting work on 10 occasions throughout a tree planting season. The strenuous physical challenge of tree planting was confirmed by a significant elevation of serum enzyme activity (ESEA) at the beginning of the season, which did not return to a normal level during the remainder of the season. Significant (p < or = 0.05) inhibition of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) postwork was observed in 15.9% of individuals, and a significant group mean prework-postwork difference of AChE or plasma pseudocholinesterase (PChE) was observed on two days of testing, indicating a potential toxicological hazard from pesticide absorption. No correlation was found between the degree of ESEA or cholinesterase inhibition and the number of health complaints. PMID:8365393

  15. Feeding site selection by woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. Johnson

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the foraging habits of the northern woodland caribou ecotype {Rangifer tarandus caribou at the scale of the individual feeding site. Field data were collected in north-central British Columbia over two winters (Dec 1996-Apr 1998. We trailed caribou and measured vegetation characteristics (species composition and percent cover, snow conditions (depth, density, and hardness, and canopy closure at terrestrial and arboreal feeding sites, and at random sites where feeding had not occurred. Logistic regression was used to determine the attributes of feeding sites that were important to predicting fine scale habitat selection in forested and alpine areas. In the forest, caribou selected feeding sites that had a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis and Cladonia spp, lower snow depths, and a lower percentage of debris and moss. Biomass of Bryoria spp. at the 1-2 m stratum above the snow significantly contributed to predicting what trees caribou chose as arboreal feeding sites. In the alpine, caribou selected feeding sites with a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina, Cetraria cucullata, Cetraria nivalis, Thamnolia spp., and Stereocaulon alpinum as well as lower snow depths.

  16. Isotopic studies of the diet of the people of the coast of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Henry P; Chisholm, Brian S; Burchell, Meghan

    2014-11-01

    In 1982, Chisholm et al. used δ(13) C data for human burials from shell midden sites widely distributed on the coast of British Columbia (BC) to show the extreme dependence of these individuals on high trophic level marine consumers, principally salmon and marine mammals. Here, we present previously unpublished analyses of δ(15) N for some of the same individuals as well as δ(13) C data for additional individuals. Nitrogen isotope data show that the diet was dominated by high trophic level marine fauna including carnivorous fish and marine mammals. Although most burials were found in shell middens, marine mollusks made up of only a minor component of diet. The data for δ(13) C demonstrate that terrestrial faunal foods are undetectable in the diet of the majority of individuals, and seldom constitute more than 10% of the dietary protein of individuals living on the coast although terrestrial fauna were widely available as a potential source of protein. This dietary pattern of exclusion of land-based animals from their diet persisted for almost 6,000 years along a wide expanse of coastline. In contrast, people from the BC interior (100 km or more from the coast) consumed a mixed diet of terrestrial and marine foods including spawning salmon. PMID:25137242

  17. Investigating 2010 Northern Cascadia ETS Processes With Absolute Gravity & Deformation Measurements Near Port Renfrew, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henton, J. A.; Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; Kao, H.; Lambert, A.

    2010-12-01

    The monitoring of subduction zone Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) has been carried out primarily using seismic data for tremor and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) and strain- or tilt-meter observations for transient slip. The regularity of ETS episodes in the forearc of the northern Cascadia Subduction Zone has recently allowed us to schedule a series of absolute gravity (AG) measurements to augment these other data and thereby help in understanding the physical processes involved in the generation of ETS. High-precision AG observations are sensitive to vertical motion of the observation site as well as mass redistribution during transient deformation. For the 2010 ETS event in the northern Cascadia, AG observations were carried out at Port Renfrew, British Columbia. The Port Renfrew region was targeted since it has typically had large (~7mm) vertical displacements measured at a nearby GPS site. Additionally this region has experienced large strains during past ETS episodes. The closest PBO borehole strainmeter to Port Renfrew, B004 (Sekiu, WA), typically experiences ETS shear strain transients exceeding 100 nanostrain. In this contribution, we focus on the analysis of the multiple epoch series of AG observations at Port Renfrew during the 2010 ETS event. The ratio of the change of surface gravity (Δg) to vertical displacement (Δh) during the ETS event will also be examined. This ratio provides unique constraints on processes involved in generating observed gravity signals and will help us explore the mechanism of ETS.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in British Columbia grizzly bears: consequence of divergent diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Macdonald, Robie W; Whiticar, Michael; Ross, Peter S

    2005-09-15

    Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures in growing hair reveal that while some British Columbia grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) rely entirely on terrestrial foods, others switch in late summer to returning Pacific salmon (Oncorynchus spp.). Implications for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and patterns measured in the two feeding groups of grizzly bears were profound. While the bears consuming a higher proportion of terrestrial vegetation ("interior" grizzlies) exhibited POP patterns dominated bythe more volatile organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the heavier polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs: e.g., BDE-209), the bears consuming salmon were dominated by the more bioaccumulative POPs (e.g., DDT, chlordanes, and BDE-47). The ocean-salmon-bear pathway appeared to preferentially select for those contaminants with intermediate partitioning strength from water into lipid (log Kow approximately 6.5). This pattern reflects an optimum contaminant log Kow range for atmospheric transport, deposition into the marine environment, uptake into marine biota, accumulation through the food web, and retention in the bear tissues. We estimate that salmon deliver 70% of all OC pesticides, up to 85% of the lower brominated PBDE congeners, and 90% of PCBs found in salmon-eating grizzly bears, thereby inextricably linking these terrestrial predators to contaminants from the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:16201616

  19. Chasing the dragon - characterizing cases of leukoencephalopathy associated with heroin inhalation in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An association between leukoencephalopathy, a disease of the white matter of the brain, and smoking heroin is well recognized. This paper describes 27 cases of leukoencephalopathy identified in two cities in British Columbia, Canada 2001-2006; the largest number of geographically and temporally defined reported cases in North America. Twenty cases of leukoencephalopathy were identified in and around Vancouver with onset dates December 2001 to July 2003; seven further cases were identified in Victoria September 2005-August 2006. Twenty (74% of all cases were male, two couples were reported and eleven cases (55% had Asian ethnicity. One case reported smoking heroin on a single occasion and developed mild symptoms; all other cases were hospitalized. Thirteen (48% cases died; all had smoked heroin for a minimum of 3 years. Testing of one available heroin sample identified no substance other than common cutting agents. Although a specific etiology was not identified our study supports the theory of an intermittent exposure to a toxic agent added to the heroin or a combustion by-product. It also suggests a dose response effect rather than genetic predisposition. Collaboration with public health, health professionals, law enforcement and persons who use illegal drugs, will facilitate the early identification of cases to enable timely and complete follow-up including obtaining samples. Testing of implicated heroin samples may allow identification of the contaminant and therefore prevent further cases. It is therefore important to ensure key stakeholders are aware of our findings.

  20. Glacier change in the Cariboo Mountains, British Columbia, Canada (1952–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Beedle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We calculated dimensional change for 33 glaciers in the Cariboo Mountains of British Columbia for the latter half of the twentieth century. All glaciers receded during the period 1952–2005; area retreat averaged −0.19 ± 0.05% a−1. From 1952 to 1985, nine glaciers advanced. Following 1985, retreat rates accelerated to −0.41 ± 0.12% a−1. Thinning rates likewise accelerated, from −0.14 ± 0.04 m w.e. a−1 (1952–1985 to −0.50 ± 0.07 m w.e. a−1 for the period 1985–2005. Temperatures increased from the earlier to the latter period for the ablation (+0.38 °C and accumulation (+0.87 °C seasons, and average precipitation decreased, particularly in the accumulation season (−32 \\unit{mm}, −3.2%. Our comparison of surface area change with glacier morphometry corroborates previous studies that show primary relations between extent change and surface area. We also find, however, that the strength and sign of these relations varied for different epochs.

  1. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  2. Hepatitis B Awareness and Knowledge in Asian Communities in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Alan Hoi Lun; Ford, Jo-Ann; Kwan, Peter Wing Cheung; Chan, Jessica; Choo, Queenie; Lee, Tim K; Kwong, Willie; Huang, Alan; Yoshida, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our study examined hepatitis B virus (HBV) awareness and knowledge in Asian communities in British Columbia (BC). Methods. A statistical random sample representation of Chinese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian populations in Greater Vancouver was surveyed by telephone. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of HBV knowledge. Results. General awareness of HBV was reported in 78.8% (798/1013). HBV awareness was the highest in Chinese (89%) and Filipino (88%) populations and the lowest in the South Asian (56%) population. "Reasonable" knowledge of HBV was elicited in 76.8% (778/1013). Higher HBV knowledge was associated with younger age (p = 0.014), higher education (p knowledge of HBV was lower in Korean (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.5), Filipino (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2-0.6), South Asian (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2-0.4), and Southeast Asian (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.6) populations. 54.8% (555/1013) felt that HBV education was inadequate and 80.1% (811/1013) preferred HBV education in their native languages. Conclusion. Compared to the Chinese population, other Asian communities in BC have lower HBV awareness and knowledge. Public education should target older and less educated and Korean, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian populations in their native languages via media and Internet. PMID:27446839

  3. Modeling Intense Blowing Snow Events in the Cariboo Mountains of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dery, S. J.; Ainslie, B.; Jackson, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will investigate blowing snow associated with intense winter storms in the Cariboo Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. The objectives of the study are: 1) to examine four winter storms that affected the Cariboo Mountains between 2006 and 2009; 2) to assess snow mass redistribution by wind during the events, including areas of snow accumulation and erosion; and 3) to discuss the potential impacts of blowing snow on glacier mass balance and their hydrological consequences. To achieve these goals, simulations with a mesoscale atmospheric model (RAMS) of four high wind events are performed over the domain of the Cariboo Mountains. The simulations are validated using in-situ observations recorded at several high elevation sites. The spatial distribution of snow mass erosion/deposition, in addition to aeolian sublimation, is then assessed for each case study using the surface divergence/convergence field and other meteorological conditions simulated by RAMS. The talk will end with a discussion of the potential impacts of wind transport of snow on glacier mass balance in the region.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in British Columbia grizzly bears: consequence of divergent diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Macdonald, Robie W; Whiticar, Michael; Ross, Peter S

    2005-09-15

    Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures in growing hair reveal that while some British Columbia grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) rely entirely on terrestrial foods, others switch in late summer to returning Pacific salmon (Oncorynchus spp.). Implications for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and patterns measured in the two feeding groups of grizzly bears were profound. While the bears consuming a higher proportion of terrestrial vegetation ("interior" grizzlies) exhibited POP patterns dominated bythe more volatile organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the heavier polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs: e.g., BDE-209), the bears consuming salmon were dominated by the more bioaccumulative POPs (e.g., DDT, chlordanes, and BDE-47). The ocean-salmon-bear pathway appeared to preferentially select for those contaminants with intermediate partitioning strength from water into lipid (log Kow approximately 6.5). This pattern reflects an optimum contaminant log Kow range for atmospheric transport, deposition into the marine environment, uptake into marine biota, accumulation through the food web, and retention in the bear tissues. We estimate that salmon deliver 70% of all OC pesticides, up to 85% of the lower brominated PBDE congeners, and 90% of PCBs found in salmon-eating grizzly bears, thereby inextricably linking these terrestrial predators to contaminants from the North Pacific Ocean.

  5. Frontier flair - one good turn deserves another in northeastern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some evidence of the easing of tensions between the oil and gas industry and native host communities in northeastern British Columbia have been reported. While native communities continue to expect a high standard of corporate citizenship in terms of environmental concerns and reclamation of land to its natural state after industry activity ceases, they show greater willingness to allow exploration and drilling on native lands. In another demonstration of this 'live and let live' philosophy labour authorities and the Petroleum Services Association of Canada and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers jointly persuaded the B.C. Legislature to reserve the decision on ending the variance from the letter of overtime provisions in the B.C. Labour Code that would have made oilfield work prohibitively expensive. In yet another action, industry and local governments joined forces to demand a share of the industrial property taxes for local governments for infrastructure development, instead of all of it going to the provincial government. Progress is slow, but there is evidence of good will, or at least a recognition of interdependence and mutual concerns on both sides

  6. Microplastic Ingestion by Wild and Cultured Manila Clams (Venerupis philippinarum) from Baynes Sound, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Katie; Dudas, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Microplastics, plastic particles microplastics are small, they are available to many filter-feeding organisms, which can then be consumed by higher trophic level organisms, including humans. This study documents the quantity of microplastics present in wild and cultured Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarum). Three active shellfish farms and three reference beaches (i.e., non-shellfish farm sites) in Baynes Sound, British Columbia were chosen to examine the microplastic concentrations in wild and cultured Manila clams. Microplastics were isolated using a nitric acid digestion technique and enumerated from 54 clams (27 farmed and 27 non-farmed). Qualitative attributes, such as colour and microplastic type (fiber, fragment, or film) also were recorded. There was no significant difference (F = 1.29; df = 1,4; P = 0.289) between microplastic concentrations in cultured and wild clams. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 5.47 particles/g (from reference beach and shellfish farm clams, respectively). Fibers were the dominant microplastic (90 %); colourless and dark gray fibers were the most common colours observed (36 and 26 %, respectively). Although this indicates that microplastics are definitely present in seafood consumed by humans, shellfish aquaculture operations do not appear to be increasing microplastic concentrations in farmed clams in this region. PMID:27259879

  7. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. PMID:26136156

  8. INTEGRATED STRATIGRAPHY OF THE LOWER AND MIDDLE FERNIE FORMATION IN ALBERTA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA, WESTERN CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUSSELL HALL

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The lower and middle parts of the Fernie Formation in central-western Alberta and south-eastern British Columbia, ranging from Pliensbachian to ?Bathonian (Early to Middle Jurassic in age, and consisting mainly of fossiliferous dark shales and black limestones, contain bentonitic clay horizons which have yielded radiometric ages using U-Pb analysis of zircon crystals. Here we report six new ages from the lowermost Red Deer Member (188.3 +1.5/-1 Ma; Highwood Member (ca. 173 Ma and 166.6 ± 0.2 Ma; and Grey Beds (167.0 ± 0.2 Ma, 165.6 ± 0.3 Ma, and 165.4 ± 0.3 Ma. Some of these bentonites are associated with ammonites and coccoliths which provide biostratigraphic constraints. Strontium and carbon and oxygen isotopes measured from belemnite rostra have been compared in two sections and the resulting curves are compared with those from western Europe.

  9. Satellite-derived aerosol radiative forcing from the 2004 British Columbia wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; Leighton, H.

    2008-01-01

    The British Columbia wildfires of 2004 was one of the largest wildfire events in the last ten years in Canada. Both the shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) are investigated using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Relationships between the radiative forcing fluxes (??F) and wildfire aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.55 ??m (??0.55) are deduced for both noontime instantaneous forcing and diurnally averaged forcing. The noontime averaged instantaneous shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA are 45.8??27.5 W m-2 and -12.6??6.9 W m-2, respectively for a selected study area between 62??N and 68??N in latitude and 125??W and 145??W in longitude over three mainly clear-sky days (23-25 June). The derived diurnally averaged smoke aerosol shortwave radiative forcing is 19.9??12.1 W m-2 for a mean ??0.55 of 1.88??0.71 over the same time period. The derived ??F-?? relationship can be implemented in the radiation scheme used in regional climate models to assess the effect of wildfire aerosols.

  10. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.

  11. Estimating Forest Carbon Stock Dynamics from Forest Inventories, Disturbance Data and Simulation Models: An Integrated Analysis for British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, W. A.; Beukema, S. J.; Robinson, D. C.; Apps, M. J.

    2001-12-01

    Forest inventories and growth and yield projection systems are an integral part of modern forest management. This information is commonly used for the long-term planning of annual allowable cuts and timber supply analysis. A strategy for the use of such information in a comprehensive, regional carbon budget model was developed and implemented for British Columbia, Canada. Data readily accessible from forest information systems include the area, stratification and attributes (including merchantable volume) of forests. Growth and yield tables or empirical models provide the required information on stand dynamics. Disturbance statistics (harvest, fire, insects) describe the dynamics of the forest area. Temporary and permanent sample plots provide millions of tree measurements that were used in the conversion of volume to biomass estimates. Methods previously developed for the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS2) were used to calculate belowground biomass and to establish the various dead organic matter pools. Inventory data are nearly complete, except for a small portion of the total forest area. Land-use change statistics are available for forest roads, but not yet for other causes of land-use change. A modified version of the CBM-CFS2 was used to calculate C stocks and stock changes for the period 2000 to 2032. Results indicate that ecosystem C stocks in the timber harvest land base are changing very little, with between-year variability of - 20 to + 20 Tg C / year. In contrast, ecosystem C stocks in the non-timber harvest land base are increasing at a rate of about 100 Tg C / year, largely because of the absence of harvesting and the assumed rates of future fire and insect disturbances, which could be the result of protection efforts. Actual disturbance rates, observed in future years, could have large impacts on C stock changes. Annual changes in C stocks will also be influenced by climate variability. Growth and yield models predict

  12. Arboreal forage lichens in partial cuts – a synthesis of research results from British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Stevenson

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The mountain ecotype of the woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou is highly dependent on the arboreal hair lichens Bryoria spp. and Alectoria sarmentosa during winter. In parts of British Columbia, partial-cutting silvicultural systems have been used in an effort to provide continuously usable winter habitat for mountain caribou, while allowing some timber removal. We reviewed available information about the changes in hair lichens after partial cutting in Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii – subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa forests of British Columbian and Idaho. Generally, abundance of Bryoria spp. in the lower canopy of individual residual trees increases with increased exposure after partial cutting, until the new regeneration begins to shelter the lower canopy of the residuals. Heavy basal area removal, however, results in low lichen availability at the stand level for many years. Abundance of Bryoria on the regeneration is low, and appears to be limited largely by the structure of the young trees, not by lichen dispersal, although dispersal capability may be limiting in Alectoria. Both distributional and physiological data suggest that Bryoria is intolerant of prolonged wetting, and that increased ventilation, rather than increased light, accounts for enhanced Bryoria abundance in the partial cuts. Alectoria sarmentosa reaches its physiological optimum in the lower canopy of unharvested stands; its growth rates are somewhat reduced in the more exposed environment of partial cuts. Both genera are capable of rapid growth: over a 7-year period, individual thalli of A. sarmentosa and Bryoria spp. (excluding those with a net biomass loss due to fragmentation in an unlogged stand more than tripled their biomass. Calculated growth rates, as well as dispersal potential, are influenced by fragmentation. Bryoria produces more abundant, but smaller, fragments than Alectoria, and fragmentation in both genera increases in partial cuts. In

  13. Forest harvesting impacts on the peak flow regime in the Columbia Mountains of southeastern British Columbia: An investigation using long-term numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorbus, Markus; Alila, Younes

    2004-05-01

    Numerical hydrologic simulation, in combination with synthetic weather generation, was used to assess the sensitivity of the peak flow regime for hourly, daily, and 7-day discharge to hypothetical harvesting scenarios in Redfish Creek in southern British Columbia. Simulation was based on stationary vegetation cover, thus representing potential peak flow regime adjustments during the first few critical years following harvesting. The relative difference between preharvest and postharvest peak discharge quantiles (ΔQT), estimated by comparing GEV distributions fit to the simulated preharvest and postharvest annual maximum series, tended to increase with increasing harvest area; however, the relationship was strongly influenced by the elevation distribution of harvest blocks. Although rainfall was determined to be a factor in roughly three quarters of all peak discharge events, the flood frequency of Redfish Creek is fundamentally a function of the frequency structure of snowmelt runoff. Consequently, changes in runoff synchronization between various elevation bands largely drove the magnitude of ΔQT, and the degree of increased synchronization was found to be greatest following harvesting above H60 (elevation above which lies 60% of basin area) and least following harvesting below H60. As a result, only harvesting schemes that incorporated cut blocks above H60 tended to generate significant (α = 0.05) ΔQT for a wide range of return periods (T), regardless of discharge timescale. Significant ΔQT ranged from 6 to 14% for hourly, 5 to 14% for daily, and 5 to 20% for 7-day discharge in the range of 1.25 ≤ T ≤ 100 years. For a given scenario, hourly and daily ΔQT showed little variation with T, suggesting that small and large discharge events responded similarly to forest harvesting. However, this apparent trend substantially overstates ΔQT for the largest hourly and daily peak discharge events such that the relationship of ΔQT to T is inconclusive for T > 30

  14. A field study of coherent flow structures over low angle dunes: Fraser Estuary, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, R. W.; Hendershot, M. L.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R. A.; Allison, M. A.; Church, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aqueous dunes are present in nearly all sand bedded alluvial channels and can significantly influence flow resistance and sediment transport and deposition. The geometry of these bedforms can take on a high angle asymmetrical or low angle symmetrical shape. While advances have been made in understanding the mean and turbulent flow over high angle dunes, far less progress has been made in detailing flow over low angle dunes, commonly observed in large rivers, due to difficulties measuring near the bed and quantifying the turbulence over these bedforms. This field study documents the flow over low angle dunes in the Fraser Estuary, British Columbia, using an acoustic Doppler profiler (aDcp) to measure 3-D flow characteristics and a multi-beam echo sounder (MBES) to provide high-resolution bed topography. Measurements were made over a dune field (~1 km long and ~0.5 wide) through two semi-diurnal tidal cycles during the 2010 freshet. We examine the coupling between the bedform morphology and the generation of coherent flow structures. Bedforms in the dune field range from low-angle symmetric to higher angle asymmetric and vary over tidal cycles; however, none display the classic angle of repose geometry. Mean flow velocity increases on falling tide while it decreases the rising tide. At lower tides, large scale motions caused by topographic forcing emerge on stoss slopes and rise up over the crest producing variations in suspended sediment over the bedforms. Our analysis is intended to contribute insight into what controls the occurrence of low angle bedforms in rivers.

  15. Propagule pressure and stream characteristics influence introgression: Cutthroat and rainbow trout in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S.N.; Olson, J.R.; Kershner, J.L.; Corbett, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native salmonids threaten the continued persistence of many inland cutthroat trout species. Environmental models have been developed to predict the spread of introgression, but few studies have assessed the role of propagule pressure. We used an extensive set of fish stocking records and geographic information system (GIS) data to produce a spatially explicit index of potential propagule pressure exerted by introduced rainbow trout in the Upper Kootenay River, British Columbia, Canada. We then used logistic regression and the information-theoretic approach to test the ability of a set of environmental and spatial variables to predict the level of introgression between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Introgression was assessed using between four and seven co-dominant, diagnostic nuclear markers at 45 sites in 31 different streams. The best model for predicting introgression included our GIS propagule pressure index and an environmental variable that accounted for the biogeoclimatic zone of the site (r2 = 0.62). This model was 1.4 times more likely to explain introgression than the next-best model, which consisted of only the propagule pressure index variable. We created a composite model based on the model-averaged results of the seven top models that included environmental, spatial, and propagule pressure variables. The propagule pressure index had the highest importance weight (0.995) of all variables tested and was negatively related to sites with no introgression. This study used an index of propagule pressure and demonstrated that propagule pressure had the greatest influence on the level of introgression between a native and introduced trout in a human-induced hybrid zone. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. The context of illicit drug overdose deaths in British Columbia, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Bilal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illicit drug overdose deaths (IDD relate to individual drug dose and context of use, including use with other drugs and alcohol. IDD peaked in British Columbia (BC in 1998 with 417 deaths, and continues to be a public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine IDD in 2006 in BC by place of residence, injury and death, decedents' age and sex and substances identified. Methods IDD data was obtained through the BC Coroners Office and entered into SPSS (version 14. Fisher's exact and Pearson's χ2 were used for categorical data; Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables. Rates were calculated using 2006 population estimates. Results We identified 223 IDD in BC; 54 (24% occurred in Vancouver. Vancouver decedents (compared to those occurring outside Vancouver were older (mean age 43.9 vs. 39.2 years; p Cocaine was identified in 80.3%, opiates 59.6%, methadone 13.9%, methamphetamine/amphetamine 6.3%, and alcohol in 22.9% of deaths. Poly-substance use was common, 2 substances were identified in 43.8% and 3 or more in 34.5% of deaths. Opiates were more frequently identified in Vancouver compared to outside Vancouver (74.1% vs. 55.0% p = 0.015. Conclusion Collaboration with the Coroner's office allowed us to analyze IDD in detail including place of death; cocaine, opiates and poly-substance use were commonly identified. Poly-substance use should be explored further to inform public health interventions.

  17. Californian forest fire plumes over Southwestern British Columbia: lidar, sunphotometry, and mountaintop chemistry observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. McKendry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires in Northern California and Oregon were responsible for two significant regional scale aerosol transport events observed in southern British Columbia during summer 2008. A combination of ground based (CORALNet and satellite (CALIPSO lidar, sunphotometry and high altitude chemistry observations permitted unprecedented characterization of forest fire plume height and mixing as well as description of optical properties and physicochemistry of the aerosol. In southwestern BC, lidar observations show the smoke to be mixed through a layer extending to 5–6 km a.g.l. where the aerosol was confined by an elevated inversion in both cases. Depolarization ratios for a trans-Pacific dust event (providing a basis for comparison and the two smoke events were consistent with observations of dust and smoke events elsewhere and permit discrimination of aerosol events in the region. Based on sunphotometry, the Aerosol Optical Thicknesses (AOT reached maxima of ~0.7 and ~0.4 for the two events respectively. Dubovik-retrieval values of reff, f during both the June/July and August events varied between about 0.13 and 0.15 μm and confirm the dominance of accumulation mode size particles in the forest fire plumes. Both Whistler Peak and Mount Bachelor Observatory data show that smoke events are accompanied by elevated CO and O3 concentrations as well as elevated K+/SO4 ratios. In addition to documenting the meteorology and physic-chemical characteristics of two regional scale biomass burning plumes, this study demonstrates the positive analytical synergies arising from the suite of measurements now in place in the Pacific Northwest, and complemented by satellite borne instruments.

  18. The hydrochemistry of high-elevation lakes in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available High-elevation lakes are sensitive to acidification from atmospheric deposition owing to their generally small catchment areas, thin soils and low bedrock weathering rates. The Georgia Basin, southwest British Columbia, Canada, receives atmospheric inputs from emissions originating in Vancouver, Victoria, and from marine traffic in the Strait of Georgia. There is growing concern on the influence of this air pollution on high-elevation systems in the region. Water chemistry and catchment characteristics were used to assess the sensitivity of 72 lakes in the Georgia Basin to acidic deposition. Twenty percent of the study lakes had pH levels less than 6, and acid neutralising capacity (ANC concentrations below 20 μeq L–1, which are key thresholds for biological sustainability. Base cation and trace metal concentrations were low, typical of the dilute nature of high-elevation lakes (median conductivity = 7.0 μS cm–1. Nonetheless, concentrations of trace metals (such as lead decreased with distance from major cities. The primary factors influencing the pH and ANC of surface waters were investigated using multiple linear regression; both ANC and pH were related to longitude and the proportion of the catchment dominated by ice and glaciers. Increasing sulphur deposition resulted in decreasing pH. The median critical load of acidity (sulphur for the study lakes was approximately 70 meq m–2 y–1; 18% of the lakes received sulphur deposition (range: 6-81 meq m–2 y–1 for the period 2005-2006 in excess of their critical load.

  19. Climatic impacts on the runoff generation processes in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loukas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of future climate change on runoff generation processes in two southern British Columbia catchments was explored using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCMa1 to estimate future changes in precipitation, temperature and cloud cover while the U.B.C. Watershed Model was used to simulate discharges and quantify the separate runoff components, i.e. rainfall, snowmelt, glacier melt and groundwater. Changes, not only in precipitation and temperature but also in the spatial distribution of precipitation with elevation, cloud cover, glacier extension, altitude distribution of vegetation, vegetation biomass production and plant physiology were considered. The future climate of the catchments would be wetter and warmer than the present. In the maritime rain-fed catchment of the Upper Campbell, runoff from rainfall is the most significant source of flow for present and future climatic conditions in the autumn and winter whereas runoff from groundwater generates the flow in spring and summer, especially for the future climate scenario. The total runoff, under the future climatic conditions, would increase in the autumn and winter and decrease in spring and summer. In contrast, in the interior snow-covered Illecillewaet catchment, groundwater is the most significant runoff generation mechanism in the autumn and winter although, at present, significant flow is generated from snowmelt in spring and from glacier runoff in summer. In the future scenario, the contribution to flow from snowmelt would increase in winter and diminish in spring while the runoff from the glacier would remain unchanged; groundwater would then become the most significant source of runoff, which would peak earlier in the season. Keywords: climatic change, hydrological simulation, rainfall, snowmelt, runoff processes

  20. Dynamics of a gravel bed stream in transition: Fishtrap Creek, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.; Eaton, B. C.; Giles, T.

    2006-12-01

    In August 2003, a forest fire burnt the entire floodplain and most of the contributing drainage basin of Fishtrap Creek, British Columbia. The riparian vegetation, which consisted primarily of mature cottonwoods and redcedar trees, suffered nearly 100% mortality due to the fire: none of the dead trees have since been removed, following the fire. The post-fire riparian vegetation comprises various herbaceous species, as well as some small shrubs and trees. The UBC regime model predicts that such a change in bank vegetation will result in an eventual transition from a narrow, stable, single thread stream channel to an unstable, multiple- thread channel about twice as wide as the original. During the snowmelt freshet of 2006, the first signs of significant channel change were documented in the field. We use three years of repeated cross sectional surveys and low level aerial photography from before and after the freshet to characterize the changes in channel geometry. We also documented the patterns of sediment transfer during the freshet using data from magnetic tracers. The tracers were deployed at four locations throughout the 300 m-long study reach: the distribution of transport distances for each tracer stone population were strongly conditioned by the sequence of morphologic changes occurring along the stream channel. Our results suggest that typical step lengths in gravel bed streams can be much larger than the bar-to-bar spacing and furthermore that they are quite variable, even over short distances. These results are the first stages of a long-term study of stream channel response to, and recovery from, a catastrophic disturbance. The project will eventually allow us to test and calibrate the UBC regime model and to identify the characteristic timescales associated with these sorts of channel adjustments.

  1. Evaluating the safety impact of increased speed limits on rural highways in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Tarek; Sacchi, Emanuele

    2016-10-01

    Maximum speed limits are usually set to inform drivers of the highest speed that it is safe and appropriate for ideal traffic, road and weather conditions. Many previous studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between changed speed limits and safety. The results of these studies generally show that relaxing speed limits can negatively affect safety, especially with regard to fatal and injury crashes. Despite these results, several road jurisdictions in North America continue to raise the maximum speed limits. In 2013, the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure initiated a speed limits review. The review found that the 85th percentile speed on many highway segments was 10km/h higher than corresponding posted speed limits and 1300km of rural provincial highway segments were recommended for higher speed limits. Most of the highway segments had 10km/h speed limit increase with a small section having 20km/h speed limit increase. As speed limit changes can have a substantial impact on safety, the main objective of this study is to estimate the effect of the increased speed limits on crash occurrence. A before-after evaluation was undertaken with the full Bayesian technique. Overall, the evaluation showed that changed speed limits led to a statistically significant increase in fatal-plus-injury (severe) crashes of 11.1%. A crash modification function that includes changes in the treatment effect over time showed that the initial increase of the first post-implementation period may slightly decrease over time. PMID:27447060

  2. Detrital zircon geochronology of Siluro-Devonian sandstones, Rocky Mountains, northeastern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, G.M.; Geldsetzer, H.H.J. (Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, AB (Canada)); McNicoll, V.J.; Parrish, R.R. (Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)); Carr, S.D; Kinsman, A. (Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1993-09-01

    Quartzose sandstones of latest Silurian to middle Devonian form the basal part of four unconformity-bounded, carbonate dominated shelf successions of the Alberta Basin in the Rocky Mountains of northeastern British Columbia; the Muncho-McConnell, Stone, Dunedin and Slave Point formations. The off-shelf equivalent to the Dunedin Formation is a massive channel deposit of quartzose sandstone that overlies basinal strata along a 30 km wide re-entrant in the northern part of the Ospika Embayment. Paleocurrent measurements from basal sandstones of the Dunedin Formation, including the channel deposit, contain a northeast-directed component over a large area and suggest possible sediment derivation from a western source area, perhaps reflecting uplift during the early phases of the Antler orogeny. To test this hypothesis, single detrital zircon grains were dated using the U-Pb technique, from sandstones of the shelf (Muncho-McConnell and Slave Point formations) and basinal settings (massive channel deposit) to examine their provenance. Twenty-nine single grain analyses from four different samples yielded a distinctive suite of U-Pb ages that are undistinguishable regardless of paleogeographic setting and closely match the ages of basement terranes that underlie the Peace River Arch in the autocthon to the east. These data support derivation of sediments of both basinal and shelf associations from the same source: the emergent Peace River Arch area to the east. Alternatively, to account for the northeasterly directed paleocurrents, Dunedin-equivalent quartzose sandstones of the basinal association could have been derived from the west and acquired their detrital zircon provenance signature by recycling pre-Devonian sandstones. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Descriptive epidemiology of serious work-related injuries in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the rates and distribution of serious work-related injuries by demographic, work and injury characteristics in British Columbia, Canada from 2002-2008, using population-based data. METHODS: Claims for workers with a serious injury were extracted from workers' compensation data. Serious injuries were defined by long duration, high cost, serious medical diagnosis, or fatality. Workforce estimates were used to calculate stratum-specific rates. Rate-ratios (RR and 95% CIs were calculated using negative binomial regression for the comparison of rates, adjusting for gender, age and occupation. RESULTS: Women had a lower overall serious injury rate compared to men (RR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99. The 35-44 age group had the highest overall rate compared to the youngest age group. The rate for severe strains/sprains was similarly high for men and women in the 35-44 age group, although there was a differential pattern by gender for other injury types: the rate of fracture was similar across age groups for men, but increased with age for women (RR: 2.7, 95% CI: 2.2-3.3; and the rate of severe falls increased with age for men and women, with a larger three-fold increase for older women (men: RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.7-2.1; women: RR: 3.2, 95% CI: 2.7-3.7. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of serious injuries is higher among specific age groups with different patterns emerging for men and women. Variations persisted within similar injury types and occupation groups in our adjusted models. These results provide evidence for the burden of serious injuries and a basis for future analytic research. Given projected demographic shifts and increasing workforce participation of older workers, intervention programs should be carefully implemented with consideration to demographic groups at risk for serious injuries in the workplace.

  4. An epidemiologic study of disease in 32 registered Holstein dairy herds in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, R T; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Noordhuizen, J P; Dekkers, J C

    1999-07-01

    Data recorded in a herd health management system were obtained from 32 registered Holstein dairy herds from British Columbia. Frequencies of disease were described, and the effect of herd, age, year, season, and the interrelationships between diseases within a lactation on the occurrence of disease were evaluated. Lactational incidence rates were computed for diseases with a short period of risk (ie, udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis), whereas for diseases with a longer period of risk (ie, cystic ovaries, mastitis and stable footrot), incidence densities were calculated. Overall, the disease incidence was low and showed an increase in frequency by year, which we attributed to more observing and complete recording by the owner, rather than an actual increase in disease incidence. Most diseases occurred early in lactation and their frequency increased with lactation number; the exception was udder edema, which occurred mainly during the first 2 lactations. An informal path model of disease interrelationships was made conditional on herd. Based on the results we inferred 2 independent pathways: one started by udder edema, and the other by milk fever. Udder edema was directly associated with mastitis occurrence from 0 to 30 d in lactation, metritis, and cystic ovaries. Mastitis from 0-30 d in lactation increased the risk of both mastitis from 31-150 d in lactation and cystic ovaries. Both of these increased the risk of late lactation mastitis. Milk fever was directly related with displaced abomasum, which increased the risk of footrot. In general, diseases that occurred in early lactation tended to increase the risk of other diseases later in lactation.

  5. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Ryan N.; Côté, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides—a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates—began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances. PMID:27168988

  6. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica A; Cloutier, Ryan N; Côté, Isabelle M

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides-a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates-began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances. PMID:27168988

  7. Forearc structure beneath southwestern British Columbia: A three-dimensional tomographic velocity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, K.; Dosso, S.E.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional compressional wave velocity model of the forearc crust and upper mantle and the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath southwestern British Columbia and the adjoining straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. The velocity model was constructed through joint tomographic inversion of 50,000 first-arrival times from earthquakes and active seismic sources. Wrangellia rocks of the accreted Paleozoic and Mesozoic island arc assemblage underlying southern Vancouver Island in the Cascadia forearc are imaged at some locations with higher than average lower crustal velocities of 6.5-7.2 km/s, similar to observations at other island arc terranes. The mafic Eocene Crescent terrane, thrust landward beneath southern Vancouver Island, exhibits crustal velocities in the range of 6.0-6.7 km/s and is inferred to extend to a depth of more than 20 km. The Cenozoic Olympic Subduction Complex, an accretionary prism thrust beneath the Crescent terrane in the Olympic Peninsula, is imaged as a low-velocity wedge to depths of at least 20 km. Three zones with velocities of 7.0-7.5 km/s, inferred to be mafic and/or ultramafic units, lie above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate at depths of 25-35 km. The forearc upper mantle wedge beneath southeastern Vancouver Island and the Strait of Georgia exhibits low velocities of 7.2-7.5 km/s, inferred to correspond to ???20% serpentinization of mantle peridotites, and consistent with similar observations in other warm subduction zones. Estimated dip of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath southern Vancouver Island is ???11??, 16??, and 27?? at depths of 30, 40, and 50 km, respectively. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Carbon Isotope Composition of Mysids at a Terrestrial-Marine Ecotone, Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkins, L. M.; Jelinski, D. E.; Karagatzides, J. D.; Carr, A.

    2002-04-01

    The relative contribution of summertime terrestrial versus marine carbon to an estuary on coastal British Columbia, Canada was explored using stable carbon isotopic (δ 13C values) analysis of mysid crustaceans (Malacostraca: Peracarida: Mysidacea). We hypothesized that landscape linkages between the forested upland and adjacent inshore marine waters, via river, groundwater and overland flows, may influence carbon content and metabolism in the coastal zone. We sampled 14 stations spatially distributed in a grid and found δ 13C compositions of mysids ranged from -15·2 to -18·4‰. There was, however, no obvious spatial distribution of δ 13C values relative to the estuarine gradient in Cow Bay. Heavy tidal mixing is suggested to disperse marine and terrestrial carbon throughout the entire bay. From a temporal perspective however, mysid δ 13C signatures became enriched over the sampling period (mid-July to mid-August), which is representative of a stronger marine influence. This may arise because mysids are exposed to greater marine-derived carbon sources later in the summer, a decrease in freshwater input (and hence terrestrial carbon), changes in phytoplankton or macrophyte community structure, or that mysids preferentially feed on marine food sources. Overall, the recorded isotopic values are characteristic of marine organic carbon signatures suggesting that in summer, despite the proximity to shore, little or no terrestrial carbon penetrates the food web at the trophic level of mysids. This notwithstanding we believe there is a strong need for additional study of carbon flows at the marine-terrestrial interface, especially for disturbed watersheds.

  9. Acidic herbicides in surface waters of Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudneh, Million B; Sekela, Mark; Tuominen, Taina; Gledhill, Melissa

    2007-01-12

    In the period 2003-2005 a study was conducted to determine the occurrence, spatial and temporal distribution of five acidic herbicides in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV) region of British Columbia, Canada. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method capable of detecting analytes at the sub ng/L level was developed for this study. Samples were collected and analyzed from two references, five agricultural, two urban and five agricultural and urban mixed sites. Only (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and triclopyr were detected at the reference sites. The highest concentration of herbicide detected at the reference sites was 0.109ng/L for (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid. Varying levels of all of the herbicides monitored were detected at the urban, agricultural and the mixed sites. For the urban sites the highest concentration of herbicide detected was 66.6ng/L for 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid. For the agricultural sites the highest concentration of herbicide detected was 345ng/L for (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D). For the mixed sites the highest concentration of herbicide detected was 1230ng/L for 2,4-D. Overall the mixed sites showed highest concentrations and detection frequencies followed by the agricultural and urban sites. With few exceptions higher concentrations of herbicides were observed for samples collected during spring than for samples collected during fall. The detected concentrations of herbicides were evaluated against established water quality criteria. Herbicide data presented in this study provide reference levels for future pesticide monitoring programs in the region. PMID:17118381

  10. Seasonal habitat use and selection by grizzly bears in Northern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milakovic, B.; Parker, K.L.; Gustine, D.D.; Lay, R.J.; Walker, A.B.D.; Gillingham, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    We defined patterns of habitat use and selection by female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Besa-Prophet watershed of northern British Columbia. We fitted 13 adult females with Geographic Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars and monitored them between 2001 and 2004. We examined patterns of habitat selection by grizzly bears relative to topographical attributes and 3 potential surrogates of food availability: land-cover class, vegetation biomass or quality (as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), and selection value for prey species themselves (moose [Alces alces], elk [Cervus elaphus], woodland caribou [Rangifer tarandus], Stone's sheep [Ovis dalli stonei]). Although vegetation biomass and quality, and selection values for prey were important in seasonal selection by some individual bears, land-cover class, elevation, aspect, and vegetation diversity most influenced patterns of habitat selection across grizzly bears, which rely on availability of plant foods and encounters with ungulate prey. Grizzly bears as a group avoided conifer stands and areas of low vegetation diversity, and selected for burned land-cover classes and high vegetation diversity across seasons. They also selected mid elevations from what was available within seasonal ranges. Quantifying relative use of different attributes helped place selection patterns within the context of the landscape. Grizzly bears used higher elevations (1,595??31 m SE) in spring and lower elevations (1,436??27 m) in fall; the range of average elevations used among individuals was highest (500 m) during the summer. During all seasons, grizzly bears most frequented aspects with high solar gain. Use was distributed across 10 land-cover classes and depended on season. Management and conservation actions must maintain a diverse habitat matrix distributed across a large elevational gradient to ensure persistence of grizzly bears as levels of human access increase in the northern Rocky Mountains

  11. Long-Term Outcomes and Complications in Patients With Craniopharyngioma: The British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We report long-term outcomes and complications of craniopharyngioma patients referred to our institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 2010, 123 consecutive patients received primary treatment for craniopharyngioma in British Columbia and were referred to our institution. The median age was 30 years (range, 2-80 years). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated primarily with subtotal resection (STR) and radiation therapy (RT), 28% with STR alone, 15% with gross total resection, 11% with cyst drainage (CD) alone, 5% with CD+RT, and 2% with RT alone. Eight percent of patients received intracystic bleomycin (ICB) therapy. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 years, and study endpoints were reported at 10 years. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS) was 46%. Patients treated with STR+RT or CD+RT had the highest PFS (82% and 83%, respectively). There were no significant differences between PFS after adjuvant versus salvage RT (84% vs 74%, respectively; P=.6). Disease-specific survival (DSS) was 88%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. Primary treatment modality did not affect DSS or OS, while older age was a negative prognostic factor for OS but not DSS. Kaplan-Meier rates for visual deterioration, anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, seizure disorder, and cerebrovascular events (CVE) due to treatment, not tumor progression, were 27%, 76%, 45%, 16%, and 11%, respectively. The CVE rate was 29% in patients who received ICB compared to 10% in those who did not (P=.07). Conclusions: We report favorable PFS in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in those who received RT after surgery. DSS and OS rates were excellent regardless of primary treatment modality. We observed a high incidence of hypopituitarism, visual deterioration, and seizure disorder. Eleven percent of patients experienced CVEs after treatment. There was a suggestion of increased CVE risk in patients treated with ICB

  12. Long-Term Outcomes and Complications in Patients With Craniopharyngioma: The British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Andrea C., E-mail: andrealo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Howard, A. Fuchsia [School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Nichol, Alan; Sidhu, Keerat; Abdulsatar, Farah [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hasan, Haroon [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Goddard, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We report long-term outcomes and complications of craniopharyngioma patients referred to our institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 2010, 123 consecutive patients received primary treatment for craniopharyngioma in British Columbia and were referred to our institution. The median age was 30 years (range, 2-80 years). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated primarily with subtotal resection (STR) and radiation therapy (RT), 28% with STR alone, 15% with gross total resection, 11% with cyst drainage (CD) alone, 5% with CD+RT, and 2% with RT alone. Eight percent of patients received intracystic bleomycin (ICB) therapy. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 years, and study endpoints were reported at 10 years. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS) was 46%. Patients treated with STR+RT or CD+RT had the highest PFS (82% and 83%, respectively). There were no significant differences between PFS after adjuvant versus salvage RT (84% vs 74%, respectively; P=.6). Disease-specific survival (DSS) was 88%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. Primary treatment modality did not affect DSS or OS, while older age was a negative prognostic factor for OS but not DSS. Kaplan-Meier rates for visual deterioration, anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, seizure disorder, and cerebrovascular events (CVE) due to treatment, not tumor progression, were 27%, 76%, 45%, 16%, and 11%, respectively. The CVE rate was 29% in patients who received ICB compared to 10% in those who did not (P=.07). Conclusions: We report favorable PFS in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in those who received RT after surgery. DSS and OS rates were excellent regardless of primary treatment modality. We observed a high incidence of hypopituitarism, visual deterioration, and seizure disorder. Eleven percent of patients experienced CVEs after treatment. There was a suggestion of increased CVE risk in patients treated with ICB.

  13. A synthesis of scale-dependent ecology of the endangered mountain caribou in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Serrouya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain caribou are an endangered ecotype of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou that live in highprecipitation, mountainous ecosystems of southeastern British Columbia and northern Idaho. The distribution and abundance of these caribou have declined dramatically from historical figures. Results from many studies have indicated that mountain caribou rely on old conifer forests for several life-history requirements including an abundance of their primary winter food, arboreal lichen, and a scarcity of other ungulates and their predators. These old forests often have high timber value, and understanding mountain caribou ecology at a variety of spatial scales is thus required to develop effective conservation strategies. Here we summarize results of studies conducted at three different spatial scales ranging from broad limiting factors at the population level to studies describing the selection of feeding sites within seasonal home ranges of individuals. The goal of this multi-scale review is to provide a more complete picture of caribou ecology and to determine possible shifts in limiting factors across scales. Our review produced two important results. First, mountain caribou select old forests and old trees at all spatial scales, signifying their importance for foraging opportunities as well as conditions required to avoid alternate ungulates and their predators. Second, relationships differ across scales. For example, landscapes dominated by roads and edges negatively affect caribou survival, but appear to attract caribou during certain times of the year. This juxtaposition of fine-scale behaviour with broad-scale vulnerability to predation could only be identified through integrated multi-scale analyses of resource selection. Consequently we suggest that effective management strategies for endangered species require an integrative approach across multiple spatial scales to avoid a focus that may be too narrow to maintain viable

  14. Chance-constrained two-stage fractional optimization for planning regional energy systems in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A chance-constrained two-stage fractional regional energy model is developed. • CTFO-REM generates useful results for planning British Columbia’s energy systems. • Results allow in-depth analyses of objectives, scenarios, and expansions. • A conventional model is also considered to demonstrate CTFO-REM’s advantages. • Results of two models show significant differences between CTFO-REM and TCMIP. - Abstract: In this study, a chance-constrained two-stage fractional optimization (CTFO) method is proposed for planning regional energy systems in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Through simultaneously integrating two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), chance-constrained programming (CCP), and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) techniques into a linear fractional programming (LFP) framework, CTFO can effectively tackle multiobjective and capacity-expansion issues, as well as uncertainties described as probability distributions in the constraints and objectives. Based on the developed CTFO method, a chance-constrained two-stage fractional regional energy model (CTFO-REM) is developed in this study for supporting energy management in the province of British Columbia. Conflicts between environmental protection that maximizes the renewable energy resource utilization and economic development that minimizes the system cost can be effectively addressed through the CTFO-REM model without setting a factor for each objective. The results also indicate that the CTFO-REM model can facilitate dynamic analysis of the interactions among efficiency, policy scenarios, economic cost, and system reliability

  15. Atmospheric Rivers in Southeast Alaska and British Columbia: The Bella Coola Event of 2010 and Alaska Events of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, D. A.; Ralph, F. M.; Neiman, P. J.; Wick, G. A.; Scott, C. A.; McCollor, D.; White, T.

    2014-12-01

    Floods are a recurring natural hazard responsible for large socioeconomic losses globally. In mid-latitude locations, such as Western North America and Europe, heavy precipitation and floods, are connected to intense water vapor transport in extra-tropical cyclones called atmospheric rivers (ARs). This AR region is narrow (on the order of 300-500 km wide) and transports the majority of the poleward moisture flux. Given the strong link between ARs and floods on the west coast of North America, it is the aim of this research to determine if ARs are responsible for hydrohazards in British Columbia and Alaska.Using satellite measurements, atmospheric reanalyses, and in-situ observations we undertake a hydrometeorological analysis on two major flood events, namely the Bella Coola flood in British Columbia in September 2010 in which 10 inches (250mm) of rain fell in 36 hours, and an Alaskan event that produced over 50 inches (1250 mm) of precipitation in the month of September 2012 (mostly in two landfalling ARs), and led to record river stage heights. Furthermore, the Alaskan event resulted in one fatality and $35M in damages to buildings, homes, and infrastructure.Preliminary results suggest that AR conditions were present during these events, and are therefore likely to be important for hydrohazards more generally in British Columbia and Alaska. As the enhanced water vapor transport in the ARs encountered the steep terrain in these regions orographic enhancement of rainfall occurred resulting in record rainfall totals and floods. The occurrence of these events in September (earlier than noteworthy AR events in the U.S. West Coast farther south) may also relate to the earlier nascence of the winter circulation pattern in northern latitudes.

  16. Measuring Maturity of Use for Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) in British Columbia: The Physician Information Technology Office (PITO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Carol; Hagens, Simon; Baldwin, Anne; Anderson, Carol J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines British Columbia (BC)'s Physician Information Technology Office's efforts to measure and improve the use of electronic medical records (EMRs) by select practices in BC with an assessment of their progress using a maturity model, and targeted support. The follow-up assessments showed substantial increases in the physicians' scores resulting from action plans that comprised a series of tailored support activities. Specifically, there was an increase from 21% to 83% of physicians who could demonstrate that they used their EMRs as the principal method of record-keeping.

  17. Enhancing capacity for cardiovascular disease prevention: an overview of the British Columbia Heart Health Dissemination Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, P J; Wharf-Higgins, J; O'Connor, B; Odegard, L; Blair, L

    2001-01-01

    British Columbia (population 3.88 million) is located on the West Coast of Canada (Statistics Canada, 1996). Primary resource activities are the province's traditional sources of economic strength, but there is also a growing economy based on knowledge-intensive secondary manufacturing, high-technology, tourism, film and international business (Ministry of Employment and Investment, 2000). Approximately one-third of the government's total expenditures go to health care (BC Stats, 2000). In 1997, health care in BC was regionalized and responsibility for health services decentralized to 52 health authorities serving eighteen regions. PMID:11677825

  18. Meeting the challenge: British Columbia is on target to cut waste in half by the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Reviews the programs implemented in British Columbia to reduce, reuse, and recycle waste. Programs include solid waste management plans for each regional district; closing old landfills, upgrading existing landfills, and establishing new landfill sites; programs to manage the problem of bears at waste disposal sites; composting of organic waste; collection and recycling of used oil and paint; industry stewardship programs for household hazardous products; collection and recycling of used tires, vehicle batteries, and agricultural pesticide containers; financial assistance to waste reduction initiatives; ecological education in the schools; and a waste reduction managers` training program.

  19. Rate, delay and predictors of hepatitis C treatment in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Alan Hoi Lun; Lee, Terry; Ramji, Alnoor; Ko, Hin Hin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current treatment rate for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suboptimal despite the availability of efficacious antiviral therapy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate, delay and predictors of treatment in patients with chronic HCV infection. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of chronic HCV patients who were being evaluated at a tertiary hepatology centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, was performed. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-four patients with chronic HCV infection who were assessed for treatment between February 2008 and January 2013 were reviewed. Treatment was initiated in 25.6% (42 of 164). In multivariate analyses, male sex (OR 7.90 [95% CI 1.35 to 46.15]) and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (>1.5 times the upper limit of normal) (OR 3.10 [95% CI 1.32 to 7.27]) were positive predictors of treatment, whereas active smoking (OR 0.09 [95% CI 0.02 to 0.53]) and Charlson comorbidity index (per point increase) (OR 0.47 [95% CI 0.27 to 0.83]) were negative predictors of treatment. The most common reasons for treatment deferral were no or minimal liver fibrosis in 57.7% (n=30), persistently normal ALT levels in 57.7% (n=30) and patient unreadiness in 28.8% (n=15). The most common reasons for treatment noninitiation were patient refusal in 59.1% (n=26), medical comorbidities in 36.4% (n=16), psychiatric comorbidities in 9.1% (n=4) and decompensated cirrhosis in 9.1% (n=4). There was a statistically significant difference in the median time delay from HCV diagnosis to general practitioner referral between the treated and untreated patients (66.3 versus 119.5 months, respectively [P=0.033]). The median wait time from general practitioner referral to hepatologist consult was similar between the treated and untreated patients (1.7 months versus 1.5 months, respectively [P=0.768]). Among the treated patients, the median time delay was 6.8 months from hepatologist consult to treatment initiation. CONCLUSIONS: The current treatment

  20. Preliminary age, growth and maturity estimates of spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei) in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. R.; McPhie, R. P.

    2015-05-01

    The spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei) is a chimaeroid ranging from southeast Alaska to Baja California and found at depths of up to 1029 m. Despite being widespread and ubiquitous, few biological parameter estimates exist for spotted ratfish due to a lack of suitable ageing structures to estimate age and growth. We present preliminary results of age, growth and maturity estimates based on a new method in which tritor ridges are counted on the vomerine tooth plate. We also provide a method for estimating the number of worn tritor ridges based on tooth plate diameter measurements for the spotted ratfish. The tritor ridges are distinct bumps that are easy to identify and precision estimates between readers suggests that this method is transferable. Tritor ridges are a potential structure for estimating age in H. colliei and we provide recommendations for future research to improve the method. We sampled 269 spotted ratfish captured in trawl surveys off the coast British Columbia ranging in size from 74 to 495 mm in precaudal length (PCL). The estimated ages ranged from 2 to 16 years for males and from 2 to 21 years for females. The von Bertalanffy, von Bertalanffy with known size at birth, Gompertz and logistic growth models were fitted to the data. Based on Akaike information criterion corrected for sample size and number of parameters estimated, the logistic growth curve was selected as most suitable. The logistic growth model yielded the following parameter estimates: Linf=407.22 mm (PCL), k=0.23 year-1, t0=-7.06 years for males; L∞=494.52 mm (PCL), k=0.26 year-1, t0=-8.35 years for females. Estimated ages at 50% maturity were 12 and 14 years for males and females, respectively. Correspondingly, the size at 50% maturity estimates was smaller for males (302 mm, PCL) than females (393 mm, PCL). Both estimates are larger than those made for spotted ratfish off of California indicating regional differences in life history traits for this species. Our preliminary

  1. Biologically induced mineralization of dypingite by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada

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    Dipple Gregory M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study provides experimental evidence for biologically induced precipitation of magnesium carbonates, specifically dypingite (Mg5(CO34(OH2·5H2O, by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia. This wetland is part of a larger hydromagnesite (Mg5(CO34(OH2·4H2O playa. Abiotic and biotic processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment are compared. Results Field observations show that evaporation of wetland water produces carbonate films of nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O on the water surface and crusts on exposed surfaces. In contrast, benthic microbial mats possessing filamentous cyanobacteria (Lyngbya sp. contain platy dypingite (Mg5(CO34(OH2·5H2O and aragonite. Bulk carbonates in the benthic mats (δ13C avg. = 6.7%, δ18O avg. = 17.2% were isotopically distinguishable from abiotically formed nesquehonite (δ13C avg. = 9.3%, δ18O avg. = 24.9%. Field and laboratory experiments, which emulated natural conditions, were conducted to provide insight into the processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment. Field microcosm experiments included an abiotic control and two microbial systems, one containing ambient wetland water and one amended with nutrients to simulate eutrophic conditions. The abiotic control developed an extensive crust of nesquehonite on its bottom surface during which [Mg2+] decreased by 16.7% relative to the starting concentration. In the microbial systems, precipitation occurred within the mats and was not simply due to the capturing of mineral grains settling out of the water column. Magnesium concentrations decreased by 22.2% and 38.7% in the microbial systems, respectively. Laboratory experiments using natural waters from the Atlin site produced rosettes and flakey globular aggregates of dypingite precipitated in association with filamentous cyanobacteria dominated biofilms cultured from the site, whereas the abiotic control again precipitated

  2. The long-term environmental impacts of the Mount Polley mine tailings spill, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Macklin, Mark; Brewer, Paul; Bird, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2015-04-01

    On the 4th August 2014 a tailings impoundment failure at the Mount Polley gold and copper mine in British Columbia, Canada, released approximately 25 million m3 of solid and liquid waste into Hazeltine Creek, Quesnel Lake and Polley Lake. The sheer volume of the tailings released caused Haseltine Creek channel to expand from 2m to over 25m in width and Polley Lake water level to rise by 1.7m. The spill also removed trees in a 900 km2 corridor either side of Hazeltine Creek. Local residents and government officials have expressed serious concerns regarding the potential long-term effects on regional biodiversity, water security and to the livelihoods of First Nation communities. Among impoundment failures, the Mount Polley disaster is unique in that the solid tailings contain an unusual mixture of metal contaminants (arsenic, copper, gold, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium). As particulate matter is the principal carrier of metal contaminants, the spilled tailings may reside in the regional soils and sediments for 1000s of years serving as a secondary source of pollution. The environmental risk posed by the spilled tailings is compounded by the location of the spill in a mountainous forested catchment, affected by severe winters with prominent spring snow melts that have the potential to remobilise very large quantities of spilled tailings. No data currently exist on the short- to long-term behaviour of these tailings in soils and sediments and the effects of the clean-up operations on their behaviour in this type of river environment. In this study, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to determine the environmental and geomorphological impacts of the tailings spill. We have two specific objectives. (1) The physicochemical speciation and geochemical stability of spilled tailings will be characterised in surface and hyporheic sediments using bulk chemistry, mineralogical (XRD and SEM) and speciation methods (sequential extractions, electron microprobe analysis, XAS

  3. British Columbia Hospitals: examination and assessment of payment reform (B-CHeaPR

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    Barer Morris L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accounting for 36% of public spending on health care in Canada, hospitals are a major target for cost reductions through various efficiency initiatives. Some provinces are considering payment reform as a vehicle to achieve this goal. With few exceptions, Canadian provinces have generally relied on global and line-item budgets to contain hospital costs. There is growing interest amongst policy-makers for using activity based funding (ABF as means of creating financial incentives for hospitals to increase the 'volume' of care, reduce cost, discourage unnecessary activity, and encourage competition. British Columbia (B.C. is the first province in Canada to implement ABF for partial reimbursement of acute hospitalization. To date, there have been no formal examinations of the effects of ABF policies in Canada. This study proposal addresses two research questions designed to determine whether ABF policies affect health system costs, access and hospital quality. The first question examines the impact of the hospital funding policy change on internal hospital activity based on expenditures and quality. The second question examines the impact of the change on non-hospital care, including readmission rates, amount of home care provided, and physician expenditures. Methods/Design A longitudinal study design will be used, incorporating comprehensive population-based datasets of all B.C. residents; hospital, continuing care and physician services datasets will also be used. Data will be linked across sources using anonymized linking variables. Analytic datasets will be created for the period between 2005/2006 and 2012/2013. Discussion With Canadian hospitals unaccustomed to detailed scrutiny of what services are provided, to whom, and with what results, the move toward ABF is significant. This proposed study will provide evidence on the impacts of ABF, including changes in the type, volume, cost, and quality of services provided. Policy

  4. Linking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over Coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classification

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    P. Brigode

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Classifications of atmospheric weather patterns (WPs are widely used for the description of the climate of a given region and are employed for many applications, such as weather forecasting, downscaling of global circulation model outputs and reconstruction of past climates. WP classifications were recently used to improve the statistical characterisation of heavy rainfall. In this context, bottom-up approaches, combining spatial distribution of heavy rainfall observations and geopotential height fields have been used to define WP classifications relevant for heavy rainfall statistical analysis. The definition of WPs at the synoptic scale creates an interesting variable which could be used as a link between the global scale of climate signals and the local scale of precipitation station measurements. We introduce here a new WP classification centred on the British Columbia Coastal region (Canada and based on a bottom-up approach. Five contrasted WPs composed this classification, four rainy WPs and one non-rainy WP, the anticyclonic pattern. The four rainy WPs are mainly observed in the winter months (October to March, which is the period of heavy precipitation events in Coastal BC and is thus consistent with the local climatology. The combination of this WP classification with the seasonal description of rainfall is shown to be useful for splitting observed precipitation series into more homogeneous sub-samples and thus identifying, for each station, the synoptic situations that generate the highest hazard in terms of heavy rainfall events. El Niño Southern Oscillations significantly influence the frequency of occurrence of two Coastal BC WPs. Within each WP, ENSO seem to influence only the frequency of rainy events and not the magnitudes of heavy rainfall events. Consequently, MEWP heavy rainfall estimations do not show significant evolution of heavy rainfall behaviour between Niño and Niña winters. However, the WP approach captures the

  5. Linking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigode, P.; Mićović, Z.; Bernardara, P.; Paquet, E.; Garavaglia, F.; Gailhard, J.; Ribstein, P.

    2013-04-01

    Classifications of atmospheric weather patterns (WPs) are widely used for the description of the climate of a given region and are employed for many applications, such as weather forecasting, downscaling of global circulation model outputs and reconstruction of past climates. WP classifications were recently used to improve the statistical characterisation of heavy rainfall. In this context, bottom-up approaches, combining spatial distribution of heavy rainfall observations and geopotential height fields have been used to define WP classifications relevant for heavy rainfall statistical analysis. The definition of WPs at the synoptic scale creates an interesting variable which could be used as a link between the global scale of climate signals and the local scale of precipitation station measurements. We introduce here a new WP classification centred on the British Columbia (BC) coastal region (Canada) and based on a bottom-up approach. Five contrasted WPs composed this classification, four rainy WPs and one non-rainy WP, the anticyclonic pattern. The four rainy WPs are mainly observed in the winter months (October to March), which is the period of heavy precipitation events in coastal BC and is thus consistent with the local climatology. The combination of this WP classification with the seasonal description of rainfall is shown to be useful for splitting observed precipitation series into more homogeneous sub-samples (i.e. sub-samples constituted by days having similar atmospheric circulation patterns) and thus identifying, for each station, the synoptic situations that generate the highest hazard in terms of heavy rainfall events. El Niño-Southern Oscillations (ENSO) significantly influence the frequency of occurrence of two coastal BC WPs. Within each WP, ENSO seem to influence only the frequency of rainy events and not the magnitudes of heavy rainfall events. Consequently, heavy rainfall estimations do not show significant evolution of heavy rainfall

  6. Linking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brigode

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Classifications of atmospheric weather patterns (WPs are widely used for the description of the climate of a given region and are employed for many applications, such as weather forecasting, downscaling of global circulation model outputs and reconstruction of past climates. WP classifications were recently used to improve the statistical characterisation of heavy rainfall. In this context, bottom-up approaches, combining spatial distribution of heavy rainfall observations and geopotential height fields have been used to define WP classifications relevant for heavy rainfall statistical analysis. The definition of WPs at the synoptic scale creates an interesting variable which could be used as a link between the global scale of climate signals and the local scale of precipitation station measurements. We introduce here a new WP classification centred on the British Columbia (BC coastal region (Canada and based on a bottom-up approach. Five contrasted WPs composed this classification, four rainy WPs and one non-rainy WP, the anticyclonic pattern. The four rainy WPs are mainly observed in the winter months (October to March, which is the period of heavy precipitation events in coastal BC and is thus consistent with the local climatology. The combination of this WP classification with the seasonal description of rainfall is shown to be useful for splitting observed precipitation series into more homogeneous sub-samples (i.e. sub-samples constituted by days having similar atmospheric circulation patterns and thus identifying, for each station, the synoptic situations that generate the highest hazard in terms of heavy rainfall events. El Niño-Southern Oscillations (ENSO significantly influence the frequency of occurrence of two coastal BC WPs. Within each WP, ENSO seem to influence only the frequency of rainy events and not the magnitudes of heavy rainfall events. Consequently, heavy rainfall estimations do not show significant evolution of heavy

  7. Equilibrium and kinetics in metamorphism of pelites in the Nelson aureole, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, D. R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution of metapelitic mineral assemblages in the Nelson aureole, British Columbia, generally conforms to what is predicted from phase equilibria. However, in detail, the mineral textures, mineral compositions and zoning, and sequence and spacing of isograds do not. Two of the main disequilibrium features in the aureole are: (1) delay in the onset and progress of several reactions, ie, thermal overstepping; and (2) unreactivity of staurolite and especially garnet porphyroblasts when they are reactants in higher grade reactions. The thermal overstepping is ascribed primarily to difficulty of nucleation of the product porphyroblasts and sluggishness of dissolution of reactant porphyroblasts required for product mineral growth. The extent to which these barriers to nucleation and growth delay the onset of reaction is related to the reaction affinity of each reaction, which for thermally activated reactions is, in turn, related to the entropy change of the reaction. For a given overstep in temperature, reactions that release large quatities of H2O, such as chlorite-consuming reactions, have a high reaction affinity compared to those which release little or no H2O, such as the chlorite-free staurolite-consuming reaction. Thermal overstepping is consequently expected to be less for the former than for the latter, as was observed in the aureole where ca. 30 °C overstepping was required for garnet growth from a muscovite+chlorite-bearing precursor and ca. 70 °C overstepping was required for growth of Al2SiO5 from a staurolite-bearing, chlorite-free precursor. In all cases reaction progress was strongly influenced by presence or absence of fluid, with fluid presence dramatically lowering kinetic barriers to nucleation and growth, and therefore thermal overstepping. Textural features of rocks from the nearly coincident garnet, staurolite and andalusite isograds are suggestive of a fluid-catalyzed ‘cascade effect' in which reaction took place rapidly and several

  8. Cardiovascular and muscular strain during a tree planting season among British Columbia silviculture workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trites, D G; Robinson, D G; Banister, E W

    1993-08-01

    Cardiovascular and muscle strain were determined in 16 British Columbia reforestation workers during a period of tree planting (75 days). Serial data collected from each worker included pre- and post-work blood chemistry on the first day of the work shift; working heart rate (HR), a PWC170 fitness test, and a daily diary of an individual's work-rest schedule. Repeated blood samples from each planter were analysed for the elevated serum enzyme activities (ESEA) of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST), and for the blood haematology parameters (BH) of haematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), and haemoglobin (Hgb). HR and BH were used as an index of cardiovascular strain and ESEA was used as an index for musculoskeletal strain. A group mean working heart rate of 116.5 +/- 9 b.min-1 (range 100.0-139.1) was sustained throughout the period of an 8.0 hour day representing 39.2% of the delta Heart Rate ratio (ratio of elevated working Hr above resting to maximum HR). Grouped data were analysed by sample day for a subset of planters (n = 10) participating in six sample dates during the first 32 days of planting. Pre- and post-work ESEA were significantly higher throughout the entire planting period when compared with a pre-season resting control group (n = 9, p < or = 0.01). The post-work rise in CK and AST from pre-work values decreased during successive weeks of work as some adaptation to the work rate occurred. LDH continued to rise and was significantly elevated on day 32 compared with day 1. No significance was found in the BH variables between sample dates, yet a decreasing trend was observed. However, pooled data from all subjects for all sample dates showed a highly significant difference (p < or = 0.01) between pre- and post-work samples for both ESEA and BH. ESEA increased and BH decreased. These data present evidence that the work rate and rest time of a tree planter are not well ordered within the daily and

  9. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  10. Geodetic And Seismic Signatures of Episodic Tremor And Slip Beneath Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragert, H.; Rogers, G.; Wang, K.

    2004-05-01

    Slip events with an average duration of about 10 days and effective total slip displacements of several centimetres have been detected on the deeper (25 to 45 km) part of the northern Cascadia subduction zone plate interface by a network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) sites. The slip events occur down-dip from the currently locked, seismogenic portion of the plate interface, and, for the geographic region around Victoria, British Columbia, repeat at 13 to 16 month intervals. These episodes of slip are accompanied by distinct, low frequency, non-earthquake tremors, similar to those reported in the forearc region of southern Japan, prompting the naming of this phenomenon as Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS). The tremor-like seismic signals have now been identified beneath most of Vancouver Island. For northern Vancouver Island, where plate convergence is at a much slower rate, return periods of about 14 months were also observed for significant (duration exceeding 7 days) tremor sequences, but about 6 months out of phase with southern Vancouver Island. Slip associated with northern island tremors has not been resolved clearly enough to allow modeling because of sparse GPS coverage, but 3 to 4 mm surface displacements coincident with the most recent tremors were observed at two newer GPS stations located on the northwest coast of Vancouver Island. The total amount of tremor activity, and by inference slip activity, appears to be the same in northern and southern Vancouver Island and therefore independent of plate convergence rate. ETS activity is observed to migrate along the strike of the subduction zone at speeds of 5 to 15 km/day and this migration does not appear to be impeded by the Nootka Fault Zone that marks the change in subduction rates. It is strongly suspected that the youth of the subducting plate and the release of fluids from slab dehydration are key factors contributing to the episodic, semi-brittle behaviour of the ETS zone. It

  11. Upper-crustal structure beneath the strait of Georgia, Southwest British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, R.K.; Spence, G.D.; Riedel, M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model for the upper-crustal structure beneath the Strait of Georgia, southwestern British Columbia based on non-linear tomographic inversion of wide-angle seismic refraction data. Our study, part of the Georgia Basin Geohazards Initiative (GBGI) is primarily aimed at mapping the depth of the Cenozoic sedimentary basin and delineating the near-surface crustal faults associated with recent seismic activities (e.g. M = 4.6 in 1997 and M = 5.0 in 1975) in the region. Joint inversion of first-arrival traveltimes from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) and the 2002 Georgia Basin experiment provides a high-resolution velocity model of the subsurface to a depth of ???7 km. In the southcentral Georgia Basin, sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous Nanaimo Group and early Tertiary rocks have seismic velocities between 3.0 and 5.5 km s-1. The basin thickness increases from north to south with a maximum thickness of 7 (??1) km (depth to velocities of 5.5 km s-1) at the southeast end of the strait. The underlying basement rocks, probably representing the Wrangellia terrane, have velocities of 5.5-6.5 km-1 with considerable lateral variation. Our tomographic model reveals that the Strait of Georgia is underlain by a fault-bounded block within the central Georgia Basin. It also shows a correlation between microearthquakes and areas of rapid change in basin thickness. The 1997/1975 earthquakes are located near a northeast-trending hinge line where the thicknesses of sedimentary rocks increase rapidly to the southeast. Given its association with instrumentally recorded, moderate sized earthquakes, we infer that the hinge region is cored by an active fault that we informally name the Gabriola Island fault. A northwest-trending, southwest dipping velocity discontinuity along the eastern side of Vancouver Island correlates spatially with the surface expression of the Outer Island fault. The Outer Island

  12. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

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    Darimont Chris T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resource, consumed in areas where deer are scarce, or as a targeted resource, consumed as a positive function of its availability. Faecal (n = 2203 wolf scats and isotopic analyses (n = 60 wolf hair samples provide independent data sets, also allowing us to examine how consistent these common techniques are in estimating foraging behaviour. Results At the population level during spring and summer, deer remains occurred in roughly 90 and 95% of faeces respectively. When salmon become available in autumn, however, the population showed a pronounced dietary shift in which deer consumption among groups was negatively correlated (r = -0.77, P 13C isotopic signatures (r = 0.78; P = 0.008, which were calculated by intra-hair comparisons between segments grown during summer and fall. The magnitude of this seasonal isotopic shift, our proxy for salmon use, was related primarily to estimates of salmon availability, not deer availability, among wolf groups. Conclusion Concordance of faecal and isotopic data suggests our intra-hair isotopic methodology provides an accurate proxy for salmon consumption, and might reliably track seasonal dietary shifts in other consumer-resource systems. Use of salmon by wolves as a function of its abundance and the adaptive explanations we provide suggest a long-term and widespread association between wolves and salmon. Seasonally, this system departs from the common wolf-ungulate model. Broad ecological implications include the potential

  13. British Association of Clinical Anatomists: Abstracts of papers presented at the Annual General Meeting, 1983

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The Annual General Meeting of the British Association of Clinical Anatomists for 1983 was held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 14th January 1983. The following are abstracts of the papers presented.

  14. The role of phytoplankton in the modulation of dissolved and oyster cadmium concentrations in Deep Bay, British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassis, David, E-mail: dcassis@telus.net [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Lekhi, Priyanka [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Pearce, Christopher M. [Pacific Biological Station, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Nanaimo, BC, Canada V9T 6N7 (Canada); Ebell, Nadene [Ministry of Agriculture, Nanaimo, BC, Canada V9T 6J9 (Canada); Orians, Kristin [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Maldonado, Maria T. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    We previously identified dissolved cadmium (Cd{sub diss}) as the main source of this metal in cultured Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in Deep Bay, British Columbia, Canada (Lekhi et al., 2008). Total suspended particulate Cd (Cd{sub part}) was not found to be a significant source of oyster Cd (Cd{sub oys}), with Cd{sub part} > 20 {mu}m negatively correlated with Cd{sub oys} concentration. High phytoplankton abundance in spring and summer was hypothesized to reduce Cd{sub oys} indirectly by drawing down Cd{sub diss} and increasing oyster growth. In the present study we expanded on these results by examining specifically how the phytoplankton community composition modulates both Cd{sub diss} and Cd{sub oys} concentrations in Deep Bay. Based on calculations of nutrients and Cd{sub diss} drawdown, phytoplankton accounted for approximately 90% of the overall summer reduction in Cd{sub diss} in the bay. Diatoms were the dominant phytoplankton group, being correlated negatively with Cd{sub oys} and positively with Cd{sub part}. This suggests that diatom growth mediates the transfer of Cd from the dissolved to the particulate phase, resulting in lower Cd{sub oys}. Spring blooms and sporadic harmful algal blooms may mediate a large flux of Cd{sub part} to the sediments. Thus, phytoplankton act as a sink, rather than a source, of Cd to oysters in Deep Bay and have a crucial role in the seasonality of Cd{sub oys} by reducing the concentration of Cd{sub diss} during the summer. Based on environmental variables, two descriptive models for annual Cd{sub oys} concentrations were developed using multiple linear regression. The first model (R{sup 2} = 0.870) was created to explain the maximum variability in Cd{sub oys} concentrations throughout the year, while the second (R{sup 2} = 0.806) was based on parameters that could be measured easily under farm conditions. Oyster age heavily affected both models, with the first model being secondarily affected by temperature and the

  15. Commercial Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) culture in British Columbia, Canada: The effects of predator netting on intertidal sediment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Daphne; McKinley, R. Scott

    2007-03-01

    Quantifying risks posed by aquaculture to adjacent coastal ecosystems is necessary to ensure long term stability of coastal systems and the sustainability of industries that exist therein. Research has demonstrated that the use of predator netting in shellfish aquaculture increases sedimentation rates and productivity; here we examine the influence of netting on the west coast of Canada. Changes in percent silt (sediment particles 2 mm), organic and inorganic carbon levels and temperature, and differences in clam populations were monitored on paired netted and non-netted Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) plots on four farmed beaches at Baynes Sound, British Columbia in 2003 and 2004. There were no significant differences in the levels of silt ( p = 0.129, n = 8), gravel ( p = 0.723, n = 8), or inorganic carbon ( p = 0.070, n = 8) between netted and non-netted plots. However, the level of organic carbon was significantly higher on netted plots ( p = 0.014, n = 8) and a slight temperature buffering effect of the netting during low-tide events over the period of study. There were significantly more T. philippinarum on netted plots compared to non-netted plots ( p = 0.001, n = 8) and the length frequency distribution of the populations also differed ( p Baynes Sound British Columbia, has limited effect on the sediment.

  16. Conservancies in Coastal British Columbia: A New Approach to Protected Areas in the Traditional Territories of First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Stronghill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In British Columbia (BC, Canada, the provincial government and First Nations have recently created an innovative new form of collaboratively managed protected area. Designated as ′Conservancies′ under the BC Park Act or the Protected Areas of British Columbia Act, these protected areas are intended to provide a variety of sustainable uses, while maintaining biodiversity and recreational values and prohibiting large-scale commercial or industrial development. Conservancies evolved out of a desire to increase the protected area land base in the province, but also to accommodate traditional Aboriginal land uses and low-impact economic development. The Conservancy designation was created in 2006, and since then 156 Conservancies have been established in BC, covering a total of approximately 2,999,000 ha managed in collaboration with more than 30 First Nations. In this article, we describe the history and management framework of Conservancies, and compare the Conservancy model with international principles for governance of protected areas involving Indigenous people. Despite potential challenges involving integrated management, capacity, allocation of permits among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal users, and treaty negotiations, Conservancies appear to align well with international norms and offer a promising model for flexible protected areas.

  17. Three-dimenstional crustal velocity structure beneath the strait of georgia, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, B.C.; Ellis, R.M.; Zelt, C.A.; Hyndman, R.D.; Lowe, C.; Spence, G.D.; Fisher, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a topographic depression straddling the boundary between the Insular and Coast belts in southwestern British Columbia. Two shallow earthquakes located within the strait (M = 4.6 in 1997 and M = 5.0 in 1975) and felt throughout the Vancouver area illustrate the seismic potential of this region. As part of the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiment, seismic instruments were placed in and around the Strait of Georgia to record shots from a marine source within the strait. We apply a tomographic inversion procedure to first-arrival travel-time data to derive a minimum-structure 3-D P-wave velocity model for the upper crust to about 13 km depth. We also present a 2-D velocity model for a profile orientated across the Strait of Georgia derived using a minimum-parameter traveltime inversion approach. This paper represents the first detailed look at crustal velocity variations within the major Cretaceous to Cenozoic Georgia Basin, which underlies the Strait of Georgia. The 3-D velocity model clearly delineates the structure of the Georgia Basin. Taking the 6 km s-1 isovelocity contour to represent the top of the underlying basement, the basin thickens from between 2 and 4 km in the northwestern half of the strait to between 8 and 9 km at the southeastern end of the study region. Basin velocities in the northeastern half are 4.5-6 km s-1 and primarily represent the Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group. Velocities to the south are lower (3-6 km s-1) because of the additional presence of the overlying Tertiary Huntingdon Formation and more recent sediments, including glacial and modern Fraser River deposits. In contrast to the relatively smoothly varying velocity structure of the basin, velocities of the basement rocks, which comprise primarily Palaeozoic to Jurassic rocks of the Wrangellia Terrane and possibly Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous granitic rocks of the Coast Belt, show significantly more structure, probably an indication

  18. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region. Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. High-recharge and low-recharge simulations resulted in approximately a +0.05 m increase and a -0.025 m decrease, respectively, in water-table elevations throughout the aquifer. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect higher-than-peak-flow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of 2.72 and 3.45 m, respectively. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect lower-than-baseflow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of -0.48 and -2.10 m, respectively. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation (between current baseflow and peak-flow stages). L'aquifère de Grand Forks, situé en Colombie britannique (Canada), a été utilisé comme zone d'étude pour modéliser la sensibilité d'un aquifère à des modifications de la recharge et du niveau de la rivière, correspondant à des scénarios envisagés de changement climatique dans cette région. Les résultats font apparaître que les variations de recharge de l'aquifère pour différents scénarios de changement climatique, modélisées pour des conditions de régime permanent, ont un impact sur le système aquifère beaucoup plus faible que les changements du niveau des

  19. Assessing the factors controlling the seasonal variability of δ18Osilica in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baere, B. J.; Lücke, A.; Francois, R. H.; Cassis, D.; Moschen, R.; Leistner, F.; Wissel, H.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic ratio in biogenic silica produced by diatoms (δ18Osilica) is expected to vary mainly in response to seasonal changes in the oxygen isotopic composition and temperature of the water in which the diatoms grow. In settings where seasonal changes in the δ18O of water are negligible or can be estimated, the δ18O of fossil diatoms could thus provide information on past changes in surface water temperature. Such simple relationship, however, could potentially be obscured by "vital effect" and inter-specific differences in fractionation. Since diatom species assemblages change seasonally, it is important to assess the effect of this variable on the seasonal variation of the δ18Osilica. To address this question, we have carried out a year-long (01/2010-02/2011) time-series sampling program in Saanich Inlet, a fjord located in British Columbia. Sediment traps were deployed at 50, 115 and 180 meters, and samples were recovered on a monthly basis. Temperature, salinity and nutrient profiles were measured monthly and seawater samples were collected for oxygen isotopic analysis, while plankton tows were carried out in the upper 5 meters. Plankton and sediment trap samples were then extensively processed to isolate siliceous frustules and skeletons from organic matter and clay minerals. During processing, samples were subdivided into 4 size fractions: 63 μm. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to check for sample purity and record variation in species assemblage before analysis. δ18Osilica was measured using the inductive high temperature carbon reduction (iHTR) technique at the Research Center in Jülich (Lücke et al., 2005). Typically, 3-4 replicate samples were measured, and a δ18Osilica standard deviation of less than 0.3 per mille was achieved on each sample. The siliceous plankton was widely dominated by diatoms with a small component of silicoflagellate and radiolarian skeletons. Winter samples feature highest diatom species diversity

  20. Reducing crime through physical modification: Evaluating the use of situational crime prevention strategies in a rapid transit environment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Situational crime prevention and crime prevention through environmental design are strategies that reduce criminal opportunities through modification of the physical environment. Although limited, evidence suggests that these strategies are successful at reducing crime that occurs in transit environments. The rapid transit system in Vancouver, British Columbia provides a unique opportunity for evaluation of situational prevention strategies as both control and experimental groups are availa...

  1. Power, Politics, Democracy and Reform: A Historical Review of Curriculum Reform, Academia and Government in British Columbia, Canada, 1920 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelations between power, politics, academia and curriculum reform in British Columbia (BC) using social studies curriculum documents as a case study. It describes how curriculum reform occurred and argues that reform was undemocratic as it was largely the product of individuals with power who invited individuals with…

  2. Trends in Syphilis Partner Notification Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men who Have Sex With Men in British Columbia, 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Andrew; Ogilvie, Gina; Montgomery, Carolyn; Makaroff, Sylvia; Holgerson, Natalie; Grennan, Troy; Gilbert, Mark; Wong, Jason

    2016-08-01

    Chart reviews of 350 randomly sampled syphilis cases of men who had sex with men in British Columbia from 2010 to 2013 revealed no change in the median number of partners per case, and an increasing proportion of partners notified by cases but fewer partners were known to be tested for syphilis. PMID:27414679

  3. Standardized Testing Moratorium and Task Force Brief 2009. A Brief to the Minister of Education from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) seeks to foster a constructive discussion on the issue of standardized testing. To that end, the Federation urges the BC Ministry of Education to adopt a two-year moratorium on all standardized tests, including the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) and the Grade 10, 11, and 12 provincial…

  4. New diversity among the Trochodendraceae from the Early/Middle Eocene Okanogan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada, and northeastern Washington State, United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigg, Kathleen B.; Dillhoff, Richard M.; DeVore, Melanie L.; Wehr, Wesley C.

    2007-01-01

    Newly recognized fossil infructescences and leaves of the Trochodendraceae are described from the Early/ Middle Eocene McAbee and One Mile Creek sites of British Columbia, Canada, and Republic, eastern Washington State, United States. Trochodendron drachukii Pigg, Dillhoff, DeVore, & Wehr sp. nov.,

  5. Politics and partnerships: challenges and rewards of partnerships in workplace health research in the healthcare sector of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Annalee; Tomlin, Katrina; Sidebottom, Claire; Rideout, Karen; De Boer, Henrietre

    2004-01-01

    In British Columbia (BC), Canada, a partnership of researchers, healthcare employers, and healthcare unions reduced high injury rates through examining determinants of healthy workplaces and designing, implementing, and evaluating interventions. Over 51 million dollars (Canadian) was saved from the BC healthcare budget over two years, largely attributable to the collaborative effort. Challenges and rewards of the process were determined from interviews and workshops with researchers and community stakeholders, and by obtaining direct input to this report. Challenges included maintaining communication and trust between partners, preserving partnerships during restructuring and labor disputes, and maintaining involvement and support of front-line workers and senior management. As all partners recognized the importance of the research agenda, the stakeholders remained committed to working through the challenges, and have consequently achieved considerable success.

  6. Potential near-future carbon uptake overcomes losses from a large insect outbreak in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vivek K.; Peng, Yiran; Kurz, Werner A.; Fyfe, John C.; Hawkins, Barbara; Werner, Arelia T.

    2016-03-01

    The current capacity of northern high-latitude forests to sequester carbon has been suggested to be undermined by the potential increase in fire and insect outbreaks. Here we investigate the response of the terrestrial ecosystems in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada, to the recent large mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak that started in 1999 as well as changing climate and continually increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration up to 2050, in a combined framework, using a process-based model. Model simulations suggest that the recent MPB outbreak results in BC's forests accumulating 328 Tg less carbon over the 1999-2020 period. Over this same period changing climate and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, however, yield enhanced carbon uptake equal to a cumulative sink of around 900-1060 Tg C, depending on the future climate change scenario, indicating that the reduced carbon uptake by land due to the MPB disturbance may already be surpassed by 2020.

  7. The Perceived Implications of an Outsourcing Model on Governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles ( P outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  8. Chronic hepatitis C in Western Canada: A survey of practice patterns among gastroenterologists in Alberta and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Rohit; Ramji, Alnoor; Lee, Samuel S; Wong, Winnie W; Yoshida, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To survey gastroenterologists in British Columbia and Alberta with regard to awareness of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) management and practice patterns among physicians who treat and do not treat HCV-infected patients. METHODS: An anonymous two-page mail survey was distributed to actively practicing adult gastroenterologists in British Columbia and Alberta. Among physicians who treated HCV patients, respondents answered assessment of fibrosis pretreatment, measurement of rapid virological response, prescription of protease inhibitors (PIs), barriers to using these agents and referral patterns. For those who did not treat HCV, referral of patients for treatment and to whom was assessed. RESULTS: Seventy-seven of 166 individuals completed the survey (46% response rate). Most (49%) practiced in academic or large community (42%) settings. Chronic liver disease comprised <25% of individual practice in 71%. Forty-eight (62%) treated HCV and two-thirds prescribed a PI. Barriers to prescription included unfamiliarity (six of 16), lack of allied health (five of 16) and few suitable patients (seven of 16). Pretreatment liver biopsy was performed by 33% (16 of 48) and 69% (33 of 48) used noninvasive measures. Rapid virological response was measured in 83% (40 of 48). Referral patterns changed in 46% (22 of 48) of physicians who treated HCV. All respondents who did not treat HCV referred patients for consideration, with 90% (26 of 29) made to hepatologists. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic liver disease comprised <25% of practice in the majority of surveyed respondents. Among those who treated HCV, one-third have not prescribed a PI. Barriers to prescription and referral pattern changes are noted by those currently treating patients with HCV infection. PMID:24212914

  9. Rethinking ``Yellowstone in Yukon'' and Baja British Columbia: Paleomagnetism of the Late Cretaceous Swede Dome stock, northern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCausland, P. J. A.; Symons, D. T. A.; Hart, C. J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Paleomagnetic results obtained from the 69.8 Ma Swede Dome stock, emplaced into the pericratonic Yukon Tanana Terrane (YTT) west of Dawson, Yukon, indicate a minimal northward translation of 360 ± 575 km and a clockwise rotation of 20° ± 23° with respect to North America, in accord with the displacement of 425 km along the nearby Tintina Fault. Coeval Carmacks Group volcanics in contrast have previously indicated ˜1900 km northward translation and minimal rotation and have been proposed to be a displaced manifestation of the fixed Yellowstone hot spot, thus providing an independent estimate of the Late Cretaceous paleoposition of the "Baja British Columbia" terranes of western North America. A compilation of recent mid and Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic results from the YTT and Intermontane Belt (IMB) terranes reveals that the Carmacks Group paleomagnetic result is anomalous. The YTT and IMB terranes, which form the bulk of Baja British Columbia, appear instead to have experienced <1000 km northward translation with respect to North America since 70 Ma, consistent with geological estimates of motion along plausible accommodating faults. In addition, past mobility of the Hawaii-Emperor hot spot implies that the Pacific hot spots may have experienced ˜1200 km of southward motion from 81 to 47 Ma. If so, then the paleoposition of the Yellowstone hot spot if it existed at 70 Ma would likely have produced the Carmacks magmatism ˜1000 km north of Yellowstone's current latitude, consistent with a "moderate" (<1000 km) post-70 Ma northward translation of the YTT and IMB terranes to their present position in North America.

  10. Phytoextraction and phytostabilisation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathiamma, P. K.; Li, L. Y.

    2009-04-01

    This research addressed the phytoremediation of roadside soils subjected to multi-component metal solutions. A typical right of way for roads in Canada is around 30 m, and at least 33% of that land in the right of way is unpaved and can support animal life. Thus, land associated with 12,000 km of roads in the province of British Columbia and millions of kilometres around the world represent a substantial quantity of wildlife habitat where metal contamination needs to be remediated. Phytostabilisation, requires least maintenance among different phytoremediation techniques, and it could be a feasible and practical method of remediating in roadside soils along highways and for improving highway runoff drainage. The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the above-ground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  11. Can British Columbia Achieve Electricity Self-Sufficiency and Meet its Renewable Portfolio Standard?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.; Wong, L.

    2012-01-01

    British Columbia’s energy policy is at a crossroads; the province has set a goal of electricity self-sufficiency, a 93% renewable portfolio standard and provincial natural gas strategy that could increase electricity consumption by 2,500-3,800 MW. To ascertain the reality of BC’s supply position, we

  12. Columbia River : Terminal Fisheries Research Report : Annual Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1996-12-01

    In 1993 the Northwest Power Planning Council recommended in its Strategy for Salmon that terminal fishing sites be identified and developed. The Council called on the Bonneville Power Administration to fund a 10-year study to investigate the feasibility of creating and expanding terminal known stock fisheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  13. Century-scale variability in late-summer rainfall events recorded over seven centuries in subannually laminated lacustrine sediments, White Pass, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Jaclyn M. H.; Lamoureux, Scott F.

    2007-03-01

    Formation of annually laminated sediments in Summit Lake, White Pass, British Columbia is controlled by runoff generated by snowpack and glacier melt and major rainfall events. The 700-yr varve record is divided into two subannual series (early and late) based on sedimentological criteria and sedimentary structures within each varve. A comparison of recent subannual laminae with nearby meteorological records supports the interpretation they are formed by river discharge events generated by major snow and glacier melt events and large late-summer rainfall events. A significant correlation exists between the late subannual thickness series and the size of the largest rainfall events in late summer. The long record indicates there was an abrupt increase in the thickness and frequency of major rainfall-induced sedimentary events at the end of the seventeenth century. In addition, the frequency of laminae generated by early runoff events also increased. However, early subannual varve thickness component remains statistically the same as the thickness prior to the end of the seventeenth century. This suggests the change in varve thickness at this time is due to increases in major late-summer rainfall frequency rather than increased sediment availability caused by regional Little Ice Age glacier advances.

  14. A river to ruin : why are Americans fighting so hard to protect British Columbia's Flathead River from a strip mine?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J.

    2008-06-15

    The Cline Mining Corporation has proposed an open-pit mine to extract 2 million tonnes of coal annually in the Flathead Valley of British Columbia (BC). The Flathead Valley is known internationally for the richness of its flora and fauna. After the Flathead River crosses the border into Montana, it is managed under the most restrictive environmental protection laws available in the United States. The project is expected to be the first in a series of energy projects that will ravage the valley in the near future. Major energy companies are planning to open mines at sites within the Flathead River flood plain. The low quality coal obtained from the valley will be used to supply the unregulated economies of China, India, and Brazil. The valley is situated at the convergence of several biogeoclimatic zones and is home to a rich mix of plants and animals, including the highest concentration of grizzly bears in North America. The BC government's regulatory mechanism is not able to prevent exploitation of the region. Scientists from around the world have unanimously agreed that the mine should not be opened. Tailings from other mines currently draining into the Flathead River are now beginning to alter the river's chemistry. The federal government has been unsuccessful in its bid to create a national park in the region. It was concluded that unless land use regulations for the area are changed, the valley will inevitably be developed. 13 figs.

  15. Improving the child protection policy response to child neglect and emotional maltreatment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Robert James

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates strengths and weaknesses of British Columbia’s policy response to two forms of child maltreatment – neglect and emotional maltreatment (NEM). Interviews with child protection service providers suggest that NEM cases often take lower priority than issues like physical and sexual abuse. Barriers to effective NEM intervention include the difficulty of substantiating NEM to meet the legal burden of proof, practical limitations of the initial protection report assessment proce...

  16. Relationships between trout stocking and amphibians in British Columbia's Southern Interior lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Hirner, Joanna Lynne McGarvie

    2006-01-01

    Stocking lakes with non-native trout to encourage recreational fishing causes changes in lake ecosystems that can negatively affect biodiversity. I examined associations between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and amphibians in small lakes of British Columbia’s Southern Interior by comparing abundance, growth, and probability of presence of aquatic breeding amphibians between lakes with and without trout. My evidence suggests that abundance of long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum...

  17. Temporary foreign workers in British Columbia's construction industry: friends or rivals

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ahna

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the extent to which opposition to temporary foreign workers exists in British Columbia’s construction industry and uses the findings to suggest policies designed to address the concerns of resident workers. Using a survey of resident workers, the study examines the economic rationale behind their opposition to the employment of temporary foreign workers and determines whether skill levels affect the degree of opposition. The survey finds that resident workers are most conc...

  18. The community re-entry of mentally disordered offenders in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Claire

    2007-01-01

    People with mental illness are overrepresented in British Columbia’s jails. Mentally Disordered Offenders (MDOs) typically commit low-level crimes and receive short sentences that make them ineligible for parole. After incarceration, it is difficult for MDOs to find housing, employment, maintain good mental health and apply for benefits due to their mental illness, criminal record and, often, their addiction. Almost half of the MDOs released from jail fail to re-enter the community and conseq...

  19. Accounting for social impacts and costs in the forest industry, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Business reviews of the forest industry in British Colombia, Canada, typically portray an unequivocally positive picture of its financial and economic health. In doing so, they fail to consider the following six categories of social impacts and costs: (1) direct and indirect subsidies; (2) government support through investment; (3) community dependence; (4) the maintenance of public order; (5) aboriginal title; and (6) the overestimation of employment. Our findings show that conventional economic and financial accounting methods inflate the industry's net contribution to the economy. We make a number of recommendations to address this shortcoming to improve future accounting and reporting procedures

  20. Impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions: Prevalence and associations among persons living with HIV/AIDS in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braitstein Paula

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To measure the prevalence of and associations among impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions in persons living with HIV in British Columbia to inform support and care programs, policy and research. Methods A cross-sectional population-based sample of persons living with HIV in British Columbia was obtained through an anonymous survey sent to members of the British Columbia Persons With AIDS Society. The survey addressed the experience of physical and mental impairments, and the experience and level of activity limitations and participation restrictions. Associations were measured in three ways: 1 impact of types of impairment on social restriction; 2 impact of specific limitations on social restriction; and 3 independent association of overall impairments and limitations on restriction levels. Logistic regression was used to measure associations with social restriction, while ordinal logistic regression was used to measure associations with a three-category measure of restriction level. Results The survey was returned by 762 (50.5% of the BCPWA participants. Over ninety percent of the population experienced one or more impairments, with one-third reporting over ten. Prevalence of activity limitations and participation restrictions was 80.4% and 93.2%, respectively. The presence of social restrictions was most closely associated with mental function impairments (OR: 7.0 for impairment vs. no impairment; 95% CI: 4.7 – 10.4. All limitations were associated with social restriction. Among those with ≤ 200 CD4 cells/mm3, odds of being at a higher restriction level were lower among those on antiretrovirals (OR: 0.3 for antiretrovirals vs. no antiretrovirals; 95% CI: 0.1–0.9, while odds of higher restriction were increased with higher limitation (OR: 3.6 for limitation score of 1–5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 0.9–14.2; OR: 24.7 for limitation score > 5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 4.9–125.0. Among those

  1. Terrestrial lichen response to partial cutting in lodgepole pine forests on caribou winter range in west-central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela J. Waterhouse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In west-central British Columbia, terrestrial lichens located in older, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests are important winter forage for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou. Clearcut harvesting effectively removes winter forage habitat for decades, so management approaches based on partial cutting were designed to maintain continuous lichen-bearing habitat for caribou. This study tested a group selection system, based on removal of 33% of the forest every 80 years in small openings (15 m diameter, and two irregular shelterwood treatments (whole-tree and stem-only harvesting methods where 50% of the stand area is cut every 70 years in 20 to 30 m diameter openings. The abundance of common terrestrial lichens among the partial cutting and no-harvest treatments was compared across five replicate blocks, pre-harvest (1995 and post-harvest (1998, 2000 and 2004. The initial loss of preferred forage lichens (Cladonia, Cladina, Cetraria and Stereocaulon was similar among harvesting treatments, but there was greater reduction in these lichens in the openings than in the residual forest. After eight years, forage lichens in the group selection treatment recovered to pre-harvest amounts, while lichen in the shelterwood treatments steadily increased from 49 to 57% in 1998 to about 70% of pre-harvest amounts in 2004. Although not part of the randomized block design, there was substantially less lichen in three adjacent clearcut blocks than in the partial cuts. Regression analysis pre- and post-harvest indicated that increased cover of trees, shrubs, herbs, woody debris and logging slash corresponded with decreased forage lichen abundance. In the short-term, forestry activities that minimize inputs of woody debris, control herb and shrub development, and moderate the changes in light and temperatures associated with canopy removal will lessen the impact on lichen. Implementation of stand level prescriptions is only one aspect of caribou habitat

  2. l681np.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-6-81-NP in Off British Columbia and Washington, Northern Pacific from 05/31/1981 to 06/07/1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-6-81-NP in Off British Columbia and...

  3. The influence of surface characteristics, topography and continentality on mountain permafrost in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, Andreas; Geertsema, Marten; Foord, Vanessa N; Gruber, Stephan; Noetzli, Jeannette

    2015-01-01

    Thermal and surface offsets describe mean annual ground temperature relative to mean annual air temperature, and for permafrost modelling they are often predicted as a function of surface characteristics and topography. As macroclimatic conditions influence the effectiveness of the underlying processes, knowledge of surface- and topography-specific offsets is not easily transferable between regions, limiting the applicability of empirical permafrost distribution models over areas with strong ...

  4. It unfolded quite wonderfully: a history of the Certificate in Conflict Resolution at the Justice Institute of British Columbia 1983–1993

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Nym Annie-Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The Certificate in Conflict Resolution based at the Justice Institute of British Columbia was a manifestation of a North American conflict resolution movement of the 1970s and 1980s. Its location in a justice and public safety training institution facilitated its emergence and its first decade was marked by exponential growth. This study makes visible the theoretical and contextual bases of this first Canadian post-secondary conflict resolution educational program. A narrative research approa...

  5. Virologic suppression and mortality of patients who migrate for HIV care in the province of British Columbia, Canada, from 2003 to 2012: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Viviane Dias; Goldberg, Nicola; Lourenço, Lillian; Chau, William; Robert S. Hogg; Guillemi, Silvia; Barrios, Rolando; Julio S G Montaner

    2015-01-01

    Background Migration among persons living with HIV (PLWH) seeking HIV care is common; however its effect on health outcomes in resource-rich settings is not well understood. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to quantify the extent to which PLWH are migrating for care within British Columbia (BC) and its association with virologic suppression and mortality. Methods Eligible PLWH first initiated treatment in BC between 2003 and 2012 (N = 3653). Analyses were performed at the regional He...

  6. Prevalence and Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus in Hemodialysis Patients in British Columbia: Follow-up after a Possible Breach in Hemodialysis Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Tu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A possible breach of the transducer protector in specific dialysis machines was reported in June 2004 in British Columbia (BC, which led to testing of hemodialysis patients for hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and HIV. This testing provided an opportunity to examine HCV incidence, prevalence and coinfection with HBV and HIV, and to compare anti-HCV and HCV polymerase chain reaction (PCR.

  7. Using forest structural diversity to inventory habitat diversity of forest-dwelling wildlife in the West Kootenay region of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    McCleary, K.; Mowat, G.

    2002-01-01

    Forest planners in British Columbia are being asked to consider wildlife species diversity in forest development plans. However, forest ecosystem inventories currently used in the province only document forest composition (Vegetation Resources Inventory) or identify plant communities (Terrestrial Ecosystem Mapping) and are therefore inappropriate or inadequate as tools for land management planning. To obtain information about a forested site's potential to support wildlife species diversity, ...

  8. The confluence of theory, practice, and geography: leadership of the small, rural college within the diverse environment of northern British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, Lynn Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    This study examines college leadership in Northern British Columbia and uncovers a unique leadership requirement and skill set called resourcefulness. This research is substantiated by the narratives of educational leaders from the College of New Caledonia, Northern Lights College, and Northwest Community College as they serve their communities and interact with global perspectives and knowledge systems. Like other Canadian rural communities, the small, resource-based communities within North...

  9. The gene responsible for X-linked cleft palate (CPX) in a British Columbia native kindred is localized between PGK1 and DXYS1.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorski, S M; Adams, K. J.; Birch, P H; Friedman, J M; Goodfellow, P J

    1992-01-01

    Human craniofacial malformations are a class of common congenital anomalies in which the etiology is heterogeneous and often poorly understood. To better delineate the molecular basis of craniofacial development, we have undertaken a series of experiments directed toward the isolation of a gene involved in human secondary palate formation. DNA marker linkage studies have been performed in a large British Columbia (B.C.) Native family in which cleft palate segregates as an X-linked trait. We h...

  10. Lian-Sheng Ma, Editor-in-Chief of WJG, warmly meets Professor Hugh J Freeman from the University of British Columbia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lian-Sheng Ma, Editor-in-Chief of World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG), warmly met Professor Hugh J Freeman from the University of British Columbia at Peninsula Hotel in Beijing on August 28, 2007. Professor Hugh J Freeman gave much helpful advice toward the further development of WJG. He will serve as series editor for a new column called OBSERVER which will start in WJG in 2008.

  11. Columbia River: Terminal fisheries research project. 1994 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, P.; Miller, M.; Hill, J.

    1996-12-01

    Columbia River terminal fisheries have been conducted in Youngs Bay, Oregon, since the early 1960`s targeting coho salmon produced at the state facility on the North Fork Klaskanine River. In 1977 the Clatsop County Economic Development Council`s (CEDC) Fisheries Project began augmenting the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife production efforts. Together ODFW and CEDC smolt releases totaled 5,060,000 coho and 411,300 spring chinook in 1993 with most of the releases from the net pen acclimation program. During 1980-82 fall commercial terminal fisheries were conducted adjacent to the mouth of Big Creek in Oregon. All past terminal fisheries were successful in harvesting surplus hatchery fish with minimal impact on nonlocal weak stocks. In 1993 the Northwest Power Planning Council recommended in its` Strategy for Salmon that terminal fishing sites be identified and developed. The Council called on the Bonneville Power Administration to fund a 10-year study to investigate the feasibility of creating and expanding terminal known stock fisheries in the Columbia River Basin. The findings of the initial year of the study are included in this report. The geographic area considered for study extends from Bonneville Dam to the river mouth. The initial year`s work is the beginning of a 2-year research stage to investigate potential sites, salmon stocks, and methodologies; a second 3-year stage will focus on expansion in Youngs Bay and experimental releases into sites with greatest potential; and a final 5-year phase establishing programs at full capacity at all acceptable sites. After ranking all possible sites using five harvest and five rearing criteria, four sites in Oregon (Tongue Point, Blind Slough, Clifton Channel and Wallace Slough) and three in Washington (Deep River, Steamboat Slough and Cathlamet Channel) were chosen for study.

  12. Occurrence and characterization of Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat retail foods from Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Jovana; Mesak, Lili R; Allen, Kevin J

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in retail RTE meat and fish products in Vancouver, British Columbia (B.C.) was investigated. To assess potential consumer health risk, recovered L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Conventional methods were used to recover Listeria spp. from deli meat (n = 40) and fish (n = 40) samples collected from 17 stores. Listeria spp. were recovered only from fish samples (20%); 5% harboured Listeria innocua, 5% had L. monocytogenes and 10% contained Listeria welshimeri. L. monocytogenes isolates serotyped as 1/2a and 1/2b, possessed dissimilar PFGE patterns, and had full-length InlA. Three 1/2a clonal isolates encoded the 50 kb genomic island, LGI1. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiling showed all Listeria spp. possessed resistance to cefoxitin and nalidixic acid. L. monocytogenes were resistant to clindamycin, two were resistant to streptomycin, and one to amikacin. Reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was seen in all L. monocytogenes, L. innocua and three L. welshimeri isolates. Reduced susceptibility to amikacin and chloramphenicol was also observed in one L. monocytogenes and three L. welshimeri isolates, respectively. Recovery of L. monocytogenes in fish samples possessing AMR, full-length InlA, LGI1, and serotypes frequently associated with listeriosis suggest B.C. consumers are exposed to high-risk strains.

  13. The Prevalence of Cardiac Risk Factors in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy in British Columbia, Canada

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    Margot K. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT reduces the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality in high-risk localized prostate cancer, it adversely affects cardiovascular (CV risk factor profiles in treated men. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 100 consecutive men with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency for ADT. Data on CV risk factors and disease were collected and Framingham risk scores were calculated. Results. The median age of the study cohort was 73 years. Established cardiovascular disease was present in 25% of patients. Among patients without established CV disease, calculated Framingham risk was high in 65%, intermediate in 33%, and low in 1%. Baseline hypertension was present in 58% of patients, dyslipidemia in 51%, and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in 24%. Hypertension was more prevalent in the study cohort than in an age- and sex-matched population sample (OR 1.74, P=0.006; diabetes had a similar prevalence (OR 0.93, P=0.8. Conclusions. Patients receiving ADT have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors and are more likely to be hypertensive than population controls. Low rates of CV risk screening suggest opportunities for improved primary and secondary prevention of CV disease in this population.

  14. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  15. Analysis of risk factors associated with hepatitis B and C infection in correctional institutions in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préfontaine, R; Chaudhary, R; Mathias, R

    1994-07-01

    The factors associated with infection with hepatitis B (hbv) and C viruses (hcv) were studied in residents of correctional institutions in British Columbia. Four hundred and fifteen residents volunteered to participate in this study. Among 415 residents tested, 28% were positive for hvb or hcv markers. Sixty-five per cent of the residents positive for hbv markers were also infected with hcv. However, in hbv-negative residents, only 14% were positive for antibody to hcv (anti-hcv). The highest rates for hbv and hcv were in 25- to 44-year-old residents. The analysis of risk factors and infection predictors in 354 residents showed that intravenous drug use and history of hepatitis were associated with infection with both hbv and hcv. The relative risk for hbv in intravenous drug users was 4.4 times that in nonusers; for hcv relative risk was 3.4 times. In the group with history of hepatitis, the relative risk was 6.2 and 4.5 times for hbv and hcv, respectively. The multivariate analysis of the data showed that both intravenous drug use and a history of hepatitis were significant (P<0.0001). Tattooing or history of transfusion was not associated with increased risk for hcv, but tattooing and age were significant factors for hbv. PMID:22346493

  16. Valutazione dell’impatto delle politiche del prezzo di riferimento sul mercato degli H2-antagonisti nella British Columbia, Canada

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    Lutchmie Narine

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we assess the implementation and impact of reference-based pricing (RBP in British Columbia (BC, Canada, and other OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development jurisdictions within an evaluative framework. This was accomplished by conducting a review of prior studies and an analysis of secondary utilization and cost data. Our review of previous work found the introduction of RBP in other OECD jurisdictions was followed by a temporary reduction in pharmaceutical expenditure growth but the rate of growth soon returned to those of previous years. Early results from the BC experience show similar declines in expenditures within reference drug categories, but it remains to be seen if this will continue in the long term. Although early results suggest RBP in BC may be achieving its goals, more work is needed before it can be declared a success. A more balanced evaluation will need to address nonmonetary issues such as impact on the quality of patient care or extent of cost shifting to other areas of the health system. The policy questions raised in this study indicate decision makers should be cautious when thinking of any wider application of referencebased pricing.

  17. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.

  18. Use of beta regression for statistical downscaling of precipitation in the Campbell River basin, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sohom; Srivastav, Roshan K.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2016-07-01

    Impacts of global climate change on water resources systems are assessed by downscaling coarse scale climate variables into regional scale hydro-climate variables. In this study, a new multisite statistical downscaling method based on beta regression (BR) is developed for generating synthetic precipitation series, which can preserve temporal and spatial dependence along with other historical statistics. The beta regression based downscaling method includes two main steps: (1) prediction of precipitation states for the study area using classification and regression trees, and (2) generation of precipitation at different stations in the study area conditioned on the precipitation states. Daily precipitation data for 53 years from the ANUSPLIN data set is used to predict precipitation states of the study area where predictor variables are extracted from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set for the same interval. The proposed model is applied to downscaling daily precipitation at ten different stations in the Campbell River basin, British Columbia, Canada. Results show that the proposed downscaling model can capture spatial and temporal variability of local precipitation very well at various locations. The performance of the model is compared with a recently developed non-parametric kernel regression based downscaling model. The BR model performs better regarding extrapolation compared to the non-parametric kernel regression model. Future precipitation changes under different GHG (greenhouse gas) emission scenarios also projected with the developed downscaling model that reveals a significant amount of changes in future seasonal precipitation and number of wet days in the river basin.

  19. Relationship between food insecurity and mortality among HIV-positive injection drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranka Anema

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the potential impact of food insecurity on mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We examined the potential relationship between food insecurity and all-cause mortality among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART across British Columbia (BC. METHODS: Cross-sectional measurement of food security status was taken at participant ART initiation. Participants were prospectively followed from June 1998 to September 2011 within the fully subsidized ART program. Cox proportional hazard models were used to ascertain the association between food insecurity and mortality, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 254 IDU, 181 (71.3% were food insecure and 108 (42.5% were hungry. After 13.3 years of median follow-up, 105 (41.3% participants died. In multivariate analyses, food insecurity remained significantly associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.07-3.53, after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive IDU reporting food insecurity were almost twice as likely to die, compared to food secure IDU. Further research is required to understand how and why food insecurity is associated with excess mortality in this population. Public health organizations should evaluate the possible role of food supplementation and socio-structural supports for IDU within harm reduction and HIV treatment programs.

  20. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  1. Heteronormativity hurts everyone: experiences of young men and clinicians with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira

    2013-09-01

    Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses. PMID:23117592

  2. Observations on Drivers and Dynamics of Environmental Policy Change: Insights from 150 Years of Forest Management in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Dowlatabadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Human and ecological elements of resource management systems co-adapt over time. In this paper, we examine the drivers of change in forest management policy in British Columbia since 1850. We asked: How has a set of system attributes changed over time, and what drivers contributed to change when it occurred? We simultaneously examined a set of three propositions relating to drivers and dynamics of policy change. We find that factors contributing to the level of impacts, like technology, changed substantially over time and had dramatic impacts. In partial contrast, the institutions used to exercise control (patterns of agency and governance remained the same until relatively recently. Other system attributes remained unchanged (e.g., the concept of ecosystems as stable entities that humans can manage and control. Substantive, decision-relevant uncertainties characterized all periods of management but did not act as a barrier to the adoption of new regimes at any time. Against this backdrop of constancy in some attributes, and change in others, a few exogenous drivers (e.g., technology, war, markets, legal decisions, ideas, and climate triggered episodic reexamination of guidelines for resource management. The implications of these findings for future policy change in this system are discussed.

  3. Stimulants and Cannabis Use Among a Marginalized Population in British Columbia, Canada: Role of Trauma and Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Werker, Gregory R; Schuetz, Christian; Krausz, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    High rates of substance use, especially cannabis and stimulant use, have been associated with homelessness, exposure to trauma, and involvement with the criminal justice system. This study explored differences in substance use (cannabis vs. stimulants) and associations with trauma and incarceration among a homeless population. Data were derived from the BC Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. Measures included sociodemographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Stimulant users were more likely to be female (43%), using multiple substances (3.2), and engaging in survival sex (14%). Cannabis users had higher rates of lifetime psychotic disorders (32%). Among the incarcerated, cannabis users had been subjected to greater emotional neglect (p < .05) and one in two cannabis users had a history of lifetime depressive disorders (p < .05). Childhood physical abuse and Caucasian ethnicity were also associated with greater crack cocaine use. One explanation for the results is that a history of childhood abuse may lead to a developmental cascade of depressive symptoms and other psychopathology, increasing the chances of cannabis dependence and the development of psychosis. PMID:25028364

  4. Facies and disgenesis of the upper Devonian Palliser Formation, Front Ranges of the southern Rocky mountains, Alberta and British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaylor, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Famennian Palliser Formation is a thick cabonate ramp unit dominantly composed of subtidal mudstones and wackestones, with lesser peloidal grainstones. The percentage of micritic lithotypes increases westward. In the subsurface, Palliser equivalents locally certain commercial quatities of hydrocarbons and sulfur. Three main types of dolomites are recognized. Early, planar dolomites fill burrows and replace micrite, have heavier oxygen and carbon isotopes, higher Ca/Mg ratios and dull, uniform cathodoluminescence. These sediments likely precipitated as protodolomites in a shallow, subtidal marine environment, and underwent neomorphism during shallow burial diagenesis. Nonplanar dolomites formed after microstylolitization. They have lighter carbon isotopes, generally lighter but variable oxygen iostopes, lower Ca/Mg ratios, and variable cathodoluminescence. Replacive nonplanar dolomites pervasively replaced limestones as shown by relict (ghost) fabrics. White sparry nonplanar dolomites precipitated in secondary voids and fractures in dolostones. Replacive nonplanar dolostones formed during deep burial diagenesis and uplift, with white sparry dolomites occurring simultaneously or soon after. White sparry dolomites also occur in primary and secondary voids in limestones, but their timing not known. Stylotitization occurred both before and after nonplanar dolomitizationn. Sulfide mineralization occurs in nonplanar dolostones at the Munroe-Alpine-Boivin section, British Columbia, and the Oldman River section, Alberta. Sulfides are syn- to post-replacive nonplanar dolomite and syn- to pre-white sparry dolomite. 146 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  6. Hanging canyons of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada: Fault-control on submarine canyon geomorphology along active continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter T.; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Greene, H. Gary

    2014-06-01

    Faulting commonly influences the geomorphology of submarine canyons that occur on active continental margins. Here, we examine the geomorphology of canyons located on the continental margin off Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, that are truncated on the mid-slope (1200-1400 m water depth) by the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ). The QCFZ is an oblique strike-slip fault zone that has rates of lateral motion of around 50-60 mm/yr and a small convergent component equal to about 3 mm/yr. Slow subduction along the Cascadia Subduction Zone has accreted a prism of marine sediment against the lower slope (1500-3500 m water depth), forming the Queen Charlotte Terrace, which blocks the mouths of submarine canyons formed on the upper slope (200-1400 m water depth). Consequently, canyons along this margin are short (4-8 km in length), closely spaced (around 800 m), and terminate uniformly along the 1400 m isobath, coinciding with the primary fault trend of the QCFZ. Vertical displacement along the fault has resulted in hanging canyons occurring locally. The Haida Gwaii canyons are compared and contrasted with the Sur Canyon system, located to the south of Monterey Bay, California, on a transform margin, which is not blocked by any accretionary prism, and where canyons thus extend to 4000 m depth, across the full breadth of the slope.

  7. The significance of an Early Jurassic (Toarcian) carbon-isotope excursion in Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruthers, Andrew H.; Gröcke, Darren R.; Smith, Paul L.

    2011-07-01

    During the Early Toarcian there was a significant disruption in the short-term active carbon reservoir as revealed by carbon-isotope records, which show a broad positive shift that is interrupted by a large 5-7‰ negative excursion (δ 13C org). Carbon-isotope excursion co-occurs with the deposition of organic-rich shales in many areas. This perturbation in carbon isotopes is thought to be indicative of severe climate change and marine anoxia. The two leading hypotheses as to the cause of this event invoke either global or regional controls. Here we present carbon-isotope data from Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada showing a significant perturbation within a temporally constrained Early Toarcian succession that was deposited in the northeastern paleo-Pacific Ocean. These data reinforce the concept that the short-term active carbon reservoir was affected globally, and assist with the correlation of ammonite zonal schemes between western North America and Europe. The δ 13C org data show a broad positive shift that is interrupted by a sharp and pronounced negative excursion of 7‰ (8.5‰ in δ 13C wood) in the Early Toarcian Kanense Zone. This negative excursion also coincides with increasing total organic carbon (TOC) from ~ 0.4% to ~ 1.2%. These data suggest that the Early Toarcian carbon-isotope perturbation was indeed global and imprinted itself on all active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric).

  8. Formation of a Volunteer Harmful Algal Bloom Network in British Columbia, Canada, Following an Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Haigh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. As a result of this outbreak, Canada’s first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas.

  9. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  10. High Resolution 3-D Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Modeling in Lower Campbell River and Discovery Passage, British Columbia, Canada

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    Yuehua Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows and tailrace discharges, small-scale topographic features and steep bottom slopes, and stratification affected by the Campbell River freshwater discharges. Two applications of high resolution 3-D FVCOM modeling were conducted. One is for the Lower Campbell River extending upstream as far as the John Hart Hydroelectric dam. The horizontal resolution varies from 0.27 m to 32 m in the unstructured triangular mesh to resolve the tailrace flow. The bottom elevation decreases ~14 m within the distance of ~1.4 km along the river. This pioneering FVCOM river modeling demonstrated a very good performance in simulating the river flow structures. The second application is to compute ocean currents immediately above the seabed along the present underwater electrical cable crossing routes across Discovery Passage. Higher resolution was used near the bottom with inter-layer spacing ranging from 0.125 to 0.0005 of total water depth. The model behaves very well in simulating the strong tidal currents in the area at high resolution in both the horizontal and vertical. One year maximum near bottom tidal current along the routes was then analyzed using the model results.

  11. Impacts of hydro-electric reservoir on populations of caribou and grizzly bear in southern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of a hydroelectric reservoir on populations of caribou and grizzly bear were studied north of Revelstoke, British Columbia. Information collected for 3 years prior to flooding was compared with data collected in 1984-85. The reservoir did not obstruct movement of caribou and animals did not attempt crossing during periods when ice conditions were hazardous. Evidence suggested that predator avoidance was the most important determinant of habitats used in spring. The cleared reservoir was an important habitat for caribou in the spring because of the abundant food and security from predators it offered. A potential decline in caribou recruitment was noted in 1985 coincident with reservoir flooding. Mitigative recommendations include clearing logged areas adjacent to formerly used reservoir habitats and maintaining movement corridors of mature timber between seasonal habitats. Inconclusive evidence suggested that the reservoir was a barrier to grizzly movement. Spring movements of grizzly were mainly related to finding good feeding sites. Avalanche paths in side drainages were the principal habitats used. Cleared areas did provide an abundance of food comparable to naturally disturbed habitats. The main impact of flooding was to shift habitat use of bears from relatively secure areas in the reservoir to high-risk habitats on the highway and power line rights-of-way. Mitigative recommendations include reducing the attractiveness of those rights-of-way and maintaining spring ranges in tributary valleys by careful development planning. 14 refs., 7 figs., 17 tabs

  12. Identifying and Characterizing Important Trembling Aspen Competitors with Juvenile Lodgepole Pine in Three South-Central British Columbia Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Newsome

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical height ratios for predicting competition between trembling aspen and lodgepole pine were identified in six juvenile stands in three south-central British Columbia ecosystems. We used a series of regression analyses predicting pine stem diameter from the density of neighbouring aspen in successively shorter relative height classes to identify the aspen-pine height ratio that maximized R2. Critical height ratios varied widely among sites when stands were 8–12 years old but, by age 14–19, had converged at 1.25–1.5. Maximum R2 values at age 14–19 ranged from 13.4% to 69.8%, demonstrating that the importance of aspen competition varied widely across a relatively small geographic range. Logistic regression also indicated that the risk of poor pine vigour in the presence of aspen varied between sites. Generally, the degree of competition, risk to pine vigour, and size of individual aspen contributing to the models declined along a gradient of decreasing ecosystem productivity.

  13. Elemental composition of peats ashed at low temperatures (95 C), from the Fraser delta, British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, F.; Labonte, M. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology); Bustin, M.R. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    The elemental distribution in peat deposits from Fraser delta, British Columbia, Canada were examined on peat ashed at low temperature (95 C) using INAA, DCP, and AA. Chlorine, B, Br, Mo, Na, S, and U are sensitive indicators of the depositional environment of these peats. The distribution of elements is related to water salinity. High concentrations of Cl and Na are encountered in samples deposited in brackish water environment and in the contact between the peat and the sea water. The concentration of Cl and Na decrease with decreasing distance from the contact with sea water. Silicon has the lowest concentration on the top of the fresh water peat and the highest on or near the top of brackish water peat. The concentration of the authigenic uranium in peats appears to be related to water salinity. The highest values are found in brackish water peat, indicating that uranium is possibly concentrated by its interaction with salt and carbonates. Compared to the Clark value, the only elements enriched in the peats ashes are: As, Br, Mo, Sb, and Se while Ca, Mg, and Mn are depleted. The ternary diagram of La-Th-Sc, which is associated with the detrital minerals, points to a uniform source for the minerals encountered in these peats.

  14. Scarcity discourses and their impacts on renal care policy, practices, and everyday experiences in rural British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassolotto, Julia; Daly, Tamara

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a qualitative case study in rural British Columbia, Canada, this paper examines the discourse of kidney scarcity and its impact on renal care policies and practices. Our findings suggest that at different levels of care, there are different discourses and treatment foci. We have identified three distinct scarcity discourses at work. At the macro policy level, the scarcity of transplantable kidneys is the dominant discourse. At the meso health care institution level, we witnessed a discourse regarding the scarcity of health care and human resources. At the micro community level, there was a discourse of the scarcity of health and life-sustaining resources. For each form of scarcity, particular responses are encouraged. At the macro level, renal care and transplant organizations emphasize the benefits of kidney transplantation and procuring more donors. At the meso level, participants from the regional health care system increasingly encourage home hemodialysis and patient-led care. At the micro level, community health care professionals push for rural renal patients to attend dialysis and maintain their care plans. This work contributes to critical, interdisciplinary organ transfer discourse by contextualizing kidney scarcity. It reveals the tension between these discourses and the implications of pursuing kidney donations without addressing the conditions in which individuals experience kidney failure. PMID:26854624

  15. Ensuring clean air: Developing a clean air strategy for British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, a clean air strategy will be developed to incorporate views of British Columbians on ways to meet goals related to air quality. A discussion paper is presented to provide information to those interested in participation in developing this strategy. The paper gives information on air quality issues important to the province, including local air quality, urban smog, ozone layer depletion, and global climate change. The views and concerns expressed by stakeholders who attended the Clean Air Conference in 1991 are summarized. The process used to develop the clean air strategy is outlined and some outcomes to be anticipated from the strategy are suggested, including policies and priorities for action to ensure clean air. Air pollutants of concern are total reduced sulfur, mainly from pulp mills and gas processing plants; smoke from wood burning; sulfur dioxide from pulp mills and gas plants; hydrogen fluoride from aluminum smelting; ground-level ozone in urban areas; and acid rain. Elements of a clean air strategy include a smoke management policy, management strategies for greenhouse gases and ozone smog, ozone layer protection measures, regional air quality management plans, and long-term planning efforts in energy use, transportation modes, community design, and land use. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  16. E/I corrected paleolatitudes for the sedimentary rocks of the Baja British Columbia hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijgsman, Wout; Tauxe, Lisa

    2006-02-01

    Paleomagnetic inclinations from sediments of the western terranes of Canada are consistently too shallow for their reconstructed paleogeographic positions. Two contradicting explanations for these discrepancies are: (1) terranes have been displaced northward with respect to the stable American craton by several thousands of kilometres between the Late Cretaceous (˜ 75 Ma) and the Eocene (˜50 Ma) and (2) sedimentary inclination error has caused a shallow bias in the paleomagnetic directions. Here, we apply the elongation/inclination (E/I) method to paleomagnetic data sets from sedimentary rocks of supposedly allochtonous terranes of western North America to correct for inclination flattening. Our results indicate that the paleomagnetic directions from the continental Silverquick sediments (95-92 Ma) of southern British Colombia are not seriously affected by inclination error, because the magnetic signal most likely concerns a chemical remanent magnetisation (CRM). In contrast, the marine sediments of the Nanaimo Group (84-72 Ma) of Vancouver Island region appear seriously affected by inclination flattening ( f = 0.7) and the E/I corrected mean inclinations are about 9° steeper than the original data. We arrive at corrected inclinations/paleolatitudes of I** = 57°/ λ = 38°N for the Silverquick and I** = 55°/ λ = 36°N for the Nanaimo sediments. Our corrected paleolatitudes indicate that the Canadian terranes were indeed located adjacent to the Baja Californian margin during the Late Cretaceous, thus supporting the Baja BC hypothesis.

  17. Applications of Remote Sensing Techniques to Update the Forest Inventory Data Base in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Hegyi, F.; Quenet, R. V.

    1981-01-01

    The Inventory Branch of the Ministry of Forests is required to develop, compile and maintain the inventory of forests and range resources on all crown lands in the Province, including the management of the data base, the annual update of resource maps and associated data files, the collection of growth and yield statistics, the estimation of decay, waste and breakage, and the continuous monitoring of forest depletion. The Branch is also charged with assessing the actual potential effects of c...

  18. Projections of Washington-British Columbia Trade and Traffic by Commodity, Route and Border Crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, Hamiltion; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Continuing adaptation to the changing transportation needs of the U.S. and Canada is critical in maintaining efficiency and reducing costs of raw and manufactured goods. As NAFTA moves into its twelfth year of existence, there is a growing need to continue adapting to the changing transportation environment. With bilateral trade in excess of $1.2 billion per day between the U.S. and Canada and over 200 million annual crossings (passenger vehicles and freight trucks), knowledge of the composit...

  19. Trends in asthma-related direct medical costs from 2002 to 2007 in British Columbia, Canada: a population based-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Bedouch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma-related health resource use and costs may be influenced by increasing asthma prevalence, changes to asthma management guidelines, and new medications over the last decade. The objective of this work was to analyze direct asthma-related medical costs, and trends in total and per-patient costs of hospitalizations, physician visits, and medications. METHODS: A cohort of asthma patients from British Columbia (BC, Canada, was created. Asthma patients were identified using a validated case definition. Costs for hospitalizations, physician visits, and medications were calculated from billing records (in 2008 Canadian dollars. Trends in total and per-patient costs over the study period were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models. RESULTS: 398,235 patients satisfied the asthma case definition (mid-point prevalence 8.0%. Patients consumed $315.9 million (M in direct asthma-related health resources between 2002 and 2007. Hospitalizations, physician visits, and medication costs accounted for 16.0%, 15.7% and 68.2% of total costs, respectively. Cost of asthma increased from $49.4 M in 2002 to $54.7 M in 2007. Total annual costs attributable to hospitalizations and physician visits decreased (-39.8% and -25.5%, respectively; p<0.001, while medication costs increased (+38.7%; p<0.001. INTERPRETATION: This population-based analysis shows that the total direct cost of asthma in BC has increased since 2002, mainly due to a rise in asthma prevalence and cost of medication. Combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta-agonists has become a significant component of the cost of asthma. Although billing records capture only a fraction of the true burden of asthma, the simultaneous increase in medication costs and reductions in hospitalization and physician visit costs provides valuable insight for policy makers into the shifts in asthma-related resource use.

  20. Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Project Abstracts; May 25-27, Portland, Oregon, 1997 Annual Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allee, Brian J. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Portland, OR)

    1997-06-26

    Abstracts are presented from the 1997 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Review of Projects. The purpose was to provide information and education on the approximate 127 million dollars in Northwest electric ratepayer fish and wildlife mitigation projects funded annually.

  1. The crustal structure, deformation from GPS, and seismicity related to oblique convergence along the Queen Charlotte margin, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustin, Amanda M. M.

    Tectonic processes and seismic hazard along the west coast of British Columbia result from oblique convergence between the continental North America plate and the oceanic Pacific and Juan de Fuca plates. This dissertation integrates seismic and geodetic techniques to examine the tectonic interaction along these plate boundaries. The Queen Charlotte Fault zone is the transpressive boundary between the North America and Pacific plates along the northwestern margin of British Columbia. Two models have been suggested for the accommodation of the ˜20 mm/yr of convergence along the fault boundary: (1) underthrusting; (2) internal crustal deformation. Strong evidence supporting an underthrusting model is provided in this dissertation by a teleseismic receiver function analysis that defines the underthrusting slab. Forward and inverse modelling techniques were applied to receiver function data calculated at two permanent and six temporary seismic stations within the Islands. The modelling reveals a ˜10 km thick low-velocity zone dipping eastward at 28° interpreted to be underthrusting oceanic crust. The oceanic crust, which may be anisotropic, is located beneath a thin (28 km) westward shallowing (10°) continental margin. The majority of seismicity along the Queen Charlotte Fault zone plots within the modelled underthrusting crust, suggesting that these earthquakes are occurring on faults that extend down into the slab or they might be intraslab events. None of the earthquakes within the Queen Charlotte Basin have occurred deep enough to be intraslab earthquakes. The Wadati-Benioff seismicity may be inhibited beneath the basin by the hot young oceanic crust or by the short distance of underthrusting. GPS measurements have been recorded within the Queen Charlotte Islands during 8 years of campaign surveys. The crustal velocity field derived from the GPS data indicates northward margin-oblique motion of 10--15 mm/yr. Comparisons of the observed velocities with elastic

  2. Acute gastro-intestinal illness and its association with hydroclimatic factors in British Columbia, Canada: A time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, L. P.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Rising global temperatures and expected shifts in regional hydroclimatology in a changing climate are likely to influence the risk of infectious waterborne illness. This study examines the role of hydroclimatology as an underlying driver of the epidemiology of waterborne gastro-intestinal illness and contributes to our currently limited understanding of the possible ecosystem-mediated impacts of climate change on health. Using time-series regression analysis, we examine the associations between three hydroclimatic factors (monthly temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) and the monthly occurrence of AGI illness in two communities in the province of British Columbia, Canada. The two communities were selected as study sites to represent the dominant hydroclimatic regimes that characterize the province of BC: the rainfall-dominated hydroclimatic regime and snowmelt-dominated hydroclimatic regime Our results show that the number of monthly cases of AGI increased with increasing temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the same month in the context of a rainfall-dominated regime and with increasing streamflow in the previous month in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime. These results suggest that hydroclimatic factors play a role in driving the occurrence and variability of AGI illness in this setting. Further, this study has highlighted that the nature and magnitude of the effects of hydroclimatic factors on waterborne illness vary across different hydroclimatic settings. We conclude that the watershed may be an appropriate context within which we can and should enhance our understanding of water-related climate change impacts on health. Examining the role of hydroclimatology as an underlying driver of the epidemiology of infectious disease is key to understanding of the possible ecosystem-mediated impacts of climate change on health and developing appropriate adaptation responses.

  3. Seasonal flows of international British Columbia-Alaska rivers: The nonlinear influence of ocean-atmosphere circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Sean W.; Hood, Eran; Dalhke, Helen; O'Neel, Shad

    2016-01-01

    The northern portion of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) is one of the least anthropogenically modified regions on earth and remains in many respects a frontier area to science. Rivers crossing the northern PCTR, which is also an international boundary region between British Columbia, Canada and Alaska, USA, deliver large freshwater and biogeochemical fluxes to the Gulf of Alaska and establish linkages between coastal and continental ecosystems. We evaluate interannual flow variability in three transboundary PCTR watersheds in response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). Historical hydroclimatic datasets from both Canada and the USA are analyzed using an up-to-date methodological suite accommodating both seasonally transient and highly nonlinear teleconnections. We find that streamflow teleconnections occur over particular seasonal windows reflecting the intersection of specific atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic processes. The strongest signal is a snowmelt-driven flow timing shift resulting from ENSO- and PDO-associated temperature anomalies. Autumn rainfall runoff is also modulated by these climate modes, and a glacier-mediated teleconnection contributes to a late-summer ENSO-flow association. Teleconnections between AO and freshet flows reflect corresponding temperature and precipitation anomalies. A coherent NPGO signal is not clearly evident in streamflow. Linear and monotonically nonlinear teleconnections were widely identified, with less evidence for the parabolic effects that can play an important role elsewhere. The streamflow teleconnections did not vary greatly between hydrometric stations, presumably reflecting broad similarities in watershed characteristics. These results establish a regional foundation for both transboundary water management and studies of long-term hydroclimatic and environmental change.

  4. Optimal electricity system planning in a large hydro jurisdiction: Will British Columbia soon become a major importer of electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An energy-system model incorporating generation, transmission and integrated management of hydroelectric reservoirs in British Columbia (BC) is used to explore approaches to meeting load projections to 2040. The model includes electricity trade between BC, Alberta and the US, the influence of a carbon emissions tax, contributions from the aging gas-fired Burrard Thermal plant and production from a proposed dam called “Site C” on the Peace River in northern BC. Model results suggest: If load increases as anticipated at 1.4%/year, BC will need to import significant amounts of electricity within two decades. Operating the Burrard plant at full capacity to 2025 and bringing Site C on line in 2020 delays the need to import by only 6 years, while realizing net electricity export sales of $5.9 billion by 2040. Bringing Site C on line but imposing a tax of $30/t of CO2 emitted on gas-fired generation causes immediate closure of the Burrard plant on economic grounds and reduces net export revenue to $0.63 billion by 2040. BC has options, however, including demand side management and development of additional generation capacity. In the absence of these measures, imported power may be more significant in BC's electricity future. - Highlights: ► Within two decades, BC will need to import substantial power to meet demand. ► Operating Burrard Thermal and the Site C dam will delay imports by only 6 years. ► A $30/t CO2 tax causes closure of the Burrard Thermal plant on economic grounds. ► Closure of Burrard Thermal reduces export revenue to BC by at least $5B by 2040

  5. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-15

    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:26971218

  6. Designation, diligence and drift: understanding laboratory expenditure increases in British Columbia, 1996/97 to 2005/06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananthan Saskia N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory testing is one of the fastest growing areas of health services spending in Canada. We examine the extent to which increases in laboratory expenditures might be explained by testing that is consistent with guidelines for the management of chronic conditions, by analyzing fee-for-service physician payment data in British Columbia from 1996/97 and 2005/06. Method We used direct standardization to quantify the effect on laboratory expenditures from changes in: fee levels; population growth; population aging; treatment prevalence; expenditure on recommended tests for those conditions; and expenditure on other tests. The chronic conditions selected were those with guidelines containing laboratory recommendations developed by the BC Guidelines and Protocol Advisory Committee: diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, renal failure, liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and dementia. Result Laboratory service expenditures increased by $98 million in 2005/06 compared to 1996/97, or 3.6% per year after controlling for population growth and aging. Testing consistent with guideline-recommended care for chronic conditions explained one-third (1.2% per year of this growth. Changes in treatment prevalence were just as important, contributing 1.5% per year. Hypertension was the most common condition, but renal failure and dementia showed the largest changes in prevalence over time. Changes in other laboratory expenditure including for those without chronic conditions accounted for the remaining 0.9% growth per year. Conclusion Increases in treatment prevalence were the largest driver of laboratory cost increases between 1996/97 and 2005/06. There are several possible contributors to increasing treatment prevalence, all of which can be expected to continue to put pressure on health care expenditures.

  7. Epidemiologic and Genotypic Review of Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms in British Columbia, Canada, between 2008 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekirov, Inna; Croxen, Matthew A; Ng, Corrinne; Azana, Robert; Chang, Yin; Mataseje, Laura; Boyd, David; Mangat, Chand; Mack, Benjamin; Tadros, Manal; Brodkin, Elizabeth; Kibsey, Pamela; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Champagne, Sylvie; Mulvey, Michael R; Hoang, Linda M N

    2016-02-01

    Carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) are a serious emerging problem for health care facilities worldwide. Owing to their resistance to most antimicrobial therapies, CPOs are difficult to treat and pose a challenge for infection prevention and control. Since 2010, lab-based surveillance for CPOs and PCR-based testing were implemented in British Columbia (BC), Canada. A review of CPOs in BC from 2008 to March 2014 was done to characterize the resistance mechanisms and possible clonal strain transmission and to compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and plasmid restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) as molecular typing tools. During this study period, a total of 177 CPO cases were identified. Patient demographics and travel history were reviewed, and a descriptive analysis was carried out. PFGE profiles, MLST, and plasmid RFLP analysis for a subset of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter species isolates were obtained and analyzed. Our findings demonstrate that CPOs have been increasing in number in BC over time, from 1 isolate/year retrospectively identified in 2008 and 2009 to 82 isolates in 2013 and 30 isolates in the first quarter of 2014. Overall, K. pneumoniae isolates lack clonality, although some seemingly related clusters have been found. Plasmid analysis showed evidence of the spread of plasmids carrying carbapenemase-encoding genes between the examined isolates. Analysis of Enterobacter cloacae isolates revealed a more clonal nature of these CPOs in BC. The presence of related clusters provides evidence of interpatient organism transmission both within and between institutions. Although in our study, NDM-harboring E. cloacae isolates appeared to spread clonally, the spread of carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae seems to be plasmid mediated. PMID:26607987

  8. Calls to the British Columbia Drug and Poison Information Centre: A summary of differences by health service areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah B; Kent, Debra; Kosatsky, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Poison control centres provide information on the management of poisoning incidents. The British Columbia (BC) Drug and Poison Information Centre recently implemented an electronic database system for recording case information, making it easier to use case data as a potential source of population-based information on health services usage and health status. This descriptive analysis maps poisoning case rates in BC, highlighting differences in patient age, substance type, medical outcome, and caller location. Methods There were 50,621 human exposure cases recorded during 2012 and 2013. Postal code or city name was used to assign each case to a Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA). Case rates per 1,000 person-years were calculated, including crude rates, age-standardized rates, age-specific rates, and rates by substance type, medical outcome, and caller location. Results The lowest case rate was observed in Richmond, a city where many residents do not speak English as a first language. The highest rate was observed in the Northwest region, where the economy is driven by resource extraction. Pharmaceutical exposures were elevated in the sparsely populated northern and eastern areas. Calls from health care facilities were highest in the Northwest region, where there are many remote Aboriginal communities. Conclusions Case rates were generally highest in the primarily rural northern and eastern areas of the province. Considering these results alongside contextual factors informs further investigation and action: addressing cultural and language barriers to accessing poison centre services, and developing a public health surveillance system for severe poisoning events in rural and remote communities. PMID:25379127

  9. Stomach contents from invasive American bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jancowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien American bullfrog populations are commonly identified as a pernicious influence on the survival of native species due to their adaptability, proliferation and consequent ecological impacts through competition and predation. However, it has been difficult to determine conclusively their destructive influence due to the fragmentary and geographically dispersed nature of the historical database. An expanding meta-population of invasive American bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus, became established on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada in the mid- to late 1980s. An on-going bullfrog control program begun in 2006 offered a unique opportunity to examine the stomach contents removed from 5,075 adult and juvenile bullfrogs collected from 60 sites throughout the active season (April to October. Of 15 classes of organisms identified in the diet, insects were numerically dominant, particularly social wasps and odonates (damselflies and dragonflies. Seasonality and site-specific habitat characteristics influenced prey occurrence and abundance. Native vertebrates in the diet included fish, frogs, salamanders, snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, and mammals, including some of conservation concern. Certain predators of bullfrog tadpoles and juveniles are commonly preyed upon by adult bullfrogs, thereby suppressing their effectiveness as biological checks to bullfrog population growth. Prey species with anti-predator defences, such as wasps and sticklebacks, were sometimes eaten in abundance. Many prey species have some type of anti-predator defence, such as wasp stingers or stickleback spines, but there was no indication of conditioned avoidance to any of these. Results from this study reinforce the conclusion that, as an invasive alien, the American bullfrog is an opportunistic and seemingly unspecialized predator that has a uniquely large and complex ecological footprint both above and below the water surface.

  10. Individual and contextual determinants of regional variation in prescription drug use: an analysis of administrative data from British Columbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing attention is being paid to variations in the use of prescription drugs because their role in health care has grown to the point where their use can be considered a proxy for health system performance. Studies have shown that prescription drug use varies across regions in the US, UK, and Canada by more than would be predicted based on age and health status alone. In this paper, we explore the determinants of variations in the use of prescription drugs, drawing on health services theories of access to care. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using population-based administrative health care data for British Columbia (BC, Canada. We used logistic and hierarchical regressions to analyze the effects of individual- and area-level determinants of use of prescriptions overall and rates of purchase of prescriptions from five therapeutic categories representing a range of indications: antihypertensives, statins, acid reducing drugs, opioid drugs, and antidepressants. To indicate the relative scale of regional variations and the importance of individual- and area-level variables in explaining them, we computed standardized rates of utilization for 49 local health areas in BC. RESULTS: We found that characteristics of individuals and the areas in which they live affect likelihood of prescription drug purchase. Individual-level factors influenced prescription drug purchases in ways generally consistent with behavioral models of health services use. Contextual variables exerted influences that differed by type of drug studied. Population health, education levels, and ethnic composition of local areas were associated with significant differences in the likelihood of purchasing medications. Relatively modest regional variations remained after both individual-level and area-level determinants were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that individual- and area-level factors should be considered

  11. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council (U.S.); Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1994-02-01

    This document is part of Bonneville Power Administration`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The Fiscal Year 1994 (FY 1994) Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) presents Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA`s) plan for implementation of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program). The purpose of the Program is to guide BPA and other federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Phase I began the work of salmon recovery with certain fast-track measures completed in August 1991. Phase II dealt with Snake and Columbia river flow and salmon harvest and was completed in December 1991. Phase III dealt with system-wide habitat and salmon production issues and was completed in September 1992. Phase IV planning, focusing on resident fish and wildlife, began in August 1993, and was finished and adopted in November 1993. This report provides summaries of the ongoing and new projects for FY 1994 within the areas of juvenile migration, adult migration, salmon harvest, production and habitat, coordinated implementation, monitoring and evaluation, resident fish, and wildlife.

  12. Forest carbon in North America: annual storage and emissions from British Columbia’s harvest, 1965–2065

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymond Caren C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP. Results The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1, estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC’s greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC’s protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%. Conclusions This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52 multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products.

  13. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council (U.S.); Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1992-09-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Annual Implementation World Plan (AIWP) presents BPA`s plans for implementing the Program during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The FY 1993 AIWP emphasizes continuation of 143 ongoing or projecting ongoing Program projects, tasks, or task orders, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. The FY 1993 AIWP also contains three new Program projects or tasks that are planned to start in FY 1993.

  14. Origin of gem corundum in calcite marble: The Revelstoke occurrence in the Canadian Cordillera of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikowski, Tashia J.; Cempírek, Jan; Groat, Lee A.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Giuliani, Gaston

    2014-06-01

    The calcite marble-hosted gem corundum (ruby, sapphire) occurrence near Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada, occurs in the Monashee Complex of the Omineca Belt of the Canadian Cordillera. Corundum occurs in thin, folded and stretched layers with green muscovite + Ba-bearing K-feldspar + anorthite (An0.85-1) ± phlogopite ± Na-poor scapolite. Other silicate layers within the marble are composed of: (1) diopside + tremolite ± quartz and (2) garnet (Alm0.7-0.5Grs0.2-0.4) + Na-rich scapolite + diopside + tremolite + Na,K-amphiboles. Non-silicate layers in the marble are either magnetite- or graphite-bearing. Predominantly pink (locally red or purple) opaque to transparent corundum crystals have elevated Cr2O3 (≤ 0.21 wt.%) and variable amounts of TiO2; rare blue rims on the corundum crystals contain higher amounts of TiO2 (≤ 0.53 wt.%) and Fe2O3 (≤ 0.07 wt.%). The associated micas have elevated Cr, V, Ti, and Ba contents. Petrography of the silicate layers show that corundum formed from muscovite at the peak of metamorphism (~ 650-700 °C at 8.5-9 kbar). Because the marble is almost pure calcite (dolomite is very rare), the corundum was preserved because it did not react with dolomite to spinel + calcite during decompression. The scapolite-bearing assemblages formed during or after decompression of the rock at ~ 650 °C and 4-6 kbar. Gem-quality corundum crystals formed especially on borders of the mica-feldspar layers in an assemblage with calcite. Whole rock geochemistry data show that the corundum-bearing silicate (mica-feldspar) layers formed by mechanical mixing of carbonate with the host gneiss protolith; the bulk composition of the silicate layers was modified by Si and Fe depletion during prograde metamorphism. High element mobility is supported by the homogenization of δ18O and δ13C values in carbonates and silicates for the marble and silicate layers. The silicate layers and the gneiss contain elevated contents of Cr and V due to the volcanoclastic

  15. Wide-angle seismic recordings from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation of Puget Sound (SHIPS), western Washington and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Parsons, Tom; Creager, Ken C.; Crosson, Robert S.; Symons, Neill P.; Spence, George D.; Zelt, Barry C.; Hammer, Philip T.C.; Hyndman, Roy D.; Mosher, David C.; Trehu, Anne M.; Miller, Kate C.; Brink, Uri S. ten; Fisher, Michael A.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Alvarez, Marcos G.; Beaudoin, Bruce C.; Louden, Keith E.; Weaver, Craig S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the acquisition and processing of deep-crustal wide-angle seismic reflection and refraction data obtained in the vicinity of Puget Lowland, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and Georgia Strait, western Washington and southwestern British Columbia, in March 1998 during the Seismic Hazards Investigation of Puget Sound (SHIPS). As part of a larger initiative to better understand lateral variations in crustal structure along the Cascadia margin, SHIPS participants acquired 1000 km of deep-crustal multichannel seismic-reflection profiles and 1300 km of wideangle airgun shot lines in this region using the R/V Thompson and R/V Tully. The Tully was used to record airgun shots fired by the Thompson in two different geometries: (1) expanding spread profiles (ESPs) and (2) constant offset profiles (COPs). Prior to this reflection survey, we deployed 257 Reftek and 15 ocean-bottom seismic recorders to record the airgun signals at far offsets. All data were recorded digitally on large-capacity hard disks. Although most of these stations only recorded the vertical component of motion, 95 of these seismographs recorded signals from an oriented 3-component seismometer. By recording signals generated by the Thompson's marine air gun array, operated in two differing geometries having a total volume of 110 and 79 liters (6730 and 4838 cu. in.), respectively, the arrays of wide-angle recorders were designed to (1) image the crustal structure, particularly in the vicinity of crustal faults and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, (2) determine the geometry of the Moho, and (3) image the subducting Gorda and Juan de Fuca plates. Nearly 33,300 air gun shots were recorded along several seismic lines. In this report, we illustrate the expanding spread profiles acquired using the Thompson and Tully, describe the land and ocean-bottom recording of the air gun signals, discuss the processing of the land recorder data into common receiver gathers, and illustrate the processed wide

  16. Multibeam Mapping of Active Slope Instability Features: Examples from the Fraser River and Squamish River Deltas, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Multibeam mapping of the coastal waters of British Columbia has immensly improved our ability to identify and assess submarine landslide and tsunami hazard. This paper will present analysis of high-resolution images of slope instability features from two delta slopes where recent slope failure can be documented through repetitive multibeam mapping and/or comparison with previous single-beam hydrographic soundings. Numerous mass movement features characterize the slope of the Fraser River delta, all the recent features being located at the mouths of distributary channels. Engineering works have maintained the main channel in a fixed position since the 1930's, contributing to over-steepening of the slope and development of a network of submarine channels. Repetitive multibeam mapping shows that recent slope failures have occurred in numerous locations around the main channel lobe, some at the head of a large submarine channel system and others as isolated small failures that form the headwalls of small submarine channels. The scalloped morphology and association with channels, together with volume estimates derived from repetitive multibeam mapping, indicate that these features result from shallow, small volume liquefaction failures. Smaller scale, shallow slides are present on the very shallow water slope area adjacent to the channels, raising the possibility of groundwater seepage as an influence on slope stability. The slide masses from these failures are rapidly transformed into gravity flows that carve the submarine channels. Slides and channels of a similar scale are found at the mouth of a secondary distributary channel and an abandoned distributary channel. The multibeam imagery allows discrimination between recent slide features and relict features, the latter showing infilling or reworking by bottom currents. An area of undulatory seafloor, located on the flank of the main distributary channel lobe, has been cited as a possible creep displacement feature

  17. Dyke Swarms in Southeastern British Columbia: Mineralogical and Geochemical Evidence for Emplacement of Multiple Magma Types During Orogenic Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, M.; Owen, J. P.; Hoskin, P. W.

    2009-05-01

    Eocene dyke swarms in southeastern British Columbia provide an important record of the tectonic and magmatic history of the Cordillera following orogenic collapse. New field mapping, petrographic, and geochemical data is presented for a swarm of more than thirty dykes located near the mining town of Trail, B.C. Detailed field mapping revealed that individual dykes are highly diverse, both in composition and morphology. As a group, the dykes trend northwest (average strike of 338 degrees) and dip steeply to the southwest. Their average thickness is approximately 1.5m, with a range from 4.5m to less than 1cm. Three sub-parallel dykes were mapped for a length of 2km, and exhibit irregularities in their form such as branching and offshoots that follow fractures in the country rock. Thin-section analysis shows a wide variety of rock types within the swarm, including: micro-quartz syenite, micro-syenite, micro-monzonite, latite, basalt, basaltic andesite, and lamprophyre. Texturally, these samples are consistently porphyritic and partially altered to chlorite and sericite. This alteration commonly occurs in concentric rims around phenocrysts. The samples are typically intergranular, although some display trachytic texture. Whole-rock geochemistry shows that the dykes have a wide range in composition, with SiO2 between 76.45 wt.% and 45.15 wt.% and MgO between 0.13 wt.% and 13.16 wt.%. The results also revealed that one dyke has very high values of Ni (430 ppm), Cr (1420 ppm), and Co (50 ppm), giving it a fairly primitive composition. Harker diagrams and trace element plots show three distinct groups: mafic calc-alkaline dykes, felsic calc- alkaline dykes, and minette lamprophyres. The felsic dykes are characterized by negative Eu and Sr anomalies suggesting fractionation of plagioclase feldspar, as well as pronounced negative P and Ti anomalies. The minettes are enriched in LILE and depleted in HSFE relative to the mafic dykes. The three groups do not appear to be

  18. Channel and landscape dynamics in the alluvial forest mosaic of the Carmanah River valley, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Patrick J.; Richardson, John S.; Alila, Younes

    2013-11-01

    The highly diverse shifting-mosaic of forest patches of an alluvial forest within the Carmanah River valley on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia was studied to examine the hydrogeomorphic disturbance regime that structures it. We used a landscape-scale analysis to quantify historical channel migrations and changes in the extent of specific forest types. This GIS-based analysis using a 70-year aerial photographic record was complemented by field-based research. Thirty-eight plots containing 4509 trees were sampled for forest structure, age, and elevation above the contemporary channel. These data, including a vegetation chronosequence spanning over 500 years, were used to examine channel and landscape dynamics. Our findings support a general conceptual model that describes cycles of patch development and destruction in unconfined alluvial forests of the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion. Over the past century, Carmanah River has eroded nearly 30% of the alluvial forest in this study area, and approximately 65% over the past 500 years. At least 80% of the 2007 channel was forested area within the past 70 years. Younger landforms were disturbed more frequently than mature forest patches, which suggest that as biogeomorphic succession progresses the likelihood of future disturbance decreases. Estimated half lives of landforms ranged from 24 years for pioneer bars to over 1500 years for old growth terraces. Years of regional high magnitude floods resulted in a net loss of floodplain forest area indicating that disturbance was climate driven in this pluvial watershed, whereby rain events result in flood disturbance that converted forests to channel. These events initiate a subsequent course of vegetation succession and geomorphic development, and often result in the deposition of large wood that modifies the channel environment and contributes to channel avulsion and further hydrogeomorphic disturbance. The composition of the landscape is a reflection of the

  19. The 3D distribution of cordierite and biotite in hornfels from the Bugaboo contact aureole (British Columbia, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidies, Fred; Petley-Ragan, Arianne; Pattison, David

    2016-04-01

    The size, abundance, shape and spatial distribution of metamorphic minerals bears important information on the rates and mechanisms of fundamental processes that take place during metamorphic crystallization. X-ray computed tomography (XR-CT) has become the method of choice to study the three-dimensional (3D) disposition of minerals in rocks as it allows investigation of relatively large sample volumes at sufficiently high resolution required for statistically meaningful analyses, and as its non-destructive fashion permits further studies such as mineral chemical, isotopic or crystallographic analyses of select grains identified through XR-CT. We present results obtained through the quantification of the 3D disposition of cordierite and biotite crystals in a hornfels from the contact aureole of the Bugaboo Batholith (British Columbia, Canada) using XR-CT and global as well as scale-dependent pattern statistics (Petley-Ragan et al., 2016). The results demonstrate a random distribution of cordierite and biotite crystal sizes for all scales across the entire rock volume studied indicative of interface-controlled prograde metamorphic reaction kinetics. We show that the common approach to approximate the shape of crystals as spherical underestimates the influence of the Strauss hard-core process on rock texture which may be misinterpreted to reflect ordering of crystal sizes by inhibition of nucleation and growth commonly associated with diffusion-controlled reaction kinetics. According to our findings, Strauss hard-core ordering develops at length scales equal to and less than the average major axis of the crystal population. This is significantly larger than what is obtained if a spherical crystal geometry would be assumed, and increases with deviation from sphericity. For the cordierite and biotite populations investigated in this research, Strauss hard-core ordering developed at length scales of up to ˜2.2 and 1.25 mm, respectively, which is almost 1 mm longer than

  20. Ablation from calving and surface melt at lake-terminating Bridge Glacier, British Columbia, 1984-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernos, M.; Koppes, M.; Moore, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Bridge Glacier is a lake-calving glacier in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and has retreated over 3.55 km since 1972. The majority of this retreat has occurred since 1991. This retreat is substantially greater than what has been inferred from regional climate indices, suggesting that it has been driven primarily by calving as the glacier retreated across an overdeepened basin. In order to better understand the primary drivers of ablation, surface melt (below the equilibrium line altitude, ELA) and calving were quantified during the 2013 melt season using a distributed energy balance model (DEBM) and time-lapse imagery. Calving, estimated using areal change, velocity measurements, and assuming flotation were responsible for 23 % of the glacier's ablation below the ELA during the 2013 melt season and were limited by modest flow speeds and a small terminus cross-section. Calving and surface melt estimates from 1984 to 2013 suggest that calving was consistently a smaller contributor of ablation. Although calving was estimated to be responsible for up to 49 % of the glacier's ablation for individual seasons, averaged over multiple summers it accounted between 10 and 25 %. Calving was enhanced primarily by buoyancy and water depths, and fluxes were greatest between 2005 and 2010 as the glacier retreated over the deepest part of Bridge Lake. The recent rapid rate of calving is part of a transient stage in the glacier's retreat and is expected to diminish within 10 years as the terminus recedes into shallower water at the proximal end of the lake. These findings are in line with observations from other lake-calving glacier studies across the globe and suggest a common large-scale pattern in calving-induced retreat in lake-terminating alpine glaciers. Despite enhancing glacial retreat, calving remains a relatively small component of ablation and is expected to decrease in importance in the future. Hence, surface melt remains the primary driver of ablation at Bridge

  1. Stratigraphic evolution of a long-lived submarine channel system in the Late Cretaceous Nanaimo Group, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Heather A.; Hubbard, Stephen M.

    2016-05-01

    Submarine canyons and slope channel systems are important conveyers of sediment from uplifted catchments to oceanic sedimentary sinks. Long-lived conduits can be established through deep incision of submarine canyons, with bathymetric relief of hundreds of meters to greater than a kilometer in many instances. Alternatively, a combination of erosion of the continental slope and aggradation of levees can yield a broadly comparable stratigraphic product through evolution of channels with more subdued bathymetric relief. Despite differences in formative geomorphic elements on the paleo-seafloor, differentiating the stratigraphic architecture amongst these systems is challenging, particularly in outcrop datasets. Accurate stratigraphic interpretation has significant implications for understanding the frequency and magnitude of controlling processes such as mountain building and denudation or eustatic sea-level fluctuations. In this study, deep-water channel strata of the Late Cretaceous Nanaimo Group are examined at Hornby and Denman islands, British Columbia, Canada. Evidence for a long-lived submarine conduit records the history of sediment transfer at multiple temporal and spatial scales. The composite submarine channel system deposit is 19.5 km wide and 1500 m thick, which formed and filled over ~ 15 Ma. Facies scale analyses highlight conglomeratic channel fill juxtaposed against thin-bedded out-of-channel deposits. Erosional surfaces are commonly mantled by mass-transport deposits, which provide evidence for conduit wall reworking and maintenance. At a larger scale, a series of composite, conglomerate-prone channelform bodies are observed to stratigraphically stack in two distinct phases: (1) early persistence of laterally offset (migrated) channels; and (2) later vertically aligned and aggraded channels. This stratigraphic trend is comparable to composite, multi-phase degradational-aggradational submarine channel complexes observed globally. As such, we consider

  2. Chronically ill Canadians’ experiences of being unattached to a family doctor: a qualitative study of marginalized patients in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crooks Valorie A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unattached patients do not have a regular primary care provider. Initiatives are being developed to increase attachment rates across Canada. Most existing attention paid to patient unattachment has focused on quantifying the problem and health system costs. Our purpose is to qualitatively identify the implications of chronically ill patients’ experiences of unattachment for health policy and planning to provide policy-relevant insights for Canadian attachment initiatives. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with marginalized chronically ill individuals residing in a mid-sized city in British Columbia who are unattached to a family doctor. We use the term marginalized as a descriptor to acknowledge that by virtue of their low socio-economic status and lack of attachment the participants are marginalized in Canada’s health care system Focus groups were structured as an open conversation organized around a series of probing questions. They were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed. Results Twenty-six individuals participated in the focus groups. The most common chronic illnesses reported were active drug addiction or recovery (and their associated symptoms, depression, arthritis, and hepatitis C. Participants identified life transitions as being the root cause for not having a family doctor. There was a strong sense that unsuccessful attempts to get a family doctor reflected that they were undesirable patients. Participants wanted to experience having a trusting relationship with a regular family doctor as they believed it would encourage greater honesty and transparency. One of the main health concerns regarding lack of access to a regular family doctor is that participants lacked access to preventative care. Participants were also concerned about having a discontinuous medical record due to unattachment. Conclusions Participants perceived that there are many benefits to be had

  3. The Oncor Geodatabase for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program: Annual Report, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Serkowski, John A.

    2013-11-10

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this project for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Corps). The purpose of the project is to develop a geospatial, web-accessible database (called “Oncor”) for action effectiveness and related data from monitoring and research efforts for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). The intent is for the Oncor database to enable synthesis and evaluation, the results of which can then be applied in subsequent CEERP decision-making. This is the first annual report in what is expected to be a 3- to 4-year project, which commenced on February 14, 2012.

  4. Characterization of Clostridium difficile Strains in British Columbia, Canada: A Shift from NAP1 Majority (2008) to Novel Strain Types (2013) in One Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassem, Agatha N.; Prystajecky, Natalie; Marra, Fawziah; Kibsey, Pamela; Tan, Kennard; Umlandt, Patricia; Janz, Loretta; Champagne, Sylvie; Gamage, Bruce; Golding, George R.; Mulvey, Michael R.; Henry, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Clostridium difficile is a major cause of gastrointestinal illness. Epidemic NAP1 strains contain toxins A and B, a deletion in repressor tcdC, and a binary toxin. Objectives. To determine the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in British Columbia and compare between two time points in one region. Methods. C. difficile isolates from hospital and community laboratories (2008) and one Island Health hospital laboratory (2013) were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, toxin possession, tcdC genotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results. In 2008, 42.7% of isolates had NAP1 designation. Hospital-collected isolates were associated with older patients and more NAP1 types. Unlike other isolates, most NAP1 isolates possessed binary toxin and a 19 bp loss in tcdC. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. A 2013 follow-up revealed a 28.9% decrease in NAP1 isolates and 20.0% increase in isolates without NAP designation in one region. Then, community-associated cases were seen in younger patients, while NAP types were evenly distributed. Isolates without NAP designation did not cluster with a PFGE pattern or ribotype. Conclusions. Evaluation of C. difficile infections within British Columbia revealed demographic associations, epidemiological shifts, and characteristics of strain types. Continuous surveillance of C. difficile will enable detection of emerging strains. PMID:27366181

  5. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: Concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment-associated hydrocarbons can pose a risk to wildlife that rely on benthic marine food webs. We measured hydrocarbons in sediments from the habitat of protected sea otters in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Alkane concentrations were dominated by higher odd-chain n-alkanes at all sites, indicating terrestrial plant inputs. While remote sites were dominated by petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), small harbour sites within sea otter habitat and sites from an urban reference area reflected weathered petroleum and biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The partitioning of hydrocarbons between sediments and adjacent food webs provides an important exposure route for sea otters, as they consume ∼25% of their body weight per day in benthic invertebrates. Thus, exceedences of PAH sediment quality guidelines designed to protect aquatic biota at 20% of the sites in sea otter habitat suggest that sea otters are vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination even in the absence of catastrophic oil spills. - Highlights: → Sediment hydrocarbon signatures differed between remote and impacted coastal sites. → A natural background comprised terrestrial plant alkanes and petrogenic PAHs. → Impacted sites reflected a history of petrogenic and pyrogenic hydrocarbon inputs. → Hydrocarbons at some sites exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. → Protected sea otters may thus be at risk as they rely primarily on benthic prey. - Anthropogenically-derived hydrocarbons in coastal sediments in British Columbia may pose a risk to protected sea otters.

  6. "A Powerful Protector of the Japanese People": The History of the Japanese Hospital in Steveston, British Columbia, Canada,1896-1942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Helen

    2017-01-01

    From 1896 to 1942, a Japanese hospital operated in the village of Steveston, British Columbia, Canada. For the first 4 years, Japanese Methodist missionaries utilized a small mission building as a makeshift hospital, until a larger institution was constructed by the local Japanese Fishermen's Association in 1900. The hospital operated until the Japanese internment, after the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II. This study offers important commentary about the relationships between health, hospitals, and race in British Columbia during a period of increased immigration and economic upheaval. From the unique perspective of Japanese leaders, this study provides new insight about how Japanese populations negotiated hospital care, despite a context of severe racial discrimination. Japanese populations utilized Christianization, fishing expertise, and hospital work to garner more equitable access to opportunities and resources. This study demonstrates that in addition to providing medical treatment, training grounds for health-care workers, and safe refuge for the sick, hospitals played a significant role in confronting broader racialized inequities in Canada's past. PMID:27502613

  7. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for fiscal year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 presents Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) plans for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) in FY 1992. The AIWP focuses on individual Action Items found in the 1987 Program for which BPA has determined that it has authority and responsibility to implement. Each of the entries in the AIWP includes objectives, background, progress to date in achieving the objectives, and a summary of plans for implementation in FY 1992. Most Action Items are implemented through one or more BPA-funded projects. Each Action Item entry is followed by a list of completed, ongoing, and planned projects, along with objectives, results, schedules, and milestones for each project. In October 1988, BPA and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) initiated a collaborative and cooperative Implementation Planning Process (IPP). The IPP provided opportunities in FY 1991 for the fish and wildlife agencies. Tribes, and other interested parties to be involved in planning FY 1992 Program implementation. This planing process contributed to the development of this year's AIWP. The joint BPA/CBFWA IPP is expected to continue in FY 1992. The FY 1992 AIWP emphasizes continuation of 143 ongoing, or projected ongoing Program projects, tasks, or task orders, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. The FY 1992 AIWP also contains 10 new Program projects or tasks that are planned to start in FY 1992

  8. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post

  9. Biology and Conservation of the Common Murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia: Vol. 1, Natural History and Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuwal, David Allen; Carter, Harry R.; Zimmerman, Tara S.; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Over the past 30 years, the common murre (Uria aalge californica) has been recognized as a prominent indicator of marine conservation issues in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, especially regarding oil pollution, certain fisheries, and human disturbance. To assist the effective management of the common murre and the marine environments in which they live, this summary of available information on the biology and regional status of the common murre has been sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Division of Migratory Bird Management). In Volume 1 (Chapter 1), the natural history of the common murre is summarized, drawing heavily on breeding studies from the South Farallon Islands, California, plus a host of detailed breeding studies from the North Atlantic Ocean. Population trends of the common murre are summarized in Volume 1 (Chapter 2), focusing on changes in whole-colony counts determined from aerial photographs between the late 1970s and 1995 in California, Oregon and Washington. Historical data and human impacts to murre colonies since the early nineteenth century are also summarized. Volume 2 will summarize population threats, conservation, and management. Information presented in Volume 1 has been obtained and recorded by a large number of researchers and natural historians over two centuries. From the 1960s to 1995, most work in California, Oregon, and Washington was sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minerals Management Service, and California Department of Fish and Game. Important breeding biology studies were conducted at the South Farallon Islands (Farallon National Wildlife Refuge) by the Point Reyes Bird Observatory, in coordination with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge). Colony surveys in California were conducted mainly by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge), U.S. Geological Survey (Western

  10. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  11. Framing Indigenous–Settler Relations within British Columbia's Modern Treaty Context: A Discourse Analysis of the Maa-nulth Treaty in Mainstream Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Sloan Morgan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Media plays an integral role in (reproducing our social construction of reality. When viewed in light of Canada’s colonial legacy, media’s power has undoubtedly been implicated in circumscribing Indigenous peoples and Indigenous–settler relations. Employing a discourse analysis of mainstream media covering the recent (2011 implementation of a comprehensive land claims agreement in British Columbia, this study investigates how media has framed contemporary Indigenous–settler relations within the Canadian state. Findings indicate that mainstream media predominantly relies on stereotypes of Indigenous peoples and tends to neglect historical and current political complexities, thereby perpetuating stagnant Indigenous–settler relations. Concluding with empirically derived recommendations, this article points to education reform to create more robust mainstream media able to address stagnated (reconstructions of Indigenous–settler relations.

  12. Soil Characteristics and Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Performance Two Decades after Disk Trenching of Unburned and Broadcast-Burned Plots in Subboreal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Boateng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of low-impact broadcast-burning and disk-trenching planting position (control, hinge, trench on soil characteristics and lodgepole pine foliar nutrition and growth over two decades at a subboreal site in British Columbia, Canada. Broadcast burning had virtually no effect on either the bulk density or chemical properties of soil. In contrast, significant reductions in soil bulk density and increases in soil nutrient availability persisted for 20 years in hinge position soils relative to undisturbed (control soil between trenches. These effects on bulk density and nutrient availability are associated with significant differences in pine size by year 6. Burning and planting positions interacted significantly in their effect on pine height, diameter, and stem volume for at least 19 years. Pine survival was high regardless of burning or planting position. Neither broadcast burning nor planting position significantly affected lodgepole pine foliar nutrient status in this study.

  13. Investigation into seasonal water chemistry variations in the Clayburn Creek watershed, British Columbia: An opportunity for authentic research experience for University of the Fraser Valley undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Janmaat, A.; Faber, A.; Clemence, E.; Yakemchuk, A.; McCabe, M.; Toner, A.; Dhaliwal, H.; Gaultier, M.; Kanda, S.; Leffers, R.; Mahil, G.; Paulson, D.; Puri, K.; Sekhton, J.; Sidhu, B.; Sidhu, D.; Turner, S.; Strangway, A.

    2015-12-01

    Faculty and students from the University of the Fraser Valley participate in the time series sampling of the Fraser River and Fraser River tributaries as part of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) which is coordinated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. Clayburn and Willband Creeks in Abbotsford, British Columbia are part of this project and are being threatened by increasing anthropogenic activity (agricultural, industrial and residential development) within the watershed. Undergraduate students from the Geography and Biology departments have been instructed in the sampling protocols and the collection of thw water chemistry data. Each student that has been involved in this sampling project will gain a greater understanding of the seasonal variation of the water chemistry of the Clayburn watershed. Through this involvement in this portion of the Global Rivers Observatory our students become more aware of the threats to our streams and the methods utilized to monitor water chemistry.

  14. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with drinking unpasteurized commercial apple juice--British Columbia, California, Colorado, and Washington, October 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    On October 30, 1996, the Seattle-King County Department of Public Health and the Washington State Department of Health reported an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections epidemiologically associated with drinking Odwalla brand unpasteurized apple juice or Odwalla juice mixtures containing apple juice from a coffee shop chain, grocery stores, or other locations. A case was defined as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or a stool culture yielding E. coli O157:H7 in a person who became ill after September 30, 1996, and drank Odwalla juice within 10 days before illness onset. As of November 6, British Columbia, California, Colorado, and Washington had reported a total of 45 cases. PMID:8965797

  15. “Keep it Wild, Keep it Local”: Comparing News Media and the Internet as Sites for Environmental Movement Activism for Jumbo Pass, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C.J. Stoddart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental movements depend on mass media to reach the publicand shape political decision-making. Without media access, social movements experience political marginality. In this paper, we examine whether the internet is a more open space than traditional media for activists to speak on behalf of nature. Our analysis is based on newspaper coverage and environmental organization websites that focus on the conflict over the proposed Jumbo Glacier Resort ski resort in British Columbia. Environmental websites and mass media texts both define Jumbo Pass as wilderness and grizzly bear habitat, while focusing on ecological concerns as well as questions of local democracy. However, environmental group websites discuss a greater range of environmental risks and provide more detailed discussion of these issues. Environmentalist websites also integrate scientific experts and celebrity supporters to a greater degree than massmedia texts, which are dominated by environmentalist, ski industry, and provincial government news sources.

  16. Spill response cost recovery : establishing a regulation under the Waste Management Act for recovering the cost of spill response by the government of British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia's Waste Management Act has been amended to allow for spill cost recovery to ensure clean, healthy and safe land, water and air for all living things. Cost recovery for spill response provides an incentive to users of oil and hazardous materials to adopt effective spill prevention measures and it allows industry to understand the full social, environmental and economic cost of hazardous spills. The BC Ministry of the Environment responds to about 4,000 spill notifications per year pertaining to oil and chemical spills and other pollution-causing incidents. About one third of these notifications need field action by the Ministry. Under the Act, if the spiller's performance is inadequate, the Ministry takes over the management of the spill. The amendment to the Act permits the application of cost recovery, by issuing a certificate and invoice to the polluter showing the amount owed to the Provincial Government. 1 fig

  17. The Satah Mountain and Baldface Mountain volcanic fields: Pleistocene hot spot volcanism in the Anahim Volcanic Belt, west-central British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Christian; Guest, Bernard; Russell, James K.; Benowitz, Jeff A.

    2015-03-01

    The Satah Mountain and Baldface Mountain volcanic fields (SMVF, BMVF) comprise more than three dozen small volcanic centers and erosional remnants thereof. These fields are located in the Chilcotin Highland of west-central British Columbia, Canada, and are spatially associated with the Anahim Volcanic Belt (AVB), a linear feature of alkaline to peralkaline plutonic and volcanic centers of Miocene to Holocene ages. The AVB has been postulated to be the track of a hot spot passing beneath the westward moving Cordilleran lithosphere. We test the AVB hot spot model by applying whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar geochronology ( n = 24) and geochemistry. Whole-rock chemical compositions of volcanic rock samples ( n = 59) from these two fields suggest a strong geochemical affinity with the nearby Itcha Range shield volcano; however, SMVF and BMVF centers are mostly small in volume (interaction of the potential hot spot with (pre)existing fracture systems in vicinity of the Itcha Range.

  18. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems. PMID:25494841

  19. Monitoring biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in great blue heron chicks (Ardea herodias) in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, J T; Elliott, J E; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E; Hart, L E; Cheng, K M; Bellward, G D

    1994-04-01

    The Canadian Wildlife Service monitors levels of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs in British Columbia as indicators of environmental contamination. The present project assessed the temporal effects of environmental contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) on hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and several morphological parameters in heron hatchlings. Between 1990 and 1992, eggs were collected from two great blue heron colonies in British Columbia that had elevated levels of contamination in 1988: Vancouver in 1990 and 1992, and Crofton in 1991. Biological parameters in the hatchlings and chemical contaminant levels in matched eggs from the same clutch were measured and compared with the findings from the same colonies studied in 1988. Levels of TCDD and other PCDDs and PCDFs had decreased significantly in both colonies since 1988. A concomitant decrease in EROD activity and incidence of chick edema, increase in body weight, and improvement of the reproductive success of the Crofton colony was observed. Body, yolk-free body, stomach, and intestine weights, tibia wet, dry, and ash weights, and tibia length regressed negatively on TCDD level (p < .01; n = 54). Hepatic EROD activity regressed positively on TCDD level (r2 = .49; p = .00005; n = 54). Regression of these parameters on the sum of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ) resulted in similar relationships. The reduction in severity of the effects observed in the contaminated colonies in the recent collections, accompanied by the declines in levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, was consistent with the dose-response relationships determined in 1988. PMID:8145284

  20. A vision for growing a world-class power technology cluster in a smart, sustainable British Columbia : full report to the Premier's Technology Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a framework for power technology in British Columbia and the development of new sources of energy while ensuring the sustainable economic growth. It also explores the opportunities present in the power technology sector. A definition of the power technology industry was provided, and market drivers were identified, describing the region's competitive advantage and assets. Five market opportunities were introduced, comprising the report's targeted innovation strategy: remote power solutions; sustainable urban practices; smart transport; smart grid; and large scale clean green power production. An outline of the current energy market in British Columbia was presented with details of research and development in renewable energy sources. Global power demands were also outlined. A regional action plan was presented in order to develop the power technology cluster. Leadership strategies were presented, with economic development goals and working teams geared towards an implementation resource plan. A commercialization strategy was suggested in order to address local demand, commercialization funds, and increasing access and resources. A growth strategy was also presented to assist in the development of access to world markets, create partnerships and assist in branding and collaborations with industry and government. An innovation strategy was outlined, with the aim of developing research initiatives, support centres in key market and technology areas and connecting existing efforts in basic sciences to power technology applications. It was concluded that in order to achieve full implementation of these strategies, a short term task force is necessary to shape overall plans. Additionally, an ongoing vision team, working groups and coordination is necessary to implement overall strategies and subcomponents. Appendices were included with reference to each of the five market opportunities presented in the report. 58 refs

  1. Comparison of coniferous forest carbon stocks between old-growth and young second-growth forests on two soil types in central British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredeen, A.L.; Bois, C.H.; Janzen, D.T.; Sanborn, P.T. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies

    2005-06-01

    More than half of the world's terrestrial organic soil and vegetation carbon (C) currently resides in forests, with one half of this in boreal forests alone. Forests therefore represent significant reservoirs of carbon. A study was conducted at the Aleza Lake Research Forest (ALRF) near Prince George, British Columbia to compare the C stocks in 4 old-growth sub-boreal spruce (SBS) forests with 4 corresponding young, planted second-growth stands in soils of contrasting textures. The 2 dominant soil textures were coarse and fine grained soils over a total of 16 plots. The C stocks were assessed for hybrid interior spruce-dominated upland forests within the ALRF. For each plot, the carbon content of tree biomass was estimated using the measured values of Lamlom and Savidge. All woody debris stocks including tree stumps were also evaluated and soil C stocks were sampled according to modified National Forest Inventory Sampling Guidelines. C stocks were also tested for mineral soil texture, age-class and their interaction effects. The average total C stocks for old-growth stands ranged from 423 Mg C per hectare to 324 Mg C per hectare, between Pacific Northwest temperate forest and upland boreal forests. It was concluded that sub-boreal forests of central British Columbia are intermediate in terms of aboveground and total carbon stocks between the wetter and more productive coastal forests to the south and west and the less productive boreal stands to the north and east. It was concluded that conservation of non-biomass C stocks in old-growth forests is important in minimizing greenhouse gas emissions resulting from sub-boreal forest management activities. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Contrasting total carbon and nitrogen stocks between ecological site types in a Sub-Boreal research forest in central British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, C.H.; Janzen, D.T. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Ecosystem Science and Management Program; Sanborn, P.T.; Fredeen, A.L. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Ecosystem Science and Management Program]|[Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Natural Resources and Environmental Studies Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration and carbon stocks within managed and natural forests have become topical issues since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. A multi-year study was conducted to evaluate the total C stocks present in a 10 km{sup 2} area of University of British Columbia's Aleza Lake Research Forest located 60 km east of Prince George in the Sub-Boreal Spruce biogeoclimatic zone of east-central British Columbia. The purpose was to address gaps in knowledge about forest C budgets, total pool sizes, dynamics of forest floor and mineral soil carbon by studying the effects of forest management. Sampling plots were chosen randomly within strata composed of the dominant ecological site classes, soil textures and management histories. The study involved the creation of 137 plots, of which 108 and 29 were located on fine and coarse textured soils, respectively. Sampling was reduced in these strata due to a shortage of middle-aged stands and the near lack of coarse textured soils. Data collection and sampling methodology were adapted from the National Forest Inventory Ground Sampling Guidelines of the Canadian Forest Service. Carbon stocks were measured in forest floor and mineral soil to a depth of 1 metre. The Dumas-combustion method was used to determine C and nitrogen (N) concentrations. It was determined that stand age did not decidedly change the forest floor or mineral soil total C and N in either fine or coarse textured soil plots. However, forest floor C and N were considerably higher in coarse textured soils compared to C and N measured in fine soil plots. Mineral soil C concentration decreased methodically with depth from 4.6 per cent C at 0 cm to 0.2 per cent at 100 cm. The paper also addressed the breakdown of forest floor and mineral soil C and N pools according to ecological site series.

  3. Atmospheric River impacts in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest on 22-24 January 2015 during the CalWater 2015 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggini, N. G.; Spackman, J. R.; Neiman, P. J.; White, A. B.; Fairall, C. W.; Barnet, C.; Gambacorta, A.; Hughes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Over 30 dropsonde transects were performed across atmospheric rivers (ARs) over the eastern Pacific during CalWater 2015. An event in late January allowed first-of-its-kind coordinated dropsonde transects of an AR using the NOAA G-IV aircraft in tandem with the NOAA Ronald H. Brown (RHB), which observed the marine boundary layer during the passage of this major AR. Dropsonde data collected on 22 January 2015 sampled the early stages of the AR, when the AR began making landfall near Vancouver Island, British Columbia. At the same time the RHB collected precipitation and oceanic moisture flux measurements on the warm side of the AR. A second flight on 24 January 2015 sampled the later stages of the AR, again passing over the RHB stationed beneath the AR. During this later period, the AR axis of moisture shifted north-northeast and fanned out along the coast, affecting regions from Northern Washington to Southern Alaska. Multi-day landfalling AR conditions led to flooding in British Columbia and northern Washington. The influence of the coastal orography combined with the shift in AR orientation is examined to understand the orographic control of precipitation that triggered the flooding. In addition, cross section analysis of the AR using dropsonde and reanalysis data are used to better understand the synoptic influences, water vapor transport, and moisture evolution during the lifecycle of the AR. To gain greater insight into AR development and prolonged AR conditions that led to enhanced flooding, a comparison of aircraft and ship data from CalWater 2015 and NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) retrievals (integrated water vapor, vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and an experimental ATMS-only rain rate product) will be compared for the 22-24 January period.

  4. British Society of Neuroradiologists, annual meeting, Hilton National Hotel, Stansted Airport, Essex, UK, 8-9 October 1993. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen abstracts of scientific papers are presented which were read at the Annual Meeting of the British Society of Neuroradiologists, held in Essex from 8-9 October 1993, dealing with the diagnostic evaluation of a variety of brain diseases. (orig.)

  5. Assessing the potential contribution of blowing snow to the mass balance of glaciers in the Cariboo Mountains of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadghar, A.; Ainslie, B.; Jackson, P. L.; Dery, S. J.

    2009-05-01

    The difference between snow accumulation and ice ablation determines the mass balance of glaciers, with snowfall as the dominant input. However, blowing snow is another important term in glacier mass balance. Blowing snow occurs when loose particles of snow at the surface are entrained by winds exceeding a certain threshold for transport. The role of blowing snow in the surface mass balance of glaciers in the Cariboo Mountains (the northern extension of the Columbia Mountains) of British Columbia, Canada is assessed in this study. The regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) model is used to simulate several case studies of blowing snow in the region of interest. The simulations are validated with meteorological data from a mesoscale network (mesonet) of high-elevation automatic weather stations (AWSs) entitled the Cariboo Alpine Mesonet (CAMnet) that has been developed in the region since 2006. The mass divergence (convergence) fields from the RAMS simulations provide an indication of the blowing snow erosion (accumulation) areas. These are then compared with the spatial distribution of glaciers in the Cariboo Mountains. Our results suggest that snow drift may contribute significantly to the mass budget of glaciers in the region.

  6. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council (U.S.); Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Act explicitly gives BPA the authority and responsibility to use the BPA fund for these ends, to the extent that fish and wildlife are affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric generation in the Columbia River Basin. The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) presents BPA's plans for implementing the Program during Fiscal Year (FY) 1992. The AIWP reflects the primary goals of the Council's Action Plan (Section 1400 of the Program): to provide a solid, timely, and focused basis for budgeting and planning. In addition, the AIWP provides a means to judge the progress and the success of Program implementation. The AIWP is based on the outline developed by the Policy Review Group (PRG) during Step 1 of the annual cycle of the Implementation Planning Process (IPP), which is described in Section III. This AIWP has been organized and written to meet the specific needs of Program Action Items 10.1-10.3. The AIWP includes schedules with key milestones for FY 1992 and beyond, and addresses the Action Items assigned to BPA in Section 1400 of the 1987 Program and in subsequent amendments. All Program projects discussed in the AIWP are listed in Tables 1 and 2 according to their status as of May 21, 1991. Table 1 (pp. 3-14) lists completed, ongoing, and deferred projects. Table 2 (pp. 15-16) lists FY 1992 new-start projects. ''Ongoing'' status indicates that the project started in FY 1991 or before and that it is expected to

  7. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1991.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council (U.S.); Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1990-09-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Act explicitly gives BPA the authority and responsibility to use the BPA fund for these ends, to the extent that fish and wildlife are affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric generation in the Columbia River Basin. The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) presents BPA's draft plans for implementing the Program during Fiscal Year (FY) 1991. The AIWP reflects the primary goals of the Council's Action Plan (Section 1400 of the Program): to provide a solid, timely, and focused basis for budgeting and planning. In addition, the AIWP provides a means to judge the progress and the success of Program implementation. The AIWP is based on the outline developed by the Policy Review Group (PRG) during Step 1 of the annual cycle of the Implementation Planning Process (IPP), which is described in Section III. This AIWP has been organized and written to meet the specific needs of Program Items 10.1-10.3. The AIWP includes schedules with key milestones for 1 and beyond, and addresses the Action Items assigned to BPA in Section 1400 of the 1987 Program and in subsequent amendments. All Program projects discussed in the AIWP are listed in Tables 1 and 2 according to their status as of September 1, 1990. Table 1 (pp. 3-14) lists completed, ongoing, and deferred projects. Table 2 (pp. 15-17) lists FY 1991 new-start projects. ''Ongoing'' status indicates that the project started in FY 1990 or before and that it is expected to

  8. Climate Change and Health in British Columbia: Projected Impacts and a Proposed Agenda for Adaptation Research and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Allen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study describing how climate change may affect the health of British Columbians and to suggest a way forward to promote health and policy research, and adaptation to these changes. After reviewing the limited evidence of the impacts of climate change on human health we have developed five principles to guide the development of research and policy to better predict future impacts of climate change on health and to enhance adaptation to these change in BC. We suggest that, with some modification, these principles will be useful to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  9. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council (U.S.); Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1990-01-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Act explicitly gives BPA the authority and responsibility to use the BPA fund for these ends, to the extent that fish and wildlife are affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric generation in the Columbia River Basin. This document presents BPA's plans for implementing the Program during Fiscal Year (FY) 1990. The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) reflects the primary goals of the Council's Action Plan (Section 1400 of the Program): to provide a solid, timely, and focused basis for budgeting and planning. In addition, the AIWP provides a means to judge progress and the success of Program implementation. The FY 1990 AIWP also follows the outline developed by the Policy Review Group (PRG) during Step 1 of initial cycle of the Implementation Planning Process (IPP), which is described in Section III. A number of new FY 1990 projects were still under review by the PRG as the AIWP went to press. These projects have been noted in Table 2, New FY 1990 Program Projects, and in the text of the AIWP. This AIWP has been organized and written to meet the specific needs of Program Action Items 10.1-10.3. The AIWP includes schedules with key milestones for FY 1990 and beyond, and addresses the Action Items assigned to BPA in Section 1400 of the 1987 Program. All BPA-funded Program projects discussed in the FY 1990 AIWP are listed in Tables 1 and 2 according to their status as of September 30, 1989. Table 1 (pp. 3-14) lists completed, ongoing

  10. Diffusion of innovation I: Formulary acceptance rates of new drugs in teaching and non-teaching British Columbia hospitals--a hospital pharmacy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, M M; Hill, D S; Stratton, T P

    1994-12-01

    Lag times in the diffusion of new drugs in the hospital setting have both patient care and pharmaceutical industry implications. This two-part series uses diffusion theory to examine differences in the adoption rates of new drugs in British Columbia teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Formulary addition of a new drug by a hospital's Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee was considered the adoption indicator. Time for adoption was defined as the difference between a drug's Canadian market approval date and the date of formulary addition. Surveys were mailed in September 1990 to 41 hospital pharmacies (response rate = 88%), asking respondents to provide formulary inclusion dates of 29 drugs marketed between July 1987 and March 1990. A significant difference (Mann-Whitney U Test, p < 0.0358) in median adoption time was observed between the six teaching and 25 non-teaching study hospitals, with the former adopting a new drug in 7.5 months versus the latter adopting a new drug in 12.1 months. PMID:10139270

  11. Epidemiological and Evolutionary Inference of the Transmission Network of the 2014 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N2 Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanhong; Berhane, Yohannes; Dubé, Caroline; Liang, Binhua; Pasick, John; VanDomselaar, Gary; Alexandersen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    The first North American outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) involving a virus of Eurasian A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (H5N1) lineage began in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada in late November 2014. A total of 11 commercial and 1 non-commercial (backyard) operations were infected before the outbreak was terminated. Control measures included movement restrictions that were placed on a total of 404 individual premises, 150 of which were located within a 3 km radius of an infected premise(s) (IP). A complete epidemiological investigation revealed that the source of this HPAI H5N2 virus for 4 of the commercial IPs and the single non-commercial IP likely involved indirect contact with wild birds. Three IPs were associated with the movement of birds or service providers and localized/environmental spread was suspected as the source of infection for the remaining 4 IPs. Viral phylogenies, as determined by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods, were used to validate the epidemiologically inferred transmission network. The phylogenetic clustering of concatenated viral genomes and the median-joining phylogenetic network of the viruses supported, for the most part, the transmission network that was inferred by the epidemiologic analysis. PMID:27489095

  12. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the commercial and industrial sectors in British Columbia: Technical/economic potential, market barriers, and strategies for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to current forecasts, greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption by the commercial and industrial sector will increase from 11,000 kilotonnes to 16,000 kilotons between 1990 and 2015. During the same period electricity generated in British Columbia from fossil fuel combustion will have increased from five per cent to 26 per cent. Therefore, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it will be imperative to find ways of significantly reducing the consumption of electricity, natural gas and petroleum products in both the commercial and industrial sectors. Increased application of energy conservation practices, energy efficiency improvements, fuel switching and the increased use of renewable energy sources come to mind as the most appropriate strategies to be considered, despite formidable barriers to implementation. Despite the existence of barriers, some progress is being made as indicated by codes and standards, financial incentives, educational and public awareness campaigns, and research and development programs. This report examines the barriers, the measures that have already been implemented to combat greenhouse gas emissions and the economic and environmental benefits that will accrue from these and other measures currently under development. The beneficial impact of increased investment in greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies on employment is emphasized. 24 refs., tabs., figs

  13. Trends and Determinants of Prescription Drug Use during Pregnancy and Postpartum in British Columbia, 2002-2011: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Smolina

    Full Text Available To describe trends, patterns, and determinants of prescription drug use during pregnancy and postpartum.This is a retrospective, population-based study of all women who gave birth between January 2002 and 31 December 2011 in British Columbia, Canada. Study population consisted of 225,973 women who had 322,219 pregnancies. We examined administrative datasets containing person-specific information on filled prescriptions, hospitalizations, and medical services. Main outcome measures were filled prescriptions during pregnancy and postpartum. We used logistic regressions to examine associations between prescription drug use and maternal characteristics.Approximately two thirds of women filled a prescription during pregnancy, increasing from 60% in 2002 to 66% in 2011. The proportion of pregnant women using medicines in all three trimesters of pregnancy increased from 20% in 2002 to 27% in 2011. Use of four or more different types of prescription drug during at least one trimester increased from 8.4% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2011. Higher BMI, smoking during pregnancy, age under 25, carrying multiples, and being diagnosed with a chronic condition all significantly increased the odds of prescription drug use during pregnancy.The observed increase in the number of prescriptions and number of different drugs being dispensed suggests a trend in prescribing practices with potentially important implications for mothers, their neonates, and caregivers. Monitoring of prescribing practices and further research into the safety of most commonly prescribed medications is crucial in better understanding risks and benefits to the fetus and the mother.

  14. Theories of the deep: combining salience and network analyses to produce mental model visualizations of a coastal British Columbia food web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Levine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arriving at shared mental models among multiple stakeholder groups can be crucial for successful management of contested social-ecological systems (SES. Academia can help by first eliciting stakeholders' initial, often tacit, beliefs about a SES, and representing them in useful ways. We demonstrate a new recombination of techniques for this purpose, focusing specifically on tacit beliefs about food webs. Our approach combines freelisting and sorting techniques, salience analysis, and ultimately network analysis, to produce accessible visualizations of aggregate mental models that can then be used to facilitate discussion or generate further hypotheses about cognitive drivers of conflict. The case study we draw upon to demonstrate this technique is Clayoquot Sound UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. There, an immanent upsurge in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris population, which competes with humans for shellfish, has produced tension among government managers, and both First Nations and non-First Nations residents. Our approach helps explain this tension by visually highlighting which trophic relationships appear most cognitively salient among the lay public. We also include speculative representations of models held by managers, and pairs of contrasting demographic subgroups, to further demonstrate potential uses of the method.

  15. Identification of Occupational Cancer Risks in British Columbia, Canada: A Population-Based Case—Control Study of 1,155 Cases of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Fang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer has been recognized to have environmental origin, but occupational cancer risk studies have not been fully documented. The objective of this paper was to identify occupations and industries with elevated colon cancer risk based on lifetime occupational histories collected from 15,463 incident cancer cases. Method: A group matched case-control design was used. All cases were diagnosed with histologically proven colon cancers, with cancer controls being all other cancer sites, excluding rectum, lung and unknown primary, diagnosed at the same period of time from the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Data analyses were done on all 597 Canadian standard occupation titles and 1,104 standard industry titles using conditional logistic regression for matched data sets and the likelihood ratio test. Results: Excess colon cancer risks was observed in a number of occupations and industries, particularly those with low physical activity and those involving exposure to asbestos, wood dusts, engine exhaust and diesel engine emissions, and ammonia. Discussion: The results of our study are in line with those from the literature and further suggest that exposure to wood dusts and to ammonia may carry an increased occupational risk of colon cancer.

  16. A Method for Estimating the Extent of Regional Food Self-Sufficiency and Dietary Ill Health in the Province of British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleck Ostry

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We outline in this paper a suite of methods, and illustrate their use, to empirically determine food self-sufficiency at a relatively small (Local Health Areas level of geography. Further we have, after identifying regions of lowest food self-sufficiency in British Columbia (BC superimposed these on regions whose populations have relatively poor dietary ill health. Approximately one third of Local Health Areas in BC have both poor local food self-sufficiency and populations suffering from poor dietary health. These are located mainly (but not entirely in poor under-developed rural regions of the province regions which require attention from health and food planners to improve local food security. Finally, we have demonstrated a methodological way forward to empirically determine regions in the province of BC most at risk for food insecurity. This information should be of interest to health and food planners within the province. These methods may also be useful for researchers and planners in other jurisdictions.

  17. Characterizing Dynamic Bedforms Using Multibeam Bathymetry in the Haro Strait and San Juan Channel Areas of British Columbia, Canada, and the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, H. L.; Greene, H.

    2003-12-01

    The San Juan Islands in the U.S. and British Columbia, Canada, are an archipelago located in Northwestern Washington, between the Northern Cascades Mountain Range and the Olympic Peninsula and are the result of tectonic compressional processes. This region has experienced a complex tectonic history of convergence, thrust faulting, uplift, subsidence, glaciation, tidal scour and sediment transport (deposition and erosion) that in turn have produced diverse marine benthic habitats. There are a variety of habitats including dynamic bedforms, moraines, and glacially scoured fractured and faulted bedrock outcrops. Multibeam bathymetric and backscatter data image the bedforms in detail and show they are concentrated within the waterways of the San Juan Islands, including Haro Strait, the Strait of Juan de Fuca and San Juan Channel. These bedforms may provide habitat for marine species, including migrating salmon. An interpreted map will be presented that focuses on the characterization of marine benthic habitats based on high-resolution (Simrad EM 1002 95 kHz) multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data. This study will assist in a better understanding of the physical and biological characteristics of the San Juan Islands Archipelago, especially near established Marine Protected Areas and will benefit effective implementation of resource management objectives.

  18. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River and its Tributaries Between Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, and Eagle, Alaska, USA, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, Douglas R.; Dornblaser, Mark M.

    2007-01-01

    The Yukon River basin is the fourth largest watershed in North America at 831,400 square kilometers (km2). Approximately 126,000 people live within the basin and depend on the Yukon River and its tributaries for drinking water, commerce, subsistence, and recreational fish and game resources. Climate warming in the Arctic and Subarctic regions encompassing the Yukon basin has recently become a concern because of possible far-reaching effects on the ecosystem. Large amounts of carbon and nutrients are stored in permafrost and have potential for release in response to this warming. These changes in carbon and nutrient cycling may result in changes in stream chemistry and productivity, including salmon populations, and ultimately changes in the chemistry and productivity of the Bearing Sea. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a 5-year comprehensive water-quality study of the Yukon River and its major tributaries starting in 2000. The study included frequent water-quality sampling at a fixed site network as well as intensive sampling along the Yukon River and its major tributaries. This report contains observations of water and sediment quantity and quality of the Yukon River and its tributaries in Canada during 2004. Chemical, biological, physical, and discharge data are presented for the reach of river between Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, and Eagle, Alaska, USA.

  19. An alternative policy evaluation of the British Columbia carbon tax: broadening the application of Elinor Ostrom's design principles for managing common-pool resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lacroix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is putting infrastructure, food supply, water resources, ecosystems, and human health at risk. These risks will be exacerbated depending on the degree of additional greenhouse gas emissions. Urgent action is needed to limit the severity of impacts associated with further warming. British Columbia (BC has taken action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from carbon-based fuels by introducing a carbon tax in 2008. As an innovative approach to climate change mitigation, especially in North America, studies evaluating its effectiveness are valuable. We assessed the long-term viability potential of the BC carbon tax using common pool resource design principles, a novel application of the design principles to environmental policy. We found that the design principles can be applied productively to environmental policy and larger scale air pollution problems. With regard to the BC carbon tax, our findings suggest that closer monitoring of user behavior, further increases of the tax over time, and pursuing efforts for a more elaborate system of nested enterprises and interjurisdictional cooperation could increase the long-term success of the BC carbon tax. We also found that the design principles allowed us to more comprehensively reach conclusions regarding the broader effectiveness of the tax when compared to existing policy analysis. Traditionally, climate policy evaluation has focused on the end goal without considering broader constraints and issues of resource allocation. We suggest that common pool resource theory, which is based on strong theoretical principles and encourages reflexivity, will be able to address those limitations.

  20. Source rock analytic of the Lower Jurassic Nordegg Member and oil-source rock correlations, northwestern Alberta and northeastern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riediger, C.L. (Univ. of Waterloo, ON (Canada)); Fowler, M.G.; Snowdon, L.R.; Goodarzi, F.; Brooks, P.W. (Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    The Nordegg Member, tentatively correlated to Nordegg outcrops in Alberta, comprises dark grey to black, variably phosphatic limestone and calcareous mudstone, and is easily identified in the subsurface of Alberta and British Columbia by a high gamma-ray log response. Analyses of more than 200 samples yielded total organic carbon (TOC) contents up to 28%, hydrogen index (HI) values up to 800 mg hydrocarbon/g TOC, and thermal maturity temperature values of 430 to {gt} 460{degree}C. A plot of HI vs oxygen index indicates Type I/II kerogen in the Nordegg Member. Petrographic analyses indicate a high abudance of amorphous material (bituminite) and alginite, which is typical of Type I/II kerogen. Inertinite, phosphate, and framboidal pyrite are less abundant. Thermal maturity increases to the southwest, in a pattern that generally parallels the edge of the disturbed belt. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analysis of Nordegg core extracts yielded low pristane/phytane ratios, low diasteranes/regular steranes and a predominance of hopanes over steranes. The biomarker signatures and lithotypes of the Nordegg indicate an anoxic, and possibly hypersaline, carbonate depositional environment. On the basis of these data, and also of tectonic evidence indicating that terrane obduction was occurring to the west during Early Jurassic time, it is suggested that the Nordegg was deposited in a silled basin with restricted oceanic circulation. Biomarker signatures of Nordegg extracts are positively correlated with some oils contained in Upper Triassic reservoirs. 43 refs., 17 figs.

  1. Aquatic impacts of an environmental disaster in a relatively pristine watershed: the breach of the Mount Polley Mine tailings impoundment, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Albers, Sam

    2015-04-01

    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids), in addition to eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek, were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a large plume of fine-grained sediment (d50 of ca. 1 µm) moved both up-lake towards important salmon spawning areas and down-lake into Quesnel River, which in turn flows into the Fraser River. This movement of the sediment plume is controlled by the physical limnology of the lake, especially seiche events. Samples of lake water and sediment samples taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of metals and other elements, which may have important implications for the ecosystem in this watershed (>11,000 km2). This presentation describes the failure and presents preliminary findings of the aquatic impacts of this environmental disaster.

  2. A Health and Nutritional Evaluation of Changes in Agriculture in the Past Quarter Century in British Columbia: Implications for Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleck Ostry

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes change in local food production in British Columbia with a focus on changes in the production of foods recommended for increased consumption by nutritionists. We determine, in one of the most productive agricultural provinces in Canada, whether secular trends in agricultural land use and food production, over the past quarter century, have resulted in increased production of foods recommended by nutritionists as more healthy and nutritious. In particular we are concerned with estimating the extent to which changes in agriculture and food production are congruent with official nutrition advice to avoid less healthy foods and to consume more vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. We demonstrate, using regularly collected agricultural census data, in spite of nutritionists’ advocacy for improved access to locally produced fruits, vegetables, and grains, since 1986, that BC agriculture is moving firmly in the opposite direction with greater production of animal fats, and hay and grain for animal feed and much reduced production of traditional fruits, vegetables, and grains designed mainly for human consumption. While nutritionists advise us to increase consumption especially of whole grains, vegetables and fruit, local production capacity of these foods in BC has decreased markedly between 1986 and 2006. In conclusion, there is a structural disconnect between the kinds of foods produced in BC and the nutritional needs of the population.

  3. Early diagenesis in a reducing fjord, Saanich Inlet, British Columbia. I. Chemical and isotopic changes in major components of interstitial water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.; Presley, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    Water and interstitial water from the reducing fjord of Saanich Inlet, British Columbia were analyzed for their major element composition, ammonia, phosphate and silica contents, and for stable isotope composition of sulfur and carbon species. Ca was the only major element to show a significant change with depth (a 75 per cent decrease in some cases). Ammonia and phosphate are highly enriched in the interstitial water (IW), concentrations reaching 250 ppM and 39 ppM, respectively. Total dissolved CO/sub 2/ in IW increases strongly with depth (20 to 30 times that in overlying sea-water) and it becomes enriched in C/sup 13/ (deltaC/sub PDB//sup 13/ approx. = 17.8%). Both sulfate and dissolved sulfide decreased with depth to a complete disappearance of all sulfur species from the interstitial water. The dissolved sulfide is highly enriched in S/sup 34/ (deltaS/sup 34/ approx. = + 18%). All these changes are attributed to strong biological activity in the sediments.

  4. An Evaluation of the British Columbia Asthma Monitoring System (BCAMS and PM2.5 Exposure Metrics during the 2014 Forest Fire Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E. McLean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The British Columbia Asthma Monitoring System (BCAMS tracks forest fire smoke exposure and asthma-related health outcomes, identifying excursions beyond expected daily counts. Weekly reports during the wildfire season support public health and emergency management decision-making. We evaluated BCAMS by identifying excursions for asthma-related physician visits and dispensations of the reliever medication salbutamol sulfate and examining their corresponding smoke exposures. A disease outbreak detection algorithm identified excursions from 1 July to 31 August 2014. Measured, modeled, and forecasted concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 were used to assess exposure. We assigned PM2.5 levels to excursions by choosing the highest value within a seven day window centred on the excursion day. Smoky days were defined as those with PM2.5 levels ≥ 25 µg/m3. Most excursions (57%–71% were assigned measured or modeled PM2.5 concentrations of 10 µg/m3 or higher. Of the smoky days, 55.8% and 69.8% were associated with at least one excursion for physician visits and salbutamol dispensations, respectively. BCAMS alerted most often when measures of smoke exposure were relatively high. Better performance might be realized by combining asthma-related outcome metrics in a bivariate model.

  5. Coalescence of late Wisconsinan Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets east of the Rocky Mountain Foothills in the Dawson Creek region, northeast British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickin, Adrian Scott; Lian, Olav B.; Levson, Victor M.

    2016-05-01

    Geomorphic, stratigraphic and geochronological evidence from northeast British Columbia (Canada) indicates that, during the late Wisconsinan (approximately equivalent to marine oxygen isotope stage [MIS] 2), a major lobe of western-sourced ice coalesced with the northeastern-sourced Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). High-resolution digital elevation models reveal a continuous 75 km-long field of streamlined landforms that indicate the ice flow direction of a major northeast-flowing lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) or a montane glacier (>200 km wide) was deflected to a north-northwest trajectory as it coalesced with the retreating LIS. The streamlined landforms are composed of till containing clasts of eastern provenance that imply that the LIS reached its maximum extent before the western-sourced ice flow crossed the area. Since the LIS only reached this region in the late Wisconsinan, the CIS/montane ice responsible for the streamlined landforms must have occupied the area after the LIS withdrew. Stratigraphy from the Murray and Pine river valleys supports a late Wisconsinan age for the surface landforms and records two glacial events separated by a non-glacial interval that was dated to be of middle Wisconsinan (MIS 3) age.

  6. Molecular characterization of bacterial diversity in Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) rhizosphere soils from British Columbia forest soils differing in disturbance and geographic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Monica L; Radomski, Christopher C; McDermott, Joseph M; Davies, Julian; Axelrood, Paige E

    2002-12-01

    Rhizosphere bacteria from Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) seedlings were characterized from forest soils which differed in disturbance and geographic source. Soil disturbance treatments included whole-tree harvesting with and without heavy soil compaction and whole-tree harvesting with complete surface organic matter removal and heavy soil compaction from British Columbia (BC) Ministry of Forests Long-Term Soil Productivity installations in three biogeoclimatic subzones in central BC, Canada. Bacterial community members were characterized by DNA sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments following direct DNA isolation from soil, polymerase chain reaction amplification and cloning. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 85% of 709 16S rDNA clones were classified as alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group, Acidobacterium, Verrucomicrobia, and candidate divisions OP10 and TM6. Members of the Proteobacteria and Acidobacterium represented 55% and 19% of the clone library, respectively, whereas the remaining bacterial divisions each comprised less than 4% of the clone library. One hundred and six 16S rDNA clones could not be classified into known bacterial divisions. No significant differences were detected for soil disturbance treatment or site effects on the proportions of 16S rDNA clones affiliated with Proteobacteria and Acidobacterium. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that it was common for 16S rRNA gene fragments from different soil disturbance treatments and geographic locations to be closely related. PMID:19709294

  7. Striving for Sustainability and Resilience in the Face of Unprecedented Change: The Case of the Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Burton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A massive insect outbreak in the public forests of central British Columbia (Canada poses a serious challenge for sustainable forest management planning. Tree mortality caused by natural disturbances has always been a part of wild and managed forests, but climate change is accentuating the uncertainty around such losses. Policy responses to accelerate overall timber harvesting levels to prevent further tree mortality and to aggressively salvage value from dead wood before it deteriorates can be disruptive and even counter-productive in the long run. Current alternatives are to strategically redirect existing timber harvesting quotas to the most vulnerable areas, minimize overall uplifts in cutting activity, prolong the period over which harvested timber can be processed, avoid the harvesting of mixed species stands or those with good advance regeneration, employ more partial cutting or “selective logging” techniques, and relax standards for acceptable species and inter-tree spacing during post-disturbance stand recovery. At the same time, careful attention to species composition and evolving landscape risk profiles may facilitate adaptation to anticipated climate change and reduce vulnerability to future disturbances. Harvest levels must be set conservatively over the full planning horizon if it is important to assure continuity of the timber supply with few disruptions to regional socio-economics and less stress to ecosystems. Broader lessons in sustainability include the option to emphasize persistence, continuity and flexibility over the long term, though at the expense of maximized production and full resource utilization in the short term.

  8. Holocene vegetation history and fire regimes of Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, southwestern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer D.; Lacourse, Terri

    2013-05-01

    Pollen analysis of a 9.03-m-long lake sediment core from Pender Island on the south coast of British Columbia was used to reconstruct the island's vegetation history over the last 10,000 years. The early Holocene was characterized by open mixed woodlands with abundant Pseudotsuga menziesii and a diverse understory including Salix and Rosaceae shrubs and Pteridium aquilinum ferns. The establishment of Quercus garryana savanna-woodland with P. menziesii and Acer macrophyllum followed deposition of the Mazama tephra until ~ 5500 cal yr BP, when these communities gave way to modern mixed P. menziesii forest. Charcoal analyses of the uppermost sediments revealed low charcoal accumulation over the last 1300 years with a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of 88 years. Fires were more frequent (mFRI = 50 yr) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) with warm, dry conditions facilitating a higher fire frequency than during the Little Ice Age, when fires were infrequent. Given the projected warming for the next 50-100 years, land managers considering the reintroduction of fire to the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve may want to consider using the mFRI of the MCA as a baseline reference in prescribed burning strategies.

  9. Modelling and mapping critical loads and exceedances for the Georgia Basin, British Columbia, using a zero base-cation depletion criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley A. RAYMOND†

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Critical load (CL and exceedance maps of sulphur (S and nitrogen (N for upland soils were generated for the Georgia Basin, British Columbia, Canada, by synthesizing available data layers for atmospheric deposition, climate (precipitation, temperature, soil, site classification and elevation. Critical loads were determined using the steady-state mass-balance model and a criterion based on zero-tolerance for further base-cation depletion. The resulting CL values were generally lowest on ridge tops and increased towards valleys. Critical load exceedance ranged from 13% of the Georgia Basin under wet deposition to 32% under modelled total (wet and dry deposition. Moreover, exceedance increased by an additional 10% when considering upland areas only for the Georgia Basin. Significant portions of the Georgia Basin are predicted to experience exceedance-enhanced base-cation depletion rates above 200 eq ha–1 y–1 and turn-over times to a final new base saturation state within 200 years under continued atmospheric S and N deposition.

  10. Reflections on the use of indigenous place-names in curriculum from research conducted with Tl´azt´en Nation, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Heikkilä

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Apart from conventional understandings of its utilitarian function as spatial labels (often eponymous in character, toponymy is seldom appreciated as palimpsest or for the layers of meaning it assumes, conveyed in place-name etymologies and local knowledge associated with the named places. Over the years, a growing body of literature has emerged on the use of toponymy in several research fields: the range spans from linguistic investigations into place-names and naming practices to the use of place-names in tracking environmental change, locating places of archaeological interest, and understanding the knowledge possessed by local communities about the natural environment. The latter focus describes place-names research with Tl’azt’en Nation, the Dakelh-speaking people whose territory lies in the Stuart-Trembleur watershed of central British Columbia, Canada. From the perspective that indigenous place-names communicate knowledge about the natural world, indigenous language and(oral history, this paper will draw upon examples of Dakelh place-names to demonstrate the value of indigenous toponymy in education.

  11. Factors controlling the timing of the spring bloom in the Strait of Georgia estuary, British Columbia, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, K.D.; Harrison, P.J.; Goldblatt, R.H.;

    1997-01-01

    El Nino year, the annual freshet of the Fraser River and probably the spring bloom started 1 month earlier. The bloom was interrupted by a wind event in late March. A few days later, its full recovery was interrupted by the peak in zooplankton grazing, and ambient ammonium concentrations increased...

  12. Attached and Free-Floating Bacterioplankton in Howe Sound, British Columbia, a Coastal Marine Fjord-Embayment

    OpenAIRE

    Albright, L. J.; McCrae, S. K.; May, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    Factors which influence the attachment of bacterioplankton to particles (including phytoplankton) were investigated by using (i) water samples removed from a coastal temperate fjord over an annual cycle and (ii) unialgal cultures of Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and Skeletonema costatum. Silt and salinity levels in this fjord seawater did not appear to influence bacterial attachment, but the percent attached bacteria was inversely related to both chlorophyll a concentrations a...

  13. A multi-instrument approach to monitoring turbidity currents: Case study from the Squamish Delta, British Columbia (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Sophie; Cartigny, Matthieu; Clare, Michael; Talling, Peter; Sumner, Esther; Vardy, Mark; Hughes Clarke, John

    2016-04-01

    Turbidity currents are volumetrically the most important process for moving sediment in submarine environments. They may travel at high speeds, thereby posing a threat to important and expensive seafloor infrastructure. Despite their importance, we still know little about their flow dynamics because direct monitoring is challenging and consequently rare. Additionally, the few settings in which monitoring has been feasible, have generally involved a single instrument approach, either measuring flow velocity, sediment concentration or grain size. Here we present results issued from a multi-instrument study where a single turbidity current was observed with several instruments at the same location and time using different measuring frequencies. Three types of geophysical sensors were deployed from a single vessel moored over a turbidity current channel on the Squamish Delta in British Colombia, Canada. First, two 500 kHz multibeam sonars suspended from the bow of the ship imaged the incoming turbidity current and documented its interaction with the crescentic bedforms on the channel thalweg. Second, a 600 kHz downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) lowered from the back of the ship provided vertical profiles of velocity through time. Third, a 1.0-24.0 kHz Chirp profiler enabled for the first time imaging of the dense near-bed zone of the turbidity current, which has so far been largely impenetrable using higher frequency sonar and ADCP instruments. Besides the stationary deployment, a repetitive multibeam survey was also performed using a moving vessel in order monitor temporal evolution of the seafloor morphology resulting from turbidity currents. By combining the measurements from each system, a single turbidity current was characterised in unusually high resolution. This current was 6 to 8 meters thick and at least 40 meters wide according to the multibeam sonars. The ADCP measured a front speed of around 1.5 m/s, higher than the internal

  14. Merits and Limits of Ecosystem Protection for Conserving Wild Salmon in a Northern Coastal British Columbia River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack A. Stanford

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss and degradation of freshwater habitat reduces the ability of wild salmon populations to endure other anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, harvest, and interactions with artificially propagated fishes. Preservation of pristine salmon rivers has thus been advocated as a cost-effective way of sustaining wild Pacific salmon populations. We examine the value of freshwater habitat protection in conserving salmon and fostering resilience in the Kitlope watershed in northern coastal British Columbia—a large (3186 km2 and undeveloped temperate rainforest ecosystem with legislated protected status. In comparison with other pristine Pacific Rim salmon rivers we studied, the Kitlope is characterized by abundant and complex habitats for salmon that should contribute to high resilience. However, biological productivity in this system is constrained by naturally cold, light limited, ultra-oligotrophic growing conditions; and the mean (± SD density of river-rearing salmonids is currently low (0.32 ± 0.27 fish per square meter; n = 36 compared to our other four study rivers (grand mean = 2.55 ± 2.98 fish per square meter; n = 224. Existing data and traditional ecological knowledge suggest that current returns of adult salmon to the Kitlope, particularly sockeye, are declining or depressed relative to historic levels. This poor stock status—presumably owing to unfavorable conditions in the marine environment and ongoing harvest in coastal mixed-stock fisheries—reduces the salmon-mediated transfer of marine-derived nutrients and energy to the system's nutrient-poor aquatic and terrestrial food webs. In fact, Kitlope Lake sediments and riparian tree leaves had marine nitrogen signatures (δ15N among the lowest recorded in a salmon ecosystem. The protection of the Kitlope watershed is undoubtedly a conservation success story. However, "salmon strongholds" of pristine watersheds may not adequately sustain salmon populations and foster social

  15. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Portland, OR)

    2005-07-01

    The runoff volume for 2004 was below average throughout the Columbia Basin. At The Dalles the January-July runoff volume was 77% of average or 83.0 MAF. Grand Coulee, Hungry Horse, and Libby were below their Biological Opinion reservoir target elevations on April 10 at the beginning of the spring salmon migration season. All major storage reservoirs except Libby, Grand Coulee, Hungry Horse, Dworshak, and Brownlee were within a few feet of full by the end of June and early July. Overall, NOAA Biological Opinion seasonal flow targets were not met at any project for either spring or summer migrations of salmon and steelhead. Overall, spill was reduced in 2004. Implementation of Biological Opinion spill for fish passage measures was wrought with contention in 2004, particularly for summer spill which was finally the subject of litigation. The spring migration spill season began with debate among the fishery mangers and tribes and action agencies regarding spill at Bonneville Dam for the Spring Creek Hatchery release. The USFWS agreed to a spill test versus a corner collector operation to determine the best route for survival for these fish. The USFWS agreement includes no spill for early Spring Creek Hatchery releases for the next two years. Spring spill at Snake River transportation sites was eliminated after April 23, and transportation was maximized. The federal operators and regulators proposed to reduce Biological Opinion summer spill measures, while testing the impact of those reductions. This proposal was eventually rejected in challenges in the Federal Ninth Circuit Court. The Corps of Engineers reported that spill at Bonneville Dam in the 2002 to 2004 period was actually lower than reported due to a spill calibration error at the project. Because flows were low and spill levels were easily controlled few fish were observed with any signs of Gas Bubble Trauma. The annual Smolt Monitoring Program was implemented and provided in-season timing and passage

  16. Assessing the Effects of Participant Preference and Demographics in the Usage of Web-based Survey Questionnaires by Women Attending Screening Mammography in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased usage of Internet applications has allowed for the collection of patient reported outcomes (PROs) and other health data through Web-based communication and questionnaires. While these Web platforms allow for increased speed and scope of communication delivery, there are certain limitations associated with this technology, as survey mode preferences vary across demographic groups. Objective To investigate the impact of demographic factors and participant preferences on the use of a Web-based questionnaire in comparison with more traditional methods (mail and phone) for women participating in screening mammography in British Columbia, Canada. Methods A sample of women attending the Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia (SMPBC) participated in a breast cancer risk assessment project. The study questionnaire was administered through one of three modes (ie, telephone, mail, or website platform). Survey mode preferences and actual methods of response were analyzed for participants recruited from Victoria General Hospital. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the association of demographic factors (ie, age, education level, and ethnicity) with certain survey response types. Results A total of 1192 women successfully completed the study questionnaire at Victoria General Hospital. Mail was stated as the most preferred survey mode (509/1192, 42.70%), followed by website platform (422/1192, 35.40%), and telephone (147/1192, 12.33%). Over 80% (955/1192) of participants completed the questionnaire in the mode previously specified as their most preferred; mail was the most common method of response (688/1192, 57.72%). Mail was also the most preferred type of questionnaire response method when participants responded in a mode other than their original preference. The average age of participants who responded via the Web-based platform (age 52.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 52.1-53.7) was significantly lower than

  17. The 6 August 2010 Mount Meager rock slide-debris flow, Coast Mountains, British Columbia: characteristics, dynamics, and implications for hazard and risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Guthrie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A large rock avalanche occurred at 03:27:30 PDT, 6 August 2010, in the Mount Meager Volcanic Complex southwest British Columbia. The landslide initiated as a rock slide in Pleistocene rhyodacitic volcanic rock with the collapse of the secondary peak of Mount Meager. The detached rock mass impacted the volcano's weathered and saturated flanks, creating a visible seismic signature on nearby seismographs. Undrained loading of the sloping flank caused the immediate and extremely rapid evacuation of the entire flank with a strong horizontal force, as the rock slide transformed into a debris flow. The disintegrating mass travelled down Capricorn Creek at an average velocity of 64 m s−1, exhibiting dramatic super-elevation in bends to the intersection of Meager Creek, 7.8 km from the source. At Meager Creek the debris impacted the south side of Meager valley, causing a runup of 270 m above the valley floor and the deflection of the landslide debris both upstream (for 3.7 km and downstream into the Lillooet River valley (for 4.9 km, where it blocked the Lillooet River river for a couple of hours, approximately 10 km from the landslide source. Deposition at the Capricorn–Meager confluence also dammed Meager Creek for about 19 h creating a lake 1.5 km long. The overtopping of the dam and the predicted outburst flood was the basis for a night time evacuation of 1500 residents in the town of Pemberton, 65 km downstream. High-resolution GeoEye satellite imagery obtained on 16 October 2010 was used to create a post-event digital elevation model. Comparing pre- and post-event topography we estimate the volume of the initial displaced mass from the flank of Mount Meager to be 48.5 × 106 m3, the height of the path (H to be 2183 m and the total length of the path (L to be 12.7 km. This yields H/L = 0.172 and a fahrböschung (travel angle of 9.75°. The movement was recorded on seismographs in British

  18. The 6 August 2010 Mount Meager rock slide-debris flow, Coast Mountains, British Columbia: characteristics, dynamics, and implications for hazard and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, R. H.; Friele, P.; Allstadt, K.; Roberts, N.; Evans, S. G.; Delaney, K. B.; Roche, D.; Clague, J. J.; Jakob, M.

    2012-05-01

    A large rock avalanche occurred at 03:27:30 PDT, 6 August 2010, in the Mount Meager Volcanic Complex southwest British Columbia. The landslide initiated as a rock slide in Pleistocene rhyodacitic volcanic rock with the collapse of the secondary peak of Mount Meager. The detached rock mass impacted the volcano's weathered and saturated flanks, creating a visible seismic signature on nearby seismographs. Undrained loading of the sloping flank caused the immediate and extremely rapid evacuation of the entire flank with a strong horizontal force, as the rock slide transformed into a debris flow. The disintegrating mass travelled down Capricorn Creek at an average velocity of 64 m s-1, exhibiting dramatic super-elevation in bends to the intersection of Meager Creek, 7.8 km from the source. At Meager Creek the debris impacted the south side of Meager valley, causing a runup of 270 m above the valley floor and the deflection of the landslide debris both upstream (for 3.7 km) and downstream into the Lillooet River valley (for 4.9 km), where it blocked the Lillooet River river for a couple of hours, approximately 10 km from the landslide source. Deposition at the Capricorn-Meager confluence also dammed Meager Creek for about 19 h creating a lake 1.5 km long. The overtopping of the dam and the predicted outburst flood was the basis for a night time evacuation of 1500 residents in the town of Pemberton, 65 km downstream. High-resolution GeoEye satellite imagery obtained on 16 October 2010 was used to create a post-event digital elevation model. Comparing pre- and post-event topography we estimate the volume of the initial displaced mass from the flank of Mount Meager to be 48.5 × 106 m3, the height of the path (H) to be 2183 m and the total length of the path (L) to be 12.7 km. This yields H/L = 0.172 and a fahrböschung (travel angle) of 9.75°. The movement was recorded on seismographs in British Columbia and Washington State with the initial impact, the debris flow

  19. Dom Export from Coastal Temperate Bog Forest Watersheds to Marine Ecosystems: Improving Understanding of Watershed Processes and Terrestrial-Marine Linkages on the Central Coast of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A. A.; Giesbrecht, I.; Tank, S. E.; Hunt, B. P.; Lertzman, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal temperate bog forests of British Columbia, Canada, export high amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) relative to the global average. Little is known about the factors influencing the quantity and quality of DOM exported from these forests or the role of this terrestrially-derived DOM in near-shore marine ecosystems. The objectives of this study are to better understand patterns and controls of DOM being exported from bog forest watersheds and its potential role in near-shore marine ecosystems. In 2013, the Kwakshua Watershed Ecosystems Study at Hakai Beach Institute (Calvert Island, BC) began year-round routine collection and analysis of DOM, nutrients, and environmental variables (e.g. conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen) of freshwater grab samples from the outlets of seven watersheds draining directly to the ocean, as well as near-shore marine samples adjacent to freshwater outflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied across watersheds (mean= 11.45 mg L-1, sd± 4.22) and fluctuated synchronously with seasons and storm events. In general, higher DOC was associated with lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; mean= 4.59 L mg-1 m-1, sd± 0.55). The relationship between DOC and SUVA254 differed between watersheds, suggesting exports in DOM are regulated by individual watershed attributes (e.g. landscape classification, flow paths) as well as precipitation. We are using LiDAR and other remote sensing data to examine watershed controls on DOC export. At near-shore marine sites, coupled CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) and optical measures (e.g. spectral slopes, slope ratios (SR), EEMs), showed a clear freshwater DOM signature within the system following rainfall events. Ongoing work will explore the relationship between bog forest watershed attributes and DOM flux and composition, with implications for further studies on biogeochemical cycling, carbon budgets, marine food webs, and climate change.

  20. Deposition of trace elements in the Trail region, British Columbia : an assessment of the environmental effect of a base metal smelter on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, F.; Sanei, H. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Duncan, W.F. [Teck Cominco Metals Ltd., Trail, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A two-year study was conducted to assess the spatial deposition and accumulation of trace elements on surface soil near a base metal smelter in Trail, British Columbia. The deposition was monitored by 22 flat moss-monitoring stations. The aerial deposition and accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc on the surface soil near the smelter was assessed. The objective was to determine the cumulative deposition of the elements that settle on land and to determine the influence of the pollution source in terms of deposition pattern and seasonal variation. The deposition of the trace elements was found to be highest near the smelter. The pattern of deposition varied seasonally. The factors affecting deposition were meteorological conditions, physiography, and in-process activities at the smelter. Production levels of lead and zinc at the smelter and the quantity of emissions from the stack were more directly related to the observed aerial deposition of elements than any other factor. There was a good correlation between the deposition rate of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper by the monitoring stations and the quantity of elements in the soil, suggesting the possible effect of airborne materials on the geochemistry of the soil in the study area. However, there was a poor correlation for mercury and arsenic, suggesting these elements in the soil samples may be related to soil chemistry instead of atmospheric deposition. The results provide an improved understanding of the net increase of trace elements in surface soil over a given period of time. 89 refs., 14 tabs., 18 figs.

  1. Using molecular biomarkers and traditional morphometric measurements to assess the health of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) from streams with elevated selenium in North-Eastern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lana L; Isaacs, Meghan A; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2015-10-01

    Canadian fish-based environmental effects monitoring programs use individual and population-level endpoints to assess aquatic health. Impacts of coal mining and selenium (Se) exposure were assessed in slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) from reference streams located both inside and outside of a coal zone, and from 1 stream with a history of coal mining, using traditional environmental effects monitoring endpoints. In addition, physical characteristics of the streams and benthic macro-invertebrate communities were assessed. To determine whether the assessment of effects could be improved by including molecular markers, real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were optimized for genes associated with reproduction (vtg, esr1, star, cyp19a1, and gys2), and oxidative and cellular stress (sod1, gpx, gsr, cat, and hsp 90). Water Se levels exceeded guidelines in the stream with historical mining (4 μg/L), but benthic macroinvertebrates did not exceed dietary thresholds (2-3 μg/g dry wt). Whole-body Se levels were above British Columbia's tissue guideline in fish from all streams, but only above the draft US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criterion (7.91 μg/g dry wt) at the reference stream inside the coal zone. Some markers of cellular and oxidative stress were elevated in fish liver at the exposed site (sod1, gpx), but some were lower (cat, sod1, gpx, gsr, hsp90) in the gonads of fish inside the coal zone. Some of the differences in gene expression levels between the reference and impacted sites were sex dependent. Based on benthic macroinvertebrate assessments, the authors hypothesize that traditional and molecular differences in slimy sculpin at impacted sites may be driven by food availability rather than Se exposure. The present study is the first to adapt molecular endpoints in the slimy sculpin for aquatic health assessments. PMID:25982233

  2. Reproductive success and chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of resident great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from coastal British Columbia, Canada, 1977 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human disturbance and loss of nesting habitat were more important factors than chlorinated hydrocarbons in changing heron reproductive success. - Over the period 1977-2000, eggs of Pacific great blue heron (Ardea herodias fannini) were collected from 23 colonies along the southern coast of British Columbia, Canada, and analyzed for persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of OC pesticides in eggs declined sharply in the late 1970s, after which there were minimal changes. The sums of PCB congeners were not reduced appreciably during the 1980s and 1990s, but Aroclor 1260 concentrations suggested a sharp decline in PCB contamination of eggs in the late 1970s, similar to that shown for OC pesticides. Eggs collected along or near the Fraser River delta showed higher levels of most pesticides compared to other monitored colonies. Although the delta lands support a long-standing agricultural economy, the primary factors influencing OC levels in the delta colonies were thought to be driven by estuarine processes. We suggest two possible influencing factors were: 1) a greater rate of bioaccumulation in the estuary due to the deposition of particulates collected over a vast area encompassed by the Fraser River watershed; or 2) a higher rate of biomagnification in the estuary due to species differences at lower trophic levels of the heron food chain. Eggs from urban colonies contained higher levels of PCBs. The congener pattern was not clearly different from that observed in less contaminated eggs from rural and pulp mill-influenced colonies, except that colonies in Vancouver had greater proportions of PCB-66, suggesting a local source of Aroclor 1242. Productivity in the coastal heron colonies was highly variable over the period of study, with 71% of recorded colony-wide reproductive failures occurring in colonies near pulp mills. However, the predominant factors influencing reproductive success were probably disturbance

  3. Geochemical constraints on the origin of the Kicking Horse and Monarch Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc ore deposits, southeast British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeginste, Veerle; Swennen, Rudy; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Ellam, Rob M.; Osadetz, Kirk; Roure, François

    2007-11-01

    Two Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore deposits, Kicking Horse and Monarch, have been studied with the aim of comparing the ores at the two localities and to characterize the origin of the mineralizing fluids and the ore formation process(es). Both deposits are hosted by the Middle Cambrian Cathedral Formation carbonate host rocks, Kicking Horse on the north and Monarch on the south flank of the Kicking Horse valley near Field (SE British Columbia). The ore bodies are situated at the transition of (western) basinal to (eastern) shallow-water strata of the paleo-Pacific passive margin succession in the Cordilleran Foreland Province of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Both deposits are related spatially to normal faults. In both localities, the ore minerals are dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, and galena. Dolomite, minor quartz, and calcite are also present in close association with the ores. The salinity (21-30 wt% NaCl eq.) and homogenization temperatures (63-182°C) measured in fluid inclusions in carbonate, quartz, and sphalerite lie within the typical range of MVT fluid conditions. The good stoichiometry (50-53 mol% CaCO3), low δ18O values (-21 to -14‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite) and relatively high homogenization temperatures (>95°C) of the dolomite suggest the dolomites were formed under burial diagenesis. The ore-forming fluids probably interacted with siliciclastic units, based on elevated Li contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios, which are highest in the dolomite type after the main ore stage. We propose that the ores formed from the mixing of a downward-infiltrating, sulfur-bearing halite-dissolution fluid with an upward-migrating, metal-rich evaporated seawater fluid, which had already undergone minor mixing with a dilute fluid.

  4. Contaminant risks from biosolids land application Contemporary organic contaminant levels in digested sewage sludge from five treatment plants in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks of organic contaminants in sewage sludges are evaluated. - This study examines the potential for environmental risks due to organic contaminants at sewage sludge application sites, and documents metals and various potential organic contaminants (volatile organics, chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins/furans, extractable petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, phenols, and others) in current production biosolids from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). There has been greater focus in Europe, North America and elsewhere on metals accumulation in biosolids-amended soil than on organic substances, with the exception of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Another objective, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which management of biosolids re-use based on metal/metalloid levels coincidentally minimizes environmental risks from organic contaminants. Historical-use contaminants such as chlorophenols, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides were not detected at environmentally relevant concentrations in any of the 36 fresh biosolids samples, and appear to have virtually eliminated from sanitary collection system inputs. The few organic contaminants found in freshly produced biosolids samples that exhibited high concentrations relative to British Columbia and Canadian soil quality benchmarks included p-cresol, phenol, phenanthrene, pyrene, naphthalene, and heavy extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (HEPHs-nCl9-C34 effective carbon chain length). It was concluded that, with the exception of these petroleum hydrocarbon constituents or their microbial metabolites, the mixing of biosolids with uncontaminated soils during land application and based on the known metal concentrations in biosolids from the Greater Vancouver WWTPs investigated provides adequate protection against the environmental risks associated with organic substances such as dioxins and furans, phthalate esters, or volatile

  5. Estimating the Need for Radiotherapy for Patients With Prostate, Breast, and Lung Cancers: Verification of Model Estimates of Need With Radiotherapy Utilization Data From British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Estimates of the need for radiotherapy (RT) using different methods (criterion based benchmarking [CBB] and the Canadian [C-EBEST] and Australian [A-EBEST] epidemiologically based estimates) exist for various cancer sites. We compared these model estimates to actual RT rates for lung, breast, and prostate cancers in British Columbia (BC). Methods and Materials: All cases of lung, breast, and prostate cancers in BC from 1997 to 2004 and all patients receiving RT within 1 year (RT1Y) and within 5 years (RT5Y) of diagnosis were identified. The RT1Y and RT5Y proportions in health regions with a cancer center for the most recent year were then calculated. RT rates were compared with CBB and EBEST estimates of RT needs. Variation was assessed by time and region. Results: The RT1Y in regions with a cancer center for lung, breast, and prostate cancers were 51%, 58%, and 33% compared with 45%, 57%, and 32% for C-EBEST and 41%, 61%, and 37% for CBB models. The RT5Y rates in regions with a cancer center for lung, breast, and prostate cancers were 59%, 61%, and 40% compared with 61%, 66%, and 61% for C-EBEST and 75%, 83%, and 60% for A-EBEST models. The RT1Y rates increased for breast and prostate cancers. Conclusions: C-EBEST and CBB model estimates are closer to the actual RT rates than the A-EBEST estimates. Application of these model estimates by health care decision makers should be undertaken with an understanding of the methods used and the assumptions on which they were based.

  6. The impact of Action Schools! BC on the health of Aboriginal children and youth living in rural and remote communities in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dona Tomlin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the short-term impact of a 7-month whole-school physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Action Schools! BC over the 2007–2008 school year for children and youth in 3 remote First Nations villages in northwestern British Columbia. Study design: A pre-experimental pre/post design was conducted with 148 children and youth (77 males, 71 females; age 12.5±2.2 yrs. Methods: We evaluated changes in obesity (body mass index [wt/ht2] and waist circumference z-scores: zBMI and zWC, aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle run, physical activity (PA; physical activity questionnaire and accelerometry, healthy eating (dietary recall and cardiovascular risk (CV risk. Results: zBMI remained unchanged while zWC increased from 0.46±1.07 to 0.57±1.04 (p<0.05. No change was detected in PA or CV risk but aerobic fitness increased by 22% (25.4±15.8 to 30.9±20.0 laps; p<0.01. There was an increase in the variety of vegetables consumed (1.10±1.18 to 1.45±1.24; p<0.05 but otherwise no dietary changes were detected. Conclusions: While no changes were seen in PA or overall CV risk, zWC increased, zBMI remained stable and aerobic fitness improved during a 7-month intervention.

  7. High Resolution Modelling of Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply and Demand, Crop Nutrient Usage and GHG emissions, Similkameen Watershed, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmasoudi, S.; Byrne, J. M.; Kroebel, R.; MacDonald, R. J.; Johnson, D. L.; McKenzie, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Similkameen watershed in southern British Columbia, Canada is expected to warm substantially in the coming decades. A higher proportion of winter rain to snow and an earlier onset of spring snowmelt are likely to result in lower spring stream flow peaks. The reduction in winter water storage, combined with longer, warmer, and drier summers, poses a challenge for water resources in an irrigation-based agricultural watershed. There are already substantial irrigation developments, and water demands are expected to increase to maintain current agricultural production, further stressing a shrinking summer water supply. Agriculture releases significant amounts of CO2, CH4 and N2O to the atmosphere, accounting for approximately 8% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, excluding CO2 emissions from fuels. Agricultural GHG fluxes are complex but the active management of agricultural systems offers possibilities for mitigating GHG emissions. Although GHG emissions derived from soil have been researched for several decades, there are still geographic regions and agricultural systems that have not been well characterized. This work will address a series of questions for the Similkameen watershed. For a range of climate scenarios, we will: (i) use the GENESYS (GENerate Earth SYstems Science input) hydrometeorological model to simulate historical and future water supplies; (ii) link GENESYS and AquaCrop models to assess climate driven changes in water requirement and associated crop productivity; and (iii) link GENESYS and HOLOS (whole-farm model and software program that estimates GHG emissions) to estimate farm and regional level GHG emissions and seasonal nutrient balance for the crops in the watershed.

  8. Do women spend longer on wait lists for coronary bypass surgery? Analysis of a population-based registry in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuramoto Lisa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown patients who are delayed for surgical cardiac revascularization are faced with increased risks of symptom deterioration and death. This could explain the observation that operative mortality among persons undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG is higher among women than men. However, in jurisdictions that employ priority wait lists to manage access to elective cardiac surgery, there is little information on whether women wait longer than men for CABG. It is therefore difficult to ascertain whether higher operative mortality among women is due to biological differences or to delayed access to elective CABG. Methods Using records from a population-based registry, we compared the wait-list time between women and men in British Columbia (BC between 1990 and 2000. We compared the number of weeks from registration to surgery for equal proportions of women and men, after adjusting for priority, comorbidity and age. Results In BC in the 1990s, 9,167 patients aged 40 years and over were registered on wait lists for CABG and spent a total of 136,071 person-weeks waiting. At the time of registration for CABG, women were more likely to have a comorbid condition than men. We found little evidence to suggest that women waited longer than men for CABG after registration, after adjusting for comorbidity and age, either overall or within three priority groups. Conclusion Our findings support the hypothesis that higher operative mortality during elective CABG operations observed among women is not due to longer delays for the procedure.

  9. Instability in eight sub-basins of the Chilliwack River Valley, British Columbia, Canada: A comparison of natural and logging-related landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Andrea; Ward, Brent; Millard, Tom

    2010-08-01

    Logging causes increased landslide frequency in British Columbia. In this study, the slope, type, initiation location, aspect, rate, bedrock geology, and size of mass movements located in eight logged tributary valleys of the Chilliwack River Valley are investigated. A landslide inventory was created by digitizing landslides identified on aerial photographs dating from 1941 to 2002. This database was analysed using qualitative observations and simple statistical tests, and a comparison between natural and logging-related landslides was made. Slope tests displayed a significant difference between natural and logging-related events, indicating that, on average, logging-related landslides require lower slope gradients to initiate than natural events. Although aspect, initiation location, and landslide type did not show a significant relationship between natural and logging-related landslides, they do suggest subtle differences. Landslide rate was calculated and compared for natural and logging-related landslides. It was significantly higher for logging-related events, attaining a maximum of 31 times the natural rate in 1978 and an overall average increase of nine times the natural rate. Logging-related landslides were on average smaller than natural landslides but this nevertheless resulted in a 3.1 times increase in area affected by logging-related landslides compared to natural landslides. Geology may influence landslide frequency as well; it appears to be higher over the less resistive sedimentary rocks of the Cultus Formation and Chilliwack Group and lower in granodioritic areas. Finally, roads affected slope stability more than clearcuts in the early decades of the study, but this effect decreased over time, suggesting a correlation with improved road construction.

  10. Dominance shift of zooplankton species composition in the central Strait of Georgia, British Columbia during 1997 Cambio en el zooplancton dominante del estrecho de Georgia, British Columbia durante 1997

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    Martha J. Haro-Garay

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A multivariate analysis of the zooplankton was completed during the 1997 annual cycle in the central Strait of Georgia, Canada. Sampling was conducted monthly in a single location (49° 15' 0" N, 123° 44' 9" W. The study used the species as environment descriptors, and examined possible patterns of species associations. Principal components analysis showed two groups of species coinciding with changes in vertical salinity structure arising from two phases of the Fraser River runoff. Group I was dominant during fall-winter to early spring related to low-runoff season. Group II was dominant during late spring to summer, and related to high-runoff season. Notable results were the scarcity of Neocalanus plumchrus and Euphausia pacifica, typically dominant species of zooplankton, coincident with river runoff levels lower than previous years and with an early phytoplankton bloom. We speculate that these results are a consequence of El Niño 1997 event, combined with the climate change expressed as a decreased freshwater runoff. Low abundance of Neocalanus plumchrus and Euphausia pacifica affected the zooplankton biomass. Consequently, substitute dominant P. pacifica and Cyphocaris challengeriprobable play an important role in trophic dynamics while N. plumchrus and E. pacifica are scarce. Both amphipods feed on small zooplankters that feed on nanoplankton, concentrating food energy and biomass from small zooplankters. This suggests that P. pacifica and C. challengeri are an important link in the trophic ecology of the Strait of Georgia. In conclusion, shifts in zooplankton species dominance highly likely have an effect on juvenile zooplanktivorous salmon specie.Se realizó un análisis multivariado del zooplancton de la parte central del estrecho de Georgia, Canadá durante 1997, con muestreos mensuales en una localidad (49° 15' 0" N, 123° 44' 9" W. Las especies se usaron como descriptores del ambiente para examinar posibles patrones de asociaci

  11. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  12. Integrated Hatchery Operations : Existing Policy Affecting Hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-05-01

    Collected together in this document is relevant laws and policy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington State Department of Wildlife, Oregon State, Washington Department of Fisheries, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game as they affect hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  13. Comparison of carbon-stock changes, eddy-covariance carbon fluxes and model estimates in coastal Douglas-fir stands in British Columbia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin JFerster; JA TonYTrofymow; Nicholas C Coops; Baozhang Chen; Thomas AndreWBlack

    2015-01-01

    Background:The global network of eddy-covariance (EC) flux-towers has improved the understanding of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, however, the network has a relatively limited spatial extent compared to forest inventory data and plots. Developing methods to use inventory-based and EC flux measurements together with modeling approaches is necessary evaluate forest C dynamics across broad spatial extents. Methods:Changes in C stock change (ΔC) were computed based on repeated measurements of forest inventory plots and compared with separate measurements of cumulative net ecosystem productivity (ΣNEP) over four years (2003–2006) for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesi var menziesi ) dominated regeneration (HDF00), juvenile (HDF88 and HDF90) and near-rotation (DF49) aged stands (6, 18, 20, 57 years old in 2006, respectively) in coastal British Columbia.ΔC was determined from forest inventory plot data alone, and in a hybrid approach using inventory data along with litter fall data and published decay equations to determine the change in detrital pools. TheseΔC-based estimates were then compared withΣNEP measured at an eddy-covariance flux-tower (EC-flux) and modelled by the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) using historic forest inventory and forest disturbance data. Footprint analysis was used with remote sensing, soils and topography data to evaluate how well the inventory plots represented the range of stand conditions within the area of the flux-tower footprint and to spatial y scale the plot data to the area of the EC-flux and model based estimates. Results:The closest convergence among methods was for the juvenile stands while the largest divergences were for the regenerating clearcut, followed by the near-rotation stand. At the regenerating clearcut, footprint weighting of CBM-CFS3ΣNEP increased convergence with EC fluxΣNEP, but not forΔC. While spatial scaling and footprint weighting did not increase convergence forΔC, they did

  14. Income inequities in end-of-life health care spending in British Columbia, Canada: A cross-sectional analysis, 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Gillian E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to measure the income-related inequalities and inequities - the inequalities that remain after accounting for differences in health need - in expenditure on fully publicly covered (hospital and ambulatory and partially publicly covered (prescription drugs services for those in their last year of life in the province of British Columbia (B.C., Canada. We focused on a decedent population for three reasons: to minimize unmeasured need differences among our cohort and therefore isolate income effects; to explore inequities for a high-spending window of health care use; and, because previous studies have found conflicting relationships between income and decedent health care spending, to further quantify this relationship. Methods We used linked administrative databases to describe spending on health services by income for all 58,820 deaths of B.C. residents 65 and older from 2004 to 2006. Regression analyses examined the association between income and health care spending, adjusting for age, sex, health status, cause of death, and other relevant factors. We then used concentration indexes to measure both inequalities and inequities separately for three key types of services. Analyses were also run separately for men and women. Results On average, per capita expenditure on acute health care in the last year of life was $20,705 (CDN2006. In need-adjusted regression analyses, we found decedents in the highest income quintile had 11% lower hospital expenditures, 15% higher specialist expenditures and 23% higher prescription drug expenditures than decedents in the lowest income quintile. Concentration index analysis suggested that spending for all types of care was concentrated among those with higher income before adjusting for need. Need-adjusted equity results mirrored regression findings and suggested patterns of inequities that were more pronounced among male decedents than females. Conclusions Despite the

  15. Magmatic and structural controls on porphyry-style Cu-Au-Mo mineralization at Kemess South, Toodoggone District of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duuring, Paul; Rowins, Stephen M.; McKinley, Bradley S. M.; Dickinson, Jenni M.; Diakow, Larry J.; Kim, Young-Seog; Creaser, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Kemess South is the only Cu-Au-Mo mine in the Toodoggone district and a major Cu and Au producer in British Columbia. Porphyry-style Cu-Au-Mo mineralization is mainly hosted by the tabular, SW-plunging, 199.6 ± 0.6-Ma Maple Leaf granodiorite, which intrudes tightly folded, SW-dipping, Permian Asitka Group siltstone and limestone and homogeneous Triassic Takla Group basalt. Southwest-dipping 194.0 ± 0.4-Ma Toodoggone Formation conglomerate, volcaniclastic, and epiclastic rocks overlie the granodiorite and Asitka Group rocks. Minor Cu-Au-Mo mineralization is hosted by the immediate Takla Group basalt country rock, whereas low-tonnage high-grade Cu zones occur beneath a 30-m-thick leached capping in supergene-altered granodiorite and in exotic positions in overlying Toodoggone Formation conglomerate. Granodiorite has an intrusive contact with mineralized and altered Takla Group basalt but displays a sheared contact with unmineralized and less altered Asitka Group siltstone. The North Block fault is a deposit-scale, E-striking, steeply S-dipping normal fault that juxtaposes the granodiorite/basalt ore body against unmineralized Asitka Group rocks. Younger NW- and NE-striking normal-dextral faults cut all rock types, orebodies, and the North Block fault with displacements of up to 100 m and result in the graben-and-horst-style block faulting of the stratigraphy and ore body. Both basalt and granodiorite host comparable vein sequence and alteration histories, with minor variations in hydrothermal mineral assemblages caused by differing protolith chemistry. Early potassic alteration (and associated early-stage Cu ± Au ± Mo mineralization) is partly replaced by phyllic and intermediate argillic alteration associated with main-stage Cu-Au-Mo mineralization. Two main-stage veins have Re-Os molybdenite ages of 201.3 ± 1.2 and 201.1 ± 1.2 Ma. These mineralization ages overlap the 199.6 ± 0.6-Ma U-Pb zircon crystallization age for the Maple Leaf granodiorite. Late

  16. Stabilization of garnet in metamorphosed altered turbidites near the St. Eugene lead-zinc deposit, southeastern British Columbia: Equilibrium and kinetic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, David R. M.; Seitz, JennaLee D.

    2012-03-01

    The St. Eugene lead-zinc deposit, near Moyie, southeastern British Columbia, is a Mesoproterozoic vein deposit hosted by metaturbidites of the 1.5-1.4 Ga Belt-Purcell Supergroup. The regional metamorphic grade of the rocks is biotite zone, with the age of metamorphism being Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.35 Ga). The vein system is enveloped by a metamorphosed alteration zone of increasing intensity as the vein is approached. Thin argillaceous tops of turbidite beds away from the vein are garnet-free, whereas those in the inner alteration zone are garnet-bearing. Compared to rocks away from the vein, those near the vein are enriched in Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, with proportional reduction in other compositional parameters. Thermodynamic modeling of three rocks across the alteration gradient predicts increasing stabilization of garnet with increasing degree of alteration. Predicted and observed modes of garnet in the samples are in close agreement. In the most altered rock, the garnet-in line is displaced down-temperature by ~ 100 °C relative to the least altered rock. Approximately 2/3 of the garnet stabilization is accounted for by increase in Mn content and the rest by increase in Fe/(Fe + Mg). Kinetic factors played a role in the development of the mineral assemblages, including metastable persistence of zoisite, and disequilibrium (overstepped) initial growth of garnet. Estimates of peak pressure-temperature conditions from mineral assemblage constraints and from compositional isopleths are complicated by the kinetic effects but yield similar results: 490-510 °C and 3.6-4.0 kbar. The pressure-temperature estimates imply an average linear geothermal gradient of ~ 35 °C/km, broadly consistent with burial metamorphism in the Belt-Purcell extensional basin. However, the estimated pressure, equivalent to a depth of 13-15 km, is greater than the estimated ~ 8 km (~ 2.2 kbar) of stratigraphic overburden at the time of metamorphism. The results of this study support the idea that

  17. Gold-rich sulfide melt inclusions in xenocrysts from a mid-crustal magma chamber, Mt. Milligan porphyry deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J. J.; Guillong, M.

    2009-05-01

    Very coarse-grained amphibole xenocrysts (potassian magnesiohastingsite) hosted in an early monzonite stock at the Mt Milligan Cu-Au porphyry deposit, British Columbia, Canada contain coeval sulfide and silicate melt inclusions of primary origin. The sulfide melt inclusions have a bulk composition comparable to Cu-rich ISS. Late growth zones in the amphibole are devoid of sulfide inclusions and contain only low salinity, chalcopyrite-bearing fluid inclusions(average 7.4 wt% NaCleq.). Thermobarometry constrains the minimum conditions of sulfide entrapment (amphibole crystallization) to ˜8 kbar and ˜700°C. LA-ICPMS analyses of 22 sulfide melt inclusions show that it was highly enriched in Au (50± 20 ppm, 1σ), Ag (140± 70 ppm, 1σ) and Ni (5000 ± 3000 ppm, 1σ). Ratios of Cu/Au (7500± 2500, 1σ) and Au/Ag (0.45± 0.24, 1σ) are identical to metal ratios in porphyry- stage veins, demonstrating that these metals were not fractionated from one another during suspected volatile exsolution, fluid-melt partitioning, and subsequent transport and precipitation of ore metals. The extremely Au- rich composition of the sulfide melt may reflect fractional crystallization of the sulfide liquid prior to entrapment in the amphibole. Both the xenocrysts and rare, high Mg, alkali basalt xenoliths hosted in the intrusions are depleted in Cr, Co, Ni and Cu, reflecting the sequestering of the base metals into a sulfide liquid in a mid- crustal magma chamber where amphibole and Cr-spinel were cumulus phases. The results of this study show that a Cu-Au-rich sulfide melt coexisted with a amphibole-saturated alkalic basaltic liquid in mid-crustal magma chamber prior to the emplacement of the main intrusions and associated porphyry stage mineralization at Mt. Milligan. This sulfide melt appears to have destabilized with the appearance (exsolution) of a single-phase low salinity aqueous fluid. Identification and analysis of ore metals in sulfide melt inclusions in relatively common

  18. Climate change adaptation planning for the Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada: A combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, J. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Matthews, R.; Sydneysmith, R.; Tesluk, J.; Piggot, G.; Robinson, D. C.; Brinkman, D.; Marmorek, D.; Cohen, S.; McPherson, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada is among the world's most important commercial forest production areas, a key transportation corridor, and provides critical habitat for salmon and other wildlife. Climate change compounds threats to the region from other local environmental and social challenges. To aid local communities in adaptive planning for future climate change impacts, our project combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement in a participatory approach to build regional capacity to prepare and respond to climate change. The sociological aspect of our study interviewed local leaders and resource managers (both First Nations and settlers groups in three communities) to examine how perceptions of environmental and socioeconomic issues have changed in the recent past, and the values placed on diverse natural resources at the present. The three communities differed in their perception of the relative value and condition of community resources, such as small business, natural resource trade, education and local government. However, all three communities regarded salmon as their most important and threatened resource. The most important future drivers of change in the study region were perceived to be: "aboriginal rights, title and treaty settlements", "availability of natural resources", "natural resource policies", and the "global economy". Climate change, as a potential driver of change in the region, was perceived as less important than other socio-economic factors; even though climate records for the region already demonstrate warmer winters, decreased snowfall, and decreased spring precipitation over the last half century. The natural science component of our project applies a regional-scale dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) to simulate the potential future of forest ecosystems, with a focus on how climate change and management strategy interact to influence forest productivity, disturbance frequency, species

  19. Arboreal forage lichen response to partial cutting of high elevation mountain caribou range in the Quesnel Higland of east-central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela J. Waterhouse

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Group selection silvicultural systems have been recommended for managing mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou habitat in high elevation Engelmann spruce – subalpine fir forests in east-central British Columbia. We measured the response of arboreal lichen (a key winter forage to harvesting of 30% of the forested area using three partial cutting treatments, which created small (0.03 ha, medium (0.13 ha, and large (1.0 ha openings, and a no-harvest treatment. Treatments were replicated on four sites, and monitored over a ten year post-harvest period. The short-term loss of lichen associated with removal of approximately one third of the trees was partially offset by a significant (P=0.01 increase in lichen abundance on trees in the caribou feeding zone (up to 4.5 m in the three partial cutting treatments relative to trees in the uncut forest. Differences among treatments in the change in lichen composition, as measured by the percentage of Alectoria sarmentosa and Bryoria spp., were marginally significant (P=0.10. The partial cutting treatments showing a greater likelihood of shifting towards more Bryoria spp. than no-harvest treatment (P=0.04. In the year of harvest (1993, larger trees were found to hold more lichen than smaller trees (P=0.04, and live trees supported more lichen than dead trees (P=0.01, but lichen loading was similar among tree species (P=0.51. Tree fall rates were similar among treatments, based on the ten year average (0.6–0.8% of sample trees per year. The results indicate that caribou foraging habitat is maintained in the residual forest when group selection systems that remove only 30% of the trees are applied. Information on the distribution of lichen is useful for developing stand level prescriptions. Providing lichen bearing habitat meets just one of the needs of caribou. A comprehensive approach that considers all factors and their interactions is essential to maintain and recover the threatened mountain

  20. U-Pb geochronological constraints on the timing of episodic regional metamorphism and rapid high-T exhumation of the Grand Forks complex, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubley, J. F.; Pattison, D. R. M.; Tinkham, D. K.; Fanning, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Grand Forks complex (GFC) is a fault-bounded metamorphic core complex in the southern Omineca Belt of British Columbia, Canada. It experienced prograde metamorphism ranging from upper-amphibolite to granulite facies conditions during the Mesozoic to early Tertiary compressional stage of the Cordilleran orogeny. Peak metamorphism was followed by multi-stage exhumation in the Early Eocene. This study provides U-Pb monazite and zircon constraints on the timing of metamorphic episodes in the GFC and subsequent high-T, amphibolite facies decompression in the Early Eocene. Monazite LA-ICP-MS ages from metapelitic gneisses record episodic metamorphism from the Late Jurassic to Paleocene, with peak metamorphism occurring between ~ 59 and 50 Ma. Peak metamorphism was followed by rapid, near-isothermal decompression of the GFC between ~ 52 and 50 Ma, and leucosome crystallization at ~ 50 Ma. Thermodynamic modeling of metapelites in the system MnNCKFMASHPYCe predicts that monazite was not stable at peak metamorphic conditions, consistent with the dominant population of ~ 59 Ma ages representing growth along the prograde path, most likely at subsolidus conditions. Growth of widespread high-Y monazite rims (~ 50 Ma) is predicted along suprasolidus decompression and cooling paths. Zircon SHRIMP ages from igneous bodies in the GFC and hanging wall of the bounding Kettle River fault (KRF) suggest ductile deformation related to high-T decompression of the GFC was ongoing at 51 Ma but had ceased by 50 Ma, truncated by post-kinematic granitoids. This high-T deformation predates subsequent greenschist facies extension on the overlying KRF. A pre-KRF, hanging wall ductile shear zone is constrained to ~ 59-51 Ma. It deforms 59 Ma Ladybird suite leucogranites and may be related to high-T exhumation of the core complex. Rapid, > 100 °C/Ma cooling rates are required to accommodate high-T (amphibolite facies) exhumation of the GFC at 52-50 Ma followed by low-T (greenschist facies

  1. Columbia River : Select Area Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1998-06-01

    Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select area study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.

  2. BC Hydro - IPC review : report on the creation of IPC International Power Corporation and its joint venture with the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority for the Raiwind power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BC Hydro is one of the sponsors involved in the construction of a thermal electric power plant in Raiwind, Pakistan. As a Crown corporation, BC Hydro and its participation in the project is subject to the policies and priorities of the provincial government. This document describes the circumstances surrounding the creation of the International Power Corporation (IPC) and its joint venture with BC Hydro for the development of international power projects including the Raiwind project. The project has provoked much public discussion in British Columbia because of the involvement of Cayman Island companies in the project structure. There is concern with the intermingling of public and private interests in the project, including allegations that an IPC share offering benefited insiders of government and BC Hydro. A description of the history and structure of the Raiwind project and detailed information on the British Columbia participants is provided. Directors and shareholders of the principal corporate participants are listed. The development process in Pakistan, the key features of the project and the underlying agreements among the participants are described. An assessment of potential conflicts of interest and a review of public sector standards and guidelines regarding conflicts of interest is presented. 60 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to

  4. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2002-07-01

    Extremely poor water conditions within the Columbia River Basin along with extraordinary power market conditions created an exceptionally poor migration year for juvenile salmon and steelhead. Monthly 2001 precipitation at the Columbia above Grand Coulee, the Snake River above Ice Harbor, and the Columbia River above The Dalles was approximately 70% of average. As a result the 2001 January-July runoff volume at The Dalles was the second lowest in Columbia River recorded history. As a compounding factor to the near record low flows in 2001, California energy deregulation and the resulting volatile power market created a financial crisis for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Power emergencies were first declared in the summer and winter of 2000 for brief periods of time. In February of 2001, and on April 3, the BPA declared a ''power emergency'' and suspended many of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Biological Opinion (Opinion) measures that addressed mainstem Columbia and Snake Rivers juvenile fish passage. The river and reservoir system was operated primarily for power generation. Power generation requirements in January through March coincidentally provided emergence and rearing flows for the Ives-Pierce Islands spawning area below Bonneville Dam. In particular, flow and spill measures to protect juvenile downstream migrant salmon and steelhead were nearly totally suspended. Spring and summer flows were below the Opinion migration target at all sites. Maximum smolt transportation was implemented instead of the Opinion in-river juvenile passage measures. On May 16, the BPA Administrator decided to implement a limited spill for fish passage at Bonneville and The Dalles dams. On May 25, a limited spill program was added at McNary and John Day dams. Spill extended to July 15. Juvenile migrants, which passed McNary Dam after May 21, experienced a noticeable, improved survival, as a benefit of spill at John Day Dam. The suspension of

  5. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council (U.S.); Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1988-09-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501. the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Act explicitly gives BPA the authority and responsibility to use the BPA fund for these ends, to the extent that fish and wildlife are affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric generation in the Columbia River Basin. This document presents BPA's plans for implementing the Program during Fiscal Year (FY) 1989. BPA's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) reflects the primary goals of the Council's Action Plan (Section 1400 of the Program): to provide a solid, timely, and focused basis for budgeting and planning. In addition, BPA's Work Plan provides a means to judge progress and the success of Program implementation. This Work Plan has been organized and written to meet the specific needs of the Council's Action Plan, as described in Action Items 10.1-10.3 of the Program. The Work Plan includes schedules with key milestones for FY 1989 and beyond, and is organized to address the Action Items assigned to BPA in Section 1400 of the 1987 Program. All BPA-funded projects discussed in the FY 1989 Work Plan are listed in Tables 1 and 2 according to their current status. Table 1 (pp. 3-11) lists completed, ongoing, and deferred projects. Table 2 (pp. 12-13) lists all projects which BPA plans to fund as ''new'' projects in FY 1989. ''Ongoing'' status indicates that the project started in FY 1988 or before, and that it was still being implemented by BPA at the end of FY 1988. &apos

  6. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  7. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie L.

    1998-09-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerabilit2048 different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  8. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  9. Avian predation on juvenile salmonids in the Lower Columbia River; 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results

  10. Mineral chemistry and shrimp U-Pb Geochronology of mesoproterozoic polycrase-titanite veins in the sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag Deposit, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Belkin, H.E.; Fanning, C.M.; Ransom, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    Small polycrase-titanite veins 0.1-2 mm thick cut the tourmalinite feeder zone in the deep footwall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, southeastern British Columbia. Unaltered, euhedral crystals of polycrase and titanite 50-100 ??m in diameter are variably replaced by a finer-grained alteration-induced assemblage composed of anhedral polycrase and titanite with local calcite, albite, epidote, allanite, and thorite or uranothorite (or both). Average compositions of the unaltered and altered polycrase, as determined by electron-microprobe analysis, are (Y0.38 REE0.49 Th0.10 Ca0.04 Pb0.03 Fe0.01U0.01) (Ti1.48 Nb0.54 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6 and (Y0.42 REE0.32 Th0.15 U0.06 Ca0.04 Pb0.01 Fe0.01) (Ti1.57 Nb0.44 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6, respectively. The unaltered titanite has, in some areas, appreciable F (to 0.15 apfu), Y (to 0.40 apfu), and Nb (to 0.13 apfu). SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of eight grains of unaltered polycrase yields a weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 1413 ?? 4 Ma (2??) that is interpreted to be the age of vein formation. This age is 50-60 m.y. younger than the ca. 1470 Ma age of synsedimentary Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the Sullivan deposit, which is based on combined geological and geochronological data. SHRIMP ages for altered polycrase and titanite suggest later growth of minerals during the ???1370-1320 Ma East Kootenay and ???1150-1050 Ma Grenvillian orogenies. The 1413 ?? 4 Ma age for the unaltered polycrase in the veins records a previously unrecognized post-ore (1370 Ma) mineralizing event in the Sullivan deposit and vicinity. The SHRIMP U-Pb age of the polycrase and high concentrations of REE, Y, Ti, Nb, and Th in the veins, together with elevated F in titanite and the absence of associated sulfides, suggest transport of these high-field-strength elements (HFSE) by F-rich and S-poor hydrothermal fluids unrelated to the fluids that formed the older Fe-Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide ores of the Sullivan deposit. Fluids containing abundant REE, HFSE, and F may have been derived from a

  11. 75 FR 41762 - Safety Zone; Annual Kennewick, WA, Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races, Kennewick, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Follies Hydroplane Races. The safety zone is necessary to help ensure the safety of the participants as... completed. Basis and Purpose The Tri-City Water Follies Association hosts annual hydroplane races on...

  12. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has been conducting a study concerning the epidemiology and control of three fish pathogens which cause major disease problems in salmonids of the Columbia River basin. The pathogens studied include Cera to myxa Shasta, the myxosporean parasite which causes ceratomyxosis; Renibacterium salmoninarum, the bacterium which is the etiological agent of bacterial kidney disease; and the rhabdovirus which causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). During this project, the host and geographic range of C. Shasta have been more precisely determined and the known geographic range has been significantly expanded. The effects of the parasite on fish migrating through the Columbia River and on their introduction into salt water have been examined. Similar studies have been conducted with R. salmoninarum and it has been shown that bacterial kidney disease occurs at all life stages of salmonids and is responsible for mortality in both fresh and salt water. It has also been demonstrated that different isolates of R. salmoninarum have different antigenic composition. Results of demonstration projects designed to control IHN by using UV treated water for early rearing of salmonid fry were equivocal. The scope of the project was considerably narrowed and focused during the past two years The project has concentrated on a study concerning the biology of C. Shasta and the identification of potential chemotherapeutants for control of bacterial kidney disease. The emphasis of work on C. Shasta has been its pathogenesis. This aspect of the parasite has been investigated using histopathologic and immunologic methodology. Mode of transmission, the nature of the infectious stage, and potential intermediate hosts of the parasite have also been areas of active research. Classes of chemotherapeutants with the highest potential for efficacy against R. salmoninarum have been

  13. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  14. Proceedings of the 30. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium : case studies of reclamation and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad spectrum of environmental and reclamation issues associated with mine development were discussed at this conference along with rehabilitation of lands disturbed by resource exploration; metal, placer and coal mining; and, sand and gravel quarries. Research has shown that it is possible to minimize or eliminate environmental damage, even in challenging terrain, by using appropriate remedial methods such as revegetation, reforestation, soil conservation, resloping, and recontouring of the soil to return the ecosystem to a natural self-sustaining state. It was noted that revegetation and reforestation efforts typically involves the selection of appropriate species that will adapt to climatic and local soil conditions. The conference featured 21 presentations, of which 4 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Annual appraisal and liege homage: why the British NHS is fundamentally a feudal organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Len; Evans, Ann

    2003-01-01

    A study of the past can help us understand present-day management structures. Strong parallels can be seen between the present-day British National Health Service (NHS) and English feudal society in the early Middle Ages. Both systems are hierarchical, both show limited mobility between layers in the hierarchies and in both there is a strong element of central control coexisting with significant day-to-day delegation of responsibility. Ceremony plays a key role in relationships, such as through the swearing of liege homage in feudal society and through formal assessment and appraisal in the modern NHS. Although the NHS clearly does not show parallels for every element of feudal society, it is possible to draw practical lessons from the comparison, particularly relating to the ownership of problems, team-working and appraisal. PMID:12683435

  16. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  17. Kelt reconditioning : A research project to enhance iteroparity in Columbia Basin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) : Annual report 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family salmonidae. Natural rates of repeat spawning for Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. Increasing this repeat spawning rate using fish culture techniques could assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to grow and develop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for local populations. The primary purpose of this project in 2000 was to test the general feasibility of collecting, feeding, and treating steelhead kelts in a captive environment. Steelhead kelts were collected from the Yakima River at the Chandler Juvenile Evaluation Facility (Rkm 48) from 12 March to 13 June 2000. Kelts were reconditioned at adjacent Prosser Hatchery in both rectangular and circular tanks and fed a mixed diet of starter paste, adult sized trout pellets, and freeze-dried krill. Formalin was used to control outbreaks of fungus, and we tested the use of ivermectin to control internal parasites (e.g., Salmincola spp.). Some the kelts that died during the reconditioning process were analyzed via pathology and gonad histology to ascertain the possible cause of death and to describe their reproductive development at the time of death. All surviving specimens were released for natural spawning on 12 December 2000. Overall success of the reconditioning process was based on the proportion of fish that survived captivity, gained weight, and on the number of fish that successfully underwent gonadal recrudescence. Many of the reconditioned kelts were radio tagged to assess their spawning migration behavior and

  18. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele; Berggren, Thomas J.; Filardo, Margaret (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2003-09-01

    The runoff volumes in 2002 were near average for the January to July period above Lower Granite Dam (80%) and The Dalles Dam (97%). The year 2002 hydrosystem operations and runoff conditions resulted in flows that were less than the seasonal Biological Opinion (Opinion) flow objectives at Lower Granite Dam for both the spring and summer period. The seasonal flow objectives for Priest Rapids and McNary dams were exceeded for the spring period, but at McNary Dam summer flow objectives were not met. While seasonal flow objectives were exceeded for the spring at McNary Dam, the 2002 season illustrated that Biological Opinion management to seasonal flow targets can result in conditions where a major portion of the juvenile fish migration migrates in conditions that are less than the flow objectives. The delay in runoff due to cool weather conditions and the inability of reservoirs to augment flows by drafting lower than the flood control elevations, resulted in flows less than the Opinion objectives until May 22, 2002. By this time approximately 73% of the yearling chinook and 56% of steelhead had already passed the project. For the most part, spill in 2002 was managed below the gas waiver limits for total dissolved gas levels and the NMFS action criteria for dissolved gas signs were not exceeded. The exception was at Lower Monumental Dam where no Biological Opinion spill occurred due to the need to conduct repairs in the stilling basin. Survival estimates obtained for PIT tagged juveniles were similar in range to those observed prior to 2001. A multi-year analysis of juvenile survival and the factors that affect it was conducted in 2002. A water transit time and flow relation was demonstrated for spring migrating chinook and steelhead of Snake River and Mid Columbia River origin. Returning numbers of adults observed at Bonneville Dam declined for spring chinook, steelhead and coho, while summer and fall chinook numbers increased. However, all numbers were far greater

  19. Tracking past changes in lake-water phosphorus with a 251-lake calibration dataset in British Columbia: tool development and application in a multiproxy assessment of eutrophication and recovery in Osoyoos Lake, a transboundary lake in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fraser Cumming

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an active discussion about the potential and challenges of tracking past lake-water trophic state using paleolimnological methods. Herein, we present analyses of the relationship between modern-day diatom assemblages from the surface sediments of 251 fresh-water lakes from British Columbia and contemporary limnological variables. Total phosphorus (TP was significantly related to the modern distribution of diatom assemblages. The large size of this new calibration dataset resulted in higher abundances and occurrences of many diatom taxa thereby allowing a more accurate quantification of the optima of diatom taxa to TP in comparison to previous smaller calibration datasets. Robust diatom-based TP inference models with a moderate predictive power were developed using weighted-averaging regression and calibration. Information from the calibration dataset was used to interpret changes in the diatom assemblages from the north and south basins of Osoyoos Lake, in conjunction with fossil pigment analyses. Osoyoos Lake is a large salmon-bearing lake that straddles the British Columbia-Washington border and has undergone cultural eutrophication followed by recovery due to substantial mitigation efforts in managing sources of nutrients. Both diatom assemblages and sedimentary pigments indicate that eutrophication began c. 1950 in the north basin and c. 1960 in the southern basin, reaching peak levels of production between 1960 and 1990, after which decreases in sedimentary pigments occurred, as well as decreases in the relative abundance and concentrations of diatom taxa inferred to have high TP optima. Post-1990 changes in the diatom assemblage suggests conditions have become less productive with a shift to taxa more indicative of lower TP optima in concert with measurements of declining TP, two of these diatom taxa, Cyclotella comensis and Cyclotella gordonensis, that were previously rare are now abundant.

  20. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2001-06-01

    The year 2000 hydrosystem operations illustrated two main points: (1) that the NMFS Biological Opinion on the operations of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) fish migration measures could not be met in a slightly below average water year, and; (2) the impacts and relationships of energy deregulation and volatile wholesale energy prices on the ability of the FCRPS to provide the Biological Opinion fish migration measures. In 2000, a slightly below average water year, the flow targets were not met and, when energy ''emergencies'' were declared, salmon protection measures were reduced. The 2000 migration year was a below average runoff volume year with an actual run off volume of 61.1 MAF or 96% of average. This year illustrated the ability of the hydro system to meet the migration protection measures established by the NMFS Biological Opinion. The winter operation of storage reservoirs was based upon inaccurate runoff volume forecasts which predicted a January-July runoff volume forecast at The Dalles of 102 to 105% of average, from January through June. Reservoir flood control drafts during the winter months occurred according to these forecasts. This caused an over-draft of reservoirs that resulted in less volume of water available for fish flow augmentation in the spring and the summer. The season Biological Opinion flow targets for spring and summer migrants at Lower Granite and McNary dams were not met. Several power emergencies were declared by BPA in the summer of 2000. The first in June was caused by loss of resources (WNP2 went off-line). The second and third emergencies were declared in August as a result of power emergencies in California and in the Northwest. The unanticipated effects of energy deregulation, power market volatility and rising wholesale electricity prices, and Californian energy deregulation reduced the ability of the FCRPS to implement fish protection measures. A Spill Plan Agreement was implemented in

  1. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1986-12-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the causative agent Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The geographic range of the infectious stage of C. Shasta has been extended to include the Snake River to the Oxbow and Hells Canyon Dams. These are the farthest upriver sites tested. Infections of ceratomyxosis were also initiated in the east fork of the Lewis River and in the Washougal River in Washington. Laboratory studies with this parasite failed to indicate that tubeficids are required in its life cycle. Bacterial kidney disease has been demonstrated in all life stages of salmonids: in the eggs, fry, smolts, juveniles and adults in the ocean, and in fish returning to fresh water. Monoclonal antibodies produced against R. salmoninarum demonstrated antigenic differences among isolates of the bacterium. Monoclonal antibodies also showed antigens of R. salmoninarum which are similar to those of a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. A demonstration project at Round Butte Hatchery showed U V treatment to be an effective method for reducing the microbial population of the water supply and could reduce risks of IHNV. Tangential flow filtration was used successfully to concentrate IHNV from environmental water. At Round Butte Hatchery the carrier rate of IHNV in adults was very low and there was no subsequent mortality resulting from IHN in juveniles.

  2. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-02-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  3. Emerging technologies for reef fisheries research and management [held during the 56th annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute meeting in Tortola, British Virgin Islands, November 2003

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This publication of the NOAA Professional Paper NMFS Series is the product of a special symposium on “Emerging Technologies for Reef Fisheries Research and Management” held during the 56th annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute meeting in Tortola, British Virgin Islands, November 2003. The purpose of this collection is to highlight the diversity of questions and issues in reef fisheries management that are benefiting from applications of technology. Topics cover a wide variety of...

  4. Potential Influence of Climate Change on the Acid-Sensitivity of High-Elevation Lakes in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Strang; Julian Aherne

    2015-01-01

    Global climate models predict increased temperature and precipitation in the Georgia Basin, British Colmbia; however, little is known about the impacts on high-elevation regions. In the current study, fifty-four high-elevation lakes (754–2005 m a.s.l.) were studied to investigate the potential influence of climate change on surface water acid-sensitivity. Redundancy analysis indicated that the concentration of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and associated metals was significantly influe...

  5. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2004-09-01

    a benefit for steelhead. Survivals for spring fish in the Lower Granite to McNary Dam and the McNary to Bonneville Dam reach were similar to recent years. Returning numbers of adult spring and summer chinook, coho and steelhead were less than observed in 2002, but far exceeded the ten-year average return numbers. Sockeye numbers were less than both the 2002 returning adults and the ten-year average number. However, fall chinook numbers surpassed all previous counts at Bonneville Dam since 1938. In 2003, about 81 million juvenile salmon were released from Federal, State, tribal or private hatcheries into the Columbia River Basin above Bonneville Dam. This was slightly less than the number released last year, but about average for the past several years.

  6. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  7. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  8. Relationships Between Landscape Habitat Variables and Chinook Salmon Production in the Columbia River Basin, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    1999-09-01

    This publication concerns the investigation of potential relationships between various landscape habitat variables and estimates of fish production from 25 index stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon with the Columbia River Basin.

  9. Potential Influence of Climate Change on the Acid-Sensitivity of High-Elevation Lakes in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Strang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate models predict increased temperature and precipitation in the Georgia Basin, British Colmbia; however, little is known about the impacts on high-elevation regions. In the current study, fifty-four high-elevation lakes (754–2005 m a.s.l. were studied to investigate the potential influence of climate change on surface water acid-sensitivity. Redundancy analysis indicated that the concentration of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and associated metals was significantly influenced by climate parameters. Furthermore, these components differed significantly between biogeoclimatic zones. Modelled soil base cation weathering for a subset of the study lakes (n=11 was predicted to increase by 9% per 1°C increase in temperature. Changes in temperature and precipitation may potentially decrease the pH of surface waters owing to changes in anthropogenic deposition and organic acid production. In contrast, increased soil base cation weathering may increase the critical load (of acidity of high-elevation lakes. Ultimately, the determining factor will be whether enhanced base cation weathering is sufficient to buffer changes in natural and anthropogenic acidity. Mountain and high-elevation regions are considered early warning systems to climate change; as such, future monitoring is imperative to assess the potential ramifications of climate change on the hydrochemistry and acid-sensitivity of these surface waters.

  10. Seismic Performance Evaluation Framework Considering Maximum and Residual Inter-story Drift Ratios: Application to Non-code Conforming Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon eTesfamariam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a seismic performance evaluation framework using two engineering demand parameters, i.e. maximum and residual inter-story drift ratios, and with consideration of mainshock-aftershock (MSAS earthquake sequences. The evaluation is undertaken within a performance-based earthquake engineering framework in which seismic demand limits are defined with respect to the earthquake return period. A set of 2-, 4-, 8-, and 12-story non-ductile reinforced concrete buildings, located in Victoria, British Colombia, Canada, is considered as a case study. Using 50 mainshock and MSAS earthquake records (two horizontal components per record, incremental dynamic analysis is performed, and the joint probability distribution of maximum and residual inter-story drift ratios is modeled using a novel copula technique. The results are assessed both for collapse and non-collapse limit states. From the results, it can be shown that the collapse assessment of 4- to 12-story buildings is not sensitive to the consideration of MSAS seismic input, whereas for the 2-story building, a 13% difference in the median collapse capacity is caused by the MSAS. For unconditional probability of unsatisfactory seismic performance, which accounts for both collapse and non-collapse limit states, the life safety performance objective is achieved, but it fails to satisfy the collapse prevention performance objective. The results highlight the need for the consideration of seismic retrofitting for the non-ductile reinforced concrete structures.

  11. Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2011 - FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Teel, D. J.; Skalski, J. R.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Blaine, Jennifer; Kuligowski, D. R.; Kropp, Roy K.; Dawley, Earl M.

    2012-05-31

    The study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the University of Washington (UW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). This research project was initiated in 2007 by the Bonneville Power Administration to investigate critical uncertainties regarding juvenile salmon ecology in shallow tidal freshwater habitats of the lower Columbia River. However, as part of the Washington Memorandum of Agreement, the project was transferred to the USACE in 2010. In transferring from BPA to the USACE, the focus of the tidal freshwater research project shifted from fundamental ecology toward the effectiveness of restoration in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The research is conducted within the Action Agencies Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). Data reported herein spans the time period May 2010 to September 2011.

  12. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-03-01

    We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  13. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  14. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1987-1988.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council (U.S.); Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1987-10-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in carrying out our responsibility to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Act explicitly gave BPA the authority and responsibility to use the BPA fund for these ends, to the extent that fish and wildlife were affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric generation in the Columbia River Basin. This document presents BPA's plans for Program implementation during Fiscal Year (FY) 1988. BPA's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) reflects the primary goals of the Program's Action Plan: to provide a solid, timely, and focused basis for budgeting and planning. Additionally, BPA's Work Plan provides a means to judge progress and the success of Program implementation. This Work Plan has been organized and written to meet the specific needs of the Council's Action Plan, as described in Action Items 10.1-10.3. It includes schedules with key milestones for FY 1988 through FY 1990. The Work Plan is organized to address the Action Items assigned to BPA in Section 1400 of the 1987 Program.

  15. Feasibility and Risks of Coho Reintroduction in Mid-Columbia [Tributaries] Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James L. (Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    1999-10-01

    The long-term vision for the coho re-introduction project is to reestablish naturally reproducing coho salmon populations in mid-Columbia river basins, with numbers at or near carrying capacity that provide opportunities for significant harvest for Tribal and non-Tribal fishers.

  16. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2004-11-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of three study groups (direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 15 March to 21 June 2004. In total, 842 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 30.5% (842 of 2,755) of the entire 2003-2004 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. All steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially or for the duration of the

  17. Status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, annual progress report, July 1986 - March 1987.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts

  18. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1994-12-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered fall chinook salmon necessitates knowledge of the factors limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which affect spawning of the fish in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing seward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs. The spawning was generally a November event in 1993, with some activity in late Oct. and early Dec. Spawning habitat availability was assessed by applying hydraulic and habitat models to known fall chinook salmon spawning sites. Juveniles were seined and PIT tagged in the free-flowing Snake River, and in the Columbia River in he Hanford Reach and in McNary Reservoir. Subyearling fish were marked at McNary Dam to relate river flow and migration patterns of juveniles to adult returns. Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted on McNary and John Day reservoirs and in net pens.

  19. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  20. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2001-04-01

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

  1. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2002-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

  2. Report on the Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Program Evaluation for the Columbia River Basin Experimental Northern Pikeminnow Management Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Russell [Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission].

    2009-09-10

    This report presents results for year seventeen in the basin-wide Experimental Northern Pikeminnow Management Program to harvest northern pikeminnow1 (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. This program was started in an effort to reduce predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids during their emigration from natal streams to the ocean. Earlier work in the Columbia River Basin suggested predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids might account for most of the 10-20% mortality juvenile salmonids experience in each of eight Columbia River and Snake River reservoirs. Modeling simulations based on work in John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that, if predator-size northern pikeminnow were exploited at a 10-20% rate, the resulting restructuring of their population could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50%. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a sport-reward angling fishery and a commercial longline fishery in the John Day Pool in 1990. We also conducted an angling fishery in areas inaccessible to the public at four dams on the mainstem Columbia River and at Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River. Based on the success of these limited efforts, we implemented three test fisheries on a system-wide scale in 1991 - a tribal longline fishery above Bonneville Dam, a sport-reward fishery, and a dam-angling fishery. Low catch of target fish and high cost of implementation resulted in discontinuation of the tribal longline fishery. However, the sport-reward and dam-angling fisheries were continued in 1992 and 1993. In 1992, we investigated the feasibility of implementing a commercial longline fishery in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and found that implementation of this fishery was also infeasible. Estimates of combined annual exploitation rates resulting from the sport-reward and dam-angling fisheries remained at the low end of our target range of 10-20%. This suggested the need for additional

  3. Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration, Reporting Period: April 2008 - February 2009 [re: "Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and north California Current"].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries; Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Oregon State University; OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health Sciences University.

    2009-07-17

    We have made substantial progress toward our objectives outlined in our BPA supported proposal entitled 'Columbia River Basin Juvenile Salmonids: Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern California Current' which we report on herein. During 2008, we were able to successfully conduct 3 mesoscale cruises. We also were able to conduct 7 biweekly predator cruises, along with substantial shore-based visual observations of seabirds. Detailed results of the mesoscale cruises are available in the Cruise Reports and summarized in the next section. We have taken a proactive approach to getting the results of our research to fisheries managers and the general public. We have begun to make annual predictions based on ocean conditions of the relative survival of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon well before they return as adults. This is based on both biological and physical indicators that we measure during our surveys or collect from outside data sources. Examples of our predictions for 2009 and 2010 are available on the following web site: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fed/oeip/a-ecinhome.cfm.

  4. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam: annual progress report: April 1999 - March 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given

  5. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  6. A 100-Year Retrospective Landscape-Level Carbon Budget for the Sooke Lake Watershed, British Columbia: Constraining Estimates of Terrestrial to Aquatic DOC Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Smiley, B. P. K.

    2014-12-01

    To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke watershed from 1911 - 2012 was developed using historic spatial inventory and disturbance data. Data was input to a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3), an inventory-based C budget model used to simulate forest C dynamics at multiple scales. In 1911 the watershed was dominated by mature/old Douglas-fir forests with aboveground biomass C (ABC) of 262 Mg C/ha and net ecosystem production (NEP) of 0.63 Mg C/ha/yr. Land was cleared around Sooke Lake, a dam built and lake expanded from 370 to 450 ha in 1915, 610 ha in 1970, 670 ha in 1980 and 810 ha in 2002. Along with deforestation, fires and localized harvest occurred from 1920 - 1940, reducing ABC to 189 Mg C/ha, with NEP varying from -1.63 to 0.13 Mg C/ha/yr. Distributed harvest occurred 1954 - 1998, with a minimum ABC of 148 Mg C/ha in 1991. By 2012 ABC (177 Mg C/ha) and NEP (2.29 Mg C/ha/yr) had increased. Over 100 years, 2430 ha forest was cut and replanted and 640 ha deforested. CBM-CFS3 includes transfers of dissolved organic C (DOC) to aquatic systems, however data has not been available to parameterize DOC flux. DOC fluxes are modelled as a fraction of decay loss from humified soil C with a default of 100% of losses to CO2 and 0% to DOC. Stream flow and [DOC] data from 1996 - 2012 for 3 watershed catchments, Rithet, Judge and Council were used to estimate annual DOC fluxes. Rithet, Judge and Council differed both in area % disturbed (logging or fire) over 100 years (39%, 93%, 91%) and in area % mature/old forest (>80yrs in 2012) (67%, 56%, 21%). DOC flux for Rithet and Judge ranged from 0.037 - 0.057 Mg C/ha/yr, Council averaged 0.017 Mg C/ha/yr. Low DOC fluxes were likely due to influences of a small lake in the catchment. Constraining CBM-CFS3 to observed DOC fluxes, required

  7. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The evaluation, in the fifth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2001 field season.

  8. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995, Volume I - Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Department of Fish and Game; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Nez Perce Tribe

    1996-06-01

    Clearwater Hatchery is located on the north bank of the North Fork of the Clearwater River, downstream from Dworshak Dam. It is approximately 72 miles from Lower Granite Dam, and 504 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. Site elevation is approximately 994 feet above sea level. The hatchery is staffed with 8 FTE`s. Clearwater Hatchery has two pipelines from Dworshak Reservoir. One is attached to a floating platform and is capable of providing various temperatures at varying depths. The other is a stationary intake about 245 feet below the top of the dam. All water is gravity fed to the hatchery. An 18-inch intake pipe provides an estimated 10 cfs with temperature remaining constant at approximately 40T. The primary 42-inch intake pipe can draw water from 5 to 45 feet in depth with temperatures ranging from 55{degrees} to 60{degrees}F and 70 cfs of flow. This report describes the operations of the hatchery.

  9. Historic Habitat Opportunities and Food-Web Linkages of Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; Campbell, Lance [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-15

    In 2002 with support from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), an interagency research team began investigating salmon life histories and habitat use in the lower Columbia River estuary to fill significant data gaps about the estuary's potential role in salmon decline and recovery . The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provided additional funding in 2004 to reconstruct historical changes in estuarine habitat opportunities and food web linkages of Columbia River salmon (Onchorhynchus spp.). Together these studies constitute the estuary's first comprehensive investigation of shallow-water habitats, including selected emergent, forested, and scrub-shrub wetlands. Among other findings, this research documented the importance of wetlands as nursery areas for juvenile salmon; quantified historical changes in the amounts and distributions of diverse habitat types in the lower estuary; documented estuarine residence times, ranging from weeks to months for many juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha); and provided new evidence that contemporary salmonid food webs are supported disproportionately by wetland-derived prey resources. The results of these lower-estuary investigations also raised many new questions about habitat functions, historical habitat distributions, and salmon life histories in other areas of the Columbia River estuary that have not been adequately investigated. For example, quantitative estimates of historical habitat changes are available only for the lower 75 km of the estuary, although tidal influence extends 217 km upriver to Bonneville Dam. Because the otolith techniques used to reconstruct salmon life histories rely on detection of a chemical signature (strontium) for salt water, the estuarine residency information we have collected to date applies only to the lower 30 or 35 km of the estuary, where fish first encounter ocean water. We lack information about salmon habitat use, life histories, and growth within the long tidal

  10. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume I, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of post-seasonal analyses including timing and relative magnitude of the outmigration, travel time for marked hatchery releases, and survival in mid-Columbia and lower Snake River index reaches. Travel time of marked yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tsawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) is measured between specific sampling points in the system. Marked groups usually represent major hatchery production stocks. Survival estimates are computed for specific spring chinook and steelhead marked groups. Arrival time and duration of outmigration of the chinook, sockeye, coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead runs are reported at key sampling points. Hatchery and brand release information for 1986 is also listed.

  11. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume II, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; US Fish and Wildlife Service

    1996-06-01

    Big Creek Hatchery is located 16 miles east of Astoria, Oregon and is approximately 3 miles upstream from Big Creek`s confluence with the Columbia River. The site elevation is approximately 75 feet above sea level. The facility includes 2 adult holding ponds, 30 raceways, 1 rearing pond, 64 troughs and 8 stacks of egg incubators. The adult collection and holding ponds are in poor condition and are inadequate to meet current program objectives. There are four water sources for the hatchery: Big Creek, Mill Creek and two springs. Current water rights total 36,158 gpm plus an additional 4.2 cfs reservoir water right. All water supplies are delivered by gravity but can be pumped for reuse if required. The facility is staffed with 9.25 FTE`s. Current practices at the hatchery are described.

  12. Flare pit reclamation in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legislative acts and policies administered by the Pollution Prevention program of the B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, (MELP) were reviewed. MELP is responsible for protecting land, water, air and living resources. Past oil and gas activities have left behind high levels of hazardous materials spills on the land which can pose a risk to human health. Flare pits are also a potential source of soil and groundwater contamination, therefore proper management and remediation of these sites is critical to ensuring that adverse impacts do not occur due to contamination of the sites. MELP has created a Contaminated Sites Regulation (CSR) which presents a consistent approach to ensuring protection of human health, the environment and property. This paper explores key provisions of the CSR, the prescribed contaminated sites management process and compares the B.C. legislation with that of neighbouring Alberta. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn; Johnson, Gary; Sather, Nichole [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-03-17

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled 'Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River'. Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The goal of the 2007-2009 Tidal Freshwater Monitoring Study is to answer the following questions: In what types of habitats within the tidal freshwater area of the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; Figure 1) are yearling and subyearling salmonids found, when are they present, and under what environmental conditions?1 And, what is the ecological importance2 of shallow (0-5 m) tidal freshwater habitats to the recovery of Upper Columbia River spring Chinook salmon and steelhead and Snake River fall Chinook salmon? Research in 2007 focused mainly on the first question, with fish stock identification data providing some indication of Chinook salmon presence at the variety of habitat types sampled. The objectives and sub-objectives for the 2007 study were as follows: (1) Habitat and Fish Community Characteristics-Provide basic data on habitat and fish community characteristics for yearling and subyearling salmonids at selected sites in the tidal freshwater reach in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta. (1a) Characterize vegetation assemblage percent cover, conventional water quality, substrate composition, and beach slope at each of six sampling sites in various tidal freshwater habitat types. (1b

  14. Historic Habitat Opportunities and Food-Web Linkages of Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; Campbell, Lance [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-15

    In 2002 with support from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), an interagency research team began investigating salmon life histories and habitat use in the lower Columbia River estuary to fill significant data gaps about the estuary's potential role in salmon decline and recovery . The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provided additional funding in 2004 to reconstruct historical changes in estuarine habitat opportunities and food web linkages of Columbia River salmon (Onchorhynchus spp.). Together these studies constitute the estuary's first comprehensive investigation of shallow-water habitats, including selected emergent, forested, and scrub-shrub wetlands. Among other findings, this research documented the importance of wetlands as nursery areas for juvenile salmon; quantified historical changes in the amounts and distributions of diverse habitat types in the lower estuary; documented estuarine residence times, ranging from weeks to months for many juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha); and provided new evidence that contemporary salmonid food webs are supported disproportionately by wetland-derived prey resources. The results of these lower-estuary investigations also raised many new questions about habitat functions, historical habitat distributions, and salmon life histories in other areas of the Columbia River estuary that have not been adequately investigated. For example, quantitative estimates of historical habitat changes are available only for the lower 75 km of the estuary, although tidal influence extends 217 km upriver to Bonneville Dam. Because the otolith techniques used to reconstruct salmon life histories rely on detection of a chemical signature (strontium) for salt water, the estuarine residency information we have collected to date applies only to the lower 30 or 35 km of the estuary, where fish first encounter ocean water. We lack information about salmon habitat use, life histories, and growth within the long tidal

  15. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates

  16. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the Intermountain Province of the Columbia Basin, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgus, Robert B.; Shipley, Lisa

    2002-07-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the subbasins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are not ranked as target species and are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated ''press'' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM subbasins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend

  17. Annual Report of the Columbia River Treaty, Canadian and United States Entities, 1 October 1994--30 September 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River Treaty Operating Committee; B.C. Hydro; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1996-01-17

    This annual report includes information on the operation of Mica, Arrow, Duncan, and Libby reservoirs during the 1995 Water Year, with additional information covering the reservoir system operating year, 1 August 1994--31 July 1995. Power and flood control effects downstream in Canada and US are described.

  18. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. operates in west-central and northeast British Columbia. The company delivers natural gas to customers through a transmission pipeline connected to Duke Energy system near Summit Lake, British Columbia. This report states that in 2002 financial results were disappointing. The company's net income in 2002 was lower than it was in 2001 ($4.6 million versus $5.7 million). In December 2002, Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. completed $15 million in financing. Additions to property, plant and equipment reached a total of $6 million in 2002. A new, seven-year contract with Methanex Corporation was successfully negotiated. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. filed revenue requirements applications with the British Columbia Utilities Commission, seeking the Commission's approval of rates for 2003 and requesting approval of a new deferral account in all divisions. A settlement of the western system 2003 revenue requirements application was negotiated with its customers. The annual report presented a highlight of all activities, including corporate governance and management discussions and analysis. Consolidated financial statements were also provided. tabs

  19. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Anders, Paul J., Evans, Allen F. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2002-12-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are artificially and in some cases severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the natural expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing means could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and again develop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea-trout (S. trutta). The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To address recovery, we captured wild emigrating steelhead kelts from the Yakima River and tested reconditioning and the effects of several diet formulations on its success at Prosser Hatchery on the Yakama Reservation. Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Evaluation Facility (CJEF, located at Yakima River kilometer 48) from 12 March to 5 July 2001. Kelts were reconditioned in circular tanks and fed a mixed diet of starter paste, adult sized trout pellets, and freeze-dried krill. Formalin was used to control outbreaks of fungus and we tested the use of Ivermectin{trademark}to control internal parasites (e.g., Salmincola spp.). Surviving specimens were released for natural spawning in two groups on 15 November 2001 and 18 January 2002. Overall success of the reconditioning process was based on

  20. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Allen F.; Beaty, Roy E.; Hatch, Douglas R. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2001-12-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family salmonidae. Natural rates of repeat spawning for Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. Increasing this repeat spawning rate using fish culture techniques could assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to grow and develop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for local populations. The primary purpose of this project in 2000 was to test the general feasibility of collecting, feeding, and treating steelhead kelts in a captive environment. Steelhead kelts were collected from the Yakima River at the Chandler Juvenile Evaluation Facility (Rkm 48) from 12 March to 13 June 2000. Kelts were reconditioned at adjacent Prosser Hatchery in both rectangular and circular tanks and fed a mixed diet of starter paste, adult sized trout pellets, and freeze-dried krill. Formalin was used to control outbreaks of fungus, and we tested the use of ivermectin to control internal parasites (e.g., Salmincola spp.). Some the kelts that died during the reconditioning process were analyzed via pathology and gonad histology to ascertain the possible cause of death and to describe their reproductive development at the time of death. All surviving specimens were released for natural spawning on 12 December 2000. Overall success of the reconditioning process was based on the proportion of fish that survived captivity, gained weight, and on the number of fish that successfully underwent gonadal recrudescence. Many of the reconditioned kelts were radio tagged to assess their spawning migration behavior and

  1. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Branstetter, Ryan (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR); Blodgett, Joe (Yakama Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    2004-03-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the natural expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, we captured wild emigrating steelhead kelts from the Yakima River and evaluated reconditioning (short and long-term) success and diet formulations at Prosser Hatchery on the Yakima River. Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 12 March to 28 May 2003. In total, 690 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 30.8% (690 of 2,235) of the entire 2002-2003 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. All steelhead kelts were reconditioned in circular tanks, fed freeze-dried krill and received hw-wiegandt multi vit dietary supplement; long-term steelhead kelts also received Moore-Clark pellets

  2. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John; Hatch, Douglas R. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2006-12-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a natural life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Estimated rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the current expression of repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of four study groups (in river release, direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 7 March to 8 June 2006. In total, 348 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 17.0% (348 of 2,002) of the entire 2005-2006 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. Steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially (first 2

  3. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Branstetter, Ryan (Columbia River Inter-Trial Fish Commission, Portland, OR); Blodgett, Joe (Yakama Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    2003-07-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the natural expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing means could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and again develop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, we captured wild emigrating steelhead kelts from the Yakima River and evaluated reconditioning (short and long-term) success and diet formulations at Prosser Hatchery on the Yakima River. Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Evaluation Facility (CJEF, located at Yakima River kilometer 48) from March 12 to June 13, 2002. In total, 899 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 19.8% (899 of 4,525) of the entire 2001-2002 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. Kelts were reconditioned in circular tanks and were fed freeze-dried krill, Moore-Clark pellets, altered Moore-Clark pellets (soaked in krill extract and dyed), or a combination of the altered Moore

  4. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John; Hatch, Douglas R. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2006-01-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a natural life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Estimated rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the current expression of repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of four study groups (in river release, direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 11 March to 23 June 2005. In total, 519 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 15.0% (519 of 3,451) of the entire 2004-2005 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. Steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially (first 2

  5. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2005-10-01

    wild fish were combined in some of the analyses. Overall, the percentages for combined release groups used in survival analyses were 68% hatchery-reared yearling Chinook salmon and 32% wild. For steelhead, the overall percentages were 73% hatchery-reared and 27% wild. Estimated survival from the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam to the tailrace of Little Goose Dam averaged 0.923 for yearling Chinook salmon and 0.860 for steelhead. Respective average survival estimates for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead were 0.875 and 0.820 from Little Goose Dam tailrace to Lower Monumental Dam tailrace; 0.818 and 0.519 from Lower Monumental Dam tailrace to McNary Dam tailrace (including passage through Ice Harbor Dam); and 0.809 and 0.465 from McNary Dam tailrace to John Day Dam tailrace. Survival for yearling Chinook salmon from John Day Dam tailrace to Bonneville Dam tailrace (including passage through The Dalles Dam) was 0.735. We were unable to estimate survival through this reach for steelhead during 2004 because too few fish were detected at Bonneville Dam due to operation of the new corner collector at the second powerhouse. Combining average estimates from the Snake River smolt trap to Lower Granite Dam, from Lower Granite Dam to McNary Dam, and from McNary Dam to Bonneville Dam, estimated annual average survival through the entire hydropower system from the head of Lower Granite reservoir to the tailrace of Bonneville Dam (eight projects) was 0.353 (s.e. 0.045) for Snake River yearling Chinook salmon. We could not empirically estimate survival through the entire system for steelhead in 2004 because of low detection rates for this species at Bonneville Dam. For yearling spring Chinook salmon released in the Upper Columbia River, estimated survival from point of release to McNary Dam tailrace was 0.484 (s.e. 0.005) for fish released from Leavenworth Hatchery, 0.748 (s.e. 0.015) for fish released from Entiat Hatchery, 0.738 (s.e. 0.036) for fish released from Winthrop Hatchery

  6. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  7. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1996-08-01

    Spawning ground surveys were conducted in 1994 as part of a five year study of Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawyacha begun in 1991. Observations of fall chinook salmon spawning in the Snake River were limited to infrequent aerial red counts in the years prior to 1987. From 1987-1990, red counts were made on a limited basis by an interagency team and reported by the Washington Department of Fisheries. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and other cooperating agencies and organizations, expanded the scope of spawning ground surveys to include: (1) additional aerial surveys to improve red counts and provide data on the timing of spawning; (2) the validation (ground truthing) of red counts from aerial surveys to improve count accuracy; (3) underwater searches to locate reds in water too deep to allow detection from the air; and (4) bathymetric mapping of spawning sites for characterizing spawning habitat. This document is the 1994 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon. The studies were undertaken because of the growing concern about the declining salmon population in the Snake River basin.

  8. A Corpus Analysis of Text Themes and Photographic Themes in Managerial Forewords of Dutch-English and British Annual General Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, E.B. de; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Nickerson, C.; Gerritsen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This genre-based study comprises a comparative content analysis of textual and pictorial themes in a corpus of Dutch-English and British managerial forewords. It indicates that there are significant thematic differences between the Dutch-English CEO’s statements, the British CEO’s statements, and th

  9. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2005-10-01

    wild fish were combined in some of the analyses. Overall, the percentages for combined release groups used in survival analyses were 68% hatchery-reared yearling Chinook salmon and 32% wild. For steelhead, the overall percentages were 73% hatchery-reared and 27% wild. Estimated survival from the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam to the tailrace of Little Goose Dam averaged 0.923 for yearling Chinook salmon and 0.860 for steelhead. Respective average survival estimates for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead were 0.875 and 0.820 from Little Goose Dam tailrace to Lower Monumental Dam tailrace; 0.818 and 0.519 from Lower Monumental Dam tailrace to McNary Dam tailrace (including passage through Ice Harbor Dam); and 0.809 and 0.465 from McNary Dam tailrace to John Day Dam tailrace. Survival for yearling Chinook salmon from John Day Dam tailrace to Bonneville Dam tailrace (including passage through The Dalles Dam) was 0.735. We were unable to estimate survival through this reach for steelhead during 2004 because too few fish were detected at Bonneville Dam due to operation of the new corner collector at the second powerhouse. Combining average estimates from the Snake River smolt trap to Lower Granite Dam, from Lower Granite Dam to McNary Dam, and from McNary Dam to Bonneville Dam, estimated annual average survival through the entire hydropower system from the head of Lower Granite reservoir to the tailrace of Bonneville Dam (eight projects) was 0.353 (s.e. 0.045) for Snake River yearling Chinook salmon. We could not empirically estimate survival through the entire system for steelhead in 2004 because of low detection rates for this species at Bonneville Dam. For yearling spring Chinook salmon released in the Upper Columbia River, estimated survival from point of release to McNary Dam tailrace was 0.484 (s.e. 0.005) for fish released from Leavenworth Hatchery, 0.748 (s.e. 0.015) for fish released from Entiat Hatchery, 0.738 (s.e. 0.036) for fish released from Winthrop Hatchery

  10. Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2006-01-01

    Annual stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and total phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).

  11. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the Interior Columbia River Basin; Populations of the Upper Yakima Basin, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C. (Fishery Science Consultant, Seattle, WA); McMillan, Bill; Gayeski, Nick (Washington Trout, Duvall, WA)

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique.

  12. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled “Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary.” The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership with the University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Columbia Basin Research, and Earl Dawley (NOAA Fisheries, retired). This Columbia River Fish Mitigation Program project, referred to as “Salmonid Benefits,” was started in FY 2009 to evaluate the state-of-the science regarding the ability to quantify the benefits to listed salmonids1 of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  13. Development of a Systemwide Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.

    1994-06-01

    Results of the second year are reported of a basinwide program to harvest northern squawfish in an effort to reduce mortality due to squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids during their migration from natal streams to the ocean. Six papers are included in this report. They are entitled: feasibility investigation of a commercial longline fishery for northern squawfish in the Columbia River downstream from Bonneville dam; evaluation of the northern squawfish sport-reward fishery in the Columbia and Snake Rivers; controlled angling for northern squawfish at selected dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in 1992; evaluation of harvest technology for squawfish control in Columbia River reservoirs; effectiveness of predator-removal for protecting juvenile fall chinook salmon released from Bonneville Hatchery; and Northern squawfish sport-reward payments.

  14. Columbia University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2007-01-01

    A private university in New York City and a traditional member of the Ivy League,Columbia University was founded in 1754 as King’s College by royal charter of King George II of England.It is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. At the time all constituencies of the college agreed to commit themselves to principles of religious liberty in establishing the policies of the College.

  15. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  16. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallette, Christine [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  17. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1986-1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Jr., George T. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Environmental and Technical Services Division, Portland, OR); Beckman, Lance G. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR); Kreitman, Gayle (Washington Department of Fisheries, Olympia, WA)

    1987-06-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts.

  18. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1993-February 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1994-08-01

    This report addresses the problem of predator-prey interactions of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River. Six papers are included on selective predation and prey protection. Attention is focused on monitoring the movements, the distribution, and the behavior of juvenile chinook salmon and northern squawfish.

  19. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  20. Aesthetic Values and Visual Resource Management in British Columbia’s Community Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ashley Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The Community Forest Agreement established in 1998 in the province of British Columbia was initiated to provide communities with increased access to and control over timber supply areas proximate to them. Following the initiation of this agreement, many communities throughout British Columbia sought to obtain Community Forest licenses in an attempt to exercise local control over forested lands adjacent to their communities, and to integrate a variety of values into the management of those for...